Sample records for performance appraisal training

  1. Performance Appraisal in the Training Needs Analysis Process: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Glenn R.; Doverspike, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    A literature review leads to a model for using performance appraisal information in the process of analyzing training needs. The model identifies performance discrepancies, determines causes, and chooses interventions based on internal (employee) and external (work environment) factors. (SK)

  2. Development of a Performance Appraisal Training Program for the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Deborah Kilgore

    2004-01-01

    "Nobody wants to get one. Nobody wants to give one." The problem was that the supervisors and managers of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (RIC) did not know how to use the Institute's new performance management system and had not been trained on how to prepare and deliver effective performance appraisals. The problem further included the…

  3. The Performance Appraisal Process

    E-print Network

    Jun, Suckjoon

    attitudes You can't get better than (solid/above expectations) in your first year. Nobody is so good1 The Performance Appraisal Process Danielle G. Schulte Employee Relations Specialist September 11, 2013 UC-San Diego, Human Resources 2 Performance Appraisal Purpose The formal performance appraisal

  4. Training Appraisees to Participate in Appraisal: Effects on Appraisers and Appraisees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald W. Stoffey; Richard R. Reilly

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the role of behavior modeling training (BMT) in enhancing appraisee participation during a performance appraisal discussion. In addition, the study examined the effects of enhanced participation on appraisee and appraiser perceptions toward several appraisal outcome variables; in particular, the fairness and accuracy of performance appraisal were of interest. The experimental design was a 2 × 3 completely

  5. CAMPUS PEACE OFFICER PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL EMPLOYEE NAME AND SHIELD NUMBER:____________________________________________________

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    CAMPUS PEACE OFFICER PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL EMPLOYEE NAME AND SHIELD NUMBER of accidents):____________________ I. COMMENTS. (IF NEEDED): #12;CAMPUS PEACE OFFICER PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL in accordance with CUNY policy and training received #12;CAMPUS PEACE OFFICER PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL EMPLOYEE

  6. Performance Appraisal Applied to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2010-01-01

    Performance appraisal is a measurement process of how well an individual is doing her or his job. In most organisations, this appraisal is an annual event. Generally, it is done to encourage job performance, to flag areas that need attention, to inform both parties as to expectations. Much of the literature speaks to this process in terms of the…

  7. Performance Appraisal Process and System Facets: Relationships With Contextual Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry M. Findley; William F. Giles; Kevin W. Mossholder

    2000-01-01

    Because appraisal-related interactions between supervisors and employees may influence more than task performance, the authors considered the potential effects of social and interpersonal processes in performance appraisal on contextual performance. They hypothesized that performance appraisal process and system facets were associated with employees’ contextual performance as well as with their perceptions of appraisal accuracy. After controlling relevant variables, they found

  8. Can Appraisers Rate Work Performance Accurately?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedge, Jerry W.; Laue, Frances J.

    The ability of individuals to make accurate judgments about others is examined and literature on this subject is reviewed. A wide variety of situational factors affects the appraisal of performance. It is generally accepted that the purpose of the appraisal influences the accuracy of the appraiser. The instrumentation, or tools, available to the…

  9. Accountability Forces in Performance Appraisal: Effects of Self-Appraisal Information, Normative Information, and Task Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted H. Shore; Armen Tashchian

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of self-appraisal information, normative information, and task performance on performance appraisal ratings. Participants rated a fictitious “subordinate's” performance on a clerical task (which was either very good or moderately poor) subsequent to receiving self-assessment information (high or low) and normative information (present or absent). Self-appraisals affected performance ratings for poor performers but not for good

  10. Instructional Aides: Employment, Payroll Procedures, Supervision, Performance Appraisal, Legal Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Earl T.

    Designed to assist school administrators in their efforts to secure, train, and retain the most qualified instructional aides available, the monograph discusses procedures for employment, payroll processing, aide supervision, performance appraisal, and legal aspects involved in the hiring of instructional aides. Specific topics include…

  11. Performance Appraisal: What Does the Future Hold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazer, Robert I.

    1980-01-01

    Included in this examination of performance appraisal practices is an outline of the characteristics of a good system--one that is cheap to install and only requires a manager to do his/her job. (Author/IRT)

  12. Employee Performance Appraisal and the 95/5 Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasch, Lee

    2004-01-01

    Many colleges use some form of an employee performance appraisal process. Yet, despite prevalent use, the performance appraisal process is facing growing criticism. The author reviews the literature regarding the process of performance appraisal in higher education, focusing on articles supportive of the use of the performance appraisal, and those…

  13. Annual Performance Appraisal -Introduction Annual Performance Appraisals January 2011

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    . - Signed copy to HRM for inclusion in personnel file. (Send all pages, except Introduction page, to HRM) Helpful Links: - Guidelines for Supervisors - Employee Self-Evaluation Tool - HRM web pages on the annual to their supervisor, with a copy to HRM, within 20 working days of receiving their appraisal. The employee's statement

  14. SAMPLE Grade 12 Astrophysicist EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE PLAN AND APPRAISAL

    E-print Network

    SAMPLE Grade 12 Astrophysicist EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE PLAN AND APPRAISAL PERFORMANCE PLAN EMPLOYEE Annual Unit Goal: Focused First-class scientific research ELEMENT: Research PERFORMANCE STANDARD #12;SAMPLE Grade 12 Astrophysicist EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE PLAN AND APPRAISAL PERFORMANCE PLAN EMPLOYEE

  15. Predictors of employee satisfaction with the performance appraisal process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Inderrieden; Timothy J. Keaveny; Robert E. Allen

    1988-01-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of the performance appraisal interview in the appraisal process. However, interactions between the rater and ratee prior to the end of the performance evaluation period have been given little attention. The present study investigated the impact of several aspects of the appraisal process on three outcome measures: satisfaction with the appraisal process, fairness of

  16. Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnell, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

  17. Persistent Ratee Contaminants in Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Fleet, David D.; Chamberlain, Howard

    The hypothesis that conventional approaches to evaluating contaminants in performance appraisal overlook important individual ratee effects was examined. A rating form was developed that consisted of the following dimensions and behaviors: warmth; guided discourse or indirect teaching methods; control of subject matter; enthusiasm and reinforcing;…

  18. Teacher Performance Appraisal in Thailand: Poison or Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpa, Nattavud

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the examination of problems related to the national teacher performance appraisal system by the Thai Ministry of Education. It highlights major problems of the current performance appraisal system by delineating the weaknesses and pitfalls of the current appraisal system. The findings indicate problems to three major…

  19. Testing a Model of Performance Appraisal Fit on Attitudinal Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hal J. Whiting; Theresa J. B. Kline

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of the congruence of employees' current versus ideal performance appraisal system on performance appraisal attitudes. This in turn was assessed as to its predictive relationships with affective organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Continuance organizational commitment and job performance were also assessed in the model. A total of 149 surveys were

  20. Performance Appraisal of Community College Department/Division Chairpersons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammons, James; Thomas, Wanda

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study of performance appraisals of department chairpersons focusing on: (1) the percentage of colleges evaluating chairpersons; (2) methods and criteria used; (3) chairperson attitudes toward existing and desirable appraisal systems; (4) the differences in chairpersons' attitudes among academic disciplines; and (5) the value of…

  1. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Performance appraisal for inmate workers. 345.41 Section 345.41 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and...

  2. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Performance appraisal for inmate workers. 345.41 Section 345.41 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and...

  3. Fair Employment and Performance Appraisal: Legal Requirements and Practical Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith J.

    The use of tests in personnel decisions has become an increasing legal liability for employers. The major questions raised by the courts concerning this use of tests are described. Current federal guidelines for performance appraisal systems, as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, are explained and traced to Title VII of…

  4. Organizational Justice and Employee Satisfaction in Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiologos, Anastasios; Papazekos, Panagiotis; Panayotopoulou, Leda

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the performance appraisal (PA) aspects that are connected with organizational justice, and more specifically three kinds of justice, namely distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a sample of 170 respondents who answered a questionnaire giving…

  5. CIRCULAR DEPENDENCY: TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION, INSTRUMENT VALIDATION AND PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

    E-print Network

    Yu, Alex

    - experimental settings where experimental control is lacking, often each aspect mentioned above is studied Source of variation Sample size determination Treatment Treatment effectiveness evaluation To evaluate of an instrument such as a test or a survey Instrument items Stability Subjects Performance/ Attitude appraisal

  6. Square Pegs and Round Holes: Ruminations on the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravina, Nicole E.; Siers, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Models of comprehensive Performance Management systems include both employee development and evaluative components. The Organizational Behavior Management discipline focuses almost exclusively on the developmental component, while the Industrial and Organizational Psychology discipline is focused on use of performance appraisals. Performance

  7. Performance Appraisal: Promise and Peril. Key Issues Series--No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenfeld, Elaine F.

    To reveal evolving strategies for and existing problems in performance appraisal, this report summarizes recently published research findings and expert opinions. The first section examines the purposes of performance appraisal in organizations, discusses the relationship of appraisal to the job description, and presents an overview of the basic…

  8. Performance appraisal system in the Turkish National Police: the case of Ankara Police Department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serdar Kenan Gul; Osman Dolu; Cemil Dogutas

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the performance appraisal system and particularly the problem of the ‘secret appraisal system’ in the Turkish National Police. Using a survey conducted at the Ankara Police Department in 2001, this study explores the raters’ and the ratees’ opinions about the existing performance appraisal system. Multivariate regression analyses show that district captains and lieutenants, in contrast to non?ranking

  9. Performance Appraisal Systems in Higher Education: An Exploration of Christian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaniken, Forrest W.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is substantial literature on the use of performance appraisal in the for-profit world, there is little literature available concerning the appraisal of staff positions in higher education. More knowledge is needed in this area since there is considerable research indicating that performance appraisal creates benefits to an…

  10. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Results achieved in accordance with the goals of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993; (ii) Customer satisfaction; (iii) Employee perspectives; (iv) The effectiveness, productivity, and performance quality of...

  11. Non-linear scaling of performance appraisal dimensions: application of the ProMES methodology

    E-print Network

    Hedley, Amie Lynn

    1990-01-01

    . , Concordia College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert Pritchard Performance appraisals are important and necessary tools in many organizational decisions. Proper measurement of performance dimensions is the central underlying aspect of producing... accurate performance appraisals. The purpose of this research was to examine the performance appraisal results produced by a new measurement method called ProMES. This method accounts for differing importance of the various performance dimensions...

  12. Evaluation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jillian; Bridge, Pete; Brown, Elizabeth; Lusk, Ryan; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Constantly evolving technology and techniques within radiation therapy require practitioners to maintain a continuous approach to professional development and training. Systems of performance appraisal and adoption of regular feedback mechanisms are vital to support this development yet frequently lack structure and rely on informal peer support. Methods A Radiation Therapy Performance Appraisal Framework (RT-PAF) for radiation therapists in planning and simulation was developed to define expectations of practice and promote a supportive and objective culture of performance and skills appraisal. Evaluation of the framework was conducted via an anonymous online survey tool. Nine peer reviewers and fourteen recipients provided feedback on its effectiveness and the challenges and limitations of the approach. Results Findings from the evaluation were positive and suggested that both groups gained benefit from and expressed a strong interest in embedding the approach more routinely. Respondents identified common challenges related to the limited ability to implement suggested development strategies; this was strongly associated with time and rostering issues. Conclusions This framework successfully defined expectations for practice and provided a fair and objective feedback process that focussed on skills development. It empowered staff to maintain their skills and reach their professional potential. Management support, particularly in regard to provision of protected time was highlighted as critical to the framework's ongoing success. The demonstrated benefits arising in terms of staff satisfaction and development highlight the importance of this commitment to the modern radiation therapy workforce.

  13. Towards a Performance Data and Development System: Getting Rid of Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janz, Tom

    If organizations are to measure and use worker performance information effectively, they must distinguish between two components of performance appraisal: performance data (recorded information for comparing workers) and performance development (the process of improving human assets by discouraging ineffective and reinforcing effective job…

  14. German training revisited: an appraisal of corporatist governance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Lange

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to re-examine the unique political economy of Germany's dual apprenticeship training model and its underlying philosophy of corporatist governance. It responds to recent arguments suggesting that Germany's collectivist skill regime is under threat, increasingly giving way to the introduction of “segmentalism”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews the political roots of a training

  15. Work Planning and Performance Appraisal: A Reference Handbook for Managers and Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Jerry E.

    Merit system law, state personnel rules, and collective bargaining contracts require that Oregon state agencies appraise the performance of their employees. The heart of the Oregon performance appraisal system is work planning. Based on management by objectives and the concepts of employee involvement and participation, work planning is a process…

  16. A Note on the use of Appraisal Data in Indexes of Performance Measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Michael Giliberto

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that even when unbiased appraisals of market value are used in measuring the investment performance of real estate portfolios, a bias in the rate of return or index is present. Further, in the case where the appraisal errors are serially independent, the bias is always positive. The potential for bias in a standard rate of return formula

  17. Caffeine's Effect on Appraisal and Mental Arithmetic Performance: A Cognitive Modeling Approach Tells Us More

    E-print Network

    Ritter, Frank

    Caffeine's Effect on Appraisal and Mental Arithmetic Performance: A Cognitive Modeling Approach Abstract A human subject experiment was conducted to investigate caffeine's effect on appraisal treatment groups: placebo, 200 mg caffeine, and 400 mg caffeine. Data were analyzed by average across

  18. The performance appraisal congruency scale: an assessment of person-environment fit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hal J. Whiting; Theresa J. B. Kline; Lorne M. Sulsky

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to construct an instrument to assess employee-perceived performance appraisal congruency and then to use the scale to predict employee attitudes about their performance appraisal systems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The scale was developed using 28 subject-matter experts and researcher knowledge of the extant literature. The scale was then completed by a sample of 135

  19. Does training facilitate SME's performance?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nai-Wen Chi; Chih-Yun Wu; Carol Yeh-Yun Lin

    2008-01-01

    This study explores relationships between small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) foreign direct investment (FDI), FDI-related training programs and organizational performance. To determine if the implementation of training programs mediate the relationship between FDI and SME performance, and if the alignment between training needs and training implementation leads to higher SME performance, we collected large-scale company-level data (N = 816) from within Taiwan.Research

  20. Appraisal of family doctors: an evaluation study.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Malcolm; Elwyn, Glyn; Wood, Fiona

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appraisal has evolved to become a key component of workforce management. However, it is not clear from existing proposals for appraisal of doctors whether employers, health authorities or primary care organisations should take responsibility for appraisal processes. AIMS: To evaluate the introduction of a pilot peer appraisal system in general practice and to gain insight into the reactions of appraisers and doctors. DESIGN OF STUDY: Semi-structured telephone interviews combined with participant surveys and documentary analysis. SETTING: Five health authorities in Wales. PARTICIPANTS: General practitioners (GPs) appointed as appraisers and volunteer practitioners (doctors). METHOD: Twenty-six appraisers were appointed and given training in the appraisal process, each appraising an average of eight individuals. Appraisers and appraised doctors participated in semi-structured telephone interviews and completed separate participant questionnaires. RESULTS: GPs willingly undertook peer appraisal in a volunteer-based pilot study where participation was recompensed. The majority of participating clinicians were positive, with appraisers reporting the most gain. Appraisers were enthusiastic, provided the process remained non-judgemental and did not threaten or burden their colleagues. Appraised doctors were less enthusiastic but the most significant perceived benefit was the opportunity to reflect on individual performance with a supportive colleague. There were, however, repeated concerns about time, confusion with revalidation and personal development plans, worries about including health and probity queries, and an opinion that the process would be entirely different if conducted with non-volunteers or by representatives of 'management'. CONCLUSION: This study illustrated three fundamental problems for appraisal systems in general practice. First, there is as yet no organisational hierarchy in general practice. Perhaps the aggregation of practices into primary care organisations will generate a hierarchy. Second, the question of who conducts appraisals then becomes pertinent; this study illustrates a professionally-led peer appraisal model. Third, the spectre of summative assessment causes problems in appraisal schemes. Typically, only mutually agreed summaries are kept for future use in appraisal systems (for example, for promotion or discipline). So the proposal to use GP annual appraisal documentation as the basis of a summative 'revalidation' exercise is at odds with orthodox personnel practice, which regards appraisal as a formative process. PMID:12939890

  1. The Relationship between Self-Appraisal, Professional Training, and Diversity Awareness among Forensic Psychology Students: A Pilot Formative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.; Chandler, Michele D.; Clark, Quelanda C.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing need for formal training in forensic psychology. This pilot study examines the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction, perceived academic competence, and program competency among a sample of forensic psychology students. In theory, the RBM suggests that self-appraisal,…

  2. A Preliminary Investigation of the Sources of Information Used by Raters When Appraising Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick H. Raymark; William K. Balzer; Felipe DeLaTorre

    1999-01-01

    Raters (N = 135) from six organizations completed a survey regarding the sources of information used when appraising an employee's performance. Results indicated that multiple sources of information are used, and that raters are active seekers, as well as passive recipients of performance information. The perceived usefulness of volunteered versus requested second-hand performance information was found to differ across the

  3. Performance Appraisal Systems as a Strategic Human Resource Management Tool in the Bahamian Public Service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Rolle; Donald Klingner

    2012-01-01

    The Bahamian Public Service faces general pressures for better performance, including higher quality, rational administrative systems, and managerial innovation. Because organizational effectiveness depends on high-quality and committed human capital, performance appraisal is important. This study will describe, assess, and recommend changes in the current system.

  4. On the use data envelopment analysis in hedge fund performance appraisal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On the use data envelopment analysis in hedge fund performance appraisal Huyen Nguyen-Thi-Thanh This Draft: December 2006 Abstract This paper aims to show that Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA: hedge fund, mutual fund, alternative investment, data envelopment analysis, performance measures, Sharpe

  5. Evaluating and rewarding OCBs : Potential consequences of formally incorporating organisational citizenship behaviour in performance appraisal and reward systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bret Becton; William F. Giles; Mike Schraeder

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to address a topic that has not been systematically studied in the organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), performance appraisal and rewards literature. Specifically, this paper seeks to examine the potential effects of rewarding OCBs by explicitly incorporating them into performance appraisal and reward systems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A review of relevant theory and literature is provided and

  6. Appraising and applying evidence about a diagnostic test during a performance-based assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bergus, George; Vogelgesang, Scott; Tansey, Janeta; Franklin, Ellen; Feld, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Background The practice of Evidence-based Medicine requires that clinicians assess the validity of published research and then apply the results to patient care. We wanted to assess whether our soon-to-graduate medical students could appraise and apply research about a diagnostic test within a clinical context and to compare our students with peers trained at other institutions. Methods 4th year medical students who previously had demonstrated competency at probability revision and just starting first-year Internal Medicine residents were used for this research. Following an encounter with a simulated patient, subjects critically appraised a paper about an applicable diagnostic test and revised the patient's pretest probability given the test result. Results The medical students and residents demonstrated similar skills at critical appraisal, correctly answering 4.7 and 4.9, respectively, of 6 questions (p = 0.67). Only one out of 28 (3%) medical students and none of the 15 residents were able to correctly complete the probability revision task (p = 1.00). Conclusions This study found that most students completing medical school are able to appraise an article about a diagnostic test but few are able to apply the information from the article to a patient. These findings raise questions about the clinical usefulness of the EBM skills possessed by graduating medical students within the area of diagnostic testing. PMID:15482600

  7. Software for Performance Training Carrel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasmundt, Kenneth C.; Steffen, Dale A.

    A prototype system was developed to evaluate a computer-assisted performance training carrel which was used to present the troubleshooting fundamentals lesson of the Lowry Technical Training Center's Electronic Principles Course. This manual provides a description of the PDP-11 and PLATO programs used to implement this system, and an operators…

  8. Utilising a Virtual World to Teach Performance Appraisal: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Shona

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to give a critical assessment of a study designed to investigate the potential of a new method for teaching HRD students about performance appraisal. It is argued that this approach is in the vanguard of developments in IT and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the form of an explorative study…

  9. National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

  10. Employee perceptions of performance appraisals: a comparative study on Indian banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Shrivastava; P. Purang

    2011-01-01

    Performance appraisal is the most critical human resource practice and an indispensable part of every organization; however, the practice continues to generate dissatisfaction among employees and is often viewed as unfair and ineffective. Indian banking sector is one of the biggest and fastest growing financial service sectors. The post-liberalization era has witnessed significant changes in the structure and operations of

  11. Iron and Steel Industry Training Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Alvan D.

    1974-01-01

    The British iron and steel industry training board has developed a training approach called investment appraisal of training. This approach is a forward-looking appraisal in which the estimated costs ofthe proposed training activity are balanced against benefits accruing in fi nancial terms from improved performance. (DS)

  12. Supervisor Appraisal as the Link Between Family–Work Balance and Contextual Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn S. Carlson; L. A. Witt; Suzanne Zivnuska; K. Michele Kacmar; Joseph G. Grzywacz

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between subordinates’ family to work balance (conflict and enrichment) and two dimensions of\\u000a contextual performance (interpersonal facilitation and job dedication) reported by supervisors. Beyond the direct effects,\\u000a we hypothesized that supervisor’s appraisals of employee conflict and enrichment would influence the supervisor’s contextual\\u000a performance ratings. Data collected from a matched sample of 156 private sector employees and

  13. First-year students’ appraisal of assessment tasks: implications for efficacy, engagement and performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alf Lizzio; Keithia Wilson

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated students’ appraisals of assessment tasks and the impact of this on both their task-related efficacy and engagement and subsequent task performance. Two hundred and fifty-seven first-year students rated their experience of an assessment task (essay, oral presentation, laboratory report or exam) that they had previously completed. First-year students evaluated these assessment tasks in terms of two general

  14. Depression, Cognition, and Self-Appraisal of Functional Abilities in HIV: An Examination of Subjective Appraisal Versus Objective Performance

    PubMed Central

    Thames, April D.; Becker, Brian W.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Hines, Lindsay J.; Foley, Jessica M.; Ramezani, Amir; Singer, Elyse J.; Castellon, Steven A.; Heaton, Robert K.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with HIV infection and can result in self-reported overestimates of cognitive deficits. Conversely, genuine cognitive dysfunction can lead to an under-appreciation of cognitive deficits. The degree to which depression and cognition influence self-report of capacity for instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of depression and cognitive deficits on self-appraisal of functional competence among 107 HIV-infected adults. As hypothesized, higher levels of depression were found among those who over-reported problems in medication management, driving, and cognition when compared to those who under-reported or provided accurate self-assessments. In contrast, genuine cognitive dysfunction was predictive of under-reporting of functional deficits. Together, these results suggest that over-reliance on self-reported functional status poses risk for error when diagnoses require documentation of both cognitive impairment and associated functional disability in everyday life. PMID:21331979

  15. Mindfulness Training Targets Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Addiction at the Attention-Appraisal-Emotion Interface

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Prominent neuroscience models suggest that addictive behavior occurs when environmental stressors and drug-relevant cues activate a cycle of cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological mechanisms, including dysregulated interactions between bottom-up and top-down neural processes, that compel the user to seek out and use drugs. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) target pathogenic mechanisms of the risk chain linking stress and addiction. This review describes how MBIs may target neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs ameliorate addiction by enhancing cognitive regulation of a number of key processes, including: clarifying cognitive appraisal and modulating negative emotions to reduce perseverative cognition and emotional arousal; enhancing metacognitive awareness to regulate drug-use action schema and decrease addiction attentional bias; promoting extinction learning to uncouple drug-use triggers from conditioned appetitive responses; reducing cue-reactivity and increasing cognitive control over craving; attenuating physiological stress reactivity through parasympathetic activation; and increasing savoring to restore natural reward processing. Treatment and research implications of our neurocognitive framework are presented. We conclude by offering a temporally sequenced description of neurocognitive processes targeted by MBIs through a hypothetical case study. Our neurocognitive framework has implications for the optimization of addiction treatment with MBIs. PMID:24454293

  16. Hardiness training facilitates performance in college

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore R. Maddi; Richard H. Harvey; Deborah M. Khoshaba; Mostafa Fazel; Nephthys Resurreccion

    2009-01-01

    In 25 years of research and practice, hardiness has emerged as a pattern of attitudes and skills that is a pathway to resilience under stressful circumstances. As such, it is important to determine whether hardiness can be trained, and if such training improves performance and health. The few relevant studies available thus far have suggested this training effectiveness among working

  17. CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY TRAINING AND PSYCHOTHERAPY INTERVIEW PERFORMANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saul Shiffman

    1987-01-01

    The effect of graduate training in clinical psychology on interview skill was examined. The analogue interview performance of graduate students with 0 to 2 years of clinical training was compared to that of graduate students in other areas of psychology. A year later, trainees with 0 to 3 years of training were assessed, adding a longitudinal perspective. Compared to nonclinical

  18. The Insulation Energy Appraisal Assessing the True Value of Insulated System 

    E-print Network

    Schell, S.

