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1

Performance Appraisal: An Obstacle to Training and Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of a hospital's performance appraisal system collected data from 74 survey responses and 39 interviews. Staff comments revealed varying degrees of involvement with and commitment to the process. The need for employees and supervisors to formulate, implement, and review training and development plans jointly was emphasized. (SK)

Wilson, John P.; Western, Steven

2000-01-01

2

Performance Appraisal in the Training Needs Analysis Process: A Review and Critique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A literature review leads to a model for using performance appraisal information in the process of analyzing training needs. The model identifies performance discrepancies, determines causes, and chooses interventions based on internal (employee) and external (work environment) factors. (SK)

Herbert, Glenn R.; Doverspike, Dennis

1990-01-01

3

Development of a Performance Appraisal Training Program for the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nobody wants to get one. Nobody wants to give one." The problem was that the supervisors and managers of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (RIC) did not know how to use the Institute's new performance management system and had not been trained on how to prepare and deliver effective performance appraisals. The problem further included the…

Ford, Deborah Kilgore

2004-01-01

4

Experimental Study Comparing a Traditional Approach to Performance Appraisal Training to a Whole-Brain Training Method at C.B. Fleet Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a new approach to performance appraisal training. Motivated by split-brain theory and existing studies of cognitive information processing and performance appraisals, this exploratory study examined the effects of a whole-brain approach to training managers for implementing performance

Selden, Sally; Sherrier, Tom; Wooters, Robert

2012-01-01

5

Managerial Performance and Appraisal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisal for administrators in higher education is an absolute, but good appraisal reflects both sensitivity and a knowledge of institutional and individual rights. Common deficiencies of appraisal systems, methods, purposes of administrative appraisal, goal-setting, and guidelines for conducting appraisal interviews are discussed.…

Lahti, Robert E.

1978-01-01

6

Improving Performance Appraisal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes strategies for improving performance appraisal systems and examines common features of appraisal systems in large companies. Highlights include rating scales; ranking; forced distributions; tying performance appraisal to strategic business goals; frequency of reviews; development plans versus evaluation only; and group review meetings.…

Brown, Mark Graham

1989-01-01

7

Improving Performance Appraisals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A positive and creative results-oriented management appraisal system is needed. This article reviews the benefits and requirements of such a system, lists the common pitfalls of shoddy evaluation attempts, describes the four basic kinds of performance appraisal systems, and offers suggestions for creating a successful system. (DC)

Lahti, Robert E.

1975-01-01

8

Performance Appraisal Applied to Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisal is a measurement process of how well an individual is doing her or his job. In most organisations, this appraisal is an annual event. Generally, it is done to encourage job performance, to flag areas that need attention, to inform both parties as to expectations. Much of the literature speaks to this process in terms of the…

Jefferson, Anne L.

2010-01-01

9

Donn Coffee on Performance Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a management consultant's system of employee appraisal, as outlined in a seminar he conducted for business executives. In addition to improving productivity, performance appraisal is needed to insure nondiscriminatory personnel practices and to provide employee recognition without a compensation link. Most companies can't afford money as…

Coffee, Donn

1978-01-01

10

A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural…

Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

2012-01-01

11

Employee Performance Appraisal and the 95/5 Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many colleges use some form of an employee performance appraisal process. Yet, despite prevalent use, the performance appraisal process is facing growing criticism. The author reviews the literature regarding the process of performance appraisal in higher education, focusing on articles supportive of the use of the performance appraisal, and those…

Rasch, Lee

2004-01-01

12

42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

The members of the Service shall be subject to a performance appraisal system which shall be designed to encourage excellence in performance and shall provide for a periodic and systematic appraisal of the performance of the...

2012-10-01

13

Making a Performance Appraisal Work for You.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Job evaluations offer the opportunity to improve employee ratings and advance career growth. Suggestions for understanding a formal performance appraisal (intent, function, and process) are given along with general performance measurements. Guidelines are offered to help make wise use of the process for career growth. (DH)

Kennedy, Marilyn Moats

1985-01-01

14

Consequences of the performance appraisal experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of low quality performance appraisals (PA) on three human resource management outcomes (job satisfaction, organisational commitment and intention to quit). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using data from 2,336 public sector employees clusters of PA experiences (low, mixed and high) were identified. Regression analysis was then employed to examine the relationship

Michelle Brown; Douglas Hyatt; John Benson

2010-01-01

15

Performance Appraisal of Physical Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the aim was to determine views of school principals on how performance appraisal of physical education teachers who worked at primary schools should be done. The research was designed in a screening model. The research group composed of 152 school principals and deputy principals who worked at state primary schools located in…

Bahadir, Ziya

2013-01-01

16

Appraising Managerial Performance. Junior College Resource Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines are presented for the development of a system for the appraisal of the performance of community college administrators. The importance of such a system to the college's overall success is discussed first, followed by descriptions of seven common evaluation procedures: (1) unstructured essays by supervisors or subordinates describing the…

Lahti, Robert G.

17

Performance Appraisal for Librarians: A Guided Self-Study Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by library managers, this self-study guide provides an introduction to performance appraisal as an effective tool in human resource management, and a review of the extensive management literature on performance appraisal. Topics discussed include: (1) the functions of performance appraisal, which include the provision of…

Stevenson, Sally

18

Teacher Performance Appraisal in Thailand: Poison or Panacea?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research focuses on the examination of problems related to the national teacher performance appraisal system by the Thai Ministry of Education. It highlights major problems of the current performance appraisal system by delineating the weaknesses and pitfalls of the current appraisal system. The findings indicate problems to three major…

Pimpa, Nattavud

2005-01-01

19

The effects of performance appraisal in the Norwegian municipal health services: a case study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous research in performance appraisal (PA) indicates that variation exists in learning and job motivation from performance appraisal between occupational groups. This research evaluates the potential effect of job motivation, learning and self-assessment through performance appraisals for health personnel. Case description This article focuses on goal-setting, feedback, participation and training in performance appraisals in municipal health services in Norway; and job motivation, learning and self-assessment of performance are the dependent factors. Questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample of 600 health personnel from the Norwegian municipal health service, with a response rate of 62%. Factor analysis and regression analysis were run in SPSS 12. Discussion and evaluation The study suggests that respondents learn from performance appraisal. Nurses experienced some higher job motivation from performance appraisal than auxiliary nurses. All subordinates perceived higher job motivation after performance appraisal than managers. Conclusion Useful feedback, active participation and higher education are fundamental elements of discussion in performance appraisal, as well as the role of increasing employees' job motivation. In this study, nurses' job motivation seems to be more effected by PA, than for auxiliary nurses. Both nurses and auxiliary nurses indicate that there is a learning effect from PA. This study may be of interest to health researchers and managers in municipal health services.

2011-01-01

20

Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

VOLIANITIS, S., A. K. MCCONNELL, Y. KOUTEDAKIS, L. MCNAUGHTON, K. BACKX, and D. A. JONES. Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 5, 2001, pp. 803- 809. Purpose: To investigate the effects of a period of resistive inspiratory muscle training (IMT) upon rowing performance. Methods: Performance was appraised in 14 female competitive rowers at

STEFANOS VOLIANITIS; ALISON K. MCCONNELL; YIANNIS KOUTEDAKIS; LARS MCNAUGHTON; KARRIANNE BACKX; DAVID A. JONES

2001-01-01

21

Appraising Teaching Performance: One Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a diagnostic teaching performance instrument (TAI) that gives the teacher, the teacher educator, or the supervisor concrete evidence of what the teacher has learned, or needs to learn, and what he is able to apply correctly in the classroom. (Author/MF)

Hunter, Madeline C.

1973-01-01

22

The Current State of Performance Appraisal Research and Practice: Concerns, Directions, and Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the surface, it is not readily apparent how some performance appraisal research issues inform performance appraisal practice. Because performance appraisal is an applied topic, it is useful to periodically consider the current state of performance research and its relation to performance appraisal practice. This review examines the performance appraisal literature published in both academic and practitioner outlets between 1985

Robert D. Bretz; George T. Milkovich; Walter Read

1992-01-01

23

Managing Technological Change by Changing Performance Appraisal to Performance Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic libraries can improve their management of change by reshaping performance appraisal into performance planning. This article notes problems with traditional employee evaluation as well as benefits of alternatives that focus on the future, on users, on planning and learning, and on skills needed to address problems and enhance individual…

Marquardt, Steve

1996-01-01

24

Testing a Model of Performance Appraisal Fit on Attitudinal Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test the effects of the congruence of employees' current versus ideal performance appraisal system on performance appraisal attitudes. This in turn was assessed as to its predictive relationships with affective organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Continuance organizational commitment and job performance were also assessed in the model. A total of 149 surveys were

Hal J. Whiting; Theresa J. B. Kline

2007-01-01

25

New Perspectives Concerning Performance Appraisals of Intercollegiate Coaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite advances in the study of performance appraisals within the intercollegiate athletic context, there are several limitations to the extant research. Specifically, this literature does not take into account the multi-level nature of organizations and performance appraisals or the reciprocal interdependence of coaching staffs. In considering…

Cunningham, George B.; Dixon, Marlene A.

2003-01-01

26

Police Performance Appraisal: A Report on Phase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a questionnaire survey of police departments with regard to (a) personnel functions and (b) the kind of performance appraisal instruments currently being used are presented. An analysis of appraisal forms currently in use found them to be l...

F. J. Landy

1973-01-01

27

Principals' Informal Methods for Appraising Poor-Performing Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher appraisal is never an easy task, especially of teachers experiencing difficulties and failures. Nevertheless it is a requirement for good management, in our schools no less than our corporations. Forty elementary school principals in Israel described the informal methods they use to appraise teachers who are performing poorly. Most…

Yariv, Eliezer

2009-01-01

28

Administrators' Views on Teacher Evaluation: Examining Ontario's Teacher Performance Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the views of administrators (i.e., principals and vice-principals) in Ontario, Canada, with regard to the province's Teacher Performance Appraisal process. A total of 178 responses were collected from a survey that examined five areas: 1) preparation and training; 2) classroom observations; 3) preparing the formal…

Maharaj, Sachin

2014-01-01

29

The Impact of EEO Legislation on Performance Appraisals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issues and cases discussed demonstrate that performance appraisal procedures must be validated in the interest of fairness to employees, efficiency of operations for the employer, and prevention of expensive and time-consuming litigation. (Author)

Schneier, Dena B.

1978-01-01

30

42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to a...

2013-10-01

31

Managerial Competencies and the Managerial Performance Appraisal Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human resource managers (n=277) identified six management competencies as critical: leadership, customer focus, results orientation, problem solving, communication skills, and teamwork. However, many companies do not assess these competencies in the management performance appraisal process. (Contains 22 references.) (SK)

Abraham, Steven E.; Karns, Lanny A.; Shaw, Kenneth; Mena, Manuel A.

2001-01-01

32

T and E (Training and Experience) Rating with Objectively Scored Applicant Appraisal Questionnaires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A procedure based on a content validity strategy has been developed for constructing Objectively Scored Applicant Appraisal Questionnaires (OSAAQ) to replace traditional ratings of training and experience (T/E Ratings). There are both technical and admini...

T. J. Lyons

1981-01-01

33

A Quality Control Chart for Work Performance Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial disagreement between total quality management\\/Deming's principles and traditional management falls in the area of work performance appraisal. In fact, Deming ranks the traditional “evaluation of performance, merit rating, or annual review” third in his list of the Seven Deadly Diseases of the western style of management. Deming advocates argue that many of the faulty management practices in performance

Saad T. Bakir

2005-01-01

34

Performance Appraisal of Collection Development Librarians. SPEC Kit 181.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) kit reports results of a survey of 64 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) institutions conducted in the fall of 1990 to gather information on the performance appraisal of collection development librarians. Data are reported on the frequency of the performance review cycle, reporting…

Siggins, Jack, Comp.

1992-01-01

35

Fair Employment and Performance Appraisal: Legal Requirements and Practical Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of tests in personnel decisions has become an increasing legal liability for employers. The major questions raised by the courts concerning this use of tests are described. Current federal guidelines for performance appraisal systems, as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, are explained and traced to Title VII of…

Edwards, Keith J.

36

Square Pegs and Round Holes: Ruminations on the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Performance Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models of comprehensive Performance Management systems include both employee development and evaluative components. The Organizational Behavior Management discipline focuses almost exclusively on the developmental component, while the Industrial and Organizational Psychology discipline is focused on use of performance appraisals. Performance

Gravina, Nicole E.; Siers, Brian P.

2011-01-01

37

Characteristics of Performance Appraisals and Their Impact on Sales Force Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 15 automobile salespeople indicated that job satisfaction increased when performance appraisals provided clear criteria that met workers' approval and when appraisals were fair and used to determine rewards. (Contains 61 references.) (SK)

Pettijohn, Charles E.; Pettijohn, Linda S.; d'Amico, Michael

2001-01-01

38

Performance Appraisal Systems in Higher Education: An Exploration of Christian Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is substantial literature on the use of performance appraisal in the for-profit world, there is little literature available concerning the appraisal of staff positions in higher education. More knowledge is needed in this area since there is considerable research indicating that performance appraisal creates benefits to an…

Flaniken, Forrest W.

2009-01-01

39

The Performance Appraisal Interview: A Review of the Literature with Implications for Communication Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A performance appraisal interview is a primary and important context for the supervisor and employee to work together to achieve superior performance. A survey of the research literature reveals that the appraisal interview functions to provide feedback on performance, to counsel and provide help, to discover what the employee is thinking, to…

Wilson, Gerald L.; Goodall, H. Lloyd, Jr.

40

The Relationship Between Performance Appraisal and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors in this paper developed and tested a structural model in which organizational commitment mediates between performance appraisal and organizational citizenship behavior. The main findings are as follows. Firstly, performance appraisal including system and process facets had significant effect on organizational commitment. Secondly, organizational commitment leads to organizational citizenship behavior. Thirdly, organizational commitment plays fully mediating role between performance

Li Hai; Zhang Mian

2007-01-01

41

Online training course on critical appraisal for nurses: adaptation and assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Research is an essential activity for improving quality and efficiency in healthcare. The objective of this study was to train nurses from the public Basque Health Service (Osakidetza) in critical appraisal, promoting continuous training and the use of research in clinical practice. Methods This was a prospective pre-post test study. The InfoCritique course on critical appraisal was translated and adapted. A sample of 50 nurses and 3 tutors was recruited. Educational strategies and assessment instruments were established for the course. A course website was created that contained contact details of the teaching team and coordinator, as well as a course handbook and videos introducing the course. Assessment comprised the administration of questionnaires before and after the course, in order to explore the main intervention outcomes: knowledge acquired and self-learning readiness. Satisfaction was also measured at the end of the course. Results Of the 50 health professionals recruited, 3 did not complete the course for personal or work-related reasons. The mean score on the pre-course knowledge questionnaire was 70.5 out of 100, with a standard deviation of 11.96. In general, participants’ performance on the knowledge questionnaire improved after the course, as reflected in the notable increase of the mean score, to 86.6, with a standard deviation of 10.00. Further, analyses confirmed statistically significant differences between pre- and post-course results (p?

2014-01-01

42

An Appraisal of Goals for Residency Training in Internal Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of residency training in internal medicine were assessed by faculty and house staff members using a questionnaire based upon American Board of Internal Medicine criteria. Both groups tended to rate highly as ideal goals items they considered to be their own professional strengths. (Author/MLW)

Matthews, Dale A.; Voytovich, Anthony E.

1985-01-01

43

Do Job Applicant Credit Histories Predict Performance Appraisal Ratings or Termination Decisions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the authors investigated the criterion validity of job applicant credit report history in predicting subsequent performance appraisal ratings and termination decisions for 178 employees at a large financial services corporation. Predictors extracted from applicant credit reports, such as number of times late with payments, had no relationship with either performance appraisal ratings or termination decisions. The authors

Laura Koppes Bryan; Jerry K. Palmer

2012-01-01

44

Perceived Purposes of Performance Appraisal: Correlates of Individual- and Position-Focused Purposes on Attitudinal Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisals have traditionally been directed at individuals, serving either an administrative or developmental purpose. They may serve a role definition purpose as well. This study sought to identify and more broadly define the purposes of performance appraisals to include this role definition purpose. Furthermore, this study examined…

Youngcourt, Satoris S.; Leiva, Pedro I.; Jones, Robert G.

2007-01-01

45

Appraising the performance of employees with disabilities: A review and model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the appraisal of persons with disabilities is reviewed. This literature suggests inconsistent and conflicting effects for ratees' disability on performance ratings. We review several theoretical arguments for why there may be bias in the performance appraisal of employees with disabilities and outline some of the conditions under which bias will most likely occur. A more broad based

Arup Varma

1997-01-01

46

The Opinions of Secondary School Teachers on Teacher Performance Appraisal Model and Implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to compare the teacher performance appraisal model based on multiple data source and teacher performance appraisal model administered by the inspectors in accordance with teachers' opinions. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in this study. Quantitative data were obtained with a questionnaire applied to 162 secondary school teachers. For the analysis of the

Betül BALKAR

47

Data Envelopment Analysis Model for the Appraisal and Relative Performance Evaluation of Nurses at an Intensive Care Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses are very important and beneficial for both nurses and employers\\u000a in an era of clinical governance, increased accountability and high standards of health care services. They enhance and consolidate\\u000a the knowledge and practical skills of nurses by identification of training and career development plans as well as improvement\\u000a in health care quality

Ibrahim H. Osman; Lynn N. Berbary; Yusuf Sidani; Baydaa Al-Ayoubi; Ali Emrouznejad

48

A Note on the use of Appraisal Data in Indexes of Performance Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that even when unbiased appraisals of market value are used in measuring the investment performance of real estate portfolios, a bias in the rate of return or index is present. Further, in the case where the appraisal errors are serially independent, the bias is always positive. The potential for bias in a standard rate of return formula

S. Michael Giliberto

1988-01-01

49

Does training facilitate SME's performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores relationships between small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) foreign direct investment (FDI), FDI-related training programs and organizational performance. To determine if the implementation of training programs mediate the relationship between FDI and SME performance, and if the alignment between training needs and training implementation leads to higher SME performance, we collected large-scale company-level data (N = 816) from within Taiwan.Research

Nai-Wen Chi; Chih-Yun Wu; Carol Yeh-Yun Lin

2008-01-01

50

Modifying adolescent interpretation biases through cognitive training: effects on negative affect and stress appraisals.  

PubMed

Adolescent anxiety is common, impairing and costly. Given the scale of adolescent anxiety and its impact, fresh innovations for therapy are in demand. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) studies of adults show that by training individuals to endorse benign interpretations of ambiguous situations can improve anxious mood-states particularly in response towards stress. While, these investigations have been partially extended to adolescents with success, inconsistent training effects on anxious mood-states have been found. The present study investigated whether positive versus negative CBM-I training influenced appraisals of stress, in forty-nine adolescents, aged 15-18. Data supported the plasticity of interpretational styles, with positively-trained adolescents selecting more benign resolutions of new ambiguous situations, than negatively-trained adolescents. Positively-trained adolescents also rated recent stressors as having less impact on their lives than negatively-trained adolescents. Thus, while negative styles may increase negative responses towards stress, positive styles may boost resilience. PMID:23722473

Telman, Machteld D; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

2013-10-01

51

Effects of task performance, helping, voice, and organizational loyalty on performance appraisal ratings.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that several studies have investigated the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and performance appraisal ratings, the vast majority of these studies have been cross-sectional, correlational investigations conducted in organizational settings that do not allow researchers to establish the causal nature of this relationship. To address this lack of knowledge regarding causality, the authors conducted 2 studies designed to investigate the effects of task performance, helping behavior, voice, and organizational loyalty on performance appraisal evaluations. Findings demonstrated that each of these forms of behavior has significant effects on performance evaluation decisions and suggest that additional attention should be directed at both voice and organizational loyalty as important forms of citizenship behavior aimed at the organization. PMID:18211140

Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M; Pierce, Jason R

2008-01-01

52

[Standards for performance appraisal of academic staff at a nursing college].  

PubMed

The purpose with this research is to formulate standards for performance appraisal of academic staff within a nursing college. A qualitative exploratory and descriptive research strategy was utilized, within the context of Gauteng nursing colleges. The conceptual framework on which the standards are based, was developed by exploring and describing existing job descriptions of academic staff (Chief Professional Nurse) employed in nursing colleges, as well as the expectations of academic staff regarding performance appraisal in the college. These results were exposed to a literature control prior to the writing of final statements and a conceptual framework for the formulation of these standards. The standards are divided into three main dimensions, viz. the organisational climate within the nursing college, the purpose of performance appraisal and finally the process of performance appraisal. It is recommended that these standards be implemented in nursing colleges and exposed to further validity studies. PMID:11140024

Aucamp, H; Muller, M

2000-03-01

53

Data envelopment analysis model for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses at an intensive care unit.  

PubMed

The appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses are very important and beneficial for both nurses and employers in an era of clinical governance, increased accountability and high standards of health care services. They enhance and consolidate the knowledge and practical skills of nurses by identification of training and career development plans as well as improvement in health care quality services, increase in job satisfaction and use of cost-effective resources. In this paper, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is proposed for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses. The model is validated on thirty-two nurses working at an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at one of the most recognized hospitals in Lebanon. The DEA was able to classify nurses into efficient and inefficient ones. The set of efficient nurses was used to establish an internal best practice benchmark to project career development plans for improving the performance of other inefficient nurses. The DEA result confirmed the ranking of some nurses and highlighted injustice in other cases that were produced by the currently practiced appraisal system. Further, the DEA model is shown to be an effective talent management and motivational tool as it can provide clear managerial plans related to promoting, training and development activities from the perspective of nurses, hence increasing their satisfaction, motivation and acceptance of appraisal results. Due to such features, the model is currently being considered for implementation at ICU. Finally, the ratio of the number DEA units to the number of input/output measures is revisited with new suggested values on its upper and lower limits depending on the type of DEA models and the desired number of efficient units from a managerial perspective. PMID:20734223

Osman, Ibrahim H; Berbary, Lynn N; Sidani, Yusuf; Al-Ayoubi, Baydaa; Emrouznejad, Ali

2011-10-01

54

The Relationship between Self-Appraisal, Professional Training, and Diversity Awareness among Forensic Psychology Students: A Pilot Formative Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, there is a growing need for formal training in forensic psychology. This pilot study examines the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction, perceived academic competence, and program competency among a sample of forensic psychology students. In theory, the RBM suggests that self-appraisal,…

Chandler, Donald S., Jr.; Chandler, Michele D.; Clark, Quelanda C.

2009-01-01

55

Software for Performance Training Carrel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A prototype system was developed to evaluate a computer-assisted performance training carrel which was used to present the troubleshooting fundamentals lesson of the Lowry Technical Training Center's Electronic Principles Course. This manual provides a description of the PDP-11 and PLATO programs used to implement this system, and an operators…

Wasmundt, Kenneth C.; Steffen, Dale A.

56

Performance Appraisal: A Guide to Better Supervisor Evaluation Processes. PANEL Resource Paper #7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of evaluating student interns as part of a regular performance appraisal system for all employees is discussed, along with the role of the internship coordinator or faculty sponsor. The first step is deciding what should be measured: interns' personal characteristics, job performance, and results. The most useful form of performance

Rubin, Sharon

57

Problem-Solving Appraisal, Self-Reported Study Habits, and Performance of Academically At-Risk College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations among problem-solving appraisal, self-reported study habits, and academic performance for 63 college students enrolled in a developmental course for academically unprepared students. The participants completed measures of self-appraised problem-solving ability and study habits. Indexes of academic ability and performance were also collected. Regression analyses revealed that problem-solving appraisal was significantly predictive of study habits and semester

Timothy R. Elliott; Frank Godshall; John R. Shrout; Thomas E. Witty

1990-01-01

58

Performance Appraisal Systems as a Strategic Human Resource Management Tool in the Bahamian Public Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bahamian Public Service faces general pressures for better performance, including higher quality, rational administrative systems, and managerial innovation. Because organizational effectiveness depends on high-quality and committed human capital, performance appraisal is important. This study will describe, assess, and recommend changes in the current system.

Carolyn Rolle; Donald Klingner

2012-01-01

59

Performance Appraisal System Impact on University Academic Staff Job Satisfaction and Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Zimbabwe (UZ) introduced a performance appraisal system (PAS) designed to improve performance indicators across the board in Public Service including academic/faculty staff at the University of Zimbabwe as part of a nation wide strategy. The Public service is a body responsible for all civil workers including academic staff,…

Ndambakuwa, Yustina; Mufunda, Jacob

2006-01-01

60

Evaluating and rewarding OCBs : Potential consequences of formally incorporating organisational citizenship behaviour in performance appraisal and reward systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to address a topic that has not been systematically studied in the organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), performance appraisal and rewards literature. Specifically, this paper seeks to examine the potential effects of rewarding OCBs by explicitly incorporating them into performance appraisal and reward systems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A review of relevant theory and literature is provided and

J. Bret Becton; William F. Giles; Mike Schraeder

2008-01-01

61

The Future of Performance Appraisal for Certificated Education Staff in the School Boards of Ontario. Professionalism in Schools Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report assesses the current state of the art of personnel performance appraisal in education to provide guidelines for new initiatives and developments in the use of personnel evaluation systems in Ontario schools. It is organized in such a way that the major issues related to performance appraisal are presented in the order in which an…

Hayman, Brian; Sussman, Susan

62

Performance Appraisal for Faculty. Implications for Higher Education. From the Program on Faculty as a Key Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the literature on performance appraisal for college and university faculty was undertaken to serve the ultimate goal of improving student cognitive learning. The starting point was to ask what is known about performance appraisal. What are its positive and negative consequences? How does the manner in which it is conducted relate to…

Blackburn, Robert T.; Pitney, Judith A.

63

National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

2012-01-01

64

New Teachers' Perceptions of a Standards-Based Performance Appraisal System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted with first-year teachers. It provided insight into two key research questions: (1) What were the perceptions of new teachers regarding a standards-based performance appraisal system as it was implemented on their campus? (2) What factors contributed to the perceptions of new teachers regarding this system as it was…

O'Pry, Stephen C.; Schumacher, Gary

2012-01-01

65

Utilising a Virtual World to Teach Performance Appraisal: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to give a critical assessment of a study designed to investigate the potential of a new method for teaching HRD students about performance appraisal. It is argued that this approach is in the vanguard of developments in IT and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the form of an explorative study…

Morse, Shona

2010-01-01

66

Teaching in the "Performative" State: Implications for Teacher Appraisal in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher appraisal is viewed by bureaucrats as a means of effecting organisational change in schools. It is for this reason that educational policy leaders have turned to technical competency as a way of accounting for teachers' performance in classrooms. In other words, teachers' work is now subject to minute scrutiny by the observation of…

Naidu, Sham

2011-01-01

67

A Survey of Academic Officers regarding Performance Appraisal in Estonian and American Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education in the Baltic Republic of Estonia is experiencing rapid change as the country adjusts to a market economy in the post-Soviet era and adheres to principles established through the Bologna Process. Research in the area of performance appraisal, and the most effective approaches to motivate academic staff, is a key factor influencing…

Herdlein, Richard; Kukemelk, Hasso; Turk, Kilno

2008-01-01

68

Iron and Steel Industry Training Board  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The British iron and steel industry training board has developed a training approach called investment appraisal of training. This approach is a forward-looking appraisal in which the estimated costs ofthe proposed training activity are balanced against benefits accruing in fi nancial terms from improved performance. (DS)

Riley, Alvan D.

1974-01-01

69

Consultant appraisals. Appraise where due.  

PubMed

A study of consultant appraisal in Welsh trusts revealed concerns about lack of protected time and uncertainty about how issues raised should be handled. The research showed it is important to ensure that issues raised are addressed by the organisation. Resources must be made available to trusts to offer protected time for the process, and adequate training. PMID:12474633

Ledgard, Anna; Thomas, Beverly; McClelland, Siobhan; Robbé, Iain

2002-11-21

70

Induction training, career counselling, and performance review: views of junior medical staff.  

PubMed

Surveys of senior house officers and registrars were undertaken by postal questionnaire to ascertain views on the need for and content of induction training, career counselling, and performance review. The questionnaire was sent out in May 1990 and repeated in May 1996, after measures had been taken to improve induction training, and assessment and appraisal of trainees. In 1990 there was a clear wish to receive information on career prospects, research and education opportunities, and clinical audit, but more ambivalence regarding information or training in communication, discharge policies, standards, and encoding procedures. There was also a firm view that career counselling could be improved and formal goal setting and performance appraisal interviews would be welcomed. In 1996 there was disappointingly little change in the views expressed by the junior medical staff, though there was a significant increase in confidence in the role of the consultant in career counselling. PMID:9799913

Williams, J G; Cheung, W Y

1998-07-01

71

Information Processing Antecedents of Rating Errors in Performance Appraisal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety-five subjects observing videotaped secretaries performing well or poorly were told either to evaluate or monitor job performance. Ratings were influenced by the rater's objective. Regardless of objective, results showed a high level of covariance among the independent traits of the secretaries. (SK)

Olson, Julie B.; Hulin, Charles

1992-01-01

72

Smart Training: The Manager's Guide to Training for Improved Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes and advocates "smart training," an approach to on-the-job training that helps employees gain competence and empowers them to act to satisfy customers. The book is organized in 16 chapters grouped into 4 parts. Part 1 outlines the basics of smart training, including its performance base, the need for initial analysis, and the…

Carr, Clay

73

Understanding adolescents' sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal.  

PubMed

The present paper reviews and critiques studies assessing the relation between sleep patterns, sleep quality, and school performance of adolescents attending middle school, high school, and/or college. The majority of studies relied on self-report, yet the researchers approached the question with different designs and measures. Specifically, studies looked at (1) sleep/wake patterns and usual grades, (2) school start time and phase preference in relation to sleep habits and quality and academic performance, and (3) sleep patterns and classroom performance (e.g., examination grades). The findings strongly indicate that self-reported shortened total sleep time, erratic sleep/wake schedules, late bed and rise times, and poor sleep quality are negatively associated with academic performance for adolescents from middle school through the college years. Limitations of the current published studies are also discussed in detail in this review. PMID:15018092

Wolfson, Amy R; Carskadon, Mary A

2003-12-01

74

Doing Performance Appraisal the Right Way: The CAM Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the CAM (Clarity, Awareness, Merit Recognition) process for performance reviews in which supervisors declare personal values, expectations, and operational methods; select employee skills for enhancement and define results; provide feedback, recognition and reinforcement; and distribute merit rewards and build deeper mutual commitments to…

Ramsgard, William C.

1994-01-01

75

Communicating Truthfully and Positively in Appraising Work Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the issue of acceptable behavior for managers when giving feedback to their subordinates. Notes that feedback can be either truthful or untruthful, and can be communicated either positively or negatively. Describes the advantages and disadvantages for each feedback approach to work performance. (MM)

Pearce, C. Glenn; And Others

1989-01-01

76

Faculty Training in Evidence-Based Medicine: Improving Evidence Acquisition and Critical Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) integrates published clinical evidence with patient values and clinical expertise, the output of which is informed medical decision making. Key skills for evidence-based practice include acquisition and appraisal of clinical information. Faculty clinicians often lack expertise in these skills and are…

Nicholson, Laura J.; Warde, Carole M.; Boker, John R.

2007-01-01

77

Performance Diagnosis for Air Combat Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper summarizes research at the Aircrew Training Research Division of the Armstrong Laboratory that is attempting to enhance air combat training through the development of performance diagnosis capabilities. Three systems are described: the Observin...

W. L. Waag

1992-01-01

78

Preferences of Training Performance Measurement: A Comparative Study of Training Professionals and Non-Training Managers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey-based study addressed a perceived gap between training performance evaluation practice and decision-making criteria required in business. Training professionals and non-training managers in North Carolina were surveyed. The study found that the groups differ in the performance measures that motivate them to act on training issues.…

Chapman, Diane D.

2004-01-01

79

War outside, ceasefire inside: An analysis of the performance appraisal system of a public hospital in a zone of conflict.  

PubMed

Our study examines the use of the performance appraisal system at Hebron Public Hospital (Palestine) during the second intifada, started in 2000. The aim of the article is to shed light on the reasons behind the use of performance appraisal systems in organizations operating in zones of conflicts, an area relatively neglected by HR scholars. To create the theoretical fundament we draw on mainstream literature on performance appraisal, contextualizing it to the Middle-Eastern context. From the literature analysis, we identify five guiding logics for the implementation and use of performance appraisal systems (Appendix A). We use a multi-method approach, qualitative and quantitative, to analyze the longitudinal performance evaluation data over the period 2000-2002 for about 250 individuals. These data are complemented with interviews and observations in the field. Our analysis shows that the trends evidenced in the quantitative analysis are similar to trends evident in Western contexts. However, these trends were not the consequence of the same five Western logics found in the literature. The qualitative study allows us to identify two additional logics for making sense of the performance appraisal system at Hebron Public Hospital: the need to find peace within the organization (organizational peacefulness logic); and the need to maintain order through the acceptance of the status quo (dominance logic). These results allow us to draw conclusions for theory and practice of HR management and to identify useful criteria for doing research in areas of conflicts. PMID:21168215

Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea; Sebastiano, Antonio; Tamimi, Hadeel Al

2012-02-01

80

Development, feasibility and performance of a health risk appraisal questionnaire for older persons  

PubMed Central

Background Health risk appraisal is a promising method for health promotion and prevention in older persons. The Health Risk Appraisal for the Elderly (HRA-E) developed in the U.S. has unique features but has not been tested outside the United States. Methods Based on the original HRA-E, we developed a scientifically updated and regionally adapted multilingual Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O) instrument consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and software-generated feed-back reports. We evaluated the practicability and performance of the questionnaire in non-disabled community-dwelling older persons in London (U.K.) (N = 1090), Hamburg (Germany) (N = 804), and Solothurn (Switzerland) (N = 748) in a sub-sample of an international randomised controlled study. Results Over eighty percent of invited older persons returned the self-administered HRA-O questionnaire. Fair or poor self-perceived health status and older age were correlated with higher rates of non-return of the questionnaire. Older participants and those with lower educational levels reported more difficulty in completing the HRA-O questionnaire as compared to younger and higher educated persons. However, even among older participants and those with low educational level, more than 80% rated the questionnaire as easy to complete. Prevalence rates of risks for functional decline or problems were between 2% and 91% for the 19 HRA-O domains. Participants' intention to change health behaviour suggested that for some risk factors participants were in a pre-contemplation phase, having no short- or medium-term plans for change. Many participants perceived their health behaviour or preventative care uptake as optimal, despite indications of deficits according to the HRA-O based evaluation. Conclusion The HRA-O questionnaire was highly accepted by a broad range of community-dwelling non-disabled persons. It identified a high number of risks and problems, and provided information on participants' intention to change health behaviour.

Stuck, Andreas E; Kharicha, Kalpa; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Meier-Baumgartner, Hans Peter; Harari, Danielle; Swift, Cameron G; Ivanova, Katja; Egger, Matthias; Gillmann, Gerhard; Higa, Jerilyn; Beck, John C; Iliffe, Steve

2007-01-01

81

An appraisal of the current status of communication skills training in British medical schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study surveyed medical schools in Britain to critically evaluate the current status of communication skills training in medical education. Results indicate that though all respondents provide some form of communication skills training for students, relatively few are committed to formal instruction, assessment, and evaluation of the subject within the medical curriculum. The methods and objectives of training are

Lesley Frederikson; Peter Bull

1992-01-01

82

Continuing Education and Training Models and Strategies: An Initial Appraisal. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Continuing education and training is an emerging priority for the nation's tertiary education and training system. Changing work, new work requirements, an ageing workforce and lengthening working lives are some of the factors now influencing this priority. Yet, many of the purposes and processes of the Australian tertiary education and training

Billett, Stephen; Henderson, Amanda; Choy, Sarojni; Dymock, Darryl; Kelly, Ann; Smith, Ray; James, Ian; Beven, Fred; Lewis, Jason

2012-01-01

83

Depression, Cognition, and Self-Appraisal of Functional Abilities in HIV: An Examination of Subjective Appraisal Versus Objective Performance  

PubMed Central

Depression frequently co-occurs with HIV infection and can result in self-reported overestimates of cognitive deficits. Conversely, genuine cognitive dysfunction can lead to an under-appreciation of cognitive deficits. The degree to which depression and cognition influence self-report of capacity for instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of depression and cognitive deficits on self-appraisal of functional competence among 107 HIV-infected adults. As hypothesized, higher levels of depression were found among those who over-reported problems in medication management, driving, and cognition when compared to those who under-reported or provided accurate self-assessments. In contrast, genuine cognitive dysfunction was predictive of under-reporting of functional deficits. Together, these results suggest that over-reliance on self-reported functional status poses risk for error when diagnoses require documentation of both cognitive impairment and associated functional disability in everyday life.

