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Sample records for performance appraisal training

  1. Performance Appraisal Applied to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2010-01-01

    Performance appraisal is a measurement process of how well an individual is doing her or his job. In most organisations, this appraisal is an annual event. Generally, it is done to encourage job performance, to flag areas that need attention, to inform both parties as to expectations. Much of the literature speaks to this process in terms of the…

  2. A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural…

  3. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance appraisal. (a) The GAO shall develop one or more performance appraisal systems which provide for...

  4. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...appraisal systems which provide for periodic appraisals of job performance of employees; encourages employee participation in...extent feasible, permit the accurate evaluation of job performance on the basis of job-related criteria (which...

  5. Performance Appraisal: What Does the Future Hold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazer, Robert I.

    1980-01-01

    Included in this examination of performance appraisal practices is an outline of the characteristics of a good system--one that is cheap to install and only requires a manager to do his/her job. (Author/IRT)

  6. Employee Performance Appraisal and the 95/5 Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasch, Lee

    2004-01-01

    Many colleges use some form of an employee performance appraisal process. Yet, despite prevalent use, the performance appraisal process is facing growing criticism. The author reviews the literature regarding the process of performance appraisal in higher education, focusing on articles supportive of the use of the performance appraisal, and those…

  7. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1993; (ii) Customer satisfaction; (iii) Employee perspectives; (iv) The effectiveness, productivity, and performance quality of the employees for whom the senior executive is responsible; and (v) Meeting.... Agencies must appraise each senior executive's performance in writing and assign an annual summary...

  8. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1993; (ii) Customer satisfaction; (iii) Employee perspectives; (iv) The effectiveness, productivity, and performance quality of the employees for whom the senior executive is responsible; and (v) Meeting.... Agencies must appraise each senior executive's performance in writing and assign an annual summary...

  9. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1993; (ii) Customer satisfaction; (iii) Employee perspectives; (iv) The effectiveness, productivity, and performance quality of the employees for whom the senior executive is responsible; and (v) Meeting.... Agencies must appraise each senior executive's performance in writing and assign an annual summary...

  10. Performance Appraisal of Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahadir, Ziya

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to determine views of school principals on how performance appraisal of physical education teachers who worked at primary schools should be done. The research was designed in a screening model. The research group composed of 152 school principals and deputy principals who worked at state primary schools located in…

  11. Persistent Ratee Contaminants in Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Fleet, David D.; Chamberlain, Howard

    The hypothesis that conventional approaches to evaluating contaminants in performance appraisal overlook important individual ratee effects was examined. A rating form was developed that consisted of the following dimensions and behaviors: warmth; guided discourse or indirect teaching methods; control of subject matter; enthusiasm and reinforcing;…

  12. Teacher Performance Appraisal in Thailand: Poison or Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpa, Nattavud

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the examination of problems related to the national teacher performance appraisal system by the Thai Ministry of Education. It highlights major problems of the current performance appraisal system by delineating the weaknesses and pitfalls of the current appraisal system. The findings indicate problems to three major…

  13. The effects of performance appraisal in the Norwegian municipal health services: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous research in performance appraisal (PA) indicates that variation exists in learning and job motivation from performance appraisal between occupational groups. This research evaluates the potential effect of job motivation, learning and self-assessment through performance appraisals for health personnel. Case description This article focuses on goal-setting, feedback, participation and training in performance appraisals in municipal health services in Norway; and job motivation, learning and self-assessment of performance are the dependent factors. Questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample of 600 health personnel from the Norwegian municipal health service, with a response rate of 62%. Factor analysis and regression analysis were run in SPSS 12. Discussion and evaluation The study suggests that respondents learn from performance appraisal. Nurses experienced some higher job motivation from performance appraisal than auxiliary nurses. All subordinates perceived higher job motivation after performance appraisal than managers. Conclusion Useful feedback, active participation and higher education are fundamental elements of discussion in performance appraisal, as well as the role of increasing employees' job motivation. In this study, nurses' job motivation seems to be more effected by PA, than for auxiliary nurses. Both nurses and auxiliary nurses indicate that there is a learning effect from PA. This study may be of interest to health researchers and managers in municipal health services. PMID:21974831

  14. Administrators' and Faculty Members' Perceptions of the Performance Appraisal Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Earl E.

    An exploratory study examined how administrators (department heads/chairs) perceive faculty members, as well as themselves, in the performance appraisal interview. Subjects, 450 faculty members and 200 administrators at a midwestern university, answered an Appraisal Interview Questionnaire in which they rated administrator performance, content and…

  15. New Perspectives Concerning Performance Appraisals of Intercollegiate Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, George B.; Dixon, Marlene A.

    2003-01-01

    Despite advances in the study of performance appraisals within the intercollegiate athletic context, there are several limitations to the extant research. Specifically, this literature does not take into account the multi-level nature of organizations and performance appraisals or the reciprocal interdependence of coaching staffs. In considering…

  16. Simulation Methods for Teaching the Performance Appraisal Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krayer, Karl J.

    1987-01-01

    Details the steps and some of the rubrics involved in teaching skills for performance appraisal interviewing through classroom simulations. Describes an effective method that maintains interest and enthusiasm among students while exposing them to communication behaviors that are essential for a successful appraisal interview. (NKA)

  17. Administrators' Views on Teacher Evaluation: Examining Ontario's Teacher Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maharaj, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the views of administrators (i.e., principals and vice-principals) in Ontario, Canada, with regard to the province's Teacher Performance Appraisal process. A total of 178 responses were collected from a survey that examined five areas: 1) preparation and training; 2) classroom observations; 3) preparing the formal…

  18. Standing Out and Moving Up: Performance Appraisal of Cultural Minority Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyerzapf, Hannah; Abma, Tineke A.; Steenwijk, Reina R.; Croiset, Gerda; Verdonk, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing diversity within society and health care, there seems to be a discrepancy between the number of cultural minority physicians graduating and those in training for specialization (residents) or working as a specialist in Dutch academic hospitals. The purpose of this article is to explore how performance appraisal in daily medical…

  19. Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Training Area. DOE Training Coordination Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen Tiger Team Assessment and eight Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) final reports have been received and reviewed by the DOE Training Coordination Program during Fiscal Year 1992. These assessments and appraisals included both reactor and non-reactor nuclear facilities in their reports. The Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports both used TSA performance objectives, and list ``concerns`` as a result of their findings. However, the TSA reports categorized concerns into the following functional areas: (1) Organization and Administration, (2) Radiation Protection, (3) Nuclear Criticality Safety, (4) Occupational Safety, (5) Engineering/Technical Support, (6) Emergency Preparedness, (7) Safety Assessments, (8) Quality Verification, (9) Fire Protection, (10) Environmental Protection, and I (1) Energetic Materials Safety. Although these functional areas match most of the TSA performance objectives, not all of the TSA performance objectives are addressed. For example, the TSA reports did not include Training, Maintenance, and Operations as functional areas. Rather, they included concerns that related to these topics throughout the 11 functional areas identified above. For consistency, the Training concerns that were identified in each of the TSA report functional areas have been included in this summary with the corresponding TSA performance objective.

  20. Training in ureteroscopy: a critical appraisal of the literature.

    PubMed

    Skolarikos, Andreas; Gravas, Stavros; Laguna, M Pilar; Traxer, Olivier; Preminger, Glenn M; de la Rosette, Jean

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present review was to study factors influencing training and the maintenance of skills in performing ureteroscopy (URS). We searched on the following keywords in the Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases: renal or ureteric stone; ureteroscopy; endourology; educational; training; learning curve; expertise; skill; residency; practice; simulator; and robotics. We have defined, when possible, levels and grades of evidence, based on 2009 recommendations of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. We found that technological advancement and surgeon experience is a predictive factor for success or complications of URS. Experience may be related to special endourology training, time passed after basic training and the number of procedures performed. Studies suggest that a resident must perform a certain amount of cases to gain proficiency with URS, but there is still a need for well designed studies for the learning curve of URS to be accurately defined. Training models may be useful for training in URS and stone disintegration. Stone centres that provide all the endoscopic treatment options seem to provide the best conditions to ensure a sufficient volume of patients required. Defining minimum requirements for training in URS and for maintaining certification is a major challenge, as is defining the learning curve in URS. Careful curriculum design in high-volume stone centres may be the key to optimizing URS training. PMID:21884354

  1. Employee Acceptance of BOS and BES Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Gier, Joseph A.

    Previous research on performance evaluation systems has failed to take into account user acceptance. Employee acceptance of a behaviorally-based performance appraisal system was assessed in a field experiment contrasting user preference for Behavioral Expectations Scales (BES) versus Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS). Non-union sales associates…

  2. Development of a Behaviorally Based Performance Appraisal System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinger, George; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development of a behaviorally based performance appraisal system for assessing the performance of highway patrol personnel. The items in the present scale were developed to describe proficiency levels of specific job tasks. This characteristic is expected to enhance the objectivity of the evaluation system. (Author)

  3. Organizational Justice and Employee Satisfaction in Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiologos, Anastasios; Papazekos, Panagiotis; Panayotopoulou, Leda

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the performance appraisal (PA) aspects that are connected with organizational justice, and more specifically three kinds of justice, namely distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a sample of 170 respondents who answered a questionnaire giving…

  4. Competency-Based Performance Appraisals: Improving Performance Evaluations of School Nutrition Managers and Assistants/Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Evelina W.; Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the research was to develop a competency-based performance appraisal resource for evaluating school nutrition (SN) managers and assistants/technicians. Methods: A two-phased process was used to develop the competency-based performance appraisal resource for SN managers and assistants/technicians. In Phase I, draft…

  5. Square Pegs and Round Holes: Ruminations on the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravina, Nicole E.; Siers, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Models of comprehensive Performance Management systems include both employee development and evaluative components. The Organizational Behavior Management discipline focuses almost exclusively on the developmental component, while the Industrial and Organizational Psychology discipline is focused on use of performance appraisals. Performance

  6. Critical appraisal skills training for health care professionals: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN46272378

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rod S; Reeves, Barnaby C; Ewings, Paul E; Taylor, Rebecca J

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Critical appraisal skills are believed to play a central role in an evidence-based approach to health practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and costs of a critical appraisal skills educational intervention aimed at health care professionals. Methods This prospective controlled trial randomized 145 self-selected general practitioners, hospital physicians, professions allied to medicine, and healthcare managers/administrators from the South West of England to a half-day critical appraisal skills training workshop (based on the model of problem-based small group learning) or waiting list control. The following outcomes were assessed at 6-months follow up: knowledge of the principles necessary for appraising evidence; attitudes towards the use of evidence about healthcare; evidence seeking behaviour; perceived confidence in appraising evidence; and ability to critically appraise a systematic review article. Results At follow up overall knowledge score [mean difference: 2.6 (95% CI: 0.6 to 4.6)] and ability to appraise the results of a systematic review [mean difference: 1.2 (95% CI: 0.01 to 2.4)] were higher in the critical skills training group compared to control. No statistical significant differences in overall attitude towards evidence, evidence seeking behaviour, perceived confidence, and other areas of critical appraisal skills ability (methodology or generalizability) were observed between groups. Taking into account the workshop provision costs and costs of participants time and expenses of participants, the average cost of providing the critical appraisal workshops was approximately £250 per person. Conclusions The findings of this study challenge the policy of funding 'one-off' educational interventions aimed at enhancing the evidence-based practice of health care professionals. Future evaluations of evidence-based practice interventions need to take in account this trial's negative findings and methodological difficulties. PMID:15585061

  7. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...productivity, and performance quality of...and diversity goals and complying...Details and job changes...organization must set performance goals and requirements...executive's performance in writing...executive changes jobs or...

  8. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... principles set forth under section 2301 of title 5, United States Code. (b) Details and job changes. (1) When... organization must set performance goals and requirements for the detail or temporary assignment. The...

  9. Standing out and moving up: performance appraisal of cultural minority physicians.

    PubMed

    Leyerzapf, Hannah; Abma, Tineke A; Steenwijk, Reina R; Croiset, Gerda; Verdonk, Petra

    2015-10-01

    Despite a growing diversity within society and health care, there seems to be a discrepancy between the number of cultural minority physicians graduating and those in training for specialization (residents) or working as a specialist in Dutch academic hospitals. The purpose of this article is to explore how performance appraisal in daily medical practice is experienced and might affect the influx of cultural minority physicians into specialty training. A critical diversity study was completed in one academic hospital using interviews (N = 27) and focus groups (15 participants) with cultural minority physicians and residents, instructing specialists and executives of medical wards. Data were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic and integral content analysis was performed. In addition to explicit norms on high motivation and excellent performance, implicit norms on professionalism are considered crucial in qualifying for specialty training. Stereotyped imaging on the culture and identity of cultural minority physicians and categorical thinking on diversity seem to underlie daily processes of evaluation and performance appraisal. These are experienced as inhibiting the possibilities to successfully profile for selection into residency and specialist positions. Implicit criteria appear to affect selection processes on medical wards and possibly hinder the influx of cultural minority physicians into residency and making academic hospitals more diverse. Minority and majority physicians, together with the hospital management and medical education should target inclusive norms and practices within clinical practice. PMID:25549932

  10. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 301.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT Overseas Employees Eligible for Noncompetitive Appointment Upon Return to the United States § 301..., overseas agencies are required to evaluate the performance of employees who serve under overseas local...

  11. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 301.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT Overseas Employees Eligible for Noncompetitive Appointment Upon Return to the United States § 301..., overseas agencies are required to evaluate the performance of employees who serve under overseas local...

  12. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 301.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT Overseas Employees Eligible for Noncompetitive Appointment Upon Return to the United States § 301..., overseas agencies are required to evaluate the performance of employees who serve under overseas local...

  13. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 301.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT Overseas Employees Eligible for Noncompetitive Appointment Upon Return to the United States § 301..., overseas agencies are required to evaluate the performance of employees who serve under overseas local...

  14. Evaluation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Jillian; Bridge, Pete; Brown, Elizabeth; Lusk, Ryan; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet

    2015-06-15

    Constantly evolving technology and techniques within radiation therapy require practitioners to maintain a continuous approach to professional development and training. Systems of performance appraisal and adoption of regular feedback mechanisms are vital to support this development yet frequently lack structure and rely on informal peer support. A Radiation Therapy Performance Appraisal Framework (RT-PAF) for radiation therapists in planning and simulation was developed to define expectations of practice and promote a supportive and objective culture of performance and skills appraisal. Evaluation of the framework was conducted via an anonymous online survey tool. Nine peer reviewers and fourteen recipients provided feedback on its effectiveness and the challenges and limitations of the approach. Findings from the evaluation were positive and suggested that both groups gained benefit from and expressed a strong interest in embedding the approach more routinely. Respondents identified common challenges related to the limited ability to implement suggested development strategies; this was strongly associated with time and rostering issues. This framework successfully defined expectations for practice and provided a fair and objective feedback process that focussed on skills development. It empowered staff to maintain their skills and reach their professional potential. Management support, particularly in regard to provision of protected time was highlighted as critical to the framework's ongoing success. The demonstrated benefits arising in terms of staff satisfaction and development highlight the importance of this commitment to the modern radiation therapy workforce.

  15. Appraisal and regulation of the ship energy performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, N.; Epureanu, A.; Badea, G. V.; Frumu?anu, G.

    2015-11-01

    The ship may be viewed as a living environment associated with two industrial environments, one corresponding to the transport industry and other one to the processing, services, or other specific type of industry developed aboard. Each environment has its own energy system and changes energy with the other two. Nowadays, the appraisal and regulation of the ship energy performance is based on the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). Its definition covers the three mentioned systems, without distinction between them. This paper addresses the assessment and regulation of the ship energy performance, bearing in mind that, by far, the main purpose is to increase the level of performance by selecting, from the available measures of performance improvement, those that are the most effective. The paper highlights the EEDI shortcomings, explaining that they appear mainly due the fact that this index covers a couple of energy systems that are far too different (though these energy systems are intimately interpenetrated).

  16. Conducting Elite Performance Training.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Elliott; Tucker, Scott A; Imsdahl, Solveig; Charles, Justin A; Stellato, Mallory A; Wagner, Mercy D; Brown, Kimberly M

    2015-08-01

    Training to excellence in the conduct of surgical procedures has many similarities to the acquisition and mastery of technical skills in elite-level music and sports. By using coaching techniques and strategies gleaned from analysis of professional music ensembles and athletic training, surgical educators can set conditions that increase the success rate of training to elite performance. This article describes techniques and strategies used in both music and athletic coaching, and it discusses how they can be applied and integrated into surgical simulation and education. PMID:26210975

  17. Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Operations Area. DOE Training Coordination Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen Tiger Team Assessment and eight Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) final reports have been received and reviewed by the DOE Training Coordination Program during Fiscal Year 1992. These assessments and appraisals included both reactor and non-reactor nuclear facilities in their reports. The Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports both used TSA performance objectives, and list ``concerns`` as a result of their findings. However, the TSA reports categorized concerns into the following functional areas: (1) Organization and Administration, (2) Radiation Protection, (3) Nuclear Criticality Safety, (4) Occupational Safety, (5) Engineering/Technical Support, (6) Emergency Preparedness, (7) Safety Assessments, (8) Quality Verification, (9) Fire Protection, (10) Environmental Protection, and (11) Energetic Materials Safety. Although these functional areas match most of the TSA performance objectives, not all of the TSA performance objectives are addressed. For example, the TSA reports did not include Training, Maintenance, and Operations as functional areas. Rather, they included concerns that related to these topics throughout the 11 functional areas identified above. For consistency, the Operations concerns that were identified in each of the TSA report functional areas have been included in this summary with the corresponding TSA performance objective.

  18. Perceived Purposes of Performance Appraisal: Correlates of Individual- and Position-Focused Purposes on Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngcourt, Satoris S.; Leiva, Pedro I.; Jones, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Performance appraisals have traditionally been directed at individuals, serving either an administrative or developmental purpose. They may serve a role definition purpose as well. This study sought to identify and more broadly define the purposes of performance appraisals to include this role definition purpose. Furthermore, this study examined…

  19. Development of Performance Appraisal System for Local School Teachers in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttaramart, Suphawadee; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sri-am-pai, Anan

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to study current situation and problem in the performance appraisal system of secondary school teachers, under jurisdiction of the Local Administrative Organization (LAO), 2) to develop the performance appraisal system to apply with the LAO school teachers, and 3) to evaluate the application from the…

  20. Online training course on critical appraisal for nurses: adaptation and assessment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research is an essential activity for improving quality and efficiency in healthcare. The objective of this study was to train nurses from the public Basque Health Service (Osakidetza) in critical appraisal, promoting continuous training and the use of research in clinical practice. Methods This was a prospective pre-post test study. The InfoCritique course on critical appraisal was translated and adapted. A sample of 50 nurses and 3 tutors was recruited. Educational strategies and assessment instruments were established for the course. A course website was created that contained contact details of the teaching team and coordinator, as well as a course handbook and videos introducing the course. Assessment comprised the administration of questionnaires before and after the course, in order to explore the main intervention outcomes: knowledge acquired and self-learning readiness. Satisfaction was also measured at the end of the course. Results Of the 50 health professionals recruited, 3 did not complete the course for personal or work-related reasons. The mean score on the pre-course knowledge questionnaire was 70.5 out of 100, with a standard deviation of 11.96. In general, participants’ performance on the knowledge questionnaire improved after the course, as reflected in the notable increase of the mean score, to 86.6, with a standard deviation of 10.00. Further, analyses confirmed statistically significant differences between pre- and post-course results (p?

  1. German Training Revisited: An Appraisal of Corporatist Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to re-examine the unique political economy of Germany's dual apprenticeship training model and its underlying philosophy of corporatist governance. It responds to recent arguments suggesting that Germany's collectivist skill regime is under threat, increasingly giving way to the introduction of "segmentalism".…

  2. Training Complex Model for Appraising and Programming. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jean E.

    This model program was designed to improve inservice education for local school districts involved in the delivery of special education services to students in public schools, grades kindergarten through twelve. Six regional training centers were established in Massachusetts following a needs assessment survey of teachers to identify competencies…

  3. Caffeine's Effect on Appraisal and Mental Arithmetic Performance: A Cognitive Modeling Approach Tells Us More

    E-print Network

    Ritter, Frank

    Caffeine's Effect on Appraisal and Mental Arithmetic Performance: A Cognitive Modeling Approach Abstract A human subject experiment was conducted to investigate caffeine's effect on appraisal treatment groups: placebo, 200 mg caffeine, and 400 mg caffeine. Data were analyzed by average across

  4. Determining the Root Causes of Concerns Associated with the Performance Appraisal Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnds, W. Kent

    2011-01-01

    Many organizations use formal appraisals to measure employee performance. Augustana College's Office of Admissions introduced an appraisal process in 2006. Subsequently, staff expressed a number of concerns, ranging from confusion about the process to its link to compensation. Action research proved essential for understanding the problems; it…

  5. Current Practices in Appraising Employee Performance as Performed by the Business Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Thomas R., Jr., Comp.; Lyne, George E., Jr., Comp.

    The major ppurpose of this study was to determine from human resource administrators in the business community the techniques now used in appraising exempt and nonexempt employee performance. Of the 1,000 administrators surveyed, 125 returned usable questionnaires for a response rate of 12.5 percent. The administrators reported that even though…

  6. Rater individual differences and accuracy in performance appraisal 

    E-print Network

    Miller, Michael John

    1996-01-01

    This research attempts to understand the influence of rater cognitive processing characteristics on the outcomes of the appraisal process. The effect of cognitive complexity, field dependence/independence, and selective attention on both judgmental...

  7. Establishing Content Validity for a Literacy Coach Performance Appraisal Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Mae; Robbins, Mary; Price, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to determine whether or not the Literacy Coach Appraisal Instrument developed for use in evaluating literacy coaches had content validity. The study, a fully mixed concurrent equal status design conducted from a pragmatist philosophy, collected qualitative and quantitative data from literacy experts about the elements of…

  8. Appraisal of family doctors: an evaluation study.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Malcolm; Elwyn, Glyn; Wood, Fiona

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appraisal has evolved to become a key component of workforce management. However, it is not clear from existing proposals for appraisal of doctors whether employers, health authorities or primary care organisations should take responsibility for appraisal processes. AIMS: To evaluate the introduction of a pilot peer appraisal system in general practice and to gain insight into the reactions of appraisers and doctors. DESIGN OF STUDY: Semi-structured telephone interviews combined with participant surveys and documentary analysis. SETTING: Five health authorities in Wales. PARTICIPANTS: General practitioners (GPs) appointed as appraisers and volunteer practitioners (doctors). METHOD: Twenty-six appraisers were appointed and given training in the appraisal process, each appraising an average of eight individuals. Appraisers and appraised doctors participated in semi-structured telephone interviews and completed separate participant questionnaires. RESULTS: GPs willingly undertook peer appraisal in a volunteer-based pilot study where participation was recompensed. The majority of participating clinicians were positive, with appraisers reporting the most gain. Appraisers were enthusiastic, provided the process remained non-judgemental and did not threaten or burden their colleagues. Appraised doctors were less enthusiastic but the most significant perceived benefit was the opportunity to reflect on individual performance with a supportive colleague. There were, however, repeated concerns about time, confusion with revalidation and personal development plans, worries about including health and probity queries, and an opinion that the process would be entirely different if conducted with non-volunteers or by representatives of 'management'. CONCLUSION: This study illustrated three fundamental problems for appraisal systems in general practice. First, there is as yet no organisational hierarchy in general practice. Perhaps the aggregation of practices into primary care organisations will generate a hierarchy. Second, the question of who conducts appraisals then becomes pertinent; this study illustrates a professionally-led peer appraisal model. Third, the spectre of summative assessment causes problems in appraisal schemes. Typically, only mutually agreed summaries are kept for future use in appraisal systems (for example, for promotion or discipline). So the proposal to use GP annual appraisal documentation as the basis of a summative 'revalidation' exercise is at odds with orthodox personnel practice, which regards appraisal as a formative process. PMID:12939890

  9. The Relationship between Self-Appraisal, Professional Training, and Diversity Awareness among Forensic Psychology Students: A Pilot Formative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.; Chandler, Michele D.; Clark, Quelanda C.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing need for formal training in forensic psychology. This pilot study examines the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction, perceived academic competence, and program competency among a sample of forensic psychology students. In theory, the RBM suggests that self-appraisal,…

  10. Performance Appraisal System Impact on University Academic Staff Job Satisfaction and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndambakuwa, Yustina; Mufunda, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The University of Zimbabwe (UZ) introduced a performance appraisal system (PAS) designed to improve performance indicators across the board in Public Service including academic/faculty staff at the University of Zimbabwe as part of a nation wide strategy. The Public service is a body responsible for all civil workers including academic staff,…

  11. New Teachers' Perceptions of a Standards-Based Performance Appraisal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Pry, Stephen C.; Schumacher, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with first-year teachers. It provided insight into two key research questions: (1) What were the perceptions of new teachers regarding a standards-based performance appraisal system as it was implemented on their campus? (2) What factors contributed to the perceptions of new teachers regarding this system as it was…

  12. A Survey of Academic Officers regarding Performance Appraisal in Estonian and American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Kukemelk, Hasso; Turk, Kilno

    2008-01-01

    Higher education in the Baltic Republic of Estonia is experiencing rapid change as the country adjusts to a market economy in the post-Soviet era and adheres to principles established through the Bologna Process. Research in the area of performance appraisal, and the most effective approaches to motivate academic staff, is a key factor influencing…

  13. National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

  14. Teaching in the "Performative" State: Implications for Teacher Appraisal in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Teacher appraisal is viewed by bureaucrats as a means of effecting organisational change in schools. It is for this reason that educational policy leaders have turned to technical competency as a way of accounting for teachers' performance in classrooms. In other words, teachers' work is now subject to minute scrutiny by the observation of…

  15. Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElShenawy, Eman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

  16. Understanding adolescents' sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Amy R; Carskadon, Mary A

    2003-12-01

    The present paper reviews and critiques studies assessing the relation between sleep patterns, sleep quality, and school performance of adolescents attending middle school, high school, and/or college. The majority of studies relied on self-report, yet the researchers approached the question with different designs and measures. Specifically, studies looked at (1) sleep/wake patterns and usual grades, (2) school start time and phase preference in relation to sleep habits and quality and academic performance, and (3) sleep patterns and classroom performance (e.g., examination grades). The findings strongly indicate that self-reported shortened total sleep time, erratic sleep/wake schedules, late bed and rise times, and poor sleep quality are negatively associated with academic performance for adolescents from middle school through the college years. Limitations of the current published studies are also discussed in detail in this review. PMID:15018092

  17. Effects of Cognitive Appraisal and Mental Workload Factors on Performance in an Arithmetic Task.

    PubMed

    Galy, Edith; Mélan, Claudine

    2015-12-01

    We showed in a previous study an additive interaction between intrinsic and extraneous cognitive loads and of participants' alertness in an 1-back working memory task. The interaction between intrinsic and extraneous cognitive loads was only observed when participants' alertness was low (i.e. in the morning). As alertness is known to reflect an individual's general functional state, we suggested that the working memory capacity available for germane cognitive load depends on a participant's functional state, in addition to intrinsic and extraneous loads induced by the task and task conditions. The relationships between the different load types and their assessment by specific load measures gave rise to a modified cognitive load model. The aim of the present study was to complete the model by determining to what extent and at what processing level an individual's characteristics intervene in order to implement efficient strategies in a working memory task. Therefore, the study explored participants' cognitive appraisal of the situation in addition to the load factors considered previously-task difficulty, time pressure and alertness. Each participant performed a mental arithmetic task in four different cognitive load conditions (crossover of two task difficulty conditions and of two time pressure conditions), both while their alertness was low (9 a.m.) and high (4 p.m.). Results confirmed an additive effect of task difficulty and time pressure, previously reported in the 1-back memory task, thereby lending further support to the modified cognitive load model. Further, in the high intrinsic and extraneous load condition, performance was reduced on the morning session (i.e. when alertness was low) on one hand, and in those participants' having a threat appraisal of the situation on the other hand. When these factors were included into the analysis, a performance drop occurred in the morning irrespective of cognitive appraisal, and with threat appraisal in the afternoon (i.e. high alertness). Taken together, these findings indicate that mental overload can be the result of a combination of subject-related characteristics, including alertness and cognitive appraisal, in addition to well-documented task-related components (intrinsic and extraneous load). As the factors investigated in the study are known to be critically involved in a number of real job-activities, the findings suggest that solutions designed to reduce incidents and accidents at work should consider the situation from a global perspective, including individual characteristics, task parameters, and work organization, rather than dealing with each factor separately. PMID:26205469

  18. Preferences of Training Performance Measurement: A Comparative Study of Training Professionals and Non-Training Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.

    2004-01-01

    This survey-based study addressed a perceived gap between training performance evaluation practice and decision-making criteria required in business. Training professionals and non-training managers in North Carolina were surveyed. The study found that the groups differ in the performance measures that motivate them to act on training issues.…

  19. TAP 2: Performance-Based Training Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Cornerstone of safe operation of DOE nuclear facilities is personnel performing day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Performance-based training is fundamental to the safe operation. This manual has been developed to support the Training Accreditation Program (TAP) and assist contractors in efforts to develop performance-based training programs. It provides contractors with narrative procedures on performance-based training that can be modified and incorporated for facility-specific application. It is divided into sections dealing with analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.

  20. Training high performance skills using above real-time training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

    1993-01-01

    The Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) concept is a unique approach to training high performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. Such a training paradigm represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. These techniques allow individuals to acquire these critical skills faster and with greater retention. ARTT also allows an individual trained in 'fast time' to operate at what appears to be a more confident state, when the same task is performed in a real-time environment. Two related experiments are discussed. The findings appear to be consistent with previous findings that show positive effects of task variation during training. Moreover, ARTT has merit in improving or maintaining transfer with sharp reductions in training time. There are indications that the effectiveness of ARTT varies as a function of task content and possibly task difficulty. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

  1. Continuing Education and Training Models and Strategies: An Initial Appraisal. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Henderson, Amanda; Choy, Sarojni; Dymock, Darryl; Kelly, Ann; Smith, Ray; James, Ian; Beven, Fred; Lewis, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Continuing education and training is an emerging priority for the nation's tertiary education and training system. Changing work, new work requirements, an ageing workforce and lengthening working lives are some of the factors now influencing this priority. Yet, many of the purposes and processes of the Australian tertiary education and training

  2. Mindfulness Training Targets Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Addiction at the Attention-Appraisal-Emotion Interface

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Prominent neuroscience models suggest that addictive behavior occurs when environmental stressors and drug-relevant cues activate a cycle of cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological mechanisms, including dysregulated interactions between bottom-up and top-down neural processes, that compel the user to seek out and use drugs. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) target pathogenic mechanisms of the risk chain linking stress and addiction. This review describes how MBIs may target neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs ameliorate addiction by enhancing cognitive regulation of a number of key processes, including: clarifying cognitive appraisal and modulating negative emotions to reduce perseverative cognition and emotional arousal; enhancing metacognitive awareness to regulate drug-use action schema and decrease addiction attentional bias; promoting extinction learning to uncouple drug-use triggers from conditioned appetitive responses; reducing cue-reactivity and increasing cognitive control over craving; attenuating physiological stress reactivity through parasympathetic activation; and increasing savoring to restore natural reward processing. Treatment and research implications of our neurocognitive framework are presented. We conclude by offering a temporally sequenced description of neurocognitive processes targeted by MBIs through a hypothetical case study. Our neurocognitive framework has implications for the optimization of addiction treatment with MBIs. PMID:24454293

  3. National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-03-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings. PMID:22040261

  4. Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be…

  5. Development, feasibility and performance of a health risk appraisal questionnaire for older persons

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Andreas E; Kharicha, Kalpa; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Meier-Baumgartner, Hans Peter; Harari, Danielle; Swift, Cameron G; Ivanova, Katja; Egger, Matthias; Gillmann, Gerhard; Higa, Jerilyn; Beck, John C; Iliffe, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Background Health risk appraisal is a promising method for health promotion and prevention in older persons. The Health Risk Appraisal for the Elderly (HRA-E) developed in the U.S. has unique features but has not been tested outside the United States. Methods Based on the original HRA-E, we developed a scientifically updated and regionally adapted multilingual Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O) instrument consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and software-generated feed-back reports. We evaluated the practicability and performance of the questionnaire in non-disabled community-dwelling older persons in London (U.K.) (N = 1090), Hamburg (Germany) (N = 804), and Solothurn (Switzerland) (N = 748) in a sub-sample of an international randomised controlled study. Results Over eighty percent of invited older persons returned the self-administered HRA-O questionnaire. Fair or poor self-perceived health status and older age were correlated with higher rates of non-return of the questionnaire. Older participants and those with lower educational levels reported more difficulty in completing the HRA-O questionnaire as compared to younger and higher educated persons. However, even among older participants and those with low educational level, more than 80% rated the questionnaire as easy to complete. Prevalence rates of risks for functional decline or problems were between 2% and 91% for the 19 HRA-O domains. Participants' intention to change health behaviour suggested that for some risk factors participants were in a pre-contemplation phase, having no short- or medium-term plans for change. Many participants perceived their health behaviour or preventative care uptake as optimal, despite indications of deficits according to the HRA-O based evaluation. Conclusion The HRA-O questionnaire was highly accepted by a broad range of community-dwelling non-disabled persons. It identified a high number of risks and problems, and provided information on participants' intention to change health behaviour. PMID:17217545

  6. The Cycle of Bias in Health Research: A Framework and Toolbox for Critical Appraisal Training

    PubMed Central

    Odierna, Donna H.; Forsyth, Susan R.; White, Jenny; Bero, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing bias in health research is crucial for evidence-based decision making. We worked with eight community groups to develop materials for nine modular, individualized critical appraisal workshops we conducted with 102 consumers (four workshops), 43 healthcare providers (three workshops), and 33 journalists (two workshops) in California. We presented workshops using a “cycle of bias” framework, and developed a toolbox of presentations, problem-based small group sessions, and skill-building materials to improve participants’ ability to evaluate research for financial and other conflicts of interest, bias, validity, and applicability. Participant feedback indicated that the adaptability of the toolbox and our focus on bias were critical elements in the success of our workshops. PMID:23432773

  7. Is Transfer of Training Related to Firm Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Alan M.; Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to bridge the gap between micro-training research on the transfer of training and macro-training research on training and firm performance by testing the relationship between transfer of training and firm performance. Training and development professionals completed a survey about the training methods used in their…

  8. TAP 2, Performance-Based Training Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Training programs at DOE nuclear facilities should provide well- trained, qualified personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. A need has been identified for guidance regarding analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of consistent and reliable performance-based training programs. Accreditation of training programs at Category A reactors and high-hazard and selected moderate-hazard nonreactor facilities will assure consistent, appropriate, and cost-effective training of personnel responsible for the operation, maintenance, and technical support of these facilities. Training programs that are designed and based on systematically job requirements, instead of subjective estimation of trainee needs, yield training activities that are consistent and develop or improve knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be directly related to the work setting. Because the training is job-related, the content of these programs more efficiently and effectively meets the needs of the employee. Besides a better trained work force, a greater level of operational reactor safety can be realized. This manual is intended to provide an overview of the accreditation process and a brief description of the elements necessary to construct and maintain training programs that are based on the requirements of the job. Two comparison manuals provide additional information to assist contractors in their efforts to accredit training programs.

  9. Train Right or Don't Train at All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Nancy K.; Deller, John

    1985-01-01

    A program to train bank operations supervisors to conduct quarterly informal performance appraisals involved three modes: content-only training, content-plus-procedure training, and no training. While content-plus-procedure was predictably the most satisfactory, content-only, because it lacked a practice component, was less effective than no…

  10. Performance Training Carrel for Electronics Principles Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargo, Donald W.; Steffen, Dale A.

    This manual provides documentation for the design, construction, and operation of an interactive electronics training panel developed for a computer assisted performance training carrel. The panel is a plug-in module designed to simulate electronic circuitry and a PMS-6 multimeter as required for a troubleshooting fundamentals lesson in an Air…

  11. Diagnostic Performance 1 H after Simulation Training Predicts Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consoli, Anna; Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene; Sobczak, Matthew; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Although simulation training improves post-training performance, it is unclear how well performance soon after simulation training predicts longer term outcomes (i.e., learning). Here our objective was to assess the predictive value of performance 1 h post-training of performance 6 weeks later. We trained 84 first year medical students a simulated…

  12. Improving Performance in Technical and Apprentice Training. A Pilot Study of Performance Based Apprentice Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriel, Arthur E.

    The major objective of this study was to demonstrate that an effective first-year apprentice training program (in the metal trades) could be developed in which performance was the primary criterion of success. The Performance Based Apprentice Training (PBAT) experimental group completed a full year of related instruction in an average of 61 hours…

  13. Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. p<0.001) in male athletes. The endomorphy component was the most substantial predictor. Reductions in endomorphy by one standard deviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively). An ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes. PMID:23834510

  14. The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal and the Performance of Business Management Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, R. E.; Southey, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    The 80-item Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Form A was administered to 415 business management students in Australia as a step toward adapting the test for Australian use. The results correspond reasonably closely to the U.S. data. Analysis of group results and item statistics provided information about necessary modifications. (SLD)

  15. Workplace Training Module: Enhancing Ecotourism Business Performance

    E-print Network

    Workplace Training Module: Enhancing Ecotourism Business Performance (Level 5 ­ 10 credits as part on understanding best practice in ecotourism development and management (see second part of Appendix 1). The module focuses on the ecotourism business dimension ­ emphasizing best case examples of what creates successful

  16. Training Improves Multitasking Performance by Increasing the Speed of Information

    E-print Network

    Tong, Frank

    ). Howdoes training modify the functional architecture of the brain tosolvethemultitaskingproblemNeuron Article Training Improves Multitasking Performance by Increasing the Speed of Information tasks simultaneously. Remarkably, extensive training can greatly reduce such multi- tasking costs. While

  17. Improved Building Performance Through Effective Communication & Training 

    E-print Network

    Bates, R.

    2005-01-01

    by operators was gained through a formal training program. A comprehensive Distillation Training Program (DTP), consisting of videotapes and texts, was produced for training plant operators and supervisors. Justification for the DTP program was the total annual...