    2002-01-01

    . The presentation will highlight various components of the intensive 2-day training program which teaches an appraiser how to: evaluate the thermal performance of insulated versus uninsulated piping and equipment; translate Btu losses into actual dollars...

  19. TAP 2: Performance-Based Training Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Cornerstone of safe operation of DOE nuclear facilities is personnel performing day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Performance-based training is fundamental to the safe operation. This manual has been developed to support the Training Accreditation Program (TAP) and assist contractors in efforts to develop performance-based training programs. It provides contractors with narrative procedures on performance-based training that can be modified and incorporated for facility-specific application. It is divided into sections dealing with analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.

  20. Training high performance skills using above real-time training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

    1993-01-01

    The Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) concept is a unique approach to training high performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. Such a training paradigm represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. These techniques allow individuals to acquire these critical skills faster and with greater retention. ARTT also allows an individual trained in 'fast time' to operate at what appears to be a more confident state, when the same task is performed in a real-time environment. Two related experiments are discussed. The findings appear to be consistent with previous findings that show positive effects of task variation during training. Moreover, ARTT has merit in improving or maintaining transfer with sharp reductions in training time. There are indications that the effectiveness of ARTT varies as a function of task content and possibly task difficulty. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

  1. A comparison of the performance appraisal practices of US multinational subsidiaries with parent company and local Taiwanese practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Sauers; Steven C. H. Lin; Jeff Kennedy; Jana Schrenkler

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare the performance appraisal practices of US subsidiaries in Taiwan to those of their parent firms and to those of large Taiwanese companies in an effort to understand how foreign subsidiaries adjust to the competing demands for global integration and local responsiveness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A stratified random sampling scheme was employed

  2. Performance appraisal politics from appraisee perspective: a study of antecedents in the Indian context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Dhiman; Sunil Kumar Maheshwari

    2012-01-01

    Appraisee's perception of appraisal politics (APAP) is conceptualized to be formed by three perceptual dimensions. First is appraiser's manipulation of ratings to achieve their self-serving ends such as own reputation, maintaining good relationships, building in-groups, and handling dependency threats from appraisees. Second dimension constitutes fellow appraisees' upward influence behaviors to get higher ratings and rewards. Third dimension relates to the

  3. VISUAL TRAINING AND READING PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANAPOLLE, LOUIS

    VISUAL TRAINING IS DEFINED AS THE FIELD OF OCULAR REEDUCATION AND REHABILITATION OF THE VARIOUS VISUAL SKILLS THAT ARE OF PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE TO SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT, AUTOMOBILE DRIVING, OUTDOOR SPORTS ACTIVITIES, AND OCCUPATIONAL PURSUITS. A HISTORY OF ORTHOPTICS, THE SUGGESTED NAME FOR THE ENTIRE FIELD OF OCULAR REEDUCATION, IS GIVEN. READING AS…

  4. TRAINING OR FACILITATING SKILLED PERFORMANCE

    E-print Network

    Creswell, J. David

    Detection Training James J. Staszewski Carnegie Mellon University COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND LANDMINE-spatial thinking and learning. THE PROBLEM DOMAIN: LANDMINES AND LANDMINE DETECTION The deployment of landmines;Chapter-09.qxd 6/26/2006 7:41 PM Page 230 #12;Chapter9 Spatial Thinking and the Design of Landmine

  5. Realistic training for effective crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of incident and accident statistics reveals that most problems occur not because of a lack of proficiency in pilot training, but because of the inability to coordinate skills into effective courses of action. Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) programs provide training which will develop both individual crew member skills, as well as those associated with effective group function. A study conducted by NASA at the request of the U.S. Congress supports the argument for training that enhances crew performance in addition to providing individual technical skills, and is described in detail.

  6. Fueling strategies to optimize performance: training high or training low?

    PubMed

    Burke, L M

    2010-10-01

    Availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for the muscle and central nervous system is critical for the performance of both intermittent high-intensity work and prolonged aerobic exercise. Therefore, strategies that promote carbohydrate availability, such as ingesting carbohydrate before, during and after exercise, are critical for the performance of many sports and a key component of current sports nutrition guidelines. Guidelines for daily carbohydrate intakes have evolved from the "one size fits all" recommendation for a high-carbohydrate diets to an individualized approach to fuel needs based on the athlete's body size and exercise program. More recently, it has been suggested that athletes should train with low carbohydrate stores but restore fuel availability for competition ("train low, compete high"), based on observations that the intracellular signaling pathways underpinning adaptations to training are enhanced when exercise is undertaken with low glycogen stores. The present literature is limited to studies of "twice a day" training (low glycogen for the second session) or withholding carbohydrate intake during training sessions. Despite increasing the muscle adaptive response and reducing the reliance on carbohydrate utilization during exercise, there is no clear evidence that these strategies enhance exercise performance. Further studies on dietary periodization strategies, especially those mimicking real-life athletic practices, are needed. PMID:20840562

  7. Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAN HELGERUD; LARS CHRISTIAN ENGEN; JAN HOFF

    2001-01-01

    HELGERUD, J., L. C. ENGEN, U. WISLØFF, and J. HOFF. Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance.Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 11, 2001, pp. 1925-1931. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to study the effects of aerobic training on performance during soccer match and soccer specific tests. Methods: Nineteen male elite junior soccer players, age 18.1 0.8

  8. Resistance training and neuromuscular performance in seniors.

    PubMed

    Granacher, U; Gruber, M; Gollhofer, A

    2009-09-01

    Age-related processes in the neuromuscular and the somatosensory system are responsible for decreases in maximal and explosive force production capacity and deficits in postural control. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of resistance training on strength performance and on postural control in seniors. Forty healthy seniors (67+/-1 yrs) participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance training (n=20) and a control group (n=20). Resistance training for the lower extremities lasted for 13 weeks at 80% of the one repetition maximum. Pre and post tests included the measurement of maximal isometric leg extension force with special emphasis on the early part of the force-time-curve and the assessment of static (functional reach test) and dynamic (tandem walk test, platform perturbation) postural control. Resistance training resulted in an enhanced strength performance with increases in explosive force exceeding those in maximal strength. Improved performances in the functional reach and in the tandem walk test were observed. Resistance training did not have an effect on the compensation of platform perturbations. Increases in strength performance can primarily be explained by an improved neural drive of the agonist muscles. The inconsistent effect of resistance training on postural control may be explained by heterogeneity of testing methodology or by the incapability of isolated resistance training to improve postural control. PMID:19569007

  9. Diagnostic Performance 1 H after Simulation Training Predicts Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consoli, Anna; Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene; Sobczak, Matthew; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Although simulation training improves post-training performance, it is unclear how well performance soon after simulation training predicts longer term outcomes (i.e., learning). Here our objective was to assess the predictive value of performance 1 h post-training of performance 6 weeks later. We trained 84 first year medical students a simulated…

  10. What predicts performance during clinical psychology training?

    PubMed Central

    Scior, Katrina; Bradley, Caroline E; Potts, Henry W W; Woolf, Katherine; de C Williams, Amanda C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While the question of who is likely to be selected for clinical psychology training has been studied, evidence on performance during training is scant. This study explored data from seven consecutive intakes of the UK's largest clinical psychology training course, aiming to identify what factors predict better or poorer outcomes. Design Longitudinal cross-sectional study using prospective and retrospective data. Method Characteristics at application were analysed in relation to a range of in-course assessments for 274 trainee clinical psychologists who had completed or were in the final stage of their training. Results Trainees were diverse in age, pre-training experience, and academic performance at A-level (advanced level certificate required for university admission), but not in gender or ethnicity. Failure rates across the three performance domains (academic, clinical, research) were very low, suggesting that selection was successful in screening out less suitable candidates. Key predictors of good performance on the course were better A-levels and better degree class. Non-white students performed less well on two outcomes. Type and extent of pre-training clinical experience on outcomes had varied effects on outcome. Research supervisor ratings emerged as global indicators and predicted nearly all outcomes, but may have been biased as they were retrospective. Referee ratings predicted only one of the seven outcomes examined, and interview ratings predicted none of the outcomes. Conclusions Predicting who will do well or poorly in clinical psychology training is complex. Interview and referee ratings may well be successful in screening out unsuitable candidates, but appear to be a poor guide to performance on the course. Practitioner points While referee and selection interview ratings did not predict performance during training, they may be useful in screening out unsuitable candidates at the application stage High school final academic performance was the best predictor of good performance during clinical psychology training The findings are derived from seven cohorts of one training course, the UK's largest; they cannot be assumed to generalize to all training courses PMID:24206117

  11. Seasonal training and performance of competitive swimmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Stewart; William G. Hopkins

    2000-01-01

    To determine the relationship between prescribed training and seasonal-best swimming performance, we surveyed 24 swim coaches and 185 of their age-group and open-class swimmers specializing in sprint (50 and 100 m) and middle-distance (200 and 400 m) events in a summer and winter season. We expressed effects on training as either multiples of swimmers' standard deviations (effect size, ES) or

  12. Performance assessment to enhance training effectiveness.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Gieseler, Charles J.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris

    2010-09-01

    Training simulators have become increasingly popular tools for instructing humans on performance in complex environments. However, the question of how to provide individualized and scenario-specific assessment and feedback to students remains largely an open question. To maximize training efficiency, new technologies are required that assist instructors in providing individually relevant instruction. Sandia National Laboratories has shown the feasibility of automated performance assessment tools, such as the Sandia-developed Automated Expert Modeling and Student Evaluation (AEMASE) software, through proof-of-concept demonstrations, a pilot study, and an experiment. In the pilot study, the AEMASE system, which automatically assesses student performance based on observed examples of good and bad performance in a given domain, achieved a high degree of agreement with a human grader (89%) in assessing tactical air engagement scenarios. In more recent work, we found that AEMASE achieved a high degree of agreement with human graders (83-99%) for three Navy E-2 domain-relevant performance metrics. The current study provides a rigorous empirical evaluation of the enhanced training effectiveness achievable with this technology. In particular, we assessed whether giving students feedback based on automated metrics would enhance training effectiveness and improve student performance. We trained two groups of employees (differentiated by type of feedback) on a Navy E-2 simulator and assessed their performance on three domain-specific performance metrics. We found that students given feedback via the AEMASE-based debrief tool performed significantly better than students given only instructor feedback on two out of three metrics. Future work will focus on extending these developments for automated assessment of teamwork.

  13. The Appraisal of Teachers' Performance and Its Impact on the Mutuality of Principal-Teacher Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yariv, Eliezer

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines the mutual discrete emotions among superiors and their above- and below-average workers within a hierarchical organisation (school). Using a survey method within a random sample of 40 elementary schools in Northern Israel, each principal and four of his or her teachers (two who had been appraised as excellent and two who…

  14. Collaborative Peer Coaching That Improves Instruction: The 2 + 2 Performance Appraisal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen Dwight W.; LeBlanc, Alyce C.

    2004-01-01

    Behind a simple equation, 2 + 2, lies a rich yet realistic approach to enhancing teaching and learning. As this book demonstrates, the current method of job appraisal consists of sporadic classroom visits from school administrators that frequently serve to reinforce teacher isolation rather than promote professional development. In contrast, the 2…

  15. Endoscopic Sedation: From Training to Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Adequate sedation and analgesia are considered essential requirements to relieve patient discomfort and pain and ultimately to improve the outcomes of modern gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. The willingness of patients to undergo sedation during endoscopy has increased steadily in recent years and standard sedation practices are needed for both patient safety and successful procedural outcomes. Therefore, regular training and education of healthcare providers is warranted. However, training curricula and guidelines for endoscopic sedation may have conflicts according to varying legal frameworks and/or social security systems of each country, and well-recognized endoscopic sedation training systems are not currently available in all endoscopy units. Although European and American curricula for endoscopic sedation have been extensively developed, general curricula and guidelines for each country and institution are also needed. In this review, an overview of recent curricula and guidelines for training and basic performance of endoscopic sedation is presented based on the current literature. PMID:24765596

  16. How to perform a critical appraisal of diagnostic tests: 7 steps.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Aamer; Kelly, Aine Marie; Cronin, Paul

    2015-06-01

    The critically appraised topic (CAT) is a format in evidence-based practice for sharing information. A CAT is a standardized way of summarizing the most current research evidence focused on a pertinent clinical question. Its aim is to provide both a critique of the most up-to-date retrieved research and an indication of the clinical relevance of results. A clinical question is initially generated following a patient encounter, which leads to and directs a literature search to answer the clinical question. Studies obtained from the literature search are assigned a level of evidence. This allows the most valid and relevant articles to be selected and to be critically appraised. The results are summarized, and this information is translated into clinically useful procedures and processes. PMID:25573242

  17. Training Needs Assessment: A Must for Developing an Effective Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Presents a rationale for conducting training needs assessment and discusses types of analyses: organizational, task, and individual. Compares advantages and disadvantages of the following assessment methods: surveys, interviews, performance appraisals, observations, tests, assessment centers, focus groups, document reviews, and advisory…

  18. Tractor Trailer Driver's Training Programs. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Vocational Technical Coll., Nashua.

    This document describes a project to develop a 320-hour tractor trailer driver training program and a 20-hour commercial driver licensing upgrade training program. Of 34 graduates from the training program, 28 secured employment in the trucking industry. From August 1989 to June 1990, 725 students were trained in the upgrade training program with…

  19. The Effects of Isolated and Integrated ‘Core Stability’ Training on Athletic Performance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Casey A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. Objective This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. Data sources A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June2011). Study selection A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Study appraisal and synthesis methods Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. Results In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Limitations Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic development programme, making it difficult to directly isolate its affect on athletic performance. The population biases of some studies of athletic performance also confound the results. Conclusions Targeted core stability training provides marginal benefits to athletic performance. Conflicting findings and the lack of a standardization for measurement of outcomes and training focused to improve core strength and stability pose difficulties. Because of this, further research targeted to determine this relationship is necessary to better understand how core strength and stability affect athletic performance. PMID:22784233

  20. The Influence of Teacher Efficacy and Readiness for Self-Directed Learning on the Implementation of a Growth-Oriented Teacher Performance Appraisal Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Barry W.

    This study analyzed the implementation of a teacher performance appraisal process that encourages self-directed learning (SDL), highlighting the extent to which teacher efficacy (TE) influenced the its success. The study also examined whether lack of readiness for SDL was an implementation obstacle. Finally, it noted other barriers and obstacles…

  1. Subjective Appraisal as a Feedback Tool. Technical Report 604.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnside, Billy L.

    This report examines the accuracy of subjective appraisals of several aspects of task performance, including proficiency, difficulty, frequency, and criticality. An introduction discusses current Army use of subjective appraisal, feedback methods, and problems with subjective appraisal. Data pertaining to the accuracy of various types of appraisal

  2. COLLEGE MAJOR DIFFERENCES IN NAVAL FLIGHT OFFICER TRAINING PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANE, NORMAN E.; PETERSON, FLOYD E.

    PERFORMANCE IN NAVAL FLIGHT OFFICER (NFO) TRAINING WAS EXAMINED IN RELATION TO MAJOR AREAS OF STUDY IN COLLEGE. EACH OF 1,231 STUDENT NFO'S WAS ASSIGNED TO ONE OF 16 COLLEGE MAJOR CATEGORIES. MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF EACH CATEGORY WERE COMPUTED ON EACH OF 24 TESTS AND TRAINING PERFORMANCE VARIABLES, AND THE TRAINING COMPLETION RATE WAS…

  3. Making Connections between the Appraisal, Performance Management and Professional Development of Dentists and Teachers: "Right, What Are the Problems We've Got and How Could We Sort This Out?'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butt, Graham; Macnab, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the connections between the appraisal, or performance management, of different professional groups, and their subsequent uptake of continuing professional development (CPD), is valuable for both employees and managers. The linking of appraisal systems with professional/personal development plans amongst health professionals is now…

  4. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...training to establish market (not retail) values...the Agency. (d) Real estate appraisals. A current...appraisal is required when real estate will be primary security...significant changes in the market or on the subject real estate and the...

  5. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...training to establish market (not retail) values...the Agency. (d) Real estate appraisals. A current...appraisal is required when real estate will be primary security...significant changes in the market or on the subject real estate and the...

  6. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...training to establish market (not retail) values...the Agency. (d) Real estate appraisals. A current...appraisal is required when real estate will be primary security...significant changes in the market or on the subject real estate and the...

  7. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...training to establish market (not retail) values...the Agency. (d) Real estate appraisals. A current...appraisal is required when real estate will be primary security...significant changes in the market or on the subject real estate and the...

  8. The role of AFB microscopy training in improving the performance of laboratory professionals: analysis of pre and post training evaluation scores

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains major cause of morbidity and mortality due to any one of infectious agent worldwide. In low income countries, Ziehl-Neelsen sputum smear microscopy is the only cost-effective tool for diagnosis and monitoring of patients on treatment. In order to have efficient AFB microscopy centers, it is imperative to have continuous refresher training for laboratory professionals and strong External Quality Assessment (EQA) system). However, very little data exists as to the effect of in-service training on performance of laboratory personnel in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of AFB microscopy refresher training on the performance of laboratory professionals. Methods A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted to appraise theoretical and practical performance of laboratory professionals before and after AFB microscopy training. Theoretical assessment was based on standard questions while practical assessment was based on smear reading of 10 standard slides. Data on eight rounds of a five days training at Adama regional laboratory on AFB microscopy in 2009 was obtained and analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Result The pre-training mean score of the theoretical knowledge and practical skills were 61.8% and 75.7%, respectively. The post training mean scores were 84.2% and 89.2% for theoretical knowledge and practical skills, respectively. The increase in mean score of both theoretical and practical assessment was statistically significant (p?training mean score of theoretical knowledge was higher among diploma holders trainees than the BSc degree counter parts (p?=?0.001). The mean scores on practice before and after training was dependent on participation in previous AFB microscopy trainings (p?trained. Trainees who have had previous training were found to commit less errors than those who were not participated in previous training (p?Training has improved theoretical and practical performance of laboratory professionals. Pre-placement and continuous training irrespective of lab professionals qualification and service year and sustainable EQA are highly recommended to ensure quality of AFB microscopy service. PMID:24099153

  9. Performance Errors in Weight Training and Their Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John H.; Lander, Jeffrey E.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses general performance errors in weight training, also discussing each category of error separately. The paper focuses on frequency and intensity, incorrect training velocities, full range of motion, and symmetrical training. It also examines specific errors related to the bench press, squat, military press, and bent- over and seated row…

  10. Using Mental Computation Training to Improve Complex Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Allison S.; Kallai, Arava Y.; Schunn, Christian D.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical fluency is important for academic and mathematical success. Fluency training programs have typically focused on fostering retrieval, which leads to math performance that does not reliably transfer to non-trained problems. More recent studies have focused on training number understanding and representational precision, but few have…

  11. Cognitive Strategy Training and Intellectual Performance in the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labouvie-Vief, Gisela; Gonda, Judith N.

    1976-01-01

    Reduced intellectual performance in the elderly was conceptualized as an experiential dificit that can be reversed by training relevant component skills. Female elderly subjects (N=60) participated in three phases of the experiment: Training, Immediate Posttest, and Delayed Posttest. Training was geared at strengthening covert self-monitoring…

  12. Quiet Eye Training: Effects on Learning and Performance Under Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel J. Vine; Mark R. Wilson

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of quiet eye (QE) training in optimizing the learning and performance under pressure of novices in a putting task. Fourteen participants performed 40 pre-test putts and were randomly allocated into a QE training or control group. They then performed 320 acquisition phase putts and a further 120 test putts in

  13. A method for assessing equipment operator training and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, W.J.; Digma, R.M.; Geoke, P.E.

    1983-10-01

    This paper discusses a procedure for evaluating the training and performance of underground equipment operators. Training measures employed use performance criteria (behavioral profiles) defined via a task analysis, interviews with foremen and veteran equipment operators, and reviews of accident and injury data. These data are the basis for a prioritized work sampling procedure for measuring the effectiveness of a structured on-the-job-training program and for followup performance evaluations. The purpose of this paper is to present a visual detection model for conducting training and performance evaluations. The model overcomes some significant problems in performance management, both at the initial stages immediately following training and over the long-term performance of the underground equipment operator.

  14. Need for achievement and risk preferences as they relate to attitudes toward reward systems and performance appraisal in an industrial setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert H. Meyer; William B. Walker

    1961-01-01

    Using a projective test (TAT) and interviews, 31 managers and 31 specialists were compared for need-achievement and attitudes toward a Merit Pay Plan, a Scheduled Increase Plan and the Performance Appraisal Program. Comparisons based on the projective test were negative. Those based on risk preference, as indicated by the interviews, were largely positive. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4LH51M.