Thames, April D.; Becker, Brian W.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Hines, Lindsay J.; Foley, Jessica M.; Ramezani, Amir; Singer, Elyse J.; Castellon, Steven A.; Heaton, Robert K.; Hinkin, Charles H.

2013-01-01

84

Preservice Training of Teachers through Distance Education: Critical Appraisal and Suggestions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance education will be in demand as the need for trained teachers in India in the near future will be greater than the availability of conventional training. Suggestions for ensuring quality in distance teacher-education are offered, and three practice teaching plans (i.e., Brunel, itinerant faculty, and cooperative) are described. (AEF)

Rathore, H. C. S.

1997-01-01

85

TAP 2, Performance-Based Training Manual  

SciTech Connect

Training programs at DOE nuclear facilities should provide well- trained, qualified personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. A need has been identified for guidance regarding analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of consistent and reliable performance-based training programs. Accreditation of training programs at Category A reactors and high-hazard and selected moderate-hazard nonreactor facilities will assure consistent, appropriate, and cost-effective training of personnel responsible for the operation, maintenance, and technical support of these facilities. Training programs that are designed and based on systematically job requirements, instead of subjective estimation of trainee needs, yield training activities that are consistent and develop or improve knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be directly related to the work setting. Because the training is job-related, the content of these programs more efficiently and effectively meets the needs of the employee. Besides a better trained work force, a greater level of operational reactor safety can be realized. This manual is intended to provide an overview of the accreditation process and a brief description of the elements necessary to construct and maintain training programs that are based on the requirements of the job. Two comparison manuals provide additional information to assist contractors in their efforts to accredit training programs.

Not Available

1991-07-01

86

National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.  

PubMed

Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings. PMID:22040261

Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

2012-03-01

87

Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be…

Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

2010-01-01

88

Accountability in a Performance Appraisal Context: The Effect of Audience and Form of Accounting on Rater Response and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored how context influences accountability in a performance appraisal context. Results demonstrate that audience characteristics influence rating quality, as raters accountable to higher status or mixed-status audiences provided more accurate ratings, whereas those accountable to a lower status audience provided more inflated ratings. Participant note taking also mediated the relationship between accountability to higher status or mixed-status audiences

Neal P. Mero; Rebecca M. Guidice; Amy L. Brownlee

2007-01-01

89

Psychological capital and performance of Portuguese civil servants: exploring neutralizers in the context of an appraisal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature suggests that psychological capital (PsyCap: self-efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience) predicts work performance. Our case study, carried out in the context of a performance appraisal system (SIADAP) recently implemented in the Portuguese Public Administration, does not corroborate this prediction. In the research 278 civil servants self-reported their performance and PsyCap and their supervisor-rated performance scores according to the SIADAP

Arménio Rego; Carla Marques; Susana Leal; Filipa Sousa; Miguel Pina e Cunha

2010-01-01

90

Performance Training Carrel for Electronics Principles Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides documentation for the design, construction, and operation of an interactive electronics training panel developed for a computer assisted performance training carrel. The panel is a plug-in module designed to simulate electronic circuitry and a PMS-6 multimeter as required for a troubleshooting fundamentals lesson in an Air…

Kargo, Donald W.; Steffen, Dale A.

91

Training and business performance: the Spanish case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between training policies and business performance. Our research seeks to enlarge the empirical bibliography about the impact training has on firms and tries to challenge the criticism previous works with similar characteristics received. With this purpose in mind, we have used a theoretical model based on the hypothesis of a ‘cascade-type relationship’ between four types

Mercedes Úbeda García

2005-01-01

92

Combat System Testing, Training and Performance Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combat system and system designs encompassing Testing, Training and Performance Monitoring (TT&PM) attributes are being implemented now. To date, individual system and combat system design and implementation effects have proceeded independently, satisfyin...

D. L. Tressler

1986-01-01

93

The Effect of Performance Support and Training as Performance Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For decades, training has been one of the most common interventions used by organizations to improve the performance of their employees and teach them new ideas and skills. But owing to the cost of developing and delivering training, organizations have adopted alternative ways to enable employee performance while reducing the cost and minimizing…

Nguyen, Frank; Klein, James D.

2008-01-01

94

The Effect of Performance Support and Training on Performer Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While training has been a proven and heavily relied on intervention to impart job-enabling information to performers, its ability to have a positive effect on job performance has been demonstrated to diminish over time. One intervention that has been adopted by performance technologists to provide ongoing support is an electronic performance

Nguyen, Frank

2009-01-01

95

Endoscopic Sedation: From Training to Performance  

PubMed Central

Adequate sedation and analgesia are considered essential requirements to relieve patient discomfort and pain and ultimately to improve the outcomes of modern gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. The willingness of patients to undergo sedation during endoscopy has increased steadily in recent years and standard sedation practices are needed for both patient safety and successful procedural outcomes. Therefore, regular training and education of healthcare providers is warranted. However, training curricula and guidelines for endoscopic sedation may have conflicts according to varying legal frameworks and/or social security systems of each country, and well-recognized endoscopic sedation training systems are not currently available in all endoscopy units. Although European and American curricula for endoscopic sedation have been extensively developed, general curricula and guidelines for each country and institution are also needed. In this review, an overview of recent curricula and guidelines for training and basic performance of endoscopic sedation is presented based on the current literature.

Lee, Chang Kyun

2014-01-01

96

Performance assessment to enhance training effectiveness.  

SciTech Connect

Training simulators have become increasingly popular tools for instructing humans on performance in complex environments. However, the question of how to provide individualized and scenario-specific assessment and feedback to students remains largely an open question. To maximize training efficiency, new technologies are required that assist instructors in providing individually relevant instruction. Sandia National Laboratories has shown the feasibility of automated performance assessment tools, such as the Sandia-developed Automated Expert Modeling and Student Evaluation (AEMASE) software, through proof-of-concept demonstrations, a pilot study, and an experiment. In the pilot study, the AEMASE system, which automatically assesses student performance based on observed examples of good and bad performance in a given domain, achieved a high degree of agreement with a human grader (89%) in assessing tactical air engagement scenarios. In more recent work, we found that AEMASE achieved a high degree of agreement with human graders (83-99%) for three Navy E-2 domain-relevant performance metrics. The current study provides a rigorous empirical evaluation of the enhanced training effectiveness achievable with this technology. In particular, we assessed whether giving students feedback based on automated metrics would enhance training effectiveness and improve student performance. We trained two groups of employees (differentiated by type of feedback) on a Navy E-2 simulator and assessed their performance on three domain-specific performance metrics. We found that students given feedback via the AEMASE-based debrief tool performed significantly better than students given only instructor feedback on two out of three metrics. Future work will focus on extending these developments for automated assessment of teamwork.

Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Gieseler, Charles J.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris

2010-09-01

97

Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. p<0.001) in male athletes. The endomorphy component was the most substantial predictor. Reductions in endomorphy by one standard deviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively). An ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes. PMID:23834510

Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter

2014-06-01

98

The role of human resource practices in petro-chemical refinery performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of human resource (HR) practices (selection, training, compensation and appraisal) and participation on the financial performance of US petro-chemical refineries. Survey results from HR and operations respondents indicated that appraisal and training were significantly related to workforce skills and that training and compensation were marginally related to workforce motivation. In addition, only training was significantly

Patrick M. Wright; Blaine Mccormick; W. Scott Sherman; Gary C. Mcmahan

1999-01-01

99

Electronic Performance Support: "Look Mom! No Training."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a framework for designing an electronic performance support system (EPSS) that reduces the requirement for more traditional forms of training. An intervention summary table is provided that includes five types of interventions, user access, user type (expert and/or novice), purpose, and difficulty. (Author/LRW)

Wood, Del

1995-01-01

100

Development of High Performance AC Drive Train  

Microsoft Academic Search

In its efforts to give best to the consumers, REVA Electric Car Company (RECC) has developed the REVAi - a new model with a high performance AC drive train. The REVAi offers benefits to user in terms of increased power resulting in a higher top speed, 35% better acceleration and grade ability. A new optimized algorithm and higher efficiency motor

S. Pathak; R. Prakash

2006-01-01

101

Prediction of training performance for diesel mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new systems of electronic fuel injection have changed the content of the job of diesel automotive mechanic. In this article we analyse the predictive value and the adverse impact of a trainability test based on a diesel mechanic minicourse. The minicourse AC had null adverse impact and was significantly related to training performance in the complete 300 hour auto

Luis Aramburu-Zabala; Marina Casals

2003-01-01

102

Game performance and intermittent hypoxic training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live high-train low altitude exposure simulated by hypoxic devices may improve athletic performance. In this study, intermittent normobaric hypoxia was achieved with the GO2altitude® hypoxicator to determine its effects on sea level performance in rugby players. Ten players were randomly assigned to two groups. Players in each group received 14 sessions of either hypoxic (10–15% O2) or normoxic (21% O2)

E A Hinckson; M J Hamlin; M R Wood; W G Hopkins

2007-01-01

103

The Pupil Appraisal Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of the Pupil Appraisal Center (PAC) is to promote teacher education by providing teachers and students direct experience in resolving behavioral disorders and learning problems. PAC provides specialized teacher training in counseling, reading, hearing, speech, and language development and provides service to area schools for…

Wilborn, Bobbie; Gentile, Lance M.

104

Measuring Student Performances and Performance Appraisals with the College Life Task Assessment Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College Life Task Assessment Instrument (CLT), a 35-item questionnaire, assesses college student performance in 7 life-task domains important to college life. Reliability and Validity results demonstrate the CLT's ability to predict freshman and cumulative GPA, freshman and cumulative credits earned, academic, social, and personal-emotional…

Brower, Aaron M.

1994-01-01

105

Ecological Momentary Assessment of Social Functioning in Schizophrenia: Impact of Performance Appraisals and Affect on Social Interactions  

PubMed Central

Research concerning the complex interplay between factors that contribute to poor social functioning in schizophrenia has been hampered by limitations of traditional measures, most notably the ecological validity and accuracy of retrospective self-report and interview measures. Computerized Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMAc) permits the real-time assessment of relationships between daily life experiences, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In the current study, EMAc was used to record daily social interactions, subjective performance appraisals of these interactions (e.g., “I succeeded/failed;” “I was liked/rejected”), and affect in 145 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants completed electronic questionnaires on a personal digital assistant (PDA) four times per day for one week. Timelagged multilevel modeling of the data revealed that more positive interaction appraisals at any point in a day were associated with greater positive affect which, in turn, was a strong predictor of more social interactions over subsequent hours. Social functioning, therefore, was linked to positive performance beliefs about social interactions that were associated with greater positive affect. The findings suggest a useful treatment target for cognitive behavioral therapy and other psychosocial interventions that can be used to challenge defeatist beliefs and increase positive affect to enhance social functioning in schizophrenia.

Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fulford, Daniel; Swendsen, Joel

2013-01-01

106

COLLEGE MAJOR DIFFERENCES IN NAVAL FLIGHT OFFICER TRAINING PERFORMANCE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PERFORMANCE IN NAVAL FLIGHT OFFICER (NFO) TRAINING WAS EXAMINED IN RELATION TO MAJOR AREAS OF STUDY IN COLLEGE. EACH OF 1,231 STUDENT NFO'S WAS ASSIGNED TO ONE OF 16 COLLEGE MAJOR CATEGORIES. MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF EACH CATEGORY WERE COMPUTED ON EACH OF 24 TESTS AND TRAINING PERFORMANCE VARIABLES, AND THE TRAINING COMPLETION RATE WAS…

LANE, NORMAN E.; PETERSON, FLOYD E.

107

Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived fro...

G. R. Hatterick J. R. Bathurst

1976-01-01

108

Integrated Training and Performance Support for the Objective Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army has begun transformation to an Objective Force operating within joint, interagency, and multinational environments. This transformation will require changes in training, with more of a reliance on embedded training and electronic performance...

M. H. Throne B. L. Burnside

2002-01-01

109

Effects of training paradigms on search dog performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of scent-detection dogs might be negatively affected when they have been trained to discriminate between scents according to a handler-issued verbal cue, compared to dogs trained to only locate one scent. The performance of scent-detection dogs trained to locate only live scent (live-only dogs) was compared to that of scent-detection dogs trained to locate either live or cadaver scent

Lisa Lit; Cynthia A. Crawford

2006-01-01

110

The role of AFB microscopy training in improving the performance of laboratory professionals: analysis of pre and post training evaluation scores  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains major cause of morbidity and mortality due to any one of infectious agent worldwide. In low income countries, Ziehl-Neelsen sputum smear microscopy is the only cost-effective tool for diagnosis and monitoring of patients on treatment. In order to have efficient AFB microscopy centers, it is imperative to have continuous refresher training for laboratory professionals and strong External Quality Assessment (EQA) system). However, very little data exists as to the effect of in-service training on performance of laboratory personnel in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of AFB microscopy refresher training on the performance of laboratory professionals. Methods A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted to appraise theoretical and practical performance of laboratory professionals before and after AFB microscopy training. Theoretical assessment was based on standard questions while practical assessment was based on smear reading of 10 standard slides. Data on eight rounds of a five days training at Adama regional laboratory on AFB microscopy in 2009 was obtained and analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Result The pre-training mean score of the theoretical knowledge and practical skills were 61.8% and 75.7%, respectively. The post training mean scores were 84.2% and 89.2% for theoretical knowledge and practical skills, respectively. The increase in mean score of both theoretical and practical assessment was statistically significant (p?training mean score of theoretical knowledge was higher among diploma holders trainees than the BSc degree counter parts (p?=?0.001). The mean scores on practice before and after training was dependent on participation in previous AFB microscopy trainings (p?trained. Trainees who have had previous training were found to commit less errors than those who were not participated in previous training (p?Training has improved theoretical and practical performance of laboratory professionals. Pre-placement and continuous training irrespective of lab professionals qualification and service year and sustainable EQA are highly recommended to ensure quality of AFB microscopy service.

2013-01-01

111

Game performance and intermittent hypoxic training  

PubMed Central

Live high?train low altitude exposure simulated by hypoxic devices may improve athletic performance. In this study, intermittent normobaric hypoxia was achieved with the GO2altitude® hypoxicator to determine its effects on sea level performance in rugby players. Ten players were randomly assigned to two groups. Players in each group received 14 sessions of either hypoxic (10–15% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) exposure at rest over 14 consecutive days in a single blind fashion. Various performance measures were obtained consecutively in a single testing session pre? and post?exposure. Effects of hypoxic exposure on maximum speed and sprint times were trivial (<1.0%) but unclear (90% likely range, ±5% to ±9%). In rugby simulation, hypoxic exposure produced impairments of peak power in two scrums (15%, ±8%; 9%, ±7%) and impairments of time in offensive sprints (7%, ±8%) and tackle sprints (11%, ±9%). Pending further research, rugby players would be unwise to use normobaric intermittent hypoxic exposure to prepare for games at sea level.

Hinckson, E A; Hamlin, M J; Wood, M R; Hopkins, W G

2007-01-01

112

Diagnostic performance 1 h after simulation training predicts learning.  

PubMed

Although simulation training improves post-training performance, it is unclear how well performance soon after simulation training predicts longer term outcomes (i.e., learning). Here our objective was to assess the predictive value of performance 1 h post-training of performance 6 weeks later. We trained 84 first year medical students a simulated case of chest pain due to aortic stenosis. They then received training on a case of acute onset dyspnea due to pulmonary embolism, after which we evaluated diagnostic performance on their trained murmur followed by novel murmur. We repeated the evaluation of diagnostic performance on the same murmurs 6 weeks later. One hour post-training 88.1 % of students identified the training murmur, compared to 60.7 % for the novel murmur. Six weeks after training the corresponding results were 89.3 and 65.5 %, respectively (p < 0.0001 for both time periods). The probability of students diagnosing their training murmur 6 weeks post-training if they diagnosed this after 1 h (positive predictive value) was 0.89 [0.87, 0.93], and the probability of misdiagnosing their trained murmur 6 weeks post-training if they misdiagnosed this after 1 h (negative predictive value) was 0.10 [0.01, 0.40]. The corresponding positive and negative predictive values for the novel murmur were 0.69 [0.55, 0.80] and 0.39 [0.24, 0.57], respectively. Students who successfully diagnosed a cardiac murmur 1 h after simulation training were very likely to recognize the same murmur 6 weeks later, suggesting that we can use performance 1 h post-training as a learning outcome. PMID:23184437

Consoli, Anna; Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene; Sobczak, Matthew; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

2013-12-01

113

The Influence of Teacher Efficacy and Readiness for Self-Directed Learning on the Implementation of a Growth-Oriented Teacher Performance Appraisal Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the implementation of a teacher performance appraisal process that encourages self-directed learning (SDL), highlighting the extent to which teacher efficacy (TE) influenced the its success. The study also examined whether lack of readiness for SDL was an implementation obstacle. Finally, it noted other barriers and obstacles…

Rowe, Barry W.

114

An Investigation of the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Career Development and Advancement of Mid-Level Women in Student Affairs Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the performance appraisal experience of 14 mid-level women in student affairs administration at four-year colleges and universities in Northern Illinois using a qualitative research approach involving personal interviews. Previous research on career development and advancement of mid-level women in student…

Corral, Christine R.

2009-01-01

115

The effects of replacing a portion of endurance training by explosive strength training on performance in trained cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   To investigate the effects of replacing a portion of endurance training by strength training on exercise performance, 14\\u000a competitive cyclists were divided into an experimental (E; n=6) and a control (C; n=8) group. Both groups received a training program of 9 weeks. The total training volume for both groups was the same [E:\\u000a 8.8 (1.1) h\\/week; C: 8.9 (1.7) h\\/week], but 37%

J. Bastiaans; A. Diemen; T. Veneberg; A. Jeukendrup

2001-01-01

116

Performance Errors in Weight Training and Their Correction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses general performance errors in weight training, also discussing each category of error separately. The paper focuses on frequency and intensity, incorrect training velocities, full range of motion, and symmetrical training. It also examines specific errors related to the bench press, squat, military press, and bent- over and seated row…

Downing, John H.; Lander, Jeffrey E.

2002-01-01

117

Using Business Performance To Evaluate Multimedia Training in Manufacturing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses training evaluation and shows how an abbreviated form of Kirkpatrick's four-level evaluation model can be used effectively to evaluate multimedia-based manufacturing training. Topics include trends in manufacturing training, quantifying performance improvement, and statistical comparisons using the Mann-Whitney test and the Tukey Quick…

Lachenmaier, Lynn S.; Moor, William C.

1997-01-01

118

Working memory training and transfer in older adults: effects of age, baseline performance, and training gains.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For that purpose, 80 older adults (65-95 years) were assigned either to a training group that worked on visuospatial, verbal, and executive working memory tasks for 9 sessions over 3 weeks or to a control group. Performance on trained and transfer tasks was assessed in all participants before and after the training period, as well as at a 9-month follow-up. Analyses revealed significant training effects in all 3 training tasks in trained participants relative to controls, as well as near transfer to a verbal working memory task and far transfer to a fluid intelligence task. Encouragingly, all training effects and the transfer effect to verbal working memory were stable at the 9-month follow-up session. Further analyses revealed that training gains were predicted by baseline performance in training tasks and (to a lesser degree) by age. Gains in transfer tasks were predicted by age and by the amount of improvement in the trained tasks. These findings suggest that cognitive plasticity is preserved over a large range of old age and that even a rather short training regime can lead to (partly specific) training and transfer effects. However, baseline performance, age, and training gains moderate the amount of plasticity. PMID:23688173

Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

2014-01-01

119

Making Connections between the Appraisal, Performance Management and Professional Development of Dentists and Teachers: "Right, What Are the Problems We've Got and How Could We Sort This Out?'"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluating the connections between the appraisal, or performance management, of different professional groups, and their subsequent uptake of continuing professional development (CPD), is valuable for both employees and managers. The linking of appraisal systems with professional/personal development plans amongst health professionals is now…

Butt, Graham; Macnab, Natasha

2013-01-01

120

Mechanisms for training security inspectors to enhance human performance  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has established qualification standards for protective force personnel employed at nuclear facilities (10 CFR Part 1046 (Federal Register)). Training mechanisms used at Los Alamos to enhance human performance in meeting DOE standards include, but are not limited to, the following: for cardio-respiratory training, they utilize distance running, interval training, sprint training, pacing, indoor aerobics and circuit training; for muscular strength, free weights, weight machines, light hand weights, grip strength conditioners, and calistenics are employed; for muscular endurance, participants do high repetitions (15 - 40) using dumbbells, flex weights, resistive rubber bands, benches, and calisthenics; for flexibility, each training session devotes specific times to stretch the muscles involved for a particular activity. These training mechanisms with specific protocols can enhance human performance.

Burkhalter, H.E.; Sessions, J.C.

1988-01-01

121

5 CFR 430.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems. 430.405 Section 430... PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.405 Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems. (a) General . To...

2009-01-01

122

5 CFR 430.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems. 430.405 Section 430... PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.405 Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems. (a) General . To...

2010-01-01

123

Physiological and performance adaptations to high-intensity interval training.  

PubMed

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) refers to exercise that is characterized by relatively short bursts of vigorous activity, interspersed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise for recovery. In untrained and recreationally active individuals, short-term HIIT is a potent stimulus to induce physiological remodeling similar to traditional endurance training despite a markedly lower total exercise volume and training time commitment. As little as six sessions of 'all-out' HIIT over 14 days, totaling ?15 min of intense cycle exercise within total training time commitment of ?2.5 h, is sufficient to enhance exercise capacity and improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. From an athletic standpoint, HIIT is also an effective strategy to improve performance when supplemented into the already high training volumes of well-trained endurance athletes, although the underlying mechanisms are likely different compared to less trained subjects. Most studies in this regard have examined the effect of replacing a portion (typically ?15-25%) of base/normal training with HIIT (usually 2-3 sessions per week for 4-8 weeks). It has been proposed that a polarized approach to training, in which ?75% of total training volume be performed at low intensities, with 10-15% performed at very high intensities may be the optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who compete in intense endurance events. PMID:23899754

Gibala, Martin J; Jones, Andrew M

2013-01-01

124

The effects of rhythm training on tennis performance.  

PubMed

Rhythm training is an integral part of sports. The purposes of the study were to analyze the effects of rhythm training on tennis performance and rhytmic competence of tennis players, to compare the improvement levels of tennis specific and general rhythm training and to examine the effects of shorter and longer tempos on rhythmic competence. Thirty university students whose mean score of International Tennis Number (ITN) was 7.3 (±0.9) were divided randomly into three sub-groups: Tennis Group, General Rhythm Training Group and Tennis-Specific Rhythm Training Group. The experimental procedure lasted 8 weeks. During this period, all groups had the same tennis training twice a week. The Tennis Group had regular tennis training sessions. In addition to regular tennis training sessions, the General Rhythm Training Group followed the general rhythm training sessions and the Tennis-Specific Rhythm Training Group had tennis-specific rhythm training. The measurement instruments were ITN, Rhythmic Competence Analysis Test and Untimed Consecutive Rally Test. The results indicated that participation in tennis-specific or general rhythm training resulted in progress in tennis playing levels, forehand consistency performance and rhythmic competence of the participants. On the other hand, attendance to the regular 8-week tennis training was enough to solely increase the tennis playing level but not sufficient to develop forehand consistency performance and rhythmic competence. Although the participants in the TRTG had better improvement scores than the ones in the GRTG, no significant difference was found between the rhythm training groups. The results also revealed that participants exhibited higher rhythmic competence scores on fast tempo compared to slow tempo. PMID:23486093

Sö?üt, Mustafa; Kirazci, Sadettin; Korkusuz, Feza

2012-06-01

125

The Effects of Rhythm Training on Tennis Performance  

PubMed Central

Rhythm training is an integral part of sports. The purposes of the study were to analyze the effects of rhythm training on tennis performance and rhytmic competence of tennis players, to compare the improvement levels of tennis specific and general rhythm training and to examine the effects of shorter and longer tempos on rhythmic competence. Thirty university students whose mean score of International Tennis Number (ITN) was 7.3 (±0.9) were divided randomly into three sub-groups: Tennis Group, General Rhythm Training Group and Tennis-Specific Rhythm Training Group. The experimental procedure lasted 8 weeks. During this period, all groups had the same tennis training twice a week. The Tennis Group had regular tennis training sessions. In addition to regular tennis training sessions, the General Rhythm Training Group followed the general rhythm training sessions and the Tennis-Specific Rhythm Training Group had tennis-specific rhythm training. The measurement instruments were ITN, Rhythmic Competence Analysis Test and Untimed Consecutive Rally Test. The results indicated that participation in tennis-specific or general rhythm training resulted in progress in tennis playing levels, forehand consistency performance and rhythmic competence of the participants. On the other hand, attendance to the regular 8-week tennis training was enough to solely increase the tennis playing level but not sufficient to develop forehand consistency performance and rhythmic competence. Although the participants in the TRTG had better improvement scores than the ones in the GRTG, no significant difference was found between the rhythm training groups. The results also revealed that participants exhibited higher rhythmic competence scores on fast tempo compared to slow tempo.

Sogut, Mustafa; Kirazci, Sadettin; Korkusuz, Feza

2012-01-01

126

Resistance training for performance and injury prevention in golf  

PubMed Central

This introductory resistance training program is designed to minimize injury risk, improve golf swing speed and the overall fitness of recreational golfers. This article aims to introduce to the Chiropractor the basic concepts sport specific resistance training, periodization models of resistance training and proposes a year round conditioning resistance training program specific to golf. The exercises have been chosen based on the best biomechanical evidence to minimize injury risk and on the research supporting the use of movement specific training adaptations. Upper body strength exercises are performed standing to develop both trunk and hip stabilizing musculature and the primary movement of the golf swing.

Lehman, Gregory J

2006-01-01

127

Motivation and Platoon Performance at Combat Training Centers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is widely assumed that motivation powerfully affects the quality of performance. To improve Army leadership training, soldier motivation was measured and its relation to performance was assessed. As part of a larger effort, two scales designed to asses...

G. H. Lawrence

1992-01-01

128

Demonstration of Fully Proceduralized Job Performance Aids and Matching Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sixteen airmen with no background in electronics were given four weeks of job-oriented training and then observed as they performed maintenance while using fully proceduralized job performance aids (FPJPAs). Half of the airmen had the high aptitude usuall...

P. A. Mullen R. P. Joyce

1974-01-01

129

[Appraisal of Audiovisual Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of four separate handouts all related to the appraisal of audiovisual (AV) materials: "How to Work with an Appraiser of AV Media: A Convenient Check List for Clients and Their Advisors," helps a client prepare for an appraisal, explaining what is necessary before the appraisal, the appraisal process and its costs, the kind…

Johnson, Steve

130

Quiet Eye Training Facilitates Competitive Putting Performance in Elite Golfers  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief quiet eye (QE) training intervention aimed at optimizing visuomotor control and putting performance of elite golfers under pressure, and in real competition. Twenty-two elite golfers (mean handicap 2.7) recorded putting statistics over 10 rounds of competitive golf before attending training individually. Having been randomly assigned to either a QE training or Control group, participants were fitted with an Applied Science Laboratories Mobile Eye tracker and performed 20 baseline (pre-test) putts from 10?ft. Training consisted of video feedback of their gaze behavior while they completed 20 putts; however the QE-trained group received additional instructions related to maintaining a longer QE period. Participants then recorded their putting statistics over a further 10 competitive rounds and re-visited the laboratory for retention and pressure tests of their visuomotor control and putting performance. Overall, the results were supportive of the efficacy of the QE training intervention. QE duration predicted 43% of the variance in putting performance, underlying its critical role in the visuomotor control of putting. The QE-trained group maintained their optimal QE under pressure conditions, whereas the Control group experienced reductions in QE when anxious, with subsequent effects on performance. Although their performance was similar in the pre-test, the QE-trained group holed more putts and left the ball closer to the hole on missed putts than their Control group counterparts in the pressure test. Importantly, these advantages transferred to the golf course, where QE-trained golfers made 1.9 fewer putts per round, compared to pre-training, whereas the Control group showed no change in their putting statistics. These results reveal that QE training, incorporated into a pre-shot routine, is an effective intervention to help golfers maintain control when anxious.

Vine, Samuel J.; Moore, Lee J.; Wilson, Mark R.

2011-01-01

131

Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Improves Motor and Dual-Task Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objective of our project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The goal of our current study was to determine if SA training using variation in visual flow and support surface motion produces improved performance in a novel sensory environment and demonstrate the retention characteristics of SA training.

Bloomberg, J.J.; Peters, B.T.; Mulavara, A.P.; Brady, R.; Batson, C.; Cohen, H.S.

2009-01-01

132

A toolkit for trainer appraisal and development.  

PubMed

All GPs are required to undergo formal revalidation and appraisal. Revalidation and re-accreditation assess past performance with a view to licensing future activity. GP trainers have additional responsibilities for delivering high quality education to tomorrow's doctors beyond those of a GP. In order to fulfill this role trainers are required to attend re-accreditation courses by their local educational establishments and will have different needs to those of their doctor role. Course organizers have responsibilities that include the organisation and assurance of quality of the training provided by their scheme. Although there are no absolute definitions of good quality teaching, it is widely accepted that proxy measures for both consulting and teaching are important and definable. In the case of teaching registrars, these include provision for welcoming, inducting and informing new registrars, assessing their needs, and providing a climate in which they can flourish, as well as actually teaching them. This toolkit explores a system of appraisal designed to help trainers achieve these tasks efficiently, using structured feedback from registrars as well as the trainers' own reports as a basis for discussion during an appraisal interview. It contains some hints for interviewers and comments on the likely issues to emerge, as well as the basic tools needed to conduct the process. The toolkit can be adapted for local use. It has been well received by the trainers, and refined in the light of their feedback. PMID:12808786

Rutt, G A; Dodd, M J

2003-05-01

133

Motor Transport Operator Training: An Approach to Preparing Training Managers and Instructors to Design, Conduct, and Evaluate Performance Oriented Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes an R and D effort to train managers and trainers of the Support Command of an Infantry Division in how to design, implement, and evaluate a performance-oriented training program. The effort was conducted within the Transportation Com...

M. Showel M. F. Brennan W. H. Melching

1977-01-01

134

Development of Performance Standards: A Practical Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a broad training format undertaken by a public jurisdiction for the successful development of performance standards. The three-hour course includes a lecture, a simulation exercise, and a discussion of the appraisal interview. (Author/CH)

Brown, Dan G.

1987-01-01

135

Factors Influencing Preservice Teachers' End-of-Training Teaching Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated components of preservice training likely to influence the development of expertise in teaching. The study examined whether perceived self-efficacy, cognitive skills for teaching, basic teaching skills, beginning training teacher performance, knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of teaching, teacher work environment, and…

Jablonski, Ann M.

136

Jaguar Land Rover “transition to high performancetraining program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe a training program that was specifically designed to underpin the launch of a new behavior framework and performance management process, required to support the pace of organizational change in the face of increasingly competitive market demands. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The core focus of the training program was on practical skills acquisition

Jez Hicks; Stephen Upton

2010-01-01

137

CHANGES IN FLIGHT TRAINEE PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING SYNTHETIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT TRAINING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A…

CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.

138

Effect of weight training on sprinting performance, flexibility and strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight training has motivated and attracted the youth to develop their strength and build their muscles. Apart from developing a wholesome personality it also helps in to keep a person fit and healthy. The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of weight training (WT) on sprinting performance, flexibility and strength of the 20 students. A 45

K Azeem; A Al Ameer

2010-01-01

139

5 CFR 1330.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems. 1330.405 Section 1330...HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 1330.405 Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems. (a) General . To...

2010-01-01

140

5 CFR 1330.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems. 1330.405 Section 1330...HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 1330.405 Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems. (a) General . To...

2009-01-01

141

A Framework for Re-engineering Traditional Training: Interactive Training and Electronic Performance Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A solution to the shortcomings of traditional corporate education and training includes interactive and/or multimedia tutorials and electronic performance support. The easiest way to deliver training at the point of need is by implementing a local area network. Organizational benefits include increased productivity, improved service and product…

Wood, Del

1996-01-01

142

Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an improvement over last year. In contrast, recognition and teamwork are the two major areas where improvement in supervisory performance seems to be most needed. The initial report card results will serve as a baseline against which future performance ratings will be compared. Once supervisors have been presented with their data and given an opportunity to analyze and discus the results, they will be assisted in developing an action plan for improving their performance and work processes. They will be provided with ongoing support from management in following through with the action plan.

Siegfeldt, Denise V.

1994-01-01

143

Teams and performance appraisal : Using metrics to increase reliability and validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-rater agreement in a peer performance evaluation system was analyzed using a sample of 44 individuals who rated focal persons in seven teams. Objective information concerning individual performance on multiple choice tests, as well as information gleaned from individual contributions to team testing and team graded exercises, resulted in high inter-rater reliabilities (assessed via ICCs) and strong criterion related validity

Matthew Valle; Kirk Davis

1999-01-01

144

Analyzing the Interaction of Performance Appraisal Factors Using Interpretive Structural Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's changed environment where the economy and industry are driven by customers, business is open to worldwide competition. Manufacturing firms have looked at employee performance improvement as a means to succeed. These findings advocate setting up priorities for employee performance improvement. This requires a continuous improvement…

Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

2010-01-01

145

Individualised training to address variability of radiologists' performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer-based tools are increasingly used for training and the continuing professional development of radiologists. We propose an adaptive training system to support individualised learning in mammography, based on a set of real cases, which are annotated with educational content by experienced breast radiologists. The system has knowledge of the strengths and weakness of each radiologist's performance: each radiologist is assessed to compute a profile showing how they perform on different sets of cases, classified by type of abnormality, breast density, and perceptual difficulty. We also assess variability in cognitive aspects of image perception, classifying errors made by radiologists as errors of search, recognition or decision. This is a novel element in our approach. The profile is used to select cases to present to the radiologist. The intelligent and flexible presentation of these cases distinguishes our system from existing training tools. The training cases are organised and indexed by an ontology we have developed for breast radiologist training, which is consistent with the radiologists' profile. Hence, the training system is able to select appropriate cases to compose an individualised training path, addressing the variability of the radiologists' performance. A substantial part of the system, the ontology has been evaluated on a large number of cases, and the training system is under implementation for further evaluation.

Sun, Shanghua; Taylor, Paul; Wilkinson, Louise; Khoo, Lisanne

2008-04-01

146

An Illustration of Evaluating Post-Training Job Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation study illustrates several ways of measuring post-training job performance, a variety of measurement problems, and the impact of evaluation upon administrative decisions. Measurement problems are discussed in terms of six dimensions. (Author)

Smith, Martin E.

1979-01-01

147

Importance of eccentric actions in performance adaptations to resistance training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of eccentric (ecc) muscle actions in resistance training for the maintenance of muscle strength and mass in hypogravity was investigated in experiments in which human subjects, divided into three groups, were asked to perform four-five sets of 6 to 12 repetitions (rep) per set of three leg press and leg extension exercises, 2 days each weeks for 19 weeks. One group, labeled 'con', performed each rep with only concentric (con) actions, while group con/ecc with performed each rep with only ecc actions; the third group, con/con, performed twice as many sets with only con actions. Control subjects did not train. It was found that resistance training wih both con and ecc actions induced greater increases in muscle strength than did training with only con actions.

Dudley, Gary A.; Miller, Bruce J.; Buchanan, Paul; Tesch, Per A.

1991-01-01

148

Empirical Study of Training and Performance in the Marathon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Similar systematic relationships exist between personal characteristics, training, and performance on the marathon, regardless of whether they derive from differences among individuals participating in the same run or from differences within the same person in two separate marathons. (Author)

Slovic, Paul

1977-01-01

149

Lessons Learned: 20 Keys to Successful Training and Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues related to training and performance improvement, including practice required for skill learning; knowledge versus skills; core skills; competence; learning to learn; team orientation; enabling business results; interpersonal and conceptual skills; timing; focusing on priorities; organizational learning and management…

Spitzer, Dean R.

2003-01-01

150

The effect of plyometric training on distance running performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Previous research has reported that plyometric training improves running economy (RE) and ultimately distance-running performance,\\u000a although the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. This study examined whether changes in running performance\\u000a resulting from plyometric training were related to alterations in lower leg musculotendinous stiffness (MTS). Seventeen male\\u000a runners were pre- and post-tested for lower leg MTS, maximum isometric

Robert W. Spurrs; Aron J. Murphy; Mark L. Watsford

2003-01-01

151

Training Lessons Learned from Peak Performance Episodes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major challenge confronting the United States Army is to obtain optimal performance from both its human and machine resources. This study examines episodes of peak performance in soldiers and athletes. Three cognitive components were found to enable episodes of peak performance: psychological readiness (activating optimal arousal and emotion…

Fobes, James L.