  18. Training Evaluation as an Integral Component of Training for Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, H. J., Jr.

    A training evaluation system should address four major areas: reaction, learning, behavior, and results. The training evaluation system at GPU Nuclear Corporation addresses each of these areas through practical approaches such as course and program evaluation. GPU's program evaluation instrument uses a Likert-type scale to assess task development,…

  19. An Investigation of the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Career Development and Advancement of Mid-Level Women in Student Affairs Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corral, Christine R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the performance appraisal experience of 14 mid-level women in student affairs administration at four-year colleges and universities in Northern Illinois using a qualitative research approach involving personal interviews. Previous research on career development and advancement of mid-level women in student…

  20. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  1. Making Connections between the Appraisal, Performance Management and Professional Development of Dentists and Teachers: "Right, What Are the Problems We've Got and How Could We Sort This Out?'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butt, Graham; Macnab, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the connections between the appraisal, or performance management, of different professional groups, and their subsequent uptake of continuing professional development (CPD), is valuable for both employees and managers. The linking of appraisal systems with professional/personal development plans amongst health professionals is now…

  2. Game performance and intermittent hypoxic training

    PubMed Central

    Hinckson, E A; Hamlin, M J; Wood, M R; Hopkins, W G

    2007-01-01

    Live high?train low altitude exposure simulated by hypoxic devices may improve athletic performance. In this study, intermittent normobaric hypoxia was achieved with the GO2altitude® hypoxicator to determine its effects on sea level performance in rugby players. Ten players were randomly assigned to two groups. Players in each group received 14 sessions of either hypoxic (10–15% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) exposure at rest over 14 consecutive days in a single blind fashion. Various performance measures were obtained consecutively in a single testing session pre? and post?exposure. Effects of hypoxic exposure on maximum speed and sprint times were trivial (<1.0%) but unclear (90% likely range, ±5% to ±9%). In rugby simulation, hypoxic exposure produced impairments of peak power in two scrums (15%, ±8%; 9%, ±7%) and impairments of time in offensive sprints (7%, ±8%) and tackle sprints (11%, ±9%). Pending further research, rugby players would be unwise to use normobaric intermittent hypoxic exposure to prepare for games at sea level. PMID:17311807

  3. Performance Errors in Weight Training and Their Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John H.; Lander, Jeffrey E.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses general performance errors in weight training, also discussing each category of error separately. The paper focuses on frequency and intensity, incorrect training velocities, full range of motion, and symmetrical training. It also examines specific errors related to the bench press, squat, military press, and bent- over and seated row…

  4. Using Mental Computation Training to Improve Complex Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Allison S.; Kallai, Arava Y.; Schunn, Christian D.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical fluency is important for academic and mathematical success. Fluency training programs have typically focused on fostering retrieval, which leads to math performance that does not reliably transfer to non-trained problems. More recent studies have focused on training number understanding and representational precision, but few have…

  5. Employee Post-Training Behaviour and Performance: Evaluating the Results of the Training Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantidis, Anastasios D.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that firms invest in training, there is considerable evidence to show that training programmes often fail to achieve the intended result of improving worker and organization performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the medium- to long-term effects of training programmes on firms by means of an integrated research model…

  6. Working memory training and transfer in older adults: effects of age, baseline performance, and training gains.

    PubMed

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For that purpose, 80 older adults (65-95 years) were assigned either to a training group that worked on visuospatial, verbal, and executive working memory tasks for 9 sessions over 3 weeks or to a control group. Performance on trained and transfer tasks was assessed in all participants before and after the training period, as well as at a 9-month follow-up. Analyses revealed significant training effects in all 3 training tasks in trained participants relative to controls, as well as near transfer to a verbal working memory task and far transfer to a fluid intelligence task. Encouragingly, all training effects and the transfer effect to verbal working memory were stable at the 9-month follow-up session. Further analyses revealed that training gains were predicted by baseline performance in training tasks and (to a lesser degree) by age. Gains in transfer tasks were predicted by age and by the amount of improvement in the trained tasks. These findings suggest that cognitive plasticity is preserved over a large range of old age and that even a rather short training regime can lead to (partly specific) training and transfer effects. However, baseline performance, age, and training gains moderate the amount of plasticity. PMID:23688173

  7. [Appraisal of Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steve

    This document consists of four separate handouts all related to the appraisal of audiovisual (AV) materials: "How to Work with an Appraiser of AV Media: A Convenient Check List for Clients and Their Advisors," helps a client prepare for an appraisal, explaining what is necessary before the appraisal, the appraisal process and its costs, the kind…

  8. The Effects of Rhythm Training on Tennis Performance

    PubMed Central

    Sö?üt, Mustafa; Kirazci, Sadettin; Korkusuz, Feza

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm training is an integral part of sports. The purposes of the study were to analyze the effects of rhythm training on tennis performance and rhytmic competence of tennis players, to compare the improvement levels of tennis specific and general rhythm training and to examine the effects of shorter and longer tempos on rhythmic competence. Thirty university students whose mean score of International Tennis Number (ITN) was 7.3 (±0.9) were divided randomly into three sub-groups: Tennis Group, General Rhythm Training Group and Tennis-Specific Rhythm Training Group. The experimental procedure lasted 8 weeks. During this period, all groups had the same tennis training twice a week. The Tennis Group had regular tennis training sessions. In addition to regular tennis training sessions, the General Rhythm Training Group followed the general rhythm training sessions and the Tennis-Specific Rhythm Training Group had tennis-specific rhythm training. The measurement instruments were ITN, Rhythmic Competence Analysis Test and Untimed Consecutive Rally Test. The results indicated that participation in tennis-specific or general rhythm training resulted in progress in tennis playing levels, forehand consistency performance and rhythmic competence of the participants. On the other hand, attendance to the regular 8-week tennis training was enough to solely increase the tennis playing level but not sufficient to develop forehand consistency performance and rhythmic competence. Although the participants in the TRTG had better improvement scores than the ones in the GRTG, no significant difference was found between the rhythm training groups. The results also revealed that participants exhibited higher rhythmic competence scores on fast tempo compared to slow tempo. PMID:23486093

  9. Can Visual Arts Training Improve Physician Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel T.; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts — a subset of medical humanities — into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

  10. Military Applicability of Interval Training for Health and Performance.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J; Gagnon, Patrick J; Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    Gibala, MJ, Gagnon, PJ, and Nindl, BC. Military applicability of interval training for health and performance. J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S40-S45, 2015-Militaries from around the globe have predominantly used endurance training as their primary mode of aerobic physical conditioning, with historical emphasis placed on the long distance run. In contrast to this traditional exercise approach to training, interval training is characterized by brief, intermittent bouts of intense exercise, separated by periods of lower intensity exercise or rest for recovery. Although hardly a novel concept, research over the past decade has shed new light on the potency of interval training to elicit physiological adaptations in a time-efficient manner. This work has largely focused on the benefits of low-volume interval training, which involves a relatively small total amount of exercise, as compared with the traditional high-volume approach to training historically favored by militaries. Studies that have directly compared interval and moderate-intensity continuous training have shown similar improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism, despite large differences in total exercise and training time commitment. Interval training can also be applied in a calisthenics manner to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, and this approach could easily be incorporated into a military conditioning environment. Although interval training can elicit physiological changes in men and women, the potential for sex-specific adaptations in the adaptive response to interval training warrants further investigation. Additional work is needed to clarify adaptations occurring over the longer term; however, interval training deserves consideration from a military applicability standpoint as a time-efficient training strategy to enhance soldier health and performance. There is value for military leaders in identifying strategies that reduce the time required for exercise, but nonetheless provide an effective training stimulus. PMID:26506197

  11. Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.

    1994-01-01

    This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an improvement over last year. In contrast, recognition and teamwork are the two major areas where improvement in supervisory performance seems to be most needed. The initial report card results will serve as a baseline against which future performance ratings will be compared. Once supervisors have been presented with their data and given an opportunity to analyze and discus the results, they will be assisted in developing an action plan for improving their performance and work processes. They will be provided with ongoing support from management in following through with the action plan.

  12. Analyzing the Interaction of Performance Appraisal Factors Using Interpretive Structural Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    In today's changed environment where the economy and industry are driven by customers, business is open to worldwide competition. Manufacturing firms have looked at employee performance improvement as a means to succeed. These findings advocate setting up priorities for employee performance improvement. This requires a continuous improvement…

  13. Race of ratee and anonymity of rater: a study comparing students with practitioners as performance appraisers.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, R P

    2005-10-01

    123 students and 123 nonstudent supervisors viewed videotapes which displayed four supposed subordinate supervisors, two African Americans and two Caucasians, who individually described their respective performances during the past year. After being told either that the supposed subordinates would or that they would not have access to the performance rating, the subjects rated the performance of those subordinate supervisors. While anonymity of rater and race of rater had no evaluative effect on the performance ratings given by the nonstudent subjects, the student subjects gave higher ratings when they believed that their ratings would be made public. Also, the nonstudent subjects' ratings differed as a function of whether they worked closely with others of another race and as a function of the frequency with which they actually discussed performance evaluations with their own subordinates. PMID:16342570

  14. Quiet Eye Training Facilitates Competitive Putting Performance in Elite Golfers

    PubMed Central

    Vine, Samuel J.; Moore, Lee J.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief quiet eye (QE) training intervention aimed at optimizing visuomotor control and putting performance of elite golfers under pressure, and in real competition. Twenty-two elite golfers (mean handicap 2.7) recorded putting statistics over 10 rounds of competitive golf before attending training individually. Having been randomly assigned to either a QE training or Control group, participants were fitted with an Applied Science Laboratories Mobile Eye tracker and performed 20 baseline (pre-test) putts from 10?ft. Training consisted of video feedback of their gaze behavior while they completed 20 putts; however the QE-trained group received additional instructions related to maintaining a longer QE period. Participants then recorded their putting statistics over a further 10 competitive rounds and re-visited the laboratory for retention and pressure tests of their visuomotor control and putting performance. Overall, the results were supportive of the efficacy of the QE training intervention. QE duration predicted 43% of the variance in putting performance, underlying its critical role in the visuomotor control of putting. The QE-trained group maintained their optimal QE under pressure conditions, whereas the Control group experienced reductions in QE when anxious, with subsequent effects on performance. Although their performance was similar in the pre-test, the QE-trained group holed more putts and left the ball closer to the hole on missed putts than their Control group counterparts in the pressure test. Importantly, these advantages transferred to the golf course, where QE-trained golfers made 1.9 fewer putts per round, compared to pre-training, whereas the Control group showed no change in their putting statistics. These results reveal that QE training, incorporated into a pre-shot routine, is an effective intervention to help golfers maintain control when anxious. PMID:21713182

  15. Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Improves Motor and Dual-Task Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J.J.; Peters, B.T.; Mulavara, A.P.; Brady, R.; Batson, C.; Cohen, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of our project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The goal of our current study was to determine if SA training using variation in visual flow and support surface motion produces improved performance in a novel sensory environment and demonstrate the retention characteristics of SA training.

  16. The effects of concurrent training on performance variables in previously untrained males 

    E-print Network

    Glowacki, Shawn Philip

    2005-02-17

    Research has shown conflicting results involving interference of strength development with combined resistance and endurance training. Purpose: To examine if endurance training and resistance training performed concurrently ...

  17. CHANGES IN FLIGHT TRAINEE PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING SYNTHETIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A…

  18. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes. PMID:22845561

  19. Factor Analysis of Aviation Training Measures and Post-Training Performance Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Richard F.; Berkshire, James R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate the factor structure of naval air training measures to the performance of Marine pilots in operational squadrons. Five post-training criteria were developed; four were Commanding Officer (C.O.) nominations of junior officers for hypothetical special assignments, and the fifth was a general…

  20. Perceived training intensity and performance changes quantification in judo.

    PubMed

    Agostinho, Marcus F; Philippe, Antony G; Marcolino, Gilvan S; Pereira, Ewerton R; Busso, Thierry; Candau, Robin B; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the methods of quantification for training and performance, which would be the most appropriate for modeling the responses to long-term training in cadet and junior judo athletes. For this, 10 young male judo athletes (15.9 ± 1.3 years, 64.9 ± 10.3 kg, and 170.8 ± 5.4 cm) competing at a regional/state level volunteered to take part in this study. Data were collected during a 2-year training period (i.e., 702 days) from January 2011 to December 2012. Their mean training volume was 6.52 ± 0.43 hours per week during the preparatory periods and 4.75 ± 0.49 hours per week during the competitive periods. They followed a training program prescribed by the same coach. The training load (TL) was quantified through the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and expressed in arbitrary unit (a.u.). Performance was quantified from 5 parameters and divided into 2 categories: performance in competition and performance in training. The evaluation of performance in competition was based on the number of points per level. Performance in training was assessed through 4 different tests. A physical test battery consisting of a standing long jump, 2 judo-specific tests that were the maximal number of dynamic chin-up holding the judogi, and the Special Judo Fitness Test was used. System modeling for describing training adaptations consisted of mathematically relating the TL of the training sessions (system input) to the change in performance (system output). The quality of the fit between TL and performance was similar, whether the TL was computed directly from RPE (R = 0.55 ± 0.18) or from the session RPE (R = 0.56 ± 0.18) and was significant in 8 athletes over 10, excluding the standing jump from the computation of the TL, leading to a simplest method. Thus, this study represents a first attempt to model TL effects on judo-specific performance and has shown that the best relationships between amounts of training and changes in performance were obtained when training amounts were quantified simply from RPE. PMID:25436630

  1. Single and repeated dose comparison of three antihistamines and phenylpropanolamine: psychomotor performance and subjective appraisals of sleep.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, T; Nuotto, E; Korttila, K

    1981-08-01

    1 In a double-blind cross-over study, nine healthy male students received placebo, brompheniramine 12 mg), carbinoxamine (12 mg), clemastine (1 mg), and phenylpropanolamine (50 mg) orally. Three doses of each drug were given: at 08.30 h and 21.00 h on the first day of treatment and at 08.30 h on the following day. 2 Psychomotor skills and subjective feelings were recorded before and 2, 6 and 12 h after the first dose on day 1 as well as before and 2 and 6 h after the third dose on day 2. Subjective appraisals of sleep were requested on the morning of day 2. 3 All antihistamines tended to cause subjective drowsiness on the first day of treatment. Drowsiness was felt for a maximum of 2 h after carbinoxamine, 6 h after brompheniramine, and 12 h after clemastine. In contrast to antihistamines, phenylpropanolamine made subjects more alert and quick witted. Tolerance to the antihistamine-induced drowsiness developed on the second day. 4 Divided attention, tracking, speed anticipation and sleep were not affected by any drug. Carbinoxamine slowed reactions 2 h after the first dose, but no impairment was measured in objective tests after brompheniramine or clemastine. 5 Phenylpropanolamine improved reaction speed and reaction accuracy and enhanced flicker recognition throughout the study. Phenylpropanolamine plasma levels and improvement in flicker fusion test results correlated with each other on day 2. 6 The results suggest that phenylpropanolamine and the antihistamines studied are comparatively harmless to psychomotor performance and driving skills. PMID:6118170

  2. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training

    PubMed Central

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments—enhancing their ability to “learn to learn.” We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:26441561

  3. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...include frequent, periodic audits that specifically address the...appraisal review activity. These audits may be performed by an independent...servicer's independent internal audit division which reports directly...familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to...

  4. 38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...include frequent, periodic audits that specifically address the...appraisal review activity. These audits may be performed by an independent...lender's independent internal audit division which reports directly...familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to...

  5. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... established by the Undersecretary for Benefits. Such review will be made on a random sampling or performance... appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability...

  6. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... established by the Undersecretary for Benefits. Such review will be made on a random sampling or performance... appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability...

  7. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... established by the Undersecretary for Benefits. Such review will be made on a random sampling or performance... appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability...

  8. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... established by the Undersecretary for Benefits. Such review will be made on a random sampling or performance... appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability...

  9. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... established by the Undersecretary for Benefits. Such review will be made on a random sampling or performance... appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability...

  10. Training techniques to improve fatigue resistance and enhance endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Hawley, J A; Myburgh, K H; Noakes, T D; Dennis, S C

    1997-06-01

    Despite their best efforts, sports scientists have found it difficult to persuade elite athletes to experiment with their training regimens. Thus, until recently, exercise physiologists have had limited impact on the training practices of successful athletes, with most of the innovations in the training patterns of the best athletes coming from the empirical observations of top-level coaches. One form of training recognized by sports scientists and used by athletes for several decades in interval/transition training. Such training consists of a number of exercise bouts alternated with short rest intervals of more slowly paced activity and is thought to improve the fatigue resistance of the active muscles by exposing them to sustained, high-intensity exercise at the athlete's maximal steady-state pace. Few scientific studies, however, have examined the effects of transition training on the performances of competitive athletes. This paper identifies the physiological factors associated with successful endurance performance, and summarizes the results of investigations on competitive endurance cyclists which examined the time-course of changes in performance in response to a sustained, high-intensity interval training programme. PMID:9232558

  11. Empirical Study of Training and Performance in the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Similar systematic relationships exist between personal characteristics, training, and performance on the marathon, regardless of whether they derive from differences among individuals participating in the same run or from differences within the same person in two separate marathons. (Author)

  12. Athletic Training Student Performance Evaluation: A Content and Frequency Analysis

    E-print Network

    Timson, Benjamin Robert

    2014-12-31

    This study described the content of clinical performance evaluation forms utilized to evaluate athletic training students and the frequency in which they were utilized by preceptors. The purpose of this study was to determine ...

  13. Importance of eccentric actions in performance adaptations to resistance training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Miller, Bruce J.; Buchanan, Paul; Tesch, Per A.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of eccentric (ecc) muscle actions in resistance training for the maintenance of muscle strength and mass in hypogravity was investigated in experiments in which human subjects, divided into three groups, were asked to perform four-five sets of 6 to 12 repetitions (rep) per set of three leg press and leg extension exercises, 2 days each weeks for 19 weeks. One group, labeled 'con', performed each rep with only concentric (con) actions, while group con/ecc with performed each rep with only ecc actions; the third group, con/con, performed twice as many sets with only con actions. Control subjects did not train. It was found that resistance training wih both con and ecc actions induced greater increases in muscle strength than did training with only con actions.

  14. Objective performance metrics for improved space telerobotics training

    E-print Network

    Forman, Rachel Emily

    2011-01-01

    NASA astronauts undergo many hours of formal training and self-study to gain proficiency in space teleoperation tasks. After each lesson, instructors score an astronaut's performance in several broad skill categories, ...

  15. Frame of Reference Rater Training Issues: Recall, Time and Behavior Observation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roch, Sylvia G.; O'Sullivan, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Graduate students were trained as raters either using frame of reference (FOR, n=220, behavior observation training (BOT, n=21), or performance appraisal (controls, n=21). They rated videotaped lecturers twice. FOR increased number of behaviors recalled; FOR and BOT improved recall quality. FOR improved rating accuracy even after 2 weeks.…

  16. Teacher Appraisal and Its Outcomes in Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Khim Ong; Ang, Shi Yun Angela; Chong, Wei Ling; Hu, Wei Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the performance appraisal system used for primary school teachers in Singapore, and how those attributes affect satisfaction with the appraisal system, stress experienced with the appraisal system, attitudes towards performance bonus, job satisfaction and motivation, and perceived…

  17. The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal as a Predictor of Performance in a Critical Thinking Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Diane Grimard; Wagner, Edwin E.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) significantly predicted standing in a specialized course at the college level, lending credence to its criterion-related validity. The paper is based on a study of accelerated students pursuing a combined baccalaureate and professional program of medicine. (CE)

  18. Self-Appraisal of Physical Performance Capacity. Reports from the Institute of Applied Psychology, The University of Stockholm, No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Gunnar; And Others

    A method for self-appraisal of muscular strength and physical working capacity consisting of a simple 13-grade rating scale was applied in a study of the physical fitness of a group of 70 middle-aged men. The method functioned well as shown by the similarities in means and standard deviations between ratings and laboratory measurements of the…

  19. Performance appraisal of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as controlled low-strength material.

    PubMed

    Razak, Hashim Abdul; Naganathan, Sivakumar; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2009-12-30

    Controlled low-strength material (CLSM) is slurry made by mixing sand, cement, ash, and water. It is primarily used as a replacement for soil and structural fillings. This paper presents the findings of a preliminary investigation carried out on the performance of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as CLSM. CLSM mixes were designed using industrial waste incineration bottom ash, and cement. Tests for density, setting time, bleed, and compressive strength on cubes under various curing conditions, corrosivity, and leaching of heavy metals and salts were carried out on the CLSM mixtures, and the results discussed. Compressive strength for the designed CLSM mixtures ranged from 0.1 to 1.7 MPa. It is shown that the variations in curing conditions have less influence on the compressive strength of CLSM at high values of water to cement ratio (w/c), but low values of w/c influences the strength of CLSM. The CLSM produced does not exhibit corrosive characters as evidenced by pH. Leaching of heavy metals and salts is higher in bleed than in leachate collected from hardened CLSM. Cement reduces the leaching of Boron in bleed. It is concluded that there is good potential for the use of industrial waste incineration bottom ash in CLSM. PMID:19665294

  20. An appraisal of the performance of the economic and financial crimes commission in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sowunmi, Fatai Abiola; Adesola, Muniru Adekunle; Salako, Mudashiru Abiodun

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how an anti-graft body, the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC), has fared in reducing the incidence of corruption in Nigeria, in particular, bank fraud, Internet scam, and bad governance. It first discusses the corruption situation in Nigeria by highlighting public office holders who have been associated with corruption charges. A Likert-type scale is used in designing the questionnaire for data collection. Descriptive and chi-square analyses are used, and results reveal that the performance of the EFCC has been affected by government interference (p < .05). However, although the anti-graft body has not been able to reduce the incidence of bank fraud (p > .05), bad governance and advance fee fraud have recorded appreciable reduction (p < .05). Areas of success as well as challenges that need to be addressed are identified. Specifically, it is recommended that the bill that established EFCC should be amended to reduce government interference and improve its manpower development, especially in the areas of fraud and Internet scam detection. PMID:19679650

  1. Impact of reduced training on performance in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Houmard, J A

    1991-12-01

    Many endurance athletes and coaches fear a decrement in physical conditioning and performance if training is reduced for several days or longer. This is largely unfounded. Maximal exercise measures (VO2max, maximal heart rate, maximal speed or workload) are maintained for 10 to 28 days with reductions in weekly training volume of up to 70 to 80%. Blood measures (creatine kinase, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood volume) change positively or are maintained with 5 to 21 days of reduced training, as are glycogen storage and muscle oxidative capacities. Submaximal or improved with a 70 to 90% reduction in weekly volume over 6 to 21 days, provided that or improved with a 70 to 90% reduction in weekly volume over 6 to 21 days, provided that exercise frequency is reduced by no more than 20%. Athletic performance is improved or maintained with a 60 to 90% reduction in weekly training volume during a 6 to 21 day reduced training period, primarily due to an enhanced ability to exert muscular power. These findings suggest that endurance athletes should not refrain from reduced training prior to competition in an effort to improve performance, or for recovery from periods of intense training, injury, or staleness. PMID:1784880

  2. Correlating Trainee Attributes to Performance in 3D CAD Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamade, Ramsey F.; Artail, Hassan A.; Sikstrom, Sverker

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify trainee attributes relevant for development of skills in 3D computer-aided design (CAD). Design/methodology/approach: Participants were trained to perform cognitive tasks of comparable complexity over time. Performance data were collected on the time needed to construct test models, and…

  3. Using Importance-Performance Analysis to Evaluate Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniscalchi, Jason M.; Beale, Edward K.; Fortuna, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The importance-performance analysis (IPA) is a tool that can provide timely and usable feedback to improve training. IPA measures the gaps between the importance and how good (performance) a class is perceived by a student and is presented on a 2x2 matrix. The quadrant in which data land in this matrix aids in determining potential future action.…

  4. Vibration or balance training on neuromuscular performance in osteopenic women.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, N; Belavý, D L; Rawer, R; Felsenberg, D

    2013-11-01

    Maintaining neuromuscular function in older age is an important topic for aging societies, especially for older women with low bone density who may be at risk of falls and bone fracture. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of resistive exercise with either whole-body vibration training (VIB) or coordination/balance training (BAL) on neuromuscular function (countermovement jump, multiple 1-leg hopping, sit-to-stand test). 68 postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis were recruited for the study. 57 subjects completed the 9-month, twice weekly, intervention period. All subjects conducted 30?min of resistance exercise each training day. The VIB-group performed additional training on the Galileo vibration exercise device. The BAL-group performed balance training. An "intent-to-treat" analysis showed greater improvement in the VIB-group for peak countermovement power (p=0.004). The mean [95% confidence interval] effect size for this parameter was a ?+?0.9[0.3 to 1.5] W/kg greater change in VIB than BAL after 9 months. In multiple 1-leg hopping, a significantly better performance in the VIB-group after the intervention period was seen on a "per-protocol" analysis only. Both groups improved in the sit-to-stand test. The current study provides evidence that short-duration whole-body vibration exercise can have a greater impact on some aspects of neuromuscular function in post-menopausal women with low bone density than proprioceptive training. PMID:23549694

  5. Scapular-Muscle Performance: Two Training Programs in Adolescent Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Van de Velde, Annemie; De Mey, Kristof; Maenhout, Annelies; Calders, Patrick; Cools, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Swimming requires well-balanced scapular-muscle performance. An additional strength-training program for the shoulders is pursued by swimmers, but whether these muscle-training programs need to be generic or specific for endurance or strength is unknown. Objective: To evaluate isokinetic scapular-muscle performance in a population of adolescent swimmers and to compare the results of training programs designed for strength or muscle endurance. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University human research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen adolescent swimmers. Intervention(s): Each participant pursued a 12-week scapular-training program designed to improve either muscle strength or muscle endurance. Main Outcome Measure(s): Bilateral peak force, fatigue index, and protraction/retraction strength ratios before and after the scapular-training program. Results: Scapular protraction/retraction ratios were slightly higher than 1 (dominant side ?=? 1.08, nondominant side ?=? 1.25, P ?=? .006). Side-to-side differences in retraction strength were apparent both before and after the training program (P ?=? .03 and P ?=?.05, respectively). After the training program, maximal protraction (P < .05) and retraction (P < .01) strength improved on the nondominant side. Peak force and fatigue index were not different between the training groups. The fatigue indexes for protraction on both sides (P < .05) and retraction on the nondominant side (P ?=? .009) were higher after the training program. Conclusions: We describe the scapular-muscle characteristics of a group of adolescent swimmers. Both muscle-strength and muscle-endurance programs improved absolute muscle strength. Neither of the strength programs had a positive effect on scapular-muscle endurance. Our results may be valuable for coaches and physiotherapists when they are designing exercise programs for swimmers. PMID:21391801

  6. Does Musical Training Improve School Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetter, Olive Emil; Koerner, Fritz; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    In a retrospective study, we compared school performance of 53 children practicing music (group 1) with 67 controls not practicing music (group 2). Overall average marks as well as average marks of all school subjects except sports were significantly higher in children who do (group 1) than in those who do not practice music (group 2). In a…

  7. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air...

  8. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft...

  9. Evidence Report: Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2012-01-01

    The Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. Given that training content, timing, intervals, and delivery methods must support crew task performance, and given that training paradigms will be different for long-duration missions with increased crew autonomy, there is a risk that operators will lack the skills or knowledge necessary to complete critical tasks, resulting in flight and ground crew errors and inefficiencies, failed mission and program objectives, and an increase in crew injuries.

  10. Guidelines for evaluation of nuclear facility training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document establishes a single set of objectives and criteria for the evaluation of training programs developed to meet requirements of DOE Orders 5480.18A and 5480.20, and other directives that address training and qualification. The evaluation includes appraisals, surveillances, audits, reviews, assessments, and other activities intended to evaluate training. The standard is intended to assist personnel in performing evaluations of training and qualification programs.

  11. Task Analysis for Job Performance Aids and Related Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John P., Jr.

    This paper presents several aspects of task analyses for maintenance jobs when these analyses are used as bases for the development of Job Performance Aids (JPAs) and job oriented training. It starts with a brief history of the development of task analysis technology and the part that Air Force research has played in this development. The fact…

  12. Performance Indicators in the Education and Training of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document contains the viewpoints of five providers of education and training of adults at British institutions on the subject of which indicators should be used to measure the quality of performance. According to the representative of the Unit for the Development of Adult Continuing Education (Powell), measures applied to adult education have…

  13. Training Needs for High Performance in the Automotive Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyne, Barry; And Others

    A project was conducted in Australia to identify the training needs of the emerging industry required to support the development of the high performance areas of the automotive machining and reconditioning field especially as it pertained to auto racing. Data were gathered through a literature search, interviews with experts in the field, and…

  14. Using Performance Indicators to Evaluate Training Effectiveness: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wreathall, John; Connelly, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes several approaches to the development of performance indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of safety training in the nuclear power industry. A rationale is presented for a method of generating measures of effectiveness that uses criteria developed by several experts with different viewpoints, and the benefits of this method are…

  15. Business Models for Training and Performance Improvement Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul

    2004-01-01

    Although typically applied to entire enterprises, the concept of business models applies to training and performance improvement groups. Business models are "the method by which firm[s] build and use [their] resources to offer.. value." Business models affect the types of projects, services offered, skills required, business processes, and type of…

  16. Individual Training, Performance Improvement, and the Future for Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Human competence is a vital element for any organization that expects to survive and then thrive. Developing individual performance ability is necessary but not sufficient because trained people alone will not make an organization successful. We must determine what people should deliver and why it should be delivered in order to add measurable…

  17. Training for Template Creation: A Performance Improvement Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There are three purposes to this article: first, to offer a training approach to employee learning and performance improvement that makes use of a step-by-step process of skill/knowledge creation. The process offers follow-up opportunities for skill maintenance and improvement; second, to explain the conceptual bases of the approach; and…

  18. Visuospatial Ability Factors and Performance Variables in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus complexity, in their emphasis on identifying…

  19. Board & Supt. Share Appraisal Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaub, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    Although some board members and superintendents may consider superintendent evaluation as potentially disturbing for their working relationships, such evaluations may become more appealing when considered as part of a broader system of school governance and management. What is needed is a performance appraisal system developed jointly by…

  20. Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

  1. Increasing mathematical problem-solving performance through relaxation training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, Amykay

    2000-04-01

    Two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in the same general education mathematics course were each administered the IPSP Mathematics Problem Solving Test and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. Both groups experienced the same syllabus, lectures, course requirements, and assessment techniques; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5 to 7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which had received relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher mathematics performance at the end of the course. The results suggest that relaxation training may be a useful tool for treating anxiety in undergraduate general education mathematics students.

  2. Three weeks of eccentric training combined with overspeed exercises enhances power and running speed performance gains in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian J; Beaven, C Martyn; Kilduff, Liam P

    2013-05-01

    Eccentric and overspeed training modalities are effective in improving components of muscular power. Eccentric training induces specific training adaptations relating to muscular force, whereas overspeed stimuli target the velocity component of power expression. We aimed to compare the effects of traditional or eccentric training with volume-matched training that incorporated overspeed exercises. Twenty team-sport athletes performed 4 counterbalanced 3-week training blocks consecutively as part of a preseason training period: (1) traditional resistance training; (2) eccentric-only resistance training; (3) traditional resistance training with overspeed exercises; and (4) eccentric resistance training with overspeed exercises. The overspeed exercises performed were assisted countermovement jumps and downhill running. Improvements in bench press (15.0 ± 5.1 kg; effect size [ES]: 1.52), squat (19.5 ± 9.1 kg; ES: 1.12), and peak power in the countermovement jump (447 ± 248 W; ES: 0.94) were observed following the 12-week training period. Greater strength increases were observed as a result of the eccentric training modalities (ES: 0.72-1.09) with no effect of the overspeed stimuli on these measures (p > 0.05). Eccentric training with overspeed stimuli was more effective than traditional resistance training in increasing peak power in the countermovement jump (94 ± 55 W; ES: 0.95). Eccentric training induced no beneficial training response in maximal running speed (p > 0.05); however, the addition of overspeed exercises salvaged this relatively negative effect when compared with eccentric training alone (0.03 ± 0.01 seconds; ES: 1.33). These training results achieved in 3-week training blocks suggest that it is important to target-specific aspects of both force and movement velocity to enhance functional measures of power expression. PMID:22820207

  3. Maximizing cochlear implant patients' performance with advanced speech training procedures.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J

    2008-08-01

    Advances in implant technology and speech processing have provided great benefit to many cochlear implant patients. However, some patients receive little benefit from the latest technology, even after many years' experience with the device. Moreover, even the best cochlear implant performers have great difficulty understanding speech in background noise, and music perception and appreciation remain major challenges. Recent studies have shown that targeted auditory training can significantly improve cochlear implant patients' speech recognition performance. Such benefits are not only observed in poorly performing patients, but also in good performers under difficult listening conditions (e.g., speech noise, telephone speech, music, etc.). Targeted auditory training has also been shown to enhance performance gains provided by new implant devices and/or speech processing strategies. These studies suggest that cochlear implantation alone may not fully meet the needs of many patients, and that additional auditory rehabilitation may be needed to maximize the benefits of the implant device. Continuing research will aid in the development of efficient and effective training protocols and materials, thereby minimizing the costs (in terms of time, effort and resources) associated with auditory rehabilitation while maximizing the benefits of cochlear implantation for all recipients. PMID:18295992

  4. Neural changes after training to perform cognitive tasks

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xue-Lian; Constantinidis, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive operations requiring working memory rely on the activity of neurons in areas of the association cortex, most prominently the lateral prefrontal cortex. Human imaging and animal neurophysiological studies indicate that this activity is shaped by learning, though much is unknown about how much training alters neural activity and cortical organization. Results from non-human primates demonstrate that prior to any training in cognitive tasks, prefrontal neurons respond to stimuli, exhibit persistent activity after their offset, and differentiate between matching and non-matching stimuli presented in sequence. A number of important changes also occur after training in a working memory task. More neurons are recruited by the stimuli and exhibit higher firing rates, particularly during the delay period. Operant stimuli that need to be recognized in order to perform the task elicit higher overall rates of responses, while the variability of individual discharges and correlation of discharges between neurons decrease after training. New information is incorporated in the activity of a small population of neurons highly specialized for the task and in a larger population of neurons that exhibit modest task related information, while information about other aspects of stimuli remains present in neuronal activity. Despite such changes, the relative selectivity of the dorsal and ventral aspect of the lateral prefrontal cortex is not radically altered with regard to spatial and non-spatial stimuli after training. Collectively, these results provide insights on the nature and limits of cortical plasticity mediating cognitive tasks. PMID:23261872

  5. The Acute Effect of Concurrent Training on Running Performance over 6 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of strength training on alternating days and endurance training on consecutive days on running performance for 6 days. Methods: Sixteen male and 8 female moderately trained individuals were evenly assigned into concurrent-training (CCT) and strength-training (ST) groups. The CCT group undertook strength…

  6. Motor imagery training improves upper extremity performance in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate whether motor imagery training has a positive influence on upper extremity performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: motor imagery (n = 12) or control (n = 12). Over the course of 4 weeks, the motor imagery group participated in 30 minutes of motor imagery training on each of the 18 tasks (9 hours total) related to their daily living activities. After the 4-week intervention period, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity outcomes and Wolf Motor Function Test outcomes were compared. [Results] The post-test score of the motor imagery group on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity outcomes was significantly higher than that of the control group. In particular, the shoulder and wrist sub-items demonstrated improvement in the motor imagery group. [Conclusion] Motor imagery training has a positive influence on upper extremity performance by improving functional mobility during stroke rehabilitation. These results suggest that motor imagery training is feasible and beneficial for improving upper extremity function in stroke patients. PMID:26311968

  7. Performance comparison of SLFN training algorithms for DNA microarray classification.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hieu Trung; Kim, Jung-Ja; Won, Yonggwan

    2011-01-01

    The classification of biological samples measured by DNA microarrays has been a major topic of interest in the last decade, and several approaches to this topic have been investigated. However, till now, classifying the high-dimensional data of microarrays still presents a challenge to researchers. In this chapter, we focus on evaluating the performance of the training algorithms of the single hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFNs) to classify DNA microarrays. The training algorithms consist of backpropagation (BP), extreme learning machine (ELM) and regularized least squares ELM (RLS-ELM), and an effective algorithm called neural-SVD has recently been proposed. We also compare the performance of the neural network approaches with popular classifiers such as support vector machine (SVM), principle component analysis (PCA) and fisher discriminant analysis (FDA). PMID:21431554

  8. Information Feedback: Contributions to Learning and Performance in Perceptual Identification Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Alvin J.; Cook, Richard L.

    In training people to perform auditory identification tasks (e.g., training students to identify sound characteristics in a sonar classification task), it is important to know whether or not training procedures are merely sustaining performance during training or whether they enhance learning of the task. Often an incorrect assumption is made that…

  9. Effects of the Training Dataset Characteristics on the Performance of Nine Species Distribution Models

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    Effects of the Training Dataset Characteristics on the Performance of Nine Species Distribution species need to be fitted to a training dataset before practical use. The training dataset of this paper is to study the effect of the training dataset characteristics on model performance and to compare

  10. Argonne National Laboratory Internal Appraisal Program environment, safety, health/quality assurance oversight

    SciTech Connect

    Winner, G.L.; Siegfried, Y.S.; Forst, S.P.; Meshenberg, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Internal Appraisal Program has developed a quality assurance team member training program. This program has been developed to provide training to non-quality assurance professionals. Upon successful completion of this training and approval of the Internal Appraisal Program Manager, these personnel are considered qualified to assist in the conduct of quality assurance assessments. The training program has been incorporated into a self-paced, computerized, training session.