  15. Physiological and performance adaptations to high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) refers to exercise that is characterized by relatively short bursts of vigorous activity, interspersed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise for recovery. In untrained and recreationally active individuals, short-term HIIT is a potent stimulus to induce physiological remodeling similar to traditional endurance training despite a markedly lower total exercise volume and training time commitment. As little as six sessions of 'all-out' HIIT over 14 days, totaling ?15 min of intense cycle exercise within total training time commitment of ?2.5 h, is sufficient to enhance exercise capacity and improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. From an athletic standpoint, HIIT is also an effective strategy to improve performance when supplemented into the already high training volumes of well-trained endurance athletes, although the underlying mechanisms are likely different compared to less trained subjects. Most studies in this regard have examined the effect of replacing a portion (typically ?15-25%) of base/normal training with HIIT (usually 2-3 sessions per week for 4-8 weeks). It has been proposed that a polarized approach to training, in which ?75% of total training volume be performed at low intensities, with 10-15% performed at very high intensities may be the optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who compete in intense endurance events. PMID:23899754

  16. Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.

    1994-01-01

    This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an improvement over last year. In contrast, recognition and teamwork are the two major areas where improvement in supervisory performance seems to be most needed. The initial report card results will serve as a baseline against which future performance ratings will be compared. Once supervisors have been presented with their data and given an opportunity to analyze and discus the results, they will be assisted in developing an action plan for improving their performance and work processes. They will be provided with ongoing support from management in following through with the action plan.

  17. Resistance training for performance and injury prevention in golf.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Gregory J

    2006-03-01

    This introductory resistance training program is designed to minimize injury risk, improve golf swing speed and the overall fitness of recreational golfers. This article aims to introduce to the Chiropractor the basic concepts sport specific resistance training, periodization models of resistance training and proposes a year round conditioning resistance training program specific to golf. The exercises have been chosen based on the best biomechanical evidence to minimize injury risk and on the research supporting the use of movement specific training adaptations. Upper body strength exercises are performed standing to develop both trunk and hip stabilizing musculature and the primary movement of the golf swing. PMID:17549167

  18. Resistance training for performance and injury prevention in golf

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Gregory J

    2006-01-01

    This introductory resistance training program is designed to minimize injury risk, improve golf swing speed and the overall fitness of recreational golfers. This article aims to introduce to the Chiropractor the basic concepts sport specific resistance training, periodization models of resistance training and proposes a year round conditioning resistance training program specific to golf. The exercises have been chosen based on the best biomechanical evidence to minimize injury risk and on the research supporting the use of movement specific training adaptations. Upper body strength exercises are performed standing to develop both trunk and hip stabilizing musculature and the primary movement of the golf swing. PMID:17549167

  19. Analyzing the Interaction of Performance Appraisal Factors Using Interpretive Structural Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    In today's changed environment where the economy and industry are driven by customers, business is open to worldwide competition. Manufacturing firms have looked at employee performance improvement as a means to succeed. These findings advocate setting up priorities for employee performance improvement. This requires a continuous improvement…

  20. An appraisal of the 1992 preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.W.L.; Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.K.; Weiner, R.; Neill, R.H. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Environmental Evaluation Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has reviewed the WIPP 1992 Performance Assessment (Sandia WIPP Performance Assessment Department, 1992). Although this performance assessment was released after the October 1992 passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (PL 102-579), the work preceded the Act. For individual and ground-water protection, calculations have been done for 1000 years post closure, whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191) issued in 1993 require calculations for 10,000 years. The 1992 Performance Assessment continues to assimilate improved understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site, and evolving conceptual models of natural barriers. Progress has been made towards assessing WIPP`s compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191). The 1992 Performance Assessment has addressed several items of major concern to EEG, outlined in the July 1992 review of the 1991 performance assessment (Neill et al., 1992). In particular, the authors are pleased that some key results in this performance assessment deal with sensitivity of the calculated complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) to alterative conceptual models proposed by EEG -- that flow in the Culebra be treated as single-porosity fracture-flow; with no sorption retardation unless substantiated by experimental data.

  1. Accuracy in performance appraisals: a comparison of two rater cognitive process models 

    E-print Network

    Major, Susan Lee Frank

    1985-01-01

    . , University of Kansas Cha1r of Advisory Committee: Dr. Roseanne J. Foti Two d1fferent theor1es of the cognitive processes involved 1n rat1ng performance were compared by Nathan and Lord in 1983. These theories comprised Borman's (1978) traditional model... processes of the performance rater. These include a traditional model offered by Borman (1978) and a cognitive categoriza- tion model suggested by Feldman (1981). The purpose of the present study is to answer a quest1on initially proposed by Nathan...

  2. Perceived training intensity and performance changes quantification in judo.

    PubMed

    Agostinho, Marcus F; Philippe, Antony G; Marcolino, Gilvan S; Pereira, Ewerton R; Busso, Thierry; Candau, Robin B; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-06-01

    Agostinho, MF, Philippe, AG, Marcolino, GS, Pereira, ER, Busso, T, Candau, RB, and Franchini, E. Perceived training intensity and performance changes quantification in judo. J Strength Cond Res 29(6): 1570-1577, 2015-The objective of this study was to determine the methods of quantification for training and performance, which would be the most appropriate for modeling the responses to long-term training in cadet and junior judo athletes. For this, 10 young male judo athletes (15.9 ± 1.3 years, 64.9 ± 10.3 kg, and 170.8 ± 5.4 cm) competing at a regional/state level volunteered to take part in this study. Data were collected during a 2-year training period (i.e., 702 days) from January 2011 to December 2012. Their mean training volume was 6.52 ± 0.43 hours per week during the preparatory periods and 4.75 ± 0.49 hours per week during the competitive periods. They followed a training program prescribed by the same coach. The training load (TL) was quantified through the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and expressed in arbitrary unit (a.u.). Performance was quantified from 5 parameters and divided into 2 categories: performance in competition and performance in training. The evaluation of performance in competition was based on the number of points per level. Performance in training was assessed through 4 different tests. A physical test battery consisting of a standing long jump, 2 judo-specific tests that were the maximal number of dynamic chin-up holding the judogi, and the Special Judo Fitness Test was used. System modeling for describing training adaptations consisted of mathematically relating the TL of the training sessions (system input) to the change in performance (system output). The quality of the fit between TL and performance was similar, whether the TL was computed directly from RPE (R = 0.55 ± 0.18) or from the session RPE (R = 0.56 ± 0.18) and was significant in 8 athletes over 10, excluding the standing jump from the computation of the TL, leading to a simplest method. Thus, this study represents a first attempt to model TL effects on judo-specific performance and has shown that the best relationships between amounts of training and changes in performance were obtained when training amounts were quantified simply from RPE. PMID:25436630

  3. Teacher Appraisal and Its Outcomes in Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Khim Ong; Ang, Shi Yun Angela; Chong, Wei Ling; Hu, Wei Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the performance appraisal system used for primary school teachers in Singapore, and how those attributes affect satisfaction with the appraisal system, stress experienced with the appraisal system, attitudes towards performance bonus, job satisfaction and motivation, and perceived…

  4. The Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Beverage Workers Union, Local 32, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a joint labor-management workplace literacy program called SET (Skills Enhancement Training) that targeted the more than 2,000 unionized employees of food service contractors at U.S. government institutions in Washington, D.C. Nineteen classes were offered and a total of 191 people self-selected themselves into the program.…

  5. Exercise during training is associated with racing performance in Thoroughbreds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristien L. P. Verheyen; Joanna S. Price; James L. N. Wood

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of exercise on racecourse performance in horses racing on the flat. Daily exercise and race records were obtained over a 2-year period for a cohort of racehorses in training for which injury data were also available. Multivariable regression techniques were used to investigate associations between canter, training gallop and race distances accumulated in

  6. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes. PMID:22845561

  7. Lessons Learned: 20 Keys to Successful Training and Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Dean R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to training and performance improvement, including practice required for skill learning; knowledge versus skills; core skills; competence; learning to learn; team orientation; enabling business results; interpersonal and conceptual skills; timing; focusing on priorities; organizational learning and management…

  8. Empirical Study of Training and Performance in the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Similar systematic relationships exist between personal characteristics, training, and performance on the marathon, regardless of whether they derive from differences among individuals participating in the same run or from differences within the same person in two separate marathons. (Author)

  9. Living high–training low: effect on erythropoiesis and aerobic performance in highly-trained swimmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Robach; Laurent Schmitt; Julien V. Brugniaux; Belle Roels; Grégoire Millet; Philippe Hellard; Gérard Nicolet; Alain Duvallet; Jean-Pierre Fouillot; Stéphane Moutereau; Françoise Lasne; Vincent Pialoux; Niels V. Olsen; Jean-Paul Richalet

    2006-01-01

    The “living high–training low” model (LHTL), i.e., training in normoxia but sleeping\\/living in hypoxia, is designed to improve\\u000a the athletes performance. However, LHTL efficacy still remains controversial and also little is known about the duration of\\u000a its potential benefit. This study tested whether LHTL enhances aerobic performance in athletes, and if any positive effect\\u000a may last for up to 2 weeks

  10. Argonne National Laboratory Internal Appraisal Program environment, safety, health\\/quality assurance oversight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Winner; Y. S. Siegfried; S. P. Forst; M. J. Meshenberg

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Internal Appraisal Program has developed a quality assurance team member training program. This program has been developed to provide training to non-quality assurance professionals. Upon successful completion of this training and approval of the Internal Appraisal Program Manager, these personnel are considered qualified to assist in the conduct of quality assurance assessments. The training program has been

  11. Training Content and Potential Impact on Performance: A Comparison of Young Male and Female Endurance-Trained Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training

  12. Training Lessons Learned from Peak Performance Episodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fobes, James L.

    A major challenge confronting the United States Army is to obtain optimal performance from both its human and machine resources. This study examines episodes of peak performance in soldiers and athletes. Three cognitive components were found to enable episodes of peak performance: psychological readiness (activating optimal arousal and emotion…

  13. Teacher Evaluation: A Self-Appraisal Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detzner, Daniel F.

    1974-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing demand for accountability and evaluation of teachers. One nonthreatening method that might be used by teachers to evaluate and improve their classroom performance is self-appraisal. The experiment in this document uses the Teacher Self Appraisal (TSA) observation system which divides the teaching act…

  14. Reflected appraisal process 1 Running head: REFLECTED APPRAISAL PROCESS3

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Reflected appraisal process 1 1 2 Running head: REFLECTED APPRAISAL PROCESS3 4 5 6 Parents' appraisals, reflected appraisals, and children's self-appraisals of sport7 competence: A yearlong study.8 9 Psychology 17 (2005) 273-289" #12;Reflected appraisal process 2 Abstract1 This study investigated

  15. Training at the Optimum Power Zone Produces Similar Performance Improvements to Traditional Strength Training

    PubMed Central

    Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Roschel, Hamilton; Tricoli, Valmor; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test if substituting a regular maximum strength-oriented training regimen by a power-oriented one at the optimal power load in the first phase of a traditional periodization produces similar performance improvements later on into the training period. Forty five soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG - n = 15, 20.18 ± 0.72 yrs, 1.74 ± 0.06 m, 66.7 ± 9.8 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.14 ± 0.12), a traditional periodization group (TG - n = 15, 20.11 ± 0.7 yrs, 1.72 ± 0.045 m, 63.1 ± 3.6 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.21 ± 0.16); and a maximum-power group (MPG - n = 15, 20.5 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.73 ± 0.049m, 67.3 ± 9.8 kg, 1RM/weight ratio = 1.20 ± 0.14). Maximum strength (26.2% and 24.6%), CMJ height (30.8% and 39.1%) and sprint speed (11.6% and 14.5%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) and similarly for the MPG and TG, respectively, from pre- to post-assessments. Our data suggests that a power training regimen may be used in the initial phase of the training cycle without impairing performance later on into the training period. Key points Training at the optimal power zone during two mesocycles of a traditional periodization did not hamper strength, speed and power performance improvements. Additional research is required in order to find out if longer periods of training at optimal power zone are capable of producing similar performance improvements to traditional strength training regimen. PMID:24149733

  16. Training at the optimum power zone produces similar performance improvements to traditional strength training.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Roschel, Hamilton; Tricoli, Valmor; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test if substituting a regular maximum strength-oriented training regimen by a power-oriented one at the optimal power load in the first phase of a traditional periodization produces similar performance improvements later on into the training period. Forty five soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG - n = 15, 20.18 ± 0.72 yrs, 1.74 ± 0.06 m, 66.7 ± 9.8 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.14 ± 0.12), a traditional periodization group (TG - n = 15, 20.11 ± 0.7 yrs, 1.72 ± 0.045 m, 63.1 ± 3.6 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.21 ± 0.16); and a maximum-power group (MPG - n = 15, 20.5 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.73 ± 0.049m, 67.3 ± 9.8 kg, 1RM/weight ratio = 1.20 ± 0.14). Maximum strength (26.2% and 24.6%), CMJ height (30.8% and 39.1%) and sprint speed (11.6% and 14.5%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) and similarly for the MPG and TG, respectively, from pre- to post-assessments. Our data suggests that a power training regimen may be used in the initial phase of the training cycle without impairing performance later on into the training period. Key pointsTraining at the optimal power zone during two mesocycles of a traditional periodization did not hamper strength, speed and power performance improvements.Additional research is required in order to find out if longer periods of training at optimal power zone are capable of producing similar performance improvements to traditional strength training regimen. PMID:24149733

  17. Using Importance-Performance Analysis to Evaluate Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniscalchi, Jason M.; Beale, Edward K.; Fortuna, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The importance-performance analysis (IPA) is a tool that can provide timely and usable feedback to improve training. IPA measures the gaps between the importance and how good (performance) a class is perceived by a student and is presented on a 2x2 matrix. The quadrant in which data land in this matrix aids in determining potential future action.…

  18. Correlating Trainee Attributes to Performance in 3D CAD Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamade, Ramsey F.; Artail, Hassan A.; Sikstrom, Sverker

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify trainee attributes relevant for development of skills in 3D computer-aided design (CAD). Design/methodology/approach: Participants were trained to perform cognitive tasks of comparable complexity over time. Performance data were collected on the time needed to construct test models, and…

  19. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air...

  20. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training DevicesD Appendix D to Part 60...CONTINUED)AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION...Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training DevicesBegin Information This...

  2. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft...

  3. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft...

  4. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air...

  5. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft...

  6. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft...

  7. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air...

  8. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air...

  9. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air...

  10. Guidelines for evaluation of nuclear facility training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document establishes a single set of objectives and criteria for the evaluation of training programs developed to meet requirements of DOE Orders 5480.18A and 5480.20, and other directives that address training and qualification. The evaluation includes appraisals, surveillances, audits, reviews, assessments, and other activities intended to evaluate training. The standard is intended to assist personnel in performing evaluations of training and qualification programs.

  11. Effect of movement velocity during resistance training on neuromuscular performance.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Blanco, F; Rodríguez-Rosell, D; Sánchez-Medina, L; Gorostiaga, E M; González-Badillo, J J

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect on neuromuscular performance of 2 isoinertial resistance training programs that differed only in actual repetition velocity: maximal intended (MaxV) vs. half-maximal (HalfV) concentric velocity. 21 resistance-trained young men were randomly assigned to a MaxV (n=10) or HalfV (n=11) group and trained for 6 weeks using the full squat exercise. A complementary study (n=8) described the acute metabolic and mechanical response to the protocols used. MaxV training resulted in a likely more beneficial effect than HalfV on squat performance: maximum strength (ES: 0.94 vs. 0.54), velocity developed against all (ES: 1.76 vs. 0.88), light (ES: 1.76 vs. 0.75) and heavy (ES: 2.03 vs. 1.64) loads common to pre- and post-tests, and CMJ height (ES: 0.63 vs. 0.15). The effect on 20-m sprint was unclear, however. Both groups attained the greatest improvements in squat performance at their training velocities. Movement velocity seemed to be of greater importance than time under tension for inducing strength adaptations. Slightly higher metabolic stress (blood lactate and ammonia) and CMJ height loss were found for MaxV vs. HalfV, while metabolite levels were low to moderate for both conditions. MaxV may provide a superior stimulus for inducing adaptations directed towards improving athletic performance. PMID:24886926

  12. Teaching critical appraisal to medical students in obstetrics and gynecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A Grimes; Joseph A Bachicha; Lee A Learman

    1998-01-01

    Critical appraisal might be the most important skill to acquire in medical school. Despite its importance, this issue has received little attention in obstetrics and gynecology training. This article describes the approach used at San Francisco General Hospital. We teach critical appraisal in several ways. We provide a series of student seminars that foster critical reading of the literature. Topics

  13. Board & Supt. Share Appraisal Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaub, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    Although some board members and superintendents may consider superintendent evaluation as potentially disturbing for their working relationships, such evaluations may become more appealing when considered as part of a broader system of school governance and management. What is needed is a performance appraisal system developed jointly by…

  14. Training and cockpit design to promote expert performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.

    1991-01-01

    The behavior of expert pilots in familiar situations is explored and the implications for better training programs and cockpit designs are stated. Experts in familiar operational situations performing highly practiced tasks are said to recognize and respond to complex situations using pattern recognition or intuition. For some tasks this class of behaviors is desirable; performance can be improved by reducing cognitive load and increasing speed and accuracy. Part-task training, training for monitoring and techniques for the transfer of knowledge can facilitate the development of these skills. Methods for promoting pattern recognition through pilot-aircraft interface design include the use of spatial presentations of information and providing triggering events. In some instances, the familiar, well-practiced behavior is not appropriate and it is desirable to prevent the response. When prevention is necessary, barriers can be constructed in the interface to remind the pilot of the inappropriateness of the response.

  15. Source-Monitoring Training Facilitates Preschoolers' Eyewitness Memory Performance

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Source-Monitoring Training Facilitates Preschoolers' Eyewitness Memory Performance Karen L. Thierry and Melanie J. Spence University of Texas at Dallas Preschool children are more susceptible to misleading decrease preschoolers' suggestibility. Thirty-six 3­4-year-olds observed target live and video events

  16. Computer-Aided Performance Training for Diagnostic and Procedural Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigney, Joseph W.; And Others

    Two computer programs for computer-assisted performance training were developed to give the students the opportunity for concentrated practice of troubleshooting and procedural tasks in naval electronics. In contrast to the usual approach taken in computer-assisted instruction (CAI), these programs simulate essential aspects of devices and tasks…

  17. A Training Intervention that Leads to Multiple Performance Intervention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piskurich, George M.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case study describing a training intervention that involved management taking on the role of cofacilitators in a supervisory development program. Discusses the performance analysis that revealed a lack of communication and leadership; management developing as a team during the process; and positive results. (LRW)

  18. Training for Template Creation: A Performance Improvement Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There are three purposes to this article: first, to offer a training approach to employee learning and performance improvement that makes use of a step-by-step process of skill/knowledge creation. The process offers follow-up opportunities for skill maintenance and improvement; second, to explain the conceptual bases of the approach; and…

  19. Visuospatial Ability Factors and Performance Variables in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus complexity, in their emphasis on identifying…

  20. Minimizing Injuries and Enhancing Performance in Golf Through Training Programs

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Erik P.; Brumitt, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Context: Golf is a popular sport, particularly in older populations. Regardless of age and skill level, golfers risk injury to the back, shoulder, wrist and hand, elbow, and knee. Because of the unique compressive, shear, rotational, and lateral bending forces created in the lumbar region during the golf swing, the primary sport-related malady experienced by amateurs and professionals is low back pain. Extrinsic and intrinsic injury risk factors have been reported in the literature. A growing body of evidence supports the prescription of strength training routines to enhance performance and reduce the risk of injury. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were reviewed on golf injuries, swing mechanics, training routines, and general training program design. The following electronic databases were used to identify research relevant to this report: MEDLINE (from 1950–November 2009), CINAHL (1982–November 2009), and SPORTDiscus (1830–November 2009). Results: Injuries may be associated with lack of warm-up, poor trunk flexibility and strength, faulty swing technique, and overuse. Conclusions: Implementing a training program that includes flexibility, strength, and power training with correction of faulty swing mechanics will help the golfer reduce the likelihood of injury and improve overall performance. PMID:23015957

  1. Performance Improvement: Applying a Human Performance Model to Organizational Processes in a Military Training Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaberg, Wayne; Thompson, Carla J.; West, Haywood V.; Swiergosz, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a description and the results of a study that utilized the human performance (HP) model and methods to explore and analyze a training organization. The systemic and systematic practices of the HP model are applicable to military training organizations as well as civilian organizations. Implications of the study for future…

  2. Development, Field Test, and Refinement of Performance Training Programs in Armor Advanced Individual Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Douglas L.; Taylor, John E.

    Performance-oriented instruction was developed, field tested, and refined in two Advanced Individual Training (AIT) programs--Armor Reconnaissance Specialist (MOS 11D) and Armor Crewman (MOS 11E). Tasks for both MOS (Military Occupational Specialty) were inventoried and the inventories were reduced by eliminating those tasks which are not required…

  3. Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

  4. Parents' Appraisals, Reflected Appraisals, and Children's Self-Appraisals of Sport Competence: A Yearlong Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien E. Bois; Philippe G. Sarrazin; Robert J. Brustad; Julien P. Chanal; David O. Trouilloud

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of the reflected appraisal process to the ontogeny of children's self-perceptions of physical competence. Emanating from symbolic interactionist thought, reflected appraisals refer to individuals' perceptions of others' evaluations of their abilities. The influence of parents' appraisals of their child's competence on the child's self-appraisals was hypothesized to be mediated by parents' reflected appraisals. Data were

  5. Argonne National Laboratory Internal Appraisal Program environment, safety, health/quality assurance oversight

    SciTech Connect

    Winner, G.L.; Siegfried, Y.S.; Forst, S.P.; Meshenberg, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Internal Appraisal Program has developed a quality assurance team member training program. This program has been developed to provide training to non-quality assurance professionals. Upon successful completion of this training and approval of the Internal Appraisal Program Manager, these personnel are considered qualified to assist in the conduct of quality assurance assessments. The training program has been incorporated into a self-paced, computerized, training session.