152

Living high–training low: effect on erythropoiesis and aerobic performance in highly-trained swimmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “living high–training low” model (LHTL), i.e., training in normoxia but sleeping\\/living in hypoxia, is designed to improve\\u000a the athletes performance. However, LHTL efficacy still remains controversial and also little is known about the duration of\\u000a its potential benefit. This study tested whether LHTL enhances aerobic performance in athletes, and if any positive effect\\u000a may last for up to 2 weeks

Paul Robach; Laurent Schmitt; Julien V. Brugniaux; Belle Roels; Grégoire Millet; Philippe Hellard; Gérard Nicolet; Alain Duvallet; Jean-Pierre Fouillot; Stéphane Moutereau; Françoise Lasne; Vincent Pialoux; Niels V. Olsen; Jean-Paul Richalet

2006-01-01

153

Training Content and Potential Impact on Performance: A Comparison of Young Male and Female Endurance-Trained Runners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training

Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.

2006-01-01

154

Comparison of ISO standards for device performance; 20072 and 27427: a critical appraisal.  

PubMed

Two separate international standards, ISO 20072:2009 and ISO 27427:2010, have recently been published that relate to the development and performance testing of oral inhaled products (OIPs). The scope of ISO 20072 encompasses all OIP forms except nebulizing systems, whereas ISO 27427 was developed specifically for this class of OIP. Compliance with these standards will likely be necessary for manufacturers seeking approval to market inhaler devices in the European Union (EU). Their adoption in the United States may take a considerable time, but the FDA has expressed support in general terms for the ISO process. Key aspects of both standards that are very different in style and content are identified and discussed from the perspective of a potential user. In the approach adopted by ISO 20072, a formalized risk assessment is undertaken as a key part of design verification, in order to develop the Device Functionality Profile (DFP) of the device. The DFP is subsequently verified by the System Verification Test (SVT), in which pharmacopeial test methods are used to evaluate in vitro performance of the device with a chosen drug product in a statistically robust manner. On the other hand, ISO 27427 adopts a more prescriptive approach that involves performance verification of the finished nebulizing system using 1% w/v salbutamol as the test formulation. Although ISO 27427 is currently undergoing revision, at present it is unclear whether the changes that are made will significantly alter its fundamentally different approach to device performance verification. A strong case can be made for a single OIP-wide ISO standard, based on the principles developed in ISO 20072 and that makes use of the well-understood and validated in vitro test procedures that are available or will shortly be available in the case of nebulizing systems, in the United States and European pharmacopeias. PMID:22857272

Nerbrink, Ola; Mitchell, Jolyon P

2012-08-01

155

Single and repeated dose comparison of three antihistamines and phenylpropanolamine: psychomotor performance and subjective appraisals of sleep.  

PubMed

1 In a double-blind cross-over study, nine healthy male students received placebo, brompheniramine 12 mg), carbinoxamine (12 mg), clemastine (1 mg), and phenylpropanolamine (50 mg) orally. Three doses of each drug were given: at 08.30 h and 21.00 h on the first day of treatment and at 08.30 h on the following day. 2 Psychomotor skills and subjective feelings were recorded before and 2, 6 and 12 h after the first dose on day 1 as well as before and 2 and 6 h after the third dose on day 2. Subjective appraisals of sleep were requested on the morning of day 2. 3 All antihistamines tended to cause subjective drowsiness on the first day of treatment. Drowsiness was felt for a maximum of 2 h after carbinoxamine, 6 h after brompheniramine, and 12 h after clemastine. In contrast to antihistamines, phenylpropanolamine made subjects more alert and quick witted. Tolerance to the antihistamine-induced drowsiness developed on the second day. 4 Divided attention, tracking, speed anticipation and sleep were not affected by any drug. Carbinoxamine slowed reactions 2 h after the first dose, but no impairment was measured in objective tests after brompheniramine or clemastine. 5 Phenylpropanolamine improved reaction speed and reaction accuracy and enhanced flicker recognition throughout the study. Phenylpropanolamine plasma levels and improvement in flicker fusion test results correlated with each other on day 2. 6 The results suggest that phenylpropanolamine and the antihistamines studied are comparatively harmless to psychomotor performance and driving skills. PMID:6118170

Seppälä, T; Nuotto, E; Korttila, K

1981-08-01

156

A School Improvement-Accountability Process Kit. PAK No. 4.5--Coaching and Appraising Staff Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Personalized Activity Kit presents a new dimension to staff evaluation. Staff appraisal becomes a procedure that promotes the human and professional growth of staff members. An alternative approach to implementing management by objectives in a large school system is also suggested. Finally, there is a summary of the management role, with…

Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. District Planning and Accountability Services.

157

Performance appraisal of VAS radiometry for GOES-4, -5 and -6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first three VISSR Atmospheric Sounders (VAS) were launched on GOES-4, -5, and -6 in 1980, 1981 and 1983. Postlaunch radiometric performance is assessed for noise, biases, registration and reliability, with special attention to calibration and problems in the data processing chain. The postlaunch performance of the VAS radiometer meets its prelaunch design specifications, particularly those related to image formation and noise reduction. The best instrument is carried on GOES-5, currently operational as GOES-EAST. Single sample noise is lower than expected, especially for the small longwave and large shortwave detectors. Detector to detector offsets are correctable to within the resolution limits of the instrument. Truncation, zero point and droop errors are insignificant. Absolute calibration errors, estimated from HIRS and from radiation transfer calculations, indicate moderate, but stable biases. Relative calibration errors from scanline to scanline are noticeable, but meet sounding requirements for temporarily and spatially averaged sounding fields of view. The VAS instrument is a potentially useful radiometer for mesoscale sounding operations. Image quality is very good. Soundings derived from quality controlled data meet prelaunch requirements when calculated with noise and bias resistant algorithms.

Chesters, D.; Robinson, W. D.

1983-01-01

158

Teacher Appraisal and Its Outcomes in Singapore Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the performance appraisal system used for primary school teachers in Singapore, and how those attributes affect satisfaction with the appraisal system, stress experienced with the appraisal system, attitudes towards performance bonus, job satisfaction and motivation, and perceived…

Kelly, Khim Ong; Ang, Shi Yun Angela; Chong, Wei Ling; Hu, Wei Sheng

2008-01-01

159

Performance appraisals of digital spectroscopy systems for the measurement of bone lead.  

PubMed

The performances of two new digital spectroscopy systems are compared to a conventional analogue amplifier ADC system for the 109Cd based K X-ray fluorescence in vivo measurement of bone lead. Canberra's DSA-2000 and ORTEC's DSPEC(PLUS) were found to show 27.3 and 10.8% improvements in measurement precision respectively, when compared to an optimized conventional system. The resulting improvements in minimum detection limit, compared with the conventional limit of 6-10 microg Pb/g bone mineral, were reductions of 1.5-2.5 microg Pb/g bone mineral for the DSA-2000, and 0.5-1.0 microg Pb/g bone mineral for the DSPEC(PLUS). PMID:11003502

Bateman, S N; Pejovi?-Mili?, A; Stronach, I M; McNeill, F E; Chettle, D R

2000-01-01

160

Effect of heavy strength training on thigh muscle cross-sectional area, performance determinants, and performance in well-trained cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of heavy strength training on thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA),\\u000a determinants of cycling performance, and cycling performance in well-trained cyclists. Twenty well-trained cyclists were assigned\\u000a to either usual endurance training combined with heavy strength training [E + S; n = 11 (? = 11)] or to usual endurance training only [E; n = 9 (? = 7, ? = 2)]. The strength

Bent R. Rønnestad; Ernst Albin Hansen; Truls Raastad

2010-01-01

161

An appraisal of the performance of the economic and financial crimes commission in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This article examines how an anti-graft body, the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC), has fared in reducing the incidence of corruption in Nigeria, in particular, bank fraud, Internet scam, and bad governance. It first discusses the corruption situation in Nigeria by highlighting public office holders who have been associated with corruption charges. A Likert-type scale is used in designing the questionnaire for data collection. Descriptive and chi-square analyses are used, and results reveal that the performance of the EFCC has been affected by government interference (p < .05). However, although the anti-graft body has not been able to reduce the incidence of bank fraud (p > .05), bad governance and advance fee fraud have recorded appreciable reduction (p < .05). Areas of success as well as challenges that need to be addressed are identified. Specifically, it is recommended that the bill that established EFCC should be amended to reduce government interference and improve its manpower development, especially in the areas of fraud and Internet scam detection. PMID:19679650

Sowunmi, Fatai Abiola; Adesola, Muniru Adekunle; Salako, Mudashiru Abiodun

2010-12-01

162

Performance Measurement in Helicopter Training and Operations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost 15 years, HumRRO Division No. 6 has conducted an active research program on techniques for measuring the flight performance of helicopter trainees and pilots. This program addressed both the elemental aspects of flying (i.e., maneuvers) and the mission- or goal-oriented aspects. A variety of approaches has been investigated, with the…

Prophet, Wallace W.

163

Ergonomic factors on task performance in laparoscopic surgery training.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the effect of ergonomic factors on task performance and trainee posture during laparoscopic surgery training. Twenty subjects without laparoscopic experience were allotted into 2 groups. Group 1 was trained under the optimal ergonomic simulation setting according to current ergonomic guidelines (Condition A). Group 2 was trained under non-optimal ergonomic simulation setting that can often be observed during training in a skills lab (Condition B). Posture analysis showed that the subjects held a much more neutral posture under Condition A than under Condition B (p<0.001). The subjects had less joint excursion and experienced less discomfort in their neck, shoulders, and arms under Condition A. Significant difference in task performance between Conditions A and B (p<0.05) was found. This study shows that the optimal ergonomic simulation setting leads to better task performance. In addition, no significant differences of task performance, for Groups 1 and 2 using the same test setting were found. However, better performance was observed for Group 1. It can be concluded that the optimal and non-optimal training setting have different learning effects on trainees' skill learning. PMID:21893312

Xiao, D J; Jakimowicz, Jack J; Albayrak, A; Goossens, R H M

2012-05-01

164

Using Importance-Performance Analysis to Evaluate Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance-performance analysis (IPA) is a tool that can provide timely and usable feedback to improve training. IPA measures the gaps between the importance and how good (performance) a class is perceived by a student and is presented on a 2x2 matrix. The quadrant in which data land in this matrix aids in determining potential future action.…

Siniscalchi, Jason M.; Beale, Edward K.; Fortuna, Ashley

2008-01-01

165

US Department of Energy Central Training Academy performance testing fundamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that performance testing is required for training and inspection, and for validation of results of the vulnerability assessment which is a section of the US DOE Master Safeguards and Security Agreement (NSSA). It is essential, regardless of the reason for performing the test, that the collection of data be well planned to eliminate the bias of the

1991-01-01

166

Does training make you smarter? The effects of training on dogs’ performance ( Canis familiaris) in a problem solving task  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the influence of training experiences on dogs’ performance in a problem solving task, namely opening a box to obtain food. One hundred and eighteen dogs allocated to two different groups according to their training experience (no\\/basic training vs high level training) were tested. In each group the dogs saw the researcher manipulating either the paw-pad or the

Sarah Marshall-Pescini; Paola Valsecchi; Irena Petak; Pier Attilio Accorsi; Emanuela Prato Previde

2008-01-01

167

75 FR 36270 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1102 [Docket No. AS10-2] Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation...Privacy Act Implementation AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial...595-7577 or alice@asc.gov; Appraisal Subcommittee; 1401 H Street,...

2010-06-25

168

The effect of periodized resistance training on accelerative sprint performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of periodized resistance training on accelerative sprint performance. Sixteen physically active men participated in a randomized controlled study. An experimental group (n = 10) completed an 8-week periodized resistance training intervention, while a control group (n = 6) did not train. Pre- and post-training measures of 20-m straight-line sprint time, including a 10-m split, maximum strength, and explosive strength, were recorded. Flight time, stance time, stride length, and stride frequency were quantified from digitized video recordings of the first three strides of the 20-m sprint. Resistance training resulted in significant increases in maximum strength (parallel back squat: 19%) and explosive strength (6-10%). However, both groups increased 0-10 m sprint times (experimental group = 6%; control group = 3%) while 10-20m times were reduced (experimental group = 7%; control group = 4%), highlighting the mechanical differences between the distinct sprint phases. The change during the 0-10m interval was accompanied by a reduction in stride frequency during the first three strides. Strength coaches should be aware that the potential benefits of increased muscular strength during short sprints are likely to be affected by mechanical specificity and that improvements in sprinting performance may not occur immediately after a period of resistance training. PMID:17933193

Moir, Gavin; Sanders, Ross; Button, Chris; Glaister, Mark

2007-09-01

169

Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train features and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most CPV systems are based on Fresnel lenses. Among these, LPI-patented Fresnel-Köhler (FK) concentrator outstands owing to performance and practical reasons. The Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train is the first off-the-shelf commercial product based on the FK and comprises both the primary (POE) lenses (a 36-units 1×1 m2 acrylic panel) and glass (or silica glass) secondary optics (SOE). This high concentration optical train (Cg=1,024×, ~250mm optical depth) fits with 5×5 mm2 (at least) solar cells. The optical train is the fruit of a 1-year development that has included design, modeling, prototyping and characterization, and through the process we had the opportunity to find out how well the actual performance correlates with models, but also learned practical aspects of a CPV system of this kind, some of which have very positive impact on system performance and reliability.

Mohedano, R.; Benitez, P.; Zamora, P.; Miñano, J. C.; Mendes, J.; Cvetkovic, A.; Vilaplana, J.; Hernandez, M.; Chaves, J.; Biot, G.

2013-09-01

170

Phototherapy during treadmill training improves quadriceps performance in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective To evaluate the effects of infrared-light-emitting diode (LED) during treadmill training on functional performance. Methods Thirty postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups and successfully completed the full study. The three groups were: (1) the LED group, which performed treadmill training associated with phototherapy (n = 10); (2) the exercise group, which carried out treadmill training only (n = 10); and (3) the sedentary group, which neither performed physical training nor underwent phototherapy (n = 10). Training was performed over a period of 6 months, twice a week for 45 min per session at 85-90% of maximal heart rate, which was obtained during progressive exercise testing. The irradiation parameters were 100 mW, 39 mW/cm(2) and 108 J/cm(2) for 45 min. Quadriceps performance was measured during isokinetic exercise testing at 60°/s and 300°/s. Results Peak torque did not differ amongst the groups. However, the results showed significantly higher values of power and total work for the LED group (? = 21 ± 6 W and ? = 634 ± 156 J, p < 0.05) when compared to both the exercise group (? = 13 ± 10 W and = 410 ± 270 J) and the sedentary group (? = 10 ± 9 W and ? = 357 ± 327 J). Fatigue was also significantly lower in the LED group (? = -7 ± 4%, p < 0.05) compared to both the exercise group (? = 3 ± 8%) and the sedentary group (? = -2 ± 6%). Conclusions Infrared-LED during treadmill training may improve quadriceps power and reduce peripheral fatigue in postmenopausal women. PMID:23895414

Paolillo, F R; Corazza, A V; Paolillo, A R; Borghi-Silva, A; Arena, R; Kurachi, C; Bagnato, V S

2014-06-01

171

Performance changes following training in junior rugby league players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of adaptations to training in young (i.e., <15 years) and older (i.e., <18 years) junior rugby league players. Fourteen young (14.1 +/- 0.2 years) and 21 older (16.9 +/- 0.3 years) junior rugby league players participated in a 10-week preseason strength, conditioning, and skills program that included 3 sessions each week. Subjects performed measurements of standard anthropometry (i.e., height, body mass, and sum of 7 skinfolds), muscular power (i.e., vertical jump), speed (i.e., 10-m, 20-m, and 40-m sprint), agility (505 test), and estimated maximal aerobic power (i.e., multistage fitness test) before and after training. In addition, players underwent a smaller battery of fitness tests every 3 weeks to assess the time course of adaptation to the prescribed training stimulus. During the triweekly testing sessions, players completed assessments of upper-body (i.e., 60-second push-up, sit-up, and chin-up test) and lower-body (i.e., multiple-effort vertical jump test) muscular endurance. Improvements in maximal aerobic power and muscular endurance were observed in both the young and the older junior players following training. The improvements in speed, muscular power, maximal aerobic power, and upper-body muscular endurance were greatest in the young junior players, while improvements in lower-body muscular endurance were greatest in the older junior players. These findings demonstrate that young (i.e., <15 years) and older (i.e., <18 years) junior rugby league players adapt differently to a given training stimulus and that training programs should be modified to accommodate differences in maturational and training age. In addition, the results of this study provide conditioning coaches with realistic performance improvements following a 10-week preseason strength and conditioning program in junior rugby league players. PMID:18438222

Gabbett, Tim J; Johns, James; Riemann, Matt

2008-05-01

172

Erythropoiesis and performance after two weeks of living high and training low in well trained triathletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study was to evaluate hematologic acclimatization during 2 weeks of intensive normoxic training with regeneration at moderate altitude (living high-training low, LHTL) and its effects on sea-level performance in well trained athletes compared to another group of equally trained athletes under control conditions (living low - training low, CONTROL). Twenty-one triathletes were ascribed either to LHTL (n = 11; age: 23.0 +/- 4.3 yrs; VO 2 max: 62.5 +/- 9.7 [ml x min -1 x kg -1]) living at 1956 m of altitude or to CONTROL (n = 10; age: 18.7 +/- 5.6 yrs; VO 2 max: 60.5 +/- 6.7 ml x min -1 x kg -1) living at 800 m. Both groups performed an equal training schedule at 800 m. VO 2 max, endurance performance, erythropoietin in serum, hemoglobin mass (Hb tot, CO-rebreathing method) and hematological quantities were measured. A tendency to improved performance in LHTL after the camp was not significant (p < 0.07). Erythropoietin concentration increased temporarily in LHTL (Delta 14.3 +/- 8.7 mU x ml -1; p < 0.012). Hb tot remained unchanged in LHTL whereas was slightly decreased from 12.5 +/- 1.3 to 11.9 +/- 1.3g x kg -1 in CONTROL (p < 0.01). As the reticulocyte number tended to higher values in LHTL than in CONTROL, it seems that a moderate stimulation of erythropoiesis during regeneration at altitude served as a compensation for an exercise-induced destruction of red cells. PMID:12439771

Dehnert, C; Hütler, M; Liu, Y; Menold, E; Netzer, C; Schick, R; Kubanek, B; Lehmann, M; Böning, D; Steinacker, J M

2002-11-01

173

Minimizing Injuries and Enhancing Performance in Golf Through Training Programs  

PubMed Central

Context: Golf is a popular sport, particularly in older populations. Regardless of age and skill level, golfers risk injury to the back, shoulder, wrist and hand, elbow, and knee. Because of the unique compressive, shear, rotational, and lateral bending forces created in the lumbar region during the golf swing, the primary sport-related malady experienced by amateurs and professionals is low back pain. Extrinsic and intrinsic injury risk factors have been reported in the literature. A growing body of evidence supports the prescription of strength training routines to enhance performance and reduce the risk of injury. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were reviewed on golf injuries, swing mechanics, training routines, and general training program design. The following electronic databases were used to identify research relevant to this report: MEDLINE (from 1950–November 2009), CINAHL (1982–November 2009), and SPORTDiscus (1830–November 2009). Results: Injuries may be associated with lack of warm-up, poor trunk flexibility and strength, faulty swing technique, and overuse. Conclusions: Implementing a training program that includes flexibility, strength, and power training with correction of faulty swing mechanics will help the golfer reduce the likelihood of injury and improve overall performance.

Meira, Erik P.; Brumitt, Jason

2010-01-01

174

Computational Performance of Group IV Personnel in Vocational Training Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigation concerns an evaluation of the performance of Navy Group IV personnel on limited sets of task-related computational operations. Training was tailored to the trainee's level of academic skill and courses were taught within the context of v...

R. E. Main, R. J. Harrigan

1975-01-01

175

Training for Template Creation: A Performance Improvement Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There are three purposes to this article: first, to offer a training approach to employee learning and performance improvement that makes use of a step-by-step process of skill/knowledge creation. The process offers follow-up opportunities for skill maintenance and improvement; second, to explain the conceptual bases of the approach; and…

Lyons, Paul

2008-01-01

176

The Effects of Training on Resident Assistant Job Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the relationship between resident assistant (R.A.) training and improvement of job performance. Results indicate that while even short-term interventions can bring about favorable outcomes in R.A.s' behavior on the job, these benefits may be limited to the promotion of sound work practices, as opposed to the elimination of problematic…

Murray, Joseph L.; Snider, Brian R.; Midkiff, Robert M., Jr.

1999-01-01

177

Failure of Heat Reinforcement Performance by Trained Animals During Hypothermia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shaved, euthermic, male Long-Evans rats weighing 248 = 29 g, in a 2C environment, were trained to obtain external heat from an overhead heating lamp by lever pressing. Steady performance for heat began after 2.0 = 1.2 hr of exposure to the experimental si...

J. A. Panuska

1965-01-01

178

Performance measurement system for training simulators. Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first project phase, the project team has designed, installed, and test run on the Browns Ferry nuclear power plant training simulator a performance measurement system capable of automatic recording of statistical information on operator actions and plant response. Key plant variables and operator actions were monitored and analyzed by the simulator computer for a selected set of four

G. Jr. Bockhold; D. R. Roth

1978-01-01

179

Management Training: What's It Worth? A Performance-Based Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Review of a research study designed to determine the relationship between participation in supervisory training and managerial performance focuses on the importance of adequate evaluation. Dependent and independent variables used are described, statistical analyses are explained, and implications for future research design are presented. (LRW)

Martelli, Joseph T.

1987-01-01

180

Development, Field Test, and Refinement of Performance Training Programs in Armor Advanced Individual Training. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance-oriented instruction was developed, field tested, and refined in two Advanced Individual Training (AIT) programs--Armor Reconnaissance Specialist (MOS 11D) and Armor Crewman (MOS 11E). Tasks for both MOS (Military Occupational Specialty) were inventoried and the inventories were reduced by eliminating those tasks which are not required…

Young, Douglas L.; Taylor, John E.

181

Does finger training increase young children's numerical performance?  

PubMed

Butterworth (1999) suggested that fingers are important in representing numerosities. Furthermore, scores on a finger gnosis test are a better predictor of numerical performance up to 3 years later than intellectual measures (Marinthe et al., 2001; Noël, 2005). We hypothesised that training in finger differentiation would increase finger gnosis and might also improve numerical performance. Accordingly, 47 first-grade children were selected and divided into 3 groups: children with poor finger gnosis who followed the finger-differentiation training programme (G1), a control-intervention who were trained in story comprehension (G2), and a group with high finger gnosis scores who just continued with normal school lessons (G3). The finger training consisted of 2 weekly sessions of half an hour each, for 8 weeks. Before the training period, children in G3 performed better in finger gnosis and enumeration than children in the two other groups. After the training period this pattern remained for the children in G2 and G3, but the children in G1 were significantly better than those in G2 at finger gnosis, representation of numerosities with fingers, and quantification tasks; they also tended to be better at the processing of Arabic digits. These results indicate that improving finger gnosis in young children is possible and that it can provide a useful support to learning mathematics. Such an approach could be particularly appropriate for children with a developmental Gerstmann syndrome. Theoretically, these results are important because they suggest a functional link between finger gnosis and number skills. PMID:18387567

Gracia-Bafalluy, Maria; Noël, Marie-Pascale

2008-04-01

182

Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

2009-01-01

183

Effects of Alternative Training Methods on Self-Efficacy and Performance in Computer Software Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative training methods on self-efficacy and mastery of a computer software program were compared in the context of a field experiment involving 108 university managers. A behavioral modeling approach relative to a tutorial approach yielded higher self-efficacy scores and higher performance on an objective measure of computer software mastery. Participants scoring high in self-efficacy performed significantly better than participants with

Marilyn E. Gist; Catherine Schwoerer; Benson Rosen

1989-01-01

184

Three weeks of eccentric training combined with overspeed exercises enhances power and running speed performance gains in trained athletes.  

PubMed

Eccentric and overspeed training modalities are effective in improving components of muscular power. Eccentric training induces specific training adaptations relating to muscular force, whereas overspeed stimuli target the velocity component of power expression. We aimed to compare the effects of traditional or eccentric training with volume-matched training that incorporated overspeed exercises. Twenty team-sport athletes performed 4 counterbalanced 3-week training blocks consecutively as part of a preseason training period: (1) traditional resistance training; (2) eccentric-only resistance training; (3) traditional resistance training with overspeed exercises; and (4) eccentric resistance training with overspeed exercises. The overspeed exercises performed were assisted countermovement jumps and downhill running. Improvements in bench press (15.0 ± 5.1 kg; effect size [ES]: 1.52), squat (19.5 ± 9.1 kg; ES: 1.12), and peak power in the countermovement jump (447 ± 248 W; ES: 0.94) were observed following the 12-week training period. Greater strength increases were observed as a result of the eccentric training modalities (ES: 0.72-1.09) with no effect of the overspeed stimuli on these measures (p > 0.05). Eccentric training with overspeed stimuli was more effective than traditional resistance training in increasing peak power in the countermovement jump (94 ± 55 W; ES: 0.95). Eccentric training induced no beneficial training response in maximal running speed (p > 0.05); however, the addition of overspeed exercises salvaged this relatively negative effect when compared with eccentric training alone (0.03 ± 0.01 seconds; ES: 1.33). These training results achieved in 3-week training blocks suggest that it is important to target-specific aspects of both force and movement velocity to enhance functional measures of power expression. PMID:22820207

Cook, Christian J; Beaven, C Martyn; Kilduff, Liam P

2013-05-01

185

Neural changes after training to perform cognitive tasks  

PubMed Central

Cognitive operations requiring working memory rely on the activity of neurons in areas of the association cortex, most prominently the lateral prefrontal cortex. Human imaging and animal neurophysiological studies indicate that this activity is shaped by learning, though much is unknown about how much training alters neural activity and cortical organization. Results from non-human primates demonstrate that prior to any training in cognitive tasks, prefrontal neurons respond to stimuli, exhibit persistent activity after their offset, and differentiate between matching and non-matching stimuli presented in sequence. A number of important changes also occur after training in a working memory task. More neurons are recruited by the stimuli and exhibit higher firing rates, particularly during the delay period. Operant stimuli that need to be recognized in order to perform the task elicit higher overall rates of responses, while the variability of individual discharges and correlation of discharges between neurons decrease after training. New information is incorporated in the activity of a small population of neurons highly specialized for the task and in a larger population of neurons that exhibit modest task related information, while information about other aspects of stimuli remains present in neuronal activity. Despite such changes, the relative selectivity of the dorsal and ventral aspect of the lateral prefrontal cortex is not radically altered with regard to spatial and non-spatial stimuli after training. Collectively, these results provide insights on the nature and limits of cortical plasticity mediating cognitive tasks.

Qi, Xue-Lian; Constantinidis, Christos

2012-01-01

186

Examination of the predictive validity of Big Five personality dimensions across training performance criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relationships among Big Five personality dimensions, cognitive ability, and training performance in a sample of 370 Marines attending Marine Corps’ recruiter training. Several Big Five dimensions (Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness) significantly predicted performance on simulation-based training criteria but did not predict training performance on paper and pencil exams. The results indicated the importance of assessing personality

Michelle A. Dean; Jeffrey M. Conte; Tom R. Blankenhorn

2006-01-01

187

Board & Supt. Share Appraisal Benefits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although some board members and superintendents may consider superintendent evaluation as potentially disturbing for their working relationships, such evaluations may become more appealing when considered as part of a broader system of school governance and management. What is needed is a performance appraisal system developed jointly by…

Glaub, Gerald R.

1983-01-01

188

Repeated Training with Augmentative Vibrotactile Feedback Increases Object Manipulation Performance  

PubMed Central

Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies.

Stepp, Cara E.; An, Qi; Matsuoka, Yoky

2012-01-01

189

Company-based determinants of training and the impact of training on company performance : Results from an international HRM survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to use an international dataset to examine what determines employee training from an organisational perspective, and to what extent training investments enhance company performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data from 5,824 private-sector organisations are used to examine determinants of training and the connection between training and profitability. OLS regressions and Probit estimates are used

Bo Hansson

2007-01-01

190

Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of preclinical studies: why perform them and how to appraise them critically  

PubMed Central

The use of systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical studies has become more common, including those of studies describing the modeling of cerebrovascular diseases. Empirical evidence suggests that too many preclinical experiments lack methodological rigor, and this leads to inflated treatment effects. The aim of this review is to describe the concepts of systematic review and meta-analysis and consider how these tools may be used to provide empirical evidence to spur the field to improve the rigor of the conduct and reporting of preclinical research akin to their use in improving the conduct and reporting of randomized controlled trials in clinical research. As with other research domains, systematic reviews are subject to bias. Therefore, we have also suggested guidance for their conduct, reporting, and critical appraisal.

Sena, Emily S; Currie, Gillian L; McCann, Sarah K; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W

2014-01-01

191

Unique aspects of competitive weightlifting: performance, training and physiology.  

PubMed

Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure of competitive weightlifters is characterized by the frequent use of high-intensity resistance exercise movements. Varied coaching and training philosophies currently exist around the world and further research is required to substantiate the best type of training programme for male and female weightlifters of various age groups. As competitive weightlifting is contested over eight male and seven female body weight categories, the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes widely ranges. The body compositions of weightlifters are similar to that of athletes of comparable body mass in other strength and power sports. However, the shorter height and limb lengths of weightlifters provide mechanical advantages when lifting heavy loads by reducing the mechanical torque and the vertical distance that the barbell must be displaced. Furthermore, the shorter body dimensions coincide with a greater mean skeletal muscle cross-sectional area that is advantageous to weightlifting performance. Weightlifting training induces a high metabolic cost. Although dietary records demonstrate that weightlifters typically meet their required daily energy intake, weightlifters have been shown to over consume protein and fat at the expense of adequate carbohydrate. The resulting macronutrient imbalance may not yield optimal performance gains. Cross-sectional data suggest that weightlifting training induces type IIX to IIA fibre-type transformation. Furthermore, weightlifters exhibit hypertrophy of type II fibres that is advantageous to weightlifting performance and maximal force production. As such, the isometric peak force and contractile rate of force development of weightlifters is ~15-20% and ~13-16% greater, respectively, than in other strength and power athletes. In addition, weightlifting training has been shown to reduce the typical sex-related difference in the expression of neuromuscular strength and power. However, this apparent sex-related difference appears to be augmented with increasing adult age demonstrating that women undergo a greater age-related decline in muscle shortening velocity and peak power when compared with men. Weightlifting training and competition has been shown to induce significant structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system. The collective evidence shows that these adaptations are physiological as opposed to pathological. Finally, the acute exercise-induced testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone responses of weightlifters have similarities to that of following conventional strength and hypertrophy protocols involving large muscle mass exercises. The routine assessment of the basal testosterone?:?cortisol ratio may be beneficial when attempting to quantify the adaptive responses to weightlifting training. As competitive weightlifting is becoming increasingly popular around the world, further research addressing the physiological responses and adaptations of female weightlifters and younger (i.e. ?17 years of age) and older (i.e. ?35 years of age) weightlifters of both sexes is required. PMID:22873835

Storey, Adam; Smith, Heather K

2012-09-01

192

Effect of isokinetic cycling versus weight training on maximal power output and endurance performance in cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a weight training program for the leg extensors with isokinetic cycling\\u000a training (80 rpm) on maximal power output and endurance performance. Both strength training interventions were incorporated\\u000a twice a week in a similar endurance training program of 12 weeks. Eighteen trained male cyclists (VO2peak 60 ± 1 ml kg?1 min?1) were grouped into the weight training

Erwin Koninckx; Marc Van Leemputte; Peter Hespel

2010-01-01

193

Parents' Appraisals, Reflected Appraisals, and Children's Self-Appraisals of Sport Competence: A Yearlong Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the contribution of the reflected appraisal process to the ontogeny of children's self-perceptions of physical competence. Emanating from symbolic interactionist thought, reflected appraisals refer to individuals' perceptions of others' evaluations of their abilities. The influence of parents' appraisals of their child's competence on the child's self-appraisals was hypothesized to be mediated by parents' reflected appraisals. Data were

Julien E. Bois; Philippe G. Sarrazin; Robert J. Brustad; Julien P. Chanal; David O. Trouilloud

2005-01-01

194

AN EXPERIMENT IN BASIC AIRBORNE ELECTRONICS TRAINING, PART IV-- EFFECT OF REDUCTION IN TRAINING TIME ON FLEET PERFORMANCE. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THREE PRECEDING REPORTS PRESENTED THE EFFECTS OF SHORTENING TRAINING TIME IN AVIONICS FUNDAMENTALS AND AVIATION ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN (RADAR) TRAINING UPON THE FINAL COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION IN THESE COURSES AND UPON PERFORMANCE IN A SUBSEQUENT EQUIPMENT COURSE. THIS REPORT COMPARES THE ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF GRADUATES FROM FOUR GROUPS…

BALDWIN, ROBERT O.; AND OTHERS

195

Consistency of Pilot Trainee Cognitive Ability, Personality, and Training Performance in Undergraduate Pilot Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data regarding pilot trainees' cognitive ability, personality, and training outcomes collected between 1995 and 2008 from four US Air Force pilot training bases across three training tracks were examined to determine consistency in pilot aptitude and trai...

E. L. Barto M. J. Ree M. S. Teachout R. E. King T. R. Carretta

2013-01-01

196

Performances of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current research of a balanced hydraulic motor focuses on the characteristics of the motor with three planet gears. References of a balanced hydraulic motor with more than three planet gears are hardly found. In order to study the characteristics of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train that includes more than three planet gears, on the basis of analysis of the structure and working principle of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train, formulas are deduced for calculating the hydraulic motor's primary performance indexes such as displacement, unit volume displacement, flowrate fluctuation ratio, etc. Influences of the gears' tooth number on displacement and flowrate characteristics are analyzed. In order to guarantee the reliability of sealing capability, the necessary conditions that tooth number of the sun gear and the planet gears should satisfy are discussed. Selecting large unit volume displacement and small displacement fluctuation ratio as designing objectives, a balanced hydraulic motor with three planet gears and a common gear motor are designed under the conditions of same displacement, tooth addendum coefficien and clearance coefficient. By comparing the unit volume displacement and fluctuation ratio of the two motors, it can be seen that the balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train has the advantages of smaller fluctuation ratio and larger unit volume displacement. The results provide theoretical basis for choosing gear tooth-number of this kind of hydraulic motor.

Yu, Hongying; Luo, Changjie; Wang, Huimin

2012-07-01

197

Are physicians performing neonatal circumcisions well-trained?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Notwithstanding the recommendations from the Canadian Pediatric Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics on the indications for neonatal circumcision, this procedure is still common in North America and throughout the world. Our purpose is not to argue whether this procedure should be done, but rather to examine who is doing it, their training, how it is performed and how can we prevent unsatisfactory results and complications. The objective is to identify what fields of knowledge require improvement and then design a teaching module to improve the outcomes of neonatal circumcision. Methods: A 19-question cross-sectional survey, including a visual identification item, was submitted to 87 physicians who perform neonatal circumcisions in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. To improve our response rate, study subjects were contacted in a variety of ways, including mail and fax and telephone. Once the survey was completed, we produced a surgical technique training video on using the Gomco clamp and the Plastibell techiques. A knowledge dissemination workshop was held with survey participants to discuss contraindications and the use of anesthesia and management of complications of neonatal circumcision and to evaluate the surgical technique training video. A 6-month follow-up questionnaire was completed to determine the impact of the teaching course on participants’ daily practice. Results: In total, we received 54 responses (62% response rate). From these, 46 (85%) were family doctors and pediatricians, while the remaining 8 (15%) were pediatric general surgeons and urologists. The circumcisions were carried out with the Gomco clamp 35 (63%) and the Plastibell 21 (37%). No respondent admitted to learning the procedure through a structured training course. Of the non-surgeons, 19 (43%) learned to perform a circumcision from a non-surgeon colleague. A little over a third of the participants (17, 31%) were happy to perform a circumcision in a child born with a concealed penis, where circumcision is contraindicated. With respect to the early complications post-circumcision, 8 (100%) surgeons versus 29 (63%) non-surgeons felt comfortable dealing with bleeding (p = 0.046). In total, 7 (88%) surgeons versus 16 (35%) non-surgeons were comfortable dealing with urinary retention (p = 0.01). Also, 8 (100%) surgeons versus 24 (52%) non-surgeons were comfortable dealing with a wound dehiscence (p = 0.02). Moreover, 6 (75%) surgeons and 5 (10%) non-surgeons were comfortable managing meatal stenosis (p < 0.01). Five (63%) surgeons versus 15 (33%) non-surgeons were confident in dealing with a trapped penis post-circumcision (p = 0.24). Conclusions: Our survey findings indicate that most physicians performing neonatal circumcisions in our community have received informal and unstructured training. This lack of formal instruction may explain the complications and unsatisfactory results witnessed in our pediatric urology practice. Many practitioners are not aware of the contraindications to neonatal circumcision and most non-surgeons perform the procedure without being able to handle common post-surgical complications. Based on our survey findings, we planned and carried out a formal training course to address these issues.