  11. Perk Station – Percutaneous Surgery Training and Performance Measurement Platform

    PubMed Central

    Vikal, Siddharth; U-Thainual, Paweena; Carrino, John A.; Iordachita, Iulian; Fischer, Gregory S.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2009-01-01

    Motivation Image-guided percutaneous (through the skin) needle-based surgery has become part of routine clinical practice in performing procedures such as biopsies, injections and therapeutic implants. A novice physician typically performs needle interventions under the supervision of a senior physician; a slow and inherently subjective training process that lacks objective, quantitative assessment of the surgical skill and performance[S1]. Shortening the learning curve and increasing procedural consistency are important factors in assuring high-quality medical care. Methods This paper describes a laboratory validation system, called Perk Station, for standardized training and performance measurement under different assistance techniques for needle-based surgical guidance systems. The initial goal of the Perk Station is to assess and compare different techniques: 2D image overlay, biplane laser guide, laser protractor and conventional freehand. The main focus of this manuscript is the planning and guidance software system developed on the 3D Slicer platform, a free, open source software package designed for visualization and analysis of medical image data. Results The prototype Perk Station has been successfully developed, the associated needle insertion phantoms were built, and the graphical user interface was fully implemented. The system was inaugurated in undergraduate teaching and a wide array of outreach activities. Initial results, experiences, ongoing activities and future plans are reported. PMID:19539446

  12. AN EXPERIMENT IN BASIC AIRBORNE ELECTRONICS TRAINING, PART IV-- EFFECT OF REDUCTION IN TRAINING TIME ON FLEET PERFORMANCE. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BALDWIN, ROBERT O.; AND OTHERS

    THREE PRECEDING REPORTS PRESENTED THE EFFECTS OF SHORTENING TRAINING TIME IN AVIONICS FUNDAMENTALS AND AVIATION ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN (RADAR) TRAINING UPON THE FINAL COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION IN THESE COURSES AND UPON PERFORMANCE IN A SUBSEQUENT EQUIPMENT COURSE. THIS REPORT COMPARES THE ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF GRADUATES FROM FOUR GROUPS…

  13. Functional training: muscle structure, function, and performance in older women.

    PubMed

    Cress, M E; Conley, K E; Balding, S L; Hansen-Smith, F; Konczak, J

    1996-07-01

    Response to physical training at the cellular and whole muscle level has been established in older adults. However, the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for change has not been described nor have the relationships between change in muscle structure and functional performance been established. The purpose of this research study is to evaluate the changes of muscle ultrastructure, muscle strength, and whole body functional performance as a result of a functionally directed exercise program (stair climbing). Women (65-83 years old) selected either the control (no exercise; N = 6) or exercise (N = 7) group. The 1-year functionally based exercise program was both aerobic (75% heart rate reserve) and resistive (weighted stair climbing). Muscle ultrastructure, determined by quantitative morphometry of the vastus lateralis tissue, and maximal step-height achieved by each subject were related to isokinetic strength and muscle morphology. Changes in myofibrillar area accounted for 48% of the variance in muscle strength changes. Change in muscle contractile protein was the underlying basis for change in thigh strength which, in turn, was the basis for functional performance. These data provide evidence that, in older women, a mild functionally based training program results in improved muscle structure and performance of the lower body. PMID:8807535

  14. Quantitative training system assessments using General Systems Performance Theory 

    E-print Network

    Kashyap, Sujatha

    2000-01-01

    The use of computers for imparting education and training is rapidly gaining widespread acceptance. There is considerable evidence in literature to show that computer-based training (CBT) can lower training costs and shorten the time taken...

  15. Performances of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongying; Luo, Changjie; Wang, Huimin

    2012-07-01

    The current research of a balanced hydraulic motor focuses on the characteristics of the motor with three planet gears. References of a balanced hydraulic motor with more than three planet gears are hardly found. In order to study the characteristics of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train that includes more than three planet gears, on the basis of analysis of the structure and working principle of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train, formulas are deduced for calculating the hydraulic motor's primary performance indexes such as displacement, unit volume displacement, flowrate fluctuation ratio, etc. Influences of the gears' tooth number on displacement and flowrate characteristics are analyzed. In order to guarantee the reliability of sealing capability, the necessary conditions that tooth number of the sun gear and the planet gears should satisfy are discussed. Selecting large unit volume displacement and small displacement fluctuation ratio as designing objectives, a balanced hydraulic motor with three planet gears and a common gear motor are designed under the conditions of same displacement, tooth addendum coefficien and clearance coefficient. By comparing the unit volume displacement and fluctuation ratio of the two motors, it can be seen that the balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train has the advantages of smaller fluctuation ratio and larger unit volume displacement. The results provide theoretical basis for choosing gear tooth-number of this kind of hydraulic motor.

  16. Effects of training on physical performance wearing personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Swain, David P; Onate, James A; Ringleb, Stacie I; Naik, Dayanand N; DeMaio, Marlene

    2010-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of wearing a weighted vest during 6 weeks of military-style training. Forty-three subjects were randomly assigned to a control group or a vest group (carrying 4-5 kg for 2 weeks, and 8-10 kg for 4 weeks), with 37 completing the study (17 vest, 20 control). Both groups performed stair climbing in addition to standard Marine Corps training for 1 hour, four times per week. Pre- and post-tests were performed while wearing military personal protective equipment, with the exception of the Marine Physical Readiness Test (PRT). Both groups significantly improved PRT scores (8.4% 3-mile run, 28-38% calisthenics) and an agility drill (4.4%). Significant improvements in uphill treadmill performance (6.8% vest, 3.0% control) and maximal oxygen consumption (10.7% vest, 6.8% control) were approximately twice as much in the vest versus control group, although these differences did not reach significance (p = 0.16 and 0.13, respectively). PMID:20882929

  17. Autogenic feedback training improves pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

    PubMed

    Kellar, M A; Folen, R A; Cowings, P S; Toscano, W B; Hisert, G L

    1993-01-01

    Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior (AMB) is one cause of aircraft fatalities caused by pilot error. In AMB cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. The following study, conducted under the auspices of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ames Research Center, examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. PMID:11537902

  18. Eating for performance: bringing science to the training table.

    PubMed

    Bonci, Leslie J

    2011-07-01

    Despite many advances in nutritional knowledge and dietary practices, sports nutrition-associated issues, such as fatigue, loss of strength and stamina, loss of speed, and problems with weight management and inadequate energy intake, are common. Sound nutritional practices and well-designed patterns of eating are not awarded the same priority as training and many athletes fail to recognize that poor eating habits or suboptimal hydration choices may detract from athletic performance. Those who care for athletes and active individuals must take an active role in their nutritional well-being. This article reviews the present generally accepted principles for nutritional management in sport. PMID:21658554

  19. Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults: Effects of Age, Baseline Performance, and Training Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S.; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For…

  20. Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

  1. Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

  2. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabled shifting of weight to the right and left sides, for 30?min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The patients in the task-oriented training group practiced additional task-oriented programs for 30?min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. Patients in both groups also underwent conventional physical therapy for 60?min/day, 5 times/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Balance and functional reach test outcomes were examined in both groups. The results showed that the static balance and functional reach test outcomes were significantly higher in the virtual reality-based training group than in the task-oriented training group. [Conclusion] This study suggested that virtual reality-based training might be a more feasible and suitable therapeutic intervention for dynamic balance in stroke patients compared to task-oriented training. PMID:26180341

  3. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabled shifting of weight to the right and left sides, for 30?min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The patients in the task-oriented training group practiced additional task-oriented programs for 30?min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. Patients in both groups also underwent conventional physical therapy for 60?min/day, 5 times/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Balance and functional reach test outcomes were examined in both groups. The results showed that the static balance and functional reach test outcomes were significantly higher in the virtual reality-based training group than in the task-oriented training group. [Conclusion] This study suggested that virtual reality-based training might be a more feasible and suitable therapeutic intervention for dynamic balance in stroke patients compared to task-oriented training. PMID:26180341

  4. Transfer effects of fall training on balance performance and spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Roth, Ralf; Soltermann, Martin; Kressig, Reto W; Zahner, Lukas

    2014-07-01

    This study examined transfer effects of fall training on fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International [FES-I]), balance performance, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics in older adults. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults (ages 65-85) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group completed 12 training sessions (60 min, 6 weeks). During pre- and posttesting, we measured FES-I, balance performance (double limb, closed eyes; single limb, open eyes; double limb, open eyes with motor-interfered task), and gait parameters (e.g., velocity; cadence; stride time, stride width, and stride length; variability of stride time and stride length) under single- and motor-interfered tasks. Dual tasks were applied to appraise improvements of cognitive processing during balance and gait. FES-I (p = .33) and postural sway did not significantly change (0.36 < p < .79). Trends toward significant interaction effects were found for step width during normal walking and stride length variability during the motor dual task (p = .05, ?p 2 = .22). Fall training did not sufficiently improve fear of falling, balance, or gait performance under single- or dual-task conditions in healthy older adults. PMID:23881433

  5. Performance in sports - With specific emphasis on the effect of intensified training.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, J

    2015-12-01

    Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance. Specifically how intensified training, i.e., increasing the amount of aerobic high-intensity and speed endurance training, affects physiological adaptations and performance of trained subjects. Periods of speed endurance training do improve performance in events lasting 30 s-4 min, and when combined with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase expression of muscle Na(+) , K(+) pump ? subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect of other types of training. It is not, however, clear how various training modalities are affecting each other, and this issue should be addressed in future studies. PMID:26589122

  6. Relationships Between Design Characteristics of Avionics Subsystems and Training Cost, Training Difficulty, and Job Performance. Final Report, Covering Activity from 1 July 1971 Through 1 September 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Larry M.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship between avionics subsystem design characteristics and training time, training cost, and job performance. A list of design variables believed to affect training and job performance was established and supplemented with personnel variables, including aptitude test scores and the amount of training and…

  7. Making Olympic lizards: the effects of specialised exercise training on performance.

    PubMed

    Husak, Jerry F; Keith, Allison R; Wittry, Beth N

    2015-03-01

    Exercise training is well known to affect a suite of physiological and performance traits in mammals, but effects of training in other vertebrate tetrapod groups have been inconsistent. We examined performance and physiological differences among green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis) that were trained for sprinting or endurance, using an increasingly rigorous training regimen over 8?weeks. Lizards trained for endurance had significantly higher post-training endurance capacity compared with the other treatment groups, but groups did not show post-training differences in sprint speed. Although acclimation to the laboratory environment and training explain some of our results, mechanistic explanations for these results correspond with the observed performance differences. After training, endurance-trained lizards had higher haematocrit and larger fast glycolytic muscle fibres. Despite no detectable change in maximal performance of sprint-trained lizards, we detected that they had significantly larger slow oxidative muscle fibre areas compared with the other treatments. Treatment groups did not differ in the proportion of number of fibre types, nor in the mass of most limb muscles or the heart. Our results offer some caveats for investigators conducting training research on non-model organisms and they reveal that muscle plasticity in response to training may be widespread phylogenetically. PMID:25617462

  8. Agent-Customized Training for Human Learning Performance Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, M. Brian; Butcher-Green, Jerome D.

    2009-01-01

    Training individuals from diverse backgrounds and in changing environments requires customized training approaches that align with the individual learning styles and ever-evolving organizational needs. Scaffolding is a well-established instructional approach that facilitates learning by incrementally removing training aids as the learner…

  9. Britain's Training Deficit. The Centre for Economic Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layard, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 12 papers that were produced as a result of a seminar program on selected issues central to the debate over job training in Great Britain. The first paper, "Why We Need a Training Reform Act" (Richard Layard, Ken Mayhew, Geoffrey Owen), examines existing deficiencies in vocational education and training in Britain and proposes a…

  10. Perceptual Training and Figure-Ground Performance in Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-five older adults with age-related macular degeneration were separated into one of three groups: in-clinic training, take-home-training, or no-training. After testing, results showed that the ability to distinguish figure from ground is an improvable skill with the take-home group improving the most. (Author/DB)

  11. Comment: Performance improvement with computer training in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Linda A

    2014-04-01

    Computer-based memory and attention training methods improve episodic recall in older adults who have amnestic mild cognitive impairment.(1,2) Memory and attention are highly interactive and interdependent processes due to their shared circuitry. The cognitive benefits of computer-based memory training appear to persist for at least 6 months.(1) Traditional cognitive training programs are administered by professionals and may cost as much as $15 to $100 an hour, depending on the educational level of the staff member who delivers the training.(2) More cost-effective methods of computer-based memory training are needed. In the study by Zimmermann et al.(3) on patients with Parkinson disease (PD), 2 types of computer training were compared: a specific cognitive training method (CogniPlus) and a nonspecific method, Nintendo Wii, a game console. PMID:24623844

  12. The NHS breast screening programme (pathology) EQA: experience in recent years relating to issues involved in individual performance appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Parham, D M; Coleman, D; Kodikara, S; Moss, S; Ellis, I O; Al-sam, S; Anderson, N; Bobrow, L; Buley, I; Connolly, C E; Dallimore, N S; Hales, S; Hanby, A; Humphreys, S; Knox, F; Lowe, J; Macartney, J; Nash, R; Patnick, J; Pinder, S E; Quinn, C M; Robertson, A J; Shrimankar, J; Walker, R A; Wells, C; Winder, R; Patel, N

    2006-01-01

    Background The original role of the National Health Service breast screening programme (pathology) external quality assessment (EQA) scheme was educational; it aimed to raise standards, reinforce use of common terminology, and assess the consistency of pathology reporting of breast disease in the UK. Aims/Methods To examine the performance (scores) of pathologists participating in the scheme in recent years. The scheme has evolved to help identify poor performers, reliant upon setting an acceptable cutpoint. Therefore, the effects of different cutpoint strategies were evaluated and implications discussed. Results/Conclusions Pathologists who joined the scheme improved over time, particularly those who did less well initially. There was no obvious association between performance and the number of breast cancer cases reported each year. This is not unexpected because the EQA does not measure expertise, but was established to demonstrate a common level of performance (conformity to consensus) for routine cases, rather than the ability to diagnose unusual/difficult cases. A new method of establishing cutpoints using interquartile ranges is proposed. The findings also suggest that EQA can alter a pathologist's practice: those who leave the scheme (for whatever reason) have, on average, marginally lower scores. Consequently, with the cutpoint methodology currently used (which is common to several EQA schemes) there is the potential for the cutpoint to drift upwards. In future, individuals previously deemed competent could subsequently be erroneously labelled as poor performers. Due consideration should be given to this issue with future development of schemes. PMID:16443726

  13. PERFORMANCE OF DISCRIMINATIVELY TRAINED AUDITORY FEATURES ON AURORA2 AND AURORA3

    E-print Network

    Mak, Brian Kan-Wing

    PERFORMANCE OF DISCRIMINATIVELY TRAINED AUDITORY FEATURES ON AURORA2 AND AURORA3 Brian Mak and Yik) by 30.27% over ICSLP2002 Aurora2 baseline on multi-condition training. Similarly, we obtain a relative WER reduction of 38.42% over ICSLP2002 Aurora3 baseline. 1. INTRODUCTION Discriminative training [1

  14. Effects of Short-Term Isokinetic Training on Standing Long-Jump Performance in Untrained Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morriss, Calvin J.; Tolfrey, Keith; Coppack, Russell J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the effects of a brief isokinetic training program on quadriceps and hamstring peak torque (PT) and standing long-jump performance. Tests on 12 untrained men indicated that the brief training program was at least as effective in improving quadriceps isokinetic (but not hamstring) PT. PT gains subsequent to isokinetic resistance training

  15. Support vector machines improve the accuracy of evaluation for the performance of laparoscopic training tasks

    E-print Network

    Faloutsos, Petros

    Training Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) provides significant benefits to patients including shorter training tasks Brian Allen Æ Vasile Nistor Æ Erik Dutson Æ Greg Carman Æ Catherine Lewis Æ Petros Faloutsos) performed 696 trials of three training tasks: peg transfer, pass rope, and cap needle. Instrument motions

  16. A Descriptive Study of the Performance Appraisal of Supervisors of Spicer Higher Secondary School, Using "360 Degree Feedback" Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemati, Hamidreza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study the performance of the supervisors in the aspects leadership, communication, and task managing by the "360 degree feedback" method. A qualitative research was used to carry out the research study. The researcher formulated three questions that guided the study. An opinionnaire which included 23 items in…

  17. Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health workers’ motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers’ experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers’ motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers attesting to the importance of the salary for motivation. Lessons learned from OPRAS can be utilized in the implementation of P4P and can enhance our knowledge on motivation and performance in the health services in low-income contexts such as Tanzania. PMID:22963317

  18. 5 CFR 430.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification...link to organizational mission, GPRA strategic goals, or other program and policy...

  19. 5 CFR 430.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification...link to organizational mission, GPRA strategic goals, or other program and policy...

  20. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Background Marathon (42 km) and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat), the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. PMID:25995653

  1. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key points Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks. In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance. The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase of the mass of type IIx muscle fibres and no change in their proportion. Thus, this type of training might be used effectively during the last weeks before competition, when the strength training load is usually reduced, in order to increase muscle power and shot put performance in novice shot putters. PMID:24149736

  2. Preliminary performance appraisal of Navy V/STOL transport and search-type airplanes using hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    First-cut estimates are given of the performance advantages of liquid-hydrogen-fueled, ejector wing, V/STOL aircraft designed for shipboard delivery and search-type missions. Results indicate that the use of LH2 could reduce gross weights 30 percent, empty weights 15 percent, and energy consumption 10 percent for a fixed payload and mission. If gross weight is fixed, the delivery range could be increased about 60 percent or the hover time during a search mission doubled. No analysis or discussion of the economic and operational disadvantages is presented.

  3. Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders…

  4. Education, Training and Economic Performance 1944 to 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldcroft, Derek H.

    A study examined the relationship between economic growth and compulsory education, vocational education and training, higher education, and the education and training of managers in Great Britain in the period between 1944 and 1988. Deficiencies in language and mathematical skills were found among completers of compulsory education, participants…

  5. Appraisal of Artificial Screening Techniques of Tomato to Accurately Reflect Field Performance of the Late Blight Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska, Marzena; Nowicki, Marcin; K?osi?ska, Urszula; Maciorowski, Robert; Kozik, El?bieta U.

    2014-01-01

    Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant). In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with thefield experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato. PMID:25279467

  6. Appraisal in a Team Context: Perceptions of Cohesion Predict Competition Importance and Prospects for Coping.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Svenja A; Eys, Mark A; Sadler, Pamela; Kleinert, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Athletes' precompetitive appraisal is important because it determines emotions, which may impact performance. When part of a team, athletes make their appraisal within a social context, and in this study we examined whether perceived team cohesion, as a characteristic of this context, related to appraisal. We asked 386 male and female intercollegiate team-sport athletes to respond to measures of cohesion and precompetitive appraisal before an in-season game. For males and females, across all teams, (a) an appraisal of increased competition importance was predicted by perceptions of higher task cohesion (individual level), better previous team performance, and a weaker opponent (team level) and (b) an appraisal of more positive prospects for coping with competitive demands was predicted by higher individual attractions to the group (individual level). Consequently, athletes who perceive their team as more cohesive likely appraise the pending competition as a challenge, which would benefit both emotions and performance. PMID:26524095

  7. The timing of appraisals.

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, Nathalie; Hess, Ursula

    2007-02-01

    The appraisal process consists of the subjective evaluation that occurs during an individual's encounter with significant events in the environment, determining the nature of the emotional reaction and experience. Placed in the context of appraisal theories of emotion-elicitation and differentiation, the aim of the present research was to test empirically the hypothesis that the intrinsic pleasantness evaluation occurs before the goal conduciveness evaluation. In two studies, intrinsically pleasant and unpleasant images were used to manipulate pleasantness, and a specific event in a Pacman-type videogame was used to manipulate goal conduciveness. Facial EMG was used to measure facial reactions to each evaluation. As predicted, facial reactions to the intrinsic pleasantness manipulation were faster than facial reactions to the goal conduciveness manipulation. These results provide good empirical support for the sequential nature of the appraisal process. PMID:17352576

  8. Intellectual Training Research in Aging: Modification of Performance on the Fluid Ability of Figural Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Sherry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Effectiveness of cognitive training on older adults performance on the fluid ability of figural relations was examined. A pattern of differential transfer was found with greater training effects to near fluid transfer measures. Findings suggest continued modifiability of intellectual performance through cognitive intervention across the adult life…

  9. Performance-Based Policy Options for Postsecondary Vocational Education and Employment Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoachlander, E. Gareth

    Performance-based policy in postsecondary vocational education and employment training programs has two major goals. First, it seeks to increase the basic and job-specific skills needed by program participants to perform effectively in occupations related to training. Second, it aims to stimulate debate over what the appropriate outcomes for…

  10. Examination of Rater Training Effect and Rater Eligibility in L2 Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of rater training in an L2 performance assessment and to examine the eligibility of L2 users of English as raters in L2 performance assessment. Rater training was conducted in order for raters to clearly understand the criteria, the evaluation items, and the evaluation procedure. In this…

  11. The Impact of Stress Management Training on the Academic Performance of Low-Achieving College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the impact of stress management training as part of an academic skills training program upon students' (N=22) self-reported symptoms of stress and academic performance. Results indicated that success-stress management treatment was more effective in reducing stress and increasing academic performance than success treatment alone. (LLL)

  12. 77 FR 43084 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act...-Performance Green Buildings, Office of Governmentwide Policy, GSA. ACTION: Notice of release of core... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. John Simpson, Program Manager, Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act, Office...

  13. Maladaptive Self-Appraisals before Trauma Exposure Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Guthrie, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the proposal that negative appraisals represent a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma. Trainee firefighters (N = 68) were assessed during training (before trauma exposure) for PTSD, history of traumatic events, and tendency to engage in negative appraisals. Firefighters were reassessed 4…

  14. The effect of drag suit training on 50-m freestyle performance.

    PubMed

    Dragunas, Andrew J; Dickey, James P; Nolte, Volker W

    2012-04-01

    Little research has evaluated the effects of drag suit training in swimming; these effects need to be explored further to optimize their use in training. For this 5-week training study, 18 subjects were divided evenly into 2 groups: control group and drag suit-trained group. Both groups performed weekly training routines that included 3 sprint sets. These sprint sets were performed by both the groups; however, the drag suit training group wore the drag suit, and the control group wore their typical training attire. We evaluated the swimmers' 50-m performance using a test set of six 50-m sprints on a 10-minute interval before and after the training program. The test set was performed twice (on 2 different days) where the swimmers were tested once in the drag suit and once in their regular training attire; the order of testing was randomized. Final time, stroke rate, and distance per stroke were collected. We observed that the drag suit-trained group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in distance per stoke while wearing the drag suit and the control group showed a significant increase in stroke rate and decrease in distance per stroke (in both suits). It is suggested to include some amounts of drag suit training in periods where swimming volume may decrease. Sets that are short in distance and performed at high intensity with sufficient rest to allow swimmers to maintain high stroke integrity should help athletes maintain techniques. We suggest incorporating the drag suit into the training regimen and should be considered a valuable resistive training device for swimming. PMID:22371092

  15. Appraisal in Context: Clashing with Organizational Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Morgan W., Jr.; DeVries, David L.

    In spite of the efforts of researchers and practitioners, performance appraisal systems remain more of an albatross than an effective organizational tool. The movement toward objective measurement, employee participation, multiple raters, and the like, represents a definite improvement over traditional trait ratings. Still, internal improvements…

  16. Evaluating the relationship between change in performance on training tasks and on untrained outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Peters, Kelly D.; Hindin, Shoshana; Petway, Kevin T.; Kennison, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Training interventions for older adults are designed to remediate performance on trained tasks and to generalize, or transfer, to untrained tasks. Evidence for transfer is typically based on the trained group showing greater improvement than controls on untrained tasks, or on a correlation between gains in training and in transfer tasks. However, this ignores potential correlational relationships between trained and untrained tasks that exist before training. By accounting for crossed (trained and untrained) and lagged (pre-training and post-training) and cross-lagged relationships between trained and untrained scores in structural equation models, the training-transfer gain relationship can be independently estimated. Transfer is confirmed if only the trained but not control participants' gain correlation is significant. Modeling data from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) study (Smith et al., 2009), transfer from speeded auditory discrimination and syllable span to list and text memory and to working memory was demonstrated in 487 adults aged 65–93. Evaluation of age, sex, and education on pretest scores and on change did not alter this. The overlap of the training with transfer measures was also investigated to evaluate the hypothesis that performance gains in a non-verbal speeded auditory discrimination task may be associated with gains on fewer tasks than gains in a verbal working memory task. Gains in speeded processing were associated with gains on one list memory measure. Syllable span gains were associated with improvement in difficult list recall, story recall, and working memory factor scores. Findings confirmed that more overlap with task demands was associated with gains to more of the tasks assessed, suggesting that transfer effects are related to task overlap in multimodal training. PMID:25165440

  17. Does Combined Dry Land Strength and Aerobic Training Inhibit Performance of Young Competitive Swimmers?

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A.; Reis, Victor M.; van den Tillaar, Roland; Costa, Aldo M.; Silva, António J.; Marques, Mário C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was twofold: (i) to examine the effects of eight weeks of combined dry land strength and aerobic swimming training for increasing upper and lower body strength, power and swimming performance in young competitive swimmers and, (ii) to assess the effects of a detraining period (strength training cessation) on strength and swimming performance. The participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (eight boys and four girls) and a control group (six boys and five girls). Apart from normal practice sessions (six training units per week of 1 h and 30 min per day), the experimental group underwent eight weeks (two sessions per week) of strength training. The principal strength exercises were the bench press, the leg extension, and two power exercises such as countermovement jump and medicine ball throwing. Immediately following this strength training program, all the swimmers undertook a 6 week detraining period, maintaining the normal swimming program, without any strength training. Swimming (25 m and 50 m performances, and hydrodynamic drag values), and strength (bench press and leg extension) and power (throwing medicine ball and countermovement jump) performances were tested in three moments: (i) before the experimental period, (ii) after eight weeks of combined strength and swimming training, and (iii) after the six weeks of detraining period. Both experimental and control groups were evaluated. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved. Key points This study investigated the effect of dry land strength training on sprint performance in young competitive swimmers. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved. PMID:24149700

  18. Performance Appraisal for Matrix Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. R.; Sproull, J. Ruth

    1985-01-01

    A matrix management system designed for use by a highly technical nuclear weapons research and development facility to improve productivity and flexibility by the use of multiple authority, responsibility, and accountability relationships is described. (MSE)

  19. Infrared sensor training with the target identification sensor performance (TISP) operations trainer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynor, Edwin S.; Puccetti, Perry; Isser, Abraham

    1995-09-01

    We describe a new pilot tactical training aid recently delivered to selected U.S. Marine Corps helicopter squadrons. The trainer is directed at improving targeting performance on missions supported by cockpit display of FLIR imagery. Particular features of the target identification sensor performance (TISP) trainer reported here include infrared phenomenology training, ground target identification drill, sensor controls operation training, symbology familiarization and performance prediction. Training is accomplished using real infrared imagery modified to reflect varying environmental conditions. Trainees can select the tactical scene and any of nearly 200 environmental combinations. Performance prediction graphs are then presented along with the modified images, thereby illustrating the imagery at the predicted ranges. The infrared phenomenology training further demonstrates the environmental impacts.

  20. Validating machine vision MRT performance against trained observer performance for linear shift invariant sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, Stephen D.; Doe, Joshua M.; Teaney, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    Researchers at the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate have added the functionality of Machine Vision MRT (MV-MRT) to the NVLabCap software package. While the original calculations of MV-MRT were compared to human observers performance using digital imagery in a previous effort,1 the technical approach was not tested on 8-bit imagery using a variety of sensors in a variety of gain and level settings. Now that it is more simple to determine the MV-MRT for a sensor in multiple gain settings, it is prudent to compare the results of MV-MRT in multiple gain settings to the performance of human observers for thermal imaging systems that are linear and shift invariant. Here, a comparison of the results for a LWIR system to trained human observers is presented.

  1. Training distress and performance readiness: laboratory and field validation of a brief self-report measure.

    PubMed

    Grove, J R; Main, L C; Partridge, K; Bishop, D J; Russell, S; Shepherdson, A; Ferguson, L

    2014-12-01

    Three studies were conducted to validate the Training Distress Scale (TDS), a 19-item measure of training-related distress and performance readiness. Study 1 was a randomized, controlled laboratory experiment in which a treatment group undertook daily interval training until a 25% decrement occurred in time-to-fatigue performance. Comparisons with a control group showed that TDS scores increased over time within the treatment group but not in the control group. Study 2 was a randomized, controlled field investigation in which performance capabilities and TDS responses were compared across a high-intensity interval training group and a control group that continued normal training. Running performance decreased significantly in the training group but not in the control group, and scores on the TDS mirrored those changes in performance capabilities. Study 3 examined the relationship between TDS scores obtained over a 2-week period before major swimming competitions and subsequent performance in those competitions. Significantly, better performance was observed for swimmers with low TDS scores compared with those with moderate or high TDS scores. These findings provide both laboratory and field evidence for the validity of the TDS as a measure of short-term training distress and performance readiness. PMID:24646366

  2. 38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... random sampling or performance related basis. During the probationary period a high percentage of reviews..., they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to...

  3. 38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... random sampling or performance related basis. During the probationary period a high percentage of reviews..., they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to...

  4. 38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... random sampling or performance related basis. During the probationary period a high percentage of reviews..., they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to...

  5. 38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... random sampling or performance related basis. During the probationary period a high percentage of reviews..., they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to...

  6. 38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... random sampling or performance related basis. During the probationary period a high percentage of reviews..., they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to...

  7. Sustained effect of simulation-based ultrasound training on clinical performance: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Tolsgaard, M G; Ringsted, C; Dreisler, E; Nørgaard, L N; Petersen, J H; Madsen, M E; Freiesleben, N L C; Sørensen, J L; Tabor, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of initial simulation-based transvaginal sonography (TVS) training compared with clinical training only, on the clinical performance of residents in obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn), assessed 2 months into their residency. Methods In a randomized study, new Ob-Gyn residents (n = 33) with no prior ultrasound experience were recruited from three teaching hospitals. Participants were allocated to either simulation-based training followed by clinical training (intervention group; n = 18) or clinical training only (control group; n = 15). The simulation-based training was performed using a virtual-reality TVS simulator until an expert performance level was attained, and was followed by training on a pelvic mannequin. After 2 months of clinical training, one TVS examination was recorded for assessment of each resident's clinical performance (n = 26). Two ultrasound experts blinded to group allocation rated the scans using the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS) scale. Results During the 2 months of clinical training, participants in the intervention and control groups completed an average ± SD of 58 ± 41 and 63 ± 47 scans, respectively (P = 0.67). In the subsequent clinical performance test, the intervention group achieved higher OSAUS scores than did the control group (mean score, 59.1% vs 37.6%, respectively; P < 0.001). A greater proportion of the intervention group passed a pre-established pass/fail level than did controls (85.7% vs 8.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusion Simulation-based ultrasound training leads to substantial improvement in clinical performance that is sustained after 2 months of clinical training. © 2015 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. PMID:25580809

  8. Self-attitude awareness training: An aid to effective performance in microgravity and virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald E.; Harm, D. L.; Florer, Faith L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing development of training procedures to enhance self-attitude awareness in astronaut trainees. The procedures are based on observations regarding self-attitude (perceived self-orientation and self-motion) reported by astronauts. Self-attitude awareness training is implemented on a personal computer system and consists of lesson stacks programmed using Hypertalk with Macromind Director movie imports. Training evaluation will be accomplished by an active search task using the virtual Spacelab environment produced by the Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME-PAT) as well as by assessment of astronauts' performance and sense of well-being during orbital flight. The general purpose of self-attitude awareness training is to use as efficiently as possible the limited DOME-PAT training time available to astronauts prior to a space mission. We suggest that similar training procedures may enhance the performance of virtual environment operators.

  9. [Performance enhancement through training at medium altitude-- from the perspective of sports medicine].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, P

    2000-01-01

    In the last 20 years, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of athletes in different sport disciplines has increased, and the world records in endurance sports have improved markedly. One of the factors that has influenced the increase in endurance performance has been perceived to be altitude training. In this paper we describe the advantages and disadvantages of a "regular" altitude training (live high/train high) aiming to improve sea level performance and compare it with a new method, the so called "live high/train low" method. This method uses the advantages and avoids the side effects of altitude exposure. Several papers have shown that altitude training is able to improve VO2max but the individual response may be substantially different. In most cases it is not possible to prove statistical significance and therefore we have no data about differences between both altitude training methods. However, it is suspected that the risk of overtraining is reduced in the high/low method. Although not statistically significant it is suggested that the "high/low" method can more efficiently improve endurance performance at sea level. A monitoring of submaximal variables of exercise performance is recommended to avoid overtraining and to control the development of performance. From the current knowledge the "live high/train low" method is suggested to be the more effective altitude training method for athletes. PMID:10960960

  10. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise. PMID:25713678

  11. Is velocity-specific strength training important in improving functional performance?

    PubMed

    Cronin, J B; McNair, P J; Marshall, R N

    2002-09-01

    A variable considered when designing programs to optimize athletic performance is training velocity. It has been suggested that training at a specific velocity improves strength mainly at that velocity and as velocity deviates from the trained velocity, the less effective training will be. However, the research describing velocity-specific adaptation and the transference of these adaptations to other movement velocities is by no means clear. Compounding the problem in this area is the failure of research to detail the relationship between training velocity and actual movement velocity of a given task or athletic pursuit. In most cases there is a great disparity between training velocity and actual movement velocity. Factors that may better develop and explain velocity-specific adaptation in relation to functional performance are discussed. Developing qualities such as strength, power and rate of force development would appear of greater importance than training at the actual movement velocity of a task. It may be that irrespective of load and limb velocity, the repeated intent to move an isoinertial load as rapidly as possible might be an important stimulus for functional high velocity adaptation. The ability of the nervous system to activate and coordinate agonist, synergist and antagonist activity would seem essential. It was suggested training techniques that simulate the velocity and acceleration profiles associated with the desired functional performance, such as throw or jump training, may optimize functional adaptation. Furthermore combination training that incorporates same session sport specific training with either a heavy load or a mixed training load approach might provide an optimal strategy for promoting intramuscular and intermuscular co-ordination and improving functional performance. PMID:12094114

  12. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  13. Gait Training Improves Performance in Healthy Adults Exposed to Novel Discordant Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Crystal D.; Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    After they return to Earth, astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances that disrupt their ability to walk. We have previously shown that training with a variety of sensorimotor adaptive challenges enhances the capability of adapting to novel sensorimotor conditions. We are currently developing a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of function after gravitational transitions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether trained subjects could transfer learned skills from one discordant visuo-proprioceptive environment to another. During three sessions, subjects walked at 2.5 km/h on a treadmill mounted on a motion base platform. Ten subjects trained with a combination of lateral treadmill translation and superimposed sinusoidal lateral optic flow that was presented on a large screen positioned in front of them. Ten controls completed the same training schedule while viewing only the forward optic flow with no visual or physical oscillation. Twenty minutes after the final training session, all subjects completed a 2-minute trial with a novel combination of visual and treadmill roll perturbations not previously experienced during the training (Transfer Test). Compared to the untrained group, participants who received SA training showed faster reaction times and, based on a composite score derived from stride frequency, heart rate, and reaction time, an overall enhanced performance. Our results showed that an SA training program can improve overall walking performance when subjects are exposed to novel incongruent sensory environments. This training has application for both enhancing adaptive responses in astronauts and reducing fall and injury risk in the elderly.

  14. Effect of run training and cold-water immersion on subsequent cycle training quality in high-performance triathletes.

    PubMed

    Rowsell, Greg J; Reaburn, Peter; Toone, Rebecca; Smith, Mitchell; Coutts, Aaron J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of cold-water immersion (CWI) on physiological, psychological, and biochemical markers of recovery and subsequent cycling performance after intensive run training. Seven high-performance male triathletes (age: 28.6 ± 7.1 years; cycling VO2peak: 73.4 ± 10.2 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) completed 2 trials in a randomized crossover design consisting of 7 × 5-minute running intervals at 105% of individual anaerobic threshold followed by either CWI (10 ± 0.5° C) or thermoneutral water immersion (TNI; 34 ± 0.5° C). Subjects immersed their legs in water 5 times for 60 seconds with 60-second passive rest between each immersion. Nine hours after immersion, inflammatory and muscle damage markers, and perceived recovery measures were obtained before the subjects completed a 5-minute maximal cycling test followed by a high-quality cycling interval training set (6 × 5-minute intervals). Power output, heart rate, blood lactate (La), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also recorded during the cycling time-trial and interval set. Performance was enhanced (change, ± 90% confidence limits) in the CWI condition during the cycling interval training set (power output [W · kg(-1)], 2.1 ± 1.7%, La [mmol · L(-1)], 18 ± 18.1%, La:RPE, 19.8 ± 17.5%). However, there was an unclear effect of CWI on 5-minute maximal cycling time-trial performance, and there was no significant influence on perceptual measures of fatigue/recovery, despite small to moderate effects. The effect of CWI on the biochemical markers was mostly unclear, however, there was a substantial effect for interleukin-10 (20 ± 13.4%). These results suggest that compared with TNI, CWI may be effective for enhancing cycling interval training performance after intensive interval-running training. PMID:24626137

  15. Development of a Human Behavior and Performance Training Curriculum for ISS Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderArk, Steve; Tomi, Leena; Vassin, Alexander; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Bessone, Lorendana; OConnor, Sharon; Mukai, Chiaki; Coffee, Emily; Sipes, Walter; Salnitskiy, Vyecheslav; Ren, Victor; Spychalski, Annette

    2007-01-01

    The paper will describe the DACUM process and summarize the core competencies that were agreed upon, internationally, as important for ISS astronauts. The paper will further discuss the ongoing work being completed by the subgroup, Human Behaviour and Performance Training Working Group, including defining the competencies and behavioural markers. Finally, an overview of remaining work will be provided, including determining which competencies require formal training and which require no formal training, developing training objectives, sequencing the training, and establishing how to assess training effectiveness. DISCUSSION: Designing a common set of goals for behavioural training has been the desire of the SHBP WG since its inception in 1998. This group, along with training specialists and astronauts, are making great strides toward defining these competencies. The road ahead will be exceedingly challenging as training objectives are defined and a training flow is proposed to the MCOP; with proposed ISS crews increasing to six people in the near future, such enhanced behavioural training may be all the more essential for mission success.