  6. The effects of intermittent hypoxic training on aerobic and anaerobic performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Peter Morton; Nigel Tim Cable

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether short-term intermittent hypoxic training would enhance sea level aerobic and anaerobic performance over and above that occurring with equivalent sea level training. Over a 4-week period, two groups of eight moderately trained team sports players performed 30 min of cycling exercise three times per week. One group trained in normobaric hypoxia

  7. Effects of the Training Dataset Characteristics on the Performance of Nine Species Distribution Models

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    Effects of the Training Dataset Characteristics on the Performance of Nine Species Distribution species need to be fitted to a training dataset before practical use. The training dataset of this paper is to study the effect of the training dataset characteristics on model performance and to compare

  8. Strength training counteracts motor performance losses during bed rest.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Minoru; Yoshitake, Yasuhide; Kouzaki, Motoki; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of bed rest with or without strength training on torque fluctuations and activation strategy of the muscles. Twelve young men participated in a 20-day bed rest study. Subjects were divided into a non-training group (BRCon) and a strength-training group (BRTr). The training comprised dynamic calf-raise and leg-press exercises. Before and after bed rest, subjects performed maximal contractions and steady submaximal isometric contractions of the ankle extensor muscles and of the knee extensor muscles (2.5-10% of maximal torque). Maximal torque decreased for both the ankle extensors (9%, P < 0.05) and knee extensors (16%, P < 0.05) in BRCon but not in BRTr. For the ankle extensors, the coefficient of variation (CV) for torque increased in both groups (P < 0.05), with a greater amount (P < 0.05) in BRCon (88%) compared with BRTr (41%). For the knee extensors, an increase in the CV for torque was observed only in BRCon (22%). The increase in the CV for torque in BRCon accompanied the greater changes in electromyogram amplitude of medial gastrocnemius (122%) and vastus lateralis (59%) compared with BRTr (P < 0.05). The results indicate that fluctuations in torque during submaximal contractions of the extensor muscles in the leg increase after bed rest and that strength training counteracted the decline in performance. The response varied across muscle groups. Alterations in muscle activation may lead to an increase in fluctuations in motor output after bed rest. PMID:12832434

  9. Training simulated patients: evaluation of a training approach using self-assessment and peer/tutor feedback to improve performance

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Jennifer; Perera, Joachim; Abdullah, Juriah; Lee, Nagarajah

    2009-01-01

    Background Most medical schools use simulated patients (SPs) for teaching. In this context the authenticity of role play and quality of feedback provided by SPs is of paramount importance. The available literature on SP training mostly addresses instructor led training where the SPs are given direction on their roles. This study focuses on the use of peer and self evaluation as a tool to train SPs. Methods SPs at the medical school participated in a staff development and training programme which included a) self-assessment of their performance while observing video-tapes of their role play using a structured guide and b) peer group assessment of their performance under tutor guidance. The pre and post training performance in relation to authenticity of role play and quality of feedback was blindly assessed by students and tutors using a validated instrument and the scores were compared. A focus group discussion and a questionnaire assessed acceptability of the training programme by the SPs. Results The post-training performance assessment scores were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the pre-training scores. The degree of improvement in the quality of feedback provided to students was more when compared to the improvement of role play. The acceptability of the training by the SPs was very satisfactory scoring an average of 7.6 out of 10. The majority of the SPs requested the new method of training to be included in their current training programme as a regular feature. Conclusion Use of structured self-reflective and peer-interactive, practice based methods of SP training is recommended to improve SP performance. More studies on these methods of training may further refine SP training and lead to improvement of SP performance which in turn may positively impact medical education. PMID:19563621

  10. AN EXPERIMENT IN BASIC AIRBORNE ELECTRONICS TRAINING, PART IV-- EFFECT OF REDUCTION IN TRAINING TIME ON FLEET PERFORMANCE. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BALDWIN, ROBERT O.; AND OTHERS

    THREE PRECEDING REPORTS PRESENTED THE EFFECTS OF SHORTENING TRAINING TIME IN AVIONICS FUNDAMENTALS AND AVIATION ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN (RADAR) TRAINING UPON THE FINAL COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION IN THESE COURSES AND UPON PERFORMANCE IN A SUBSEQUENT EQUIPMENT COURSE. THIS REPORT COMPARES THE ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF GRADUATES FROM FOUR GROUPS…

  11. Training-set-based performance measures for data-adaptive decisioning systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Y. Levine; Timothy S. Khuon

    1992-01-01

    Performance measures are derived for data-adaptive hypothesis testing by systems trained on stochastic data. The measures consist of the averaged performance of the system over the ensemble of training sets. The training set-based measures are contrasted with maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) test measures. It is shown that the training set-based and MAP test probabilities are equal if the training set

  12. US Department of Energy Central Training Academy performance testing fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P. (Wackenhut Services, Inc., US DOE, Central Training Academy, Albuquerque, NM (US))

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that performance testing is required for training and inspection, and for validation of results of the vulnerability assessment which is a section of the US DOE Master Safeguards and Security Agreement (NSSA). It is essential, regardless of the reason for performing the test, that the collection of data be well planned to eliminate the bias of the data collector. Essential Elements of Analysis (EEA) is a proven technique that provides a systematic procedure for breaking down test objectives to obtain the optimum detailed measurement criteria. Developing clear, concise objectives removes most of the bias of the data collectors' observations. The EEA technique breaks down critical issues to a point at which test measurements and data can be quantified. Performance tests of procedures can be quantified using this technique, with a completed job task analysis serving as the basis for the EEA.

  13. Effects of training on physical performance wearing personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Swain, David P; Onate, James A; Ringleb, Stacie I; Naik, Dayanand N; DeMaio, Marlene

    2010-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of wearing a weighted vest during 6 weeks of military-style training. Forty-three subjects were randomly assigned to a control group or a vest group (carrying 4-5 kg for 2 weeks, and 8-10 kg for 4 weeks), with 37 completing the study (17 vest, 20 control). Both groups performed stair climbing in addition to standard Marine Corps training for 1 hour, four times per week. Pre- and post-tests were performed while wearing military personal protective equipment, with the exception of the Marine Physical Readiness Test (PRT). Both groups significantly improved PRT scores (8.4% 3-mile run, 28-38% calisthenics) and an agility drill (4.4%). Significant improvements in uphill treadmill performance (6.8% vest, 3.0% control) and maximal oxygen consumption (10.7% vest, 6.8% control) were approximately twice as much in the vest versus control group, although these differences did not reach significance (p = 0.16 and 0.13, respectively). PMID:20882929

  14. Training set-based performance measures for neural net hypothesis testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Y. Levine; Timothy S. Khuon

    1992-01-01

    Performance measures for neural network hypothesis testing are derived based on the statistics of the training set. The training set-based measures are contrasted with maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) test measures. It is shown that the training set-based and MAP test probabilities are equal if the training set is proportioned according to the prior probabilities of the hypotheses. Applications of

  15. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  16. Effect of heavy strength training on muscle thickness, strength, jump performance, and endurance performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Kojedal, Oystein; Losnegard, Thomas; Kvamme, Bent; Raastad, Truls

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplemental heavy strength training on muscle thickness and determinants of performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes. Seventeen well-trained Nordic Combined athletes were assigned to either usual training supplemented with heavy strength training (STR; n = 8) or to usual training without heavy strength training (CON; n = 9). The strength training performed by STR consisted of one lower-body exercise and two upper-body exercises [3-5 repetition maximum (RM) sets of 3-8 repetitions], which were performed twice a week for 12 weeks. Architectural changes in m. vastus lateralis, 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, squat jump (SJ) height, maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), work economy during submaximal treadmill skate rollerskiing, and performance in a 7.5-km rollerski time trial were measured before and after the intervention. STR increased 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, muscle thickness, and SJ performance more than CON (p < 0.05). There was no difference between groups in change in work economy. The two groups showed no changes in total body mass, VO(2max), or time-trial performance. In conclusion, 12 weeks of supplemental strength training improved determinants of performance in Nordic Combined by improving the athletes' strength and vertical jump ability without increasing total body mass or compromising the development of VO(2max). PMID:22038144

  17. Training commitment and performance in manufacturing SMEs : Incidence, intensity and approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilani Jayawarna; Allan Macpherson; Alison Wilson

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This study sets out to examine management development activities within manufacturing SMEs, and their impact on performance. Unlike previous published studies that concentrate on formal training, this empirical analysis includes both formal and informal training. Performance is measured in terms of turnover, employee growth, and survival. It also includes consideration of the firm's context on both training approach

  18. Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults: Effects of Age, Baseline Performance, and Training Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S.; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For…

  19. Transfer effects of fall training on balance performance and spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Roth, Ralf; Soltermann, Martin; Kressig, Reto W; Zahner, Lukas

    2014-07-01

    This study examined transfer effects of fall training on fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International [FES-I]), balance performance, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics in older adults. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults (ages 65-85) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group completed 12 training sessions (60 min, 6 weeks). During pre- and posttesting, we measured FES-I, balance performance (double limb, closed eyes; single limb, open eyes; double limb, open eyes with motor-interfered task), and gait parameters (e.g., velocity; cadence; stride time, stride width, and stride length; variability of stride time and stride length) under single- and motor-interfered tasks. Dual tasks were applied to appraise improvements of cognitive processing during balance and gait. FES-I (p = .33) and postural sway did not significantly change (0.36 < p < .79). Trends toward significant interaction effects were found for step width during normal walking and stride length variability during the motor dual task (p = .05, ?p 2 = .22). Fall training did not sufficiently improve fear of falling, balance, or gait performance under single- or dual-task conditions in healthy older adults. PMID:23881433

  20. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabled shifting of weight to the right and left sides, for 30?min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The patients in the task-oriented training group practiced additional task-oriented programs for 30?min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. Patients in both groups also underwent conventional physical therapy for 60?min/day, 5 times/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Balance and functional reach test outcomes were examined in both groups. The results showed that the static balance and functional reach test outcomes were significantly higher in the virtual reality-based training group than in the task-oriented training group. [Conclusion] This study suggested that virtual reality-based training might be a more feasible and suitable therapeutic intervention for dynamic balance in stroke patients compared to task-oriented training. PMID:26180341

  1. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabled shifting of weight to the right and left sides, for 30?min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The patients in the task-oriented training group practiced additional task-oriented programs for 30?min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. Patients in both groups also underwent conventional physical therapy for 60?min/day, 5 times/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Balance and functional reach test outcomes were examined in both groups. The results showed that the static balance and functional reach test outcomes were significantly higher in the virtual reality-based training group than in the task-oriented training group. [Conclusion] This study suggested that virtual reality-based training might be a more feasible and suitable therapeutic intervention for dynamic balance in stroke patients compared to task-oriented training. PMID:26180341

  2. Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

  3. Performance gains from directed training do not transfer to untrained tasks.

    PubMed

    Lee, HyunKyu; Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Neider, Mark; Erickson, Kirk I; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Low, Kathy A; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-01-01

    Given the increasing complexity of the tasks and skills needed in modern society, developing effective training strategies is of tremendous practical importance. Furthermore, training that improves performance of both trained and untrained tasks would be highly efficient. In the present study, we examined how directed training contributes to skill acquisition, and more importantly, to engendering transfer of training to untrained tasks. Participants learned a complex video game for 30 h (Space Fortress, Donchin, Fabiani, & Sanders, 1989) using one of two training regimens: Hybrid Variable-Priority Training (HVT), with a focus on improving specific skills and managing task priority, or Full Emphasis Training (FET) in which participants simply practiced the game to obtain the highest overall score. We compared game performance, retention of training gains, and transfer of training to untrained tasks as a function of the training regimen. Compared to FET, HVT learners reached higher levels of mastery on the game and HVT was particularly beneficial for initially poor performing participants. This benefit persisted seven months after training. However, contrary to expectation, both HVT and FET were unsuccessful in producing transfer to untrained tasks compared to a group that received limited game experience, suggesting that directed training and practice can produce task-specific improvements, but improvements do not necessarily transfer from trained to untrained tasks. PMID:22133724

  4. Source-Monitoring Training Facilitates Preschoolers' Eyewitness Memory Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry, Karen L.; Spence, Melanie J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether source-monitoring training would decrease 3- to 4-year-olds' suggestibility. After observing live or video target-events, children received source-monitoring or recognition (control) training. Found that children given source-monitoring training were more accurate than control group children in response to misleading and…

  5. Perceptual Training and Figure-Ground Performance in Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-five older adults with age-related macular degeneration were separated into one of three groups: in-clinic training, take-home-training, or no-training. After testing, results showed that the ability to distinguish figure from ground is an improvable skill with the take-home group improving the most. (Author/DB)

  6. Britain's Training Deficit. The Centre for Economic Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layard, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 12 papers that were produced as a result of a seminar program on selected issues central to the debate over job training in Great Britain. The first paper, "Why We Need a Training Reform Act" (Richard Layard, Ken Mayhew, Geoffrey Owen), examines existing deficiencies in vocational education and training in Britain and proposes a…

  7. Scheduling scaffolding: the extent and arrangement of assistance during training impacts test performance.

    PubMed

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Goldstone, Robert L; Hanson, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Various kinds of assistance, including prompts, worked examples, direct instruction, and modeling, are widely provided to learners across educational and training programs. Yet, the effectiveness of assistance during training on long-term learning is widely debated. The authors examined how the extent and schedule of assistance during training on a novel mouse movement task impacted unassisted test performance. Learners received different schedules of assistance during training, including constant assistance, no assistance, probabilistic assistance, alternating assistance, and faded assistance. Constant assistance led to better performance during training than no assistance. However, constant assistance during training resulted in the worst unassisted test performance. Faded assistance during training resulted in the best test performance. This suggests that fading may allow learners to create an internal model of the assistance without depending on the assistance in a manner that impedes successful transfer to unassisted circumstances. PMID:25760764

  8. Relationships between Training Load, Salivary Cortisol Responses and Performance during Season Training in Middle and Long Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Mª; del Campo-Vecino, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Monitoring training from a multifactorial point of view is of great importance in elite endurance athletes. This study aims to analyze the relationships between indicators of training load, hormonal status and neuromuscular performance, and to compare these values with competition performance, in elite middle and long-distance runners. Method Fifteen elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age?=?26.3±5.1 yrs) were measured for training volume, training zone and session rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (daily), countermovement jump (CMJ) and salivary free cortisol (weekly) for 39 weeks (i.e., the whole season). Competition performance was also observed throughout the study, registering the season best and worst competitions. Results Season average salivary free cortisol concentrations correlate significantly with CMJ (r?=??0.777) and RPE (r?=?0.551). Also, weekly averages of CMJ significantly correlates with RPE (r?=??0.426), distance run (r?=??0.593, p<0.001) and training zone (r?=?0.437, p<0.05). Finally, it was found that the CMJ (+8.5%, g?=?0.65) and the RPE (?17.6%, g?=?0.94) measured the week before the best competition performance of the season were significantly different compared with the measurement conducted the week before the season’s worst competition performance. Conclusions Monitoring weekly measurements of CMJ and RPE could be recommended to control training process of such athletes in a non-invasive, field-based, systematic way. PMID:25153137

  9. Comment: Performance improvement with computer training in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Linda A

    2014-04-01

    Computer-based memory and attention training methods improve episodic recall in older adults who have amnestic mild cognitive impairment.(1,2) Memory and attention are highly interactive and interdependent processes due to their shared circuitry. The cognitive benefits of computer-based memory training appear to persist for at least 6 months.(1) Traditional cognitive training programs are administered by professionals and may cost as much as $15 to $100 an hour, depending on the educational level of the staff member who delivers the training.(2) More cost-effective methods of computer-based memory training are needed. In the study by Zimmermann et al.(3) on patients with Parkinson disease (PD), 2 types of computer training were compared: a specific cognitive training method (CogniPlus) and a nonspecific method, Nintendo Wii, a game console. PMID:24623844

  10. The ACTIVE Cognitive Training Interventions and Trajectories of Performance among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Richard N.; Marsiske, Michael; Ball, Karlene; Rebok, George; Willis, Sherry L.; Morris, John N.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Salthouse (2006) illustrated that among Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) randomized controlled trial participants, the pace of cognitive change over time accelerated for persons who had participated in training. Our goal was to determine if the pace of cognitive aging, net of effects due to practice, training, and loss of training gains, differed for persons who received training. Methods We evaluated change in cognitive performance over five years following brief cognitive training among older adults (N=1,659, age 65-94) in ACTIVE using a latent growth curve model. Results Reasoning training, but not memory or speed, attenuated aging-related change. But this model modification produced instability and was not statistically significant. Memory gains were maintained throughout follow-up. About half of reasoning and speed gains were lost, however all trained groups performed better than controls at 5 years. Performance differences at the end of the follow-up were equivalent to about 6, 4, and 8 years of aging for memory, reasoning and speed training, respectively. Discussion Training can appear to accelerate age-related change, because change over time is coupled with loss of training gains. Of the three training interventions, only reasoning training appeared to attenuate the pace of normative decline. However, our analysis is limited by follow-up that is short for precisely characterizing aging-related change. PMID:23103453

  11. The effects of general and firm-specific training on wages and performance: evidence from banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. Jones; Panu Kalmi; Antti Kauhanen

    2012-01-01

    Using new panel data for Finnish co-operative banks we study the impact of training on wages and performance. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to compare explicitly the effects of general and firm-specific workplace training on outcomes for both employees and firms. Unlike much existing literature, we find stronger evidence that training improves worker outcomes rather than organizational

  12. The Effects of General and Firm-Spesific Training on Wages and Performance: Evidence from Banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Jones; Panu-Kauhanen Kalmi

    2009-01-01

    By using new panel data for Finnish banks we study the impact of training on wages and performance. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first paper to compare explicitly the effects of general and firmspecific workplace training on outcomes for both employees and firms. Unlike much existing literature, we find stronger evidence that training improves worker outcomes

  13. Replacement Air Group Performance as a Criterion for Naval Aviation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Ronald M.; And Others

    The current criterion for prediction of performance of student naval aviators is the dichotomy of success versus failure in undergraduate flight training. This criterion has enabled the naval air training command to make reasonable estimates of the probability of an applicant or student completing flight training. However, a costly attrition…

  14. Training for the Healthcare Manufacturing Industries. Tools and Techniques To Improve Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesper, James L.

    This book describes a systematic method for producing instructional programs, courses, and materials that focus on human performance and how to improve it, not merely on training itself. It addresses such diverse topics as the following: how adults learn best, analyzing the training need, developing evaluation tools, delivering training courses,…

  15. Project to Train Paraprofessionals to Work with Preschool Handicapped Children. Program Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irany, James

    Presented is the program performance report of a project to train paraprofessionals in working with preschool handicapped children in Alaska. Accomplishments and attainments as well as slippages are reviewed for each of the program's three objectives: development of competency based training materials for paraprofessionals, training of…

  16. Performance and training standards for endovascular acute ischemic stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Philip M; Schumacher, H Christian; Alexander, Michael J; Derdeyn, Colin P; Furlan, Anthony J; Higashida, Randall T; Moran, Christopher J; Tarr, Robert W; Heck, Donald V; Hirsch, Joshua A; Jensen, Mary E; Linfante, Italo; McDougall, Cameron G; Nesbit, Gary M; Rasmussen, Peter A; Tomsick, Thomas A; Wechsler, Lawrence R; Wilson, John R; Zaidat, Osama O

    2012-09-25

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan. According to the American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association, there are now 750,000 new strokes that occur each year, resulting in 200,000 deaths, or 1 of every 16 deaths, per year in the United States alone. Endovascular therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke is an area of intense investigation. The American Stroke Association has given a qualified endorsement of intra-arterial thrombolysis in selected patients. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has been studied in 2 randomized trials and numerous case series. Although 2 devices have been granted FDA phase 3 approval with an indication for mechanical stroke thrombectomy, none of these thrombectomy devices has demonstrated efficacy for the improvement of patient outcomes. The purpose of the present document is to define what constitutes adequate training to perform neuroendovascular procedures in patients with acute ischemic stroke and what performance standards should be adopted to assess outcomes. These guidelines have been written and approved by multiple neuroscience societies that historically have been directly involved in the medical, surgical and endovascular care of patients with acute stroke. These organizations include the Neurovascular Coalition and its participating societies, including the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery (SNIS), American Academy of Neurology (AAN), American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Cerebrovascular Section (AANS/CNS), and Society of Vascular & Interventional Neurology (SVIN). PMID:23008404

  17. Performance and training standards for endovascular ischemic stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Philip M; Schumacher, H Christian; Alexander, Michael J; Derdeyn, Colin P; Furlan, Anthony J; Higashida, Randall T; Moran, Christopher J; Tarr, Robert W; Heck, Donald V; Hirsch, Joshua A; Jensen, Mary E; Linfante, Italo; McDougall, Cameron G; Nesbit, Gary M; Rasmussen, Peter A; Tomsick, Thomas A; Wechsler, Lawrence R; Wilson, John R; Zaidat, Osama O

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is the third-leading cause of death in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan. According to the American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association, 750,000 new strokes occur each year, resulting in 200,000 deaths (or 1 of every 16 deaths) per year in the United States alone. Endovascular therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke is an area of intense investigation. The American Stroke Association has given a qualified endorsement of intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis in selected patients. IA thrombolysis has been studied in 2 randomized trials and numerous case series. Although 2 devices have been granted FDA 3 approval with an indication for mechanical stroke thrombectomy, none of these devices has demonstrated efficacy in improving patient outcomes. This report defines what constitutes adequate training to perform neuroendovascular procedures in patients with acute ischemic stroke and identifies the performance standards that should be adopted to assess outcomes. These guidelines have been written and approved by multiple neuroscience societies that historically have been directly involved in the medical, surgical, and endovascular care of patients with acute stroke, including the Neurovascular Coalition and its participating societies: the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery; American Academy of Neurology; American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Cerebrovascular Section; and Society of Vascular & Interventional Neurology. PMID:19900641

  18. Performance and training standards for endovascular ischemic stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Meyers, P M; Schumacher, H C; Alexander, M J; Derdeyn, C P; Furlan, A J; Higashida, R T; Moran, C J; Tarr, R W; Heck, D V; Hirsch, J A; Jensen, M E; Linfante, I; McDougall, C G; Nesbit, G M; Rasmussen, P A; Tomsick, T A; Wechsler, L R; Wilson, J A; Wilson, J R; Zaidat, O O

    2009-07-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the USA, Canada, Europe, and Japan. According to the American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association, there are now 750,000 new strokes that occur each year, resulting in 200,000 deaths, or 1 of every 16 deaths, per year in the USA alone. Endovascular therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke is an area of intense investigation. The American Stroke Association has given a qualified endorsement of intra-arterial thrombolysis in selected patients. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has been studied in two randomized trials and numerous case series. Although two devices have been granted FDA approval with an indication for mechanical stroke thrombectomy, none of these thrombectomy devices has demonstrated efficacy for the improvement of patient outcomes. The purpose of the present document is to define what constitutes adequate training to perform neuroendovascular procedures in patients with acute ischemic stroke and what performance standards should be adopted to assess outcomes. These guidelines have been written and approved by multiple neuroscience societies which historically have been directly involved in the medical, surgical and endovascular care of patients with acute stroke. The participating member organizations of the Neurovascular Coalition involved in the writing and endorsement of this document are the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery, the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons Cerebrovascular Section, and the Society of Vascular & Interventional Neurology. PMID:21994099

  19. The Wonderlic Scholastic Level Exam as a Predictor of Training Success and Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, John E.