DeMaria, Jorge; Abdulla, Alym; Pemberton, Julia; Raees, Ayman; Braga, Luis H.

2013-01-01

198

Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals  

SciTech Connect

ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).'' The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,'' requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

Johnson, J.R.

1992-01-01

199

Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals  

SciTech Connect

ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).`` The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, ``Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,`` requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

Johnson, J.R.

1992-06-01

200

Self-Regulation in Error Management Training: Emotion Control and Metacognition as Mediators of Performance Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In error management training, participants are explicitly encouraged to make errors and learn from them. Error management training has frequently been shown to lead to better performance than conventional trainings that adopt an error avoidant approach. The present study investigated self-regulatory processes mediating this effect. Fifty-five volunteer students learned a computer program under 1 of 3 conditions: error avoidant training,

Nina Keith; Michael Frese

2005-01-01

201

Portfolio Assessment as an Alternate Appraisal Method: A Faculty Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisal continues to be an area of research within Human Resource Development. This case study explores the impact of promotion portfolios upon the performance and professional development of university professors. Specific themes from data analysis indicated that portfolios are viewed as a performance appraisal measure/learning tool…

Clements, Kimberly D.; McArdle, Geri; Cole, Ann F.

2005-01-01

202

The relationship between training and small business performance: an analysis of the Barclays Bank Small Firms Training Loans Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assess empirically the impact on firm performance of a state-subsidised training-loan scheme for small businesses (the Small Firms Training Loan Scheme). To achieve this assessment, a longitudinal sample of firms that received loans from the leading lender under the scheme, Barclays Bank, and a control sample of otherwise similar nonparticipants with Barclays accounts were studied. The authors present

Stuart Fraser; David Storey; Julian Frankish; Richard Roberts

2002-01-01

203

The Effects of Predictive Solutions on Training Time and Post-Training Performance for Control Systems with Human Operators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of predictive solutions on human operator training time and post-training performance in a complex manual control system was investigated. A control system with a slow and complex response to the input signals was formulated. Fifty operators, 2...

D. L. Myers

1969-01-01

204

Effects of explosive type strength training on physical performance characteristics in cross-country skiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To investigate the effects of a combination of simultaneous strength and endurance training on selected neuromuscular and aerobic performance characteristics seven male cross-country skiers underwent training for a period of 6 weeks. The experimental group trained 6–9 times per week with a programme consisting of 34% explosive type strength training and 66% endurance training during the first 3 weeks of

Leena Paavolainen; Keijo Häkkinen; Heikki Rusko

1991-01-01

205

Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

2009-01-01

206

Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

2010-01-01

207

Low cadence interval training at moderate intensity does not improve cycling performance in highly trained veteran cyclists  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of low cadence training at moderate intensity on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, gross efficiency, freely chosen cadence, and leg strength in veteran cyclists. Method: Twenty-two well trained veteran cyclists [age: 47 ± 6 years, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 57.9 ± 3.7 ml · kg?1 · min?1] were randomized into two groups, a low cadence training group and a freely chose cadence training group. Respiratory variables, power output, cadence and leg strength were tested before and after a 12 weeks training intervention period. The low cadence training group performed 12 weeks of moderate [73–82% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] interval training (5 × 6 min) with a cadence of 40 revolutions per min (rpm) two times a week, in addition to their usual training. The freely chosen cadence group added 90 min of training at freely chosen cadence at moderate intensity. Results: No significant effects of the low cadence training on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, power output, cadence, gross efficiency, or leg strength was found. The freely chosen cadence group significantly improved both VO2max (58.9 ± 2.4 vs. 62.2 ± 3.2 ml · kg?1 · min?1), VO2 consumption at lactate threshold (49.4 ± 3.8 vs. 51.8 ± 3.5 ml · kg?1 · min?1) and during the 30 min performance test (52.8 ± 3.0 vs. 54.7 ± 3.5 ml · kg?1 · min?1), and power output at lactate threshold (284 ± 47 vs. 294 ± 48 W) and during the 30 min performance test (284 ± 42 vs. 297 ± 50 W). Moreover, a significant difference was seen when comparing the change in freely chosen cadence from pre- to post between the groups during the 30 min performance test (2.4 ± 5.0 vs. ?2.7 ± 6.2). Conclusion: Twelve weeks of low cadence (40 rpm) interval training at moderate intensity (73–82% of HRmax) twice a week does not improve aerobic capacity, cycling performance or leg strength in highly trained veteran cyclists. However, adding training at same intensity (% of HRmax) and duration (90 min weekly) at freely chosen cadence seems beneficial for performance and physiological adaptations.

Kristoffersen, Morten; Gundersen, Hilde; Leirdal, Stig; Iversen, Vegard V.

2014-01-01

208

Australian National Training Authority Annual Performance Report 1996-1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) achieved the following objectives in 1996-97: (1) sought and obtained the agreement of the Ministerial Council to make the National Training Framework more flexible and usable by training providers and their major clients (businesses and individual learners); (2) obtained in principle agreement to…

Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

209

Perceptual Training and Figure-Ground Performance in Low Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five older adults with age-related macular degeneration were separated into one of three groups: in-clinic training, take-home-training, or no-training. After testing, results showed that the ability to distinguish figure from ground is an improvable skill with the take-home group improving the most. (Author/DB)

Trudeau, M.; And Others

1990-01-01

210

Agent-Customized Training for Human Learning Performance Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training individuals from diverse backgrounds and in changing environments requires customized training approaches that align with the individual learning styles and ever-evolving organizational needs. Scaffolding is a well-established instructional approach that facilitates learning by incrementally removing training aids as the learner…

Blake, M. Brian; Butcher-Green, Jerome D.

2009-01-01

211

Britain's Training Deficit. The Centre for Economic Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 12 papers that were produced as a result of a seminar program on selected issues central to the debate over job training in Great Britain. The first paper, "Why We Need a Training Reform Act" (Richard Layard, Ken Mayhew, Geoffrey Owen), examines existing deficiencies in vocational education and training in Britain and proposes a…

Layard, Richard, Ed.; And Others

212

Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 16, Environmental appraisal and surveillance program. Draft revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) environmental-appraisal/surveillance program is designed to monitor environmental performance and to ensure that regulatory requirements are met. The appraisal/surveillance program is a two-tiered system which consists of ext...

C. Amobi

1993-01-01

213

Appraising Support Staff: Not Just a Silly Paper Ritual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses aspects of a good system for library employee performance appraisal, stressing the importance of treating workers as adults and making the appraisal process a two-way exchange. The role of the line supervisor and how to deal with poor performance are also addressed. (MES)

Turner, Anne M.

1990-01-01

214

Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

Sweetser, Wesley

2005-01-01

215

Barriers and attitudes influencing non-engagement in a peer feedback model to inform evidence for GP appraisal  

PubMed Central

Background The UK general practitioner (GP) appraisal system is deemed to be an inadequate source of performance evidence to inform a future medical revalidation process. A long-running voluntary model of external peer review in the west of Scotland provides feedback by trained peers on the standard of GP colleagues' core appraisal activities and may 'add value' in strengthening the robustness of the current system in support of revalidation. A significant minority of GPs has participated in the peer feedback model, but a clear majority has yet to engage with it. We aimed to explore the views of non-participants to identify barriers to engagement and attitudes to external peer review as a means to inform the current appraisal system. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with a sample of west of Scotland GPs who had yet to participate in the peer review model. A thematic analysis of the interview transcriptions was conducted using a constant comparative approach. Results 13 GPs were interviewed of whom nine were males. Four core themes were identified in relation to the perceived and experienced 'value' placed on the topics discussed and their relevance to routine clinical practice and professional appraisal: 1. Value of the appraisal improvement activity. 2. Value of external peer review. 3. Value of the external peer review model and host organisation and 4. Attitudes to external peer review. Conclusions GPs in this study questioned the 'value' of participation in the external peer review model and the national appraisal system over the standard of internal feedback received from immediate work colleagues. There was a limited understanding of the concept, context and purpose of external peer review and some distrust of the host educational provider. Future engagement with the model by these GPs is likely to be influenced by policy to improve the standard of appraisal and contractual related activities, rather than a self-directed recognition of learning needs.

2012-01-01

216

Comment: Performance improvement with computer training in Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

Computer-based memory and attention training methods improve episodic recall in older adults who have amnestic mild cognitive impairment.(1,2) Memory and attention are highly interactive and interdependent processes due to their shared circuitry. The cognitive benefits of computer-based memory training appear to persist for at least 6 months.(1) Traditional cognitive training programs are administered by professionals and may cost as much as $15 to $100 an hour, depending on the educational level of the staff member who delivers the training.(2) More cost-effective methods of computer-based memory training are needed. In the study by Zimmermann et al.(3) on patients with Parkinson disease (PD), 2 types of computer training were compared: a specific cognitive training method (CogniPlus) and a nonspecific method, Nintendo Wii, a game console. PMID:24623844

Hershey, Linda A

2014-04-01

217

Transfer effects of fall training on balance performance and spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study examined transfer effects of fall training on fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International [FES-I]), balance performance, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics in older adults. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults (ages 65-85) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group completed 12 training sessions (60 min, 6 weeks). During pre- and posttesting, we measured FES-I, balance performance (double limb, closed eyes; single limb, open eyes; double limb, open eyes with motor-interfered task), and gait parameters (e.g., velocity; cadence; stride time, stride width, and stride length; variability of stride time and stride length) under single- and motor-interfered tasks. Dual tasks were applied to appraise improvements of cognitive processing during balance and gait. FES-I (p = .33) and postural sway did not significantly change (0.36 < p < .79). Trends toward significant interaction effects were found for step width during normal walking and stride length variability during the motor dual task (p = .05, ?p 2 = .22). Fall training did not sufficiently improve fear of falling, balance, or gait performance under single- or dual-task conditions in healthy older adults. PMID:23881433

Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Roth, Ralf; Soltermann, Martin; Kressig, Reto W; Zahner, Lukas

2014-07-01

218

Relationships Between Design Characteristics of Avionics Subsystems and Training Cost, Training Difficulty, and Job Performance. Final Report, Covering Activity from 1 July 1971 Through 1 September 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the relationship between avionics subsystem design characteristics and training time, training cost, and job performance. A list of design variables believed to affect training and job performance was established and supplemented with personnel variables, including aptitude test scores and the amount of training and…

Lintz, Larry M.; And Others

219

The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers  

PubMed Central

Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training. Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62–87 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention), or (3) a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85%) completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned orthogonal comparisons. Results: The driving simulator-training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention-training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers' safety on the road.

Casutt, Gianclaudio; Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Keller, Martin; Jancke, Lutz

2014-01-01

220

Acute antioxidant supplementation improves endurance performance in trained athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the acute effects of a single dose of an antioxidant (AO; Lactaway® containing pycnogenol) on time to fatigue (TTF). Nine trained cyclists [mean ± SD age 35 ± 10 yrs; body mass 71.6 ± 10.2 kg; VO2 peak 63 ± 11 ml/kg/min] performed on two separate occasions a continuous protocol of 5 min at 50% of peak power output (PPO), 8 min at 70% of PPO, and then cycled to fatigue at 95% PPO. Four hours prior to the exercise protocol, the subjects consumed the supplement or a placebo (counterbalanced, double blind protocol). Cyclists, on average, rode for 80 s more in the Lactaway trial than they did in the placebo trial. There was considerable evidence (chances ?94.5%) for substantial positive treatment effects for TTF and the other performance-related variables (excluding [BLa] at 95% PPO). Other studies are necessary to confirm these results and identify the mechanisms underlying the observed effects. PMID:22242733

Bentley, David J; Dank, Steven; Coupland, Rory; Midgley, Adrian; Spence, Ian

2012-01-01

221

Validating the Performance of Haptic Motor Skill Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of haptic interfaces on motor skill training has been widely studied. However, relatively little is known about whether haptic training can promote long-term motor skill acquisition. In this paper, we report two experimental studies that investigated the effectiveness of visuohaptic (visual + haptic) interfaces in helping people develop short-term and long-term motor skills. Our first study compared training

Xing-Dong Yang; Walter F. Bischof; Pierre Boulanger

2008-01-01

222

Training methods of military dog handlers and their effects on the team's performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

While only a few studies have analysed training methods used on working dogs, a recent survey in 303 Belgian military handlers revealed the use of harsh training methods on military working dogs (MWD). The present work aims at analysing the training methods used on Belgian MWD and the behaviour of handlers to objectify the performances of the dog handlers teams

A. Haverbeke; B. Laporte; E. Depiereux; J.-M. Giffroy; C. Diederich

2008-01-01

223

Teacher Performance Follow-up from Large Group Training: A Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher inservice training is critical to the continual development of effective classroom instruction. Professionals who consistently improve their instruction positively impact student performance. Many inservice training sessions use formats that are not conducive to effective adult learning. Good training uses flexible formats, job-applicable…

Askvig, Brent A.; Coonts, Teresa; Haarstad, Cathy

224

Effects of Short-Term Isokinetic Training on Standing Long-Jump Performance in Untrained Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the effects of a brief isokinetic training program on quadriceps and hamstring peak torque (PT) and standing long-jump performance. Tests on 12 untrained men indicated that the brief training program was at least as effective in improving quadriceps isokinetic (but not hamstring) PT. PT gains subsequent to isokinetic resistance training

Morriss, Calvin J.; Tolfrey, Keith; Coppack, Russell J.

2001-01-01

225

Training and firm performance in economies in transition: a comparison between Vietnam and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comparative analysis on the role of training and its impact on firm performance in some economies in transition in Asia. The starting point is an examination of country contexts and training, and how these have shaped organizational approaches to human resource (HR) training. The paper also reviews the results of recent studies that have investigated the

Thang Ngoc Nguyen; Quang Truong; Dirk Buyens

2011-01-01

226

Cognitive Appraisal: An Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred ninety-five college students were tested to determine the effects of specified variables of self-appraisal and task appraisal on achievement, self-assessment of achievement, and expended effort. Primary results were as follows: (a) The academic self-concept was found to contribute significantly to achievement on a specific task. Partial correlation between the academic self-concept and task achievement with intelligence controlled was

Richard I. Fisher

1974-01-01

227

Changes in performance, muscle metabolites, enzymes and fibre types after short sprint training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to endurance training, little research has been carried out to investigate the effects of short (<10?s) sprint\\u000a training on performance, muscle metabolism and fibre types. Nine fit male subjects performed a mean of 16 outdoor sprint running\\u000a training sessions over 6 weeks. Distances sprinted were 30–80?m at 90–100% maximum speed and between 20 and 40 sprints were\\u000a performed

Brian Dawson; Martin Fitzsimons; Simon Green; Carmél Goodman; Michael Carey; Keith Cole

1998-01-01

228

The effect of ”living high–training low” on physical performance in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we hypothesized that, in rats, adaptation to high altitude (2500 m) plus training at low altitude (610 m),\\u000a ”living high–training low”, improves physical performance at low altitude more than living and training at low altitude (610\\u000a m). Rats were divided into four groups: (1) living at low altitude (LL, n=12), (2) living and training at low altitude

Satoru Miyazaki; Akio Sakai

2000-01-01

229

The effects of timing of feedback and learner characteristics on the end-of-training performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training new employees is time consuming and costly. When training does not produce knowledge retention, changes in attitude, and changes in on-the-job performance, much of the investment is wasted, and training administrators question the justification of high-cost training. When there has been no skill transfer, the trainer and the employee as well as the organization is at a loss. In

Rodello Apigo Borillo

1996-01-01

230

Australia's Vocational Education and Training System Annual National Report 1996. Volume 3: Benchmarking Vocational Education & Training; The Performance of the Vocational Education and Training Sector in 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains detailed information on the performance and characteristics of the vocational education and training (VET) system in Australia in 1996. The report looks at a range of specific key performance measures for the VET sector. Some highlights of the performance of the VET sector in 1996 include the following: (1) more than 1.35…

Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

231

Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders…

Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

2014-01-01

232

The influence of nontraditional training modalities on physical performance: review of the literature.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this effort was to review several forms of nontraditional (NT) training programs, including heavy lower extremity strength training, CrossFit training, kettlebell training, and agility training, and discuss the effects of these exercise regimens on physical performance. The secondary purpose was to evaluate NT fitness training programs for evidence that they may provide beneficial options to help airmen improve their fitness scores. A search of the literature for 1980-2010 was performed using the Franzello Aeromedical Library, Public Medicine, and Air Force Institute of Technology search engines. There were 50 articles located and the authors selected 29 articles that specifically addressed the primary and secondary purposes of this literature review. This review indicates that an NT training approach is warranted in the general Air Force population. Heavy leg strength training and agility training show promise in enhancing aerobic fitness and improving fitness scores, particularly among members who have difficulty passing a physical fitness test. Most of the nontraditional forms of physical training are not supported in the scientific literature, with the exception of heavy leg strength training and agility training. However, even these NT forms of training require further investigation. PMID:23066621

O'Hara, Reginald B; Serres, Jennifer; Traver, Kyle L; Wright, Bruce; Vojta, Chris; Eveland, Ed

2012-10-01

233

The Effects of Protein and Amino Acid Supplementation on Performance and Training Adaptations During Ten Weeks of Resistance Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kerksick, C.M., C.J. Rasmussen, S.L. Lancaster, B. Magu, P. Smith, C. Melton, M. Greenwood, A.L. Almada, C.P. Earnest, and R.B. Kreider. The effects of protein and amino acid supplementation on performance and training adaptations dur- ing ten weeks of resistance training. J. Strength Cond. Res. 20(3):643-653. 2006.—The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation

Chad M. Kerksick; Christopher J. Rasmussen; Stacy L. Lancaster; Bharat Magu; Penney Smith; Charles Melton; Michael Greenwood; Anthony L. Almada; Conrad P. Earnest; Richard B. Kreider

2006-01-01

234

PROPERTY APPRAISAL PROVIDES CONTROL, INSURANCE BASIS, AND VALUE ESTIMATE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A COMPLETE PROPERTY APPRAISAL SERVES AS A BASIS FOR CONTROL, INSURANCE AND VALUE ESTIMATE. A PROFESSIONAL APPRAISAL FIRM SHOULD PERFORM THIS FUNCTION BECAUSE (1) IT IS FAMILIAR WITH PROPER METHODS, (2) IT CAN PREPARE THE REPORT WITH MINIMUM CONFUSION AND INTERRRUPTION OF THE COLLEGE OPERATION, (3) USE OF ITS PRICING LIBRARY REDUCES TIME NEEDED AND…

THOMSON, JACK

235

Training distribution, physiological profile, and performance for a male international 1500-m runner.  

PubMed

This case study observed the training delivered by a 1500-m runner and the physiological and performance change during a 2-y period. A male international 1500-m runner (personal best 3:38.9 min:s, age 26 y, height 1.86 m, body mass 76 kg) completed 6 laboratory tests and 14 monitored training sessions, during 2 training years. Training distribution and volume was ascertained from training diary and spot-check monitoring of heart rate and accelerometry measurements. Testing and training information were discussed with coach and athlete from which training changes were made. In the first training year, low-intensity training was found to be performed above the prescribed level, which was adjusted with training and coach support in y 2 (training zone < 80% of vVO2max, y 1 = 20%; y 2 = 55%). "Tempo" training was also performed at an excessively high intensity (? [blood lactate] 5-25 min of tempo run, y 1 = ?6.7 mM, y 2 = ?2.5 mM). From y 1 to 2, there was a concomitant increase in the proportion of training in the high-intensity zone of 100 to 130% vVO2max from 7 to 10%. Values for VO2max increased from 72 to 79 mL · kg-1 · min, economy improved from 210 to 206 mL · kg-1 · min, and 1500-m performance time improved from 3:38.9 to 3:32.4 min:s from the beginning of y 1 to the end of y 2. This case shows a modification in training methodology that was coincident with a greater improvement in physiological capability and furtherance in performance improvement. PMID:22634971

Ingham, Stephen A; Fudge, Barry W; Pringle, Jamie S

2012-06-01

236

The acute effects intensity and volume of strength training on running performance.  

PubMed

Strength training has been shown to cause acute detrimental effects on running performance. However, there is limited investigation on the effect of various strength training variables, whilst controlling eccentric contraction velocity, on running performance. The present study examined the effects of intensity and volume (i.e. whole body vs. lower body only) of strength training with slow eccentric contractions on running economy (RE) [i.e. below anaerobic threshold (AT)] and time-to-exhaustion (TTE) (i.e. above AT) 6 hours post. Fifteen trained and moderately endurance trained male runners undertook high-intensity whole body (HW), high-intensity lower body only (HL) and low-intensity whole body (LW) strength training sessions with slow eccentric contractions (i.e. 1:4 second concentric-to-eccentric contraction) in random order. Six hours following each strength training session, a RE test with TTE was conducted. The results showed that HW, HL and LW sessions had no effect on RE and that LW session had no effect on TTE (P ? 0.05). However, HW and HL sessions significantly reduced TTE (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that a 6-hour recovery period following HW, HL and LW sessions may minimize attenuation in endurance training performance below AT, although caution should be taken for endurance training sessions above AT amongst trained and moderately endurance trained runners. PMID:24533516

Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen Bede

2014-01-01

237

Rhythm synchronization performance and auditory working memory in early- and late-trained musicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural and neuroimaging studies provide evidence for a possible “sensitive” period in childhood development during which\\u000a musical training results in long-lasting changes in brain structure and auditory and motor performance. Previous work from\\u000a our laboratory has shown that adult musicians who begin training before the age of 7 (early-trained; ET) perform better on\\u000a a visuomotor task than those who begin

Jennifer A. BaileyVirginia; Virginia B. Penhune

2010-01-01

238

El-Tech: A Performance Support System with Embedded Training for Electronics Technicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of modern computer-based inferencing, networking, computer-mediated training and multimedia technology hold the promise of improved training and performance support for personnel in industry and government. This paper reports an effort to develop a network-enabled knowledge editing and modeling environment that offers just-in-time training and performance support, anytime, anywhere. The instructional component of the system is based upon a

Alberto J. Cañas; John W. Coffey; Thomas Reichherzer; Greg Hill; Niranjan Suri; Roger Carff; Timothy S. Mitrovich; Derek Eberle

1998-01-01

239

Olympic weightlifting and plyometric training with children provides similar or greater performance improvements than traditional resistance training.  

PubMed

A number of organizations recommend that advanced resistance training (RT) techniques can be implemented with children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), plyometrics, and traditional RT programs with children. Sixty-three children (10-12 years) were randomly allocated to a 12-week control OWL, plyometric, or traditional RT program. Pre- and post-training tests included body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds, countermovement jump (CMJ), horizontal jump, balance, 5- and 20-m sprint times, isokinetic force and power at 60 and 300° · s(-1). Magnitude-based inferences were used to analyze the likelihood of an effect having a standardized (Cohen's) effect size exceeding 0.20. All interventions were generally superior to the control group. Olympic weightlifting was >80% likely to provide substantially better improvements than plyometric training for CMJ, horizontal jump, and 5- and 20-m sprint times, whereas >75% likely to substantially exceed traditional RT for balance and isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1). Plyometric training was >78% likely to elicit substantially better training adaptations than traditional RT for balance, isokinetic force at 60 and 300° · s(-1), isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1), and 5- and 20-m sprints. Traditional RT only exceeded plyometric training for BMI and isokinetic power at 60° · s(-1). Hence, OWL and plyometrics can provide similar or greater performance adaptations for children. It is recommended that any of the 3 training modalities can be implemented under professional supervision with proper training progressions to enhance training adaptations in children. PMID:24172724

Chaouachi, Anis; Hammami, Raouf; Kaabi, Sofiene; Chamari, Karim; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

2014-06-01

240

On superimposed training for channel estimation: performance analysis, training power allocation, and frame synchronization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Channel estimation for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) time-invariant channels using superimposed training has been recently considered by several authors. A periodic (nonrandom) training sequence is arithmetically added (superimposed) at a low power to the information sequence at the transmitter before modulation and transmission. In particular, in , the channel is estimated using only the first-order statistics of the data under a

Jitendra K. Tugnait; Xiaohong Meng

2006-01-01

241

Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Health workers’ motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers’ experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers’ motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers attesting to the importance of the salary for motivation. Lessons learned from OPRAS can be utilized in the implementation of P4P and can enhance our knowledge on motivation and performance in the health services in low-income contexts such as Tanzania.

2012-01-01

242

Grazing Rental Appraisal Data: Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information contained on these microfiche pertain to data collected during the course of field work, conducted from July 1982 through November 1983, associated with the 'Grazing Rental Appraisal Project'. The Appraisal is one part of a comprehensive grazi...

P. B. Tittman C. E. Brownell

1983-01-01

243

Grazing Rental Appraisal Data: Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information contained on these microfiche pertain to data collected during the course of field work, conducted from July 1982 through November 1983, associated with the 'Grazing Rental Appraisal Project'. The Appraisal is one part of a comprehensive grazi...

P. B. Tittman C. E. Brownell

1983-01-01

244

Grazing Rental Appraisal Data: Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information contained on these microfiche pertain to data collected during the course of field work, conducted from July 1982 through November 1983, associated with the 'Grazing Rental Appraisal Project'. The Appraisal is one part of a comprehensive grazi...

P. B. Tittman C. E. Brownell

1983-01-01

245

Grazing Rental Appraisal Data: Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information contained on these microfiche pertain to data collected during the course of field work, conducted from July 1982 through November 1983, associated with the 'Grazing Rental Appraisal Project'. The Appraisal is one part of a comprehensive grazi...

P. B. Tittman C. E. Brownell

1983-01-01

246

Resistance Training on Physical Performance in Disabled Older Female Cardiac Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADES, P. A., P. D. SAVAGE, M. E. CRESS, M. BROCHU, N. M. LEE, and E. T. POEHLMAN. Resistance Training on Physical Performance in Disabled Older Female Cardiac Patients. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 35, No. 8, pp. 1265-1270, 2003. Purpose: We evaluated the value of resistance training on measures of physical performance in disabled older women with coronary heart

PHILIP A. ADES; PATRICK D. SAVAGE; M. ELAINE CRESS; MARTIN BROCHU; N. MELINDA LEE; ERIC T. POEHLMAN

2003-01-01

247

The Impact of Stress Management Training on the Academic Performance of Low-Achieving College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the impact of stress management training as part of an academic skills training program upon students' (N=22) self-reported symptoms of stress and academic performance. Results indicated that success-stress management treatment was more effective in reducing stress and increasing academic performance than success treatment alone. (LLL)

Williams, John M.; And Others

1983-01-01

248

Effects of Ingesting Fat Free and Low Fat Chocolate Milk After Resistance Training on Exercise Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collegiate athletes are always looking for ways to improve their performance. Resistance training has been incorporated into most collegiate athletic programs for this very reason. In order to improve strength, lean body mass, and exercise performance, resistance exercise and timely protein ingestion must be followed. Incorporating protein ingestion into a resistance training routine has been shown to improve net protein

Breanna Myers

2010-01-01

249

The Effects of Audiotaped Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training on the Reading Performance of Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the degree to which audiotaped progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training influenced the oral and silent reading performance of eight adolescents who were legally classified as emotionally disturbed. Finds that PMR training can have a positive influence on the reading performance of emotionally disturbed adolescents. (MG)

Margolis, Howard; Pica, Louis, Jr.

1990-01-01

250

Baseline laparoscopic skills performance correlates to proficiency-based training duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proficiency-based curricula using laparoscopic simulators are effective but may be difficult to implement as individual rates of skill acquisition vary widely. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between baseline performance and the amount of training necessary to reach proficiency. We analyzed performance data from our laparoscopic skills curriculum database for surgery residents who trained between 2002

J. R. Korndorffer; R. Sierra; W. C. Brunner; C. L. Touchard; J. B. Dunne; D. J. Scott

2004-01-01

251

Evaluating the Implementation of Performance Improvement Training: The E[superscript 3] Process for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a comprehensive approach to careful review and evaluation of the implementation of performance training intervention. It discusses the E[superscript 3] process for success, a basic framework for evaluating the implementation phase of a training program implemented as a broad-based performance improvement strategy. The intent…

Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

2008-01-01

252

Effects of Creatine Supplementation and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Weightlifting Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine monohydrate has become the supplement of choice for many athletes striving to improve sports performance. Recent data indicate that athletes may not be using creatine as a sports performance booster per se but instead use cre- atine chronically as a training aid to augment intense resis- tance training workouts. Although several studies have eval- uated the combined effects of

Eric S. Rawson; Jeff S. Volek

2003-01-01

253

The effect of drag suit training on 50-m freestyle performance.  

PubMed

Little research has evaluated the effects of drag suit training in swimming; these effects need to be explored further to optimize their use in training. For this 5-week training study, 18 subjects were divided evenly into 2 groups: control group and drag suit-trained group. Both groups performed weekly training routines that included 3 sprint sets. These sprint sets were performed by both the groups; however, the drag suit training group wore the drag suit, and the control group wore their typical training attire. We evaluated the swimmers' 50-m performance using a test set of six 50-m sprints on a 10-minute interval before and after the training program. The test set was performed twice (on 2 different days) where the swimmers were tested once in the drag suit and once in their regular training attire; the order of testing was randomized. Final time, stroke rate, and distance per stroke were collected. We observed that the drag suit-trained group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in distance per stoke while wearing the drag suit and the control group showed a significant increase in stroke rate and decrease in distance per stroke (in both suits). It is suggested to include some amounts of drag suit training in periods where swimming volume may decrease. Sets that are short in distance and performed at high intensity with sufficient rest to allow swimmers to maintain high stroke integrity should help athletes maintain techniques. We suggest incorporating the drag suit into the training regimen and should be considered a valuable resistive training device for swimming. PMID:22371092

Dragunas, Andrew J; Dickey, James P; Nolte, Volker W

2012-04-01

254

Preliminary performance appraisal of Navy V/STOL transport and search-type airplanes using hydrogen fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

First-cut estimates are given of the performance advantages of liquid-hydrogen-fueled, ejector wing, V/STOL aircraft designed for shipboard delivery and search-type missions. Results indicate that the use of LH2 could reduce gross weights 30 percent, empty weights 15 percent, and energy consumption 10 percent for a fixed payload and mission. If gross weight is fixed, the delivery range could be increased about 60 percent or the hover time during a search mission doubled. No analysis or discussion of the economic and operational disadvantages is presented.

Strack, W. C.

1974-01-01

255

training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights new nutritional concerns or practices that may influence the adaptation to training. The discussion is based on the assumption that the adaptation to repeated bouts of training occurs during recovery periods and that if one can train harder, the adaptation will be greater. The goal is to maximize with nutrition the recovery\\/adaptation that occurs in all rest

LAWRENCE L. SPRIET; MARTIN J. GIBALA

256

[Effects of complex training on strength and speed performance in athletes: a systematic review].  

PubMed

Background: Post-activation potentiation (PAP) can elicit acute performance enhancements in variables of strength, power, and speed. However, it is unresolved whether the frequent integration of PAP eliciting conditioning activities in training (i.?e., complex training) results in long-term adaptations. In this regard, it is of interest to know whether complex training results in larger performance enhancements as compared to more traditional and isolated training regimens (e.?g., resistance training). Thus, this systematic literature review summarises the current state of the art regarding the effects of complex training on measures of strength, power, and speed in recreational, subelite, and elite athletes. Further, it provides information on training volume and intensities that proved to be effective. Methods: Our literature search included the electronic databases Pubmed, SportDiscus, and Web of Science (1995 to September 2013). In total, 17 studies met the inclusionary criteria for review. Ten studies examined alternating complex training and 7 studies sequenced complex training. Results: Our findings indicated small to large effects for both alternating complex training (countermovement jump height: +?7.4?% [ESd?=?-0.43]; squat jump height: +?9.8?% [ESd?=?-0.66]; sprint time: -2.4?% [ESd?=?0.63]) and sequenced complex training (countermovement jump height: +?6.0?% [ESd?=?-0.83]; squat jump height: +?11.9?% [ESd ?=?-0.97], sprint time: -0.7?% [ESd?=?0.52]) in measures of power and speed. As compared to more traditional training regimens, alternating and sequenced complex training showed only small effects in measures of strength, power, and speed. A more detailed analysis of alternating complex training revealed larger effects in countermovement jump height in recreational athletes (+?9.7?% [ESd?=?-0.57]) as compared to subelite and elite athletes (+?2.7?% [ESd?=?-0.15]). Based on the relevant and currently available literature, missing data (e.?g., time for rest interval) and diverse information regarding training volume and intensity do not allow us to establish evidence-based dose-response relations for complex training. Conclusion: Complex training represents an effective training regimen for athletes if the goal is to enhance strength, power, and speed. Studies with high methodological quality have to be conducted in the future to elucidate whether complex training is less, similar, or even more effective compared to more traditional training regimens. Finally, it should be clarified whether alternated and/or sequenced conditioning activities implemented in complex training actually elicit acute PAP effects. PMID:24599505

Lesinski, M; Muehlbauer, T; Büsch, D; Granacher, U

2014-06-01

257

Maladaptive Self-Appraisals before Trauma Exposure Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the proposal that negative appraisals represent a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma. Trainee firefighters (N = 68) were assessed during training (before trauma exposure) for PTSD, history of traumatic events, and tendency to engage in negative appraisals. Firefighters were reassessed 4…

Bryant, Richard A.; Guthrie, Rachel M.

2007-01-01

258

Balance Training for Neuromuscular Control and Performance Enhancement: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: As a result of inconsistencies in reported findings, controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of balance training for improving functional performance and neuromuscular control. Thus, its practical benefit in athletic training remains inconclusive. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of training interventions in enhancing neuromuscular control and functional performance. Data Sources: Two independent reviewers performed a literature search in Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Register and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database), and SCOPUS. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials and controlled trials without randomization with healthy and physically active participants aged up to 40 years old were considered for inclusion. Outcomes of interest were postural control, muscle strength, agility, jump performance, sprint performance, muscle reflex activity, rate of force development, reaction time, and electromyography. Data Extraction: Data of interest were methodologic assessment, training intervention, outcome, timing of the outcome assessment, and results. Standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated when data were sufficient. Data Synthesis: In total, 20 randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. Balance training was effective in improving postural sway and functional balance when compared with untrained control participants. Larger effect sizes were shown for training programs of longer duration. Although controversial findings were reported for jumping performance, agility, and neuromuscular control, there are indications for the effectiveness of balance training in these outcomes. When compared with plyometric or strength training, conflicting results or no effects of balance training were reported for strength improvements and changes in sprint performance. Conclusions: We conclude that balance training can be effective for postural and neuromuscular control improvements. However, as a result of the low methodologic quality and training differences, further research is strongly recommended.

Zech, Astrid; Hubscher, Markus; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried; Hansel, Frank; Pfeifer, Klaus

2010-01-01

259

The order of concurrent training does not affect soccer-related performance adaptations.  

PubMed

Despite the wealth of evidence regarding physical training strategies in soccer, there is little information regarding soccer-specific concurrent training and the effects of training order. The current study aimed to: i) quantify the effects of concurrent high-intensity run-based training (HIT) and strength- and power-based training (STR) on soccer-specific performance, and ii) investigate the order effect of completing HIT and STR either first or second within training sessions. Eighteen semi- and fully-professional players completed a battery of field- and gym-based tests before and after a 5-week pre-season training intervention. Players were pair-matched and completed 3 sessions per week of HIT followed by STR (n=9) or STR followed by HIT (n=9). ANCOVA tests revealed no differences between groups for changes in any of the measures (p>0.05). However, a training effect was observed for all measures (p<0.05), with 10-m sprint, 6×30-m repeated sprint, 40-m agility and Yo-Yo test performances improving by 1.8±2.6%, 1.3±1.8%, 1.0±1.5% and 19.4±23.4%, respectively (n=18). In conclusion, there was a positive effect of the concurrent training approach on key measures of soccer performance, but the order of completing HIT and STR appears inconsequential to performance adaptations. PMID:23700329

McGawley, K; Andersson, P-I

2013-11-01

260

Effects of Learning Style and Training Method on Computer Attitude and Performance in World Wide Web Page Design Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the effects of two training methods on computer attitude and performance in a World Wide Web page design program in a field experiment with high school students in Taiwan. Discusses individual differences, Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and Learning Style Inventory, Computer Attitude Scale, and results of statistical analyses.…

Chou, Huey-Wen; Wang, Yu-Fang

1999-01-01

261

Predicting space telerobotic operator training performance from human spatial ability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal was to determine whether existing tests of spatial ability can predict an astronaut's qualification test performance after robotic training. Because training astronauts to be qualified robotics operators is so long and expensive, NASA is interested in tools that can predict robotics performance before training begins. Currently, the Astronaut Office does not have a validated tool to predict robotics ability as part of its astronaut selection or training process. Commonly used tests of human spatial ability may provide such a tool to predict robotics ability. We tested the spatial ability of 50 active astronauts who had completed at least one robotics training course, then used logistic regression models to analyze the correlation between spatial ability test scores and the astronauts' performance in their evaluation test at the end of the training course. The fit of the logistic function to our data is statistically significant for several spatial tests. However, the prediction performance of the logistic model depends on the criterion threshold assumed. To clarify the critical selection issues, we show how the probability of correct classification vs. misclassification varies as a function of the mental rotation test criterion level. Since the costs of misclassification are low, the logistic models of spatial ability and robotic performance are reliable enough only to be used to customize regular and remedial training. We suggest several changes in tracking performance throughout robotics training that could improve the range and reliability of predictive models.