  16. Clinical simulation training improves the clinical performance of Chinese medical students

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-ya; Cheng, Xin; Xu, An-ding; Luo, Liang-ping; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    Background Modern medical education promotes medical students’ clinical operating capacity rather than the mastery of theoretical knowledge. To accomplish this objective, clinical skill training using various simulations was introduced into medical education to cultivate creativity and develop the practical ability of students. However, quantitative analysis of the efficiency of clinical skill training with simulations is lacking. Methods In the present study, we compared the mean scores of medical students (Jinan University) who graduated in 2013 and 2014 on 16 stations between traditional training (control) and simulative training groups. In addition, in a clinical skill competition, the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) scores of participating medical students trained using traditional and simulative training were compared. The data were statistically analyzed and qualitatively described. Results The results revealed that simulative training could significantly enhance the graduate score of medical students compared with the control. The OSCE scores of participating medical students in the clinical skill competition, trained using simulations, were dramatically higher than those of students trained through traditional methods, and we also observed that the OSCE marks were significantly increased for the same participant after simulative training for the clinical skill competition. Conclusions Taken together, these data indicate that clinical skill training with a variety of simulations could substantially promote the clinical performance of medical students and optimize the resources used for medical education, although a precise analysis of each specialization is needed in the future. PMID:26478142

  17. Flight Crew Training: Multi-Crew Pilot License Training versus Traditional Training and Its Relationship with Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the International Civil Aviation Organization promulgated requirements for a Multi-Crew Pilot License for First Officers, in which the candidate attends approximately two years of ground school and trains as part of a two-person crew in a simulator of a Boeing 737 or an Airbus 320 airliner. In the traditional method, a candidate qualifies…

  18. The Effect of Simulation Training on the Performance of Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    In December, 2005, the Air Force Auditing Agency conducted an interview of 282 nurses and physicians stationed in Iraq. The majority of the nurses from the interview reported they were not prepared to care for critically injured soldiers. This study investigated whether a new training technology, using scenario-based simulations, could improve…

  19. Maintenance Training and Performance: A Computer-Based Management Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobko, Douglas J.; Hayes, John F.

    1983-01-01

    The Army Research Institute developed and made operational a computer-based maintenance performance management information system that monitors technical activities of maintenance personnel. The implications of data from eight months of system operation for training programs, training material development, estimating manning requirements,…

  20. Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Jose A., Jr.; Greer, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical…

  1. Does On-the-Job Training Improve an Employee's Job Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Juanita

    A study examined the link between on-the-job training (OJT) and job performance in a randomly selected sample of 50 skilled maintenance craftpersons employed by the city of Chicago. The sample was identified from the training sheets signed by 160 employees who participated in OJT in a 1-month period. The majority of the employees agreed with…

  2. Training, Innovation and Business Performance: An Analysis of the Business Longitudinal Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, A. Michael

    This paper uses the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Business Longitudinal Survey to explore relationships between training, innovation, and firm performance for Australian businesses with less than 200 employees. The longitudinal nature of the data is used to test various hypotheses about the nature of the link between training, business changes,…

  3. Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

  4. Can 2- and 3-Year-Old Children Be Trained to Perform Visual Perception Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Children aged 2 and 3 years were exposed to a novel paradigm designed to train visual perception skills. The results indicate that children of this age could be trained to perform both percept deprivation and percept diagnosis tasks. Results are discussed with reference to engagement, a precursor to an adult-like understanding of perception.

  5. Can Young Preschool Children Be Trained to Perform Percept Deprivation Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Young preschool children aged 2 and 3 years were exposed to a novel paradigm designed to train visual perception skills. The results indicate that children of this age can be trained to perform a percept deprivation task that requires a sophisticated understanding of attention not normally mastered until 3.5-4 years. Results are discussed with…

  6. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices D Appendix D to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60,...

  7. Should Athletic Training Educators Utilize Grades When Evaluating Student Clinical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriber, Kent; Gray, Courtney; Millspaugh, Rose

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore and address some of the challenges for assessing, interpreting, and grading athletic training students' clinical performance and to suggest athletic training educators consider using a more universal assessment method for professional consistency. Background: In years past students learned from teachers or mentors on an…

  8. Evaluating the Impact of Electronic Training on Organizational Performance in an SME Food Manufacturing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Many small to medium sized manufacturing organizations do not have adequate resources to conduct formalized workplace training or properly evaluate its results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of electronic training on workplace behavior and small business organizational performance in the manufacturing environment using…

  9. Training Transfer: A Suggested Course of Action for Local Authorities to Leverage Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Maximization of training influence on individual performance through changes in employee knowledge, skills, and abilities is a paramount concern of organizations. However, training without implementation in a work setting cannot achieve its goals. In this article, the author maps the primary factors that influence transfer of what is learned in…

  10. Effects of Medicine Ball Training on Fitness Performance of High-School Physical Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Mediate, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of medicine ball training on the fitness performance of high-school physical education students. Sixty-nine high-school students participated in a 6-week medicine training program during the first 10 to 15 minutes of each physical education class. A group of 49 students who participated in…

  11. Measures of Reaction to Threat of Physical Harm as Predictors of Performance in Military Aviation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Wiley R.

    Data from subjective reports, objective performance measures, and physiological studies indicate that flight training per se places a great deal of stress on the trainee. In military flight training additional stresses are involved that may markedly increase the importance of reaction to threat of physical harm. This paper reports efforts to…

  12. Self or Group? Effects of Training on Self-Efficacy and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earley, P. Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and empirical relationship of training and individualism-collectivism to self-efficacy and performance in studies of managers from Hong Kong, China, and the United States. Uses a laboratory experiment and a six-month field experiment to test hypotheses predicting self-focused training as more effective for individualists…

  13. Does Training Influence Organisational Performance?: Analysis of the Spanish Hotel Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubeda-Garcia, Mercedes; Marco-Lajara, Bartolome; Sabater-Sempere, Vicente; Garcia-Lillo, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify which variables of training policy have a significant and positive impact on organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: A targeted literature review was conducted to identify and collate a comprehensive range of human resource management and training conceptualisations/investigations. This…

  14. Effects of Combined Resistance Training and Plyometrics on Physical Performance in Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Franco-Márquez, F; Rodríguez-Rosell, D; González-Suárez, J M; Pareja-Blanco, F; Mora-Custodio, R; Yañez-García, J M; González-Badillo, J J

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of combined resistance training and plyometrics on physical performance in under-15 soccer players. One team (n=20) followed a 6-week resistance training program combined with plyometrics plus a soccer training program (STG), whereas another team (n=18) followed only the soccer training (CG). Strength training consisted of full squats with low load (45-60% 1RM) and low-volume (2-3 sets and 4-8 repetitions per set) combined with jumps and sprints twice a week. Sprint time in 10 and 20?m (T10, T20, T10-20), CMJ height, estimated one-repetition maximum (1RMest), average velocity attained against all loads common to pre- and post-tests (AV) and velocity developed against different absolute loads (MPV20, 30, 40 and 50) in full squat were selected as testing variables to evaluate the effects of the training program. STG experienced greater gains (P<0.05) in T20, CMJ, 1RMest, AV and MPV20, 30, 40 and 50 than CG. In addition, STG showed likely greater effects in T10 and T10-20 compared to CG. These results indicate that only 6 weeks of resistance training combined with plyometrics in addition to soccer training produce greater gains in physical performance than typical soccer training alone in young soccer players. PMID:26180903

  15. Effects of Intermittent Training on Anaerobic Performance and MCT Transporters in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Grégoire; Bentley, David J.; Roels, Belle; Mc Naughton, Lars R.; Mercier, Jacques; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT) expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n?=?8; 150 mmHg PIO2) or hypoxic (H; n?=?10; ?3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2) over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30.week?1) period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT) was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT). Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO) increased (p<0.05) after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively), but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively). No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective. PMID:24797797

  16. Performance-based comparison of neonatal intubation training outcomes: simulator and live animal.

    PubMed

    Andreatta, Pamela B; Klotz, Jessica J; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne L; Hauptman, Joe G; Biddinger, Bea; House, Joseph B

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to establish psychometric validity evidence for competency assessment instruments and to evaluate the impact of 2 forms of training on the abilities of clinicians to perform neonatal intubation. To inform the development of assessment instruments, we conducted comprehensive task analyses including each performance domain associated with neonatal intubation. Expert review confirmed content validity. Construct validity was established using the instruments to differentiate between the intubation performance abilities of practitioners (N = 294) with variable experience (novice through expert). Training outcomes were evaluated using a quasi-experimental design to evaluate performance differences between 294 subjects randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups. The training intervention followed American Heart Association Pediatric Advanced Life Support and Neonatal Resuscitation Program protocols with hands-on practice using either (1) live feline or (2) simulated feline models. Performance assessment data were captured before and directly following the training. All data were analyzed using analysis of variance with repeated measures and statistical significance set at P < .05. Content validity, reliability, and consistency evidence were established for each assessment instrument. Construct validity for each assessment instrument was supported by significantly higher scores for subjects with greater levels of experience, as compared with those with less experience (P = .000). Overall, subjects performed significantly better in each assessment domain, following the training intervention (P = .000). After controlling for experience level, there were no significant differences among the cognitive, performance, and self-efficacy outcomes between clinicians trained with live animal model or simulator model. Analysis of retention scores showed that simulator trained subjects had significantly higher performance scores after 18 weeks (P = .01) and 52 weeks (P = .001) and cognitive scores after 52 weeks (P = .001). The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of using valid, reliable assessment instruments to assess clinician competency and self-efficacy in the performance of neonatal intubation. We demonstrated the relative equivalency of live animal and simulation-based models as tools to support acquisition of neonatal intubation skills. Retention of performance abilities was greater for subjects trained using the simulator, likely because it afforded greater opportunity for repeated practice. Outcomes in each assessment area were influenced by the previous intubation experience of participants. This suggests that neonatal intubation training programs could be tailored to the level of provider experience to make efficient use of time and educational resources. Future research focusing on the uses of assessment in the applied clinical environment, as well as identification of optimal training cycles for performance retention, is merited. PMID:25626982

  17. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  18. Use of Peers to Train and Monitor the Performance of Adolescents with Severe Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.

    1985-01-01

    Two peer trainers, one moderately and one severely mentally retarded, each taught three severely disabled peers to perform separate steps of a complex assembly line task. Peer trainers were taught to demonstrate correct performance and to praise or correct trainees' performance contingently. Trainers were successful in training and monitoring the…

  19. Performance-Based Thinking and Training for Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Joel

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five job behavior functions viewed as necessary for practicing performance-based thinking in instructional development activities. Functions examined include the abilities to plan to perform a job, execute a task, monitor or control execution, troubleshoot, and evaluate. (MER)

  20. The effect of ''living high-training low'' on physical performance in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, S.; Sakai, A.

    In this research, we hypothesized that, in rats, adaptation to high altitude (2500 m) plus training at low altitude (610 m), ''living high-training low'', improves physical performance at low altitude more than living and training at low altitude (610 m). Rats were divided into four groups: (1) living at low altitude (LL, n=12), (2) living and training at low altitude (LLTL, n=13), (3) living at high altitude (LH, n=12), (4) living at high altitude and training at low altitude (LHTL, n=13). The program for living at high altitude involved raising rats under hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 2500 m), and the training program consisted of running on a tread-mill at low altitude. All groups were raised at each altitude and trained to run at 35 m/min for 40 min/day, 6 days/week for 6 weeks. During this program, we measured heart rates both at rest and during exercise, and performed running-time trials. The mean heart rate during exercise was lower in groups with training than in groups without training, and the groups receiving training could run longer than the untrained groups. The LHTL group especially showed the lowest mean heart rate during exercise and the longest running time among all groups. After 6 weeks of the training program, all rats had a catheter implanted into the carotid artery, and the mean systemic arterial pressure was continuously measured during treadmill running. The rate of increase of this pressure as the running intensity increased was lower in groups with training than in groups without training, especially in the LHTL group. Finally, we anesthetized all the rats and extracted both the right and left ventricles, and the triceps surae and liver. Training increased the weight of the left ventricle, triceps surae, and liver. The increase in weight of the left ventricle and triceps surae was higher in the LHTL group than in the LLTL group in particular. It appeared that living high- training low may be an effective strategy to improve performance ability at low altitude.

  1. Education and Training Report. Performance Report, FY 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    During FY 97, 152 MUREP education and training projects were conducted at OMU institutions. The institutions conducted precollege and bridge programs, education partnerships with other universities and industry, NRTS, teacher training, and graduate and/or PI undergraduate programs. These programs reached a total of 23,748 participants, with the predominant number at the precollege level and achieved major goals of heightening students' interest and awareness of career opportunities in MSET fields, and exposing students to the NASA mission, research and advanced technology through role models, mentors, and participation in research and other educational activities. Also in FY 1997, NASA continued a very meaningful relationship with the Hispanic Association of Colleges students and Universities (HACU) through Proyecto Access, a consortium through which HACU links seven HSI's together to conduct 8-week summer programs. OMU Institutions reported 4,334 high school student in NASA programs and 3,404 of those students selected college preparatory MSET courses. Three hundred and forty-nine (349) graduated from high school, 343 enrolled in college, and 199 selected MSET majors. There were 130 high school graduates (bridge students) in NASA programs, 57 of whom successfully completed their freshman year. There were 307 teachers in teacher programs and 48 teachers received certificates. Of the 389 undergraduate students, 75 received under graduate degrees, and eight students are employed in a NASA-related field.

  2. Effect of high-intensity resistance training on performance of competitive distance runners.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Ryan J; Paton, Carl D; Hopkins, William G

    2006-03-01

    In a recent study competitive road cyclists experienced substantial gains in sprint and endurance performance when sessions of high-intensity interval training were added to their usual training in the competitive phase of a season. The current study reports the effect of this type of training on performance of 20 distance runners randomized to an experimental or control group for 5 to 7 weeks of training. The experimental group replaced part of their usual competitive-phase training with 10 x ?30-minute sessions consisting of 3 sets of explosive single-leg jumps (20 for each leg) alternating with 3 sets of resisted treadmill sprints (5 x ?30-second efforts alternating with 30-second recovery). Before and after the training period all runners completed an incremental treadmill test for assessment of lactate threshold and maximum running speed, 2 treadmill runs to exhaustion for prediction of 800- and 1500-m times, and a 5-km outdoor time trial. Relative to the control group, the mean changes (+/-90% confidence limits) in the experimental group were: maximum running speed, 1.8% (+/- 1.1%); lactate-threshold speed, 3.5% (+/-3.4%); predicted 800-m speed, 3.6% (+/- 1.8%); predicted 1500-m speed, 3.7% (+/- 3.0%); and 5-km time-trial speed, 1.2% (+/- 1.1%). We conclude that high-intensity resistance training in the competitive phase is likely to produce beneficial gains in performance for most distance runners. PMID:19114736

  3. Block-Periodized Training Improves Physiological and Tactically Relevant Performance in Naval Special Warfare Operators.

    PubMed

    Abt, John P; Oliver, Jonathan M; Nagai, Takashi; Sell, Timothy C; Lovalekar, Mita T; Beals, Kim; Wood, Dallas E; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Abt, JP, Oliver, JM, Nagai, T, Sell, TC, Lovalekar, MT, Beals, K, Wood, DE, and Lephart, SM. Block-periodized training improves physiological and tactically relevant performance in Naval Special Warfare Operators. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 39-52, 2016-Human performance training and prevention strategies are necessary to promote physical readiness and mitigate musculoskeletal injuries of the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Operator. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of 2 training programs when performed during a training evolution of Operators. A total of 85 Operators (experimental: n = 46, age: 29.4 ± 5.5 years, height: 176.7 ± 6.4 cm, mass: 86.7 ± 11.6 kg; control: n = 39, age: 29.0 ± 6.0 years, height: 177.1 ± 6.3 cm, mass: 85.7 ± 12.5 kg) participated in a trial to measure the effectiveness of these programs to improve physical, physiological, and performance characteristics. Operators in the experimental group performed a 12-week block-periodized program, whereas those in the control group performed a nonlinear periodized program. Pretesting/posttesting was performed to assess body composition, aerobic capacity/lactate threshold, muscular strength, flexibility, landing biomechanics, postural stability, and tactically relevant performance. The experimental group demonstrated a significant loss in body fat, fat mass, and body mass compared with the control group, whereas aerobic capacity increased for the both groups. The experimental group demonstrated a significant increase in posterior shoulder flexibility and ankle dorsiflexion, whereas the control group had a significant reduction in shoulder, knee, and ankle flexibility. The experimental group also improved landing strategies and balance. Both groups improved upper and lower muscular power and upper-body muscular endurance, whereas only the experimental group demonstrated significant improvements in agility and total body muscular strength. Implementation of a population-specific training program provides structured and progressive training effectively and promotes physical readiness concurrently with tactical training without overload. PMID:26154155

  4. An Appraisal of Coupled Climate Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K; Gleckler, P; Covey, C; Taylor, K; Bader, D; Phillips, T; Fiorino, M; Achutarao, K

    2004-02-24

    In 2002, the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) proposed the concept for a state-of-the-science appraisal of climate models to be performed approximately every two years. Motivation for this idea arose from the perceived needs of the international modeling groups and the broader climate research community to document progress more frequently than provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Reports. A committee of external reviewers, which included senior researchers from four leading international modeling centers, supported the concept by stating in its review: ''The panel enthusiastically endorses the suggestion that PCMDI develop an independent appraisal of coupled model performance every 2-3 years. This would provide a useful 'mid-course' evaluation of modeling progress in the context of larger IPCC and national assessment activities, and should include both coupled and single-component model evaluations.''

  5. Training

    Cancer.gov

    NCI offers training at laboratories and clinics in Maryland and at universities and institutions nationwide. These cancer training and career development opportunities cover a broad spectrum of disciplines for individuals at career stages ranging from high school and graduate students to scientists, clinicians, and health care professionals.

  6. Research on the Countermeasures Based on TTPM Theory for the Improvement of the Basic Education Teachers Training Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huabai, Bu; Dengyu, Zhang; Xiuying, Shen; Hao, Tu

    2012-01-01

    Many elements of the basic education teachers' training performance are embedded in the training interaction and sharing, so the enhancement of the training performance needs a whole process management and control. Based on TTPM theory, this paper has put forward four measures that must be pay attention to during the management of the basic…

  7. A Performance Support Tool for Cisco Training Program Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Angela D.; Bothra, Jashoda; Sharma, Priya

    2004-01-01

    Performance support systems can play an important role in corporations by managing and allowing distribution of information more easily. These systems run the gamut from simple paper job aids to sophisticated computer- and web-based software applications that support the entire corporate supply chain. According to Gery (1991), a performance

  8. Training to improve manual control in 7-8 and 10-12 year old children: Training eliminates performance differences between ages.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2015-10-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7-8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7-8 and 10-12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7-8 year olds was worse than that of the 10-12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7-8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10-12 year olds. PMID:26241334

  9. Effectiveness of Behavioral Skills Training on Staff Performance in a Job Training Setting for High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on improving staff performance in naturalistic training settings for high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Behavioral skills training, consisting of group instruction and supervisory feedback, was used to improve staff performance on (a) providing positive reinforcement, (b) providing error…

  10. The influence of variable range of motion training on neuromuscular performance and control of external loads.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ross A; Humphries, Brendan; Hohmann, Erik; Bryant, Adam L

    2011-03-01

    Resistance training programs that emphasize high force production in different regions of the range of motion (ROM) may provide performance benefits. This study examined whether variable ROM (VROM) training, which consists of partial ROM training with countermovements performed in a different phase of the ROM for each set, results in improved functional performance. Twenty-two athletes (age 22.7 ± 2.4 years, height 1.81 ± 0.07 m, and body mass 94.6 ± 14.5 kg) with extensive resistance training backgrounds performed either a VROM or full ROM control (CON) 5-week, concentric work-matched training program. The participants were assigned to a group based on stratified randomization incorporating their strength levels and performance gains in preceding training microcycles. Testing consisted of assessing the force-ROM relationship during isokinetic and isometric bench press and ballistic bench throws, with normalized electromyography amplitude assessed during the isometric tests. Repeated-measure analyses of variance revealed that the VROM intervention significantly (p < 0.05) increased both full ROM bench throw displacement (+15.5%) and half ROM bench throw peak force (+15.7%), in addition to isokinetic peak force in the terminal ROM (13.5% increase). No significant differences were observed in the CON group or between groups for any other outcome measures. Analysis of the force-ROM relationship revealed that that the VROM intervention enhanced performance at shorter muscle lengths. These findings suggest that VROM training improves terminal and midrange performance gains, resulting in the athlete possessing an improved ability to control external loading and produce dynamic force. PMID:20581702

  11. The Efficiency of a Visual Skills Training Program on Visual Search Performance

    PubMed Central

    Krzepota, Justyna; Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedba?, Lidia; Markiewicz, Miko?aj; Florkiewicz, Beata; Lubi?ski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we conducted an experiment in which we analyzed the possibilities to develop visual skills by specifically targeted training of visual search. The aim of our study was to investigate whether, for how long and to what extent a training program for visual functions could improve visual search. The study involved 24 healthy students from the Szczecin University who were divided into two groups: experimental (12) and control (12). In addition to regular sports and recreational activities of the curriculum, the subjects of the experimental group also participated in 8-week long training with visual functions, 3 times a week for 45 min. The Signal Test of the Vienna Test System was performed four times: before entering the study, after first 4 weeks of the experiment, immediately after its completion and 4 weeks after the study terminated. The results of this experiment proved that an 8-week long perceptual training program significantly differentiated the plot of visual detecting time. For the visual detecting time changes, the first factor, Group, was significant as a main effect (F(1,22)=6.49, p<0.05) as well as the second factor, Training (F(3,66)=5.06, p<0.01). The interaction between the two factors (Group vs. Training) of perceptual training was F(3,66)=6.82 (p<0.001). Similarly, for the number of correct reactions, there was a main effect of a Group factor (F(1,22)=23.40, p<0.001), a main effect of a Training factor (F(3,66)=11.60, p<0.001) and a significant interaction between factors (Group vs. Training) (F(3,66)=10.33, p<0.001). Our study suggests that 8-week training of visual functions can improve visual search performance. PMID:26240666

  12. Appraisal of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, H A; Ballinger, J F; Anderson, W J

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the experience of three general surgeons performing 304 laparoscopic cholecystectomies in three private hospitals between October 1989 and November 1990. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy boasts two major advantages over the conventional procedure: the remarkable reduction in postoperative pain and economic benefit, largely due to the patient's early return to work. Revealing a complication rate of 2% and no deaths, this study has shown that this procedure can offer patients these advantages with a medical risk no greater than that accompanying conventional cholecystectomy. Patient safety must be paramount, and it is the responsibility of the surgical community to ensure that all surgeons receive the highest quality training and that the technique is applied appropriately. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1828140

  13. The Effect of Two Speed Endurance Training Regimes on Performance of Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Perri, Enrico; Alberti, Giampietro; Millet, Grégoire P.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players (age 18.5±1 yr, height 179.5±6.5 cm, body mass 74.3±6.5 kg) reduced the training volume by ~20% and replaced their habitual fitness conditioning work with either speed endurance production (SEP; n = 6) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM; n = 7) training, three times per wk. SEP training consisted of 6–8 reps of 20-s all-out running bouts followed by 2 min of passive recovery, whereas SEM training was characterized by 6–8 x 20-s all-out efforts interspersed with 40 s of passive recovery. SEP training reduced (p<0.01) the total time in a repeated sprint ability test (RSAt) by 2.5%. SEM training improved the 200-m sprint performance (from 26.59±0.70 to 26.02±0.62 s, p<0.01) and had a likely beneficial impact on the percentage decrement score of the RSA test (from 4.07±1.28 to 3.55±1.01%) but induced a very likely impairment in RSAt (from 83.81±2.37 to 84.65±2.27 s). The distance covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 was 10.1% (p<0.001) and 3.8% (p<0.05) higher after SEP and SEM training, respectively, with possibly greater improvements following SEP compared to SEM. No differences were observed in the 20- and 40-m sprint performances. In conclusion, these two training strategies target different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles’ ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in trained young soccer players. PMID:26394225

  14. Physical Training Strategies for Military Women's Performance Optimization in Combat-Centric Occupations.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    Nindl, BC. Physical training strategies for military women's performance optimization in combat-centric occupations. J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S101-S106, 2015-The physiological differences, particularly of upper-body strength and power, between women and men, and the rigors of combat-centric occupational demands would seem to place women at a significant disadvantage, as the U.S. military opens up previously closed combat-arms military occupational specialties (MOSs) to women. This inherent disadvantage can be significantly mitigated by implementing effective and comprehensive physical training (PT) regimens for women targeting those fitness components most critical for those tasks considered most essential for solider warfighting duties (i.e., strength and power). Regrettably, the military historical and legacy overemphasis on aerobic fitness and on "field expediency" as the major criteria for implementing training have limited the extent to which the military has fully operationalized state-of-the-science PT policies. This continued legacy approach could be problematic regarding fully enhancing women's abilities to perform physically demanding combat-centric occupations and could place the successful integration of women into ground combat MOSs at significant risk. Seminal studies from the literature indicate that (a) a minimum of 6 months of periodized combined resistance/endurance training preparedness is recommended for untrained women considering entering combat-arms MOS training; (b) any comprehensive PT program should incorporate and emphasize progressive load carriage training; (c) a greater emphasis on upper body on strength/power development in military women is needed; (d) heavy resistance training in the range of 3-8 repetition maximum sets should be incorporated into training programs to target type II motor units and muscle fibers (those fibers that produce the most force and have the greatest capacity to hypertrophy); (e) low-volume, high-intensity interval training should be considered as a time-efficient training method to improve aerobic fitness while protecting against lower-body musculoskeletal injuries; (f) flexible nonlinear periodized programs should be considered to best accommodate the unpredictability and operational functional needs of the military training environment; and (g) serious consideration should be given to revamping the manner in which the military conducts physical readiness training, with a departure from "field expediency" as the major criteria for determining PT policies. With an increased emphasis on the human dimension of soldiering and concerted strategic, operational, and tactical efforts to maximize individual physical readiness and performance, the science of training physiology exists to leverage and better physically prepare women as they enter more combat-centric occupations. PMID:26506171

  15. Learning Unplugged: Using Mobile Technologies for Organizational Training and Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayeski, Diane

    This book, which is written by a training consultant, is intended to help organizations determine whether specific readily available mobile technologies make sense for their particular learning and performance needs. Chapter 1 discusses the mobile revolution in learning and performance, with special attention to the new work and learning…

  16. The Reliability of In-Training Assessment when Performance Improvement Is Taken into Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lohuizen, Mirjam T.; Kuks, Jan B. M.; van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Raat, A. N.; Stewart, Roy E.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2010-01-01

    During in-training assessment students are frequently assessed over a longer period of time and therefore it can be expected that their performance will improve. We studied whether there really is a measurable performance improvement when students are assessed over an extended period of time and how this improvement affects the reliability of the…

  17. Effects of Training and Feedback on Discrete Trial Teaching Skills and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Andrew; Downs, Robyn Conley; Rau, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of training and feedback on instructor performance of Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) and support skills. This included an examination of the generalization and maintenance of instructor skills, and the impact of instructor skills on student performance. Six undergraduate research assistants received an 8-hour…

  18. The Use of Simulation to Improve the Effectiveness of Training in Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachman-Moore, Dalia; Kenett, Ron S.

    2006-01-01

    Performance management is an important managerial tool that directs employees' goals and behavior toward the organization's strategic goals. This article focuses on simulation-based training in performance management systems. The simulation developed at the School of Business Administration of the College of Management in Israel is based on a…

  19. Broadening Perspectives on Clinical Performance Assessment: Rethinking the Nature of In-Training Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govaerts, Marjan J. B.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schuwirth, Lambert W. T.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: In-training assessment (ITA), defined as multiple assessments of performance in the setting of day-to-day practice, is an invaluable tool in assessment programmes which aim to assess professional competence in a comprehensive and valid way. Research on clinical performance ratings, however, consistently shows weaknesses concerning…

  20. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2?h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  1. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  2. Can a glass cockpit display help (or hinder) performance of novices in simulated flight training?

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen; O'Hare, David

    2015-03-01

    The analog dials in traditional GA aircraft cockpits are being replaced by integrated electronic displays, commonly referred to as glass cockpits. Pilots may be trained on glass cockpit aircraft or encounter them after training on traditional displays. The effects of glass cockpit displays on initial performance and potential transfer effects between cockpit display configurations have yet to be adequately investigated. Flight-naïve participants were trained on either a simulated traditional display cockpit or a simulated glass display cockpit. Flight performance was measured in a test flight using either the same or different cockpit display. Loss of control events and accuracy in controlling altitude, airspeed and heading, workload, and situational awareness were assessed. Preferences for cockpit display configurations and opinions on ease of use were also measured. The results revealed consistently poorer performance on the test flight for participants using the glass cockpit compared to the traditional cockpit. In contrast the post-flight questionnaire data revealed a strong subjective preference for the glass cockpit over the traditional cockpit displays. There was only a weak effect of prior training. The specific glass cockpit display used in this study was subjectively appealing but yielded poorer flight performance in participants with no previous flight experience than a traditional display. Performance data can contradict opinion data. The design of glass cockpit displays may present some difficulties for pilots in the very early stages of training. PMID:25480000

  3. Blood flow restricted and traditional resistance training performed to fatigue produce equal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Farup, J; de Paoli, F; Bjerg, K; Riis, S; Ringgard, S; Vissing, K

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the hypertrophic potential of load-matched blood-flow restricted resistance training (BFR) vs free-flow traditional resistance training (low-load TRT) performed to fatigue. Ten healthy young subjects performed unilateral BFR and contralateral low-load TRT elbow flexor dumbbell curl with 40% of one repetition maximum until volitional concentric failure 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Prior to and at 3 (post-3) and 10 (post-10) days post-training, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to estimate elbow flexor muscle volume and muscle water content accumulation through training. Acute changes in muscle thickness following an early vs a late exercise bout were measured with ultrasound to determine muscle swelling during the immediate 0-48?h post-exercise. Total work was threefold lower for BFR compared with low-load TRT (P?Training increased muscle thickness during the immediate 48?h post-exercise (P?training phase. In conclusion, BFR and low-load TRT, when performed to fatigue, produce equal muscle hypertrophy, which may partly rely on transient exercise-induced increases in muscle water content. PMID:25603897

  4. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  5. 7 CFR 1955.128 - Appraisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...successor agency under Public Law 103-354 MFH appraiser...successor agency under Public Law 103-354 real estate contract...National or State appraisal society. (2) If the contractor...National or State appraisal society. (3) The appraiser...

  6. Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

  7. Training Americans: Ideology, Performance, and Social Studies Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Drew

    2010-01-01

    Through an analysis of activities called for in social studies texts at three grade levels, the author critically examines the links between children's improvisational performance and social studies curricula. He asks: What is unique about the process of embodying a historical or contemporary character as part of the learning process (such as a…

  8. Effects of training pre-movement sensorimotor rhythms on behavioral performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Sarnacki, William A.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Brain–computer interface (BCI) technology might contribute to rehabilitation of motor function. This speculation is based on the premise that modifying the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity will modify behavior, a proposition for which there is limited empirical data. The present study asked whether learned modulation of pre-movement sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity can affect motor performance in normal human subjects. Approach. Eight individuals first performed a joystick-based cursor-movement task with variable warning periods. Targets appeared randomly on a video monitor and subjects moved the cursor to the target and pressed a select button within 2 s. SMR features in the pre-movement EEG that correlated with performance speed and accuracy were identified. The subjects then learned to increase or decrease these features to control a two-target BCI task. Following successful BCI training, they were asked to increase or decrease SMR amplitude in order to initiate the joystick task. Main results. After BCI training, pre-movement SMR amplitude was correlated with performance in subjects with initial poor performance: lower amplitude was associated with faster and more accurate movement. The beneficial effect on performance of lower SMR amplitude was greater in subjects with lower initial performance levels. Significance. These results indicate that BCI-based SMR training can affect a standard motor behavior. They provide a rationale for studies that integrate such training into rehabilitation protocols and examine its capacity to enhance restoration of useful motor function.

  9. High-Performance Vision Training Improves Batting Statistics for University of Cincinnati Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Joseph F.; Ellis, James K.; Bench, Johnny; Khoury, Jane; Graman, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Baseball requires an incredible amount of visual acuity and eye-hand coordination, especially for the batters. The learning objective of this work is to observe that traditional vision training as part of injury prevention or conditioning can be added to a team's training schedule to improve some performance parameters such as batting and hitting. Methods All players for the 2010 to 2011 season underwent normal preseason physicals and baseline testing that is standard for the University of Cincinnati Athletics Department. Standard vision training exercises were implemented 6 weeks before the start of the season. Results are reported as compared to the 2009 to 2010 season. Pre season conditioning was followed by a maintenance program during the season of vision training. Results The University of Cincinnati team batting average increased from 0.251 in 2010 to 0.285 in 2011 and the slugging percentage increased by 0.033. The rest of the Big East's slugging percentage fell over that same time frame 0.082. This produces a difference of 0.115 with 95% confidence interval (0.024, 0.206). As with the batting average, the change for University of Cincinnati is significantly different from the rest of the Big East (p?=?0.02). Essentially all batting parameters improved by 10% or more. Similar differences were seen when restricting the analysis to games within the Big East conference. Conclusion Vision training can combine traditional and technological methodologies to train the athletes' eyes and improve batting. Vision training as part of conditioning or injury prevention can be applied and may improve batting performance in college baseball players. High performance vision training can be instituted in the pre-season and maintained throughout the season to improve batting parameters. PMID:22276103

  10. Effect of 10 Week Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Competition and Training Performance in Elite Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Weiliang; Shaw, Greg; Anderson, Megan E.; Pyne, David B.; Saunders, Philo U.; Bishop, David J.; Burke, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD) were supplemented with either beta-alanine (4 weeks loading phase of 4.8 g/day and 3.2 g/day thereafter) or placebo for 10 weeks. Competition performance times were log-transformed, then evaluated before (National Championships) and after (international or national selection meet) supplementation. Swimmers also completed three standardized training sets at baseline, 4 and 10 weeks of supplementation. Capillary blood was analyzed for pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentration in both competition and training. There was an unclear effect (0.4%; ±0.8%, mean, ±90% confidence limits) of beta-alanine on competition performance compared to placebo with no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. While there was a transient improvement on training performance after 4 weeks with beta-alanine (?1.3%; ±1.0%), there was an unclear effect at ten weeks (?0.2%; ±1.5%) and no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. Beta-alanine supplementation appears to have minimal effect on swimming performance in non-laboratory controlled real-world training and competition settings. PMID:23201763

  11. Effects of strength training and reduced training on functional performance and metabolic health indicators in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sallinen, J; Fogelholm, M; Volek, J S; Kraemer, W J; Alen, M; Häkkinen, K

    2007-10-01

    Changes in muscular fitness and metabolic health indicators were examined in 22 men (57.9 +/- 6.6 years, BMI 24.5 +/- 2.6 kg/m (2)) and 21 control men (58.2 +/- 6.1 years, BMI 25.4 +/- 2.8 kg/m (2)) during two consecutive 21-week periods: 1) whole body progressive strength training (ST: twice a week), and 2) continued reduced training (CRT: 3 ST sessions/2 weeks, n = 17 + 17). After the 21-week ST period, maximal strength of leg extensors increased in the ST group by 19.6 +/- 7.6 % vs. 2.8 +/- 4.4 % (p < 0.001) and also 10-m walking time and 10-step stair-climbing time shortened by - 17.2 +/- 7.6 % vs. 4.1 +/- 3.9 % (p < 0.01) and by - 8.2 +/- 6.8 % vs. - 3.0 +/- 6.8 % (p < 0.05) compared to the controls. Systolic blood pressure (BP) decreased in the ST group by - 4.4 +/- 6.7 % vs. 1.3 +/- 9.5 % (p < 0.05) compared to the controls after the ST period. Muscle strength as well as walking and stair-climbing times remained the same during the CRT. However, the changes in diastolic BP (- 8.9 +/- 8.7 % vs. - 1.0 +/- 6.6 %, p < 0.05) and fasting blood glucose concentrations (0.1 +/- 0.4 mmol/L vs. 0.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/L, p < 0.05) differed between the ST and control groups after the whole 42-week study period. Strength training has positive health effects in aging men by increasing maximal strength and functional performance and by decreasing resting blood pressure and high-intensity reduced strength training can maintain these health benefits. PMID:17455121

  12. Improving Arithmetic Performance with Number Sense Training: An Investigation of Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonkoo; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A nonverbal primitive number sense allows approximate estimation and mental manipulations on numerical quantities without the use of numerical symbols. In a recent randomized controlled intervention study in adults, we demonstrated that repeated training on a non-symbolic approximate arithmetic task resulted in improved exact symbolic arithmetic performance, suggesting a causal relationship between the primitive number sense and arithmetic competence. Here, we investigate the potential mechanisms underlying this causal relationship. We constructed multiple training conditions designed to isolate distinct cognitive components of the approximate arithmetic task. We then assessed the effectiveness of these training conditions in improving exact symbolic arithmetic in adults. We found that training on approximate arithmetic, but not on numerical comparison, numerical matching, or visuo-spatial short-term memory, improves symbolic arithmetic performance. In addition, a second experiment revealed that our approximate arithmetic task does not require verbal encoding of number, ruling out an alternative explanation that participants use exact symbolic strategies during approximate arithmetic training. Based on these results, we propose that nonverbal numerical quantity manipulation is one key factor that drives the link between the primitive number sense and symbolic arithmetic competence. Future work should explore implications from this finding that training young children on approximate arithmetic tasks even before they solidify the symbolic number understanding may be fruitful for improving readiness for math education. PMID:25044247

  13. Virtual Reality Exposure Training for Musicians: Its Effect on Performance Anxiety and Quality.

    PubMed

    Bissonnette, Josiane; Dubé, Francis; Provencher, Martin D; Moreno Sala, Maria T

    2015-09-01

    Music performance anxiety affects numerous musicians, with many of them reporting impairment of performance due to this problem. This exploratory study investigated the effects of virtual reality exposure training on students with music performance anxiety. Seventeen music students were randomly assigned to a control group (n=8) or a virtual training group (n=9). Participants were asked to play a musical piece by memory in two separate recitals within a 3-week interval. Anxiety was then measured with the Personal Report of Confidence as a Performer Scale and the S-Anxiety scale from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y). Between pre- and post-tests, the virtual training group took part in virtual reality exposure training consisting of six 1-hour long sessions of virtual exposure. The results indicate a significant decrease in performance anxiety for musicians in the treatment group for those with a high level of state anxiety, for those with a high level of trait anxiety, for women, and for musicians with high immersive tendencies. Finally, between the pre- and post-tests, we observed a significant increase in performance quality for the experimental group, but not for the control group. PMID:26395619

  14. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ?7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance. PMID:24206175

  15. Peer-assisted learning to train high-school students to perform basic life-support

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyung Soo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Oh, Je Hyeok

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inclusion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in formal education has been a useful approach to providing basic life support (BLS) services. However, because not all students have been able to learn directly from certified instructors, we studied the educational efficacy of the use of peer-assisted learning (PAL) to train high-school students to perform BLS services. METHODS: This study consisted of 187 high-school students: 68 participants served as a control group and received a 1-hour BLS training from a school nurse, and 119 were included in a PAL group and received a 1-hour CPR training from a PAL leader. Participants’ BLS training was preceded by the completion of questionnaires regarding their background. Three months after the training, the participants were asked to respond to questionnaires about their willingness to perform CPR on bystander CPR and their retention of knowledge of BLS. RESULTS: We found no statistically significant difference between the control and PAL groups in their willingness to perform CPR on bystanders (control: 55.2%, PAL: 64.7%, P=0.202). The PAL group was not significantly different from the control group (control: 60.78±39.77, PAL: 61.76±17.80, P=0.848) in retention of knowledge about BLS services. CONCLUSION: In educating high school students about BLS, there was no significant difference between PAL and traditional education in increasing the willingness to provide CPR to bystanders or the ability to retain knowledge about BLS. PMID:26401178

  16. The Use of Level Three Evaluation Data To Assess the Impact of Technology Training on Work Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okurowski, Mary Ellen; Clark, Ruth

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of information technology training focuses on an evaluative study at the Department of Defense that investigated whether new information technology training could improve job performance. Highlights include determining training effectiveness; job transfer evaluation; return on investment; use of software features; and the impact of…

  17. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners.