    The relationship between general cognitive ability and both training and job performance is reviewed. Existing scientific data show that there are large differences in training achievement and in job performance. Consequently, any good predictor of achievement or performance can yield a large gain in workforce productivity. General cognitive…

  20. Strongman versus traditional resistance training effects on muscular function and performance.

    PubMed

    Winwood, P W; Cronin, J B; Posthumus, L R; Finlayson, S; Gill, N D; Keogh, J W L

    2014-07-21

    Currently, no evidence exists as to the effectiveness of strongman training programs for performance enhancement. This study compared the effects of seven weeks of strongman resistance training versus traditional resistance training on body composition, strength, power, and speed measures. Thirty experienced resistance-trained rugby players were randomly assigned to one of two groups; strongman (n = 15; mean ± SD: age, 23.4 ± 5.6 years; body mass, 91.2 ± 14.8 kg; height, 180.1 ± 6.8cm) or traditional (n = 15; mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 3.4 years; body mass, 93.7 ± 12.3kg; height, 181.3 ± 5.9 cm). The strongman and traditional training programs required the participants to train twice a week and contained exercises that were matched for biomechanical similarity with equal loading. Participants were assessed for body composition, strength, power, speed and change of direction (COD) performance. Within-group analyses indicated that all performance measures improved with training (0.2% to 7%) in both the strongman and traditional training groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in functional performance measures after 7-weeks of resistance training. Between group differences indicated small positive effects in muscle mass and acceleration performance and large improvements in 1RM bent over row strength associated with strongman compared to traditional training. Small to moderate positive changes in 1RM squat and deadlift strength, horizontal jump, COD turning ability and sled push performance were associated with traditional compared to strongman training. Practitioners now have the first evidence on the efficacy of a strongman training program and it would seem that short term strongman training programs are as effective as traditional resistance training programs in improving aspects of body composition, muscular function and performance. PMID:25051003

  1. Strongman vs. traditional resistance training effects on muscular function and performance.

    PubMed

    Winwood, Paul W; Cronin, John B; Posthumus, Logan R; Finlayson, Steven J; Gill, Nicholas D; Keogh, Justin W L

    2015-02-01

    Currently, no evidence exists as to the effectiveness of strongman training programs for performance enhancement. This study compared the effects of 7 weeks of strongman resistance training vs. traditional resistance training on body composition, strength, power, and speed measures. Thirty experienced resistance-trained rugby players were randomly assigned to one of the 2 groups; strongman (n = 15; mean ± SD: age, 23.4 ± 5.6 years; body mass, 91.2 ± 14.8 kg; height, 180.1 ± 6.8 cm) or traditional (n = 15; mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 3.4 years; body mass, 93.7 ± 12.3 kg; height, 181.3 ± 5.9 cm). The strongman and traditional training programs required the participants to train twice a week and contained exercises that were matched for biomechanical similarity with equal loading. Participants were assessed for body composition, strength, power, speed, and change of direction (COD) performance. Within-group analyses indicated that all performance measures improved with training (0.2-7%) in both the strongman and traditional training groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in functional performance measures after 7 weeks of resistance training. Between-group differences indicated small positive effects in muscle mass and acceleration performance and large improvements in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bent over row strength associated with strongman compared with traditional training. Small to moderate positive changes in 1RM squat and deadlift strength, horizontal jump, COD turning ability, and sled push performance were associated with traditional compared with strongman training. Practitioners now have the first evidence on the efficacy of a strongman training program, and it would seem that short-term strongman training programs are as effective as traditional resistance training programs in improving aspects of body composition, muscular function, and performance. PMID:25627449

  2. Evaluating frame-of-reference rater training effectiveness using performance schema accuracy.

    PubMed

    Gorman, C Allen; Rentsch, Joan R

    2009-09-01

    Frame-of-reference training has been shown to be an effective intervention for improving the accuracy of performance ratings (e.g., Woehr & Huffcutt, 1994). Despite evidence in support of the effectiveness of frame-of-reference training, few studies have empirically addressed the ultimate goal of such training, which is to teach raters to share a common conceptualization of performance (Athey & McIntyre, 1987; Woehr, 1994). The present study tested the hypothesis that, following training, frame-of-reference-trained raters would possess schemas of performance that are more similar to a referent schema, as compared with control-trained raters. Schema accuracy was also hypothesized to be positively related to rating accuracy. Results supported these hypotheses. Implications for frame-of-reference training research and practice are discussed. PMID:19702375

  3. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key points Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks. In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance. The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase of the mass of type IIx muscle fibres and no change in their proportion. Thus, this type of training might be used effectively during the last weeks before competition, when the strength training load is usually reduced, in order to increase muscle power and shot put performance in novice shot putters. PMID:24149736

  4. Appraisal of Artificial Screening Techniques of Tomato to Accurately Reflect Field Performance of the Late Blight Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska, Marzena; Nowicki, Marcin; K?osi?ska, Urszula; Maciorowski, Robert; Kozik, El?bieta U.

    2014-01-01

    Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant). In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with thefield experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato. PMID:25279467

  5. Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

    A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal…

  6. Performance comparison of different fuel cell vehicle power trains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gao Dawei; Jin Zhenhua; Lu Qingchun

    2008-01-01

    The power train of fuel cell vehicle adopts the hybridization with a fuel cell system and an energy storage system, which can be battery pack or super capacitor pack, in order to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and to decrease the cost of the power train. The hybrid

  7. Optimizing strength training for running and cycling endurance performance: A review.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, B R; Mujika, I

    2014-08-01

    Here we report on the effect of combining endurance training with heavy or explosive strength training on endurance performance in endurance-trained runners and cyclists. Running economy is improved by performing combined endurance training with either heavy or explosive strength training. However, heavy strength training is recommended for improving cycling economy. Equivocal findings exist regarding the effects on power output or velocity at the lactate threshold. Concurrent endurance and heavy strength training can increase running speed and power output at VO2max (Vmax and Wmax , respectively) or time to exhaustion at Vmax and Wmax . Combining endurance training with either explosive or heavy strength training can improve running performance, while there is most compelling evidence of an additive effect on cycling performance when heavy strength training is used. It is suggested that the improved endurance performance may relate to delayed activation of less efficient type II fibers, improved neuromuscular efficiency, conversion of fast-twitch type IIX fibers into more fatigue-resistant type IIA fibers, or improved musculo-tendinous stiffness. PMID:23914932

  8. Annual Performance Appraisal -Introduction Annual Performance Appraisals January 2011

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Links: - Guidelines for Supervisors - Employee Self-Evaluation Tool - HRM web pages on the annual by Supervisor/Manager. - Signed copy to employee. - Signed copy to HRM for inclusion in personnel file. (Send all pages, except Introduction page, to HRM) (1) Ratings of "consistently" or "frequently" below

  9. Appraisal for Professional Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Bill

    For schools to be effective, staff must have ongoing professional growth opportunities. The key to any successful professional growth program is preparation, involving several essential components to ensure that both teachers and administrators receive maximum benefit from the appraisal process. Research indicates that strong administrative…

  10. Examination of Rater Training Effect and Rater Eligibility in L2 Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of rater training in an L2 performance assessment and to examine the eligibility of L2 users of English as raters in L2 performance assessment. Rater training was conducted in order for raters to clearly understand the criteria, the evaluation items, and the evaluation procedure. In this…

  11. Endurance exercise training during haemodialysis improves strength, power, fatigability and physical performance in maintenance haemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Storer; Richard Casaburi; Steven Sawelson; Joel D. Kopple

    2005-01-01

    Background. Endurance training improves cardio- pulmonary fitness in maintenance haemodialysis (MHD). Because many MHD patients are profoundly deconditioned and exhibit significant muscle weakness, endurance training may also improve muscle strength and physical performance in these patients. This study assessed this possibility. Methods. Twelve MHD patients performed incre- mental and constant work rate cycle exercise tests to determine peak work rate,

  12. Evaluating the Implementation of Performance Improvement Training: The E[superscript 3] Process for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive approach to careful review and evaluation of the implementation of performance training intervention. It discusses the E[superscript 3] process for success, a basic framework for evaluating the implementation phase of a training program implemented as a broad-based performance improvement strategy. The intent…

  13. TRAINING LOAD, IMMUNE SYSTEM, UPPER RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND PERFORMANCE IN WELL-TRAINED CYCLISTS THROUGHOUT A COMPETITIVE SEASON

    PubMed Central

    Gobatto, C.A.; Manchado-Gobatto, F.B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the leukocyte subset counts, serum immunoglobulin A, performance and upper respiratory symptoms (URS), as well as their interrelationships, of well-trained cyclists for a 29-week training season using monitored loads. The season was divided into three phases: preparatory (nine weeks), first competitive phase (nine weeks) and second competitive phase (11 weeks). The sample consisted of eight well-trained cyclists, aged 18 ± 2 years. Immunological parameters and performance were evaluated during weeks 1 (baseline), 10 (early first competitive phase), 19 (early second competitive phase) and 29 (end of the second competitive phase). The training loads (volume x rating of perceived exertion) were monitored daily while the monitoring of URS was performed every 15 days using the WURSS-44 questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and a Pearson correlation test with the significance level set at p ? 0.05. No significant differences were found for training load, leukocyte subset counts or serum immunoglobulin A among the three phases. However, serum immunoglobulin A was 50.9% below the control group values. URS were significantly higher during the preparatory period, and there were significant correlations between URS and training load (strain) in the preparatory period (r = 0.72, p = 0.032) and second competitive phase (r = 0.73, p = 0.036). In conclusion, indicators of training load without a significant change throughout the season did not significantly affect immune parameters measured; however, the increase of strain can cause an increase of upper respiratory symptoms throughout the season, but without loss of performance. PMID:24744500

  14. A framework for understanding the training process leading to elite performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, David J

    2003-01-01

    The development of performance in competition is achieved through a training process that is designed to induce automation of motor skills and enhance structural and metabolic functions. Training also promotes self-confidence and a tolerance for higher training levels and competition. In general, there are two broad categories of athletes that perform at the highest level: (i) the genetically talented (the thoroughbred); and (ii) those with a highly developed work ethic (the workhorse) with a system of training guiding their effort. The dynamics of training involve the manipulation of the training load through the variables: intensity, duration and frequency. In addition, sport activities are a combination of strength, speed and endurance executed in a coordinated and efficient manner with the development of sport-specific characteristics. Short- and long-term planning (periodisation) requires alternating periods of training load with recovery for avoiding excessive fatigue that may lead to overtraining. Overtraining is long-lasting performance incompetence due to an imbalance of training load, competition, non-training stressors and recovery. Furthermore, annual plans are normally constructed in macro-, meso- and microcycles around the competitive phases with the objective of improving performance for a peak at a predetermined time. Finally, at competition time, optimal performance requires a healthy body, and integration of not only the physiological elements but also the psychological, technical and tactical components. PMID:14719980

  15. Establishing the Concepts and Techniques of Performance-Oriented Training in Army Training Centers: A Summary Report. Technical Report No. 75-21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John E.; And Others

    The specific objective of Work Unit ATC-PERFORM was to provide technical research and development assistance to the Army agencies involved in the review, evaluation, and refinement of performance-based training techniques in Army Training Centers. It continued and extended the Army's effort to accomplish major training innovations that had been…

  16. MONITORING TRAINING LOADS, STRESS, IMMUNE-ENDOCRINE RESPONSES AND PERFORMANCE IN TENNIS PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, A.; Lodo, L.; Nosaka, K.; Coutts, A.J.; Aoki, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10) were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress) were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A. One repetition maximum strength, running endurance, jump height and agility were assessed before and after training. The periodised training plan led to significant weekly changes in training loads (i.e. increasing in weeks 3 and 4, decreasing in week 5) and post-training improvements in strength, endurance and agility (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentration and the symptoms of stress also increased in weeks 3 and/or 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). Conversely, the testosterone to cortisol ratio decreased in weeks 3 and 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the training plan evoked adaptive changes in stress tolerance and hormonal responses, which may have mediated the improvements in physical performance. PMID:24744485

  17. Monitoring training loads, stress, immune-endocrine responses and performance in tennis players.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R V; Moreira, A; Lodo, L; Nosaka, K; Coutts, A J; Aoki, M S

    2013-09-01

    The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10) were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress) were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A. One repetition maximum strength, running endurance, jump height and agility were assessed before and after training. The periodised training plan led to significant weekly changes in training loads (i.e. increasing in weeks 3 and 4, decreasing in week 5) and post-training improvements in strength, endurance and agility (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentration and the symptoms of stress also increased in weeks 3 and/or 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). Conversely, the testosterone to cortisol ratio decreased in weeks 3 and 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the training plan evoked adaptive changes in stress tolerance and hormonal responses, which may have mediated the improvements in physical performance. PMID:24744485

  18. Evaluating the relationship between change in performance on training tasks and on untrained outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Peters, Kelly D.; Hindin, Shoshana; Petway, Kevin T.; Kennison, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Training interventions for older adults are designed to remediate performance on trained tasks and to generalize, or transfer, to untrained tasks. Evidence for transfer is typically based on the trained group showing greater improvement than controls on untrained tasks, or on a correlation between gains in training and in transfer tasks. However, this ignores potential correlational relationships between trained and untrained tasks that exist before training. By accounting for crossed (trained and untrained) and lagged (pre-training and post-training) and cross-lagged relationships between trained and untrained scores in structural equation models, the training-transfer gain relationship can be independently estimated. Transfer is confirmed if only the trained but not control participants' gain correlation is significant. Modeling data from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) study (Smith et al., 2009), transfer from speeded auditory discrimination and syllable span to list and text memory and to working memory was demonstrated in 487 adults aged 65–93. Evaluation of age, sex, and education on pretest scores and on change did not alter this. The overlap of the training with transfer measures was also investigated to evaluate the hypothesis that performance gains in a non-verbal speeded auditory discrimination task may be associated with gains on fewer tasks than gains in a verbal working memory task. Gains in speeded processing were associated with gains on one list memory measure. Syllable span gains were associated with improvement in difficult list recall, story recall, and working memory factor scores. Findings confirmed that more overlap with task demands was associated with gains to more of the tasks assessed, suggesting that transfer effects are related to task overlap in multimodal training. PMID:25165440

  19. Implications of OCB and Contextual Performance for Human Resource Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon M. Werner

    2000-01-01

    The literatures concerning organizational citizenship behavior and contextual performance are selectively reviewed in an effort to build a case for citizenship behaviors as one central element in a multi-dimensional individual performance construct. Next, five human resource management topics are reviewed (selection, training, compensation, appraisal, and labor\\/employee relations). Emphasis is placed upon how these functions are impacted by an explicit recognition

  20. Predicting space telerobotic operator training performance from human spatial ability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Andrew M.; Oman, Charles M.; Galvan, Raquel; Natapoff, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Our goal was to determine whether existing tests of spatial ability can predict an astronaut's qualification test performance after robotic training. Because training astronauts to be qualified robotics operators is so long and expensive, NASA is interested in tools that can predict robotics performance before training begins. Currently, the Astronaut Office does not have a validated tool to predict robotics ability as part of its astronaut selection or training process. Commonly used tests of human spatial ability may provide such a tool to predict robotics ability. We tested the spatial ability of 50 active astronauts who had completed at least one robotics training course, then used logistic regression models to analyze the correlation between spatial ability test scores and the astronauts' performance in their evaluation test at the end of the training course. The fit of the logistic function to our data is statistically significant for several spatial tests. However, the prediction performance of the logistic model depends on the criterion threshold assumed. To clarify the critical selection issues, we show how the probability of correct classification vs. misclassification varies as a function of the mental rotation test criterion level. Since the costs of misclassification are low, the logistic models of spatial ability and robotic performance are reliable enough only to be used to customize regular and remedial training. We suggest several changes in tracking performance throughout robotics training that could improve the range and reliability of predictive models.

  1. Know thyself: real-world behavioral correlates of self-appraisal accuracy.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Casey E; Rosen, Howard J; Taylor, H Gerry; Espy, Kimberly A; Schatz, Jeffrey; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Kramer, Joel H

    2011-07-01

    Accurate appraisal of one's own abilities is one metacognitive skill considered to be an important factor affecting learning and behavior in childhood. The present study measured self-appraisal accuracy in children using tasks of executive function, and investigated relations between self-appraisal and informant ratings of real-world behaviors measured by the BRIEF. We examined self-appraisal accuracy on fluency tasks in 91 children ages 10-17. More accurate self-appraisal was correlated with fewer informant ratings of real-world behavior problems in inhibition and shifting, independent of actual performance. Findings suggest that self-appraisal represents cognitive processes that are at least partially independent of other functions putatively dependent on the frontal lobes, and these self-appraisal-specific processes have unique implications for optimal daily function. PMID:21547852

  2. KNOW THYSELF: REAL WORLD BEHAVIORAL CORRELATES OF SELF-APPRAISAL ACCURACY

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Casey E.; Rosen, Howard J.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly A.; Schatz, Jeffrey; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Kramer, Joel H.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate appraisal of one’s own abilities is one metacognitive skill considered to be an important factor affecting learning and behavior in childhood. The present study measured self-appraisal accuracy in children using tasks of executive function, and investigated relations between self-appraisal and informant ratings of real world behaviors measured by the BRIEF. We examined self-appraisal accuracy on fluency tasks in 91 children ages 10-17. More accurate self-appraisal was correlated with fewer informant ratings of real world behavior problems in inhibition and shifting, independent of actual performance. Findings suggest that self-appraisal represents cognitive processes that are at least partially independent of other functions putatively dependent on the frontal lobes, and these self-appraisal-specific processes have unique implications for optimal daily function. PMID:21547852

  3. Self-attitude awareness training: An aid to effective performance in microgravity and virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald E.; Harm, D. L.; Florer, Faith L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing development of training procedures to enhance self-attitude awareness in astronaut trainees. The procedures are based on observations regarding self-attitude (perceived self-orientation and self-motion) reported by astronauts. Self-attitude awareness training is implemented on a personal computer system and consists of lesson stacks programmed using Hypertalk with Macromind Director movie imports. Training evaluation will be accomplished by an active search task using the virtual Spacelab environment produced by the Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME-PAT) as well as by assessment of astronauts' performance and sense of well-being during orbital flight. The general purpose of self-attitude awareness training is to use as efficiently as possible the limited DOME-PAT training time available to astronauts prior to a space mission. We suggest that similar training procedures may enhance the performance of virtual environment operators.

  4. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  5. Effects of isometric squat training on the tendon stiffness and jump performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keitaro Kubo; Hideaki Yata; Hiroaki Kanehisa; Tetsuo Fukunaga

    2006-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of isometric squat training on human tendon stiffness and jump performances.\\u000a Eight subjects completed 12 weeks (4 days\\/week) of isometric squat training, which consisted of bilateral leg extension at\\u000a 70% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 15 s per set (10 sets\\/day). Before and after training, the elongations of the\\u000a tendon–aponeurosis complex in the vastus lateralis

  6. Gait Training Improves Performance in Healthy Adults Exposed to Novel Discordant Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Crystal D.; Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    After they return to Earth, astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances that disrupt their ability to walk. We have previously shown that training with a variety of sensorimotor adaptive challenges enhances the capability of adapting to novel sensorimotor conditions. We are currently developing a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of function after gravitational transitions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether trained subjects could transfer learned skills from one discordant visuo-proprioceptive environment to another. During three sessions, subjects walked at 2.5 km/h on a treadmill mounted on a motion base platform. Ten subjects trained with a combination of lateral treadmill translation and superimposed sinusoidal lateral optic flow that was presented on a large screen positioned in front of them. Ten controls completed the same training schedule while viewing only the forward optic flow with no visual or physical oscillation. Twenty minutes after the final training session, all subjects completed a 2-minute trial with a novel combination of visual and treadmill roll perturbations not previously experienced during the training (Transfer Test). Compared to the untrained group, participants who received SA training showed faster reaction times and, based on a composite score derived from stride frequency, heart rate, and reaction time, an overall enhanced performance. Our results showed that an SA training program can improve overall walking performance when subjects are exposed to novel incongruent sensory environments. This training has application for both enhancing adaptive responses in astronauts and reducing fall and injury risk in the elderly.

  7. GAIN Appraisal Program II. Second Report, November 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System, San Diego, CA.

    California's Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) program provides job services, as well as training, education, and support services to Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients to help them attain unsubsidized employment. The GAIN program includes an initial appraisal of participants' basic reading, mathematics, and functional…

  8. Flight Crew Training: Multi-Crew Pilot License Training versus Traditional Training and Its Relationship with Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the International Civil Aviation Organization promulgated requirements for a Multi-Crew Pilot License for First Officers, in which the candidate attends approximately two years of ground school and trains as part of a two-person crew in a simulator of a Boeing 737 or an Airbus 320 airliner. In the traditional method, a candidate qualifies…

  9. 32 CFR 644.43 - Gross appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.43 Gross appraisals. (a) Preparation. (1) The gross appraisal sections of real...

  10. Wireless Internet on Trains: Impacts on Performance of Business Travelers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Zhang; Vincent Marchau; Bert van Wee; Toon van der Hoorn

    2006-01-01

    Wireless Internet service (WIS) is finding increasing implementation in the Netherlands via several markets. Recently, the idea has emerged of providing WIS through public transport services. The impact of WIS on train travelers, particularly on business travelers, is, however, unknown. In a study to examine this impact, respondents were surveyed to find out how WIS might affect their travel and

  11. The Effect of Simulation Training on the Performance of Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    In December, 2005, the Air Force Auditing Agency conducted an interview of 282 nurses and physicians stationed in Iraq. The majority of the nurses from the interview reported they were not prepared to care for critically injured soldiers. This study investigated whether a new training technology, using scenario-based simulations, could improve…

  12. The Status of Training and Performance Research in the AECT Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Cynthia A.; Gitonga, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades, a shift has emerged in business and government sectors from a focus on training to a focus on performance improvement. This shift to Human Performance Technology (HPT), also called Human Performance Improvement (HPI) or performance technology, emerged in the educational technology literature in the late 1970s and early…

  13. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...to the NSPM a proposed Quality Management System (QMS) program...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...to the NSPM a proposed Quality Management System (QMS) program...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...to the NSPM a proposed Quality Management System (QMS) program...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...to the NSPM a proposed Quality Management System (QMS) program...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...to the NSPM a proposed Quality Management System (QMS) program...

  18. Incorporating Industry Specific Training into School Education: Enrolment and Performance Trends in a Senior Secondary System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Gordon; McCann, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Incorporating industry-specific training into senior secondary education has not always succeeded in attaining status alongside general education courses. This paper reports enrolment and student performance trends from 2001-2008 in industry-specific training courses developed in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) where around one in…

  19. Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

  20. Exploring a possible route through which training affects organizational performance: the case of a Greek bank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niki Glaveli; Eleonora Karassavidou

    2011-01-01

    Despite the dithyramb on training found throughout the literature, its impact on organizational performance still remains a ‘black box’ yet to be unlocked. Indeed, neither the intervening process nor the factors that mediate training effectiveness have been substantively explored or linked together in a framework. In this paper, gaining insights from the concept of the balanced scorecard and using the

  1. EFFECTS OF VARIABLE-PRIORITY TRAINING ON AUTOMATION-RELATED COMPLACENCY: PERFORMANCE AND EYE MOVEMENTS

    E-print Network

    Parasuraman, Raja

    2-346 EFFECTS OF VARIABLE-PRIORITY TRAINING ON AUTOMATION-RELATED COMPLACENCY: PERFORMANCE AND EYE in reducing automation-related complacency was examined. Participants were trained under one of three). They subsequently monitored an automated system while simultaneously performidg tracking and fuel management tasks

  2. Does Training Influence Organisational Performance?: Analysis of the Spanish Hotel Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubeda-Garcia, Mercedes; Marco-Lajara, Bartolome; Sabater-Sempere, Vicente; Garcia-Lillo, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify which variables of training policy have a significant and positive impact on organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: A targeted literature review was conducted to identify and collate a comprehensive range of human resource management and training conceptualisations/investigations. This…

  3. Evaluating the Impact of Electronic Training on Organizational Performance in an SME Food Manufacturing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Many small to medium sized manufacturing organizations do not have adequate resources to conduct formalized workplace training or properly evaluate its results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of electronic training on workplace behavior and small business organizational performance in the manufacturing environment using…

  4. The effects of assertive training on the performance self-esteem of adolescent girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayne E. Stake; Cathy J. DeVille; Christine L. Pennell

    1983-01-01

    Assertiveness training was provided for 148 girls in 10 high school business and homemaking classes in six senior high schools. Training sessions were co-led by an experienced leader and the students' own high school teacher. Significant changes in performance self-esteem scores were found between pretesting and a three-month follow-up (ppp<0.01).