Liu, Andrew M.; Oman, Charles M.; Galvan, Raquel; Natapoff, Alan

2013-11-01

262

Self-attitude awareness training: An aid to effective performance in microgravity and virtual environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes ongoing development of training procedures to enhance self-attitude awareness in astronaut trainees. The procedures are based on observations regarding self-attitude (perceived self-orientation and self-motion) reported by astronauts. Self-attitude awareness training is implemented on a personal computer system and consists of lesson stacks programmed using Hypertalk with Macromind Director movie imports. Training evaluation will be accomplished by an active search task using the virtual Spacelab environment produced by the Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME-PAT) as well as by assessment of astronauts' performance and sense of well-being during orbital flight. The general purpose of self-attitude awareness training is to use as efficiently as possible the limited DOME-PAT training time available to astronauts prior to a space mission. We suggest that similar training procedures may enhance the performance of virtual environment operators.

Parker, Donald E.; Harm, D. L.; Florer, Faith L.

1993-01-01

263

Individual Differences and Learning Performance in Computer-based Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work is in support of a multi-year project to evaluate 'people- centered' aspects of computer-based training (CBT) or technology assisted instruction. The core component of the work will be developing a longitudinal database that will include individ...

A. B. Hyneman D. L. Alderton R. A. Schultz

2011-01-01

264

"Into the Scene" and Its Impact on Inclusive Performance Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In autumn 2006 the Arts Council England set up the "Into the Scene" project in order to increase the number of disabled and deaf theatre practitioners graduating from accredited training courses and to increase the quality of their experience. A team from Graeae, the disabled-led theatre company that profiles the skills of actors, writers and…

Dacre, Kathy; Bulmer, Alex

2009-01-01

265

Performance Evaluation for Training a Distributed BackPropagation Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of some experiments in parallelizing the training phase of a feed-forward, artificial neural network. More specifically, we develop and analyze a parallelization strategy of the widely used neural net learning algorithm called back-propagation. We describe an approach for parallelizing the back- propagation algorithm. We implemented these algorithms on several LANs, permitting us to evaluate and

Sorin Babii

2007-01-01

266

Endurance training protocol and longitudinal performance assays for Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

One of the most pressing problems facing modern medical researchers is the surging levels of obesity, with the consequent increase in associated disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (1-3). An important topic of research into these associated health problems involves the role of endurance exercise as a beneficial intervention. Exercise training is an inexpensive, non-invasive intervention with several beneficial results, including reduction in excess body fat (4), increased insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle (5), increased anti-inflammatory and antioxidative responses (6), and improved contractile capacity in cardiomyocytes (7). Low intensity exercise is known to increase mitochondrial activity and biogenesis in humans (8) and mice, with the transcriptional coactivator PGC1-? as an important intermediate (9,10). Despite the importance of exercise as a tool for combating several important age-related diseases, extensive longitudinal genetic studies have been impeded by the lack of an endurance training protocol for a short-lived genetic model species. The variety of genetic tools available for use with Drosophila, together with its short lifespan and inexpensive maintenance, make it an appealing model for further study of these genetic mechanisms. With this in mind we have developed a novel apparatus, known as the Power Tower, for large scale exercise-training in Drosophila melanogaster (11). The Power Tower utilizes the flies' instinctive negative geotaxis behavior to repetitively induce rapid climbing. Each time the machine lifts, then drops, the platform of flies, the flies are induced to climb. Flies continue to respond as long as the machine is in operation or until they become too fatigued to respond. Thus, the researcher can use this machine to provide simultaneous training to large numbers of age-matched and genetically identical flies. Additionally, we describe associated assays useful to track longitudinal progress of fly cohorts during training. PMID:22472601

Tinkerhess, Martin J; Ginzberg, Sara; Piazza, Nicole; Wessells, Robert J

2012-01-01

267

Minimal effects of visual memory training on the auditory performance of adult cochlear implant users  

PubMed Central

Auditory training has been shown to significantly improve cochlear implant (CI) users’ speech and music perception. However, it is unclear whether post-training gains in performance were due to improved auditory perception or to generally improved attention, memory and/or cognitive processing. In this study, speech and music perception, as well as auditory and visual memory were assessed in ten CI users before, during, and after training with a non-auditory task. A visual digit span (VDS) task was used for training, in which subjects recalled sequences of digits presented visually. After the VDS training, VDS performance significantly improved. However, there were no significant improvements for most auditory outcome measures (auditory digit span, phoneme recognition, sentence recognition in noise, digit recognition in noise), except for small (but significant) improvements in vocal emotion recognition and melodic contour identification. Post-training gains were much smaller with the non-auditory VDS training than observed in previous auditory training studies with CI users. The results suggest that post-training gains observed in previous studies were not solely attributable to improved attention or memory, and were more likely due to improved auditory perception. The results also suggest that CI users may require targeted auditory training to improve speech and music perception.

Oba, Sandra I.; Galvin, John J.; Fu, Qian-Jie

2014-01-01

268

Gait Training Improves Performance in Healthy Adults Exposed to Novel Discordant Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After they return to Earth, astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances that disrupt their ability to walk. We have previously shown that training with a variety of sensorimotor adaptive challenges enhances the capability of adapting to novel sensorimotor conditions. We are currently developing a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of function after gravitational transitions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether trained subjects could transfer learned skills from one discordant visuo-proprioceptive environment to another. During three sessions, subjects walked at 2.5 km/h on a treadmill mounted on a motion base platform. Ten subjects trained with a combination of lateral treadmill translation and superimposed sinusoidal lateral optic flow that was presented on a large screen positioned in front of them. Ten controls completed the same training schedule while viewing only the forward optic flow with no visual or physical oscillation. Twenty minutes after the final training session, all subjects completed a 2-minute trial with a novel combination of visual and treadmill roll perturbations not previously experienced during the training (Transfer Test). Compared to the untrained group, participants who received SA training showed faster reaction times and, based on a composite score derived from stride frequency, heart rate, and reaction time, an overall enhanced performance. Our results showed that an SA training program can improve overall walking performance when subjects are exposed to novel incongruent sensory environments. This training has application for both enhancing adaptive responses in astronauts and reducing fall and injury risk in the elderly.

Batson, Crystal D.; Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2010-01-01

269

Appraising School Effectiveness Using a Bayesian Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appraisal of a school's relative effectiveness is complicated by: (1) the need to control for input differences; (2) measurement error in input measures; and (3) small sample size within schools. This study compares the performance of two successive cohorts in 19 schools in a small midwestern city on the five Iowa Tests of Basic Skills using both…

Coffman, William E.; Shigemasu, Kazuo

270

Development of a Human Behavior and Performance Training Curriculum for ISS Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper will describe the DACUM process and summarize the core competencies that were agreed upon, internationally, as important for ISS astronauts. The paper will further discuss the ongoing work being completed by the subgroup, Human Behaviour and Performance Training Working Group, including defining the competencies and behavioural markers. Finally, an overview of remaining work will be provided, including determining which competencies require formal training and which require no formal training, developing training objectives, sequencing the training, and establishing how to assess training effectiveness. DISCUSSION: Designing a common set of goals for behavioural training has been the desire of the SHBP WG since its inception in 1998. This group, along with training specialists and astronauts, are making great strides toward defining these competencies. The road ahead will be exceedingly challenging as training objectives are defined and a training flow is proposed to the MCOP; with proposed ISS crews increasing to six people in the near future, such enhanced behavioural training may be all the more essential for mission success.

VanderArk, Steve; Tomi, Leena; Vassin, Alexander; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Bessone, Lorendana; OConnor, Sharon; Mukai, Chiaki; Coffee, Emily; Sipes, Walter; Salnitskiy, Vyecheslav; Ren, Victor; Spychalski, Annette

2007-01-01

271

Effects of Medicine Ball Training on Fitness Performance of High-School Physical Education Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of medicine ball training on the fitness performance of high-school physical education students. Sixty-nine high-school studentspartici- pated in a 6-week medicine training program during thefirst 10 to 15 minutes of eachphysical education class. A group of 49 students who participated in physical education lessons but not medicine ball training sewedas

Avery D. Faigenbaum; Patrick Mediate

272

Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of heavy resistance, explosive resistance, and muscle endurance training on neuromuscular, endurance, and high-intensity running performance in recreational endurance runners. Twenty-seven male runners were divided into one of three groups: heavy resistance, explosive resistance or muscle endurance training. After 6 weeks of preparatory training, the groups underwent an 8-week resistance

Jussi Mikkola; Ville Vesterinen; Ritva Taipale; Benoit Capostagno; Keijo Häkkinen; Ari Nummela

2011-01-01

273

Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

Helmreich, Robert L.

1987-01-01

274

Effect of run training and cold-water immersion on subsequent cycle training quality in high-performance triathletes.  

PubMed

Rowsell, GJ, Reaburn, P, Toone, R, Smith, M, Coutts, AJ. Effect of run training and cold-water immersion on subsequent cycle training quality in high-performance triathletes. J Strength Cond Res 28(6): 1664-1672, 2014-The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of cold-water immersion (CWI) on physiological, psychological, and biochemical markers of recovery and subsequent cycling performance after intensive run training. Seven high-performance male triathletes (age: 28.6 ± 7.1 years; cycling V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak: 73.4 ± 10.2 ml·kg·min) completed 2 trials in a randomized crossover design consisting of 7 × 5-minute running intervals at 105% of individual anaerobic threshold followed by either CWI (10 ± 0.5° C) or thermoneutral water immersion (TNI; 34 ± 0.5° C). Subjects immersed their legs in water 5 times for 60 seconds with 60-second passive rest between each immersion. Nine hours after immersion, inflammatory and muscle damage markers, and perceived recovery measures were obtained before the subjects completed a 5-minute maximal cycling test followed by a high-quality cycling interval training set (6 × 5-minute intervals). Power output, heart rate, blood lactate (La), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also recorded during the cycling time-trial and interval set. Performance was enhanced (change, ±90% confidence limits) in the CWI condition during the cycling interval training set (power output [W·kg ], 2.1 ± 1.7%, La [mmol·L], 18 ± 18.1%, La:RPE, 19.8 ± 17.5%). However, there was an unclear effect of CWI on 5-minute maximal cycling time-trial performance, and there was no significant influence on perceptual measures of fatigue/recovery, despite small to moderate effects. The effect of CWI on the biochemical markers was mostly unclear, however, there was a substantial effect for interleukin-10 (20 ± 13.4%). These results suggest that compared with TNI, CWI may be effective for enhancing cycling interval training performance after intensive interval-running training. PMID:24626137

Rowsell, Greg J; Reaburn, Peter; Toone, Rebecca; Smith, Mitchell; Coutts, Aaron J

2014-06-01

275

Can performance indicators be used for pedagogic purposes in disaster medicine training?  

PubMed Central

Background Although disaster simulation trainings were widely used to test hospital disaster plans and train medical staff, the teaching performance of the instructors in disaster medicine training has never been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine whether the performance indicators for measuring educational skill in disaster medicine training could indicate issues that needed improvement. Methods The educational skills of 15 groups attending disaster medicine instructor courses were evaluated using 13 measurable performance indicators. The results of each indicator were scored at 0, 1 or 2 according to the teaching performance. Results The total summed scores ranged from 17 to 26 with a mean of 22.67. Three indicators: 'Design', 'Goal' and 'Target group' received the maximum scores. Indicators concerning running exercises had significantly lower scores as compared to others. Conclusion Performance indicators could point out the weakness area of instructors' educational skills. Performance indicators can be used effectively for pedagogic purposes.

Wakasugi, Masahiro; Nilsson, Helene; Hornwall, Johan; Vikstrom, Tore; Ruter, Anders

2009-01-01

276

Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation during combined strength and high intensity rowing training on performance.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of creatine monohydrate (Cr) supplementation on performance and training volume in rowers. Twenty-two rowers trained with continuous and interval rowing and resistance training 4 and 2 days/week, respectively, for 6 weeks. Cr supplementation consisted of a 5-day load (0.3 g/kg(-1) x day(-1)) followed by a 5-week maintenance dose (0.03 g/kg(-1) x day(-1)) while training. Five days of Cr loading did not change body composition, repeated interval rowing performance, 2,000-m rowing times, or strength performance. Five additional weeks of training with a maintenance dose of Cr or placebo significantly improved body composition, VO2max, 2,000-m rowing times, repeated power interval performance, and strength to a similar extent in both groups. Subjects training with Cr did not perform more repetitions per set of strength exercise nor produce or maintain higher power outputs during repeated rowing sessions. Cr supplementation did not increase performance or training volume over a placebo condition in rowers that performed a combined high intensity rowing and strength program. PMID:11842271

Syrotuik, D G; Game, A B; Gillies, E M; Bell, G J

2001-12-01

277

Effect of communications training on medical student performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: Although physicians' communication skills have been found to be related to clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction, teaching of communication skills has not been fully integrated into many medical school curricula or adequately evaluated with large-scale controlled trials.\\u000aOBJECTIVE: To determine whether communications training for medical students improves specific competencies known to affect outcomes of care.\\u000aDESIGN AND SETTING: A

Michael J. Yedidia; Colleen C. Gillespie; Elizabeth Kachur; Mark D. Schwartz; Judith K. Ockene; Amy E. Chepaitis; Clint W. Snyder; Aaron Lazare; Lipkin Mack Jr

2003-01-01

278

Incidence of Injury and Physical Performance Adaptations During Military Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

was observed in the previously untrained soldiers compared with the well-trained soldiers. An increase in intermittent en- durance capacity (20-m intermittent shuttle run test) was seen in all groups, (13 to 62%, P < 0.05), whereas only the previ- ously untrained group of soldiers improved in aerobic capacity (8 and 16%, P < 0.05; maximal oxygen uptake and Coopers 12-minute

Lars Rosendal; Henning Langberg; Arne Skov-Jensen; Michael Kjær

279

12 CFR 34.43 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.43 Appraisals required;...

2009-01-01

280

12 CFR 34.43 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.43 Appraisals required;...

2010-01-01

281

Cognitive-Adaptation Training for Improving Performance and Stress Management of Air Force Pilots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of cognitive-adaptation training on flight performance and stress management in a sample of pilot cadets who were undergoing a basic flying program (N?=?21). The aim of the training was to enhance the participants' awareness of the cognitive processes that they used in a given situation, and to strengthen reflective processes. Cadets were assigned to a

Marie-Pierre Fornette; Marie-Héloïse Bardel; Camille Lefrançois; Jacques Fradin; Farid El Massioui; René Amalberti

2012-01-01

282

The Dread Factor: How Hazards and Safety Training Influence Learning and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous…

Burke, Michael J.; Salvador, Rommel O.; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

2011-01-01

283

Self or Group? Effects of Training on Self-Efficacy and Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the theoretical and empirical relationship of training and individualism-collectivism to self-efficacy and performance in studies of managers from Hong Kong, China, and the United States. Uses a laboratory experiment and a six-month field experiment to test hypotheses predicting self-focused training as more effective for individualists…

Earley, P. Christopher

1994-01-01

284

Evaluating the Impact of Electronic Training on Organizational Performance in an SME Food Manufacturing Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many small to medium sized manufacturing organizations do not have adequate resources to conduct formalized workplace training or properly evaluate its results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of electronic training on workplace behavior and small business organizational performance in the manufacturing environment using…

Fry, Richard C.

2011-01-01

285

Measures of Reaction to Threat of Physical Harm as Predictors of Performance in Military Aviation Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from subjective reports, objective performance measures, and physiological studies indicate that flight training per se places a great deal of stress on the trainee. In military flight training additional stresses are involved that may markedly increase the importance of reaction to threat of physical harm. This paper reports efforts to…

Boyles, Wiley R.

286

Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

2013-01-01

287

Should Athletic Training Educators Utilize Grades When Evaluating Student Clinical Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore and address some of the challenges for assessing, interpreting, and grading athletic training students' clinical performance and to suggest athletic training educators consider using a more universal assessment method for professional consistency. Background: In years past students learned from teachers or mentors on an…

Scriber, Kent; Gray, Courtney; Millspaugh, Rose

2010-01-01

288

Can 2- and 3-Year-Old Children Be Trained to Perform Visual Perception Tasks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children aged 2 and 3 years were exposed to a novel paradigm designed to train visual perception skills. The results indicate that children of this age could be trained to perform both percept deprivation and percept diagnosis tasks. Results are discussed with reference to engagement, a precursor to an adult-like understanding of perception.

McGuigan, Nicola

2007-01-01

289

Effects of Medicine Ball Training on Fitness Performance of High-School Physical Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of medicine ball training on the fitness performance of high-school physical education students. Sixty-nine high-school students participated in a 6-week medicine training program during the first 10 to 15 minutes of each physical education class. A group of 49 students who participated in…

Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Mediate, Patrick

2006-01-01

290

Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical…

Perez, Jose A., Jr.; Greer, Sharon

2009-01-01

291

Training Transfer: A Suggested Course of Action for Local Authorities to Leverage Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maximization of training influence on individual performance through changes in employee knowledge, skills, and abilities is a paramount concern of organizations. However, training without implementation in a work setting cannot achieve its goals. In this article, the author maps the primary factors that influence transfer of what is learned in…

Ascher, Jacques

2013-01-01

292

Efficient training and improved performance of multilayer perceptron in pattern classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pattern recognition problems, the convergence of backpropagation training algorithm of a multilayer perceptron is slow if the concerned classes have complex decision boundary. To improve the performance, we propose a technique, which at first cleverly picks up samples near the decision boundary without actually knowing the position of decision boundary. To choose the training samples, a larger set of

B. B. Chaudhuri; Ujjwal Bhattacharya

2000-01-01

293

Effect of intermittent hypoxic training on 20 km time trial and 30 s anaerobic performance.  

PubMed

This study aimed to verify whether the "live low, train high" approach is beneficial for endurance and/or anaerobic cycling performance. Sixteen well-trained athletes completed 90 min of endurance training (60-70% of heart rate reserve), followed by two 30-s all-out sprints (Wingate test), daily, for 10 consecutive days. Nine subjects [intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) group] trained with an F(I)O(2) set to produce arterial oxygen saturations of approximately 88-82%, while seven subjects (placebo group) trained while breathing a normal gas mixture (F(I)O(2)=0.21). Four performance tests were conducted at sea level including a familiarization and baseline trial, followed by repeat trials at 2 and 9 days post-intervention. Relative to the placebo group, the mean power during the 30-s Wingate test increased by 3.0% (95% confidence limits, CL +/- 3.5%) 2 days, and 1.7% (+/- 3.8%) 9 days post-IHT. Changes in other performance variables (30 s peak power, 20 km mean power and 20 km oxygen cost) were unclear. During the time trial, the IHT participants' blood lactate concentration, respiratory exchange ratio, and SpO(2), relative to the placebo group, was substantially increased at 2 days post-intervention. The addition of IHT to the normal training program of well-trained athletes produced worthwhile gains in 30 s sprint performance possibly through enhanced glycolysis. PMID:19793215

Hamlin, M J; Marshall, H C; Hellemans, J; Ainslie, P N; Anglem, N

2010-08-01

294

The Effect of Three Months of Aerobic Training on Stroop Performance in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence supports the use of physical training interventions to improve both physical and cognitive performances in healthy older adults. Few studies have examined the impact of aerobic exercise on Stroop task performance, a measure of executive functions. In the current 3-month aerobic training study, 50 older adults (mean age = 67.96 ± 6.25 years) were randomly assigned to either a three-month physical training group or to a control group (waiting list). Training sessions were 3 times per week for 60 minutes. All participants completed pre- and post-test measures of cognitive performance using the modified Stroop task and physical performance (Rockport one-mile test). Compared to controls, the training group showed significant improvements in physical capacity (P < 0.001) and enhanced Stroop performance, but only in the inhibition/switching condition (P < 0.03). Furthermore, the increase in aerobic capacity induced by the training regimen correlated negatively with reaction time in the inhibition/switching condition of the Stroop task at posttest (r = ?0.538; P = 0.007). Importantly, the reported gains in cognitive performance were observed after only three months of physical training. Taken together, the results suggest that even short-term physical interventions can enhance older adults' executive functions.

Predovan, David; Fraser, Sarah A.; Renaud, Melanie; Bherer, Louis

2012-01-01

295

Using Performance Analysis for Training in an Organization Implementing Integrated Manufacturing: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the use of the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) model to assess performance needs in an organization that implements integrated manufacturing processes. Results showed that the PAT model was a useful guide for assessing performance needs and that the process and product of the performance analysis was influenced by the…

Sleezer, Catherine M.

1996-01-01

296

Problems in Air Traffic Management: Vii. Job and Training Performance of Air Traffic Control Specialists, Measurement, Structure, and Prediction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A statistical study of training and job-performance measures of several hundred Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCS) representing Enroute, Terminal, and Flight Service Station specialties revealed that training-performance measures reflected: (1) perfor...

D. K. Trites M. C. Miller B. B. Cobb

1965-01-01

297

Problems in Air Traffic Management. Vii. Job and Training Performance of Air Traffic Control Specialists--Measurement, Structure, and Prediction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A statistical study of training- and job-performance measures of several hundred Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCS) representing Enroute, Terminal, and Flight Service Station specialties revealed that training-performance measures reflected: (1) perfo...

D. K. Trites M. C. Miller B. B. Cobb

1965-01-01

298

Visual and kinesthetic locomotor imagery training integrated with auditory step rhythm for walking performance of patients with chronic stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the effect of visual and kinesthetic locomotor imagery training on walking performance and to determine the clinical feasibility of incorporating auditory step rhythm into the training.Design: Randomized crossover trial.Setting: Laboratory of a Department of Physical Therapy.Subjects: Fifteen subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis.Intervention: Four locomotor imagery trainings on walking performance: visual locomotor imagery training, kinesthetic locomotor imagery training, visual

Jin-Seop Kim; Duck-Won Oh; Suhn-Yeop Kim; Jong-Duk Choi

2011-01-01

299

Effects of Intermittent Training on Anaerobic Performance and MCT Transporters in Athletes  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT) expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n?=?8; 150 mmHg PIO2) or hypoxic (H; n?=?10; ?3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2) over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30.week?1) period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT) was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT). Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO) increased (p<0.05) after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively), but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively). No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective.

Millet, Gregoire; Bentley, David J.; Roels, Belle; Mc Naughton, Lars R.; Mercier, Jacques; Cameron-Smith, David

2014-01-01

300

Depressive Symptoms and Memory Performance among Older Adults: Results from the ACTIVE Memory Training Intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive performance benefits from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study may differ for individuals who exhibit a greater number of depressive symptoms. Methods Using data from ACTIVE memory training and control conditions, we evaluated the effect of depressive symptomatology on memory scores across a five-year period. Of 1,401 participants, 210 had elevated depressive symptoms at baseline, as measured by a 12-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Results Participants with elevated depressive symptoms scored significantly lower at baseline and had faster decline in memory performance than those exhibiting fewer depressive symptoms. Memory score differences among depressive symptom categories did not differ between training conditions. Discussion Findings suggest that elevated depressive symptoms may predict declines in memory ability over time, but do not attenuate gains from training. Training provides a potential method of improving memory which is robust to effects of depression.

Lohman, Matthew C.; Rebok, George W.; Spira, Adam P.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Gross, Alden L.; Kueider, Alexandra M.

2013-01-01

301

Exercise, performance and temperature control: temperature regulation during exercise and implications for sports performance and training.  

PubMed

Thermoregulation is an important consideration not only for athletic performance but also for the safety of the athlete. This article presents a broad overview of the mechanisms by which body heat is dissipated in an individual exercising in a hot environment. Particularly emphasised are more recent views of body heat loss mechanisms and the influences of non-thermal inputs, such as effects due to changing blood volume or blood flow distribution. During exercise in a hot environment, metabolic heat produced by the exercising muscles is transported by the circulating blood to the surface of the body where it is released to the environment, either by radiation and convection or by evaporation of sweat. The primary drives for both the increased skin blood flow and increased body sweating are the thermal inputs which are sensed by receptors in the deep body core, with a lesser drive from skin receptors. These thermal signals are integrated in the hypothalamus and proper heat loss responses are effected. When exercise is prolonged, however, and body rehydration is not adequate, the total blood volume may be compromised. In addition, as the core temperature increases during exercise, larger proportions of the blood volume are distributed to the cutaneous vessels, thus effectively reducing cardiac return and central blood volume. During severe exercise, a reduction in cardiac filling may result in a fall in central venous pressure and stimulate baroreceptor vasoconstrictor reflexes. As discussed below, the outputs from these baroreceptors compete with and modify the thermal drives for both the control of the skin blood flow and control of the sweat glands. The effect of high ambient temperatures on exercise performance is most evident in prolonged submaximal exercise. Normally, maximal exercise performance is not altered by high temperatures unless the individual has an elevated deep body temperature before the start of the exercise task. However, submaximal exercise performance is often impaired by high ambient temperatures, but may be improved by programmes of physical training and heat acclimatisation. Both training and heat acclimatisation significantly modify the control systems which regulate skin blood flow and sweating. Only acclimatisation programmes, however, are effective in preventing heat stress during prolonged exercise in hot environments. PMID:3883461

Fortney, S M; Vroman, N B

1985-01-01

302

Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences: Performing Analyses for Waterborne Bacteria, Module 13.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this instructional module, students learn to perform an examination of drinking water for the presence of indicator bacteria (coliform). Training Prerequisites: Before beginning this module, students should have had a course in high school biology or h...

F. C. May

1981-01-01

303

ASUPT (Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training) Automated Objective Performance Measurement System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To realize its full research potential a need exists for the development of an automated objective pilot performance evaluation system for use in the Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) facility. The present report documents the ap...

W. L. Waag E. E. Eddowes J. H. Fuller R. R. Fuller

1975-01-01

304

Education and Training Report. Performance Report, FY 1997  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During FY 97, 152 MUREP education and training projects were conducted at OMU institutions. The institutions conducted precollege and bridge programs, education partnerships with other universities and industry, NRTS, teacher training, and graduate and/or PI undergraduate programs. These programs reached a total of 23,748 participants, with the predominant number at the precollege level and achieved major goals of heightening students' interest and awareness of career opportunities in MSET fields, and exposing students to the NASA mission, research and advanced technology through role models, mentors, and participation in research and other educational activities. Also in FY 1997, NASA continued a very meaningful relationship with the Hispanic Association of Colleges students and Universities (HACU) through Proyecto Access, a consortium through which HACU links seven HSI's together to conduct 8-week summer programs. OMU Institutions reported 4,334 high school student in NASA programs and 3,404 of those students selected college preparatory MSET courses. Three hundred and forty-nine (349) graduated from high school, 343 enrolled in college, and 199 selected MSET majors. There were 130 high school graduates (bridge students) in NASA programs, 57 of whom successfully completed their freshman year. There were 307 teachers in teacher programs and 48 teachers received certificates. Of the 389 undergraduate students, 75 received under graduate degrees, and eight students are employed in a NASA-related field.

1997-01-01

305

Effects of 12 weeks of block periodization on performance and performance indices in well-trained cyclists.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists during a 12-week preparation period. One group of cyclists performed block periodization (BP; n = 8), wherein every fourth week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one HIT session. Another group performed a more traditional organization (TRAD; n = 7), with 12 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions. The HIT was interspersed with low-intensity training (LIT) so that similar total volumes of both HIT and LIT were performed in the two groups. BP achieved a larger relative improvement in VO2max than TRAD (8.8 ± 5.9% vs 3.7 ± 2.9%, respectively, < 0.05) and a tendency toward larger increase in power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)] (22 ± 14% vs 10 ± 7%, respectively, P = 0.054). Mean effect size (ES) of the relative improvement in VO2max , power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)], hemoglobin mass, and mean power output during 40-min all-out trial revealed moderate superior effects of BP compared with TRAD training (ES range was 0.62-1.12). The present study suggests that BP of endurance training has superior effects on several endurance and performance indices compared with TRAD. PMID:23134196

Rønnestad, B R; Ellefsen, S; Nygaard, H; Zacharoff, E E; Vikmoen, O; Hansen, J; Hallén, J

2014-04-01

306

Neuromuscular Training Improves Performance and Lower-Extremity Biomechanics in Female Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myer, G.D., K.R. Ford, J.P. Palumbo, and T.E. Hew- ett. Neuromuscular training improves performance and lower- extremity biomechanics in female athletes. J. Strength Cond. Res. 19(1):51-60. 2005.—The purpose of this study was to ex- amine the effects of a comprehensive neuromuscular training program on measures of performance and lower-extremity move- ment biomechanics in female athletes. The hypothesis was that significant

Gregory D. Myer; Kevin R. Ford; Joseph P. Palumbo; Timothy E. Hewett

2005-01-01

307

Performance-Based Thinking and Training for Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five job behavior functions viewed as necessary for practicing performance-based thinking in instructional development activities. Functions examined include the abilities to plan to perform a job, execute a task, monitor or control execution, troubleshoot, and evaluate. (MER)

Rakow, Joel

1982-01-01

308

The effect of ''living high-training low'' on physical performance in rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, we hypothesized that, in rats, adaptation to high altitude (2500 m) plus training at low altitude (610 m), ''living high-training low'', improves physical performance at low altitude more than living and training at low altitude (610 m). Rats were divided into four groups: (1) living at low altitude (LL, n=12), (2) living and training at low altitude (LLTL, n=13), (3) living at high altitude (LH, n=12), (4) living at high altitude and training at low altitude (LHTL, n=13). The program for living at high altitude involved raising rats under hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 2500 m), and the training program consisted of running on a tread-mill at low altitude. All groups were raised at each altitude and trained to run at 35 m/min for 40 min/day, 6 days/week for 6 weeks. During this program, we measured heart rates both at rest and during exercise, and performed running-time trials. The mean heart rate during exercise was lower in groups with training than in groups without training, and the groups receiving training could run longer than the untrained groups. The LHTL group especially showed the lowest mean heart rate during exercise and the longest running time among all groups. After 6 weeks of the training program, all rats had a catheter implanted into the carotid artery, and the mean systemic arterial pressure was continuously measured during treadmill running. The rate of increase of this pressure as the running intensity increased was lower in groups with training than in groups without training, especially in the LHTL group. Finally, we anesthetized all the rats and extracted both the right and left ventricles, and the triceps surae and liver. Training increased the weight of the left ventricle, triceps surae, and liver. The increase in weight of the left ventricle and triceps surae was higher in the LHTL group than in the LLTL group in particular. It appeared that living high- training low may be an effective strategy to improve performance ability at low altitude.

Miyazaki, S.; Sakai, A.

309

Training and maintaining the performance of dogs ( Canis familiaris) on an increasing number of odor discriminations in a controlled setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of substances detector dogs are trained to detect varies depending on the mission of the agency they serve. No studies have been conducted concerning how training multiple odor discriminations affects detection performance and refresher training requirements. This study used a controlled field setting to examine the effects of training dogs to detect multiple substances on their subsequent detection

Marc Williams; James M Johnston

2002-01-01

310

Specialty Training and the Performance of First-Term Enlisted Personnel. A Report. Rand Publications Series, R-2191-ARPA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the economic efficiency of initial military specialty training, procedures were tested for estimating the effects of that training on posttraining job performance. The approach chosen was an application of human capital theory in which the costs of on-the-job training and the returns to training are measured by comparing the trainee's…

Gay, Robert M.; Albrecht, Mark J.

311

Respiratory muscle endurance training: effect on normoxic and hypoxic exercise performance.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of respiratory muscle endurance training on endurance exercise performance in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Eighteen healthy males were stratified for age and aerobic capacity; and randomly assigned either to the respiratory muscle endurance training (RMT = 9) or to the control training group (CON = 9). Both groups trained on a cycle-ergometer 1 h day(-1), 5 days per week for a period of 4 weeks at an intensity corresponding to 50% of peak power output. Additionally, the RMT group performed a 30-min specific endurance training of respiratory muscles (isocapnic hyperpnea) prior to the cycle ergometry. Pre, Mid, Post and 10 days after the end of training period, subjects conducted pulmonary function tests (PFTs), maximal aerobic tests in normoxia (VO(2max)NOR), and in hypoxia (VO(2max)HYPO; F(I)O(2) = 0.12); and constant-load tests at 80% of VO(2max)NOR in normoxia (CLT(NOR)), and in hypoxia (CLTHYPO). Both groups enhanced VO(2max)NOR (CON: +13.5%; RMT: +13.4%), but only the RMT group improved VO(2max)HYPO Post training (CON: -6.5%; RMT: +14.2%). Post training, the CON group increased peak power output, whereas the RMT group had higher values of maximum ventilation. Both groups increased CLT(NOR) duration (CON: +79.9%; RMT: +116.6%), but only the RMT group maintained a significantly higher CLT(NOR) 10 days after training (CON: +56.7%; RMT: +91.3%). CLT(HYPO) remained unchanged in both groups. Therefore, the respiratory muscle endurance training combined with cycle ergometer training enhanced aerobic capacity in hypoxia above the control values, but did not in normoxia. Moreover, no additional effect was obtained during constant-load exercise. PMID:20187281

Keramidas, Michail E; Debevec, Tadej; Amon, Mojca; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Simunic, Bostjan; Mekjavic, Igor B

2010-03-01

312

Endurance training of respiratory muscles improves cycling performance in fit young cyclists  

PubMed Central

Background Whether or not isolated endurance training of the respiratory muscles improves whole-body endurance exercise performance is controversial, with some studies reporting enhancements of 50 % or more, and others reporting no change. Twenty fit (VO2 max 56.0 ml/kg/min), experienced cyclists were randomly assigned to three groups. The experimental group (n = 10) trained their respiratory muscles via 20, 45 min sessions of hyperpnea. The placebo group (n = 4) underwent "sham" training (20, 5 min sessions), and the control group (n = 6) did no training. Results After training, the experimental group increased their respiratory muscle endurance capacity by 12 %. Performance on a bicycle time trial test designed to last about 40 min improved by 4.7 % (9 of 10 subjects showed improvement). There were no test-re-test improvements in either respiratory muscle or bicycle exercise endurance performance in the placebo group, nor in the control group. After training, the experimental group had significantly higher ventilatory output and VO2, and lower PCO2, during constant work-rate exercise; the placebo and control groups did not show these changes. The perceived respiratory effort was unchanged in spite of the higher ventilation rate after training. Conclusions The results suggest that respiratory muscle endurance training improves cycling performance in fit, experienced cyclists. The relative hyperventilation with no change in respiratory effort sensations suggest that respiratory muscle training allows subjects to tolerate the higher exercise ventilatory response without more dyspnea. Whether or not this can explain the enhanced performance is unknown.

Holm, Paige; Sattler, Angela; Fregosi, Ralph F

2004-01-01

313

Influence of training status on high-intensity intermittent performance in response to ?-alanine supplementation.  