    PubMed

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided into either a control group (CON; n?=?28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n?=?132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup of runners (n?=?18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38?s) and lowered systolic BP (2?±?1?mmHg). For hypertensive subjects in 10-20-30 (n?=?30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5?±?4 and 3?±?2?mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n?=?102). 10-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily implemented training intervention improving endurance performance, VO2max and lowering BP in recreational runners, but does not affect muscle morphology and reduces muscle VEGF. PMID:25439558

  18. Effects of isometric squat training on the tendon stiffness and jump performance.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keitaro; Yata, Hideaki; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2006-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of isometric squat training on human tendon stiffness and jump performances. Eight subjects completed 12 weeks (4 days/week) of isometric squat training, which consisted of bilateral leg extension at 70% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 15 s per set (10 sets/day). Before and after training, the elongations of the tendon-aponeurosis complex in the vastus lateralis muscle and patella tendon were directly measured using ultrasonography while the subjects performed ramp isometric knee extension up to MVC. The relationship between the estimated muscle force and tendon elongation was fitted to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as stiffness. In addition, performances in two kinds of maximal vertical jumps, i.e. squatting (SJ) and counter-movement jumps (CMJ), were measured. The training significantly increased the volume (P < 0.01) and MVC torque (P < 0.01) of the quadriceps femoris muscle. The stiffness of the tendon-aponeurosis complex increased significantly from 51 +/- 22 (mean +/- SD) to 59 +/- 24 N/mm (P = 0.04), although that of the patella tendon did not change (P = 0.48). The SJ height increased significantly after training (P = 0.03), although the CMJ height did not (P = 0.45). In addition, the relative difference in jump height between SJ and CMJ decreased significantly after training (P = 0.02). These results suggest that isometric squat training changes the stiffness of human tendon-aponeurosis complex in knee extensors to act negatively on the effects of pre-stretch during stretch-shortening cycle exercises. PMID:16328192

  19. Enhancing visuospatial performance through video game training to increase learning in visuospatial science domains.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Christopher A

    2012-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated that performance on visuospatial assessments can be enhanced through relevant experience, an unaddressed question is whether such experience also produces a similar increase in target domains (such as science learning) where visuospatial abilities are directly relevant for performance. In the present study, participants completed either spatial or nonspatial training via interaction with video games and were then asked to read and learn about the geologic topic of plate tectonics. Results replicate the benefit of playing appropriate video games in enhancing visuospatial performance and demonstrate that this facilitation also manifests itself in learning science topics that are visuospatial in nature. This novel result suggests that visuospatial training not only can impact performance on measures of spatial functioning, but also can affect performance in content areas in which these abilities are utilized. PMID:22037919

  20. Using after-action review based on automated performance assessment to enhance training effectiveness.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Gieseler, Charles J.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris

    2010-09-01

    Training simulators have become increasingly popular tools for instructing humans on performance in complex environments. However, the question of how to provide individualized and scenario-specific assessment and feedback to students remains largely an open question. In this work, we follow-up on previous evaluations of the Automated Expert Modeling and Automated Student Evaluation (AEMASE) system, which automatically assesses student performance based on observed examples of good and bad performance in a given domain. The current study provides a rigorous empirical evaluation of the enhanced training effectiveness achievable with this technology. In particular, we found that students given feedback via the AEMASE-based debrief tool performed significantly better than students given only instructor feedback on two out of three domain-specific performance metrics.

  1. Key Performance Measures for Vocational Education & Training. A Supporting Paper to Australia's National Strategy for Vocational Education and Training 1998-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    This paper has been written as a supporting paper to "A Bridge to the Future: Australia's National Strategy for Vocational Education and Training 1998-2003" (ED 420 764). Because vocational education and training (VET) activities constitute a major expenditure for Australia's federal, state, and territory governments, effective performance

  2. Equity Performance Measures for Women in VET. Report to the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs Vocational Education, Employment and Training, Women's Taskforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Kaye; Dryen, Robyn

    A study proposed measures of equity for women for incorporation into major national processes for performance measurement. Data sources were as follows: interviews with 77 people from all state and territory vocational education and training (VET) systems, Australian National Training Authority, National Center for Vocational Education Research,…

  3. Acute Effects of Loaded Whole Body Vibration Training on Performance

    PubMed Central

    Pojskic, Haris; Pagaduan, Jeffrey; Uzicanin, Edin; Babajic, Fuad; Muratovic, Melika; Tomljanovic, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background: The application of whole body vibration (WBV) as a warm-up scheme has been receiving an increasing interest among practitioners. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of loaded and unloaded WBV on countermovement jump, speed and agility. Patients and Methods: Twenty-one healthy male college football players (age: 20.14 ± 1.65 years; body height: 179.9 ± 8.34 cm; body mass: 74.4 ± 13.0 kg; % body fat: 9.45 ± 4.8) underwent randomized controlled trials that involved standing in a half squat position (ST), ST with 30% of bodyweight (ST + 30%), whole body vibration at f = 50 Hz, A = 4 mm (WBV), and WBV with 30% bodyweight (WBV + 30% BW) after a standardized warm-up. Post measures of countermovement jump, 15-m sprint, and modified t-test were utilized for analyses. Results: One way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the countermovement jump performance, F (3, 60 = 9.06, ?2 = 2.21, P = 0.000. Post-hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW posted significant difference compared to (P = 0.008), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). There was also a significant difference in the sprint times among interventions, F (3, 60) = 23.0, ?2 = 0.865, P = 0.000. Post hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW displayed significantly lower time values than ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). Lastly, there was a significant difference in the agility performance across experimental conditions at F(2.01, 40.1) = 21.0, ?2 = 0.954, P = 0.000. Post hoc demonstrated that WBV have lower times than ST (P = 0.013). Also, WBV + 30% BW posted lower times compared to ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.003). Conclusions: Additional external load of 30% bodyweight under WBV posted superior gains in countermovement jump, speed and agility compared to unloaded WBV, loaded non-WBV and unloaded non-WBV interventions. PMID:25883774

  4. Instructor Training on British Railways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, J. D.

    1970-01-01

    The value of instructor training was recognized by British Railways as early as 1950 with the setting up of a training center at Darlington. This article shows the results of this continuous training experience in the benefits to be obtained from re-appraisal techniques and practical work. (Author/EB)

  5. USING COGNITIVE MODELING TO STUDY BEHAVIOR MODERATORS: PRE-TASK APPRAISAL AND ANXIETY

    E-print Network

    Ritter, Frank

    USING COGNITIVE MODELING TO STUDY BEHAVIOR MODERATORS: PRE-TASK APPRAISAL AND ANXIETY Frank E be studied through a combination of cognitive modeling experimental psychology, and physiological psychology created to include the effects of cognitive appraisal and math anxiety on task performance

  6. Training of Healthcare Personnel to Improve Performance of Community-Based Antenatal Care Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohnishi, Mayumi; Nakamura, Keiko; Takano, Takehito

    2007-01-01

    Background: The present study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a training course designed to improve the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of healthcare personnel to allow them to provide a comprehensive community-based antenatal care (ANC) program in rural Paraguay. Methods: Sixty-eight of 110 healthcare personnel in the Caazapa…

  7. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Verbal Working Memory Training Performance over Time

    E-print Network

    Chein, Jason

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Verbal Working Memory Training Performance over., Anatal, A., Feredoes, E., et al. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex en the inconsistent findings produced by these studies. Trans- cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been

  8. The Effect of Instrument-Specific Rater Training on Interrater Reliability and Counseling Skills Performance Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Paul Douglas, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of instrument-specific rater training on interrater reliability (IRR) and counseling skills performance differentiation. Strong IRR is of primary concern to effective program evaluation (McCullough, Kuhn, Andrews, Valen, Hatch, & Osimo, 2003; Schanche, Nielsen, McCullough, Valen, &…

  9. Counterfactual Thinking and Anticipated Emotions Enhance Performance in Computer Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Amy Y. C.; Caputi, Peter; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Browne, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between novice learners' counterfactual thinking (i.e. generating "what if" and "if only" thoughts) about their initial training experience with a computer application and subsequent improvement in task performance. The role of anticipated emotions towards goal attainment in task…

  10. Assessment of Leadership Training of Head Teachers and Secondary School Performance in Mubende District, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Kayiwa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between leadership training of head teachers and school performance in secondary schools in Mubende district, Uganda. Descriptive-correlational research design was used. Six schools out of 32 were selected and the sample size of head teachers, teachers and students leaders was 287 out of…

  11. Computer-Assisted Performance Evaluation for Navy Anti-Air Warfare Training: Concepts, Methods, and Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, David J.

    An improved general methodological approach for the development of computer-assisted evaluation of trainee performance in the computer-based simulation environment is formulated in this report. The report focuses on the Tactical Advanced Combat Direction and Electronic Warfare system (TACDEW) at the Fleet Anti-Air Warfare Training Center at San…

  12. Training and Performance Improvement Professionals' Perspectives on Ethical Challenges during Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyung, Seung Youn; Winiecki, Donald J.; Downing, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    Ethical concerns are rising in the business world. With this in mind, training and performance improvement practitioners, especially during evaluation projects, should be aware of principles and codes of ethics, and their behaviors and decisions should reflect the standards recognized by members of the professional society. A study was conducted…

  13. Physical performance and training response during Ramadan observance, with particular reference to protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2012-06-01

    This review examines information on the effects of Ramadan observance upon the metabolism, training and performance of athletes, with particular reference to proteins and amino acids. Increased gluconeogenesis and/or a reduced intake of protein could lead to a decrease of lean tissue, with adverse effects on muscular performance, and the lack of immediate protein ingestion could compromise responses to strength training. Actual responses vary quite widely, depending on culture and the individual's level and type of athletic involvement. In elite competitors, there is typically an increased fractional ingestion of protein with a small reduction in overall energy intake, and this may lead to small reductions of body and lean tissue mass. There are often small decreases of performance, particularly in activities requiring vigorous and/or repetitive muscular contraction. More information is needed on responses in situations where protein intake is likely to be inadequate (adolescent growth, those maintaining vegetarian diets or from poor countries and disciplines with very high overall energy needs) and when vigorous muscle training is in progress. However, in most of the situations studied to date, Ramadan observance has had only limited adverse consequences for either training or competitive performance. PMID:22554842

  14. Goal-Setting as a Determinant of Performance During Military Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, D. Neil; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examines factors influencing goals set prior to recruit training, the relationship between such goals and subsequent performance, and factors influencing the goals set after entering the Marine Corps. Findings suggest that attrition will decline if individuals receive a more realistic account of recruit expectations. Five references are listed.…

  15. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  16. Training in Mental Rotation and Spatial Visualization and Its Impact on Orthographic Drawing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsudin, Khairulanuar; Rafi, Ahmad; Hanif, Abd Samad

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from an experimental study based on the pretest posttest research design that studied mental rotation (MR) and spatial visualization (SV) training outcomes and their impact on orthographic drawing performance. The sample of the study comprised 98 secondary school students (36 girls, 62 boys, Mage = 15.5 years, age…

  17. Relationship between Past Academic Performance and Results of Specialty In-Training Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronai, Ann K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Records of 63 medical school graduates were examined for predictors of achievement on in-training examinations in anesthesia and orthopedic surgery. The previous academic records were found to contain little to predict examination results, and the correlation between college nonscience subjects and exam performance was negative. (Author/MSE)

  18. Influences of Training and Strategical Information Processing Style on Spatial Performance in Apparel Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitimu, Priscilla N.; Workman, Jane E.; Anderson, Marcia A.

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated how performance on a spatial task in apparel design was influenced by training and strategical information processing style. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate apparel design students from six universities in the U.S. Instruments used to collect data were the Apparel Spatial Visualization Test (ASVT) and the…

  19. Performing Analyses for Waterborne Bacteria. Module 13. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on performing analyses for waterborne bacteria. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming, sterilizing and…

  20. The Effect of Alternative Training Methods on the Trouble-Shooting Performances of Maintenance Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorgmayer, Helmut; Swanson, Richard A.

    Results of a study to determine the effects of conceptual versus specific (traditional) training techniques on the trouble-shooting performance of maintenance technicians are presented. The research subjects were students at Bowling Green State University and citizens in Northwest Ohio with no post high school technical coursework. Those that…

  1. Anthropometric and training variables related to half-marathon running performance in recreational female runners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running has been investigated in distances ranging from 100 m to the marathon distance (42.195 km), with the exclusion of the half-marathon distance (21.0975 km). We investigated the association between anthropometric variables, prerace experience, and training variables with race time in 42 recreational, nonprofessional, female half-marathon runners using bi- and multivariate analysis. Body weight (r, 0.60); body mass index (r, 0.48); body fat percentage (r, 0.56); pectoral (r, 0.61), mid-axilla (r, 0.69), triceps (r, 0.49), subscapular (r, 0.61), abdominal (r, 0.59), suprailiac (r, 0.55), and medial calf (r, 0.53) skin-fold thickness; mean speed of the training sessions (r, -0.68); and personal best time in a half-marathon (r, 0.69) correlated with race time after bivariate analysis. Body weight (P = 0.0054), pectoral skin-fold thickness (P = 0.0068), and mean speed of the training sessions (P = 0.0041) remained significant after multivariate analysis. Mean running speed during training was related to mid-axilla (r, -0.31), subscapular (r, -0.38), abdominal (r, -0.44), and suprailiac (r, -0.41) skin-fold thickness, the sum of 8 skin-fold thicknesses (r, -0.36); and percent body fat (r, -0.31). It was determined that variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half-marathon race time, and that skin-fold thicknesses were associated with running speed during training. For practical applications, high running speed during training (as opposed to extensive training) may both reduce upper-body skin-fold thicknesses and improve race performance in recreational female half-marathon runners. PMID:21673497

  2. Preliminary results from the evaluation of cockpit resource management training: performance ratings of flightcrews.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, R L; Wilhelm, J A; Gregorich, S E; Chidester, T R

    1990-06-01

    The first data from the NASA/University of Texas Crew Performance project on the behavior of flightcrews with and without formal training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is reported. Expert observers made detailed ratings of 15 components of crew behavior in both line operations and in full mission simulations. The results indicate that such training in crew coordination concepts increases the percentage of crews rated as above average in performance and decreases the percentage rated as below average. The data also show high and unexpected degrees of variations in rated performance among crews flying different aircraft within the same organization. It was also found that the specific behaviors that triggered observer ratings of above or below average performance differed markedly between organizations. Characteristics of experts' ratings and future research needs are also discussed. PMID:2369400

  3. Preliminary results from the evaluation of Cockpit Resource Management training - Performance ratings of flightcrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Chidester, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    The first data from the NASA/University of Texas Crew Performance project on the behavior of flightcrews with and without formal training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is reported. Expert observers made detailed ratings of 15 components of crew behavior in both line operations and in full mission simulations. The results indicate that such training in crew coordination concepts increases the percentage of crews rated as above average in performance and decreases the percentage rated as below average. The data also show high and unexpected degrees of variations in rated performance among crews flying different aircraft within the same organization. It was also found that the specific behaviors that triggered observer ratings of above or below average performance differed markedly between organizations. Characteristics of experts' ratings and future research needs are also discussed.

  4. Training set optimization and classifier performance in a top-down diabetic retinopathy screening system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigdahl, J.; Agurto, C.; Murray, V.; Barriga, S.; Soliz, P.

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects more than 4.4 million Americans age 40 and over. Automatic screening for DR has shown to be an efficient and cost-effective way to lower the burden on the healthcare system, by triaging diabetic patients and ensuring timely care for those presenting with DR. Several supervised algorithms have been developed to detect pathologies related to DR, but little work has been done in determining the size of the training set that optimizes an algorithm's performance. In this paper we analyze the effect of the training sample size on the performance of a top-down DR screening algorithm for different types of statistical classifiers. Results are based on partial least squares (PLS), support vector machines (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (kNN), and Naïve Bayes classifiers. Our dataset consisted of digital retinal images collected from a total of 745 cases (595 controls, 150 with DR). We varied the number of normal controls in the training set, while keeping the number of DR samples constant, and repeated the procedure 10 times using randomized training sets to avoid bias. Results show increasing performance in terms of area under the ROC curve (AUC) when the number of DR subjects in the training set increased, with similar trends for each of the classifiers. Of these, PLS and k-NN had the highest average AUC. Lower standard deviation and a flattening of the AUC curve gives evidence that there is a limit to the learning ability of the classifiers and an optimal number of cases to train on.

  5. Effect of Combined Sensorimotor-Resistance Training on Strength, Balance, and Jumping Performance of Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Manolopoulos, Konstantinos; Gissis, Ioannis; Galazoulas, Christos; Manolopoulos, Evaggelos; Patikas, Dimitrios; Gollhofer, Albert; Kotzamanidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Manolopoulos, K, Gissis, I, Galazoulas, C, Manolopoulos, E, Patikas, D, Gollhofer, A, and Kotzamanidis, C. Effect of combined sensorimotor-resistance training on strength, balance, and jumping performance of soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 53-59, 2016-The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of resistance training (RT) and sensorimotor training combined with RT (SM-RT) on balance, 1 repetition maximum (RM), rate of force development (RFD), and squat jump (SJ) height. Twenty amateur soccer players were equally divided into 2 groups assigned as SM-RT group (age: 22 ± 1.7 years, body mass: 79.9 ± 6.3 kg, body height: 1.81 ± 0.06 m) and RT group (age: 21.3 ± 1.3 years, body mass: 77.4 ± 9.3 kg, body height: 1.78 ± 0.04 m). Both groups were trained over a 6-week period with 2 session units per week. SM-RT group performed sensorimotor training (balance on balance board) followed by a high-intensity RT at 8-5RM leg press. The RT group performed the resistance program only. Both groups showed significantly increased 1RM leg press strength, RFD, SJ height, and balance abilities (p ? 0.05), whereas no significant between-group differences were observed in any of the outcome variables (p > 0.05). It was concluded that SM-RT was not superior compared with RT for both balance and strength enhancement. These findings have implications in time management during training for soccer players. PMID:25992657

  6. Visual perception training on social skills and activity performance in low-vision children.

    PubMed

    Atasavun Uysal, Songül; Düger, Tülin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different visual perception training programmes on the social skills and activity performance of low-vision children. Forty children (aged 7-14 years) were randomly assigned into two groups with regard to the visual perception training performed: Group 1: aided paper and pen, and Group 2: with computer. The participants were evaluated before and after treatment using the Motor-Free Visual Perception Tests, Social Skills Assessment Tool for Children with Visual Impairments, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measurement. The training programmes were performed in the school for three months (two days/week and 45 minutes/day). In both groups, results of the social skills questionnaire showed significant differences before and after treatment (p < 0.01). Likewise, the results of the activity performance test indicated significant differences between the performance and total activity scores (p < 0.01). Both treatment programmes failed to show a significant relationship in respect of the increase in visual perception (p > 0.05). Based on these results, neither of the programmes tested appears to be superior to the other in low-vision children. PMID:21696247

  7. Influence of Strength, Sprint Running, and Combined Strength and Sprint Running Training on Short Sprint Performance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, M C; Gabbett, T J; Marinho, D A; Blazevich, A J; Sousa, A; van den Tillaar, R; Izquierdo, M

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of transference of 6 weeks of full squat vs. full squat plus sprint running training to short (ranged from 0-10 to 0-30?m) sprint running performance in non-athletes. We hypothesized that a speed-full-squat training regimen could enhance squat strength and power with simultaneous improvements in short sprint performance. 122 physically active adults (age: 20.5±2.5?years; body mass: 65.8±6.1?kg; height: 1.71±0.08?m) were randomly divided into 4 groups: full squat training (n=36), combined full squat and sprint training (n=32), speed training only (n=34) and non-training control group (n=20). Each training group completed 2 sessions per week over 6 weeks, while the control group performed only their normal physical activity. Sprint performance was improved after sprint running or full squat training alone (1.7% and 1.8% P<0.05, respectively), however larger enhancements (2.3%; P<0.01) were observed after the combined full squat plus sprint training intervention. These results suggest that in recreationally active adults, combined full squat and sprint training provides a greater stimulus for improving sprint performance than either modality alone. PMID:25958946

  8. Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.

    PubMed

    Tong, Eddie M W

    2015-01-01

    This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries. PMID:24911866

  9. Association Between Force-Time Curve Characteristics and Vertical Jump Performance in Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Marques, Mário C; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M; Ferraz, Ricardo; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2015-07-01

    Countermovement jump (CMJ) has been extensively used in training; yet, limited and contradictory kinematic data are available for trained subjects. To our best knowledge, no other studies have evaluated the associations between force-time curve characteristics and CMJ in a large sample of trained athletes using a linear transducer. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the association between force-time measures and CMJ performance collected with a linear transducer. Thirty-five trained athletes were asked to perform 3 maximal weighted CMJ using a linear transducer attached to a barbell (17 kg). The data indicated that the maximal rate of force development (RFD(max)) was strongly related to CMJ displacement (r = 0.809/0.807, p < 0.001) and also to the percentage of peak force (r = -0.823/-0.809, p < 0.001) at RFD(max). Velocity and displacement at RFD(max) were not correlated to CMJ height. It was therefore concluded that the percentage of PF applied at RFD(max) and RFD(max) were the best predictive variables for CMJ performance in this study. PMID:26098568

  10. The effect of a novel tactical training program on physical fitness and occupational performance in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Ross; Clasey, Jody L; Palmer, Thomas; Symons, Thorburn B; Abel, Mark G

    2015-03-01

    Structural firefighting is a dangerous and physically demanding profession. Thus, it is critical that firefighters exercise regularly to maintain optimal physical fitness levels. However, little is known about optimal training methods for firefighters, and exercise equipment is often not available to on-duty firefighters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a novel supervised on-duty physical training program on the physical fitness and occupational performance of structural firefighters. Twenty professional male firefighters were divided into a supervised exercise group (SEG; n = 11) and a control group (CG; n = 9). The SEG participated in a 12-week circuit training intervention. The SEG exercised for 1 hour on 2 d·wk. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects performed a battery of physical fitness tests and a simulated fire ground test (SFGT). At baseline, there were no significant differences (p = 0.822) in the completion rate of the SFGT in the SEG (82%) vs. the CG (78%). After the intervention, a significantly greater proportion of the firefighters in the SEG completed the SFGT compared with the CG (SEG = 100% vs. CG = 56%; p < 0.013). In addition, the SEG demonstrated significant improvements in body mass, fat mass, and body mass index (p ? 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that training with firefighter equipment improved occupational performance and anthropometric outcomes in incumbent firefighters. Furthermore, implementing a supervised exercise program using firefighter equipment can be done so in a safe and feasible manner. PMID:25162645

  11. High-intensity interval training has positive effects on performance in ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Naimo, M A; de Souza, E O; Wilson, J M; Carpenter, A L; Gilchrist, P; Lowery, R P; Averbuch, B; White, T M; Joy, J

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the well-known benefits that have been shown, few studies have looked at the practical applications of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of a HIIT program compared to traditional continuous endurance exercise training. 24 hockey players were randomly assigned to either a continuous or high-intensity interval group during a 4-week training program. The interval group (IG) was involved in a periodized HIIT program. The continuous group (CG) performed moderate intensity cycling for 45-60?min at an intensity that was 65% of their calculated heart rate reserve. Body composition, muscle thickness, anaerobic power, and on-ice measures were assessed pre- and post-training. Muscle thickness was significantly greater in IG (p=0.01) when compared to CG. The IG had greater values for both ? peak power (p<0.003) and ? mean power (p<0.02). Additionally, IG demonstrated a faster ? sprint (p<0.02) and a trend (p=0.08) for faster ? endurance test time to completion for IG. These results indicate that hockey players may utilize short-term HIIT to elicit positive effects in muscle thickness, power and on-ice performance. PMID:25329432

  12. Teaching high-performance skills using above-real-time training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

    1993-01-01

    The above real-time training (ARTT) concept is an approach to teaching high-performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. It represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. Two related experiments are discussed. In the first, 25 naive male subjects performed three tank gunnery tasks on a simulator under varying levels of time acceleration (i.e., 1.0x, 1.6x, 2.0x, sequential, and mixed). They were then transferred to a standard (1.0x) condition for testing. Every accelerated condition or combination of conditions produced better training and transfer than the standard condition. Most effective was the presentation of trials at 1.0x, 1.6x, and 2.0x in a random order during training. Overall, the best ARTT group scored about 50 percent higher and trained in 25 percent less time compared to the real-time control group. In the second experiment, 24 mission-capable F-16 pilots performed three tasks on a part-task F-16A flight simulator under varying levels of time compression (i.e., 1.0x, 1.5x, 2.0x, and random). All subjects were then tested in a real-time environment. The emergency procedure (EP) task results showed increased accuracy for the ARTT groups. In testing (transfer), the ARTT groups not only performed the EP more accurately, but dealt with a simultaneous enemy significantly better than a real-time control group. Although the findings on an air combat maneuvering task and stern conversion task were mixed, most measures indicated that the ARTT groups performed better and faster than a real-time control group. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

  13. A Gold Standards Approach to Training Instructors to Evaluate Crew Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David P.; Dismukes, R. Key

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Qualification Program requires that airlines evaluate crew performance in Line Oriented Simulation. For this evaluation to be meaningful, instructors must observe relevant crew behaviors and evaluate those behaviors consistently and accurately against standards established by the airline. The airline industry has largely settled on an approach in which instructors evaluate crew performance on a series of event sets, using standardized grade sheets on which behaviors specific to event set are listed. Typically, new instructors are given a class in which they learn to use the grade sheets and practice evaluating crew performance observed on videotapes. These classes emphasize reliability, providing detailed instruction and practice in scoring so that all instructors within a given class will give similar scores to similar performance. This approach has value but also has important limitations; (1) ratings within one class of new instructors may differ from those of other classes; (2) ratings may not be driven primarily by the specific behaviors on which the company wanted the crews to be scored; and (3) ratings may not be calibrated to company standards for level of performance skill required. In this paper we provide a method to extend the existing method of training instructors to address these three limitations. We call this method the "gold standards" approach because it uses ratings from the company's most experienced instructors as the basis for training rater accuracy. This approach ties the training to the specific behaviors on which the experienced instructors based their ratings.

  14. The Development of Web-Based Collaborative Training Model for Enhancing Human Performances on ICT for Students in Banditpattanasilpa Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pumipuntu, Natawut; Kidrakarn, Pachoen; Chetakarn, Somchock

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to develop the model of Web-based Collaborative (WBC) Training model for enhancing human performances on ICT for students in Banditpattanasilpa Institute. The research is divided into three phases: 1) investigating students and teachers' training needs on ICT web-based contents and performance, 2) developing a web-based…

  15. Effects of selection and training on unit-level performance over time: a latent growth modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Ferris, Gerald R; Perrewé, Pamela L; Blass, Fred R; Heetderks, Thomas D; Perryman, Alexa A

    2009-07-01

    Surprisingly few data exist concerning whether and how utilization of job-related selection and training procedures affects different aspects of unit or organizational performance over time. The authors used longitudinal data from a large fast-food organization (N = 861 units) to examine how change in use of selection and training relates to change in unit performance. Latent growth modeling analyses revealed significant variation in both the use and the change in use of selection and training across units. Change in selection and training was related to change in 2 proximal unit outcomes: customer service performance and retention. Change in service performance, in turn, was related to change in the more distal outcome of unit financial performance (i.e., profits). Selection and training also affected financial performance, both directly and indirectly (e.g., through service performance). Finally, results of a cross-lagged panel analysis suggested the existence of a reciprocal causal relationship between the utilization of the human resources practices and unit performance. However, there was some evidence to suggest that selection and training may be associated with different causal sequences, such that use of the training procedure appeared to lead to unit performance, whereas unit performance appeared to lead to use of the selection procedure. PMID:19594228

  16. 10 or 30-s sprint interval training bouts enhance both aerobic and anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Tom J; Macpherson, Rebecca E K; Gravelle, Braden M R; Lemon, Peter W R

    2010-09-01

    We assessed whether 10-s sprint interval training (SIT) bouts with 2 or 4 min recovery periods can improve aerobic and anaerobic performance. Subjects (n = 48) were assigned to one of four groups [exercise time (s):recovery time (min)]: (1) 30:4, (2) 10:4, (3) 10:2 or (4) control (no training). Training was cycling 3 week(-1) for 2 weeks (starting with 4 bouts session(-1), increasing 1 bout every 2 sessions, 6 total). Pre- and post-training measures included: VO(2max), 5-km time trial (TT), and a 30-s Wingate test. All groups were similar pre-training and the control group did not change over time. The 10-s groups trained at a higher intensity demonstrated by greater (P < 0.05) reproducibility of peak (10:4 = 96%; 10:2 = 95% vs. 30:4 = 89%), average (10:4 = 84%; 10:2 = 82% vs. 30:4 = 58%), and minimum power (10:4 = 73%; 10:2 = 69%; vs. 30:4 = 40%) within each session while the 30:4 group performed ~2X (P < 0.05) the total work session(-1) (83-124 kJ, 4-6 bouts) versus 10:4 (38-58 kJ); 10:2 (39-59 kJ). Training increased TT performance (P < 0.05) in the 30:4 (5.2%), 10:4 (3.5%), and 10:2 (3.0%) groups. VO(2max) increased in the 30:4 (9.3%) and 10:4 (9.2%), but not the 10:2 group. Wingate peak power kg(-1) increased (P < 0.05) in the 30:4 (9.5%), 10:4 (8.5%), and 10:2 (4.2%). Average Wingate power kg(-1) increased (P < 0.05) in the 30:4 (12.1%) and 10:4 (6.5%) groups. These data indicate that 10-s (with either 2 or 4 min recovery) and 30-s SIT bouts are effective for increasing anaerobic and aerobic performance. PMID:20424855

  17. The Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource improves performance of practical skills: a controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background E-learning is a common and popular mode of educational delivery, but little is known about its effectiveness in teaching practical skills. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource in addition to usual teaching improved the performance of practical skills in physiotherapy students. Method This study was a non-randomised controlled trial. The participants were graduate entry physiotherapy students enrolled in consecutive semesters of a neurological physiotherapy unit of study. The experimental group received the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource as well as usual teaching. The Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource is an online resource incorporating (i) video-clips of patient-therapist simulations; (ii) supportive text describing the aim, rationale, equipment, key points, common errors and methods of progression; and (iii) a downloadable PDF document incorporating the online text information and a still image of the video-clip for each practical skill. The control group received usual teaching only. The primary outcomes were the overall performance of practical skills as well as their individual components, measured using a practical examination. Results The implementation of the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource resulted in an increase of 1.6 out of 25 (95% CI ?0.1 to 3.3) in the experimental group compared with the control group. In addition, the experimental group scored 0.5 points out of 4 (95% CI 0 to 1.1) higher than the control group for ‘effectiveness of the practical skill’ and 0.6 points out of 4 (95% CI 0.1 to 1.1) higher for ‘rationale for the practical skill’. Conclusion There was improvement in performance of practical skills in students who had access to the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource in addition to usual teaching. Students considered the resource to be very useful for learning. PMID:23176318

  18. DCC Briefing Paper: Appraisal and Selection 

    E-print Network

    Harvey, Ross

    2008-03-04

    Selection and appraisal are key to ensuring that scientific data and records are usable and re-usable over time. Appraisal (a term originating in archival science) is "the process of evaluating records to determine which ...

  19. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  20. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  1. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  2. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  3. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  4. Autogenic-feedback training improves pilot performance during emergency flying conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellar, Michael A.; Folen, Raymond A.; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Hisert, Glen L.

    1994-01-01

    Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group comprised three pilots of HC-130 Hercules aircraft and four HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group comprised three pilots of HC-130's and six Dolphin helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded for each crew member and individual crew performance was rated by an instructor pilot. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT). The remaining subjects received no training. During a second flight, treatment subjects showed significant improvement in performance, while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFT management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  5. Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise and pilot performance: enhanced functioning under search-and-rescue flying conditions.

    PubMed

    Cowings, P S; Kellar, M A; Folen, R A; Toscano, W B; Burge, J D

    2001-01-01

    Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group contained 4 pilots from HC-130 Hercules aircraft and 4 HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group contained 3 pilots of HC-130s and 6 helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded on each crewmember and an instructor pilot rated individual crew performance. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE). The remaining participants received no training. During a second flight, treatment participants showed significant improvement in performance (rated by the same instructor pilot as in pretests) while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFTE management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions. PMID:12033232

  6. Autogenic-feedback training improves pilot performance during emergency flying conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellar, Michael A.; Folen, Raymond A.; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Hisert, Glen L.

    1993-01-01

    Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. The effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance was examined. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group comprised four pilots of HC-130 Hercules aircraft and four HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group comprised three pilots of HC-130's and six Dolphin helicopter pilots. During an initial flight physiological data were recorded for each crewmember and individual crew performance and rated by an instructor pilot. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT). The remaining subjects received no training. During a second flight, treatment subjects showed significant improvement in performance, while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFT management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  7. Reductions in Sprint Paddling Ability and Countermovement Jump Performance After Surfing Training.

    PubMed

    Secomb, Josh L; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether any meaningful change in a surfer's sprint paddling ability and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance developed after a 2-hour surfing training session and also whether any physical demands of the surfing session were related to the resultant changes in the capacities. Fifteen competitive male surfing athletes (age, 22.1 ± 3.9 years; height, 175.4 ± 6.4 cm; body mass, 72.5 ± 7.7 kg) performed a 2-hour surfing training session, with 15-m sprint paddle and CMJ trials performed both before and after the surfing session. Pre- to posttesting measures were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences. Likely declines were observed in the velocity achieved at the 5-, 10-, and 15-m splits of the 15-m sprint paddle, as well as peak velocity. Similarly, likely declines were calculated for CMJ peak force, relative peak force, and jump height. Furthermore, large correlations were calculated between presurfing session peak velocity and the change in 5, 10, 15 m, and peak velocity of the 15-m sprint paddle and total distance covered, wave riding bouts, and success rate. Surfing athletes and coaches may need to consider implementing shorter duration training sessions to reduce the decline in sprint paddling ability and CMJ performance. Furthermore, surfing athletes should possess highly developed sprint paddling ability because this may allow them to undertake a greater workload and catch more waves, which will increase the opportunity for technical refinement of maneuvers and skill acquisition. PMID:25559904

  8. Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise and pilot performance: enhanced functioning under search-and-rescue flying conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Kellar, M. A.; Folen, R. A.; Toscano, W. B.; Burge, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group contained 4 pilots from HC-130 Hercules aircraft and 4 HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group contained 3 pilots of HC-130s and 6 helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded on each crewmember and an instructor pilot rated individual crew performance. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE). The remaining participants received no training. During a second flight, treatment participants showed significant improvement in performance (rated by the same instructor pilot as in pretests) while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFTE management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  9. Acute Effect of Dynamic Stretching on Endurance Running Performance in Well-Trained Male Runners.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Taichi; Takizawa, Kazuki; Shibata, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    Yamaguchi, T, Takizawa, K, and Shibata, K. Acute effect of dynamic stretching on endurance running performance in well-trained male runners. J Strength Cond Res 29(11): 3045-3052, 2015-The purpose of this study was to clarify the acute effect of dynamic stretching (DS) on relative high-intensity endurance running performance. The endurance running performances of 7 well-trained middle- or long-distance male runners were assessed on a treadmill after 2 types of pretreatment. The pretreatments were nonstretching (NS) and DS treatment. In the DS treatment, DS was performed as 1 set of 10 repetitions as quickly as possible for the 5 muscle groups in lower extremities. The endurance running performances were evaluated by time to exhaustion (TTE) and total running distance (TRD) during running at a velocity equivalent to 90% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in each subject. The oxygen uptake (VO2) during running was measured as an index of running economy (RE). The TTE (928.6 ± 215.0 seconds) after DS treatment was significantly (p < 0.01) more prolonged compared with that (785.3 ± 206.2 seconds) after NS. The TRD (4,301.2 ± 893.8 m) after DS treatment was also significantly (p < 0.01) longer than that (3,616.9 ± 783.3 m) after NS. The changes in the VO2 during running, however, did not significantly (p > 0.05) differ between the pretreatments. The results demonstrated that the DS treatment improved the endurance performance of running at a velocity equivalent to 90% VO2max in well-trained male runners, although it did not change the RE. This running velocity is equivalent to that for a 3,000- or 5,000-m race. Our finding suggests that performing DS during warm-up before a race is effective for improving performance. PMID:25932984

  10. Upper limb aerobic training improves aerobic fitness and all-out performance of America's Cup grinders.

    PubMed

    Adami, Paolo Emilio; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Rodio, Angelo; Squeo, Maria Rosaria; Corsi, Loretta; Quattrini, Filippo Maria; Fattorini, Luigi; Bernardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This research on "America's Cup" grinders investigated the effects of a specific eight-week long-arm cranking ergometer (ACE) training on upper body (UB) aerobic fitness (ventilatory threshold - Tvent, respiratory compensation point- RCP, -oxygen uptake peak - VO?peak) and high intensity working capacity. The training consisted of sessions carried out for 20-30 mins, three times per week, at an intensity between the UB-Tvent and UB-RCP, and replaced part of a typical lower limb aerobic training whilst maintaining the usual weekly schedule of callisthenics, resistance training and sailing. Seven sailors, including four grinders and three mastmen (age 30 ± 5.5 years, height 1.9 ± 0.04 m, body mass 102 ± 3.6 kg), were evaluated through both an ACE cardiopulmonary maximal exercise test (CPET) and an ACE all-out up to exhaustion exercise test, before and after the ACE training. UB aerobic fitness improved significantly: UB-VO?peak increased from 4.29 ± 0.442 to 4.52 ± 0.522 l·min(-1) (6.4 ± 3.66%), VO? at UB-Tvent from 2.42 ± 0.282 to 2.97 ± 0.328 l·min(-1) (22.8 ± 5.09%) and VO? at UB-RCP from 3.25 ± 0.402 to 3.75 ± 0.352 l·min(-1) (16.1 ± 10.83%). Peak power at the ACE CPET increased from 351 ± 27.5 to 387 ± 33.5 W (10.5 ± 6.93%). The all-out test total mechanical work increased from 28.9 ± 2.35 to 40.1 ± 3.76 kJ (72.1 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, a high intensity aerobic ACE training can be effective in improving grinding performance by increasing UB aerobic fitness and all-out working capacity. PMID:25357134

  11. 48 CFR 1437.7002 - Appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appraisal standards. 1437... standards. (a) All real property appraisals for condemnation purposes shall be consistent with requirements of the Interagency Land Acquisition Conference publication “Uniform Appraisal Standards for...