  5. Training Transfer: A Suggested Course of Action for Local Authorities to Leverage Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Maximization of training influence on individual performance through changes in employee knowledge, skills, and abilities is a paramount concern of organizations. However, training without implementation in a work setting cannot achieve its goals. In this article, the author maps the primary factors that influence transfer of what is learned in…

  6. The Dread Factor: How Hazards and Safety Training Influence Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Michael J.; Salvador, Rommel O.; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous…

  7. Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Jose A., Jr.; Greer, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical…

  8. Building the Better Mental Training Mousetrap: Is Periodization a More Systematic Approach to Promoting Performance Excellence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernie Holliday; Damon Burton; Greg Sun; Jon Hammermeister; Sarah Naylor; Dan Freigang

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades, mental skills training (MST) has experienced a tremendous surge in popularity, yet MST is not without its critics, including some athletes and coaches. Additionally, a number of concerns have arisen about mental training effectiveness, and its ability to maximize athlete development, performance, and peaking. Periodization is a systematic program development and implementation strategy that holds

  9. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products Appraisal and Pricing § 223...the appraised value of special forest products. Valid methods to...

  10. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products Appraisal and Pricing § 223...the appraised value of special forest products. Valid methods to...

  11. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products Appraisal and Pricing § 223...the appraised value of special forest products. Valid methods to...

  12. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products Appraisal and Pricing § 223...the appraised value of special forest products. Valid methods to...

  13. Plyometric Training Effects on Athletic Performance in Youth Soccer Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Abigail A; Miltenberger, Matthew R; Lopez, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    Bedoya, AA, Miltenberger, MR, and Lopez, RM. Plyometric training effects on athletic performance in youth soccer athletes: A systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 29(8): 2351-2360, 2015-The purpose of this systematic review was to critically analyze the literature to determine the effectiveness of plyometric training on athletic performance in youth soccer athletes. A total of 7 studies were included in this review after meeting the following criteria: (a) used plyometric training programs to assess athletic performance, (b) subjects were soccer athletes aged preadolescent up to 17 years, and (c) were published from 2000 to January 2014. Study methods were assessed using the PEDro scale with scores ranging from 4 to 6. Results showed similarities and differences in methodologies and procedures among the included studies. Athletic performance consisting of kicking distance, speed, jumping ability, and agility significantly improved because of plyometric training interventions. The current evidence suggests that plyometric training should be completed 2 days per week for 8-10 weeks during soccer practice with a 72-hour rest period between plyometric training days. The initial number of foot contacts should be 50-60 per session and increase to no more than 80-120 foot contacts per session for this age group to prevent overuse injuries. A total of 3-4 plyometric training exercises should be performed 2-4 sets for 6-15 repetitions per training session. The evidence and the literature suggest that plyometric training for this age group should only be implemented using recommended safety guidelines such as those published by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and the National Strength and Conditioning Association and under appropriate supervision by trained personnel. PMID:25756326

  14. Effect of communications training on medical student performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Yedidia; Colleen C. Gillespie; Elizabeth Kachur; Mark D. Schwartz; Judith K. Ockene; Amy E. Chepaitis; Clint W. Snyder; Aaron Lazare; Lipkin Mack Jr

    2003-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although physicians' communication skills have been found to be related to clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction, teaching of communication skills has not been fully integrated into many medical school curricula or adequately evaluated with large-scale controlled trials.\\u000aOBJECTIVE: To determine whether communications training for medical students improves specific competencies known to affect outcomes of care.\\u000aDESIGN AND SETTING: A

  15. Cardiovascular and neuromuscular performance responses induced by 8 weeks of basic training followed by 8 weeks of specialized military training.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nindl, Bradley C; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in cardiovascular and neuromuscular performances induced by 8 weeks of basic training (BT) period followed by 8 weeks of special training period (STP). Fifty-seven male soldiers (age: 19.2 ± 0.9 years, height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass: 73.8 ± 12.4 kg) volunteered for tests of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and maximal bilateral isometric force of the leg and arm extensor muscles. During the first 8 weeks, VO2peak increased by 5.6% (45.0 ± 8 vs. 48.8 ± 7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), but no further changes were observed during the next 8 weeks (49.1 ± 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Maximal isometric force of the arm and leg extensors increased during the first 8 weeks (arm: 680 ± 182 vs. 774 ± 182 N; leg: 2,584 ± 724 vs. 2,730 ± 823 N) by 3.8% (p < 0.001) and 8.1% (p < 0.001), respectively, with no further increases by week 16 (arm: 718 ± 170 N; leg: 2,679 ± 967 N). Body fat percentage (pre: 10.4 ± 4, post-BT: 9.0 ± 4, post-STP: 9.3 ± 3%), and waist circumference decreased (83.4 ± 10, 80.9 ± 8, 80.8 ± 7 cm) during BT, whereas no changes were noticed thereafter. In conclusion, it was found that physical fitness of conscripts improved significantly during the Finnish military 8-week BT at the beginning of their military service. A plateau in the improvement of physical performance during STP is largely attributed to a lack of continued progression or periodization in their training program. For optimal improvements in physical performance during STP, it might be reasonable to include a structured physical training with greater intensity and training volume with optimal periodization than during BT. PMID:22289701

  16. Effects of intermittent training on anaerobic performance and MCT transporters in athletes.

    PubMed

    Millet, Grégoire; Bentley, David J; Roels, Belle; Mc Naughton, Lars R; Mercier, Jacques; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT) expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n?=?8; 150 mmHg PIO2) or hypoxic (H; n?=?10; ?3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2) over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30 x week(-1)) period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT) was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT). Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO) increased (p<0.05) after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively), but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively). No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective. PMID:24797797

  17. Effects of Intermittent Training on Anaerobic Performance and MCT Transporters in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Grégoire; Bentley, David J.; Roels, Belle; Mc Naughton, Lars R.; Mercier, Jacques; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT) expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n?=?8; 150 mmHg PIO2) or hypoxic (H; n?=?10; ?3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2) over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30.week?1) period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT) was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT). Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO) increased (p<0.05) after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively), but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively). No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective. PMID:24797797

  18. Performance theory based outcome measurement in engineering education and training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Dillon; George V. Kondraske; Louis J. Everett; Richard A. Volz

    2000-01-01

    An approach is presented to improve engineering education that is based on new concepts of systems performance and classic feedback theory. An important aspect is the use of general systems performance theory (GSPT) to provide a performance model of the educational system and as a basis for the key outcome metrics: the volumes of performance capacity envelopes of individual students.

  19. Effects of 12 weeks of block periodization on performance and performance indices in well-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, B R; Ellefsen, S; Nygaard, H; Zacharoff, E E; Vikmoen, O; Hansen, J; Hallén, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists during a 12-week preparation period. One group of cyclists performed block periodization (BP; n = 8), wherein every fourth week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one HIT session. Another group performed a more traditional organization (TRAD; n = 7), with 12 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions. The HIT was interspersed with low-intensity training (LIT) so that similar total volumes of both HIT and LIT were performed in the two groups. BP achieved a larger relative improvement in VO2max than TRAD (8.8 ± 5.9% vs 3.7 ± 2.9%, respectively, < 0.05) and a tendency toward larger increase in power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)] (22 ± 14% vs 10 ± 7%, respectively, P = 0.054). Mean effect size (ES) of the relative improvement in VO2max , power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)], hemoglobin mass, and mean power output during 40-min all-out trial revealed moderate superior effects of BP compared with TRAD training (ES range was 0.62-1.12). The present study suggests that BP of endurance training has superior effects on several endurance and performance indices compared with TRAD. PMID:23134196

  20. Depressive Symptoms and Memory Performance among Older Adults: Results from the ACTIVE Memory Training Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Matthew C.; Rebok, George W.; Spira, Adam P.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Gross, Alden L.; Kueider, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive performance benefits from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study may differ for individuals who exhibit a greater number of depressive symptoms. Methods Using data from ACTIVE memory training and control conditions, we evaluated the effect of depressive symptomatology on memory scores across a five-year period. Of 1,401 participants, 210 had elevated depressive symptoms at baseline, as measured by a 12-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Results Participants with elevated depressive symptoms scored significantly lower at baseline and had faster decline in memory performance than those exhibiting fewer depressive symptoms. Memory score differences among depressive symptom categories did not differ between training conditions. Discussion Findings suggest that elevated depressive symptoms may predict declines in memory ability over time, but do not attenuate gains from training. Training provides a potential method of improving memory which is robust to effects of depression. PMID:23006426

  1. An Appraisal of Coupled Climate Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K; Gleckler, P; Covey, C; Taylor, K; Bader, D; Phillips, T; Fiorino, M; Achutarao, K

    2004-02-24

    In 2002, the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) proposed the concept for a state-of-the-science appraisal of climate models to be performed approximately every two years. Motivation for this idea arose from the perceived needs of the international modeling groups and the broader climate research community to document progress more frequently than provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Reports. A committee of external reviewers, which included senior researchers from four leading international modeling centers, supported the concept by stating in its review: ''The panel enthusiastically endorses the suggestion that PCMDI develop an independent appraisal of coupled model performance every 2-3 years. This would provide a useful 'mid-course' evaluation of modeling progress in the context of larger IPCC and national assessment activities, and should include both coupled and single-component model evaluations.''

  2. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  3. Four Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves 5-km Run Performance.

    PubMed

    Denham, Joshua; Feros, Simon A; O?Brien, Brendan J

    2015-08-01

    Denham, J, Feros, SA, and O'Brien, BJ. Four weeks of sprint interval training improves 5-km run performance. J Strength Cond Res 29(8): 2137-2141, 2015-Sprint interval training (SIT) rapidly improves cardiorespiratory fitness but demands less training time and volume than traditional endurance training. Although the health and fitness benefits caused by SIT have received considerable research focus, the effect of short-term SIT on 5-km run performance is unknown. Thirty healthy untrained participants (aged 18-25 years) were allocated to a control (n = 10) or a SIT (n = 20) group. Sprint interval training involved 3-8 sprints at maximal intensity, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Sprints were progressed to 8 by the 12th session. All participants completed a 5-km time trial on a public running track and an incremental treadmill test in an exercise physiology laboratory to determine 5-km run performance and maximum oxygen uptake, respectively, before and after the 4-week intervention. Relative to the controls, sprint interval-trained participants improved 5-km run performance by 4.5% (p < 0.001), and this was accompanied by improvements in absolute and relative maximum oxygen uptake (4.9%, p = 0.04 and 4.5%, p = 0.045, respectively). Therefore, short-term SIT significantly improves 5-km run performance in untrained young men. We believe that SIT is a time-efficient means of improving cardiorespiratory fitness and 5-km endurance performance. PMID:25647646

  4. Enhancing Military Training through the Application of Maximum and Typical Performance Measurement Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangos, Phillip M.; Arnold, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined in this article casts the challenge of enhancing military training effectiveness as one of reducing the discrepancy between maximum and typical performance. Our principal assertion is that performance measurement focused on this discrepancy can enhance performance improvement initiatives because it gives the foundation for…

  5. Use of Peers to Train and Monitor the Performance of Adolescents with Severe Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.

    1985-01-01

    Two peer trainers, one moderately and one severely mentally retarded, each taught three severely disabled peers to perform separate steps of a complex assembly line task. Peer trainers were taught to demonstrate correct performance and to praise or correct trainees' performance contingently. Trainers were successful in training and monitoring the…

  6. The effect of ''living high-training low'' on physical performance in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, S.; Sakai, A.

    In this research, we hypothesized that, in rats, adaptation to high altitude (2500 m) plus training at low altitude (610 m), ''living high-training low'', improves physical performance at low altitude more than living and training at low altitude (610 m). Rats were divided into four groups: (1) living at low altitude (LL, n=12), (2) living and training at low altitude (LLTL, n=13), (3) living at high altitude (LH, n=12), (4) living at high altitude and training at low altitude (LHTL, n=13). The program for living at high altitude involved raising rats under hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 2500 m), and the training program consisted of running on a tread-mill at low altitude. All groups were raised at each altitude and trained to run at 35 m/min for 40 min/day, 6 days/week for 6 weeks. During this program, we measured heart rates both at rest and during exercise, and performed running-time trials. The mean heart rate during exercise was lower in groups with training than in groups without training, and the groups receiving training could run longer than the untrained groups. The LHTL group especially showed the lowest mean heart rate during exercise and the longest running time among all groups. After 6 weeks of the training program, all rats had a catheter implanted into the carotid artery, and the mean systemic arterial pressure was continuously measured during treadmill running. The rate of increase of this pressure as the running intensity increased was lower in groups with training than in groups without training, especially in the LHTL group. Finally, we anesthetized all the rats and extracted both the right and left ventricles, and the triceps surae and liver. Training increased the weight of the left ventricle, triceps surae, and liver. The increase in weight of the left ventricle and triceps surae was higher in the LHTL group than in the LLTL group in particular. It appeared that living high- training low may be an effective strategy to improve performance ability at low altitude.

  7. Performance-Based Thinking and Training for Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Joel

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five job behavior functions viewed as necessary for practicing performance-based thinking in instructional development activities. Functions examined include the abilities to plan to perform a job, execute a task, monitor or control execution, troubleshoot, and evaluate. (MER)

  8. Influence of training status on high-intensity intermittent performance in response to ?-alanine supplementation.

    PubMed

    de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger Charles; Solis, Marina Yázigi; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Recent investigations have suggested that highly trained athletes may be less responsive to the ergogenic effects of ?-alanine (BA) supplementation than recreationally active individuals due to their elevated muscle buffering capacity. We investigated whether training status influences the effect of BA on repeated Wingate performance. Forty young males were divided into two groups according to their training status (trained: T, and non-trained: NT cyclists) and were randomly allocated to BA and a dextrose-based placebo (PL) groups, providing four experimental conditions: NTPL, NTBA, TPL, TBA. BA (6.4 g day(-1)) or PL was ingested for 4 weeks, with participants completing four 30-s lower-body Wingate bouts, separated by 3 min, before and after supplementation. Total work done was significantly increased following supplementation in both NTBA (p = 0.03) and TBA (p = 0.002), and it was significantly reduced in NTPL (p = 0.03) with no difference for TPL (p = 0.73). BA supplementation increased mean power output (MPO) in bout 4 for the NTBA group (p = 0.0004) and in bouts 1, 2 and 4 for the TBA group (p ? 0.05). No differences were observed in MPO for NTPL and TPL. BA supplementation was effective at improving repeated high-intensity cycling performance in both trained and non-trained individuals, highlighting the efficacy of BA as an ergogenic aid for high-intensity exercise regardless of the training status of the individual. PMID:24500111

  9. Training

    Cancer.gov

    NCI offers training at laboratories and clinics in Maryland and at universities and institutions nationwide. These cancer training and career development opportunities cover a broad spectrum of disciplines for individuals at career stages ranging from high school and graduate students to scientists, clinicians, and health care professionals.

  10. Quantitative training system assessments using General Systems Performance Theory 

    E-print Network

    Kashyap, Sujatha

    2000-01-01

    the illusion of three-dimensional space where, in fact, there is none" [21] eA fulli- immersive VR system is one that gives the user a sense of being physically present in the virtual environment, and can interact in a completely natural and intuitive... multi-dimensional performance space, ivhere each axis represents a single dimension of performance. Since each DOP represents a unique aspect of the system's performance, the axes that define this performance space are orthogonal. In the typing system...

  11. Analyses of Recruit Training Practices Related to the Military Performance of Enlisted Navy Women. Technical Note 10-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Cheryl J.; And Others

    A study was conducted to identify aspects of the training of male and female Navy recruits at the Recruit Training Command Orlando that might lead to differential military performance. Current data on the military performance of enlisted Navy women recently graduated from recruit training were used to document reports of female-enlisted…

  12. A Performance Support Tool for Cisco Training Program Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Angela D.; Bothra, Jashoda; Sharma, Priya

    2004-01-01

    Performance support systems can play an important role in corporations by managing and allowing distribution of information more easily. These systems run the gamut from simple paper job aids to sophisticated computer- and web-based software applications that support the entire corporate supply chain. According to Gery (1991), a performance

  13. Transference of Traditional Versus Complex Strength and Power Training to Sprint Performance

    PubMed Central

    Loturco, Irineu; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo; Cal Abad, Cesar Cavinato; Kobal, Ronaldo; Gil, Saulo; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two different strength-power training models on sprint performance. Forty-eight soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG: n = 15, age: 20.2 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.74 ± 0.06 m, and body mass: 66.7 ± 9.8 kg), a traditional training group (TT: n = 18, age: 20.1 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.05 m, and body mass: 64.2 ± 4.7 kg), and a complex training group (CT: n = 15, age: 20.3 ± 0.8 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.07 m; and body mass: 64.0 ± 8.8 kg). Maximum strength (25% and 26%), CMJ height (36% and 39%), mean power (30% and 35%) and mean propulsive power (22% and 28%) in the loaded jump squat exercise, and 20-m sprint speed (16% and 14%) increased significantly (p?0.05) following the TT and CT, respectively. However, the transfer effect coefficients (TEC) of strength and power performances to 20-m sprint performance following the TT were greater than the CT throughout the 9-week training period. Our data suggest that TT is more effective than CT to improve sprint performance in moderately trained subjects. PMID:25114753

  14. Effects of Whole-body Vibration Training on Sprint Running Kinematics and Explosive Strength Performance

    PubMed Central

    Giorgos, Paradisis; Elias, Zacharogiannis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV) training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volunteers (12 women and 12 men) participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12) into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30 min·d-1, 3 times a week) on a vibration platform. The amplitude of the vibration platform was 2.5 mm and the acceleration was 2.28 g. The control group did not participate in any training. Tests were performed Pre and post the training period. Sprint running performance was measured during a 60 m sprint where running time, running speed, step length and step rate were calculated. Explosive strength performance was measured during a counter movement jump (CMJ) test, where jump height and total number of jumps performed in a period of 30 s (30CVJT). Performance in 10 m, 20 m, 40 m, 50 m and 60 m improved significantly after 6 wk of WBV training with an overall improvement of 2.7%. The step length and running speed improved by 5.1% and 3.6%, and the step rate decreased by 3.4%. The countermovement jump height increased by 3.3%, and the explosive strength endurance improved overall by 7.8%. The WBV training period of 6 wk produced significant changes in sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Key pointsWBV training.Sprint running kinematics.Explosive strength performance PMID:24149223

  15. Using Psychological Skills Training to Develop Soccer Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Thelwell; Iain A. Greenlees; Neil J. V. Weston

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of a soccer, midfielder-specific psychological skills intervention comprising relaxation, imagery and self-talk on position-specific performance measures. Using a multiple-baseline-across-individuals design, five participants had three per-formance subcomponents assessed across nine competitive matches. The results of the study indicated the position-specific intervention to enable at least small improvements on the three dependent variables for each participant.