PubMed

Recent investigations have suggested that highly trained athletes may be less responsive to the ergogenic effects of ?-alanine (BA) supplementation than recreationally active individuals due to their elevated muscle buffering capacity. We investigated whether training status influences the effect of BA on repeated Wingate performance. Forty young males were divided into two groups according to their training status (trained: T, and non-trained: NT cyclists) and were randomly allocated to BA and a dextrose-based placebo (PL) groups, providing four experimental conditions: NTPL, NTBA, TPL, TBA. BA (6.4 g day(-1)) or PL was ingested for 4 weeks, with participants completing four 30-s lower-body Wingate bouts, separated by 3 min, before and after supplementation. Total work done was significantly increased following supplementation in both NTBA (p = 0.03) and TBA (p = 0.002), and it was significantly reduced in NTPL (p = 0.03) with no difference for TPL (p = 0.73). BA supplementation increased mean power output (MPO) in bout 4 for the NTBA group (p = 0.0004) and in bouts 1, 2 and 4 for the TBA group (p ? 0.05). No differences were observed in MPO for NTPL and TPL. BA supplementation was effective at improving repeated high-intensity cycling performance in both trained and non-trained individuals, highlighting the efficacy of BA as an ergogenic aid for high-intensity exercise regardless of the training status of the individual. PMID:24500111

de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger Charles; Solis, Marina Yázigi; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

2014-05-01

314

Effect of instantaneous performance feedback during 6 weeks of velocity-based resistance training on sport-specific performance tests.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of instantaneous performance feedback (peak velocity) provided after each repetition of squat jump exercises over a 6-week training block on sport-specific performance tests. Thirteen professional rugby players were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups, feedback (n = 7) and non-feedback (n = 6). Both groups completed a 6-week training program (3 sessions per week) comprising exercises typical of their normal preseason conditioning program. Squat jumps were performed in 2 of the 3 sessions each week during which both groups performed 3 sets of 3 concentric squat jumps using a barbell with an absolute load of 40 kg. Participants in group 1 were given real-time feedback on peak velocity of the squat jump at the completion of each repetition using a linear position transducer and customized software, whereas those in group 2 did not receive any feedback. Pre and posttesting consisted of vertical jump, horizontal jump, and 10-/20-/30-m timed sprints. The relative magnitude (effect size) of the training effects for all performance tests was found to be small (0.18-0.28), except for the 30-m sprint performance, which was moderate (0.46). The probabilities that the use of feedback during squat jump training for 6 weeks was beneficial to increasing performance of sport-specific tests was 45% for vertical jump, 65% for 10-m sprints, 49% for 20-m sprints, 83% for horizontal jump, and 99% for 30-m sprints. In addition to improvements in the performance of sport-specific tests, suggesting the potential for greater adaptation and larger training effects, the provision of feedback may also be used in applications around performance targets and thresholds during training. PMID:21157389

Randell, Aaron D; Cronin, John B; Keogh, Justin W L; Gill, Nicholas D; Pedersen, Murray C

2011-01-01

315

Human performance metrics for a virtual reality simulator to train chest tube insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all U.S. medical and nursing schools have begun to incorporate simulation in their curriculum. Among various delivery technologies, virtual environments offer unique means for measuring trainee performance and providing objective feedback. Knowledge of onepsilas own performance helps in increasing level of proficiency. This work incorporates objective performance metrics into a virtual reality simulator for training the chest tube insertion

Brandon C. Cline; Adebolanle O. Badejo; Isabelle I. Rivest; Jacob R. Scanlon; William C. Taylor; Gregory J. Gerling

2008-01-01

316

Use of Peers to Train and Monitor the Performance of Adolescents with Severe Handicaps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two peer trainers, one moderately and one severely mentally retarded, each taught three severely disabled peers to perform separate steps of a complex assembly line task. Peer trainers were taught to demonstrate correct performance and to praise or correct trainees' performance contingently. Trainers were successful in training and monitoring the…

Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.

1985-01-01

317

Influence of compressive gear on powerlifting performance: role of blood flow restriction training.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of powerlifting gear on training volume and performance, defined by the squat, bench press, and deadlift. Eighteen powerlifters (18-26 years) were randomized into either a group that trained and competed using compressive gear (CG) or without the gear (NON). Training volume, volume progression, and powerlifting performance were assessed before and after 10 weeks of training. Training volume increased in the first 4 weeks for both groups. Volume lifted for squat and the totals were greater in the CG. There was an increase in squat (19.05 ± 30.97 lb, p = 0.02), deadlift (19.05 ± 21.17 lb, p = 0.001), and the total score (44.00 ± 60.44 lb, p = 0.005) for both the groups. The improvements in squat (CG = 33.85 vs. NON = 5.74, p = 0.07) and totals (CG = 66.59 vs. NON = 23.67, p = 0.15) were greater in the CG. Both groups showed a significant and similar increase in the Wilks scores (+13.54 points, p = 0.03). There was a trend toward greater volume progression in those wearing CG during the initial stages of training. Both the groups significantly improved performance for the squat, and deadlift, and had higher totals, and Wilks scores, indicating significant strength gains. The greater magnitude of improvements in the squat and totals for the CG lifters suggests an ergogenic potential of training with powerlifting gear. PMID:22395280

Godawa, Travis M; Credeur, Daniel P; Welsch, Michael A

2012-05-01

318

Exploring the roles of training programs in Small and Medium-sized enterprises' foreign investment and their performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study explores relationships between small ,and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) foreign direct investment (FDI), FDI-related training programs and organizational performance. To determine,if the implementation,of training programs mediate the relationship between FDI and SME performance, and if the alignment between training needs and training implementation leads to higher SME performance, we collected a large-scale and company-level data (N = 816)

Nai-Wen Chi; Chih-Yun Wu

319

Development and Trial Evaluation of Alternate Programs for Unit Training Managers and Trainers. Appendixes A, Performance Objectives. B, Comprehensive Performance Tests, C. Miniaturized Performance/Knowledge Tests. .  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Self-contained programs, developed to teach instructors and training managers how to use performance-based training and evaluation practices in Army units, are described in ARI Technical Report 77-A12. Products include the Directed Practice Program for TO...

J. E. Hungerland J. E. Taylor M. Showel M. F. Brennan W. H. Melching

1977-01-01

320

Staffing and Training: Neglected Supervisory Functions Related to Group Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research reports the relationship between supervisory performance of eight leadership functions and group performance in 43 library work units. These eight functions can be used as a guide to future research designed to identify additional leadership functions. (Author/RK)

Bare, Alan C.

1978-01-01

321

Influence of altitude training modality on performance and total haemoglobin mass in elite swimmers.  

PubMed

We compared changes in performance and total haemoglobin mass (tHb) of elite swimmers in the weeks following either Classic or Live High:Train Low (LHTL) altitude training. Twenty-six elite swimmers (15 male, 11 female, 21.4 ± 2.7 years; mean ± SD) were divided into two groups for 3 weeks of either Classic or LHTL altitude training. Swimming performances over 100 or 200 m were assessed before altitude, then 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after returning to sea-level. Total haemoglobin mass was measured twice before altitude, then 1 and 14 days after return to sea-level. Changes in swimming performance in the first week after Classic and LHTL were compared against those of Race Control (n = 11), a group of elite swimmers who did not complete altitude training. In addition, a season-long comparison of swimming performance between altitude and non-altitude groups was undertaken to compare the progression of performances over the course of a competitive season. Regardless of altitude training modality, swimming performances were substantially slower 1 day (Classic 1.4 ± 1.3% and LHTL 1.6 ± 1.6%; mean ± 90% confidence limits) and 7 days (0.9 ± 1.0% and 1.9 ± 1.1%) after altitude compared to Race Control. In both groups, performances 14 and 28 days after altitude were not different from pre-altitude. The season-long comparison indicated that no clear advantage was obtained by swimmers who completed altitude training. Both Classic and LHTL elicited ~4% increases in tHb. Although altitude training induced erythropoeisis, this physiological adaptation did not transfer directly into improved competitive performance in elite swimmers. PMID:22234397

Gough, Clare E; Saunders, Philo U; Fowlie, John; Savage, Bernard; Pyne, David B; Anson, Judith M; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Prommer, Nicole; Gore, Christopher J

2012-09-01

322

Performance Evaluation: The Use of Scoring Systems in Adaptive Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research is described involving the development of a scoring system for performance evaluation. The example used is aircraft landing. Tables are included which give a suggested method for establishing a relevant scoring system in relation to this example. (DEP)

Hyatt, C. J.; DeBerg, O. H.

323

Appraisal of Teachers: Who Appraises Whom and Does It Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school teachers in Hong Kong (n=527) responded to survey items about formative outcomes, summative outcomes, perceived purposes of appraisal, overall effectiveness of appraisal, and summative purposes such as promotion and dismissal of staff. Principal components analysis and confirmatory analysis yielded the two a priori outcome…

Chow, Alan Ping-yan; Wong, Edwin King-por; Yeung, Alexander Sheesing; Mo, Kim Wan

324

Effect of endurance training on performance and muscle reoxygenation rate during repeated-sprint running.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of an 8-week endurance training program on repeated-sprint (RS) performance and post-sprints muscle reoxygenation rate in 18 moderately trained males (34 ± 5 years). Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), 10 km running and RS (2 × 15-s shuttle-sprints, interspersed with 15 s of passive recovery) performance were assessed before and after the training intervention. Total distance covered (TD) and the percentage of distance decrement (%Dec) were calculated for RS. Between-sprints muscle reoxygenation rate (Reoxy rate) was assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy during RS before and after training. After training, MAS (+9.8 ± 5.8%, with 100% chances to observe a substantial improvement), 10 km time (-6.2 ± 5.3%, 99%), TD (+9.6 ± 7.7%, 98%), %Dec (-25.6 ± 73.6%, 93%) and Reoxy rate (+152.4 ± 308.1%, 95%) were improved. The improvement of Reoxy rate was largely correlated with improvements in MAS [r = 0.63 (90% CL, 0.31;-0.82)] and %Dec [r = -0.52 (-0.15;-0.76)]. Present findings confirm the beneficial effect of endurance training on post-sprint muscle reoxygenation rate, which is likely to participate in the improvement of repeated-sprint ability after training. These data also confirm the importance of aerobic conditioning in sports, where repeating high-intensity/maximal efforts within a short time-period are required. PMID:20872150

Buchheit, Martin; Ufland, Pierre

2011-02-01

325

Analyses of Recruit Training Practices Related to the Military Performance of Enlisted Navy Women. Technical Note 10-83.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to identify aspects of the training of male and female Navy recruits at the Recruit Training Command Orlando that might lead to differential military performance. Current data on the military performance of enlisted Navy women recently graduated from recruit training were used to document reports of female-enlisted…

Hamel, Cheryl J.; And Others

326

Training improves multitasking performance by increasing the speed of information processing in human prefrontal cortex  

PubMed Central

Summary Our ability to multitask is severely limited: Task performance deteriorates when we attempt to undertake two or more tasks simultaneously. Remarkably, extensive training can greatly reduce such multitasking costs. While it is not known how training alters the brain to solve the multitasking problem, it likely involves the prefrontal cortex given this brain region’s purported role in limiting multitasking performance. Here we show that the reduction of multitasking interference with training is not achieved by diverting the flow of information processing away from the prefrontal cortex, or by segregating prefrontal cells into independent task-specific neuronal ensembles, but rather by increasing the speed of information processing in this brain region, thereby allowing multiple tasks to be processed in rapid succession. These results not only reveal how training leads to efficient multitasking, they also provide a mechanistic account of multitasking limitations, namely the poor speed of information processing in human prefrontal cortex.

Dux, Paul E.; Tombu, Michael N.; Harrison, Stephenie; Rogers, Baxter P.; Tong, Frank; Marois, Rene

2009-01-01

327

Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

2012-01-01

328

Application of electromagnetic environment simulation to radar performance testing, operability assessment and training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic target detection and tracking features in radar sensors affect the testing and evaluation of radar performance, the assessment of equipment readiness for verification of sensor, command/control and engagement systems' operability, and operational training of radar operators and sensor management teams. Attention is presently given to Radar Environment Simulator Systems (RESSs), which facilitate the interjection of testing and training scenarios into the front end of radar receivers. RESSs are applicable to shipboard, air, and ground environments.

Michaels, J. F.

329

Strength training effects on physical performance and serum hormones in young soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effects of simultaneous explosive strength and soccer training in young men, 8 experimental (S) and 11 control (C) players, aged 17.2 (0.6) years, were tested before and after an 11-week training period with respect to the load-vertical jumping curve [loads of 0–70 kg (counter-movement jump CMJ0–70)], 5- and 15-m sprint performances, submaximal running endurance and basal serum concentrations of

E. M. Gorostiaga; M. Izquierdo; M. Ruesta; J. Iribarren; J. J. González-Badillo; J. Ibáñez

2004-01-01

330

Effect of high-intensity hypoxic training on sea-level swimming performances.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high-intensity hypoxic training improves sea-level performances more than equivalent training in normoxia. Sixteen well-trained collegiate and Masters swimmers (10 women, 6 men) completed a 5-wk training program, consisting of three high-intensity training sessions in a flume and supplemental low- or moderate-intensity sessions in a pool each week. Subjects were matched for gender, performance level, and training history, and they were assigned to either hypoxic [Hypo; inspired O2 fraction (Fi(O(2))) = 15.3%, equivalent to a simulated altitude of 2,500 m] or normoxic (Norm; Fi(O(2)) = 20.9%) interval training in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. All pool training occurred under Norm conditions. The primary performance measures were 100- and 400-m freestyle time trials. Laboratory outcomes included maximal O(2) uptake (Vo(2 max)), anaerobic capacity (accumulated O(2) deficit), and swimming economy. Significant (P = 0.02 and <0.001 for 100- and 400-m trials, respectively) improvements were found in performance on both the 100- [Norm: -0.7 s (95% confidence limits: +0.2 to -1.7 s), -1.2%; Hypo: -0.8 s (95% confidence limits: -0.1 to -1.5 s), -1.1%] and 400-m freestyle [Norm: -3.6 s (-1.8 to -5.5 s), -1.2%; Hypo: -5.3 s (-2.3 to -8.3 s), -1.7%]. There was no significant difference between groups for either distance (ANOVA interaction, P = 0.91 and 0.36 for 100- and 400-m trials, respectively). Vo(2 max) was improved significantly (Norm: 0.16 +/- 0.23 l/min, 6.4 +/-8.1%; Hypo: 0.11 +/- 0.18 l/min, 4.2 +/- 7.0%). There was no significant difference between groups (P = 0.58). We conclude that 5 wk of high-intensity training in a flume improves sea-level swimming performances and Vo(2 max) in well-trained swimmers, with no additive effect of hypoxic training. PMID:12391107

Truijens, M J; Toussaint, H M; Dow, J; Levine, B D

2003-02-01

331

The Eindhoven laparoscopic cholecystectomy training course—improving operating room performance using virtual reality training: results from the first E.A.E.S. accredited virtual reality trainings curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study was undertaken to investigate operating room performance of surgical residents, after participating in the Eindhoven virtual reality laparoscopic cholecystectomy training course. This course is the first formal surgical resident trainings course, using a variety of complementary virtual reality (VR) skills training simulation in order to prepare surgical residents for their first laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The course was granted

M. P. Schijven; J. J. Jakimowicz; I. A. M. J. Broeders; L. N. L. Tseng

2005-01-01

332

Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

Elder, Stephen D.

2010-01-01

333

Gait training improves performance in healthy adults exposed to novel sensory discordant conditions.  

PubMed

Recent evidence shows that the ability to adapt to a novel discordant sensorimotor environment can be increased through prior training. We aimed to determine whether gait adaptability could be increased and then retained using a training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion base facing a virtual visual scene that provided a variety of sensory challenges that served as training modalities. Ten healthy adults participated in three training sessions during which they walked on a treadmill at 1.1 m/s while receiving discordant support-surface and visual manipulations. Upon completion, participants were presented with a novel sensorimotor challenge designed to test for transfer of adaptive skills. During this test, stride frequency, reaction time, and heart rate data were collected as measures of postural stability, cognitive load, and anxiety, respectively. Compared to 10 untrained controls, trained participants showed enhanced overall performance on the Novel Test, which was administered 20 min after their final training session. Subjects in both groups had greater stride frequency, reaction time, and heart rate when exposed to the new sensory environment; however, these increases were less pronounced in the trained subjects than in the controls. The Novel Test was re-administered to both groups 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. Trained subjects maintained their level of performance for 6 months. Untrained subjects continued to improve in these measures at each subsequent test session, suggesting that a lasting sensorimotor adaptability training effect can be achieved with very short, repeated exposures to discordant sensory conditions. PMID:21350808

Batson, Crystal D; Brady, Rachel A; Peters, Brian T; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Cohen, Helen S; Bloomberg, Jacob J

2011-04-01

334

Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes  

PubMed Central

Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2?h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.

Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

2013-01-01

335

Performance Evaluation Workshop for In-Service Managers. Module 2: Methods of Performance Evaluation. The Urban Management Curriculum Development Project, Package XIV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second module in a four-module training package for use in inservice seminars or workshops on performance appraisal and employee development. Module 2 concentrates on different methods of performance evaluation, including essay, ranking, forced distribution, nonanchored rating scale, weighted checklist, forced choice, critical…

Scontrino, M. Peter

336

Effects of whole-body vibration training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV) training on sprint running kine- matics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volun- teers (12 women and 12 men) participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12) into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30

Giorgos Paradisis; Elias Zacharogiannis

2007-01-01

337

The performance improvements of train suspension systems with mechanical networks employing inerters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the performance benefits of train suspension systems employing a new mechanical network element called an inerter. An inerter is a true mechanical two-terminal element with the applied force proportional to the relative acceleration across the terminals. Until now, ideal inerters have been applied to car and motorcycle suspension systems, for which a significant performance improvement was reported.

Fu-Cheng Wang; Min-Kai Liao; Bo-Huai Liao; Wei-Jiun Su; Hsiang-An Chan

2009-01-01

338

Performance test results for the Eaton dc developmental power train in an electric test bed vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of the tests performed on a direct current (dc) power train in a test bed vehicle developed by the Eaton Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests were performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the INEL testing was to provide test

R. L. Crumley; M. R. Donaldson

1987-01-01

339

Performance test results for the Eaton dc development power train in an electric test bed vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of the tests performed on a direct current (dc) power train in a test bed vehicle developed by the Eaton Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The tests were performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the INEL testing was to provide test

R. L. Crumley; M. R. Donaldson

1987-01-01

340

The Reliability of In-Training Assessment when Performance Improvement Is Taken into Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During in-training assessment students are frequently assessed over a longer period of time and therefore it can be expected that their performance will improve. We studied whether there really is a measurable performance improvement when students are assessed over an extended period of time and how this improvement affects the reliability of the…

van Lohuizen, Mirjam T.; Kuks, Jan B. M.; van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Raat, A. N.; Stewart, Roy E.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

2010-01-01

341

Communication in Performance-Based Training and Instruction: From Design to Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication is inextricably important to instructional design and performance-based training. Promoting effective communication as an integral part of the performance support system improves professional instructional design functions and offers greater avenues for meaningful discourse among end users of the instruction. In this article, we…

Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

2009-01-01

342

Learning Unplugged: Using Mobile Technologies for Organizational Training and Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, which is written by a training consultant, is intended to help organizations determine whether specific readily available mobile technologies make sense for their particular learning and performance needs. Chapter 1 discusses the mobile revolution in learning and performance, with special attention to the new work and learning…

Gayeski, Diane

343

What Performance Technologists Should Know about Public Education: Implications for Professional Development and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of performance technologists' contributions to improving public education highlights 10 essential components of an educational system, including family and community, business and industry, government agencies, and higher education. Implications of the systemic perspective for the professional development and training of performance

Hirumi, Atsusi

1995-01-01

344

Supplementing regular training with short-duration sprint-agility training leads to a substantial increase in repeated sprint-agility performance with national level badminton players.  

PubMed

Repeated-agility sprint ability is an important performance characteristic of badminton players. However, it is unclear whether regular badminton training is sufficient to improve repeated-agility sprint ability or whether supplementary training is required. Therefore, our aim was to investigate whether supplementing regular group training with short sessions of badminton-specific agility-sprint training conferred any greater changes in performance than regular training alone. Twelve national level badminton players completed a set of performance tests in the week before and after a 4-week training period. Performance tests consisted of 10- and 20-meter sprints, a multistage fitness test, a 300-meter shuttle run, and a novel badminton sprint protocol. After pretesting, pair-matched participants were randomly assigned into regular or supplementary training groups. Both groups undertook regular national squad training consisting of 4 2-hour sessions per week. In addition, the supplementary group completed a high-intensity sprint-training regime consisting of 7 to 15 repeats of badminton-specific sprints twice per week. Relative to control, the supplementary training group reported improvements (mean +/- 90% confidence limits) in the 300-meter shuttle run (2.4% +/- 2.7%) and badminton sprint protocol (3.6% +/- 2.6%). However, there were no substantial difference in either the 10-meter (-0.3% +/- 2.1%) or 20-meter (-0.6% +/- 1.8%) sprint or the multistage fitness test (0.0% +/- 2.7%). Supplementing regular training with sessions of short-duration sprint training appears to lead to worthwhile increases in repeated-agility sprint performance with national level badminton players. PMID:19620917

Walklate, Benjamin M; O'Brien, Brendan J; Paton, Carl D; Young, Warren

2009-08-01

345

Running training on different surfaces have different effects on performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe surfaces on which athletes run can play a large role in determining how well they perform. Calf circumference increased significantly in sand runners. Both treatment groups showed a similar significant increase in vertical jump. The 12-min run\\/walk was significantly increased in sand runners. This study shows that a 6-week sand running programme may result in the most physiological and

Rajkumar Karve; Pratap Singh Tiwari

2010-01-01

346

High-Performance Vision Training Improves Batting Statistics for University of Cincinnati Baseball Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose Baseball requires an incredible amount of visual acuity and eye-hand coordination, especially for the batters. The learning objective of this work is to observe that traditional vision training as part of injury prevention or conditioning can be added to a team's training schedule to improve some performance parameters such as batting and hitting. Methods All players for the 2010 to 2011 season underwent normal preseason physicals and baseline testing that is standard for the University of Cincinnati Athletics Department. Standard vision training exercises were implemented 6 weeks before the start of the season. Results are reported as compared to the 2009 to 2010 season. Pre season conditioning was followed by a maintenance program during the season of vision training. Results The University of Cincinnati team batting average increased from 0.251 in 2010 to 0.285 in 2011 and the slugging percentage increased by 0.033. The rest of the Big East's slugging percentage fell over that same time frame 0.082. This produces a difference of 0.115 with 95% confidence interval (0.024, 0.206). As with the batting average, the change for University of Cincinnati is significantly different from the rest of the Big East (p?=?0.02). Essentially all batting parameters improved by 10% or more. Similar differences were seen when restricting the analysis to games within the Big East conference. Conclusion Vision training can combine traditional and technological methodologies to train the athletes' eyes and improve batting. Vision training as part of conditioning or injury prevention can be applied and may improve batting performance in college baseball players. High performance vision training can be instituted in the pre-season and maintained throughout the season to improve batting parameters.

Clark, Joseph F.; Ellis, James K.; Bench, Johnny; Khoury, Jane; Graman, Pat

2012-01-01

347

The effect of motor imagery and static stretching on anaerobic performance in trained cyclists.  

PubMed

Athletes perform many different protocols as part of their warm-up routine before competition. Stretching has been suggested to decrease force and power production, whereas motor imagery (MI), the visualization of simple or complex motor activities in the absence of physical movement, may increase force and power production in young healthy individuals. Few studies have investigated either of these in trained individuals. No studies have compared the effects of static stretching (SS) with MI on anaerobic performance in trained cyclists. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SS compared with MI and quiet rest (QR) on anaerobic performance in trained cyclists. Thirteen trained cyclists (9 men: 4 women; aged 21 ± 2 years) were assessed for height (1.76 ± 0.07 m), weight (73.4 ± 13 kg), % body fat (10.8 ± 6.2%), and maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max of 42.0 ± 5.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) on a cycle ergometer. The participants performed 3 randomized sessions consisting of cycling for 30 minutes at 65% of V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max before undergoing 16 minutes of SS, MI, or QR followed by an anaerobic performance test. The SS consisted of 3 sets of 30-second stretches of the hamstrings, quadriceps, hip flexors, and piriformis. Imagery was based on the physical, environmental, task, learning, emotion, and perspective approach and was conducted by a trained technician. Both relative and absolute powers, and peak revolutions per minute, were quantified using the Wingate anaerobic threshold test. No significant interactions existed among SS, MI, and QR for relative peak power, absolute peak power, or peak RPM. In disagreement with current literature, this study suggests that neither SS nor a single session of MI immediately affect anaerobic performance in trained cyclists. If an event is <30 seconds, then SS or MI may not affect performance. PMID:22476165

Kingsley, J Derek; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A; Nesser, Thomas W; Gage, Matthew J

2013-01-01

348

Challenges in understanding the influence of maximal power training on improving athletic performance.  

PubMed

The ability to optimise muscular power output is considered fundamental to successful performance of many athletic and sporting activities. Consequently, a great deal of research has investigated methods to improve power output and its transference to athletic performance. One issue that makes comparisons between studies difficult is the different modes of dynamometry (isometric, isokinetic and isoinertial) used to measure strength and power. However, it is recognised that isokinetic and isometric assessment bear little resemblance to the accelerative/decelerative motion implicit in limb movement during resistance training and sporting performance. Furthermore, most people who train to increase power would have limited or no access to isometric and/or isokinetic dynamometry. It is for these reasons and for the sake of brevity that the findings of isoinertial (constant gravitational load) research will provide the focus of much of the discussion in this review. One variable that is considered important in increasing power and performance in explosive tasks such as running and jumping is the training load that maximises the mechanical power output (Pmax) of muscle. However, there are discrepancies in the research as to which load maximises power output during various resistance exercises and whether training at Pmax improves functional performance is debatable. There is also some evidence suggesting that Pmax is affected by the training status of the individuals; however, other strength variables could quite possibly be of greater importance for improving functional performance. If Pmax is found to be important in improving athletic performance, then each individual's Pmax needs to be determined and they then train at this load. The predilection of research to train all subjects at one load (e.g. 30% one repetition maximum [1RM]) is fundamentally flawed due to inter-individual Pmax differences, which may be ascribed to factors such as training status (strength level) and the exercise (muscle groups) used. Pmax needs to be constantly monitored and adjusted as research suggests that it is transient. In terms of training studies, experienced subjects should be used, volume equated and the outcome measures clearly defined and measured (i.e. mean power and/or peak power). Sport scientists are urged to formulate research designs that result in meaningful and practical information that assists coaches and strength and conditioning practitioners in the development of their athletes. PMID:15730337

Cronin, John; Sleivert, Gord

2005-01-01

349

Development of Analytical Algorithm for the Performance Analysis of Power Train System of an Electric Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power train system design is one of the key R&D areas on the development process of new automobile because an optimum size of engine with adaptable power transmission which can accomplish the design requirement of new vehicle can be obtained through the system design. Especially, for the electric vehicle design, very reliable design algorithm of a power train system is required for the energy efficiency. In this study, an analytical simulation algorithm is developed to estimate driving performance of a designed power train system of an electric. The principal theory of the simulation algorithm is conservation of energy with several analytical and experimental data such as rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, mechanical efficiency of power transmission etc. From the analytical calculation results, running resistance of a designed vehicle is obtained with the change of operating condition of the vehicle such as inclined angle of road and vehicle speed. Tractive performance of the model vehicle with a given power train system is also calculated at each gear ratio of transmission. Through analysis of these two calculation results: running resistance and tractive performance, the driving performance of a designed electric vehicle is estimated and it will be used to evaluate the adaptability of the designed power train system on the vehicle.

Kim, Chul-Ho; Lee, Kee-Man; Lee, Sang-Heon

350

Effect of 10 Week Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Competition and Training Performance in Elite Swimmers  

PubMed Central

Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD) were supplemented with either beta-alanine (4 weeks loading phase of 4.8 g/day and 3.2 g/day thereafter) or placebo for 10 weeks. Competition performance times were log-transformed, then evaluated before (National Championships) and after (international or national selection meet) supplementation. Swimmers also completed three standardized training sets at baseline, 4 and 10 weeks of supplementation. Capillary blood was analyzed for pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentration in both competition and training. There was an unclear effect (0.4%; ±0.8%, mean, ±90% confidence limits) of beta-alanine on competition performance compared to placebo with no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. While there was a transient improvement on training performance after 4 weeks with beta-alanine (?1.3%; ±1.0%), there was an unclear effect at ten weeks (?0.2%; ±1.5%) and no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. Beta-alanine supplementation appears to have minimal effect on swimming performance in non-laboratory controlled real-world training and competition settings.

Chung, Weiliang; Shaw, Greg; Anderson, Megan E.; Pyne, David B.; Saunders, Philo U.; Bishop, David J.; Burke, Louise M.

2012-01-01

351

Performance Content for Job Training. Volume 4. Deriving Performance Requirements for Training. Research and Development Series No. 124.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to be of value to both occupational curriculum personnel and those persons concerned with noncurriculum issues of occupational description and updating of job content information, this volume is the fourth of a five-volume set describing a systematic approach for constructing task inventories, surveying the task performance of…

Ammerman, Harry L.; Essex, Duane W.

352

Effects of two different eight-week training programs on military physical performance.  

PubMed

Various physical demands are placed on soldiers, whose effectiveness and survivability depend on their combat-specific physical fitness. Because sport training programs involving weight-based training have proven effective, this study examined the value of such a program for short-term military training using combat-relevant tests. A male weight-based training (WBT) group (n = 15; mean +/- SD: 27.0 +/- 4.7 years, 173.8 +/- 5.8 cm, 80.9 +/- 12.7 kg) performed full-body weight-based training workouts, 3.2-km runs, interval training, agility training, and progressively loaded 8-km backpack hikes. A male Army Standardized Physical Training (SPT) group (n = 17; mean +/- SD: 29.0 +/- 4.6 years, 179.7 +/- 8.2 cm, 84.5 +/- 10.4 kg) followed the new Army Standardized Physical Training program of stretching, varied calisthenics, movement drills, sprint intervals, shuttle running, and distance runs. Both groups exercised for 1.5 hours a day, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. The following training-induced changes were statistically significant (P < 0.05) for both training groups: 3.2-km run or walk with 32-kg load (minutes), 24.5 +/- 3.2 to 21.0 +/- 2.8 (SPT) and 24.9 +/- 2.8 to 21.1 +/- 2.2 (WBT); 400-m run with 18-kg load (seconds), 94.5 +/- 14.2 to 84.4 +/- 11.9 (SPT) and 100.1 +/- 16.1 to 84.0 +/- 8.4 (WBT); obstacle course with 18-kg load (seconds), 73.3 +/- 10.1 to 61.6 +/- 7.7 (SPT) and 66.8 +/- 10.0 to 60.1 +/- 8.7 (WBT); 5 30-m sprints to prone (seconds), 63.5 +/- 4.8 to 59.8 +/- 4.1 (SPT) and 60.4 +/- 4.2 to 58.9 +/- 2.7 (WBT); and 80-kg casualty rescue from 50 m (seconds), 65.8 +/- 40.0 to 42.1 +/- 9.9 (SPT) and 57.6 +/- 22.0 to 44.2 +/- 8.8 (WBT). Of these tests, only the obstacle course showed significant difference in improvement between the two training groups. Thus, for short-term (i.e., 8-week) training of relatively untrained men, the Army's new Standardized Physical Training program and a weight-based training experimental program can produce similar, significant, and meaningful improvements in military physical performance. Further research would be needed to determine whether weight-based training provides an advantage over a longer training period. PMID:18550970

Harman, Everett A; Gutekunst, David J; Frykman, Peter N; Nindl, Bradley C; Alemany, Joseph A; Mello, Robert P; Sharp, Marilyn A

2008-03-01

353

High reliability of performance of well-trained rowers on a rowing ergometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

High retest reliability is desirable in tests used to monitor athletic performance, but the reliability of many popular tests has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of performance of a 2000-m time-trial lasting approximately 7 min performed on a Concept II rowing ergometer. Eight well-trained rowers (peak oxygen uptake 61?+\\/- 5 ml.kg-1.min-1; mean

E. J. SCHABORT; J. A. HAWLEY; W. G. HOPKINS; H. BLUM

1999-01-01

354

Equity Performance Measures for Women in VET. Report to the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs Vocational Education, Employment and Training, Women's Taskforce.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study proposed measures of equity for women for incorporation into major national processes for performance measurement. Data sources were as follows: interviews with 77 people from all state and territory vocational education and training (VET) systems, Australian National Training Authority, National Center for Vocational Education Research,…

Schofield, Kaye; Dryen, Robyn

355

Effects of intra-session concurrent endurance and strength training sequence on aerobic performance and capacity  

PubMed Central

Aim: To examine the effects of the sequencing order of individualised intermittent endurance training combined with muscular strengthening on aerobic performance and capacity. Methods: Forty eight male sport students (mean (SD) age 21.4 (1.3) years) were divided into five homogeneous groups according to their maximal aerobic speeds (vV·O2MAX). Four groups participated in various training programmes for 12 weeks (two sessions a week) as follows: E (n = 10), running endurance training; S (n = 9), strength circuit training; E+S (n = 10) and S+E (n = 10) combined the two programmes in a different order during the same training session. Group C (n = 9) served as a control. All the subjects were evaluated before (T0) and after (T1) the training period using four tests: (1) a 4 km time trial running test; (2) an incremental track test to estimate vV·O2MAX; (3) a time to exhaustion test (tlim) at 100% vV·O2MAX; (4) a maximal cycling laboratory test to assess V·O2MAX. Results: Training produced significant improvements in performance and aerobic capacity in the 4 km time trial with interaction effect (p<0.001). The improvements were significantly higher for the E+S group than for the E, S+E, and S groups: 8.6%, 5.7%, 4.7%, and 2.5% for the 4 km test (p<0.05); 10.4%, 8.3%, 8.2%, and 1.6% for vV·O2MAX (p<0.01); 13.7%, 10.1%, 11.0%, and 6.4% for V·O2MAX (ml/kg0.75/min) (p<0.05) respectively. Similar significant results were observed for tlim and the second ventilatory threshold (%V·O2MAX). Conclusions: Circuit training immediately after individualised endurance training in the same session (E+S) produced greater improvement in the 4 km time trial and aerobic capacity than the opposite order or each of the training programmes performed separately.

Chtara, M; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, M; Chaouachi, A; Koubaa, D; Feki, Y; Millet, G; Amri, M

2005-01-01

356

A multidisciplinary approach to information management and critical appraisal instruction: a controlled study.  

PubMed Central

A study of the effectiveness of a collaborative course in teaching library and critical appraisal skills was conducted at the University of Illinois College of Medicine. A critical appraisal and library skills course was taught at the Peoria site during the third-year medical clerkship. The performance of Peoria students on a twenty-item multiple choice posttest was compared to that of third-year students in Rockford, who received no library or critical appraisal instruction during their medicine clerkship. The two groups were similar in self-perceived library skills, critical appraisal skills, and other demographic values. Peoria students scored significantly higher on library, critical appraisal, and total posttest questions. An improving trend during the year was not observed at either site, implying that students were not acquiring these skills in day-to-day clerkship activities. Results suggest that this multidisciplinary course is effective in teaching library and critical appraisal skills.

Frasca, M A; Dorsch, J L; Aldag, J C; Christiansen, R G

1992-01-01

357

14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...quality system based on FSTD performance...and maintain training quality. See...flight experience sessions; and FSTD technicians...the sponsor's training facility for...Administrator conducting training, evaluation...preflight or FSTD use session § 60.20...qualification based on the...

2009-01-01

358

14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...quality system based on FSTD performance...and maintain training quality. See...flight experience sessions; and FSTD technicians...the sponsor's training facility for...Administrator conducting training, evaluation...preflight or FSTD use session § 60.20...qualification based on the...

2010-01-01

359

The effects of user's training on the performance of an automatic speech recognizer for a self-paced task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a recent experiment concerning the effects of training on the performance of subjects using the automatic speech recognizer are reported. Over a 5-day period, 20 military enlisted grade male subjects were trained and tested in using a connected speech (speaker-dependent) machine automatic speech recognizer in a self-paced task controlling a generic tactical display by voice command. Experimental results show that a majority of the subjects had little difficulty with the automatic speech recognizer and that for these subjects training produced only a slight improvement in recognizer performance. These subjects performed at a high machine recognition rate. However, during the first session, a large minority (35 percent) of the subjects had difficulty training their speech to be machine recognizable. These subjects required at least two training sessions to perform the task at their best ability, and even after they were trained, their performance never reached the performance level of other subjects.

Smyth, Christopher C.

1991-04-01

360

Effect of plyometric training on swimming block start performance in adolescents.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify the effect of plyometric training (PT), when added to habitual training (HT) regimes, on swim start performance. After the completion of a baseline competitive swim start, 22 adolescent swimmers were randomly assigned to either a PT (n = 11, age: 13.1 +/- 1.4 yr, mass: 50.6 +/- 12.3 kg, stature: 162.9 +/- 11.9 cm) or an HT group (n = 11, age: 12.6 +/- 1.9 yr, mass: 43.3 +/- 11.6 kg, stature: 157.6 +/- 11.9 cm). Over an 8-week preseason period, the HT group continued with their normal training program, whereas the PT group added 2 additional 1-hour plyometric-specific sessions, incorporating prescribed exercises relating to the swimming block start (SBS). After completion of the training intervention, post-training swim start performance was reassessed. For both baseline and post-trials, swim performance was recorded using videography (50 Hz Canon MVX460) in the sagital plane of motion. Through the use of Silicon Coach Pro analysis package, data revealed significantly greater change between baseline and post-trials for PT when compared with the HT group for swim performance time to 5.5 m (-0.59 s vs. -0.21 s; p < 0.01) and velocity of take-off to contact (0.19 ms vs. -0.07 ms; p < 0.01). Considering the practical importance of a successful swim start to overall performance outcome, the current study has found that inclusion of suitable and safely implemented PT to adolescent performers, in addition to HT routines, can have a positive impact on swim start performance. PMID:19855343

Bishop, Daniel C; Smith, Russell J; Smith, Mark F; Rigby, Hannah E

2009-10-01

361

Effects of speed, agility, quickness training method on power performance in elite soccer players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the speed, agility, quickness (SAQ) training method on power performance in soccer players. Soccer players were assigned randomly to 2 groups: experimental group (EG; n = 50) and control group (n = 50). Power performance was assessed by a test of quickness--the 5-m sprint, a test of acceleration--the 10-m sprint, tests of maximal speed--the 20- and the 30-m sprint along with Bosco jump tests--squat jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), maximal CMJ, and continuous jumps performed with legs extended. The initial testing procedure took place at the beginning of the in-season period. The 8-week specific SAQ training program was implemented after which final testing took place. The results of the 2-way analysis of variance indicated that the EG improved significantly (p < 0.05) in 5-m (1.43 vs. 1.39 seconds) and in 10-m (2.15 vs. 2.07 seconds) sprints, and they also improved their jumping performance in countermovement (44.04 vs. 4.48 cm) and continuous jumps (41.08 vs. 41.39 cm) performed with legs extended (p < 0.05). The SAQ training program appears to be an effective way of improving some segments of power performance in young soccer players during the in-season period. Soccer coaches could use this information in the process of planning in-season training. Without proper planning of the SAQ training, soccer players will most likely be confronted with decrease in power performance during in-season period. PMID:21522073

Jovanovic, Mario; Sporis, Goran; Omrcen, Darija; Fiorentini, Fredi

2011-05-01

362

Enhancing visuospatial performance through video game training to increase learning in visuospatial science domains.  