  12. Sprinting performance and resistance-based training interventions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bolger, Richard; Lyons, Mark; Harrison, Andrew J; Kenny, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to search the scientific literature for original research, addressing the effects different forms of resistance-based training have on sprinting performance in competitive sprinters. Specific key words (Sprinters OR Sprint) NOT (Rugby, Soccer, Cycling, Swimming, Paralympic, and Nutrition) were used to search relevant databases through November 2013 for related literature. Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Five studies met the inclusion criteria: actively competitive adult male sprinters who participated in a resistance-based intervention (>4 weeks), with outcome measures in the form of 10- to 100-m sprint times. Exclusion criteria included acute studies (<4 weeks), nonsprinting populations, and studies with no performance outcome measures (10- to 100-m sprint times). Three of the 5 studies used both locomotor resistance and fixed plane resistance, whereas the remaining 2 studies used more fixed plane resistance, for example, squat and leg extension. Three of the studies showed a statistical improvement in sprinting performance measures, for example, a decrease in 30-m sprint time (p = 0.044), whereas 1 study showed a decrease in sprinting performance. The analysis concluded that resistance-based training has a positive effect on sprinting performance. Varied input of locomotor resistance and fixed plane resistance has resulted in similar percentage change for sprinting performance. This review adds to the body of knowledge by strongly highlighting the dearth of literature exploring the effects of resistance-based training on sprinting performance in competitive sprinters. The short duration and wide range of exercises implemented in studies to date are of concern, but coaches should not hesitate to implement well-planned resistance programs for their sprint athletes. PMID:25268287

  13. The Effects of Basic Gymnastics Training Integrated with Physical Education Courses on Selected Motor Performance Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpkaya, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of gymnastics training integrated with physical education courses on selected motor performance variables in seven year old girls. Subjects were divided into two groups: (1) control group (N=15, X=7.56 plus or minus 0.46 year old); (2) gymnastics group (N=16, X=7.60 plus or minus 0.50 year…

  14. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  15. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists 'open up' appraisal of geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E

    2014-09-15

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth's climate system, known collectively as 'geoengineering', have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely 'close down' upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first 'upstream' appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately 'open up' to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic-deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens' and the specialists' deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives. PMID:25224904

  16. Managing Performance to Change Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denisi, Angelo S.

    2011-01-01

    Performance appraisal systems are often considered primarily in their role as criterion measures for validation studies. Even when they are considered in other organizational roles, there has traditionally been a strong focus on improving the accuracy of the appraisals. The present article argues that the proper focus of performance appraisal is…

  17. Pilot Test of the Instruction and Learning Appraisal Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceperley, Patricia E.; Hughes, Georgia K.; Mittapalli, Kavita

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the pilot test of the Instruction and Learning Appraisal (ILA) and describe the quality of the ILA process. The ILA process was developed by Edvantia staff who serve as technical assistance providers to schools and districts in the region. Low-performing schools and districts (i.e., those that fail to…

  18. The First APU Primary Maths Survey: An Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Mike

    1980-01-01

    The author appraises the first report--on primary maths--of the APU primary survey unit which was designed as an assessment of sample selected age groups in primary and secondary schools to provide a general picture of performance. (Author/KC)

  19. Short-term ankle motor performance with ankle robotics training in chronic hemiparetic stroke.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anindo; Forrester, Larry W; Macko, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) often results in impaired motor control and persistent weakness that may lead to chronic disability, including deficits in gait and balance function. Finding ways to restore motor control may help reduce these deficits; however, little is known regarding the capacity or temporal profile of short-term motor adaptations and learning at the hemiparetic ankle. Our objective was to determine the short-term effects of a single session of impedance-controlled ankle robot ("anklebot") training on paretic ankle motor control in chronic stroke. This was a double-arm pilot study on a convenience sample of participants with chronic stroke (n = 7) who had residual hemiparetic deficits and an equal number of age- and sex-matched nondisabled control subjects. Training consisted of participants in each group playing a target-based video game with the anklebot for an hour, for a total of 560 movement repetitions in dorsiflexion/plantar flexion ranges followed by retest 48 hours later. Task difficulty was adjusted to ankle range of motion, with robotic assistance decreased incrementally across training. Assessments included robotic measures of ankle motor control on unassisted trials before and after training and at 48 hours after training. Following exposure to the task, subjects with stroke improved paretic ankle motor control across a single training session as indexed by increased targeting accuracy (21.6 +/- 8.0 to 31.4 +/- 4.8, p = 0.05), higher angular speeds (mean: 4.7 +/- 1.5 degrees/s to 6.5 +/- 2.6 degrees/s, p < 0.01, peak: 42.8 +/- 9.0 degrees/s to 45.6 +/- 9.4 degrees/s, p = 0.03), and smoother movements (normalized jerk: 654.1 +/- 103.3 s(-2) to 537.6 +/- 86.7 s(-2), p < 0.005, number of speed peaks: 27.1 +/- 5.8 to 23.7 +/- 4.1, p < 0.01). In contrast, nondisabled subjects did not make statistically significant gains in any metric after training except in the number of successful passages (32.3 +/- 7.5 to 36.5 +/- 6.4, p = 0.006). Gains in all five motor control metrics were retained (p > 0.05) at 48 hours in both groups. Robust maintenance of motor adaptation in the robot-trained paretic ankle over 48 hours may be indicative of short-term motor learning. Our initial results suggest that the anklebot may be a flexible motor learning platform with the potential to detect rapid changes in ankle motor performance poststroke. PMID:21674391

  20. Blue-Collar Workers. Appraisal Systems Are in Place, but Basic Refinements Are Needed. Report to Agency Officials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Government Accounting Office (GAO) evaluated how well divisions in the Departments of the Air Force, Army, and Navy and the Veterans Administration have implemented performance appraisal systems for blue-collar employees. The study found that in the four agencies visited, performance appraisal systems were in place; however, problems…

  1. Structuralized box-trainer laparoscopic training significantly improves performance in complex virtual reality laparoscopic tasks

    PubMed Central

    Stefaniak, Tomasz J.; Makarewicz, Wojciech; Proczko, Monika; Gruca, Zbigniew; ?ledzi?ski, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In the era of flowering minimally invasive surgical techniques there is a need for new methods of teaching surgery and supervision of progress in skills and expertise. Virtual and physical box-trainers seem especially fit for this purpose, and allow for improvement of proficiency required in laparoscopic surgery. Material and methods The study included 34 students who completed the authors‘ laparoscopic training on physical train-boxes. Progress was monitored by accomplishment of 3 exercises: moving pellets from one place to another, excising and clipping. Analysed parameters included time needed to complete the exercise and right and left hand movement tracks. Students were asked to do assigned tasks prior to, in the middle and after the training. Results The duration of the course was 28 h in total. Significant shortening of the time to perform each exercise and reduction of the left hand track were achieved. The right hand track was shortened only in exercise number 1. Conclusions Exercises in the laboratory setting should be regarded as an important element of the process of skills acquisition by a young surgeon. Virtual reality laparoscopic training seems to be a new, interesting educational tool, and at the same time allows for reliable control and assessment of progress. PMID:23255997

  2. Performance and safety testing of lithium batteries for the Expendable, Mobile, ASW Training Target (EMATT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallal, P. B.; Bis, R. F.

    1986-08-01

    The developmental EMATT (expendable, mobile, ASW training target) may use a high-energy (lithium/sulfuryl chloride) battery system. Safety problems with the original battery cell design were experienced during early performance and safety testing. After redesign of the battery cell, performance and safety tests were made under specified abuse conditions, as well as under simulated launch conditions. The test results showed that the power system now meets all safety requirements, and that the EMATT vehicle is safe to deploy for its engineering development phase.

  3. Position-specific behaviors and their impact on crew performance: Implications for training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, J. Randolph

    1993-01-01

    The present study was motivated by results from a preliminary report documenting the impact of specific crewmembers on overall crew performance (Wilhelm & Law, 1992), and a cross-airline cross-fleet project investigating human factors behaviors of commercial aviation flightcrews (Helmreich, Butler, Whilhelm, & Lofaro, 1992). The purpose of the current investigation is to study how position-specific behaviors impact flightcrew performance, and how these position-specific behaviors differ between two airlines and two flying environments. Implications for training will also be addressed.

  4. Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  5. Tonic Pain Experienced during Locomotor Training Impairs Retention Despite Normal Performance during Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Bouffard, Jason; Bouyer, Laurent J.; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Many patients are in pain when they receive gait training during rehabilitation. Based on animal studies, it has been proposed that central sensitization associated to nociception (maladaptive plasticity) and plasticity related to the sensorimotor learning (adaptive plasticity) share similar neural mechanisms and compete with each other. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental tonic pain influences motor learning (acquisition and next-day retention) of a new locomotor task. Thirty healthy human subjects performed a locomotor adaptation task (perturbing force field applied to the ankle during swing using a robotized orthosis) on 2 consecutive days. Learning was assessed using kinematic measures (peak and mean absolute plantarflexion errors) and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Half of the participants performed the locomotor adaptation task with pain on Day 1 (capsaicin cream around the ankle), while the task was performed pain-free for all subjects on Day 2 to assess retention. Pain had no significant effect on baseline gait parameters nor on performance during the locomotor adaptation task (for either kinematic or EMG measures) on Day 1. Despite this apparently normal motor acquisition, pain-free Day 2 performance was markedly and significantly impaired in the Pain group, indicating that pain during training had an impact on the retention of motor memories (interfering with consolidation and/or retrieval). These results suggest that the same motor rehabilitation intervention could be less effective if administered in the presence of pain. PMID:25009252

  6. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  7. Training, assessment, and measures of performance for effective operational use of millimeter-wave (MMW) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownson, Adam; McClumpha, Andrew J.; Tatlock, Kerry B.

    2003-09-01

    As technologies emerge that have the potential to significantly improve the detection and recognition of concealed weapons and objects on personnel, the ultimate effectiveness of these systems is still reliant on the performance of the operator of that system. This paper will report the work undertaken to evaluate and optimise the effectiveness of a millimetre wave (MMW) system. This was achieved through an extensive series of trials carried out at a large UK airport and also under more controlled field conditions. The paper will discuss the work carried out to develop a simple and usable human-computer interface, and the development and implementation of the training program. This training program was based on a detailed task analysis, leading to the identification of competencies required for effective weapon detection and recognition. Ultimately, however, the effectiveness of emerging technologies, such as the MMW, needs to be empirically demonstrated. To that end we will report the results of comprehensive psychophysical performance assessments that has led, probably for the first time, to performance metrics for a MMW system that combine the performance of the system with the performance of the user. For emerging technologies to be truly successful a collaborative and co-operative approach from technologists, regulators, airport authorities, human factors specialists and occupational psychologists is required. The work reported will emphasise the importance of the collaboration that has occurred.

  8. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  9. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD) Training and Performing ESD with Accurate and Safe Techniques.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Chang-Il

    2012-11-01

    Introduction of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has brought about a renaissance in therapeutic endoscopy. For the globalization and universalization of ESD, the number of physicians who can perform ESD has rapidly increased with general ex vivo and in vivo training using animal models and hand-on courses. In this focused review series, world-renowned ESD experts described the published studies or their own precious experiences about ESD training and performing ESD with accurate and safe techniques. First, Dr. Adolfo Parra-Blanco reviewed on ex vivo and in vivo models for ESD training. Next, Dr. Joo Young Cho described detailed practical settings and current status of hands-on courses using ex vivo and in vivo models in Korea. Dr. Takashi Toyonaga described quality controlled ESD and basic techniques to prevent complications. Dr. Tsuneo Oyama reviewed recently published methods to facilitate ESD. Dr. Jae-Young Jang reviewed the usefulness of magnifying and narrow band imaging to measure the depth of invasion before ESD. PMID:23251880

  10. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD) Training and Performing ESD with Accurate and Safe Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has brought about a renaissance in therapeutic endoscopy. For the globalization and universalization of ESD, the number of physicians who can perform ESD has rapidly increased with general ex vivo and in vivo training using animal models and hand-on courses. In this focused review series, world-renowned ESD experts described the published studies or their own precious experiences about ESD training and performing ESD with accurate and safe techniques. First, Dr. Adolfo Parra-Blanco reviewed on ex vivo and in vivo models for ESD training. Next, Dr. Joo Young Cho described detailed practical settings and current status of hands-on courses using ex vivo and in vivo models in Korea. Dr. Takashi Toyonaga described quality controlled ESD and basic techniques to prevent complications. Dr. Tsuneo Oyama reviewed recently published methods to facilitate ESD. Dr. Jae-Young Jang reviewed the usefulness of magnifying and narrow band imaging to measure the depth of invasion before ESD. PMID:23251880

  11. Reading Performance Is Enhanced by Visual Texture Discrimination Training in Chinese-Speaking Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Lin, Ou; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Yuzheng; Song, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background High order cognitive processing and learning, such as reading, interact with lower-level sensory processing and learning. Previous studies have reported that visual perceptual training enlarges visual span and, consequently, improves reading speed in young and old people with amblyopia. Recently, a visual perceptual training study in Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia found that the visual texture discrimination thresholds of these children in visual perceptual training significantly correlated with their performance in Chinese character recognition, suggesting that deficits in visual perceptual processing/learning might partly underpin the difficulty in reading Chinese. Methodology/Principal Findings To further clarify whether visual perceptual training improves the measures of reading performance, eighteen children with dyslexia and eighteen typically developed readers that were age- and IQ-matched completed a series of reading measures before and after visual texture discrimination task (TDT) training. Prior to the TDT training, each group of children was split into two equivalent training and non-training groups in terms of all reading measures, IQ, and TDT. The results revealed that the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT were significantly higher for the children with dyslexia than for the control children before training. Interestingly, training significantly decreased the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT for both the typically developed readers and the children with dyslexia. More importantly, the training group with dyslexia exhibited significant enhancement in reading fluency, while the non-training group with dyslexia did not show this improvement. Additional follow-up tests showed that the improvement in reading fluency is a long-lasting effect and could be maintained for up to two months in the training group with dyslexia. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that basic visual perceptual processing/learning and reading ability in Chinese might at least partially rely on overlapping mechanisms. PMID:25247602

  12. Fun and Games: The Influence of a Playful Pre-Training Intervention and Microcomputer Playfulness on Computer-Related Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, Kevin P.; May, Douglas R.; Gilson, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Changing technology creates a need for additional computer-related training. A quasi-experimental study tested a theoretical framework that maintained that a playful pre-training software intervention and an individual difference, microcomputer playfulness (MCP), would combine to influence computer-related performance. Results demonstrated that…

  13. Office ergonomics training and a sit-stand workstation: effects on musculoskeletal and visual symptoms and performance of office workers.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Michelle M; Ciriello, Vincent M; Garabet, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) among office workers with intensive computer use is widespread and the prevalence of symptoms is growing. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of an office ergonomics training combined with a sit-stand workstation on musculoskeletal and visual discomfort, behaviors and performance. Participants performed a lab-based customer service job for 8 h per day, over 15 days and were assigned to: Ergonomics Trained (n = 11) or Minimally Trained (n = 11). The training consisted of: a 1.5-h interactive instruction, a sit/stand practice period, and ergonomic reminders. Ergonomics Trained participants experienced minimal musculoskeletal and visual discomfort across the 15 days, varied their postures, with significantly higher performance compared to the Minimally Trained group who had a significantly higher number of symptoms, suggesting that training plays a critical role. The ability to mitigate symptoms, change behaviors and enhance performance through training combined with a sit-stand workstation has implications for preventing discomforts in office workers. PMID:22727324

  14. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices E Appendix E to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND...

  15. The Impact of Collegiate Aviation Student Learning Styles on Flight Performance: A Scenario-Based Training Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Stanley L.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the glass cockpit, as well as a whole new generation of high performance general aviation aircraft, highlights the need for a comprehensive overhaul of the traditional approach to training pilots. Collegiate aviation institutions that are interested in upgrading their training aircraft fleets will need to design new curricula…

  16. The Buffering Effects of Rejection-Inhibiting Attentional Training on Social and Performance Threat among Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandeneau, Stephane D.; Baldwin, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about social rejection can be disruptive in an academic context. We set out to train a positive cognitive habit that would buffer against social and performance threat thereby making students less vulnerable and more resilient to rejection. Participants from adult education centers (n=150) were first trained to inhibit rejection using a…

  17. Effects of Above Real Time Training (ARTT) On Individual Skills and Contributions to Crew/Team Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia J.; Crane, Peter; Guckenberger, Dutch; Bageon, Kellye

    2001-01-01

    Above Real Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments on training of pilots performed by NASA engineers and others have indicated that real time training (RTT) reinforced with ARTT would offer an effective training strategy for such tasks which require significant effort at time and workload management. A study was conducted to find how ARTT and RTT complement each other for training of novice pilot-navigator teams to fly on a required route. In the experiment, each of the participating pilot-navigator teams was required to conduct simulator flights on a prescribed two-legged ground track while maintaining required air speed and altitude. At any instant in a flight, the distance between the actual spatial point location of the airplane and the required spatial point was used as a measure of deviation from the required route. A smaller deviation represented better performance. Over a segment of flight or over complete flight, an average value of the deviation represented consolidated performance. The deviations were computed from the information on latitude, longitude, and altitude. In the combined ARTT and RTT program, ARTT at intermediate training intervals was beneficial in improving the real time performance of the trainees. It was observed that the team interaction between pilot and navigator resulted in maintaining high motivation and active participation throughout the training program.

  18. Effects of Selection and Training on Unit-Level Performance over Time: A Latent Growth Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Iddekinge, Chad H.; Ferris, Gerald R.; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Perryman, Alexa A.; Blass, Fred R.; Heetderks, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Surprisingly few data exist concerning whether and how utilization of job-related selection and training procedures affects different aspects of unit or organizational performance over time. The authors used longitudinal data from a large fast-food organization (N = 861 units) to examine how change in use of selection and training relates to…

  19. Assessment Training Effects on Student Assessment Skills and Task Performance in a Technology-Facilitated Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of an assessment training module on student assessment skills and task performance in a technology-facilitated peer assessment. Seventy-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants completed an assessment training exercise, prior to engaging in peer-assessment activities. During the…

  20. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices E Appendix E to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices E Appendix E to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND...

  2. A Performance-Oriented Electronics Technician Training Program. V. Final Fleet Follow-Up Evaluation of Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Nicholas H.; Harrigan, Robert J.

    An investigation was made of the job proficiency of the graduates of an experimental job-oriented training program for Electronics Technician (X-ET). This program was designed to train lower-aptitude personnel in a relatively shorter time to assume ET duties in the fleet. The fleet performance capabilities of 51 X-ET's and a matched sample of 43…

  3. A Performance-Oriented Electronics Technician Training Program, IV. Fleet Follow-Up Evaluation of Graduates of All Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinemann, John H.; And Others

    A study was made of the fleet utilization and job proficiency of the graduates of an experimental job oriented training course for electronics technicians (ET). This course was designed to train lower aptitude personnel relatively quickly for ET duties in the fleet. Performance capabilities of 68 X-ET's and a matching sample of 64 Class A school…

  4. Short-Term Performance Effects of Three Different Low-Volume Strength-Training Programmes in College Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Brito, João; Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Oliveira, José; Krustrup, Peter; Rebelo, António

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the short-term performance effects of three in-season low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players. Fifty-seven male college soccer players (age: 20.3±1.6 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (n=12), plyometric training group (n=12), complex training group (n=12), or a control group (n=21). In the mid-season, players underwent a 9-week strength-training programme, with two 20 min training sessions per week. Short-term effects on strength, sprint, agility, and vertical jump abilities were measured. All training groups increased 1-RM squat (range, 17.2–24.2%), plantar flexion (29.1–39.6%), and knee extension (0.5–22.2%) strength compared with the control group (p<0.05). The resistance-training group increased concentric peak torque of the knee extensor muscles by 9.9–13.7%, and changes were greater compared with the control group (p<0.05). The complex training group presented major increments (11.7%) in eccentric peak torque of the knee flexor muscles on the non-dominant limb compared with the control group and plyometric training group (p<0.05). All training groups improved 20-m sprint performance by 4.6–6.2% (p<0.001) compared with the control group. No differences were observed in 5-m sprint and agility performances (p>0.05). Overall, the results suggest that in-season low-volume strength training is adequate for developing strength and speed in soccer players. PMID:25031680

  5. 5 CFR 1330.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET JOINT REGULATIONS WITH THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification...organizational mission, GPRA strategic goals, or other program...

  6. 5 CFR 1330.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET JOINT REGULATIONS WITH THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification...organizational mission, GPRA strategic goals, or other program...

  7. ?-Alanine supplementation slightly enhances repeated plyometric performance after high-intensity training in humans.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Alain; Olbrechts, Naïma; Vieillevoye, Stéphanie; Poortmans, Jacques R

    2015-07-01

    ?-Alanine (BA) supplementation has become an ergogenic aid amongst competitive athletes to augment intramuscular carnosine content, leading to higher buffer capacity and exercise performance. We investigated 27 regularly trained young males and females who were randomly allocated either to placebo (PL) or BA ingestion for 8 weeks. Every single day, BA or PL (4.0-5.6 g day(-1)) supplements were ingested by participants and associated with a strong plyometric high-intensity training (two sessions per week during the 8 weeks). Before and after training, maximal jump heights were recorded during squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) and an index of fatigue was recorded as a mean height of 45 consecutive CMJ. Blood lactate was measured at rest, after completing the fatigue test and every 5 min thereafter up to 30 min recovery. After plyometric training, SJ and CMJ were increased, respectively, by 8.8 and 6.4 % in PL group and 9.9 and 11.0 % in BA group (p < 0.01, no difference between groups). Blood lactate reached a maximal value of 9.4 ± 1.6 mmol l(-1) in PL group, and 10.3 ± 1.3 mmol l(-1) in BA group, with a slight better performance in the fatigue test (+8.6 %, p ? 0.01) for BA group as compared to PL group. To conclude, 2-month ?-alanine supplementation resulted in a slight improvement of explosive force after 45 maximal consecutive jumps in young athletes. However, the practical adequacy of supplementation remains questionable in an active and healthy population. PMID:25894892

  8. Cramer-rao bounds and coherence performance analysis for next generation radar with pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaowei; Tang, Jun; He, Qian; Wan, Shuang; Tang, Bo; Sun, Peilin; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    We study the Cramer-Rao bounds of parameter estimation and coherence performance for the next generation radar (NGR). In order to enhance the performance of NGR, the signal model of NGR with master-slave architecture based on a single pulse is extended to the case of pulse trains, in which multiple pulses are emitted from all sensors and then integrated spatially and temporally in a unique master sensor. For the MIMO mode of NGR where orthogonal waveforms are emitted, we derive the closed-form Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for the estimates of generalized coherence parameters (GCPs), including the time delay differences, total phase differences and Doppler frequencies with respect to different sensors. For the coherent mode of NGR where the coherent waveforms are emitted after pre-compensation using the estimates of GCPs, we develop a performance bound of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain for NGR based on the aforementioned CRBs, taking all the estimation errors into consideration. It is shown that greatly improved estimation accuracy and coherence performance can be obtained with pulse trains employed in NGR. Numerical examples demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results. PMID:23612588

  9. Sensitivity of monthly heart rate and psychometric measures for monitoring physical performance in highly trained young handball players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether monthly resting heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and psychometric measures can be used to monitor changes in physical performance in highly-trained adolescent handball players. Data were collected in 37 adolescent players (training 10±2.1?h.wk(-1)) on 11 occasions from September to May during the in-season period, and included an estimation of training status (resting HR and HRV, the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire), and 3 physical performance tests (a 10-m sprint, a counter movement jump and a graded aerobic intermittent test, 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test). The sensitivity of HR and psychometric measures to changes in physical performance was poor (training status markers and the performance measures. The specificity was however strong (>?75%), irrespective of the markers and the performance measures. Finally, the difference in physical performance between players with better vs. worse estimated training status were all almost certainly trivial. The present results highlight the limitation of monthly measures of resting HR, HRV and perceived mood and fatigue for predicting in-season changes in physical performance in highly-trained adolescent handball players. This suggests that more frequent monitoring might be required, and/or that other markers might need to be considered. PMID:25429552

  10. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. Methods A 10-week crossover, placebo controlled study was conducted. Eight trained male cyclists and two triathletes were randomly assigned to consume 75 g/d whole almonds (ALM) or isocaloric cookies (COK) with equal subject number. They consumed the assigned food for 4 wks and then the alternate food for another 4 wks. They underwent 3 performance tests including 125-min steady status exercise (SS) and 20-min time trial (TT) on an indoor stationary trainer at the start of the study (BL) and at the end of each intervention phase. Venous blood was collected in the morning prior to the performance test for biochemical measurements and finger blood during the test for glucose determination. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and oxygen use were calculated using respiratory gas analysis. Results ALM increased cycling distance during TT by 1.7 km as compared BL (21.9 vs. 20.2 km, P?=?0.053) and COK increased 0.6 km (20.8 vs. 20.2 km, P?>?0.05). ALM, but not COK, led to higher CHO and lower fat oxidation and less oxygen consumption during TT than BL (P??0.05) than BL, and a higher total antioxidant capacity than COK (P?performance more than isocaloric cookies in trained athletes as some nutrients in almonds may contribute to CHO reservation and utilization and effective oxygen utilization. The results suggest that almonds can be incorporated into diets of those who undertake exercise training for performance improvement. PMID:24860277

  11. The use of participatory appraisal by veterinarians in Africa.

    PubMed

    Catley, A

    2000-12-01

    The term 'participatory appraisal' refers to a range of methods for data collection, learning and facilitation, which enable local people to play an active role in defining, analysing and solving their problems. A questionnaire survey was used to obtain information on the use of participatory appraisal (PA) from veterinarians working in Africa. A low overall response rate of 28.6% was achieved. Within Africa, response rates varied from 15.6% from government veterinarians to 47.6% from veterinarians working with non-governmental organisations. Information is presented on preferred methods, specific uses, levels of training and perceived advantages and disadvantages of PA. While PA was considered by many informants to be a valuable approach to working with communities to analyse and solve local animal health problems, respondents also identified constraints to the wider use of PA. These constraints included lack of financial resources, low availability of relevant training courses and materials, lack of time to attend training courses, and negative attitudes among colleagues. The author concludes that greater institutional awareness of the role of PA in the development of Veterinary Services is required. Such awareness might be achieved by wider dissemination of experiences related to the use of PA and the development of veterinary-orientated training courses for centrally-based personnel and workers in the field. The latter should include attention to appropriate attitudes and behaviour for veterinary professionals who are attempting to develop services according to the priorities and capacity of the community. PMID:11107613

  12. Linking Rhetorical Sensitivity With the Ability of an Athletic Training Student to Succesfully Perform a Patient Medical Interview

    E-print Network

    Bertoncino, Thomas Keith

    2010-11-08

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the self-reported rhetorical sensitivity of a sample of athletic training students is positively related to successfully performing a patient medical ...

  13. The effects of form training on foul-shooting performance in members of a women's college basketball team.

    PubMed

    Kladopoulos, C N; McComas, J J

    2001-01-01

    The effects of instruction and feedback in proper form on foul-shooting performance was evaluated in 3 players of a women's NCAA Division II college basketball team. Players showed an increase in percentage of shots made and in correct form compared to baseline shooting without instruction or feedback. All players reached criterion within seven training sessions. The results suggest that training proper form is an effective strategy for improving foul-shooting performance. PMID:11678527

  14. Training for sustained performance: moving toward long-term musician development.

    PubMed

    Clark, Terry; Lisboa, Tánia

    2013-09-01

    Success in the performing arts, like sports, is dependent upon the acquisition and consistent use of a diverse range of skills. In sports, an understanding of safe and effective use of the body is required to facilitate long-term involvement in that activity. In order to assist athletes to attain their performance goals, and ensure healthy and sustained involvement, long-term athlete development (LTAD) models have been devised and adapted by professional sporting bodies throughout the world. LTAD models emphasize the intellectual, emotional, and social development of the athlete, encourage long-term participation in physical activities, and enable participants to improve their overall health and well-being and increase their life-long participation in physical activity. At present there is no such long-term development model for musicians. Yet musicians must cope with a multitude of career-related physical and mental demands, and performance-related injuries and career burnout are rife within the profession. Despite this, musicians' training rarely addresses such issues and musicians are left largely to learn about them through either chance or accrued experience. This paper discusses key concepts and recommendations in LTAD models, together with music-specific research highlighting the need for the development of a comprehensive long-term approach to musicians' training. The results of a survey of existing music training programs are compared to recommendations and the different development stages in LTAD models. Finally, implementation science is introduced as a methodological option for identifying how best to communicate the body of evidence-based knowledge concerning healthy and effective music-making to young student musicians. PMID:24013288

  15. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-Based Supplement Boosts Aerobic Exercise Performance after Short-Term High Altitude Training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371–379, 2014.—High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400?mg+C: 600?mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200?m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: ?51% vs. RC: ?41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (?48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training. PMID:25251930

  16. The Influence of Mirror-Visual Feedback on Training-Induced Motor Performance Gains in the Untrained Hand

    PubMed Central

    Reissig, Paola; Puri, Rohan; Garry, Michael I.; Summers, Jeffery J.; Hinder, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    The well-documented observation of bilateral performance gains following unilateral motor training, a phenomenon known as cross-limb transfer, has important implications for rehabilitation. It has recently been shown that provision of a mirror image of the active hand during unilateral motor training has the capacity to enhance the efficacy of this phenomenon when compared to training without augmented visual feedback (i.e., watching the passive hand), possibly via action observation effects [1]. The current experiment was designed to confirm whether mirror-visual feedback (MVF) during motor training can indeed elicit greater performance gains in the untrained hand compared to more standard visual feedback (i.e., watching the active hand). Furthermore, discussing the mechanisms underlying any such MVF-induced behavioural effects, we suggest that action observation and the cross-activation hypothesis may both play important roles in eliciting cross-limb transfer. Eighty participants practiced a fast-as-possible two-ball rotation task with their dominant hand. During training, three different groups were provided with concurrent visual feedback of the active hand, inactive hand or a mirror image of the active hand with a fourth control group receiving no training. Pre- and post-training performance was measured in both hands. MVF did not increase the extent of training-induced performance changes in the untrained hand following unilateral training above and beyond those observed for other types of feedback. The data are consistent with the notion that cross-limb transfer, when combined with MVF, is mediated by cross-activation with action observation playing a less unique role than previously suggested. Further research is needed to replicate the current and previous studies to determine the clinical relevance and potential benefits of MVF for cases that, due to the severity of impairment, rely on unilateral training programmes of the unaffected limb to drive changes in the contralateral affected limb. PMID:26517375

  17. Association between performance on Neurology In-Training and Certification Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Frederick G.; Gutmann, Laurie; Pascuzzi, Robert M.; Webb, Lynn; Massey, Janice M.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Foertsch, Mary; Faulkner, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzed the relationship between performance on the American Academy of Neurology Residency In-Service Training Examination (RITE) and subsequent performance on the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) Certification Examination. Methods: Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between performance on the RITE and the Certification Examination for 2 cohorts of adult neurologists and 2 cohorts of child neurologists. The 2 cohorts represented test takers for 2008 and 2009. Results: For adult neurologists, the correlation between the total RITE and the Certification Examination scores was 0.77 (p < 0.01) in 2008 and 0.65 (p < 0.01) in 2009. For child neurologists, it was 0.74 (p < 0.01) in 2008 and 0.56 (p < 0.01) in 2009. Discussion: For 2 consecutive years, there was a significant correlation between performance on the RITE and performance on the ABPN Certification Examination for both adult and child neurologists. The RITE is a self-assessment examination, and performance on the test is a positive predictor of future performance on the ABPN Certification Examination. PMID:23296130

  18. Naturopathy: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Kimball C

    2003-12-30

    "Naturopathic medicine" is a recent manifestation of the field of naturopathy, a 19th-century health movement espousing "the healing power of nature." "Naturopathic physicians" now claim to be primary care physicians proficient in the practice of both "conventional" and "natural" medicine. Their training, however, amounts to a small fraction of that of medical doctors who practice primary care. An examination of their literature, moreover, reveals that it is replete with pseudoscientific, ineffective, unethical, and potentially dangerous practices. Despite this, naturopaths have achieved legal and political recognition, including licensure in 13 states and appointments to the US Medicare Coverage Advisory Committee. This dichotomy can be explained in part by erroneous representations of naturopathy offered by academic medical centers and popular medical Web sites. PMID:14745386

  19. Effect of robotic performance-based error-augmentation versus error-reduction training on the gait of healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Srivastava, Shraddha; Agrawal, Sunil K; Scholz, John P

    2013-01-01

    Effective locomotion training with robotic exoskeletons requires identification of optimal control algorithms to better facilitate motor learning. Two commonly employed training protocols emphasize use of training stimuli that either augment or reduce performance errors. The current study sought to identify which of these training strategies promote better short-term modification of a typical gait pattern in healthy individuals as a framework for future application to neurologically impaired individuals. Ten subjects were assigned to each of a performance-based error-augmentation or error-reduction training group. All subjects completed a 45-min session of treadmill walking at their preferred speed with a robotic exoskeleton. Target templates prescribed an ankle path for training that corresponded to an increased step height. When subjects' instantaneous ankle positions fell below the inferior virtual wall of the target ankle path, robotic forces were applied that either decreased (error-reduction) or increased (error-augmentation) the deviation from the target path. When the force field was turned on, both groups walked with ankle paths better approximating the target template compared to baseline. When the force field was removed unexpectedly during catch and post-training trials, only the error-augmentation group maintained an ankle path close to the target ankle path. Further investigation is required to determine if a similar training advantage is provided for neurologically impaired individuals. PMID:22832470

  20. Aerobic training during hemodialysis improves body composition, muscle function, physical performance, and quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min; Jo, Jong Il

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We assessed the influences of individualized aerobic training on body composition, knee joint muscle function, physical performance, and quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients. [Subjects] Ten chronic kidney disease patients undergoing dialysis. [Methods] Overall physical function and quality of life before and after 12 weeks of aerobic training were evaluated by body composition, the six-minute walk test, cardiopulmonary exercise tests, and Short Form 36-item questionnaire. [Results] The six-minute walk test distance increased significantly after 12 weeks aerobic training. Resting metabolic rate, lactate threshold, maximum oxygen uptake, and quality of life tended to increase after training. Post-training weight, muscle mass, body fat mass, fat percentage, body mass index, and peak torque of right and left knee extension and flexion did not change significantly. [Conclusion] Intra-dialytic training can a safe approach to maintain or improve physical performance and quality of life of chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis without adverse events or negative cardiovascular responses. Aerobic training may prevent a decline in body composition and knee joint muscle function due to inactivity in chronic kidney disease patients. Clinically, aerobic training may initially be adapted to maintain overall physical function or improve quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:26157237

  1. Performance evaluation of Automatic Extraction System. Volume IV. Recommended operating, maintenance, and training plans. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Frantz, R.L.; King, R.H.; Bartsch, D.L.