  16. Training with anxiety has a positive effect on expert perceptual-motor performance under pressure.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, Raôul R D; Pijpers, J Rob

    2009-08-01

    In two experiments, we examined whether training with anxiety can prevent choking in experts performing perceptual-motor tasks. In Experiment 1, 17 expert basketball players practised free throws over a 5-week period with or without induced anxiety. Only after training with anxiety did performance no longer deteriorate during the anxiety posttest. In Experiment 2, 17 expert dart players practised dart throwing from a position high or low on a climbing wall, thus with or without anxiety. Again, only after training with anxiety was performance maintained during the anxiety posttest, despite higher levels of anxiety, heart rate, and perceived effort. It is concluded that practising under anxiety can prevent choking in expert perceptual-motor performance, as one acclimatizes to the specific processes accompanying anxiety. PMID:19123115

  17. Competitive Performance, Training Load and Physiological Responses During Tapering in Young Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Toubekis, Argyris G.; Drosou, Evgenia; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Thomaidis, Savvas; Douda, Helen; Tokmakidis, Savvas P.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the changes of training load and physiological parameters in relation to competitive performance during a period leading to a national championship. The training content of twelve swimmers (age: 14.2±1.3 yrs) was recorded four weeks before the national championship (two weeks of normal training and two weeks of the taper). The training load was calculated: i) by the swimmer’s session-RPE score (RPE-Load), ii) by the training intensity levels adjusted after a 7×200-m progressively increasing intensity test (LA-Load). Swimmers completed a 400-m submaximal intensity test, a 15 s tethered swimming and hand-grip strength measurements 34–35 (baseline: Test 1), 20–21 (before taper: Test 2) and 6–7 (Test 3) days before the national championship. Performance during the national championship was not significantly changed compared to season best (0.1±1.6%; 95% confidence limits: ?0.9, 1.1%; Effect Size: 0.02, p=0.72) and compared to performance before the start of the two-week taper period (0.9±1.7%; 95% confidence limits: 0.3, 2.1%; Effect size: 0.12, p=0.09). No significant changes were observed in all measured physiological and performance related variables between Test 1, Test 2, and Test 3. Changes in RPE-Load (week-4 vs. week-1) were correlated with changes in performance (r=0.63, p=0.03) and the RPE-Load was correlated with the LA-Load (r=0.80, p=0.01). The estimation of the session-RPE training load may be helpful for taper planning of young swimmers. Increasing the difference between the normal and last week of taper training load may facilitate performance improvements. PMID:24233022

  18. Competitive performance, training load and physiological responses during tapering in young swimmers.

    PubMed

    Toubekis, Argyris G; Drosou, Evgenia; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Thomaidis, Savvas; Douda, Helen; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the changes of training load and physiological parameters in relation to competitive performance during a period leading to a national championship. The training content of twelve swimmers (age: 14.2±1.3 yrs) was recorded four weeks before the national championship (two weeks of normal training and two weeks of the taper). The training load was calculated: i) by the swimmer's session-RPE score (RPE-Load), ii) by the training intensity levels adjusted after a 7×200-m progressively increasing intensity test (LA-Load). Swimmers completed a 400-m submaximal intensity test, a 15 s tethered swimming and hand-grip strength measurements 34-35 (baseline: Test 1), 20-21 (before taper: Test 2) and 6-7 (Test 3) days before the national championship. Performance during the national championship was not significantly changed compared to season best (0.1±1.6%; 95% confidence limits: -0.9, 1.1%; Effect Size: 0.02, p=0.72) and compared to performance before the start of the two-week taper period (0.9±1.7%; 95% confidence limits: 0.3, 2.1%; Effect size: 0.12, p=0.09). No significant changes were observed in all measured physiological and performance related variables between Test 1, Test 2, and Test 3. Changes in RPE-Load (week-4 vs. week-1) were correlated with changes in performance (r=0.63, p=0.03) and the RPE-Load was correlated with the LA-Load (r=0.80, p=0.01). The estimation of the session-RPE training load may be helpful for taper planning of young swimmers. Increasing the difference between the normal and last week of taper training load may facilitate performance improvements. PMID:24233022

  19. Employee Performance Plan and Appraisal PERFORMANCE PLAN

    E-print Network

    accountability for SI's/SAO's EEO and workforce diversity efforts. 4. Supports small business diversity goals that offers challenges and growth. No more than two resignations based upon substantiated workplace. Takes timely action to effectively prevent and resolve workplace disputes, including disputes involving

  20. Performance changes in world-class kayakers following two different training periodization models.

    PubMed

    García-Pallarés, Jesús; García-Fernández, Miguel; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2010-09-01

    This study was undertaken to compare training-induced changes in selected physiological, body composition and performance variables following two training periodization models: traditional (TP) versus block periodization (BP). Ten world-class kayakers were assessed four times during a training cycle over two consecutive seasons. On each occasion, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion on the kayak ergometer to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), VO(2) at second ventilatory threshold (VO(2) VT2), peak blood lactate, paddling speed at VO(2peak) (PS(peak)) and VT2 (PS( VT2)), power output at VO(2peak) (Pw(peak)) and VT2 (Pw( VT2)), stroke rate at VO(2peak) (SR(peak)) and VT2 (SR( VT2)) as well as heart rate at VO(2peak) and VT2. Volume and exercise intensity were quantified for each endurance training session. Both TP and BP cycles resulted in similar gains in VO(2peak) (11 and 8.1%) and VO(2) VT2 (9.8 and 9.4%), even though the TP cycle was 10 weeks and 120 training hours longer than the BP cycle. Following BP paddlers experienced larger gains in PS(peak), Pw(peak) and SR(peak) than those observed with TP. These findings suggest that BP may be more effective than TP for improving the performance of highly trained top-level kayakers. Although both models allowed significant improvements of selected physiological and kayaking performance variables, the BP program achieved similar results with half the endurance training volume used in the TP model. A BP design could be a more useful strategy than TP to maintain the residual training effects as well as to achieve greater improvements in certain variables related to kayaking performance. PMID:20414669

  1. High-Performance Vision Training Improves Batting Statistics for University of Cincinnati Baseball Players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph F. Clark; James K. Ellis; Johnny Bench; Jane Khoury; Pat Graman

    2012-01-01

    PurposeBaseball requires an incredible amount of visual acuity and eye-hand coordination, especially for the batters. The learning objective of this work is to observe that traditional vision training as part of injury prevention or conditioning can be added to a team's training schedule to improve some performance parameters such as batting and hitting.MethodsAll players for the 2010 to 2011 season

  2. Time-Management Training: Effects on Time Behaviors, Attitudes, and Job Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Therese Hoff Macan

    1996-01-01

    This quasi-experimental field study examined the effects of a time-management training program on 44 employees' self-reports of time-management behavior, control over their time, job satisfaction, and stress responses, and on supervisors' ratings of these employees' job performance. Contrary to expectations, respondents did not report more frequent use of time-management behaviors, more job satisfaction, or less job-induced tension after training, compared

  3. Strength training effects on physical performance and serum hormones in young soccer players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Gorostiaga; M. Izquierdo; M. Ruesta; J. Iribarren; J. J. González-Badillo; J. Ibáñez

    2004-01-01

    To determine the effects of simultaneous explosive strength and soccer training in young men, 8 experimental (S) and 11 control (C) players, aged 17.2 (0.6) years, were tested before and after an 11-week training period with respect to the load-vertical jumping curve [loads of 0–70 kg (counter-movement jump CMJ0–70)], 5- and 15-m sprint performances, submaximal running endurance and basal serum concentrations of

  4. Application of electromagnetic environment simulation to radar performance testing, operability assessment and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, J. F.

    Automatic target detection and tracking features in radar sensors affect the testing and evaluation of radar performance, the assessment of equipment readiness for verification of sensor, command/control and engagement systems' operability, and operational training of radar operators and sensor management teams. Attention is presently given to Radar Environment Simulator Systems (RESSs), which facilitate the interjection of testing and training scenarios into the front end of radar receivers. RESSs are applicable to shipboard, air, and ground environments.

  5. Dynamic Eccentric-Concentric Strength Training of the Finger Flexors to Improve Rock Climbing Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Schweizer; Alexander Schneider

    \\u000a The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an additional dynamic eccentric-concentric strength training of the finger\\u000a flexors may improve the performance of rock climbers. A device was developed and constructed to train the finger flexors in\\u000a a dynamic eccentric and concentric fashion and was distributed along with a specific exercise plan to rock climbers. Forty\\u000a five male and

  6. Real-time MEG neurofeedback training of posterior alpha activity modulates subsequent visual detection performance.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yuka O; Horschig, Jörn M; Luther, Lisa; Oostenveld, Robert; Murakami, Ikuya; Jensen, Ole

    2015-02-15

    It has been demonstrated that alpha activity is lateralized when attention is directed to the left or right visual hemifield. We investigated whether real-time neurofeedback training of the alpha lateralization enhances participants' ability to modulate posterior alpha lateralization and causes subsequent short-term changes in visual detection performance. The experiment consisted of three phases: (i) pre-training assessment, (ii) neurofeedback phase and (iii) post-training assessment. In the pre- and post-training phases we measured the threshold to covertly detect a cued faint Gabor stimulus presented in the left or right hemifield. During magnetoencephalography (MEG) neurofeedback, two face stimuli superimposed with noise were presented bilaterally. Participants were cued to attend to one of the hemifields. The transparency of the superimposed noise and thus the visibility of the stimuli were varied according to the momentary degree of hemispheric alpha lateralization. In a double-blind procedure half of the participants were provided with sham feedback. We found that hemispheric alpha lateralization increased with the neurofeedback training; this was mainly driven by an ipsilateral alpha increase. Surprisingly, comparing pre- to post-training, detection performance decreased for a Gabor stimulus presented in the hemifield that was un-attended during neurofeedback. This effect was not observed in the sham group. Thus, neurofeedback training alters alpha lateralization, which in turn decreases performances in the untrained hemifield. Our findings suggest that alpha oscillations play a causal role for the allocation of attention. Furthermore, our neurofeedback protocol serves to reduce the detection of unattended visual information and could therefore be of potential use for training to reduce distractibility in attention deficit patients, but also highlights that neurofeedback paradigms can have negative impact on behavioral performance and should be applied with caution. PMID:25514519

  7. Electrostimulation Training Effects on the Physical Performance of Ice Hockey Players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANCK BROCHERIE; NICOLAS BABAULT; GILLES COMETTI; NICOLA MAFFIULETTI; JEAN-CLAUDE CHATARD

    2005-01-01

    BROCHERIE, F., N. BABAULT, G. COMETTI, N. MAFFIULETTI, and J.-C. CHATARD. Electrostimulation Training Effects on the Physical Performance of Ice Hockey Players. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 455-460, 2005. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a short-term electromyostimulation (EMS) training program on the strength of knee extensors, skating, and vertical

  8. Personal Performance Plan: Application of Mental Skills Training to Real-World Military Tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven DeWiggins; Brian Hite; Valerie Alston

    2010-01-01

    Recently, several authors have discussed the potential benefits of interdisciplinary cooperation between the military and the field of performance psychology. The purpose of this article is to build upon their suggestions by presenting a phased approach to mental skills training grounded in performance, learning, and military literature that can be applied to a wide variety of military tasks. After discussing

  9. Effects of whole-body vibration training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgos Paradisis; Elias Zacharogiannis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV) training on sprint running kine- matics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volun- teers (12 women and 12 men) participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12) into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30

  10. What Performance Technologists Should Know about Public Education: Implications for Professional Development and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirumi, Atsusi

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of performance technologists' contributions to improving public education highlights 10 essential components of an educational system, including family and community, business and industry, government agencies, and higher education. Implications of the systemic perspective for the professional development and training of performance

  11. The Reliability of In-Training Assessment when Performance Improvement Is Taken into Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lohuizen, Mirjam T.; Kuks, Jan B. M.; van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Raat, A. N.; Stewart, Roy E.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2010-01-01

    During in-training assessment students are frequently assessed over a longer period of time and therefore it can be expected that their performance will improve. We studied whether there really is a measurable performance improvement when students are assessed over an extended period of time and how this improvement affects the reliability of the…

  12. Physiological and performance changes from the addition of a sprint interval program to wrestling training.

    PubMed

    Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Curby, David G; Bayati, Mahdi; Bahraminejad, Morteza; Mäestu, Jarek

    2011-09-01

    Increasing the level of physical fitness for competition is the primary goal of any conditioning program for wrestlers. Wrestlers often need to peak for competitions several times over an annual training cycle. Additionally, the scheduling of these competitions does not always match an ideal periodization plan and may require a modified training program to achieve a high level of competitive fitness in a short-time frame. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 4 weeks of sprint-interval training (SIT) program, on selected aerobic and anaerobic performance indices, and hormonal and hematological adaptations, when added to the traditional Iranian training of wrestlers in their preseason phase. Fifteen trained wrestlers were assigned to either an experimental (EXP) or a control (CON) group. Both groups followed a traditional preparation phase consisting of learning and drilling technique, live wrestling and weight training for 4 weeks. In addition, the EXP group performed a running-based SIT protocol. The SIT consisted of 6 35-m sprints at maximum effort with a 10-second recovery between each sprint. The SIT protocol was performed in 2 sessions per week, for the 4 weeks of the study. Before and after the 4-week training program, pre and posttesting was performed on each subject on the following: a graded exercise test (GXT) to determine VO(2)max, the velocity associated with V(2)max (?VO(2)max), maximal ventilation, and peak oxygen pulse; a time to exhaustion test (T(max)) at their ?VO(2)max; and 4 successive Wingate tests with a 4-minute recovery between each trial for the determination of peak and mean power output (PPO, MPO). Resting blood samples were also collected at the beginning of each pre and posttesting period, before and after the 4-week training program. The EXP group showed significant improvements in VO(2)max (+5.4%), peak oxygen pulse (+7.7%) and T(max) (+32.2%) compared with pretesting. The EXP group produced significant increases in PPO and MPO during the Wingate testing compared with pretesting (p < 0.05). After the 4-week training program, total testosterone and the total testosterone/cortisol ratio increased significantly in the EXP group, whereas cortisol tended to decrease (p = 0.06). The current findings indicate that the addition of an SIT program with short recovery can improve both aerobic and anaerobic performances in trained wrestlers during the preseason phase. The hormonal changes seen suggest training-induced anabolic adaptations. PMID:21849912

  13. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2?h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  14. The Eindhoven laparoscopic cholecystectomy training course—improving operating room performance using virtual reality training: results from the first E.A.E.S. accredited virtual reality trainings curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Schijven; J. J. Jakimowicz; I. A. M. J. Broeders; L. N. L. Tseng

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken to investigate operating room performance of surgical residents, after participating in the Eindhoven virtual reality laparoscopic cholecystectomy training course. This course is the first formal surgical resident trainings course, using a variety of complementary virtual reality (VR) skills training simulation in order to prepare surgical residents for their first laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The course was granted

  15. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions...certified appraiser or a State licensed appraiser. [Reg. Y, 55 FR 27771, July 5, 1990, as amended at 58 FR 15077,...

  16. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions...certified appraiser or a State licensed appraiser. [Reg. Y, 55 FR 27771, July 5, 1990, as amended at 58 FR 15077,...

  17. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions...certified appraiser or a State licensed appraiser. [Reg. Y, 55 FR 27771, July 5, 1990, as amended at 58 FR 15077,...

  18. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions...certified appraiser or a State licensed appraiser. [Reg. Y, 55 FR 27771, July 5, 1990, as amended at 58 FR 15077,...

  19. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions...certified appraiser or a State licensed appraiser. [Reg. Y, 55 FR 27771, July 5, 1990, as amended at 58 FR 15077,...

  20. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  1. Effects of Plyometric and Sprint Training on Physical and Technical Skill Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, Gregory G; Ferrete, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Sáez de Villarreal, E, Suarez-Arrones, L, Requena, B, Haff, GG, and Ferrete, C. Effects of plyometric and sprint training on physical and technical skill performance in adolescent soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 1894-1903, 2015-To determine the influence of a short-term combined plyometric and sprint training (9 weeks) within regular soccer practice on explosive and technical actions of pubertal soccer players during the in-season. Twenty-six players were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control group (CG) (soccer training only) and combined group (CombG) (plyometric + acceleration + dribbling + shooting). All players trained soccer 4 times per week and the experimental groups supplemented the soccer training with a proposed plyometric-sprint training program for 40 minutes (2 days per weeks). Ten-meter sprint, 10-m agility with and without ball, CMJ and Abalakov vertical jump, ball-shooting speed, and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test were measured before and after training. The experimental group followed a 9-week plyometric and sprint program (i.e., jumping, hurdling, bouncing, skipping, and footwork) implemented before the soccer training. Baseline-training results showed no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested. No improvement was found in the CG; however, meaningful improvement was found in all variables in the experimental group: CMJ (effect size [ES] = 0.9), Abalakov vertical jump (ES = 1.3), 10-m sprint (ES = 0.7-0.9), 10-m agility (ES = 0.8-1.2), and ball-shooting speed (ES = 0.7-0.8). A specific combined plyometric and sprint training within regular soccer practice improved explosive actions compared with conventional soccer training only. Therefore, the short-term combined program had a beneficial impact on explosive actions, such as sprinting, change of direction, jumping, and ball-shooting speed which are important determinants of match-winning actions in soccer performance. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for pubertal soccer players to include combined plyometric and speed training for athlete preparation in this sport. PMID:25635606

  2. EXPLAINING TRAINING INDUCED PERFORMANCE INCREMENTS AND DECREMENTS WITHIN A UNIFIED

    E-print Network

    Sagi, Dov

    OF PERCEPTUAL LEARNING NITZAN CENSOR and DOV SAGI* Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science performance decrements are practically eliminated. Further results show that sleep is necessary to preserve to saturation is achieved by sleep-dependent consolidation of unsaturated connectivity. The different transfer

  3. Four weeks of training with different aerobic workload distributions--effect on aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Clemente Suárez, Vicente Javier; González-Ravé, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous authors have studied the effect of different training procedures on athlete's resistance performance, there are no studies on how the improvement of aerobic resistance is affected by the distribution of training loads. This research sets out to analyse the effectiveness on aerobic activity of distributions with a constant load (CON) and with increments in intensity (INC) over a 4-week period. A total of 30 athletes took part in the analysis (38.7 ± 9.8 years; 174.7 ± 6.5 cm; 72.0 ± 9.8 kg). They were divided into 3 groups of 10 each. One group followed a training plan with a CON distribution and another with an INC distribution. Both groups performed at the same volume and intensity, the only difference between them being the distribution of load over the 4 weeks. The third group trained with a free load distribution during this time. Improvement in VO2max and ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) was analysed before and after the 4-week training period. There was no modification of the VO2max in any of the training programmes. The FRE and INC groups showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in their VO2 in VT1, and in the CON group there was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in heart rate in VT2. These results show how training periodisation produces different improvement on performance and demonstrate the effectiveness of periodisated programmes, because periodisated programmes obtain equal or higher adaptations with lower training volumes than non-periodisated programmes. PMID:24444193

  4. Effects of an 18-week strength training program on low-handicap golfers' performance.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, María; Sedano, Silvia; Cuadrado, Gonzalo; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 18-week strength training program on variables related to low-handicap golfers' performance. Ten right-handed male golfers, reporting a handicap of 5 or less, were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (CG) (N = 5, age: 23.9 ± 6.7 years) and the treatment group (TG) (N = 5, age: 24.2 ± 5.4 years). CG players followed the standard physical conditioning program for golf, which was partially modified for the TG. The TG participated in an 18-week strength training program divided into three parts: maximal strength training including weightlifting exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks), explosive strength training with combined weights and plyometric exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks), and golf-specific strength training, including swings with a weighted club and accelerated swings with an acceleration tubing system (3 days a week for 6 weeks). Body mass, body fat, muscle mass, jumping ability, isometric grip strength, maximal strength (RM), ball speed, and golf club mean acceleration were measured on five separate occasions. The TG demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in maximal and explosive strength after 6 weeks of training and in driving performance after 12 weeks. These improvements remained unaltered during the 6-week golf-specific training period and even during a 5-week detraining period. It may be concluded that an 18-week strength training program can improve maximal and explosive strength and these increases can be transferred to driving performance; however, golfers need time to transfer the gains. PMID:21881530

  5. Countermovement jump performance is not affected during an in-season training microcycle in elite youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Malone, James J; Murtagh, Conall F; Morgans, Ryland; Burgess, Darren J; Morton, James P; Drust, Barry

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the change in countermovement jump (CMJ) performance across a microcycle of training in professional soccer players during the in-season period. Nine elite youth soccer players performed a CMJ test before and after 4 consecutive soccer training sessions of an in-season weekly microcycle. Training load was quantified using global positioning systems, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion. Absolute change (before to after training) in CMJ height across each training session was analyzed using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. Magnitude of effects was reported with the effect size (ES) statistic. Correlation analyses assessed the relationships between training load measures and the absolute change in CMJ height. Training load remained similar on all training days apart from a significant decrease in training load (all variables except high-speed distance) on the last training session (p ? 0.05). No significant difference was found for CMJ height (p = 0.23) across the training microcycle (ES range, -0.04 to -0.22). No correlations were found between training load variables and absolute change in CMJ height (range: r = -0.21 to 0.22; p > 0.05). This study revealed no significant change in CMJ performance across the in-season microcycle. This finding suggests that soccer players are able to maintain CMJ performance across an in-season training microcycle. PMID:25226317

  6. The relationship between human resource management practices, business strategy and firm performance: evidence from steel industry in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng-Hui Lee; Tzai-Zang Lee; Wann-Yih Wu

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices, business strategy and firm performance. We examined the following HRM practices: training and development; teamwork; compensation\\/incentives; HR planning; performance appraisal; and employment security. We surveyed 236 managers working at steel firms in Taiwan to explore their perceptions on the impact of HRM practices

  7. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ?7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance. PMID:24206175

  8. Learning contracts in higher professional training: a user's guide.

    PubMed Central

    Brambleby, P.; Coates, R.

    1997-01-01

    If the doctor undergoing higher professional training is to make best use of the attachment to a training location, and that training location is to make the most efficient use of the contribution of the trainee, then a written framework such as a learning contract can meet the needs of both. The first stage is to list the learning needs of the individual trainee and to match them with the work experience offered by the training location. Next, the work programme for the coming six to 12 months should be formalised in a learning contract, spelling out the tasks to be performed and the expected training benefit. This is then reviewed at agreed intervals and a written appraisal made. At the end of the attachment the trainee, trainer and any outside accrediting or auditing body, has a written account of what was expected, what was achieved, and the performance of trainee and trainer. PMID:9196699

  9. Jump performance and augmented feedback: immediate benefits and long-term training effects.

    PubMed

    Keller, Martin; Lauber, Benedikt; Gehring, Dominic; Leukel, Christian; Taube, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Drop jumps and their adaptations to training have been extensively investigated. However, the influence of augmented feedback (aF) on stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) was not scrutinized so far despite the well-known positive effects of aF on motor performance and motor learning. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of aF by evaluating immediate within-session effects and long-term adaptations. 34 participants were assigned to three groups that trained drop jumps with different relative frequencies of aF about their jump height: 100%, 50%, or 0%. A significant within-session effect of aF on jump height was observed before and also after the training period (pre: +4.6%; post: +2.6%). In the long-term (comparing pre- to post-measurement), the 100% group showed the greatest increase in jump height (+14%), followed by the 50% (+10%) and the 0% group (+6%). The importance of aF on drop jumps is therefore twofold: (i) to immediately increase jump performance and (ii) to improve long-term training efficacy. In contrast to the proposition of the guidance hypothesis, high frequency of aF seems to be beneficial when maximizing SSC-performance. As jump height cannot be quantified without objective technical measures it is recommended to include them into daily training. PMID:24875045

  10. Automated tools for the generation of performance-based training

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor, M.S.; Fries, J.

    1990-01-01

    The field of educational technology is not a new one, but the emphasis in the past has been on the use of technologies for the delivery of instruction and tests. This paper explores the application of technology to the development of performance-based instruction and to the analyses leading up to the development of the instruction. Several technologies are discussed, with specific software packages described. The purpose of these technologies is to streamline the instructional analysis and design process, using the computer for its strengths to aid the human-in-the-loop. Currently, the process is all accomplished manually. Applying automated tools to the process frees the humans from some of the tedium involved so that they can be dedicated to the more complex aspects of the process. 12 refs.

  11. Equity Performance Measures for Women in VET. Report to the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs Vocational Education, Employment and Training, Women's Taskforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Kaye; Dryen, Robyn

    A study proposed measures of equity for women for incorporation into major national processes for performance measurement. Data sources were as follows: interviews with 77 people from all state and territory vocational education and training (VET) systems, Australian National Training Authority, National Center for Vocational Education Research,…

  12. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners.

    PubMed

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided into either a control group (CON; n?=?28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n?=?132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup of runners (n?=?18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38?s) and lowered systolic BP (2?±?1?mmHg). For hypertensive subjects in 10-20-30 (n?=?30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5?±?4 and 3?±?2?mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n?=?102). 10-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily implemented training intervention improving endurance performance, VO2max and lowering BP in recreational runners, but does not affect muscle morphology and reduces muscle VEGF. PMID:25439558

  13. Using after-action review based on automated performance assessment to enhance training effectiveness.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Gieseler, Charles J.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris

    2010-09-01

    Training simulators have become increasingly popular tools for instructing humans on performance in complex environments. However, the question of how to provide individualized and scenario-specific assessment and feedback to students remains largely an open question. In this work, we follow-up on previous evaluations of the Automated Expert Modeling and Automated Student Evaluation (AEMASE) system, which automatically assesses student performance based on observed examples of good and bad performance in a given domain. The current study provides a rigorous empirical evaluation of the enhanced training effectiveness achievable with this technology. In particular, we found that students given feedback via the AEMASE-based debrief tool performed significantly better than students given only instructor feedback on two out of three domain-specific performance metrics.