PubMed

Although previous research has demonstrated that performance on visuospatial assessments can be enhanced through relevant experience, an unaddressed question is whether such experience also produces a similar increase in target domains (such as science learning) where visuospatial abilities are directly relevant for performance. In the present study, participants completed either spatial or nonspatial training via interaction with video games and were then asked to read and learn about the geologic topic of plate tectonics. Results replicate the benefit of playing appropriate video games in enhancing visuospatial performance and demonstrate that this facilitation also manifests itself in learning science topics that are visuospatial in nature. This novel result suggests that visuospatial training not only can impact performance on measures of spatial functioning, but also can affect performance in content areas in which these abilities are utilized. PMID:22037919

Sanchez, Christopher A

2012-02-01

363

Using after-action review based on automated performance assessment to enhance training effectiveness.  

SciTech Connect

Training simulators have become increasingly popular tools for instructing humans on performance in complex environments. However, the question of how to provide individualized and scenario-specific assessment and feedback to students remains largely an open question. In this work, we follow-up on previous evaluations of the Automated Expert Modeling and Automated Student Evaluation (AEMASE) system, which automatically assesses student performance based on observed examples of good and bad performance in a given domain. The current study provides a rigorous empirical evaluation of the enhanced training effectiveness achievable with this technology. In particular, we found that students given feedback via the AEMASE-based debrief tool performed significantly better than students given only instructor feedback on two out of three domain-specific performance metrics.

Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Gieseler, Charles J.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris

2010-09-01

364

A Practical Model of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training Induces Performance and Metabolic Adaptations That Resemble 'All-Out' Sprint Interval Training  

PubMed Central

Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts ? 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts ? 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery) and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax) and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p < 0.05) following training were found in VO2max (9.6%), power at VO2max (12.8%), Tmax (48.4%), peak power output (10.3%) and mean power output (17.1%). In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%), power at VO2max (16.1%), Tmax (54.2%), peak power output (7.4%; p < 0.05), but mean power output did not change significantly. Blood lactate recovery (20th min) significantly decreased in G1 and G2 when compared with pre-testing and the CON group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study agree with earlier work demonstrating the effectiveness of 30-s all-out training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions. Key points Given the markedly lower training volume in the training groups, our results suggest that intense interval training is indeed a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid metabolic and performance adaptations. The results demonstrate that a practical low-volume HIT program is effective for improving metabolic and performance adaptations that resemble many of the same performance gains occurred in all-out SIT protocol.

Bayati, Mahdi; Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid

2011-01-01

365

A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces performance and metabolic adaptations that resemble 'all-out' sprint interval training.  

PubMed

Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts ? 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts ? 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery) and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax) and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p < 0.05) following training were found in VO2max (9.6%), power at VO2max (12.8%), Tmax (48.4%), peak power output (10.3%) and mean power output (17.1%). In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%), power at VO2max (16.1%), Tmax (54.2%), peak power output (7.4%; p < 0.05), but mean power output did not change significantly. Blood lactate recovery (20(th) min) significantly decreased in G1 and G2 when compared with pre-testing and the CON group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study agree with earlier work demonstrating the effectiveness of 30-s all-out training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions. Key pointsGiven the markedly lower training volume in the training groups, our results suggest that intense interval training is indeed a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid metabolic and performance adaptations.The results demonstrate that a practical low-volume HIT program is effective for improving metabolic and performance adaptations that resemble many of the same performance gains occurred in all-out SIT protocol. PMID:24150635

Bayati, Mahdi; Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid

2011-01-01

366

Disrupting prefrontal cortex prevents performance gains from sensory-motor training.  

PubMed

Humans show large and reliable performance impairments when required to make more than one simple decision simultaneously. Such multitasking costs are thought to largely reflect capacity limits in response selection (Welford, 1952; Pashler, 1984, 1994), the information processing stage at which sensory input is mapped to a motor response. Neuroimaging has implicated the left posterior lateral prefrontal cortex (pLPFC) as a key neural substrate of response selection (Dux et al., 2006, 2009; Ivanoff et al., 2009). For example, activity in left pLPFC tracks improvements in response selection efficiency typically observed following training (Dux et al., 2009). To date, however, there has been no causal evidence that pLPFC contributes directly to sensory-motor training effects, or the operations through which training occurs. Moreover, the left hemisphere lateralization of this operation remains controversial (Jiang and Kanwisher, 2003; Sigman and Dehaene, 2008; Verbruggen et al., 2010). We used anodal (excitatory), cathodal (inhibitory), and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to left and right pLPFC and measured participants' performance on high and low response selection load tasks after different amounts of training. Both anodal and cathodal stimulation of the left pLPFC disrupted training effects for the high load condition relative to sham. No disruption was found for the low load and right pLPFC stimulation conditions. The findings implicate the left pLPFC in both response selection and training effects. They also suggest that training improves response selection efficiency by fine-tuning activity in pLPFC relating to sensory-motor translations. PMID:24259586

Filmer, Hannah L; Mattingley, Jason B; Marois, René; Dux, Paul E

2013-11-20

367

The importance of sports performance factors and training contents from the perspective of futsal coaches.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the importance assigned by futsal coaches with different education levels to the sports performance factors (technical, tactical, physical and psychological) and to the training contents. The sample was divided into three groups (novice: n=35, intermediate: n=42; and elite coaches: n=15) depending on the degree of specific education, coaching experience and the level of the teams trained. To achieve this goal, the coaches answered a questionnaire previously validated by specialists in sport sciences. The results showed significant differences between the novice and elite group in small-sided games, inferiority games, opposition and execution timing of the training and drill items. The analyses also showed significant differences between the novice and intermediate group in inferiority games and opposition of the training and drill items. Although, no differences were identified between groups for the remaining performance factors and training and drill items considered, the identified trends provide a baseline related to the knowledge that contributes to the development of expertise of futsal coaches. PMID:24235991

Serrano, João; Shahidian, Shakib; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

2013-01-01

368

The Importance of Sports Performance Factors and Training Contents From the Perspective of Futsal Coaches  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify the importance assigned by futsal coaches with different education levels to the sports performance factors (technical, tactical, physical and psychological) and to the training contents. The sample was divided into three groups (novice: n=35, intermediate: n=42; and elite coaches: n=15) depending on the degree of specific education, coaching experience and the level of the teams trained. To achieve this goal, the coaches answered a questionnaire previously validated by specialists in sport sciences. The results showed significant differences between the novice and elite group in small-sided games, inferiority games, opposition and execution timing of the training and drill items. The analyses also showed significant differences between the novice and intermediate group in inferiority games and opposition of the training and drill items. Although, no differences were identified between groups for the remaining performance factors and training and drill items considered, the identified trends provide a baseline related to the knowledge that contributes to the development of expertise of futsal coaches.

Serrano, Joao; Shahidian, Shakib; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

2013-01-01

369

Predicting cycling performance in trained to elite male and female cyclists.  

PubMed

In high-performance cycling, it is important to maintain a healthy balance between training load and recovery. Recently a new submaximal cycle test, known as the Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT), has been shown to be able to accurately predict cycling performance in 15 well-trained cyclists. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of the LSCT in 102 trained to elite cyclists (82 men and 20 women). All cyclists performed an LSCT test followed by a peak-power-output (PPO) test, which included respiratory-gas analysis for the determination of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). They then performed the LSCT test followed by a 40-km time trial (TT) 72 h later. Average power output during the 3 stages of the LSCT increased from 31%, 60%, and 79% of PPO, while the ratings of perceived exertion increased from 8 to 13 to 16. Very good relationships were found between actual and LSCT-predicted PPO (r = .98, 95%CI: .97-.98, P < .0001), VO2max (r = .96, 95%CI: .97-.99, P < .0001) and 40-km-TT time (r = .98, 95%CI: .94-.97, P < .0001). No gender differences were found when predicting cycling performance from the LSCT (P = .95). The findings of this study show that the LSCT is able to accurately predict cycling performance in trained to elite male and female cyclists and potentially can be used to prescribe and fine-tune training prescription in cycling. PMID:24088710

Lamberts, Robert P

2014-07-01

370

Undulation training for development of hierarchical fitness and improved firefighter job performance.  

PubMed

Firefighters routinely encounter physical demands that contribute to countless musculoskeletal injuries. Seemingly, a progressive prescription for fitness would offer superior protection against intrinsic job risks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of two resistance training interventions on fitness adaptations among firefighters, and to assess the degree of transfer to job-specific tasks. Firefighter trainees were recruited for participation in this experimental study. Two distinct, periodized training models-undulation training (UT; n = 7) and standard training control (STCo; n = 7)-were used to determine the differential affects for muscular fitness and transference to firefighter performance batteries. Specific tests were administered to evaluate 1) upper- and lower-body muscular strength, 2) lower-body power output, 3) sprint speed and jumping ability, 4) anthropometry, and 5) firefighter Grinder performance (i.e., firefighter-specific job tests). The 9-week UT experimental treatment prescription was characterized by daily "nonlinear" fluctuations in training to preferentially elicit specific and distinct muscular fitness components, whereas the STCo treatment conformed to a traditional model, in which each fitness component was systematically targeted during a specified mesocycle. For both treatments, nearly all fitness and performance measures significantly increased from baseline (p < 0.05), with a trend in favor of UT. Further, the UT group experienced significantly greater improvements (p < 0.05) in Grinder performance over the STCo group. Calculation of effect sizes identified meaningful differences in the magnitude of changes in outcomes (effect size > 0.50) in favor of UT for measures of thigh circumference, vertical jump, 1RM squat, Grinder performance, and peak power output. These findings suggest a potentially greater stimulus for multidimensional muscular fitness development with UT, over a periodized STCo. This study effectively establishes that UT may offer a greater transference to performance for firefighter-specific job tasks. PMID:18714214

Peterson, Mark D; Dodd, Daniel J; Alvar, Brent A; Rhea, Matthew R; Favre, Mike

2008-09-01

371

Performing Titration Analyses for Water Quality. Module 17. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on performing titration analysis for water quality. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each part of…

Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

372

Training and Performance Support Systems (TPSS): A Case Study from Needs Assessment to Return on Investment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) selected, funded, developed, and implemented a distributed technical training system which achieves return on investment documented via performance measurement and follow-on evaluation. VBA proposed using the instructional systems development process, integrated with other advances in…

Griffin, Steven L.; Beagles, Charles A.

2000-01-01

373

Rites of Passage in Initial Teacher Training: Ritual, Performance, Ordeal, and Numeracy Skills Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains transition was identified by early 20th century anthropologists as the liminal stage of a rite of passage. Identifies transition, applying a contemporary anthropological lens to initial teacher training, not as a linear progression but as a complex process of extended and ambiguous in betweenness that involves play, performance, and…

McNamara, Olwen; Roberts, Lorna; Basit, Tehmina N.; Brown, Tony

2002-01-01

374

The Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Training on the Listening Performance of Beginner Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of metacognitive listening strategy training on the listening performance of a group of beginner preparatory school students at a university in Turkey. Two beginner groups, a control group (n: 20) and an experimental group (n: 20), were chosen as the participants of the study. The…

Coskun, Abdullah

2010-01-01

375

The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of neurofeedback as an operant conditioning paradigm has disclosed that participants are able to gain some control over particular aspects of their electroencephalogram (EEG). Based on the association between theta activity (4–7 Hz) and working memory performance, and sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity (12–15 Hz) and attentional processing, we investigated the possibility that training healthy individuals to enhance either

David Vernon; Tobias Egner; Nick Cooper; Theresa Compton; Claire Neilands; Amna Sheri; John Gruzelier

2003-01-01

376

Using Performance Analysis for Training in an Organization Implementing ISO-9000 Manufacturing Practices: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examines the application of the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) Model in an organization that was implementing ISO-9000 (International Standards Organization) processes for manufacturing practices. Discusses the interaction of organization characteristics, decision maker characteristics, and analyst characteristics to…

Kunneman, Dale E.; Sleezer, Catherine M.

2000-01-01

377

Computer-Assisted Performance Evaluation for Navy Anti-Air Warfare Training: Concepts, Methods, and Constraints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An improved general methodological approach for the development of computer-assisted evaluation of trainee performance in the computer-based simulation environment is formulated in this report. The report focuses on the Tactical Advanced Combat Direction and Electronic Warfare system (TACDEW) at the Fleet Anti-Air Warfare Training Center at San…

Chesler, David J.

378

Design of a Performance-Responsive Drill and Practice Algorithm for Computer-Based Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews criticisms of the use of drill and practice programs in educational computing and describes potentials for its use in instruction. Topics discussed include guidelines for developing computer-based drill and practice; scripted training courseware; item format design; item bank design; and a performance-responsive algorithm for item…

Vazquez-Abad, Jesus; LaFleur, Marc

1990-01-01

379

Prediction Training and the Comprehension and Composing Performance of Fourth-Grade Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effects of prediction training on the reading comprehension and written composition performance of fourth-grade students on the following reading and writing tasks: story recall, story generation, and number of relevant predictions. Subjects, 40 students attending two private urban elementary schools, were assigned to one of…

Spears, Myschelle; Gambrell, Linda B.

380

Relationship between Past Academic Performance and Results of Specialty In-Training Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Records of 63 medical school graduates were examined for predictors of achievement on in-training examinations in anesthesia and orthopedic surgery. The previous academic records were found to contain little to predict examination results, and the correlation between college nonscience subjects and exam performance was negative. (Author/MSE)

Ronai, Ann K.; And Others

1984-01-01

381

Improving Fifth Grade Students' Mathematics Self-Efficacy Calibration and Performance through Self-Regulation Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This primary goal of this study was to investigate the effects of strategy training and self-reflection, two subprocesses of Zimmerman's cyclical model of self-regulation, on fifth grade students' mathematics performance, self-efficacy, self-evaluation, and calibration measures of self-efficacy bias, self-efficacy accuracy, self-evaluation bias,…

Ramdass, Darshanand H.

2009-01-01

382

The Effect of Alternative Training Methods on the Trouble-Shooting Performances of Maintenance Technicians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study to determine the effects of conceptual versus specific (traditional) training techniques on the trouble-shooting performance of maintenance technicians are presented. The research subjects were students at Bowling Green State University and citizens in Northwest Ohio with no post high school technical coursework. Those that…

Schorgmayer, Helmut; Swanson, Richard A.

383

Training and Performance Improvement Professionals' Perspectives on Ethical Challenges during Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical concerns are rising in the business world. With this in mind, training and performance improvement practitioners, especially during evaluation projects, should be aware of principles and codes of ethics, and their behaviors and decisions should reflect the standards recognized by members of the professional society. A study was conducted…

Chyung, Seung Youn; Winiecki, Donald J.; Downing, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

384

The controller design and performance index analysis of Maglev train's suspension system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mathematic model considering magnetic flux loss of Maglev train and the design of PID controller are studied. During the process of analysis and design of PID controller, some new performance indexes, which were firstly put forward by Wang Guangxiong and are used to judge sufficient stable degree for controlling unstable system, are studied. Bode plot is used to validate

Huixing Chen; Aming Hao; Zhiqiang Long

2004-01-01

385

Performing Analyses for Waterborne Bacteria. Module 13. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on performing analyses for waterborne bacteria. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming, sterilizing and…

Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

386

Influences of Training and Strategical Information Processing Style on Spatial Performance in Apparel Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated how performance on a spatial task in apparel design was influenced by training and strategical information processing style. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate apparel design students from six universities in the U.S. Instruments used to collect data were the Apparel Spatial Visualization Test (ASVT) and the Strategical Information Processing Style (SIPS). ANOVA results showed a significant

Priscilla N. Gitimu; Jane E. Workman; Marcia A. Anderson

2005-01-01

387

The Teacher Performance Rate and Accuracy Scale (TPRA): Training as Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Teacher Performance Rate and Accuracy Scale (TPRA) which is a method of direct teacher observation used in the teacher evaluation and training component of the Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS [R]) model of schooling. The TPRA builds on the concept of academic engaged…

Ross, Denise E.; Singer-Dudek, Jessica; Greer, R. Douglas

2005-01-01

388

Goal-Setting as a Determinant of Performance During Military Recruit Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines factors influencing goals set prior to recruit training, the relationship between such goals and subsequent performance, and factors influencing the goals set after entering the Marine Corps. Findings suggest that attrition will decline if individuals receive a more realistic account of recruit expectations. Five references are listed.…

Ashworth, D. Neil; And Others

1981-01-01

389

Counterfactual Thinking and Anticipated Emotions Enhance Performance in Computer Skills Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the relationship between novice learners' counterfactual thinking (i.e. generating "what if" and "if only" thoughts) about their initial training experience with a computer application and subsequent improvement in task performance. The role of anticipated emotions towards goal attainment in task…

Chan, Amy Y. C.; Caputi, Peter; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Browne, Jessica L.

2013-01-01

390

The Effect of a Mastery Learning Technique on the Performance of a Transfer of Training Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the effect of using the mastery learning techniques of self-directed feedback, reinforcement, and remediation of knowledge on the performance of a work-related task involving transfer of training. Supports the hypothesis that mastery learning would have a positive effect on transfer of knowledge from the classroom to a work-related task.…

Lee, Christopher D.; Kahnweiler, William M.

2000-01-01

391

Long-term strength training effects on change-of-direction sprint performance.  

PubMed

The requirement profiles for sports such as soccer, football, tennis, and rugby demonstrate the importance of strength and speed-strength abilities, in addition to other conditional characteristics. During a game, the athletes complete a large number of strength and speed-strength actions. In addition to the linear sprints, athletes perform sprints while changing the direction (change-of-direction sprint [COD]). Therefore, this study aims to clarify the extent to which there is a strength training intervention effect on COD. Further, this investigation analyzes the possible correlations between the 1-Repetition Maximum/body mass (SREL) in the front and back squats and COD. The subjects (n = 112) were at pretest between 13 and 18 years of age and were divided into 2 groups with 4 subgroups (A = under 19 years of age, B = under 17 years of age, and C = under 15 years of age). For approximately 2 years, 1 group (control group [CG]) only participated in routine soccer training, and the other group (strength training group [STG]) participated in an additional strength training program with the routine soccer training. Additionally, the performances in the COD of 34 professional soccer players of the first and second divisions in Germany were measured as a standard of high-level COD. For the analysis of the performance development within a group and pairwise comparisons between 2 groups, an analysis of variance with repeated measures was calculated with the factors group and time. Relationships between the COD and SREL were calculated for the normal distributed data using a plurality of bivariate correlations by Pearson. Our data show that additional strength training over a period of 2 years significantly affects the performance in the COD. The STG in all subcohorts reached significantly (p < 0.05) faster times in the COD than did the CG. The STG amounted up to 5% to nearly 10% better improvements in the 10-m sprint times compared with that of the CG. Furthermore, our data show significant (p < 0.05) moderate to high correlations (r = -0.388 to -0.697) between the SREL and COD. Our data show that a long-term strength training improves the performance of the COD. Therefore, a long-term resistance training is recommended as early as in childhood and adolescence. PMID:23588486

Keiner, Michael; Sander, Andre; Wirth, Klaus; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

2014-01-01

392

Performance, throughput, and cost of in-home training for the Army Reserve: Using asynchronous computer conferencing as an alternative to resident training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Asynchronous computer conferencing (ACC) was investigated as an alternative to resident training for the Army Reserve Component (RC). Specifically, the goals were to (1) evaluate the performance and throughput of ACC as compared with traditional Resident ...

H. A. Hahn R. L. Ashworth R. H. Phelps J. C. Byers

1990-01-01

393

Rationale and resources for teaching the mathematical modeling of athletic training and performance.  

PubMed

A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of athletic training and performance, which we henceforth call "performance modeling," is one such tool. Two models, the critical power (CP) model and the Banister impulse-response (IR) model, offer complementary information. The CP model describes the relationship between work rates and the durations for which an individual can sustain them during constant-work-rate or intermittent exercise. The IR model describes the dynamics by which an individual's performance capacity changes over time as a function of training. Both models elegantly abstract the underlying physiology, and both can accurately fit performance data, such that educating exercise practitioners in the science of performance modeling offers both pedagogical and practical benefits. In addition, performance modeling offers an avenue for introducing mathematical modeling skills to exercise physiology researchers. A principal limitation to the adoption of performance modeling is a lack of education. The goal of this report is therefore to encourage educators of exercise physiology practitioners and researchers to incorporate the science of performance modeling in their curricula and to serve as a resource to support this effort. The resources include a comprehensive review of the concepts associated with the development and use of the models, software to enable hands-on computer exercises, and strategies for teaching the models to different audiences. PMID:23728131

Clarke, David C; Skiba, Philip F

2013-06-01

394

Time-of-day effects on psychomotor and physical performances in highly trained cyclists.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine, in trained young cyclists, whether psychomotor performances were dependent on time of day and fluctuated similarly to changes in athletic performance. 14 highly trained male cyclists (M age = 17.3 yr., SD = 1.6; M height = 179.0 cm, SD = 0.1; M body weight = 67.4 kg, SD = 4.5) voluntarily took part in 6 test sessions, at 08:30, 10:30, 12:30, 14:30, 16:30 and 18:30. Each test session comprised a maximal-intensity exercise consisting of 2 x 10-sec. sprints (all-out exercise) preceded by an attentional performance test including 4 fields of attention performed in a randomized order at different times throughout the same day, every 2 hr. between 08:30 and 18:30. The main results indicated that attentional and physical performances depended on the time of day, with an improvement in reaction times in phasic alertness, visual scanning, flexibility, Go/No-go, and an increase in maximum power throughout the day. This study shows the daily variations in physical performances and that fluctuations are reflected in psychomotor performances. These findings suggest that cyclists' training sessions cannot be programmed throughout the day without taking into consideration the effects of the time of day, with several practical applications for coaches and athletes. PMID:24611243

Petit, Elisabeth; Bourdin, Hubert; Mougin, Fabienne; Tio, Gregory; Haffen, Emmanuel

2013-10-01

395

A training program to improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school soccer players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if a sports-specific anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention training program could improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school soccer players. We combined components from a published knee ligament intervention program for jump and strength training with other exercises and drills to improve speed, agility, overall strength, and aerobic fitness. We hypothesized that this program would significantly improve neuromuscular and athletic performance indices in high school female soccer players. The supervised 6-week program was done 3 d·wk(-1) for 90-120 minutes per session on the soccer fields and weight room facilities in area high schools. In phase 1, 62 athletes underwent a video drop-jump test, t-test, 2 vertical jump tests, and a 37-m sprint test before and upon completion of the training program. In phase 2, 62 other athletes underwent a multistage fitness test before and after training. There were significant improvements in the mean absolute knee separation distance (p < 0.0001), mean absolute ankle separation distance (p < 0.0001), and mean normalized knee separation distance (p < 0.0001) on the drop-jump, indicating a more neutral lower limb alignment on landing. Significant improvements were found in the t-test (p < 0.0001), estimated maximal aerobic power (p < 0.0001), 37-m sprint test (p = 0.02), and in the 2-step approach vertical jump test (p = 0.04). This is the first study we are aware of that demonstrated the effectiveness of a knee ligament injury prevention training program in improving athletic performance indices in high school female soccer players. Future studies will determine if these findings improve athlete compliance and team participation in knee ligament injury intervention training. PMID:22465985

Noyes, Frank R; Barber-Westin, Sue D; Tutalo Smith, Stephanie T; Campbell, Thomas

2013-02-01

396

Effects of Appraisal Salience on Immediate and Memory-Based Judgments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigated the effects of appraisal task salience and retention interval upon the accuracy of performance ratings. Subjects viewed videotaped samples of employee performance and provided performance ratings of the behavior of the target indiv...

J. L. Barnes-Farrell K. A. Couture

1984-01-01

397

Quiet eye training: the acquisition, refinement and resilient performance of targeting skills.  

PubMed

How we learn and refine motor skills in the most effective manner and how we prevent performance breakdown in pressurised or demanding circumstances are among the most important questions within the sport psychology and skill acquisition literature. The quiet eye (QE) has emerged as a characteristic of highly skilled perceptual and motor performance in visually guided motor tasks. Defined as the final fixation that occurs prior to a critical movement, over 70 articles have been published in the last 15 years probing the role that the QE plays in underpinning skilled performance. The aim of this review is to integrate research findings from studies examining the QE as a measure of visuomotor control in the specific domain of targeting skills; motor skills requiring an object to be propelled to a distant target. Previous reviews have focused primarily on the differences in QE between highly skilled performers and their less skilled counterparts. The current review aims to discuss contemporary findings relating to 1. The benefits of QE training for the acquisition and refinement of targeting skills; 2. The effects of anxiety upon the QE and subsequent targeting skill performance and 3. The benefits of QE training in supporting resilient performance under elevated anxiety. Finally, potential processes through which QE training proffers this advantage, including improved attentional control, response programming and external focus, will be discussed and directions for future research proposed. PMID:24444212

Vine, Samuel J; Moore, Lee J; Wilson, Mark R

2014-01-01

398

Tailoring Shipboard Training to Fleet Performance Needs: III. Development of Deckplate Procedural Training for the Shipboard Propulsion Plate Operator Training (SPPOT) Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In designing a shipboard training program for propulsion watchstanders, it was necessary to specify shipboard training strategies; identify skills and knowledges required by propulsion watchstanders; develop a description of the propulsion system aboard U...

R. E. Main M. L. Abrams C. R. Chiles J. L. Todd B. Cunanan

1981-01-01

399

Defining the "dose" of altitude training: how high to live for optimal sea level performance enhancement.  

PubMed

Chronic living at altitudes of ?2,500 m causes consistent hematological acclimatization in most, but not all, groups of athletes; however, responses of erythropoietin (EPO) and red cell mass to a given altitude show substantial individual variability. We hypothesized that athletes living at higher altitudes would experience greater improvements in sea level performance, secondary to greater hematological acclimatization, compared with athletes living at lower altitudes. After 4 wk of group sea level training and testing, 48 collegiate distance runners (32 men, 16 women) were randomly assigned to one of four living altitudes (1,780, 2,085, 2,454, or 2,800 m). All athletes trained together daily at a common altitude from 1,250-3,000 m following a modified live high-train low model. Subjects completed hematological, metabolic, and performance measures at sea level, before and after altitude training; EPO was assessed at various time points while at altitude. On return from altitude, 3,000-m time trial performance was significantly improved in groups living at the middle two altitudes (2,085 and 2,454 m), but not in groups living at 1,780 and 2,800 m. EPO was significantly higher in all groups at 24 and 48 h, but returned to sea level baseline after 72 h in the 1,780-m group. Erythrocyte volume was significantly higher within all groups after return from altitude and was not different between groups. These data suggest that, when completing a 4-wk altitude camp following the live high-train low model, there is a target altitude between 2,000 and 2,500 m that produces an optimal acclimatization response for sea level performance. PMID:24157530

Chapman, Robert F; Karlsen, Trine; Resaland, Geir K; Ge, R-L; Harber, Matthew P; Witkowski, Sarah; Stray-Gundersen, James; Levine, Benjamin D

2014-03-15

400

Change in performance in response to training load adjustment based on autonomic activity.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to assess performance (Perf) changes in response to a new training strategy. Specifically, based on spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV) to determine autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, training doses were adjusted to maintain vagal activity at a high and relatively stable level during training preparation. Trained athletes (5 male and 5 female) aged 23.2±4.2 years voluntarily participated in the study. ANS activity was assessed during an orthoclinostatic test, and was represented by calculating HRV variables and a total score index. Over 17 weeks, improvement (1.4-8.5%) and deterioration (0.1-8.8%) in Perf were detected in 7 and 3 athletes, respectively. A relationship (rs=0.684; P<0.05) between the change in Perf (?Perf) and supine PHF during season was found. Supine HRV indices (PHF, PT, and MSSD) for the last 3 weeks of the HRV-adjusting period correlated (rs=0.636; 0.648; 0.648, P<0.05) with ?Perf. Based on the results, a high and relative stable vagal activity during preparation may indicate a readiness to train or appropriate recovery that positively affects Perf. In conclusion, daily quantification of ANS activity by SA HRV seems to be a promising tool for the enhancement of Perf. PMID:24129989

Botek, M; McKune, A J; Krejci, J; Stejskal, P; Gaba, A

2014-06-01

401

A training program to improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if a sports-specific training program could improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players. We combined components from a published anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program for jump and strength training with other exercises and drills to improve speed, agility, overall strength, and aerobic conditioning. We hypothesized that this sports-specific training program would lead to significant improvements in neuromuscular and performance indices in high school female basketball players. Fifty-seven female athletes aged 14-17 years participated in the supervised 6-week program, 3 d·wk(-1) for approximately 90-120 minutes per session. The program was conducted on the basketball court and in weight room facilities in high schools. The athletes underwent a video drop-jump test, multistage fitness test, vertical jump test, and an 18-m sprint test before and upon completion of the training program. All the subjects attended at least 14 training sessions. After training, a significant increase was found in the mean estimated VO2max (p < 0.001), with 89% of the athletes improving this score. In the drop-jump video test, significant increases were found in the mean absolute knee separation distance (p < 0.0001) and in the mean normalized knee separation distance (p < 0.0001), indicating a more neutral lower limb alignment on landing. A significant improvement was found in the vertical jump test (p < 0.0001); however, the effect size was small (0.09). No improvement was noted in the sprint test. This program significantly improved lower limb alignment on a drop-jump test and estimated maximal aerobic power and may be implemented preseason or off-season in high school female basketball players. PMID:22289699

Noyes, Frank R; Barber-Westin, Sue D; Smith, Stephanie T; Campbell, Thomas; Garrison, Tiina T

2012-03-01

402

Mitochondrial and performance adaptations to exercise training in mice lacking skeletal muscle LKB1.  

PubMed

LKB1 and its downstream targets of the AMP-activated protein kinase family are important regulators of many aspects of skeletal muscle cell function, including control of mitochondrial content and capillarity. LKB1 deficiency in skeletal and cardiac muscle (mLKB1-KO) greatly impairs exercise capacity. However, cardiac dysfunction in that genetic model prevents a clear assessment of the role of skeletal muscle LKB1 in the observed effects. Our purposes here were to determine whether skeletal muscle-specific knockout of LKB1 (skmLKB1-KO) decreases exercise capacity and mitochondrial protein content, impairs accretion of mitochondrial proteins after exercise training, and attenuates improvement in running performance after exercise training. We found that treadmill and voluntary wheel running capacity was reduced in skmLKB1-KO vs. control (CON) mice. Citrate synthase activity, succinate dehydrogenase activity, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase content were lower in KO vs. CON muscles. Three weeks of treadmill training resulted in significantly increased treadmill running performance in both CON and skmLKB1-KO mice. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly with training in both genotypes, but protein content and activity for components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain increased only in CON mice. Capillarity and VEGF protein was lower in skmLKB1-KO vs. CON muscles, but VEGF increased with training only in skmLKB1-KO. Three hours after an acute bout of muscle contractions, PGC-1?, cytochrome c, and VEGF gene expression all increased in CON but not skmLKB1-KO muscles. Our findings indicate that skeletal muscle LKB1 is required for accretion of some mitochondrial proteins but not for early exercise capacity improvements with exercise training. PMID:23982155

Tanner, Colby B; Madsen, Steven R; Hallowell, David M; Goring, Darren M J; Moore, Timothy M; Hardman, Shalene E; Heninger, Megan R; Atwood, Daniel R; Thomson, David M

2013-10-15

403

Software Acquisition Capability Maturity Model SM. Pilot Appraisal Report, Version 1.0.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes five pilot appraisals performed from the third quarter of 1995 through the first quarter of 1996 using the Software Acquisition Capability Maturity Model (SA-CMM). The pilot appraisals used Version 0.01 of the SA-CMM, published in...

J. R. Ferguson L. G. Jones J. Philpot

1996-01-01

404

Relationship Between Performance on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry In-Training and Certification Examinations  

PubMed Central

Background Studies across a range of specialties have consistently yielded positive associations between performance on in-training examinations and board certification examinations, supporting the use of the in-training examination as a valuable formative feedback tool for residents and residency programs. That association to date, however, has not been tested in child and adolescent psychiatry residents. Objective This is the first study to explore the relationship between performance on the American College of Psychiatrists' Child Psychiatry Resident In-Training Examination (CHILD PRITE) and subsequent performance on the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology's (ABPN) subspecialty multiple-choice examination (Part I) in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP). Methods Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between performance on the CHILD PRITE and the CAP Part I examination for 342 fellows. Results Second-year CAP fellows performed significantly better on the CHILD PRITE than did the first-year fellows. The correlation between the CHILD PRITE total score and the CAP Part I examination total score was .41 (P ?=? .01) for first-year CAP fellows; it was .52 (P ?=? .01) for second-year CAP fellows. Conclusions The significant correlations between scores on the 2 tests show they assess the same achievement domain. This supports the use of the CHILD PRITE as a valid measure of medical knowledge and formative feedback tool in child and adolescent psychiatry.

Juul, Dorthea; Sexson, Sandra B.; Brooks, Beth Ann; Beresin, Eugene V.; Bechtold, Donald W.; Lang, Joan A.; Faulkner, Larry R.; Tanguay, Peter; Dingle, Arden D.

2013-01-01

405

A Gold Standards Approach to Training Instructors to Evaluate Crew Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Qualification Program requires that airlines evaluate crew performance in Line Oriented Simulation. For this evaluation to be meaningful, instructors must observe relevant crew behaviors and evaluate those behaviors consistently and accurately against standards established by the airline. The airline industry has largely settled on an approach in which instructors evaluate crew performance on a series of event sets, using standardized grade sheets on which behaviors specific to event set are listed. Typically, new instructors are given a class in which they learn to use the grade sheets and practice evaluating crew performance observed on videotapes. These classes emphasize reliability, providing detailed instruction and practice in scoring so that all instructors within a given class will give similar scores to similar performance. This approach has value but also has important limitations; (1) ratings within one class of new instructors may differ from those of other classes; (2) ratings may not be driven primarily by the specific behaviors on which the company wanted the crews to be scored; and (3) ratings may not be calibrated to company standards for level of performance skill required. In this paper we provide a method to extend the existing method of training instructors to address these three limitations. We call this method the "gold standards" approach because it uses ratings from the company's most experienced instructors as the basis for training rater accuracy. This approach ties the training to the specific behaviors on which the experienced instructors based their ratings.

Baker, David P.; Dismukes, R. Key

2003-01-01

406

The Road to Gold: Training and Peaking Characteristics in the Year Prior to a Gold Medal Endurance Performance  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe training variations across the annual cycle in Olympic and World Champion endurance athletes, and determine whether these athletes used tapering strategies in line with recommendations in the literature. Methods Eleven elite XC skiers and biathletes (4 male; 28±1 yr, 85±5 mL. min?1. kg?1 , 7 female, 25±4 yr, 73±3 mL. min?1. kg?1 ) reported one year of day-to-day training leading up to the most successful competition of their career. Training data were divided into periodization and peaking phases and distributed into training forms, intensity zones and endurance activity forms. Results Athletes trained ?800 h/500 sessions.year?1, including ?500 h. year?1 of sport-specific training. Ninety-four percent of all training was executed as aerobic endurance training. Of this, ?90% was low intensity training (LIT, below the first lactate threshold) and 10% high intensity training (HIT, above the first lactate threshold) by time. Categorically, 23% of training sessions were characterized as HIT with primary portions executed at or above the first lactate turn point. Training volume and specificity distribution conformed to a traditional periodization model, but absolute volume of HIT remained stable across phases. However, HIT training patterns tended to become more polarized in the competition phase. Training volume, frequency and intensity remained unchanged from pre-peaking to peaking period, but there was a 32±15% (P<.01) volume reduction from the preparation period to peaking phase. Conclusions The annual training data for these Olympic and World champion XC skiers and biathletes conforms to previously reported training patterns of elite endurance athletes. During the competition phase, training became more sport-specific, with 92% performed as XC skiing. However, they did not follow suggested tapering practice derived from short-term experimental studies. Only three out of 11 athletes took a rest day during the final 5 days prior to their most successful competition.