    1980-07-01

    Since the AES is a different and more sochisticated machine, it became apparent during the in-mine trial that more than on-the-job training (OJT) is desirable for the operators. The AES is unique in that it should remain in the face for long periods rather than be moved often from the face to face. In addition, the operator should learn to trust the ACS in order to be more aware of the hazards in the face area. More training is one way to help increase operator and machine efficiency and safety consciousness. The lack of formal, organized, scheduled, non-productive-mode training of the AES operators appeared to affect the performance of the AES during mining, tramming, maneuvering, and bolting. Therefore, before the operator and bolters do their jobs and the mechanics maintain the AES on a regular basis in a production-mode, they should attend classes, including: (1) formal above ground classroom training, (2) non-productive-mode underground training, and (3) productive-mode OJT. The training department should have the authority and resources to train workers beforehand, and also whenever subsequent instruction is needed. This plan includes only those areas peculiar to the AES. It is assumed that mature, competent individuals (operators and bolters) have already been trained to use similar machines. If this is not the case, the training will require significantly more time.

  2. A biomechanical evaluation of resistance: fundamental concepts for training and sports performance.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Cronin, John; Newton, Robert U

    2010-04-01

    Newton's second law of motion describes the acceleration of an object as being directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force and inversely proportional to its mass (a = F/m). With respect to linear motion, mass is also a numerical representation of an object's inertia, or its resistance to change in its state of motion and directly proportional to the magnitude of an object's momentum at any given velocity. To change an object's momentum, thereby increasing or decreasing its velocity, a proportional impulse must be generated. All motion is governed by these relationships, independent of the exercise being performed or the movement type being used; however, the degree to which this governance affects the associated kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity is dependent on the resistance type. Researchers have suggested that to facilitate the greatest improvements to athletic performance, the resistance-training programme employed by an athlete must be adapted to meet the specific demands of their sport. Therefore, it is conceivable that one mechanical stimulus, or resistance type, may not be appropriate for all applications. Although an excellent means of increasing maximal strength and the rate of force development, free-weight or mass-based training may not be the most conducive means to elicit velocity-specific adaptations. Attempts have been made to combat the inherent flaws of free weights, via accommodating and variable resistance-training devices; however, such approaches are not without problems that are specific to their mechanics. More recently, pneumatic-resistance devices (variable) have been introduced as a mechanical stimulus whereby the body mass of the athlete represents the only inertia that must be overcome to initiate movement, thus potentially affording the opportunity to develop velocity-specific power. However, there is no empirical evidence to support such a contention. Future research should place further emphasis on understanding the mechanical advantages/disadvantages inherent to the resistance types being used during training, so as to elicit the greatest improvements in athletic performance. PMID:20364875

  3. Learning about Complex Multi-Stakeholder Issues: Assessing the Visual Problem Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witteveen, Loes; Put, Marcel; Leeuwis, Cees

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the visual problem appraisal (VPA) learning environment in higher education. The VPA has been designed for the training of competences that are required in complex stakeholder settings in relation to sustainability issues. The design of VPA incorporates a diversity of instruction strategies to accommodate the…

  4. Performance and mood-state parameters during 30-day 6 deg head-down bed rest with exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deroshia, Charles W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    A study aimed at determining if the performance and mood impairments occur in bed-rested subjects, and if different exercise-training regimens modify or prevent them is presented. Eighteen healthy men were divided into three groups performing no exercise, isotonic exercise, and isokinetic exercise. Few deleterious changes occurred in performance and mood of the three groups which did not exceed baseline ambulatory levels. It is concluded that mood and performance did not deteriorate in response to prolonged bedrest and were not altered by exercise training.

  5. Multimodal high-intensity interval training increases muscle function and metabolic performance in females.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Stephanie; Knapp, Kelly; Lackie, Amy; Lewry, Colin; Horvey, Karla; Benko, Chad; Trinh, Jason; Butcher, Scotty

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient method of improving aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity. In most individuals, however, HIIT using modalities such as cycling, running, and rowing does not typically result in increased muscle strength, power, or endurance. The purpose of this study is to compare the physiological outcomes of traditional HIIT using rowing (Row-HIIT) with a novel multimodal HIIT (MM-HIIT) circuit incorporating multiple modalities, including strength exercises, within an interval. Twenty-eight recreationally active women (age 24.7 ± 5.4 years) completed 6 weeks of either Row-HIIT or MM-HIIT and were tested on multiple fitness parameters. MM-HIIT and Row-HIIT resulted in similar improvements (p < 0.05 for post hoc pre- vs. post-training increases for each group) in maximal aerobic power (7% vs. 5%), anaerobic threshold (13% vs. 12%), respiratory compensation threshold (7% vs. 5%), anaerobic power (15% vs. 12%), and anaerobic capacity (18% vs. 14%). The MM-HIIT group had significant (p < 0.01 for all) increases in squat (39%), press (27%), and deadlift (18%) strength, broad jump distance (6%), and squat endurance (280%), whereas the Row-HIIT group had no increase in any muscle performance variable (p values 0.33-0.90). Post-training, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat (64.2 ± 13.6 vs. 45.8 ± 16.2 kg, p = 0.02), 1RM press (33.2 ± 3.8 vs. 26.0 ± 9.6 kg, p = 0.01), and squat endurance (23.9 ± 12.3 vs. 10.2 ± 5.6 reps, p < 0.01) were greater in the MM-HIIT group than in the Row-HIIT group. MM-HIIT resulted in similar aerobic and anaerobic adaptations but greater muscle performance increases than Row-HIIT in recreationally active women. PMID:26513008

  6. Leucine-protein supplemented recovery feeding enhances subsequent cycling performance in well-trained men.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jasmine S; Ali, Ajmol; Rowlands, David S

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a practical leucine-protein, high-carbohydrate postexercise feeding regimen could improve recovery, as measured by subsequent cycling performance and mechanistic markers, relative to control feeding. In a crossover, 10 male cyclists performed 2- to 2.5-h interval training bouts on 3 consecutive evenings, ingesting either leucine-protein, high-carbohydrate nutrition (0.1/0.4/1.2/0.2 g·kg(-1)·h(-1); leucine, protein, carbohydrate, fat, respectively) or isocaloric control (0.06/1.6/0.2 g·kg(-1)·h(-1); protein, carbohydrate, fat, respectively) nutrition for 1.5 h postexercise. Throughout the experimental period diet was controlled, energy and macronutrient intake balanced, and protein intake clamped at 1.6 g·kg(-1)·day(-1). The alternate supplement was provided the next morning, thereby isolating the postexercise nutrition effect. Following 39 h of recovery, cyclists performed a repeat-sprint performance test. Postexercise leucine-protein ingestion improved mean sprint power by 2.5% (99% confidence limit, ±2.6%; p = 0.013) and reduced perceived overall tiredness during the sprints by 13% (90% confidence limit, ±9.2%), but perceptions of leg tiredness and soreness were unaffected. Before exercise, creatine-kinase concentration was lowered by 19% (90% confidence limits, ±18%), but lactate dehydrogenase and pressure-pain threshold were unaltered. There was a small reduction in anger (25% ± 18%), but other moods were unchanged. Plasma leucine (3-fold) and essential amino acid (47%) concentrations were elevated postexercise. Net nitrogen balance trended mildly negative in both conditions (mean ± SD: leucine-protein, -20 ± 46 mg·kg(-1) per 24 h; control, -25 ± 36 mg·kg(-1) per 24 h). The ingestion of a leucine-protein supplement along with other high-carbohydrate food following intense training on consecutive days enhances subsequent high-intensity endurance performance and may attenuate muscle membrane disruption in well-trained male cyclists. PMID:21609286

  7. The Effect of Online Systems Analysis Training on Aerospace Industry Business Performance: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Erlan

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace companies needed additional research on technology-based training to verify expectations when enhancing human capital through online systems analysis training. The research for online systems analysis training provided aerospace companies a means to verify expectations for systems analysis technology-based training on business…

  8. Technical Safety Appraisal of the EBR-II, Argonne National Laboratory--West

    SciTech Connect

    Schleiter, T.G.

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of the Technical Safety Appraisal Program is to strengthen DOE nuclear operations by encouraging contractors to improve compliance with DOE Orders, to incorporate industry lessons learned, and to promote excellence in safety. Thus, the appraisals address more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. The EBR-II is a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor. It is cooled with molten sodium metal and its chain reactors is perpetuated with very energetic (fast) neutrons. A total of 50 concerns with respect to EBR-II operations were identified. None of these were judged to require prompt or expedited action. No concerns were identified with respect to 54 of the 95 Performance Objectives considered in the appraisal. Programs in the areas of these Performance Objectives were considered adequate. One Noteworthy Practice was identified in the technical area of Maintenance.

  9. 76 FR 5161 - Determination Regarding National Appraisal Complaint Hotline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...Regarding National Appraisal Complaint Hotline AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC...regarding a national appraisal complaint hotline...has determined that no one national hotline presently exists that fully complies...

  10. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.63... institution is acting in a fiduciary capacity and is not required to obtain an appraisal under other law;...

  11. An Assessment of Naval ROTC Graduate Performance in Post-Accession Training. Focus on the Trained Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidt, Edward A.; Zajkowski, M. Michael

    The U.S. Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC), offered through host colleges and universities, requires enrolled midshipmen to complete all institutional requirements for the baccalaureate degree in a technical or scientific field or an academic major of interest to the Navy, and to complete specific naval science courses. This study…

  12. Effects of Acute Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Anaerobic Performance in Trained Female Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jordan M; Smith, Keyona; Moyen, Nicole E; Binns, Ashley; Gray, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal beta-alanine (BA) supplementation can improve exercise performance in males through increases in carnosine; however, females experience greater relative increases in carnosine compared to males. This potentially allows females to benefit from acute BA doses; however, effects of an acute BA dose on performance in females remain unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate how an acute dose of 1.6 g BA affects anaerobic performance in female cyclists. Twelve females (age=26.6±1.3 y) volunteered to participate in this randomized, double-blind study. All participants completed two supplement trials: 1) Placebo=34 g dextrose and 2) BA=1.6 g BA + 34 g dextrose. Thirty-minutes after supplementation, participants performed three repeated Wingate cycling tests with 2 min of active rest after each. Fatigue index, mean power, and peak power were measured during each Wingate. Lactate, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at rest, immediately after each Wingate, and after each active rest period. RPE significantly decreased (p<0.001) immediately following Wingates 1 and 2 and after each 2-min rest period for the BA trials; however, no differences were observed immediately after Wingate 3 (p>0.05). No significant supplementation effect was observed for any performance or physiological variable (p>0.05 for all variables). Findings suggest that an acute dose of BA (1.6 g) decreases RPE during anaerobic power activities in trained female cyclists. PMID:26052147

  13. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Bach, CW, Brown, AF, Kinsey, AW, and Ormsbee, MJ. Anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained motocross athletes compared with physically active men. J Strength Cond Res 29(12): 3392-3398, 2015-Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ? 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA. PMID:25992659

  14. Effects of pre-training using serious game technology on CPR performance – an exploratory quasi-experimental transfer study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiplayer virtual world (MVW) technology creates opportunities to practice medical procedures and team interactions using serious game software. This study aims to explore medical students’ retention of knowledge and skills as well as their proficiency gain after pre-training using a MVW with avatars for cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) team training. Methods Three groups of pre-clinical medical students, n?=?30, were assessed and further trained using a high fidelity full-scale medical simulator: Two groups were pre-trained 6 and 18 months before assessment. A reference control group consisting of matched peers had no MVW pre-training. The groups consisted of 8, 12 and 10 subjects, respectively. The session started and ended with assessment scenarios, with 3 training scenarios in between. All scenarios were video-recorded for analysis of CPR performance. Results The 6 months group displayed greater CPR-related knowledge than the control group, 93 (±11)% compared to 65 (±28)% (p?trained groups adhered better to guidelines than the control group; mean violations 0.2 (±0.5), 1.5 (±1.0) and 4.5 (±1.0) for the 6 months, 18 months and control group respectively. Likewise, in the 6 months group no chest compression cycles were delivered at incorrect frequencies whereas 54 (±44)% in the control group (p?training. Conclusions This study supports the beneficial effects of MVW-CPR team training with avatars as a method for pre-training, or repetitive training, on CPR-skills among medical students. PMID:23217084

  15. A Systematic Critical Appraisal of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christine A. M.; Toupin-April, Karine; Jutai, Jeffrey W.; Duffy, Ciarán M.; Rahman, Prinon; Cavallo, Sabrina; Brosseau, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this review are to: 1) appraise the methodological quality of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) providing pharmacological and/or non-pharmacological intervention recommendations, and 2) summarize the recommendations provided by the included CPGs and compare them where possible. Methods A systematic search was performed. Three trained appraisers independently evaluated the methodological quality of the CPGs using a validated and reliable instrument, the Appraisal of Guidelines in Research and Evaluation II. Six domains were considered: 1) score and purpose; 2) stakeholder involvement; 3) rigor of development; 4) clarity of presentation; 5) applicability; and 6) editorial independence. The domains consist of a total of 23 items each scored on a 7-point scale. High quality CPGs were identified if they had a domain score above 60% in rigor of development, and two other domains. Results Of the three included CPGs, the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP) and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) CPGs were considered to be of high quality, but the German Society for Pediatric Rheumatology was of lower quality. Domains one to four had high domain scores across the guidelines (mean (standard deviation)): 72.76 (13.80); 66.67 (9.81); 64.67 (7.77); and 87.00 (9.64), respectively. Lower scores were obtained for applicability (14.00 (5.57)) and editorial independence (43.44 (7.02)). Recommendations varied across CPGs due to differences in context, target audience (general practitioners, rheumatologists, and other multidisciplinary healthcare professionals) and patients’ disease presentations. Despite this variability, progression of pharmacological treatment did not conflict between CPGs. Recommendations for non-pharmacological interventions were vague and the interventions considered varied between CPGs. Conclusions Overall, recommendations were based on a paucity of evidence and weak study designs. Further research is needed on interventions in JIA, as well as higher quality CPGs to facilitate implementation of the best evidence-based recommendations in clinical practice. PMID:26356098

  16. Cardiac performance, biomarkers and gene expression studies in previously sedentary men participating in half-marathon training

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms through which exercise reduces cardiovascular disease are not fully understood. We used echocardiograms, cardiac biomarkers and gene expression to investigate cardiovascular effects associated with exercise training. Methods Nineteen sedentary men (22–37 years) completed a 17-week half-marathon training program. Serial measurements of resting heart rate, blood pressure, maximum oxygen consumption, lipids, C-reactive protein, cardiac troponin T, echocardiograms and blood for gene expression were obtained from baseline to peak training. Controls included 22 sedentary men who did not exercise. Results Among the training group, VO2 max increased from 37.1 to 42.0 ml/kg/min (p?training group identified 10 significantly over-expressed and 53 significantly under-expressed loci involved in inflammatory pathways. Dividing the training group into high and low responders based on percent change in VO2 max identified loci that differentiated these two groups at baseline and after training. Conclusion Intensive exercise training leads to significant increase in cardiac and hemodynamic performance, and significant changes in expression of genes involved in immune and inflammatory response. PMID:24552436

  17. Eccentric Viewing Training in the Home Environment: Can It Improve the Performance of Activities of Daily Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukicevic, Meri; Fitzmaurice, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Macular degeneration has a severe impact on a person's ability to perform activities of daily living. This study investigated the impact of in-home training in eccentric viewing on near acuity and performance of activities of daily living. The results suggest that eccentric viewing can ameliorate the impact of the loss of vision that is due to…

  18. Selection for optimal crew performance - Relative impact of selection and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    An empirical study supporting Helmreich's (1986) theoretical work on the distinct manner in which training and selection impact crew coordination is presented. Training is capable of changing attitudes, while selection screens for stable personality characteristics. Training appears least effective for leadership, an area strongly influenced by personality. Selection is least effective for influencing attitudes about personal vulnerability to stress, which appear to be trained in resource management programs. Because personality correlates with attitudes before and after training, it is felt that selection may be necessary even with a leadership-oriented training cirriculum.

  19. Influence of physical fitness, age, experience, and weekly training load on match performance in elite Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Fahrner, Brendan; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean; Cook, Jill L

    2013-05-01

    Season long competition schedules in football create unique challenges for coaches in balancing the requirements of recovery, developing and maintaining physical fitness, and adjusting the training load before each match. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of player characteristics (physical fitness, age, and playing experience) and weekly in-season training load on elite match performance across an Australian football season. Twenty-five players (age: 24.1 ± 3.0 years; height: 188.3 ± 7.3 cm; weight: 90.4 ± 8.3 kg) from one elite team participated in this study. Before the season, player's age, experience, height, and weight along with measures of aerobic (6-minute run) and anaerobic (6 × 40 m repeated sprints) physical fitness were recorded. Individual player training load during the season was measured using global positioning system technology for the main training session of the week. Player match performance was calculated weekly from 33 individual playing statistics. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the relationship between weekly training load and match performance and to explore the influence of player characteristics on this relationship. Playing experience (p < 0.01) and aerobic fitness (p < 0.05) displayed positive relationships with performance, whereas player age (p < 0.01) showed a negative relationship. Most players coped well with weekly variations in training load; however, the relationship was moderated by the results of the preseason repeated sprint test (p < 0.05). The adverse effect on playing performance in selected players after a more intense training session suggests that recovery from the session may be delayed in players who exhibit a better anaerobic fitness profile. PMID:22820206

  20. Effects of higher-order driving skill training on young, inexperienced drivers' on-road driving performance.

    PubMed

    Isler, Robert B; Starkey, Nicola J; Sheppard, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of training in higher-order driving skills (e.g., perceptual, motivational, insight) and vehicle handling skill training in relation to on-road driving performance, hazard perception, attitudes to risky driving and driver confidence levels in young, inexperienced drivers. Thirty-six young drivers (23 males and 13 females, average age 16.3 years), mostly on a restricted NZ driver licence, participated in a Driver Training Research camp. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three equally sized groups according to the type of driving skill training (5 days) they received: higher-order, vehicle handling or control (no training). Professional driver assessors conducted a comprehensive driving assessment before (Baseline) and after the training (Post Training). At both time points, participants also carried out a computerised hazard perception task, and completed self-report questionnaires to assess attitudes to risky driving and driver confidence. In terms of on road driving, the participants who received higher-order driving skill training showed a statistically significant improvement in relation to visual search and the composite driving measure. This was accompanied by an improvement in hazard perception, safer attitudes to close following and to dangerous overtaking and a decrease in driving related confidence. The participants who received vehicle handling skill training showed significant improvements in relation to their on-road direction control, speed choice and the composite driving score. However, this group showed no improvement in hazard perception, attitudes to risky driving or driver confidence. The findings will be discussed in the context of driver training as a viable crash prevention intervention in regard to young, inexperienced drivers. PMID:21658510

  1. Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hee; Kwak, Tong-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent of improvement of food safety knowledge and practices of employee through food safety training. Employee knowledge and practice for food safety were evaluated before and after the food safety training program. The training program and questionnaires for evaluating employee knowledge and practices concerning food safety, and a checklist for determining food safety performance of restaurants were developed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Twelve restaurants participated in this study. We split them into two groups: the intervention group with training, and the control group without food safety training. Employee knowledge of the intervention group also showed a significant improvement in their score, increasing from 49.3 before the training to 66.6 after training. But in terms of employee practices and the sanitation performance, there were no significant increases after the training. From these results, we recommended that the more job-specific and hand-on training materials for restaurant employees should be developed and more continuous implementation of the food safety training and integration of employee appraisal program with the outcome of safety training were needed. PMID:20198210

  2. Altering the rest interval during high-intensity interval training does not affect muscle or performance adaptations.

    PubMed

    Edge, Johann; Eynon, Nir; McKenna, Michael J; Goodman, Craig A; Harris, Roger C; Bishop, David J

    2013-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that exercise-induced changes in metabolites and ions are crucial in the adaptation of contracting muscle. We tested this hypothesis by comparing adaptations to two different interval-training protocols (differing only in the rest duration between intervals), which provoked different perturbations in muscle metabolites and acid-base status. Prior to and immediately after training, 12 women performed the following tests: (1) a graded exercise test to determine peak oxygen uptake (V(O2)); (2) a high-intensity exercise bout (followed 60 s later by a repeated-sprint-ability test; and (3) a repeat of the high-intensity exercise bout alone with muscle biopsies pre-exercise, immediately postexercise and after 60 s of recovery. Subjects performed 5 weeks (3 days per week) of training, with either a short (1 min; HIT-1) or a long rest period (3 min; HIT-3) between intervals; training intensity and volume were matched. Muscle [H(+)] (155 ± 15 versus 125 ± 8 nmol l(-1); P < 0.05) and muscle lactate content (84.2 ± 7.9 versus 46.9 ± 3.1 mmol (g wet weight)(-1)) were both higher after HIT-1, while muscle phosphocreatine (PCr) content (52.8 ± 8.3 versus 63.4 ± 9.8 mmol (g wet weight)(-1)) was lower. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the increases in , repeated-sprint performance or muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase content. Following training, both groups had a significant decrease in postexercise muscle [H(+)] and lactate content, but not postexercise ATP or PCr. Postexercise PCr resynthesis increased following both training methods. In conclusion, intense interval training results in marked improvements in muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase content, PCr resynthesis and . However, manipulation of the rest period during intense interval training did not affect these changes. PMID:22923232

  3. Risk Appraisal in Scripted Acquaintance Rape Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Doris J.

    Cognitive appraisals are believed to influence how women judge or appraise risk in acquaintance interactions which lead to sexual assault. Ways in which men and women judge the presence of risk factors in scripted acquaintance rape scenarios, and whether alcohol was a significant factor in assessing risk, are examined in this paper. Participants…

  4. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  5. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  6. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  7. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  8. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  9. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  10. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  11. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  12. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  13. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  14. Teaching Critical Appraisal of Articles on Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Pavel; Hoschl, Cyril; Volavka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatrists and other physicians sometimes read publications superficially, relying excessively on abstracts. The authors addressed this problem by teaching critical appraisal of individual articles. Method: The authors developed a 23-item appraisal instrument to assess articles in the area of psychopharmacology. The results were…

  15. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Appraisal and Pricing § 223.222...

  16. 7 CFR 356.2 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisement. 356.2 Section 356.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FORFEITURE PROCEDURES § 356.2 Appraisement. Promptly following the seizure or...

  17. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal requirements. 762.127 Section 762.127 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.127 Appraisal requirements. (a) General. The...

  18. 7 CFR 356.2 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisement. 356.2 Section 356.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FORFEITURE PROCEDURES § 356.2 Appraisement. Promptly following the seizure or...

  19. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards...

  20. Performance adaptive training control strategy for recovering wrist movements in stroke patients: a preliminary, feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last two decades robot training in neuromotor rehabilitation was mainly focused on shoulder-elbow movements. Few devices were designed and clinically tested for training coordinated movements of the wrist, which are crucial for achieving even the basic level of motor competence that is necessary for carrying out ADLs (activities of daily life). Moreover, most systems of robot therapy use point-to-point reaching movements which tend to emphasize the pathological tendency of stroke patients to break down goal-directed movements into a number of jerky sub-movements. For this reason we designed a wrist robot with a range of motion comparable to that of normal subjects and implemented a self-adapting training protocol for tracking smoothly moving targets in order to facilitate the emergence of smoothness in the motor control patterns and maximize the recovery of the normal RoM (range of motion) of the different DoFs (degrees of Freedom). Methods The IIT-wrist robot is a 3 DoFs light exoskeleton device, with direct-drive of each DoF and a human-like range of motion for Flexion/Extension (FE), Abduction/Adduction (AA) and Pronation/Supination (PS). Subjects were asked to track a variable-frequency oscillating target using only one wrist DoF at time, in such a way to carry out a progressive splinting therapy. The RoM of each DoF was angularly scanned in a staircase-like fashion, from the "easier" to the "more difficult" angular position. An Adaptive Controller evaluated online performance parameters and modulated both the assistance and the difficulty of the task in order to facilitate smoother and more precise motor command patterns. Results Three stroke subjects volunteered to participate in a preliminary test session aimed at verify the acceptability of the device and the feasibility of the designed protocol. All of them were able to perform the required task. The wrist active RoM of motion was evaluated for each patient at the beginning and at the end of the test therapy session and the results suggest a positive trend. Conclusion The positive outcomes of the preliminary tests motivate the planning of a clinical trial and provide experimental evidence for defining appropriate inclusion/exclusion criteria. PMID:19968873

  1. Playing vs. nonplaying aerobic training in tennis: physiological and performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players. PMID:25816346

  2. Training to Enhance Design Team Performance: A Cure for Tunnel Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, James W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Design Team performance is a function of the quality and degree of academic training and the cumulative, learned experience of the individual members of the team. Teamwork, leadership, and communications certainly are factors that affect the measure of the performance of the team, but they are not addressed here. This paper focuses on accelerating the learned experience of team members and describes an organizational approach that can significantly increase the effective experience level for any engineering design team. The performance measure of the whole team can be increased by increasing the engineering disciplines' cross awareness of each other and by familiarizing them with their affect at the system level. Discipline engineers know their own discipline well, but typically are not intimately familiar with their technical interaction with and dependencies on all the other disciplines of engineering. These dependencies are design integration functions and are worked out well by the discipline engineers as long as they are involved in the design of types of systems that they have experience with.

  3. Playing vs. Nonplaying Aerobic Training in Tennis: Physiological and Performance Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C.; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players. PMID:25816346

  4. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: a closer look at task switching and dual-task performance.

    PubMed

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician) were matched on age and socioeconomic status and administered task switching and dual-task paradigms. Results demonstrated reduced global and local switch costs in musicians compared with non-musicians, suggesting that musical training can contribute to increased efficiency in the ability to shift flexibly between mental sets. On dual-task performance, musicians also outperformed non-musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest additive effects of both types of experience. These findings demonstrate that long-term musical training is associated with improvements in task switching and dual-task performance. PMID:25289704

  5. Performance pay improves engagement, progress, and satisfaction in computer-based job skills training of low-income adults.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training program for low-income, unemployed adults. Participants worked on typing and keypad programs for 7 months. Participants randomly assigned to Group A (n?=?23) earned hourly and productivity pay on the typing program (productivity pay), but earned only equalized hourly pay on the keypad program (hourly pay). Group B (n?=?19) participants had the opposite contingencies. Participants worked more on, advanced further on, and preferred their productivity pay program. These results show that monetary incentives can increase performance in a job-skills training program, and indicate that payment in adult education programs should be delivered contingent on performance in the training program instead of simply on attendance. PMID:24114155

  6. Evaluating the Impact of a Performance-Based Methodology on Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazbour, Richard R.; McGee, Heather M.; Mooney, Timothy; Masica, Laura; Brinkerhoff, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    Transfer of training is the degree to which trainees can apply the knowledge, skills, and attitudes gained in training to the job. Currently only between 5% and 20% of what is learned in training is ever applied on the job. At this time, little is known about the effects of work environment factors, such as support, feedback, and goal setting, on…

  7. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  8. Narrative Balance Management in an Intelligent Biosafety Training Application for Improving User Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Nahum; Sanchez-Ruiz, Antonio; Cavazza, Marc; Shigematsu, Mika; Prendinger, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional virtual environments in training applications supports the simulation of complex scenarios and realistic object behaviour. While these environments have the potential to provide an advanced training experience to students, it is difficult to design and manage a training session in real time due to the number of…

  9. Performance Audit Report: Reviewing Issues Related to Community Colleges' Customized Employee Training Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawhon, Joe; Claassen, Scott; Schmitt, LeAnn; Rolfstad, Trish

    This document is a report on audit findings on issues related to 1997 Kansas community college customized employee training courses. Twenty-eight community college customized employee training classes were reviewed in the audit. Findings showed that: (1) 16 of 19 community colleges provided customized employee training courses for college credit;…

  10. Appraisal of Meconium at Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Bosco A.; Thompson, Penelope

    1992-01-01

    A critical appraisal of the scientific literature on managing mesconium in labor identified 15 studies which were used to evaluate intervention strategies. Only four were randomized trials: two on the use of amnioinfusion in labor, one on the technique of bulb versus DeLee catheter suction of the newborn, and one on the need for endotracheal intubation and suction in meconium-stained neonates. Current practice is dictated by the most favorable tradeoff between benefit and risk because of limited scientific evidence. PMID:21221284

  11. Heliox breathing equally influences respiratory mechanics and cycling performance in trained males and females.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Sabrina S; Dominelli, Paolo B; Sporer, Benjamin C; Koehle, Michael S; Sheel, A William

    2015-02-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that inspiring a low-density gas mixture (helium-oxygen; HeO2) would minimize mechanical ventilatory constraints and preferentially increase exercise performance in females relative to males. Trained male (n = 11, 31 yr) and female (n = 10, 26 yr) cyclists performed an incremental cycle test to exhaustion to determine maximal aerobic capacity (V?o2max; male = 61, female = 56 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). A randomized, single-blinded crossover design was used for two experimental days where subjects completed a 5-km cycling time trial breathing humidified compressed room air or HeO2 (21% O2:balance He). Subjects were instrumented with an esophageal balloon for the assessment of respiratory mechanics. During the time trial, we assessed the ability of HeO2 to alleviate mechanical ventilatory constraints in three ways: 1) expiratory flow limitation, 2) utilization of ventilatory capacity, and 3) the work of breathing. We found that HeO2 significantly reduced the work of breathing, increased the size of the maximal flow-volume envelope, and reduced the fractional utilization of the maximal ventilatory capacity equally between men and women. The primary finding of this study was that inspiring HeO2 was associated with a statistically significant performance improvement of 0.7% (3.2 s) for males and 1.5% (8.1 s) for females (P < 0.05); however, there were no sex differences with respect to improvement in time trial performance (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that the extent of sex-based differences in airway anatomy, work of breathing, and expiratory flow limitation is not great enough to differentially affect whole body exercise performance. PMID:25429095

  12. Training-overtraining: performance, and hormone levels, after a defined increase in training volume versus intensity in experienced middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, M; Gastmann, U; Petersen, K G; Bachl, N; Seidel, A; Khalaf, A N; Fischer, S; Keul, J

    1992-01-01

    Performance and hormones were determined in eight middle- and nine long-distance runners after an increase in training volume (ITV, February 1989) or intensity (ITI, February 1990). Seven runners participated in both studies. The objective was to cause an overtraining syndrome. The mean training volume of 85.9 km week-1 increased within 3 weeks to 176.6 km week-1 during ITV and 96-98% of training volume was performed as long-distance runs at mean(s.d.) 67(8)% of maximum capacity. Speed endurance, high-speed and interval runs averaging 9 km week-1 increased within 3 weeks to 22.7 km during ITI, and the total volume increased from 61.6 to 84.7 km. A plateau in endurance performance and decrease in maximum performance occurred during ITV, probably due to overtraining, with performance incompetence over months. Nocturnal catecholamine excretion decreased markedly (47-53%), contrary to exercise-related plasma catecholamine responses, which increased. Resting and exercise-related cortisol and aldosterone levels decreased. Improvement in endurance and maximum performance occurred during ITI indicating a failure to cause an overtraining syndrome in ITI. Decrease in noctural catecholamine excretion was clearly lower (9-26%), exercise-related catecholamine responses showed a significant decrease, cortisol and aldosterone levels remained almost constant, exercise-related prolactin levels decreased slightly. There were no differences in insulin, C-peptide, free testosterone, somatotropic hormone (STH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The decrease in nocturnal catecholamine excretion during ITV might indicate a decrease in intrinsic sympathetic activity in exhausted sportsmen. But it remains open whether this reflected a central nervous system incompetence. PMID:1490214

  13. Behavioral and Neural Plasticity of Ocular Motor Control: Changes in Performance and fMRI Activity Following Antisaccade Training

    PubMed Central

    Jamadar, Sharna D.; Johnson, Beth P.; Clough, Meaghan; Egan, Gary F.; Fielding, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    The antisaccade task provides a model paradigm that sets the inhibition of a reflexively driven behavior against the volitional control of a goal-directed behavior. The stability and adaptability of antisaccade performance was investigated in 23 neurologically healthy individuals. Behavior and brain function were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and immediately following 2 weeks of daily antisaccade training. Participants performed antisaccade trials faster with no change in directional error rate following 2 weeks of training; however this increased speed came at the cost of the spatial accuracy of the saccade (gain) which became more hypometric following training. Training on the antisaccade task resulted in increases in fMRI activity in the fronto-basal ganglia-parietal-cerebellar ocular motor network. Following training, antisaccade latency was positively associated with fMRI activity in the frontal and supplementary eye fields, anterior cingulate and intraparietal sulcus; antisaccade gain was negatively associated with fMRI activity in supplementary eye fields, anterior cingulate, intraparietal sulcus, and cerebellar vermis. In sum, the results suggest that following training, larger antisaccade latency is associated with larger activity in fronto-parietal-cerebellar ocular motor regions, and smaller antisaccade gain is associated with larger activity in fronto-parietal ocular motor regions.

  14. Medical Student Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Sampognaro, P.J.; Mitchell, S.L.; Weeks, S.R.; Khalifian, S.; Markman, T.M.; Uebel, L.W.; Dattilo, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Pre-rounding is essential to preparing for morning rounds. Despite its importance, pre-rounding is rarely formally taught within the medical school curriculum and more often informally learned by modeling residents. The evolution of mobile applications provides opportunities to optimize this process. Objectives To evaluate three options available to medical students while pre-rounding and promote adoption of mobile resources in clinical care. Methods Six medical students formed the evaluation cohort. Students were surveyed to assess pre-rounding practices. Participants utilized paper-based pre-rounding templates for two weeks followed by two weeks of the electronic note-taking service EvernoteTM. A review of mobile applications on the iTunesTM and Google PlayTM stores was performed, with each application informally reviewed by a single student. The application ScutsheetTM was selected for formal review by all students. Data was collected from narrative responses supplied by students throughout the evaluation periods and aggregated to assess strengths and limitations of each application. Results Pre-study responses demonstrated two consistent processes: verbal sign-out of overnight events and template use to organize patient information. The paper-based template was praised for its organization and familiarity amongst residents, but perceived as limited by the requirement of re-copying data into the hospital’s electronic medical record (EMR). EvernoteTM excelled due to compatibility across multiple operating systems, including accessibility from clinical workstations and ability to copy notes into the hospital’s EMR. ScutsheetTM allowed for retention of data across multiple hospital days, but was limited by inability to export data or modify the electronic template. Aggregated user feedback identified the abilities to customize templates and copy information into the EMR as two prevailing characteristics that enhanced the efficiency of pre-rounding. Discussion Mobile devices offer the potential to enhance pre-rounding efficiency for medical students and residents. A customizable EvernoteTM-based system is described in sufficient detail for reproduction by interested students. PMID:24155792

  15. Effects of the Training Dataset Characteristics on the Performance of Nine Species Distribution Models: Application to Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    PubMed Central

    Dupin, Maxime; Reynaud, Philippe; Jarošík, Vojt?ch; Baker, Richard; Brunel, Sarah; Eyre, Dominic; Pergl, Jan; Makowski, David

    2011-01-01

    Many distribution models developed to predict the presence/absence of invasive alien species need to be fitted to a training dataset before practical use. The training dataset is characterized by the number of recorded presences/absences and by their geographical locations. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the training dataset characteristics on model performance and to compare the relative importance of three factors influencing model predictive capability; size of training dataset, stage of the biological invasion, and choice of input variables. Nine models were assessed for their ability to predict the distribution of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a major pest of corn in North America that has recently invaded Europe. Twenty-six training datasets of various sizes (from 10 to 428 presence records) corresponding to two different stages of invasion (1955 and 1980) and three sets of input bioclimatic variables (19 variables, six variables selected using information on insect biology, and three linear combinations of 19 variables derived from Principal Component Analysis) were considered. The models were fitted to each training dataset in turn and their performance was assessed using independent data from North America and Europe. The models were ranked according to the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve and the likelihood ratio. Model performance was highly sensitive to the geographical area used for calibration; most of the models performed poorly when fitted to a restricted area corresponding to an early stage of the invasion. Our results also showed that Principal Component Analysis was useful in reducing the number of model input variables for the models that performed poorly with 19 input variables. DOMAIN, Environmental Distance, MAXENT, and Envelope Score were the most accurate models but all the models tested in this study led to a substantial rate of mis-classification. PMID:21701579

  16. Hypotensive effects and performance responses between different resistance training intensities and exercise orders in apparently health women.

    PubMed

    Bentes, Claudio M; Costa, Pablo B; Neto, Gabriel R; Costa e Silva, Gabriel V; de Salles, Belmiro F; Miranda, Humberto L; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2015-05-01

    To compare the hypotensive effect and performance responses between different resistance training intensities and different exercise orders in apparently healthy women, thirteen apparently healthy women performed four resistance training sessions in randomized order. One group performed the resistance training exercises with 60% of 1RM (SeqA60%): leg press (LG), chest press (CP), leg extension (LE), lat pull down (PD), leg curl (LC) and biceps curl (BC). Another group performed the resistance training exercises with 80% of 1RM (SeqA80%) with the same exercise order. Two other groups performed the resistance training exercises with 60% (SeqB60%) and 80% of 1RM (SeqB80%), however, in another sequence of exercises: CP, PD, BC or LG, LE, LC. The blood pressure was measured before, and at every 15 min until 60 min postexercise. The different intensities and different exercise orders resulted in a significant hypotensive effect in systolic and diastolic blood pressures that remained until 15 min. In addition, significant reductions in systolic blood pressure were observed at 30 min for SeqA in both intensities and for SeqB with intensities of 80% of 1RM. However, there was no significant difference between intensities and different prescription orders (P>0·05). Although the current study showed significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures after different resistance training sessions, the manipulation of intensity and exercise sequence, such as those used in the present study, was not able to generate significant changes in the duration and magnitude of hypotensive effect. PMID:24690383

  17. Dual Motor-Cognitive Virtual Reality Training Impacts Dual-Task Performance in Freezing of Gait.

    PubMed

    Killane, Isabelle; Fearon, Conor; Newman, Louise; McDonnell, Conor; Waechter, Saskia M; Sons, Kristian; Lynch, Timothy; Reilly, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG), an episodic gait disturbance characterized by the inability to generate effective stepping, occurs in more than half of Parkinson's disease patients. It is associated with both executive dysfunction and attention and becomes most evident during dual tasking (performing two tasks simultaneously). This study examined the effect of dual motor-cognitive virtual reality training on dual-task performance in FOG. Twenty community dwelling participants with Parkinson's disease (13 with FOG, 7 without FOG) participated in a pre-assessment, eight 20-minute intervention sessions, and a post-assessment. The intervention consisted of a virtual reality maze (DFKI, Germany) through which participants navigated by stepping-in-place on a balance board (Nintendo, Japan) under time pressure. This was combined with a cognitive task (Stroop test), which repeatedly divided participants' attention. The primary outcome measures were pre- and post-intervention differences in motor (stepping time, symmetry, rhythmicity) and cognitive (accuracy, reaction time) performance during single- and dual-tasks. Both assessments consisted of 1) a single cognitive task 2) a single motor task, and 3) a dual motor-cognitive task. Following the intervention, there was significant improvement in dual-task cognitive and motor parameters (stepping time and rhythmicity), dual-task effect for those with FOG and a noteworthy improvement in FOG episodes. These improvements were less significant for those without FOG. This is the first study to show benefit of a dual motor-cognitive approach on dual-task performance in FOG. Advances in such virtual reality interventions for home use could substantially improve the quality of life for patients who experience FOG. PMID:26394439

  18. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  19. Position statement—altitude training for improving team-sport players’ performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-01-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213

  20. Whole-Body Vibration Training Effect on Physical Performance and Obesity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25317067

  1. Whole-body vibration training effect on physical performance and obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25317067

  2. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  3. An Alternative Method to Forced Distribution as a Means of Evaluating Employee Performance

    E-print Network

    Burger, Shannon M.

    2006-07-28

    Performance appraisals, if done correctly, are an effective way for management to provide feedback to their employees on their job performance. Performance appraisals were developed to assist management with coaching and counseling...

  4. Assessing the implementation process and outcomes of newly introduced assistant roles: a qualitative study to examine the utility of the Calderdale Framework as an appraisal tool.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan; Moran, Anna; Wiseman, Leah; Pighills, Alison C; Murphy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Internationally, the health workforce has undergone rapid transformation to help meet growing staffing demands and population requirements. Several tools have been developed to support workforce change processes. The Calderdale Framework (CF) is one such tool designed to facilitate competency-based training by engaging team members in a seven step process involving awareness raising, service and task analysis, competency identification, establishing support systems, training, and sustaining. This paper explores the utility of the CF as an appraisal tool to assess whether adherence to the tool influences outcomes. The CF was applied retrospectively to three complete evaluations of allied health assistant role introduction: a new podiatry assistant role (Australia), speech pathology assistant (Australia), and occupational therapy assistant practitioner role (UK). Adherence to the CF was associated with more effective and efficient use of the role, role flexibility and career development opportunities for assistants, and role sustainability. Services are less likely to succeed in their workforce change process if they fail to plan for and use a structured approach to change, assign targeted leadership, undertake staff engagement and consultation, and perform an initial service analysis. The CF provides a clear template for appraising the implementation of new roles and highlights the potential consequences of not adhering to particular steps in the implementation process. PMID:23271913

  5. Effect of cycling cadence on subsequent 3 km running performance in well trained triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, T; Vercruyssen, F; Grego, F; Hausswirth, C; Lepers, R; Vallier, J; Brisswalter, J; Vleck, V

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of three cycling cadences on a subsequent 3000 m track running performance in well trained triathletes. Methods: Nine triathletes completed a maximal cycling test, three cycle-run succession sessions (20 minutes of cycling + a 3000 m run) in random order, and one isolated run (3000 m). During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessions, subjects had to maintain for 20 minutes one of the three cycling cadences corresponding to 60, 80, and 100 rpm. The metabolic intensity during these cycling bouts corresponded approximately to the cycling competition intensity of our subjects during a sprint triathlon (> 80% O2max). Results: A significant effect of the prior cycling exercise was found on middle distance running performance without any cadence effect (625.7 (40.1), 630.0 (44.8), 637.7 (57.9), and 583.0 (28.3) seconds for the 60 rpm run, 80 rpm run, 100 rpm run, and isolated run respectively). However, during the first 500 m of the run, stride rate and running velocity were significantly higher after cycling at 80 or 100 rpm than at 60 rpm (p<0.05). Furthermore, the choice of 60 rpm was associated with a higher fraction of O2max sustained during running compared with the other conditions (p<0.05). Conclusions: The results confirm the alteration in running performance completed after the cycling event compared with the isolated run. However, no significant effect of the cadence was observed within the range usually used by triathletes. PMID:12663359

  6. Balance Performance in Irradiated Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer with and without Tai Chi Qigong Training.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Louisa M Y; Tsang, William W N; Leung, Joyce C Y; Charm, Caroline Y C; Luk, W S; Chow, Lina P Y; Ng, Shamay S M

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to compare the one-leg-stance time and the six-minute walk distance among TC Qigong-trained NPC survivors, untrained NPC survivors, and healthy individuals. Twenty-five survivors of NPC with TC Qigong experience, 27 survivors of NPC without TC Qigong experience, and 68 healthy individuals formed the NPC-TC Qigong group, NPC-control group, and healthy-control group, respectively. The one-leg-stance (OLS) timed test was conducted to assess the single-leg standing balance performance of the participants in four conditions: (1) standing on a stable surface with eyes open, (2) standing on a compliant surface with eyes open, (3) standing on a stable surface with eyes closed, and (4) standing on a compliant surface with eyes closed. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) was used to determine the functional balance performance of the participants. Results showed that the NPC-control group had a shorter OLS time in all of the visual and supporting surface conditions than the healthy control group (P < 0.05). The OLS time of the TC Qigong-NPC group was comparable to that of the healthy control group in the somatosensory-challenging condition (condition 3) (P = 0.168) only. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the 6MWT distance among the three groups (P > 0.05). TC Qigong may be a rehabilitation exercise that improves somatosensory function and OLS balance performance among survivors of NPC. PMID:25295068

  7. Motor intensive anti-gravity training improves performance in dynamic balance related tasks in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Malling, Anne Sofie B; Jensen, Bente R

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the effect of training on motor performance in persons with Parkinson's disease (PDP) is dependent on motor intensity. However, training of high motor intensity can be hard to apply in PDP due to e.g. bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. Therefore, the aim was to study the effect of motor intensive training performed in a safe anti-gravity environment using lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) technology on performance during dynamic balance related tasks. Thirteen male PDP went through an 8-week control period followed by 8 weeks of motor intensive antigravity training. Seventeen healthy males constituted a control group (CON). Performance during a five repetition sit-to-stand test (STS; sagittal plane) and a dynamic postural balance test (DPB; transversal plane) was evaluated. Effect measures were completion time, functional rates of force development, directional changes and force variance. STS completion time improved by 24% to the level of CON which was explained by shorter sitting-time and standing-time and larger numeric rate of force change during lowering to the chair, indicating faster vertical directional change and improved relaxation. DPB completion time tended to improve and was accompanied by improvements of functional medial and lateral rates of force development and higher vertical force variance during DPB. Our results suggest that the performance improvements may relate to improved inter-limb coordination. It is concluded that 8 weeks of motor intensive training in a safe LBPP environment improved performance during dynamic balance related tasks in PDP. PMID:26444077

  8. Side Effects of Physical Training: Association of Fitness Improvement to Espirt de Corps, Performance, Health, and Attrition in Marine Corps Basic Training. Report No. 83-37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, R. R., Jr.

    Physical training is a significant element of Marine Corps basic training which may affect nonfitness basic training outcomes in addition to improving fitness. If so, physical training side effects should be considered when designing and evaluating physical training programs. This study capitalized on naturally occurring platoon differences in…

  9. The Relationship Between Team Sex Composition and Team Performance in the Context of Training Complex, Psychomotor, Team–based Tasks 

    E-print Network

    Jarrett, Steven

    2011-02-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of team sex composition in team training performance and team processes in the context of a complex, psychomotor, information–processing task. With the growing number of women in the workplace...

  10. Performance Pay Improves Engagement, Progress, and Satisfaction in Computer-Based Job Skills Training of Low-Income Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training

  11. Automated Classification of Circulating Tumor Cells and the Impact of Interobsever Variability on Classifier Training and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Carl-Magnus; Hübler, Ron; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Application of personalized medicine requires integration of different data to determine each patient's unique clinical constitution. The automated analysis of medical data is a growing field where different machine learning techniques are used to minimize the time-consuming task of manual analysis. The evaluation, and often training, of automated classifiers requires manually labelled data as ground truth. In many cases such labelling is not perfect, either because of the data being ambiguous even for a trained expert or because of mistakes. Here we investigated the interobserver variability of image data comprising fluorescently stained circulating tumor cells and its effect on the performance of two automated classifiers, a random forest and a support vector machine. We found that uncertainty in annotation between observers limited the performance of the automated classifiers, especially when it was included in the test set on which classifier performance was measured. The random forest classifier turned out to be resilient to uncertainty in the training data while the support vector machine's performance is highly dependent on the amount of uncertainty in the training data. We finally introduced the consensus data set as a possible solution for evaluation of automated classifiers that minimizes the penalty of interobserver variability. PMID:26504857

  12. The Perception of "Training Availability" among Certified Nurse Aides: Relationship to CNA Performance, Turnover, Attitudes, Burnout, and Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatts, Dale E.; Cready, Cynthia; Swan, James; Shen, Yuying

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the certified nurse aides' (CNAs) perception that "training is always available when needed" and the CNAs' performance, turnover, attitudes, burnout, and empowerment. The data came from a larger study where a self-administered survey instrument was completed by 359 CNAs working in…

  13. Effects of Imagery Training on Cognitive Performance and Use of Physiological Measures as an Assessment Tool of Mental Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadelis, Christos; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Albani, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of motor imagery training on cognitive performance was examined and the physiological mechanisms involved in the contribution of mental practice to motor learning were considered. The subject's mental effort during motor imagery was assessed by using psychophysiological measures and particularly eye blink activity as an…

  14. The Effect of the Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program on Increasing Enrollment and Performance on Advanced Placement Science Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Susan Brady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the National Math and Science Initiative's Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program (APTIP) on the number of students taking AP science courses and their performance. The study evaluated 39 schools over a six-year period in six states that participate in the APTIP. The…

  15. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

  16. The Effect of LEGO Training on Pupils' School Performance in Mathematics, Problem Solving Ability and Attitude: Swedish Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Shakir; Lindh, Jorgen; Shukur, Ghazi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of one year of regular "LEGO" training on pupils' performances in schools. The underlying pedagogical perspective is the constructivist theory, where the main idea is that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the pupil by active learning. The investigation has been made in two steps. The…

  17. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician)…

  18. The Effects of Training in Peer Assessment on University Students' Writing Performance and Peer Assessment Quality in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Yun

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of peer-assessment skill training on students' writing performance, the quality of students' feedback, the quality (validity and reliability) of student-generated scores, and the students' satisfaction with the peer assessment method in an online environment. A quasi-experimental design was employed…

  19. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P < 0.01) than in UT (+48%) and ST (+41%), but similar to ET (+1%). Fat percentage was lower (P < 0.05) in SP (-6.5% points) than UT but not ET and ST. Heart rate reserve was higher (P < 0.05) in SP (104 ± 16 bpm) than UT (+21 bpm) and ST (+24 bpm), but similar to ET (+2 bpm), whereas VO2max was not significantly different in SP (30.2 ± 4.9 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1)) compared to UT (+14%) and ST (+9%), but lower (P < 0.05) than ET (-22%). The number of capillaries per fibre was higher (P < 0.05) in SP than UT (53%) and ST (42%) but similar to ET. SP had less type IIx fibres than UT (-12% points). In conclusion, the exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes. PMID:24787613

  20. Performance, throughput, and cost of in-home training for the Army Reserve: Using asynchronous computer conferencing as an alternative to resident training

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.A. ); Ashworth, R.L. Jr.; Phelps, R.H. ); Byers, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Asynchronous computer conferencing (ACC) was investigated as an alternative to resident training for the Army Reserve Component (RC). Specifically, the goals were to (1) evaluate the performance and throughput of ACC as compared with traditional Resident School instruction and (2) determine the cost-effectiveness of developing and implementing ACC. Fourteen RC students took a module of the Army Engineer Officer Advanced Course (EOAC) via ACC. Course topics included Army doctrine, technical engineering subjects, leadership, and presentation skills. Resident content was adapted for presentation via ACC. The programs of instruction for ACC and the equivalent resident course were identical; only the media used for presentation were changed. Performance on tests, homework, and practical exercises; self-assessments of learning; throughput; and cost data wee the measures of interest. Comparison data were collected on RC students taking the course in residence. Results indicated that there were no performance differences between the two groups. Students taking the course via ACC perceived greater learning benefit than did students taking the course in residence. Resident throughput was superior to ACC throughput, both in terms of numbers of students completing and time to complete the course. In spite of this fact, however, ACC was more cost-effective than resident training.

  1. Training to Improve New Product Sales Performance: The Case of Samsung in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Frank Q.; Yi, Hong; Zhai, Nanji

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a case study conducted with over 8,000 Samsung salespeople in the Chinese market. Using research-oriented, evidence-based, and systematic approaches, training professionals contributed to Samsung's business outcomes at multiple levels. The case highlights the valuable impacts of training on salespeople's behaviors and…

  2. The Laborers-AGC Construction Skills Training Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippie, John L.; Rice, Eric

    Patterned after a previously successful Laborers-Associated General Contractors model named the Construction Skills Training Program, a demonstration project was implemented at five regional training centers. At least eight courses were created, combined, or revised. Four full-length audiovisual support pieces were completed. Three courses were…

  3. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236

  4. Effect of Progressive Volume-Based Overload During Plyometric Training on Explosive and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Burgos, Carlos; Andrade, David C; Zapata, Daniel; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Baez, Eduardo I; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Peñailillo, Luis; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of progressive volume-based overload with constant volume-based overload on muscle explosive and endurance performance adaptations during a biweekly short-term (i.e., 6 weeks) plyometric training intervention in young soccer players. Three groups of young soccer players (age 13.0 ± 2.3 years) were divided into: control (CG; n = 8) and plyometric training with (PPT; n = 8) and without (NPPT; n = 8) a progressive increase in volume (i.e., 16 jumps per leg per week, with an initial volume of 80 jumps per leg each session). Bilateral and unilateral horizontal and vertical countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), 10-m sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1) were measured. Although both experimental groups significantly increased CMJA, RSI20, CODS, and endurance performance, only PPT showed a significant improvement in MKV and 10-m sprint time. In addition, only PPT showed a significantly higher performance improvement in jumping, MKV, and Yo-Yo IR1 compared with CG. Also, PPT showed higher meaningful improvement compared with NPPT in all (except 1) jump performance measures. Furthermore, although PPT involved a higher total volume compared with NPPT, training efficiency (i.e., percentage change in performance/total jump volume) was similar between groups. Our results show that PPT and NPPT ensured significant improvement in muscle explosive and endurance performance measures. However, a progressive increase in plyometric training volume seems more advantageous to induce soccer-specific performance improvements. PMID:25559905

  5. 32 CFR 644.42 - Appraisal report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...geographic location of the appraised property and the comparative parcels analyzed. 20. DETAIL OF THE COMPARATIVE DATA. 21. PLOT PLAN. 22. FLOOR PLANS. (When needed to explain the value estimate.) 23. OTHER PERTINENT EXHIBITS. 24....

  6. Health Risk Appraisal Use at Headquarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borcherding, Donald

    1997-01-01

    Specific topics which relate to the NASA Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) include: (1) What is a HRA?; (2) Risk factors; (3) Program use at NASA Headquarters; (4) An alternative approach; (5) Group HRA reports; and (6) Future considerations and conclusion.

  7. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

  8. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

  9. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

  10. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

  11. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

  12. Multivariate Predictors of Music Perception and Appraisal by Adult Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Kate; Oleson, Jacob; Knutson, John F.; Breheny, Patrick; Driscoll, Virginia; Olszewski, Carol

    2009-01-01

    The research examined whether performance by adult cochlear implant recipients on a variety of recognition and appraisal tests derived from real-world music could be predicted from technological, demographic, and life experience variables, as well as speech recognition scores. A representative sample of 209 adults implanted between 1985 and 2006 participated. Using multiple linear regression models and generalized linear mixed models, sets of optimal predictor variables were selected that effectively predicted performance on a test battery that assessed different aspects of music listening. These analyses established the importance of distinguishing between the accuracy of music perception and the appraisal of musical stimuli when using music listening as an index of implant success. Importantly, neither device type nor processing strategy predicted music perception or music appraisal. Speech recognition performance was not a strong predictor of music perception, and primarily predicted music perception when the test stimuli included lyrics. Additionally, limitations in the utility of speech perception in predicting musical perception and appraisal underscore the utility of music perception as an alternative outcome measure for evaluating implant outcomes. Music listening background, residual hearing (i.e., hearing aid use), cognitive factors, and some demographic factors predicted several indices of perceptual accuracy or appraisal of music. PMID:18669126

  13. [The influence of vibration training in combination with general magnetotherapy on dynamics of performance efficiency in athletes].

    PubMed

    Mikheev, A A; Volchkova, O A; Voronitski?, N E

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of a combined treatment including vibrostimulation and magnetotherapy on the working capacity of athletes. Participants of the study were 8 male judo wrestlers. It was shown that implementation of a specialized training program comprising seances of vibration loading and general magnetotherapy 40 and 60 min in duration respectively during 3 consecutive days produced marked beneficial effect on the hormonal status of the athletes. Specifically, the three-day long treatment resulted in a significant increase of blood cortisol and testosterone levels considered to be an objective sign of improved performance parameters in athletes engaged in strength and speed sports. The optimal length of vibration training during 3 days of specialized training is estimated at 20 to 40 minutes supplemented by general magnetotherapy for 60 minutes. PMID:21328901

  14. The effects of 4 weeks of jump training on landing knee valgus and crossover hop performance in female basketball players.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Lee

    2010-12-01

    Female basketball players would appear particularly prone to knee injuries. These injuries have been associated with the nature of the sport, but more specifically with the particular movement strategies adopted. A valgus or abducted position of the knee on landing has been reported to be associated with a number of different knee injuries. Jump-training programs have been reported to improve both landing knee valgus and functional performance. The majority of the jump-training programs have been of 6 weeks' duration, 3 sessions per week often lasting up to 1 hour. For most sports coaches, team conditioners, and athletes, this duration and program length is not acceptable. The aim of this study was to assess if an abridged jump-training program could have similar effects to those previously reported. Fifteen female basketball players had their knee valgus angles assessed during 2 landing tasks, drop jump landing, and when undertaking a jump shot and along with crossover hop distance before and after a progressive jump-training program. The jump-training program lasted 4 weeks, 3 times per week, each session lasting 15 minutes. After training, crossover hop distance showed an average percentage improvement on distance jumped of 73.6% (p = 0.001); the drop jump knee valgus angle in the left leg on average was reduced by 9.8° (p = 0.002), right leg reduced by 12.3° (p = 0.0001); during the jump shot, the knee valgus angle in the left leg showed a mean reduction of 4.5° (p = 0.035), and the right leg was reduced by 4.3° (p = 0.01). The study undertaken achieved comparable results to those previously reported with an abridged program over considerably shortened session duration and training period. PMID:20664369

  15. Dental Students' Use of AMSTAR to Critically Appraise Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Teich, Sorin T; Heima, Masahiro; Lang, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    The idea of basing clinical procedures upon evidence gathered by observation is less than 200 years old, with the first set of evidence-based position papers dating back only to the early 1970s. The relationship between evidence-based education and health outcomes is difficult to test and may be indirect, but teaching critical appraisal skills may be beneficial in developing knowledge. Systematic reviews have a central role in the process of clinical decision making in practice and therefore should be of high quality, following a rigorous protocol that can be evaluated with validated tools. The aim of this study was to assess how dental students utilized the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) appraisal tool to evaluate systematic reviews in the context of a treatment planning course. During the in-class final exam, students were required to appraise the quality of a systematic review and to justify their answers. Of the 74 third-year students who took the exam, 100% answered all questions on the AMSTAR form. The mean number of correct answers was nine (SD=1.047, Min=6, Max=10), with no student providing all 11 correct answers. The fact that nearly 90% of the students provided eight or more correct answers suggests that AMSTAR can be used by students to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews. It also was evident that although the AMSTAR tool requires less than 15 minutes to complete an evaluation, using it requires extensive training and repetition to achieve consistent and reliable results. PMID:26329027

  16. The Relationship of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal to Sex and Four Selected Personality Measures for a Sample of Dutch First-Year Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoogstraten, Joh; Christiaans, H. H. C. M.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship of the 1964 forms of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal to four selected noncognitive measures was studied. Results suggest performance on the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal is independent of sex, neurotic and rigid personality characteristics, and extroversion-introversion factors. (BJG)

  17. The effects of ten weeks of lower-body unstable surface training on markers of athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Eric M; West, Chris A; Tiberio, David P; Kraemer, William J; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-05-01

    Initially reserved for rehabilitation programs, unstable surface training (UST) has recently grown in popularity in strength and conditioning and general exercise scenarios. Nonetheless, no studies to date have examined the effects of UST on performance in healthy, trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 10 weeks of lower-body UST on performance in elite athletes. Nineteen healthy, trained members (ages 18-23 years) of a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate men's soccer team participated. The experimental (US) group (n = 10) supplemented their normal conditioning program with lower-body exercises on inflatable rubber discs; the control (ST) group (n = 9) performed the same exercises on stable surfaces. Bounce drop jump (BDJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) heights, 40- and 10-yard sprint times, and T-test (agility) times were assessed before and after the intervention. The ST group improved significantly on predicted power output on both the BDJ (3.2%) and CMJ (2.4%); no significant changes were noted in the US group. Both groups improved significantly on the 40- (US = -1.8%, ST = -3.9%) and 10-yard sprint times (US = -4.0%, ST = -7.6%). The ST group improved significantly more than the US group in 40-yard sprint time; a trend toward greater improvement in the ST group was apparent on the 10-yard sprint time. Both groups improved significantly (US = 2.9%, ST = -4.4%) on T-test performance; no statistically significant changes were apparent between the groups. These results indicate that UST using inflatable rubber discs attenuates performance improvements in healthy, trained athletes. Such implements have proved valuable in rehabilitation, but caution should be exercised when applying UST to athletic performance and general exercise scenarios. PMID:17530966

  18. Autogenic-feedback training as a treatment for airsickness in high-performance military aircraft: Two case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Miller, Neal E.; Reynoso, Samuel

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed description of the physiological and performance responses of two military pilots undergoing a treatment for motion sickness. The treatment used, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), is an operant conditioning procedure where subjects are taught to control several of their autonomic responses and thereby suppress their motion sickness symptoms. Two male, active duty military pilots (U.S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps), ages 30 and 35, were each given twelve 30-minute training sessions. The primary criterion for success of training was the subject's ability to tolerate rotating chair motion sickness tests for progressively longer periods of time and at higher rotational velocities. A standardized diagnostic scale was used during motion sickness to assess changes in the subject's perceived malaise. Physiological data were obtained from one pilot during tactical maneuvers in an F-18 aircraft after completion of his training. A significant increase in tolerance to laboratory-induced motion sickness tests and a reduction in autonomic nervous system (ANS) response variability was observed for both subjects after training. Both pilots were successful in applying AFT for controlling their airsickness during subsequent qualification tests on F-18 and T-38 aircraft and were returned to active duty flight status.

  19. Student Performance and Experiences on TOPS Clerical Training Courses: Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallis, John V.; Elsey, Barry

    1981-01-01

    Presents the personal experience of 24 students who took part in the TOPS Clerical Training Course with regard to the course as a whole and of various aspects, such as the curriculum, methods of teaching, and relationships. (CT)

  20. High User Control in Game Design Elements Increases Compliance and In-game Performance in a Memory Training Game

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Aniket; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Computer games are increasingly being used for training cognitive functions like working memory and attention among the growing population of older adults. While cognitive training games often include elements like difficulty adaptation, rewards, and visual themes to make the games more enjoyable and effective, the effect of different degrees of afforded user control in manipulating these elements has not been systematically studied. To address this issue, two distinct implementations of the three aforementioned game elements were tested among healthy older adults (N = 21, 69.9 ± 6.4 years old) playing a game-like version of the n-back task on a tablet at home for 3 weeks. Two modes were considered, differentiated by the afforded degree of user control of the three elements: user control of difficulty vs. automatic difficulty adaptation, difficulty-dependent rewards vs. automatic feedback messages, and user choice of visual theme vs. no choice. The two modes (“USER-CONTROL” and “AUTO”) were compared for frequency of play, duration of play, and in-game performance. Participants were free to play the game whenever and for however long they wished. Participants in USER-CONTROL exhibited significantly higher frequency of playing, total play duration, and in-game performance than participants in AUTO. The results of the present study demonstrate the efficacy of providing user control in the three game elements, while validating a home-based study design in which participants were not bound by any training regimen, and could play the game whenever they wished. The results have implications for designing cognitive training games that elicit higher compliance and better in-game performance, with an emphasis on home-based training. PMID:26635681

  1. The effect of strength training, recreational soccer and running exercise on stretch-shortening cycle muscle performance during countermovement jumping.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Kjær, Michael; Andersen, Lars L; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of contrasting training modalities on mechanical muscle performance and neuromuscular activity during maximal SSC (stretch-shortening cycle) countermovement jumps (CMJ). Bilateral countermovement jumping, surface electromyography (EMG) and muscle fiber size (CSA) were studied in untrained individuals (n=49, 21-45 yrs) pre and post 12 weeks of progressive heavy-resistance strength training (ST, n=8), recreational soccer training (SOC, n=15), high-intensity interval running (INT, n=7), continuous running (RUN, n=9) or continuation of an inactive life-style (CON, n=10). ST displayed shortened CMJ take-off time (p<.05) and increased (p<.05) maximal CMJ jump height, peak down- and upward velocity of center of mass (COM), rate of vertical force development (RFD: ?F(Z)/?t), peak power production, rate of power development (RPD), mean plantar flexor EMG and peak hamstring rate of EMG rise (RER). Peak quadriceps EMG rate of rise increased in SOC (p<.05). Moreover, ST and SOC demonstrated increased quadriceps muscle fiber CSA and lean leg mass. Positive relationships (r>.70) were observed following ST between training-induced changes in CMJ SSC muscle performance, neuromuscular activity and muscle fiber CSA, respectively. ST induced a more rapid CMJ take-off phase and elevated muscle power production, indicating a more explosive-type SSC muscle performance. No effects were detected in CMJ performance after continuous running, high-intensity interval running and recreational soccer, despite an increased muscle fiber CSA and quadriceps muscle activity in SOC. Enhanced neuromuscular activity in the hip extensors (hamstrings) and plantar flexors, and increased myofiber fiber size were responsible for the enhanced CMJ SSC muscle performance with ST. PMID:22397814

  2. Quality Appraisal of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: An Overview and Comparison of Different Appraisal Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Oliver; Miller, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Critical appraisal of the research literature is an essential step in informing and implementing evidence-based practice. Quality appraisal tools that assess the methodological quality of experimental studies provide a means to identify the most rigorous research suitable for evidence-based decision-making. In single-subject experimental research,…

  3. Effect of Vertical, Horizontal, and Combined Plyometric Training on Explosive, Balance, and Endurance Performance of Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Gallardo, Francisco; Henriquez-Olguín, Carlos; Meylan, Cesar M P; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cadore, Eduardo L; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of vertical, horizontal, or combined vertical and horizontal plyometric training on muscle explosive, endurance, and balance performance. Forty young soccer players aged between 10 and 14 years were randomly divided into control (CG; n = 10), vertical plyometric group (VG; n = 10), horizontal plyometric group (HG; n = 10), and combined vertical and horizontal plyometric group (VHG; n = 10). Players performance in the vertical and horizontal countermovement jump with arms, 5 multiple bounds test (MB5), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1), and balance was measured. No significant or meaningful changes in the CG, apart from small change in the Yo-Yo IR1, were observed while all training programs resulted in meaningful changes in explosive, endurance, and balance performance. However, only VHG showed a statistically significant (p ? 0.05) increase in all performance test and most meaningful training effect difference with the CG across tests. Although no significant differences in performance changes were observed between experimental groups, the VHG program was more effective compared with VG (i.e., jumps, MKV, sprint, CODS, and balance performance) and HG (i.e., sprint, CODS, and balance performance) to small effect. The study demonstrated that vertical, horizontal, and combined vertical and horizontal jumps induced meaningful improvement in explosive actions, balance, and intermittent endurance capacity. However, combining vertical and horizontal drills seems more advantageous to induce greater performance improvements. PMID:25559903

  4. Energy costs and valuation of commercial properties by appraisers and lenders

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, M.; Goldstein, D.B.; Conlon, T.P.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper the authors explore linkages between energy costs and asset value of commercial buildings. Common methods of appraisal practice determine building value as a function of net operating income; therefore it should follow that lower costs be directly correlated with higher building value. They argue, however, that because of a number of market barriers--including lack of information, entrenched professional practices, and doubt about the consistency of energy performance over time--energy costs are insufficiently recognized in the property-valuation methods of appraisers and lenders. The authors believe that enhanced energy-performance documentation systems supported by diagnostics and maintenance could bolster consideration of energy costs in appraisals. Stronger recognition of energy costs, in turn, could present sellers and buyers of buildings with powerful financial incentives to pursue energy-efficiency investments, including higher resale value and expanded borrowing privileges.

  5. The relationship between the number of repetitions performed at given intensities is different in endurance and strength trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Richens, B; Cleather, D J

    2014-06-01

    Prescribing training intensity and volume is a key problem when designing resistance training programmes. One approach is to base training prescription on the number of repetitions performed at a given percentage of repetition maximum due to the correlation found between these two measures. However, previous research has raised questions as to the accuracy of this method, as the repetitions completed at different percentages of 1RM can differ based upon the characteristics of the athlete. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of an athlete's training background on the relationship between the load lifted (as a percentage of one repetition maximum) and the number of repetitions achieved. Eight weightlifters and eight endurance runners each completed a one repetition maximum test on the leg press and completed repetitions to fatigue at 90, 80 and 70% of their one repetition maximum. The endurance runners completed significantly more repetitions than the weightlifters at 70% (39.9 ± 17.6 versus 17.9 ± 2.8; p < 0.05) and 80% (19.8 ± 6.4 versus 11.8 ± 2.7; p < 0.05) of their one repetition maximum but not at 90% (10.8 ± 3.9 versus 7.0 ± 2.1; p > 0.05) of one repetition maximum. These differences could be explained by the contrasting training adaptations demanded by each sport. This study suggests that traditional guidelines may underestimate the potential number of repetitions that can be completed at a given percentage of 1RM, particularly for endurance trained athletes. PMID:24899782

  6. 3G and 3.5G Wireless Network Performance Measured from Moving Cars and High-Speed Trains

    E-print Network

    Moon, Sue B.

    3G and 3.5G Wireless Network Performance Measured from Moving Cars and High-Speed Trains Keon Jang&D Laboratory ABSTRACT In recent years, the world has witnessed the deployment of sev- eral 3G and 3.5G wireless Access (HSDPA), and mobile WiMax (e.g., WiBro). Al- though 3G and 3.5G wireless networks support enough

  7. Multiarticular isokinetic high-load eccentric training induces large increases in eccentric and concentric strength and jumping performance.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Christos; Theodosiou, Konstantinos; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Gkantiraga, Evangelia; Gissis, Ioannis; Sambanis, Michalis; Souglis, Athanasios; Sotiropoulos, Aristomenis

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of short-term eccentric exercise training using a custom-made isokinetic leg press device, on concentric and eccentric strength and explosiveness as well as jumping performance. Nineteen healthy males were divided into an eccentric (ECC, n = 10) and a control group (CG, n = 9). The ECC group trained twice per week for 8 weeks using an isokinetic hydraulic leg press machine against progressively increasing resistance ranging from 70 to 90% of maximal eccentric force. Jumping performance and maximal force generating capacity were measured before and after eccentric training. In the ECC group, drop jump (DJ) height and maximal power were increased by 13.6 ± 3.2% (p < 0.01) and 25.8 ± 1.2% (p < 0.01), whereas ground contact time was decreased by 17.6 ± 2.6% (p < 0.01). Changes in ankle, knee, and hip joint angles were also reduced by 33.9 ± 1.1%, 31.1 ± 1.0%, and 32.4 ± 1.6% (all p < 0.01), respectively, indicating an increase in muscle stiffness during the DJ. Maximal eccentric and concentric leg press force was increased by 64.9 ± 5.5% (p < 0.01) and 32.2 ± 8.8% (p < 0.01), respectively, and explosiveness, measured as force attained in the first 300 milliseconds, was increased by 49.1 ± 4.8% (p < 0.01) and 77.1 ± 7.7% (p < 0.01), respectively. The CG did not show any statistically significant changes in all parameters measured. The main findings of this study were that maximal concentric and eccentric force, explosiveness, and DJ performance were markedly increased after only 16 training sessions, possibly because of the high eccentric load attained during the bilateral eccentric leg press exercise performed on this custom-made device. PMID:24626142

  8. Etiopathogenesis of cataract: An appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Ravishankar, Basavaiah

    2014-01-01

    Natural eye lens is a crystalline substance to produce a clear passage for light. Cataract is opacity within the clear lens of the eye and is the dominant cause of socio-medical problem i.e., blindness worldwide. The only available treatment of cataract is surgery. However, insufficient surgical facilities in poor and developing countries and post-operative complications inspire researchers to find out other modes of treatment for cataract. In this review, an attempt has been made to appraise various etiological factors of cataract to make their perception clear to build up counterpart treatment. Present study is an assortment of various available literatures and electronic information in view of cataract etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors have been identified in development of cataracts. They can be classified in to genetic factors, ageing (systemic diseases, nutritional and trace metals deficiencies, smoking, oxidative stress etc.), traumatic, complicated (inflammatory and degenerative diseases of eye), metabolic (diabetes, galactosemia etc.), toxic substances including drugs abuses, alcohol etc., radiation (ultraviolet, electromagnetic waves etc.) are implicated as significant risk factors in the development of cataract. PMID:24618482

  9. Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3–4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points—baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510

  10. Functional Mobility Performance and Balance Confidence in Older Adults after Sensorimotor Adaptation Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buccello-Stout, Regina R.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Weaver, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates a main contributor of injury in older adults is from falling. The decline in sensory systems limits information needed to successfully maneuver through the environment. The objective of this study was to determine if prolonged exposure to the realignment of perceptual-motor systems increases adaptability of balance, and if balance confidence improves after training. A total of 16 older adults between ages 65-85 were randomized to a control group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a static visual scene) and an experimental group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a rotating visual scene). Prior to visual exposure, participants completed six trials of walking through a soft foamed obstacle course. Participants came in twice a week for 4 weeks to complete training of walking on a treadmill and viewing the visual scene for 20 minutes each session. Participants completed the obstacle course after training and four weeks later. Average time, penalty, and Activity Balance Confidence Scale scores were computed for both groups across testing times. The older adults who trained, significantly improved their time through the obstacle course F (2, 28) = 9.41, p < 0.05, as well as reduced their penalty scores F (2, 28) = 21.03, p < 0.05, compared to those who did not train. There was no difference in balance confidence scores between groups across testing times F (2, 28) = 0.503, p > 0.05. Although the training group improved mobility through the obstacle course, there were no differences between the groups in balance confidence.

  11. Assessing and appraising nursing students' professional communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diers, Jane E.

    The purpose of this research was to define professional communication in nursing and to develop a prototype to assess and appraise communication at a selected college. The research focused on verbal and nonverbal communication between the nurse and the client using a simulated environment. The first objective was to identify the major characteristics of professional communication in nursing. In this study, the characteristics of professional communication emerged from the constant comparison method of the results of research studies in the fields of healthcare and communication. These characteristics became the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions to assess and appraise verbal and nonverbal communication at the college of study. The second objective was to develop a template to assess verbal and nonverbal communication at a selected college. Using a two-fold process, the researcher used the results from the first objective to begin template construction. First, specialists in the fields of communication and nursing established the content validity of the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions. Second, the course educators determined the relevancy and importance of the elements, properties, and descriptive dimensions to the objectives of two courses at the college of study. The third objective was to develop a rubric to appraise nursing students' verbal and nonverbal communication in a videotaped communication review. An appraisal rubric was constructed from an extension of the template. This rubric was then tested by faculty at the selected college to appraise the communication of five students each in the junior and senior years of the nursing program.

  12. Time-History Data of Maneuvers Performed by an F-86A Airplane During Squadron Operational Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Campbell; Thornton, James; Mayo, Alton

    1952-01-01

    Preliminary results of one phase of a control-motion study program are presented in the form of plots of load factor.and angular acceleration against indicated airspeed and of time histories of several measured quantities. The results were obtained from 197 maneuvers performed by an F-86A jet-fighter airplane during normal squadron operational training. Most of the tactical maneuver8 of which the F-86A is capable were performed at pressure altitudes ranging from 0 to 32,000 feet and at indicated airspeeds ranging from 95 to 650 miles per hour.

  13. 43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., at the discretion of Reclamation. (3) Data submitted may include: (i) Historic geologic data; (ii.... Reclamation will provide these data to the appraisers who must consider the data in the appraisal process,...

  14. 43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., at the discretion of Reclamation. (3) Data submitted may include: (i) Historic geologic data; (ii.... Reclamation will provide these data to the appraisers who must consider the data in the appraisal process,...

  15. 9 CFR 50.10 - Report of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.10 Report of appraisals. Appraisals of livestock made in accordance with §...

  16. 9 CFR 50.10 - Report of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.10 Report of appraisals. Appraisals of livestock made in accordance with §...

  17. 9 CFR 50.10 - Report of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.10 Report of appraisals. Appraisals of livestock made in accordance with §...

  18. 9 CFR 50.10 - Report of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.10 Report of appraisals. Appraisals of livestock made in accordance with §...

  19. 9 CFR 50.10 - Report of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.10 Report of appraisals. Appraisals of livestock made in accordance with §...

  20. DCC Digital Curation Manual: Instalment on Appraisal and Selection 

    E-print Network

    Harvey, Ross

    2006-06-10

    Instalment on the role of selection and appraisal within the digital curation life-cycle. Describes the increasingly important role of selection and appraisal for digital curation, some practical applications, the topic’s place within the OAIS...