T?nnessen, Espen; Sylta, ?ystein; Haugen, Thomas A.; Hem, Erlend; Svendsen, Ida S.; Seiler, Stephen

2014-01-01

407

Driver Performance Measurement Research. Volume 2: Guide for Training Observer/Raters in the Driver Performance Measurements Procedure. (Including Course and Content).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Final Report, Volume 1, covers research results of the Michigan State University Driver Performance Measurement Project. This volume (Volume 2) constitutes a guide for training observers/raters in the driver performance measurement procedures developed in this research by MSU. The guide includes a training course plan and content materials…

Nolan, R. O.; And Others

408

Effects of two training protocols on the forehand drive performance in tennis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 2 training modalities on the tennis forehand drive performance. Forty-four tennis players (mean ± SD: age = 26.9 ± 7.5 years; height = 178.6 ± 6.7 cm; mass = 72.5 ± 8.0 kg; International Tennis Number = 3) were randomly assigned into 3 groups. During 6 weeks, the first group performed handled medicine ball (HMB) throws included in the regular tennis practice, the second group (overweight racket-OWR) played tennis forehand drives with an overweighed racket during the regular tennis practice, and the third group (regular tennis training-RTT) practiced only tennis training as usual. Before and after the 6-week program, velocity and accuracy of tennis crosscourt forehand drives were evaluated in the 3 groups. The main results showed that after 6-week training, the maximal ball velocity was significantly increased in HMB and OWR groups in comparison with RTT (p < 0.001 and p = 0. 001, respectively). The estimated averaged increase in ball velocity was greater in HMB than in OWR (11 vs. 5%, respectively; p = 0.017), but shot accuracy tended to be deteriorated in HMB when compared with OWR and RTT (p = 0.043 and p = 0.027, respectively). The findings of this study highlighted the efficiency of both training modalities to improve tennis forehand drive performance but also suggested that the HMB throws may be incorporated into the preseason program preferably, whereas the OWR forehand drives may be included in the on-season program. PMID:22592176

Genevois, Cyril; Frican, Baptiste; Creveaux, Thomas; Hautier, Christophe; Rogowski, Isabelle

2013-03-01

409

38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in which it has a financial interest or which...familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques...unacceptable act, practice, or performance...occurred. Such acts, practices or performance include...techniques and practices; or the lack of... (The Office of Management and Budget has...

2010-07-01

410

The relationship between the age of onset of musical training and rhythm synchronization performance: validation of sensitive period effects.  

PubMed

A sensitive period associated with musical training has been proposed, suggesting the influence of musical training on the brain and behavior is strongest during the early years of childhood. Experiments from our laboratory have directly tested the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by comparing musicians who began their training prior to age seven with those who began their training after age seven, while matching the two groups in terms of musical experience (Watanabe et al., 2007; Bailey and Penhune, 2010, 2012). Using this matching paradigm, the early-trained groups have demonstrated enhanced sensorimotor synchronization skills and associated differences in brain structure (Bailey et al., 2013; Steele et al., 2013). The current study takes a different approach to investigating the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by examining a single large group of unmatched musicians (N = 77) and exploring the relationship between age of onset of musical training as a continuous variable and performance on the Rhythm Synchronization Task (RST), a previously used auditory-motor RST. Interestingly, age of onset was correlated with task performance for those who began training earlier, however, no such relationship was observed among those who began training in their later childhood years. In addition, years of formal training showed a similar pattern. However, individual working memory scores were predictive of task performance, regardless of age of onset of musical training. Overall, these results support the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training and suggest a non-linear relationship between age of onset of musical training and auditory-motor rhythm synchronization abilities, such that a relationship exists early in childhood but then plateaus later on in development, similar to maturational growth trajectories of brain regions implicated in playing music. PMID:24348323

Bailey, Jennifer A; Penhune, Virginia B

2013-01-01

411

The relationship between the age of onset of musical training and rhythm synchronization performance: validation of sensitive period effects  

PubMed Central

A sensitive period associated with musical training has been proposed, suggesting the influence of musical training on the brain and behavior is strongest during the early years of childhood. Experiments from our laboratory have directly tested the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by comparing musicians who began their training prior to age seven with those who began their training after age seven, while matching the two groups in terms of musical experience (Watanabe et al., 2007; Bailey and Penhune, 2010, 2012). Using this matching paradigm, the early-trained groups have demonstrated enhanced sensorimotor synchronization skills and associated differences in brain structure (Bailey et al., 2013; Steele et al., 2013). The current study takes a different approach to investigating the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by examining a single large group of unmatched musicians (N = 77) and exploring the relationship between age of onset of musical training as a continuous variable and performance on the Rhythm Synchronization Task (RST), a previously used auditory-motor RST. Interestingly, age of onset was correlated with task performance for those who began training earlier, however, no such relationship was observed among those who began training in their later childhood years. In addition, years of formal training showed a similar pattern. However, individual working memory scores were predictive of task performance, regardless of age of onset of musical training. Overall, these results support the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training and suggest a non-linear relationship between age of onset of musical training and auditory-motor rhythm synchronization abilities, such that a relationship exists early in childhood but then plateaus later on in development, similar to maturational growth trajectories of brain regions implicated in playing music.

Bailey, Jennifer A.; Penhune, Virginia B.

2013-01-01

412

Effects of selection and training on unit-level performance over time: a latent growth modeling approach.  

PubMed

Surprisingly few data exist concerning whether and how utilization of job-related selection and training procedures affects different aspects of unit or organizational performance over time. The authors used longitudinal data from a large fast-food organization (N = 861 units) to examine how change in use of selection and training relates to change in unit performance. Latent growth modeling analyses revealed significant variation in both the use and the change in use of selection and training across units. Change in selection and training was related to change in 2 proximal unit outcomes: customer service performance and retention. Change in service performance, in turn, was related to change in the more distal outcome of unit financial performance (i.e., profits). Selection and training also affected financial performance, both directly and indirectly (e.g., through service performance). Finally, results of a cross-lagged panel analysis suggested the existence of a reciprocal causal relationship between the utilization of the human resources practices and unit performance. However, there was some evidence to suggest that selection and training may be associated with different causal sequences, such that use of the training procedure appeared to lead to unit performance, whereas unit performance appeared to lead to use of the selection procedure. PMID:19594228

Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Ferris, Gerald R; Perrewé, Pamela L; Blass, Fred R; Heetderks, Thomas D; Perryman, Alexa A

2009-07-01

413

Autophagy is required for exercise training-induced skeletal muscle adaptation and improvement of physical performance.  

PubMed

Pathological and physiological stimuli, including acute exercise, activate autophagy; however, it is unknown whether exercise training alters basal levels of autophagy and whether autophagy is required for skeletal muscle adaptation to training. We observed greater autophagy flux (i.e., a combination of increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and LC3-II levels and reduced p62 protein content indicating a higher rate of initiation and resolution of autophagic events), autophagy protein expression (i.e., Atg6/Beclin1, Atg7, and Atg8/LC3) and mitophagy protein Bnip3 expression in tonic, oxidative muscle compared to muscles of either mixed fiber types or of predominant glycolytic fibers in mice. Long-term voluntary running (4 wk) resulted in increased basal autophagy flux and expression of autophagy proteins and Bnip3 in parallel to mitochondrial biogenesis in plantaris muscle with mixed fiber types. Conversely, exercise training promoted autophagy protein expression with no significant increases of autophagy flux and mitochondrial biogenesis in the oxidative soleus muscle. We also observed increased basal autophagy flux and Bnip3 content without increases in autophagy protein expression in the plantaris muscle of sedentary muscle-specific Pgc-1? transgenic mice, a genetic model of augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings reveal that endurance exercise training-induced increases in basal autophagy, including mitophagy, only take place if an enhanced oxidative phenotype is achieved. However, autophagy protein expression is mainly dictated by contractile activity independently of enhancements in oxidative phenotype. Exercise-trained mice heterozygous for the critical autophagy protein Atg6 showed attenuated increases of basal autophagy flux, mitochondrial content, and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, along with impaired improvement of endurance capacity. These results demonstrate that increased basal autophagy is required for endurance exercise training-induced skeletal muscle adaptation and improvement of physical performance. PMID:23825228

Lira, Vitor A; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Zhang, Mei; Greene, Nicholas P; Laker, Rhianna C; Breen, David S; Hoehn, Kyle L; Yan, Zhen

2013-10-01

414

Hydration, thermoregulation, and performance effects of two sport drinks during soccer training sessions.  

PubMed

In the present study, we aimed to compare the thermoregulatory response and soccer-specific training performance aspects of two commercially available sport drinks, both of similar carbohydrate concentration, but one containing 5.2% glycerol. Ten players participated in two similar outdoor training sessions and were randomly assigned to each of two drinks: a carbohydrate (C) beverage or a carbohydrate-glycerol (CG) beverage. Players consumed 500 mL of C or CG 30 minutes pre-exercise and at half-time. Pre- and postexercise body mass, core temperature (CT), and heart rate (HR) were recorded, and urine and blood samples were taken. No difference was observed between days for wet bulb globe temperature (session 1: 17.0 +/- 1.1 degrees C, session 2: 16.9 +/- 1.1 degrees C; P = 0.944). The degree of dehydration (% Delta BM) was greater after the C trial (P = 0.041). Similarly, percent change in plasma volume was greater in the C trial (P = 0.049). No overall main affect was observed between CT and mean exercise HRs during either training session (CT: P = 0.350; mean HR: P = 0.256), and there was no difference observed between groups in time to failure during the session-ending fatigue test (P = 0.547). Ingestion of a CG beverage provided players with better hydration than C alone. However, if training sessions are short (<75 minute), with adequate time for recovery, both drinks are sufficient for maintaining performance intensities during soccer-specific training. PMID:18714252

Siegler, Jason C; Mermier, Christine M; Amorim, Fabiano T; Lovell, Ric J; McNaughton, Lars R; Robergs, Robert A

2008-09-01

415

Increased heart rate variability and executive performance after aerobic training in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of two short physical training programs on various parameters of heart rate variability (HRV)\\u000a and on executive performance in older people. Twenty-four sedentary men and women aged 65–78 years were randomly assigned\\u000a to an aerobic exercise program or a stretching program three times a week for 12 weeks. Resting HRV was measured in time and\\u000a frequency domains

Cédric T. Albinet; Geoffroy Boucard; Cédric A. Bouquet; Michel Audiffren

2010-01-01

416

Living high–training low: effect on erythropoiesis and maximal aerobic performance in elite Nordic skiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “living high–training low” model (Hi–Lo) may improve aerobic performance in athletes, and the main mechanism of this improvement is thought to be augmented erythropoiesis. A positive effect of Hi–Lo has been demonstrated previously by using altitudes of 2,000–3,000 m. Since the rate of erythropoiesis is altitude-dependent, we tested whether a higher altitude (3,500 m) during Hi–Lo increases erythropoiesis and maximal aerobic

Paul Robach; Laurent Schmitt; Julien V. Brugniaux; Gérard Nicolet; Alain Duvallet; Jean-Pierre Fouillot; Stéphane Moutereau; Françoise Lasne; Vincent Pialoux; Niels V. Olsen; Jean-Paul Richalet

2006-01-01

417

Timing of return from altitude training for optimal sea level performance.  

PubMed

While a number of published studies exist to guide endurance athletes with the best practices regarding implementation of altitude training, a key unanswered question concerns the proper timing of return to sea level prior to major competitions. Evidence reviewed here suggests that, altogether, the deacclimatization responses of hematological, ventilatory, and biomechanical factors with return to sea level likely interact to determine the best timing for competitive performance. PMID:24336885

Chapman, Robert F; Laymon Stickford, Abigail S; Lundby, Carsten; Levine, Benjamin D

2014-04-01

418

Exercise Performance and Muscle Contractile Properties After Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation in Aerobic-Anaerobic Training Rats  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise performance and contractile variables in aerobic-anaerobic training rats. Twenty 90-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups - creatine (Cr) and controls (K). The creatine group received creatine monohydrate as a nutritional supplement, whereas the control group was given placebo. Both groups were trained 5 days a week on a treadmill for 20 days in a mixed (aerobic-anaerobic) metabolic working regimen (27 m·min-1, 15% elevation for 40 min). The exercise performance (sprint-test), contractile properties (m. tibialis anterior), oxidative enzyme activity (SDH, LDH, NADH2) in m. soleus and blood hematological and chemical variables were assessed in the groups at the end of the experiment. It was found out that creatine supplementation improved the exercise performance after 20 days of administration in a dose of 60 mg per day on the background of a mixed (aerobic-anaerobic) exercise training. At the end of the trial the Cr-group demonstrated better values for the variables which characterize the contractile properties of m. tibialis anterior containing predominantly types IIA and IIB muscle fibers. On the other hand, a higher oxidative capacity was found out in m. soleus (type I muscle fibers) as a result of 20-day creatine supplementation. No side effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation were assessed by the hematological and blood biochemical indices measured in this study. Key pointsThe creatine monohydrate supplementation of the rats diet improves their exercise performance after 20 days administration in a dose of 60 mg per day on the background of a mixed (aerobic-anaerobic) exercise training.The creatine supplemented rats demonstrate better contractile properties of m. tibialis anterior which muscle contains predominantly types IIA and IIB muscle fibers.The soleus muscle (type I muscle fibers) demonstrates a higher oxidative capacity as a result of 20-days creatine supplementation.

Boyadjiev, Nickolay; Popov, Dobrin; Delchev, Slavi

2007-01-01

419

Effect of football or strength training on functional ability and physical performance in untrained old men.  

PubMed

The effects of 16 weeks of football or strength training on performance and functional ability were investigated in 26 (68.2?±?3.2 years) untrained men randomized into a football (FG; n?=?9), a strength training (ST; n?=?9), or a control group (CO; n?=?8). FG and ST trained 1.6?±?0.1 and 1.5?±?0.1 times per week, respectively, with higher (P?90%HRmax (17 vs 0%) in FG than ST, and lower (P?performance (43%; P?performance was improved (P?training for old men improves functional ability and physiological response to submaximal exercise, while football additionally elevates maximal aerobic fitness and exhaustive exercise performance. PMID:24903323

Andersen, T R; Schmidt, J F; Nielsen, J J; Randers, M B; Sundstrup, E; Jakobsen, M D; Andersen, L L; Suetta, C; Aagaard, P; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

2014-08-01

420

The Effects of Basic Gymnastics Training Integrated with Physical Education Courses on Selected Motor Performance Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of gymnastics training integrated with physical education courses on selected motor performance variables in seven year old girls. Subjects were divided into two groups: (1) control group (N=15, X=7.56 plus or minus 0.46 year old); (2) gymnastics group (N=16, X=7.60 plus or minus 0.50 year…

Alpkaya, Ufuk

2013-01-01

421

Effects of a 6-week plyometric training program on performances in pubescent swimmers.  

PubMed

This study examined in pubescent swimmers the effects on front crawl performances of a 6-week plyometric training (PT) in addition to the habitual swimming program. Swimmers were assigned to a control group (n = 11, age: 14.1 ± 0.2 years; G(CONT)) and a combined swimming and plyometric group (n = 12, age: 14.3 ± 0.2 years; GSP), both groups swimming 5.5 h · wk(-1) during a 6-week preseason training block. In the GSP, PT consisted of long, lateral high and depth jumps before swimming training 2 times per week. Pre and posttests were performed by jump tests (squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ]) and swim tests: a gliding task, 400- and 50-m front crawl with a diving start (V400 and V50, m · s(-1)), and 2 tests with a water start without push-off on the wall (25 m in front crawl and 25 m only with kicks). Results showed improvement only for GSP for jump tests (? = 4.67 ± 3.49 cm; ? = 3.24 ± 3.17 cm; for CMJ and SJ, respectively; p < 0.05) and front crawl tests (? = 0.04 ± 0.04 m · s(-1); ? = 0.04 ± 0.05 m · s(-1); for V50 and V400, respectively; p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found for GSP between improvements in SJ and V50 (R = 0.73, p < 0.05). Results suggested a positive effect of PT on specific swimming tasks such as dive or turn but not in kicking propulsion. Because of the practical setup of the PT and the relevancy of successful starts and turns in swimming performances, it is strongly suggested to incorporate PT in pubescent swimmers' training and control it by jump performances. PMID:21157388

Potdevin, François J; Alberty, Morgan E; Chevutschi, Alain; Pelayo, Patrick; Sidney, Michel C

2011-01-01

422

The effects of interval training on oxygen pulse and performance in supra-threshold runs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine (i) the effects of a severe interval training period on oxygen pulse kinetics (O2-p, the ratio between VO2 and heart rate), and (ii) to study the consequences of these effects on the variation of performance (time to exhaustion) during severe runs. Seven athletes were tested before and after an eight-weeks period of a specific intermittent training at v Delta 50, i.e., the intermediate velocity between the lactate threshold (vLT) and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max ). During the test sessions, athletes performed an incremental test and an all-out test at the pretraining v Delta 50. After the training period they also completed an additional all-out test at the posttraining v Delta 50 (v Delta 50bis). Results showed that after training there was i) an increase in the O2-p maximal value during the incremental test (22.7 +/- 1.5 mlO2.b-1 vs. 20.6 +/- 1.5 mlO2.b-1; p < 0.04), ii) a decrease in the time to reach the O2-p steady state (TRO2-p ) at the same absolute v Delta 50 (33 +/- 7 s vs. 60 +/- 27 s; p < 0.04) and iii) an increase in the O2-p steady state duration (TSSO2-p) at the same absolute v Delta 50 (552 +/- 201 s vs. 407 +/- 106 s; p < 0.04). However, there was no relationship between the improvement of these two O 2 -p kinetics parameters (TRO2-p and TSS O2-p) and those of the performance. This study found that after an individualised interval-training program conducted at the same absolute velocity, the O2-p kinetics reached a steady state quicker and for a longer duration than before training. This is however not related with the improvement of performance. PMID:14972740

Laffite, L P; Mille-Hamard, L; Koralsztein, J P; Billat, V L

2003-07-01

423

32 CFR 644.43 - Gross appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644...The gross appraisal sections of real estate design memoranda and planning...Where letter-type or brief real estate design memoranda on civil...

2013-07-01

424

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2012-01-01

425

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2011-01-01

426

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2010-01-01

427

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2014-01-01

428

Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

2000-01-01

429

Resveratrol enhances exercise training responses in rats selectively bred for high running performance.  

PubMed

High Capacity Runner (HCR) rats have been developed by divergent artificial selection for treadmill endurance running capacity to explore an aerobic biology-disease connection. The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation have been demonstrated in endurance running and the antioxidant capacity of resveratrol is also demonstrated. In this study we examine whether 12 weeks of treadmill exercise training and/or resveratrol can enhance performance in HCR. Indeed, resveratrol increased aerobic performance and strength of upper limbs of these rats. Moreover, we have found that resveratrol activated the AMP-activated protein kinase, SIRT1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (p<0.05). The changes in mitochondrial fission/fusion and Lon protease/HSP78 levels suggest that exercise training does not significantly induce damage of proteins. Moreover, neither exercise training nor resveratrol supplementation altered the content of protein carbonyls. Changes in the levels of forkhead transcription factor 1 and SIRT4 could suggest increased fat utilization and improved insulin sensitivity. These data indicate, that resveratrol supplementation enhances aerobic performance due to the activation of the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1? pathway. PMID:23422033

Hart, Nikolett; Sarga, Linda; Csende, Zsolt; Koltai, Erika; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Davies, Kelvin J A; Kouretas, Dimitris; Wessner, Barbara; Radak, Zsolt

2013-11-01

430

Structuralized box-trainer laparoscopic training significantly improves performance in complex virtual reality laparoscopic tasks  

PubMed Central

Introduction In the era of flowering minimally invasive surgical techniques there is a need for new methods of teaching surgery and supervision of progress in skills and expertise. Virtual and physical box-trainers seem especially fit for this purpose, and allow for improvement of proficiency required in laparoscopic surgery. Material and methods The study included 34 students who completed the authors‘ laparoscopic training on physical train-boxes. Progress was monitored by accomplishment of 3 exercises: moving pellets from one place to another, excising and clipping. Analysed parameters included time needed to complete the exercise and right and left hand movement tracks. Students were asked to do assigned tasks prior to, in the middle and after the training. Results The duration of the course was 28 h in total. Significant shortening of the time to perform each exercise and reduction of the left hand track were achieved. The right hand track was shortened only in exercise number 1. Conclusions Exercises in the laboratory setting should be regarded as an important element of the process of skills acquisition by a young surgeon. Virtual reality laparoscopic training seems to be a new, interesting educational tool, and at the same time allows for reliable control and assessment of progress.

Stefaniak, Tomasz J.; Makarewicz, Wojciech; Proczko, Monika; Gruca, Zbigniew; Sledzinski, Zbigniew

2011-01-01

431

COMPARISON OF LOADED AND UNLOADED JUMP SQUAT TRAINING ON STRENGTH\\/POWE R PERFORMANCE IN COLLEGE FOOTBALL PLAYERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoffman, J. R., N.A. Ratamess, J.J. Cooper, J. Kang, A. Chilakos, and A. D. Faigenbaum. Comparison of loaded and unloaded jump squat training on strength\\/power performance in college football players. J. Strength Cond. Res. I9(4):810-815. 2005.—Tbe purpose of tbis study was to explore tbe effects of 5 weeks of eccentrically loaded and unloaded jump squat training in experienced resistance-trained athletes

JAY R. HOFFMAN; NICHOLAS A. RATAMESS; JOSHUA J. COOPER; JIE KANG; ART CHILAKOS; AVERY D. FAIGENBAUM

432

Performance of an Artificial Neural Network model for simulating saltwater intrusion process in coastal aquifers when training with noisy data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the performance of an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) model for approximating density depended saltwater\\u000a intrusion process in coastal aquifer when the ANN model is trained with noisy training data. The data required for training,\\u000a testing and validation of the ANN model are generated using a numerical simulation model. The simulated data, consisting of\\u000a corresponding sets of input

Rajib Kumar Bhattacharjya; Bithin Datta; Mysore G. Satish

2009-01-01

433

Effects of two high-intensity intermittent training programs interspaced by detraining on human skeletal muscle and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated high-intensity intermittent training programs interspaced by detraining on human skeletal muscle and performances. First, nineteen subjects were submitted to a 15-week cycle ergometer training program which involved both continuous and high-intensity interval work patterns. Among these 19 subjects, six participated in a second 15-week training program after 7

J.-A. Simoneau; G. Lortie; M. R. Boulay; M. Marcotte; M.-C. Thibault; C. Bouchard

1987-01-01

434

The effect of prolonged exercise training on swimming performance and the underlying biochemical mechanisms in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of prolonged exercise training on swimming performance and the underlying biochemical mechanisms in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we measured the critical swimming speed (Ucrit), the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), the activity of red and white muscle enzymes [pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and citrate synthase (CS)], the tissue substrates (glycogen and glucose content of muscle and liver) and metabolite (the lactate content of plasma and muscle) content of exercise-trained (60% Ucrit for 4 weeks) and non-trained fish. We also measured the biochemical indices of both trained and non-trained fish immediately after Ucrit, after exhaustive exercise and 1h after exhaustive exercise. The aerobic swimming performance, as indicated by Ucrit, increased significantly after exercise training, most likely because of the higher tissue metabolic capacity, as suggested by the higher CS activity in the red muscle tissue, and the higher energy store and more efficient substrate utilization, as suggested by higher liver and muscle glycogen contents at rest but lower tissue glycogen contents after Ucrit. The lower lactate content after Ucrit is most likely because of higher aerobic metabolic capacity, and (or) the clearance rate of lactate in trained fish may also contribute to improved aerobic swimming performance. Compared to Ucrit, exhaustive exercise elicited higher plasma and muscle lactate contents. The anaerobic metabolic performance is not affected by the exercise training, as suggested by the EPOC. However, trained fish did show higher lactate clearance rates, as suggested by lower muscle lactate content after a 1h recovery period following exhaustive exercise compared to non-trained fish. Furthermore, trained fish decreased their liver and muscle glycogen contents more profoundly after exhaustive exercise, suggesting that training can improve the substrate utilization during anaerobic exercise. PMID:23838144

He, Wei; Xia, Wei; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

2013-10-01

435

Prenatal Opiate Exposure Impairs Radial Arm Maze Performance and Reduces Levels of BDNF Precursor Following Training  

PubMed Central

Prenatal exposure to opiates, which is invariably followed by postnatal withdrawal, can affect cognitive performance. To further characterize these effects, we examined radial 8-arm maze performance and expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in male rats prenatally exposed to the opiate l-?-acetylmethadol (LAAM). Female rats received 1.0 mg/kg/day LAAM or water via daily oral gavage for 28 days prior to breeding, during breeding, and throughout pregnancy. Pups were fostered to non-treated lactating dams at birth and underwent neonatal opiate withdrawal. At 5–6 months, prenatal water- and LAAM-exposed males (n=6 each; non-littermates) received radial arm maze training consisting of ten trials a day for five days and three retention trials on day six. Rats prenatally exposed to LAAM had poorer maze performance, decreased percent correct responding and more reference and working memory errors than prenatal water-treated controls. However, they were able to acquire the task by the end of training. There were no differences between the groups on retention 24 hr after testing. Following retention testing, hippocampi were removed and protein extracted from cytosol and synaptic fractions. Western blots were used to measure levels of mature and precursor BDNF protein, as well as the BDNF receptor TrkB. BDNF precursor protein was significantly decreased in the synaptic fraction of trained prenatal LAAM-treated rats compared to prenatal water-treated trained controls. No effects were found for the full-length or truncated TrkB receptor. In untrained rats, prenatal treatment did not affect any of the measures. These data suggest that prenatal opiate exposure and/or postnatal withdrawal compromise expression of proteins involved in the neural plasticity underlying learning.

Schrott, Lisa M.; Franklin, La 'Tonya M.; Serrano, Peter A.

2009-01-01

436

CMM Appraisal Framework, Version 1.0.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical report describes version 1.0 of the CMM Appraisal Framework (CAF). This framework describes the common requirements used by the CMM-Based Appraisal (CBA) project in developing appraisal methods based on the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) f...

S. Masters C. Bothwell

1995-01-01

437

Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes  

SciTech Connect

The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

1980-01-01

438

Position-specific behaviors and their impact on crew performance: Implications for training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present study was motivated by results from a preliminary report documenting the impact of specific crewmembers on overall crew performance (Wilhelm & Law, 1992), and a cross-airline cross-fleet project investigating human factors behaviors of commercial aviation flightcrews (Helmreich, Butler, Whilhelm, & Lofaro, 1992). The purpose of the current investigation is to study how position-specific behaviors impact flightcrew performance, and how these position-specific behaviors differ between two airlines and two flying environments. Implications for training will also be addressed.

Law, J. Randolph

1993-01-01

439

Skeletal muscle adaptation and performance responses to once a day versus twice every second day endurance training regimens.  

PubMed

We determined the effects of a cycle training program in which selected sessions were performed with low muscle glycogen content on training capacity and subsequent endurance performance, whole body substrate oxidation during submaximal exercise, and several mitochondrial enzymes and signaling proteins with putative roles in promoting training adaptation. Seven endurance-trained cyclists/triathletes trained daily (High) alternating between 100-min steady-state aerobic rides (AT) one day, followed by a high-intensity interval training session (HIT; 8 x 5 min at maximum self-selected effort) the next day. Another seven subjects trained twice every second day (Low), first undertaking AT, then 1-2 h later, the HIT. These training schedules were maintained for 3 wk. Forty-eight hours before and after the first and last training sessions, all subjects completed a 60-min steady-state ride (60SS) followed by a 60-min performance trial. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after 60SS, and rates of substrate oxidation were determined throughout this ride. Resting muscle glycogen concentration (412 +/- 51 vs. 577 +/- 34 micromol/g dry wt), rates of whole body fat oxidation during 60SS (1,261 +/- 247 vs. 1,698 +/- 174 micromol.kg(-1).60 min(-1)), the maximal activities of citrate synthase (45 +/- 2 vs. 54 +/- 1 mmol.kg dry wt(-1).min(-1)), and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (18 +/- 2 vs. 23 +/- 2 mmol.kg dry wt(-1).min(-1)) along with the total protein content of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV were increased only in Low (all P < 0.05). Mitochondrial DNA content and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha protein levels were unchanged in both groups after training. Cycling performance improved by approximately 10% in both Low and High. We conclude that compared with training daily, training twice every second day compromised high-intensity training capacity. While selected markers of training adaptation were enhanced with twice a day training, the performance of a 1-h time trial undertaken after a 60-min steady-state ride was similar after once daily or twice every second day training programs. PMID:18772325

Yeo, Wee Kian; Paton, Carl D; Garnham, Andrew P; Burke, Louise M; Carey, Andrew L; Hawley, John A

2008-11-01

440

Tonic Pain Experienced during Locomotor Training Impairs Retention Despite Normal Performance during Acquisition.  

PubMed

Many patients are in pain when they receive gait training during rehabilitation. Based on animal studies, it has been proposed that central sensitization associated to nociception (maladaptive plasticity) and plasticity related to the sensorimotor learning (adaptive plasticity) share similar neural mechanisms and compete with each other. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental tonic pain influences motor learning (acquisition and next-day retention) of a new locomotor task. Thirty healthy human subjects performed a locomotor adaptation task (perturbing force field applied to the ankle during swing using a robotized orthosis) on 2 consecutive days. Learning was assessed using kinematic measures (peak and mean absolute plantarflexion errors) and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Half of the participants performed the locomotor adaptation task with pain on Day 1 (capsaicin cream around the ankle), while the task was performed pain-free for all subjects on Day 2 to assess retention. Pain had no significant effect on baseline gait parameters nor on performance during the locomotor adaptation task (for either kinematic or EMG measures) on Day 1. Despite this apparently normal motor acquisition, pain-free Day 2 performance was markedly and significantly impaired in the Pain group, indicating that pain during training had an impact on the retention of motor memories (interfering with consolidation and/or retrieval). These results suggest that the same motor rehabilitation intervention could be less effective if administered in the presence of pain. PMID:25009252

Bouffard, Jason; Bouyer, Laurent J; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Mercier, Catherine

2014-07-01

441

Tonic Pain Experienced during Locomotor Training Impairs Retention Despite Normal Performance during Acquisition  

PubMed Central

Many patients are in pain when they receive gait training during rehabilitation. Based on animal studies, it has been proposed that central sensitization associated to nociception (maladaptive plasticity) and plasticity related to the sensorimotor learning (adaptive plasticity) share similar neural mechanisms and compete with each other. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental tonic pain influences motor learning (acquisition and next-day retention) of a new locomotor task. Thirty healthy human subjects performed a locomotor adaptation task (perturbing force field applied to the ankle during swing using a robotized orthosis) on 2 consecutive days. Learning was assessed using kinematic measures (peak and mean absolute plantarflexion errors) and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Half of the participants performed the locomotor adaptation task with pain on Day 1 (capsaicin cream around the ankle), while the task was performed pain-free for all subjects on Day 2 to assess retention. Pain had no significant effect on baseline gait parameters nor on performance during the locomotor adaptation task (for either kinematic or EMG measures) on Day 1. Despite this apparently normal motor acquisition, pain-free Day 2 performance was markedly and significantly impaired in the Pain group, indicating that pain during training had an impact on the retention of motor memories (interfering with consolidation and/or retrieval). These results suggest that the same motor rehabilitation intervention could be less effective if administered in the presence of pain.

Bouffard, Jason; Bouyer, Laurent J.; Roy, Jean-Sebastien

2014-01-01

442

Minimal effect of acute caffeine ingestion on intense resistance training performance.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of acute caffeine intake to enhance intense resistance training performance. Fourteen resistance-trained men (age and body mass = 23.1 ± 1.1 years and 83.4 ± 13.2 kg, respectively) who regularly consumed caffeine ingested caffeine (6 mg · kg(-1)) or placebo 1 hour before completion of 4 sets of barbell bench press, leg press, bilateral row, and barbell shoulder press to fatigue at 70-80% 1-repetition maximum. Two minutes of rest was allotted between sets. Saliva samples were obtained to assess caffeine concentration. The number of repetitions completed per set and total weight lifted were recorded as indices of performance. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to examine differences in performance across treatment and sets. Compared to placebo, there was a small but significant effect (p < 0.05) of acute caffeine intake on repetitions completed for the leg press but not for upper-body exercise (p > 0.05). Total weight lifted across sets was similar (p > 0.05) with caffeine (22,409.5 ± 3,773.2 kg) vs. placebo (21,185.7 ± 4,655.4 kg), yet there were 9 'responders' to caffeine, represented by a meaningful increase in total weight lifted with caffeine vs. placebo. Any ergogenic effect of caffeine on performance of fatiguing, total-body resistance training appears to be of limited practical significance. Additional research is merited to elucidate interindividual differences in caffeine-mediated improvements in performance. PMID:21293304

Astorino, Todd A; Martin, Brian J; Schachtsiek, Lena; Wong, Keau; Ng, Karno

2011-06-01

443

Short-Term Performance Effects of Three Different Low-Volume Strength-Training Programmes in College Male Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to analyse the short-term performance effects of three in-season low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players. Fifty-seven male college soccer players (age: 20.3±1.6 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (n=12), plyometric training group (n=12), complex training group (n=12), or a control group (n=21). In the mid-season, players underwent a 9-week strength-training programme, with two 20 min training sessions per week. Short-term effects on strength, sprint, agility, and vertical jump abilities were measured. All training groups increased 1-RM squat (range, 17.2–24.2%), plantar flexion (29.1–39.6%), and knee extension (0.5–22.2%) strength compared with the control group (p<0.05). The resistance-training group increased concentric peak torque of the knee extensor muscles by 9.9–13.7%, and changes were greater compared with the control group (p<0.05). The complex training group presented major increments (11.7%) in eccentric peak torque of the knee flexor muscles on the non-dominant limb compared with the control group and plyometric training group (p<0.05). All training groups improved 20-m sprint performance by 4.6–6.2% (p<0.001) compared with the control group. No differences were observed in 5-m sprint and agility performances (p>0.05). Overall, the results suggest that in-season low-volume strength training is adequate for developing strength and speed in soccer players.

Brito, Joao; Vasconcellos, Fabricio; Oliveira, Jose; Krustrup, Peter; Rebelo, Antonio

2014-01-01

444

The effects of temperature and exercise training on swimming performance in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis).  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of temperature and exercise training on swimming performance in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis), we measured the following: (1) the resting oxygen consumption rate (MO(2rest)), critical swimming speed (U(crit)) and active oxygen consumption rate (MO(2active)) of fish at acclimation temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C and (2) the MO(2rest), U(crit) and MO(2active) of both exercise-trained (exhaustive chasing training for 14 days) and control fish at both low and high acclimation temperatures (15 and 25 °C). The relationship between U(crit) and temperature (T) approximately followed a bell-shaped curve as temperature increased: U(crit) = 8.21/{1 + [(T - 27.2)/17.0]²} (R² = 0.915, P < 0.001, N = 40). The optimal temperature for maximal U(crit) (8.21 BL s(-1)) in juvenile qingbo was 27.2 °C. Both the MO(2active) and the metabolic scope (MS, MO(2active) - MO(2rest)) of qingbo increased with temperature from 10 to 25 °C (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences between fish acclimated to 25 and 30 °C. The relationships between MO(2active) or MS and temperature were described as MO(2active) = 1,214.29 /{1 + [(T - 28.8)/10.6]²} (R² = 0.911, P < 0.001, N = 40) and MS = 972.67/{1 + [(T - 28.0)/9.34]²} (R² = 0.878, P < 0.001, N = 40). The optimal temperatures for MO(2active) and MS in juvenile qingbo were 28.8 and 28.0 °C, respectively. Exercise training resulted in significant increases in both U(crit) and MO(2active) at a low temperature (P < 0.05), but training exhibited no significant effect on either U(crit) or MO(2active) at a high temperature. These results suggest that exercise training had different effects on swimming performance at different temperatures. These differences may be related to changes in aerobic metabolic capability, arterial oxygen delivery, available dissolved oxygen, imbalances in ion fluxes and stimuli to remodel tissues with changes in temperature. PMID:22903168

Pang, Xu; Yuan, Xing-Zhong; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

2013-01-01

445

A Performance-Oriented Electronics Technician Training Program. V. Final Fleet Follow-Up Evaluation of Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation was made of the job proficiency of the graduates of an experimental job-oriented training program for Electronics Technician (X-ET). This program was designed to train lower-aptitude personnel in a relatively shorter time to assume ET duties in the fleet. The fleet performance capabilities of 51 X-ET's and a matched sample of 43…

Van Matre, Nicholas H.; Harrigan, Robert J.