  14. Enhancing visuospatial performance through video game training to increase learning in visuospatial science domains.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Christopher A

    2012-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated that performance on visuospatial assessments can be enhanced through relevant experience, an unaddressed question is whether such experience also produces a similar increase in target domains (such as science learning) where visuospatial abilities are directly relevant for performance. In the present study, participants completed either spatial or nonspatial training via interaction with video games and were then asked to read and learn about the geologic topic of plate tectonics. Results replicate the benefit of playing appropriate video games in enhancing visuospatial performance and demonstrate that this facilitation also manifests itself in learning science topics that are visuospatial in nature. This novel result suggests that visuospatial training not only can impact performance on measures of spatial functioning, but also can affect performance in content areas in which these abilities are utilized. PMID:22037919

  15. Personality, Training Performance, and Withdrawal: A Test of the Person-Group Fit Hypothesis for Organizational Newcomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Gerald R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined person-group fit relative to training performance, absenteeism, and turnover of airline flight attendants. The main effect influence of person-group fit on performance, attendance, and turnover was not supported. Person-group fit, however, did moderate the training performance-withdrawal relationships. (Author/BL)

  16. Depressive symptoms and inductive reasoning performance: findings from the ACTIVE reasoning training intervention.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Jeanine M; Franchetti, Mary Kathryn; Rebok, George W; Spira, Adam P; Carlson, Michelle C; Willis, Sherry L; Gross, Alden L

    2014-12-01

    Within the context of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study (ACTIVE; Ball et al., 2002; Jobe et al., 2001; Willis et al., 2006), we examined the longitudinal association of baseline depressive symptoms on inductive reasoning performance over a 10-year period between the reasoning training and control conditions (N = 1,375). At baseline, 322 participants (23%) reported elevated depressive symptoms, defined by a score ?9 on the 12-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Mirowsky & Ross, 2003; Radloff, 1977). Differences in baseline depressive status were not associated with immediate posttraining gains or with subsequent annual change in reasoning performance, suggesting that the presence of elevated baseline depressive symptoms does not impact the ability to benefit from reasoning training. PMID:25244465

  17. Using Performance Assessments to Determine Competence in Clinical Athletic Training Education: How Valid Are Our Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gayle A.; Moss, Robert; Applegate, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    Context: Validity arguments can be used to provide evidence that instructors are drawing accurate conclusions from the results of students' clinical performance assessments (PAs). Little research has been conducted in athletic training education to determine if the evidence supports the use of current PAs. Measurement theories designed to…

  18. Conditional Reasoning and the Competence-Performance Issue: A Developmental Analysis of a Training Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, David P.; Overton, Willis F.

    1982-01-01

    Conducted with fourth, eighth, and twelfth graders, this study was designed to extend investigation of the contradictory training paradigm of the O'Brien and Overton study (1980) to include performances with conditional syllogisms and to bring this effect to bear on the controversies of false positive and negative assessments at different ages.…

  19. Tutor Versus Peer Group Assessment of Student Performance in a Simulation Training Exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Wong Leung

    1996-01-01

    The performance of a group of third?year higher diploma students from the Department of Hotel & Tourism in a simulation training exercise was assessed separately by the tutor and peer group, using an identical checklist. Ninety?six pairs of tutor and peer group assessment marks were obtained and compared. Results showed that there was some degree of agreement between tutor and

  20. Training of Healthcare Personnel to Improve Performance of Community-Based Antenatal Care Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohnishi, Mayumi; Nakamura, Keiko; Takano, Takehito

    2007-01-01

    Background: The present study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a training course designed to improve the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of healthcare personnel to allow them to provide a comprehensive community-based antenatal care (ANC) program in rural Paraguay. Methods: Sixty-eight of 110 healthcare personnel in the Caazapa…

  1. Training and Performance Improvement Professionals' Perspectives on Ethical Challenges during Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyung, Seung Youn; Winiecki, Donald J.; Downing, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    Ethical concerns are rising in the business world. With this in mind, training and performance improvement practitioners, especially during evaluation projects, should be aware of principles and codes of ethics, and their behaviors and decisions should reflect the standards recognized by members of the professional society. A study was conducted…

  2. Physical performance and training response during Ramadan observance, with particular reference to protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2012-06-01

    This review examines information on the effects of Ramadan observance upon the metabolism, training and performance of athletes, with particular reference to proteins and amino acids. Increased gluconeogenesis and/or a reduced intake of protein could lead to a decrease of lean tissue, with adverse effects on muscular performance, and the lack of immediate protein ingestion could compromise responses to strength training. Actual responses vary quite widely, depending on culture and the individual's level and type of athletic involvement. In elite competitors, there is typically an increased fractional ingestion of protein with a small reduction in overall energy intake, and this may lead to small reductions of body and lean tissue mass. There are often small decreases of performance, particularly in activities requiring vigorous and/or repetitive muscular contraction. More information is needed on responses in situations where protein intake is likely to be inadequate (adolescent growth, those maintaining vegetarian diets or from poor countries and disciplines with very high overall energy needs) and when vigorous muscle training is in progress. However, in most of the situations studied to date, Ramadan observance has had only limited adverse consequences for either training or competitive performance. PMID:22554842

  3. Performing Titration Analyses for Water Quality. Module 17. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on performing titration analysis for water quality. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each part of…

  4. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  5. Relationship between Past Academic Performance and Results of Specialty In-Training Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronai, Ann K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Records of 63 medical school graduates were examined for predictors of achievement on in-training examinations in anesthesia and orthopedic surgery. The previous academic records were found to contain little to predict examination results, and the correlation between college nonscience subjects and exam performance was negative. (Author/MSE)

  6. Counterfactual Thinking and Anticipated Emotions Enhance Performance in Computer Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Amy Y. C.; Caputi, Peter; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Browne, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between novice learners' counterfactual thinking (i.e. generating "what if" and "if only" thoughts) about their initial training experience with a computer application and subsequent improvement in task performance. The role of anticipated emotions towards goal attainment in task…

  7. Assessment of Leadership Training of Head Teachers and Secondary School Performance in Mubende District, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Kayiwa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between leadership training of head teachers and school performance in secondary schools in Mubende district, Uganda. Descriptive-correlational research design was used. Six schools out of 32 were selected and the sample size of head teachers, teachers and students leaders was 287 out of…

  8. Training in Mental Rotation and Spatial Visualization and Its Impact on Orthographic Drawing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsudin, Khairulanuar; Rafi, Ahmad; Hanif, Abd Samad

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from an experimental study based on the pretest posttest research design that studied mental rotation (MR) and spatial visualization (SV) training outcomes and their impact on orthographic drawing performance. The sample of the study comprised 98 secondary school students (36 girls, 62 boys, Mage = 15.5 years, age…

  9. Using Performance Analysis for Training in an Organization Implementing ISO-9000 Manufacturing Practices: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunneman, Dale E.; Sleezer, Catherine M.

    2000-01-01

    This case study examines the application of the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) Model in an organization that was implementing ISO-9000 (International Standards Organization) processes for manufacturing practices. Discusses the interaction of organization characteristics, decision maker characteristics, and analyst characteristics to…

  10. Graduate Training Program for the Preparation of Guidance Counselors with the Deaf. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Richard K.; Tully, Norman L.

    Outlined in a final performance report are the accomplishments, slippages, and spinoff developments of a prototype training program to prepare guidance counselors to work with deaf persons. The initial year of the program is reported to have been devoted primarily to curriculum planning, development of evaluation procedures, recruitment and…

  11. The Impact of Training and Demographics in WIA Program Performance: A Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.; Gorman, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) measures participant labor market outcomes to drive program performance. This article uses statistical analysis to examine the relationship between participant characteristics and key outcome measures in one large California local WIA program. This study also measures the impact of different training

  12. Improving Fifth Grade Students' Mathematics Self-Efficacy Calibration and Performance through Self-Regulation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramdass, Darshanand H.

    2009-01-01

    This primary goal of this study was to investigate the effects of strategy training and self-reflection, two subprocesses of Zimmerman's cyclical model of self-regulation, on fifth grade students' mathematics performance, self-efficacy, self-evaluation, and calibration measures of self-efficacy bias, self-efficacy accuracy, self-evaluation bias,…

  13. Amygdala norepinephrine levels after training predict inhibitory avoidance retention performance in rats

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Amygdala norepinephrine levels after training predict inhibitory avoidance retention performance memory consolidation alter norepinephrine (noradrenaline) release in the amygdala, as assessed by in vivo in the amygdala may be critical for regulating memory consolidation. The present study was the ®rst to examine

  14. The Effect of Alternative Training Methods on the Trouble-Shooting Performances of Maintenance Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorgmayer, Helmut; Swanson, Richard A.

    Results of a study to determine the effects of conceptual versus specific (traditional) training techniques on the trouble-shooting performance of maintenance technicians are presented. The research subjects were students at Bowling Green State University and citizens in Northwest Ohio with no post high school technical coursework. Those that…

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation enhances verbal working memory training performance over time and near transfer outcomes.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Lauren L; Wolk, David; Chein, Jason; Olson, Ingrid R

    2014-11-01

    Studies attempting to increase working memory (WM) capacity show promise in enhancing related cognitive functions but have also raised criticism in the broader scientific community given the inconsistent findings produced by these studies. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance WM performance in a single session [Fregni, F., Boggio, P., Nitsche, M., Bermpohl, F., Anatal, A., Feredoes, E., et al. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. Experimental Brain Research, 166, 23-30, 2005]; however, the extent to which tDCS might enhance learning on a WM training regime and the extent to which learning gains might transfer outside the training task remains largely unknown. To this end, participants engaged in an adaptive WM training task [previously utilized in Richmond, L., Morrison, A., Chein, J., & Olson, I. Working memory training and transfer in older adults. Psychology & Aging, 26, 813-822, 2011; Chein, J., & Morrison, A. Expanding the mind's workspace: Training and transfer effects with a complex working memory span task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 193-199, 2010] for 10 sessions over 2 weeks, concurrent with either active or sham stimulation of dorsolateral pFC. Before and after training, a battery of tests tapping domains known to relate to WM abilities was administered. Results show that tDCS enhanced learning on the verbal portion of the training task by 3.65 items. Furthermore, tDCS was shown to enhance near transfer to other untrained WM tasks in comparison with a no-contact control group. These results lend support to the idea that tDCS might bolster training and transfer gains in populations with compromised WM abilities. PMID:24742190

  16. The Importance of Sports Performance Factors and Training Contents From the Perspective of Futsal Coaches

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, João; Shahidian, Shakib; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the importance assigned by futsal coaches with different education levels to the sports performance factors (technical, tactical, physical and psychological) and to the training contents. The sample was divided into three groups (novice: n=35, intermediate: n=42; and elite coaches: n=15) depending on the degree of specific education, coaching experience and the level of the teams trained. To achieve this goal, the coaches answered a questionnaire previously validated by specialists in sport sciences. The results showed significant differences between the novice and elite group in small-sided games, inferiority games, opposition and execution timing of the training and drill items. The analyses also showed significant differences between the novice and intermediate group in inferiority games and opposition of the training and drill items. Although, no differences were identified between groups for the remaining performance factors and training and drill items considered, the identified trends provide a baseline related to the knowledge that contributes to the development of expertise of futsal coaches. PMID:24235991

  17. Preliminary results from the evaluation of Cockpit Resource Management training - Performance ratings of flightcrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Chidester, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    The first data from the NASA/University of Texas Crew Performance project on the behavior of flightcrews with and without formal training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is reported. Expert observers made detailed ratings of 15 components of crew behavior in both line operations and in full mission simulations. The results indicate that such training in crew coordination concepts increases the percentage of crews rated as above average in performance and decreases the percentage rated as below average. The data also show high and unexpected degrees of variations in rated performance among crews flying different aircraft within the same organization. It was also found that the specific behaviors that triggered observer ratings of above or below average performance differed markedly between organizations. Characteristics of experts' ratings and future research needs are also discussed.

  18. Administrator Performance Evaluation: A Comparison of Two Measures in the Management Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlandson, David A.; Hoyle, John R.

    The Management Profile is an appraisal measure that examines the actual job performance of a manager to ascertain relative strength in six management functions and three leadership roles. The management functions examined are administration, technical competence, influence/control, persuasion, training/development, and forecasting/planning. The…

  19. Broadening Perspectives on Clinical Performance Assessment: Rethinking the Nature of In-training Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjan J. B. Govaerts; Cees P. M. van der Vleuten; Lambert W. T. Schuwirth; Arno M. M. Muijtjens

    2007-01-01

    Context  In-training assessment (ITA), defined as multiple assessments of performance in the setting of day-to-day practice, is an\\u000a invaluable tool in assessment programmes which aim to assess professional competence in a comprehensive and valid way. Research\\u000a on clinical performance ratings, however, consistently shows weaknesses concerning accuracy, reliability and validity. Attempts\\u000a to improve the psychometric characteristics of ITA focusing on standardisation and

  20. The effect of experimental pain on motor training performance and sensorimotor integration.

    PubMed

    Dancey, Erin; Murphy, Bernadette; Srbely, John; Yielder, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Experimental pain is known to affect neuroplasticity of the motor cortex as well as motor performance, but less is known about neuroplasticity of somatosensory processing in the presence of pain. Early somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) provide a mechanism for investigating alterations in sensory processing and sensorimotor integration (SMI). The overall aim of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of acute pain, motor training, and sensorimotor processing. Two groups of twelve participants (N = 24) were randomly assigned to either an intervention (capsaicin cream) or placebo (inert lotion) group. SEP amplitudes were collected by stimulation of the median nerve at baseline, post-application and post-motor training. Participants performed a motor sequence task while reaction time and accuracy data were recorded. The amplitude of the P22-N24 complex was significantly increased following motor training for both groups F(2,23) = 3.533, p < 0.05, while Friedman's test for the P22-N30 complex showed a significant increase in the intervention group [?(2) (df = 2, p = 0.016) = 8.2], with no significant change in the placebo group. Following motor training, reaction time was significantly decreased for both groups F(1,23) = 59.575, p < 0.01 and overall accuracy differed by group [?(2) (df = 3, p < 0.001) = 19.86], with post hoc testing indicating that the intervention group improved in accuracy following motor training [?(2) (df = 1, p = 0.001) = 11.77] while the placebo group had worse accuracy [?(2) (df = 1, p = 0.006) = 7.67]. The improved performance in the presence of capsaicin provides support for the enhancement of knowledge acquisition with the presence of nontarget stimuli. In addition, the increase in SEP peak amplitudes suggests that early SEP changes are markers of SMI changes accompanying motor training and acute pain. PMID:24820288

  1. The effect of inspiratory muscle training on high-intensity, intermittent running performance to exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tom Kwokkeung; Fu, Frank Hokin; Chung, Pak Kwong; Eston, Roger; Lu, Kui; Quach, Binh; Nie, Jinlei; So, Raymond

    2008-08-01

    The effects of inspiratory muscle (IM) training on maximal 20 m shuttle run performance (Ex) during Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and on the physiological and perceptual responses to the running test were examined. Thirty men were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 groups. The experimental group underwent a 6 week pressure threshold IM training program by performing 30 inspiratory efforts twice daily, 6 d/week, against a load equivalent to 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure. The placebo group performed the same training procedure but with a minimal inspiratory load. The control group received no training. In post-intervention assessments, IM function was enhanced by >30% in the experimental group. The Ex was improved by 16.3% +/- 3.9%, while the rate of increase in intensity of breathlessness (RPB/4i) was reduced by 11.0% +/- 6.2%. Further, the whole-body metabolic stress reflected by the accumulations of plasma ammonia, uric acid, and blood lactate during the Yo-Yo test at the same absolute intensity was attenuated. For the control and placebo groups, no significant change in these variables was observed. In comparison with previous observations that the reduced RPB/4i resulting from IM warm-up was the major reason for improved Ex, the reduced RPB/4i resulting from the IM training program was lower despite the greater enhancement of IM function, whereas improvement in Ex was similar. Such findings suggest that although both IM training and warm-up improve the tolerance of intense intermittent exercise, the underlying mechanisms may be different. PMID:18641709

  2. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  3. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  4. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  5. 32 CFR 644.44 - Fee appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and enjoyment of a parcel of real estate is called the “fee simple estate.” An appraisal of this interest... Appraisals of the fair market value of the free and clear...of the Corps of Engineers' real estate responsibilities be...

  6. 32 CFR 644.44 - Fee appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and enjoyment of a parcel of real estate is called the “fee simple estate.” An appraisal of this interest... Appraisals of the fair market value of the free and clear...of the Corps of Engineers' real estate responsibilities be...

  7. 32 CFR 644.44 - Fee appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and enjoyment of a parcel of real estate is called the “fee simple estate.” An appraisal of this interest... Appraisals of the fair market value of the free and clear...of the Corps of Engineers' real estate responsibilities be...

  8. 32 CFR 644.44 - Fee appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and enjoyment of a parcel of real estate is called the “fee simple estate.” An appraisal of this interest... Appraisals of the fair market value of the free and clear...of the Corps of Engineers' real estate responsibilities be...

  9. 32 CFR 644.44 - Fee appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and enjoyment of a parcel of real estate is called the “fee simple estate.” An appraisal of this interest... Appraisals of the fair market value of the free and clear...of the Corps of Engineers' real estate responsibilities be...

  10. The effect of a novel tactical training program on physical fitness and occupational performance in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Ross; Clasey, Jody L; Palmer, Thomas; Symons, Thorburn B; Abel, Mark G

    2015-03-01

    Structural firefighting is a dangerous and physically demanding profession. Thus, it is critical that firefighters exercise regularly to maintain optimal physical fitness levels. However, little is known about optimal training methods for firefighters, and exercise equipment is often not available to on-duty firefighters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a novel supervised on-duty physical training program on the physical fitness and occupational performance of structural firefighters. Twenty professional male firefighters were divided into a supervised exercise group (SEG; n = 11) and a control group (CG; n = 9). The SEG participated in a 12-week circuit training intervention. The SEG exercised for 1 hour on 2 d·wk. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects performed a battery of physical fitness tests and a simulated fire ground test (SFGT). At baseline, there were no significant differences (p = 0.822) in the completion rate of the SFGT in the SEG (82%) vs. the CG (78%). After the intervention, a significantly greater proportion of the firefighters in the SEG completed the SFGT compared with the CG (SEG = 100% vs. CG = 56%; p < 0.013). In addition, the SEG demonstrated significant improvements in body mass, fat mass, and body mass index (p ? 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that training with firefighter equipment improved occupational performance and anthropometric outcomes in incumbent firefighters. Furthermore, implementing a supervised exercise program using firefighter equipment can be done so in a safe and feasible manner. PMID:25162645

  11. Astragalus membranaceus improves exercise performance and ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue in trained mice.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2014-01-01

    Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is a popular "Qi-tonifying" herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group) for treatment: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control); and (3) exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1) or (4) 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5). Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training. PMID:24595275

  12. Effect of acute fatigue and training adaptation on countermovement jump performance in elite snowboard cross athletes.

    PubMed

    Gathercole, Rob J; Stellingwerff, Trent; Sporer, Ben C

    2015-01-01

    Countermovement jump performance was examined in response to acute neuromuscular (NM) fatigue (study I) and chronic training (study II) in elite snowboard cross (SBX) athletes, through both typical (countermovement jump [CMJ]-TYP) and alternative (CMJ-ALT) CMJ variables. Seven (4 men and 3 women) elite (Olympic-level) SBX athletes participated in study I, and 5 of the same athletes (2 men and 3 women) participated in study II. Countermovement jump variables relating to force, velocity, power, and time were measured during both eccentric and concentric jump phases, with CMJ-TYP variables reflecting CMJ output and CMJ-ALT variables reflecting CMJ mechanics. In study I, CMJ performance was assessed before and after a fatiguing lower-body exercise protocol, and in study II, CMJ performance was examined before and after a 19-week structured training block. Meaningful differences in CMJ performance were examined using the magnitude of change (effect sizes [ES]) for group and individual changes. Acute fatigue decreased peak force and eccentric function, while the duration of the jump increased. The structured training block increased peak force and eccentric function, while jump duration markedly decreased. In both study I and study II, the largest ES were associated with CMJ-ALT variables. The CMJ test seems a suitable monitoring tool in elite SBX athletes for the detection of both acute fatigue and training-adaptation. Compared with CMJ output, CMJ mechanics exhibits more marked and divergent changes after both acute NM fatigue and a structured training block. CMJ-ALT variables should therefore be incorporated into CMJ analysis. PMID:25029001

  13. Teaching high-performance skills using above-real-time training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

    1993-01-01

    The above real-time training (ARTT) concept is an approach to teaching high-performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. It represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. Two related experiments are discussed. In the first, 25 naive male subjects performed three tank gunnery tasks on a simulator under varying levels of time acceleration (i.e., 1.0x, 1.6x, 2.0x, sequential, and mixed). They were then transferred to a standard (1.0x) condition for testing. Every accelerated condition or combination of conditions produced better training and transfer than the standard condition. Most effective was the presentation of trials at 1.0x, 1.6x, and 2.0x in a random order during training. Overall, the best ARTT group scored about 50 percent higher and trained in 25 percent less time compared to the real-time control group. In the second experiment, 24 mission-capable F-16 pilots performed three tasks on a part-task F-16A flight simulator under varying levels of time compression (i.e., 1.0x, 1.5x, 2.0x, and random). All subjects were then tested in a real-time environment. The emergency procedure (EP) task results showed increased accuracy for the ARTT groups. In testing (transfer), the ARTT groups not only performed the EP more accurately, but dealt with a simultaneous enemy significantly better than a real-time control group. Although the findings on an air combat maneuvering task and stern conversion task were mixed, most measures indicated that the ARTT groups performed better and faster than a real-time control group. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

  14. The effect of training on performance efficiency during a competitive isometric exercise.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A J; Voor, J H

    1973-03-01

    Male college students (N = 15) participated in a competitive isometric exercise involving elbow flexion. The men were grouped into five teams each consisting of three men. A prize of $25 was offered to the team which maintained the greatest force for the longest time. Prior to the competitive session each S practiced individually on the apparatus for eight sessions. The men were randomly assigned to the teams on the day of the competition. During each session, continuous EMG recordings were made on the biceps muscle of the right arm. Training significantly improved both strength and endurance while reducing the average EMG amplitude. When team competition was introduced, there was a decrease in endurance and an increase in EMG amplitude, it was concluded that training improved muscular strength and endurance by increasing the efficiency of muscle utilization. Competition, even with a partially trained skill, was considered a stressful situation that produced an overexpenditure of muscle activity and a resulting decrease in performance. PMID:23952630

  15. Interaction between workload and training - Converging evidence from psychophysiology and performance measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Arthur F.

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally, the domains of mental workload and training have been studied in isolation even though they share many common characteristics. The present paper integrates findings from psychophysiological and performance-based studies which address both of these issues. By augmenting traditional indices of skill acquisition such as RMS error scores, reaction times, and accuracy measures with psychophysiological measures such as the event-related brain potential, it is shown that workload effects can be assessed throughout the training process. More specifically, it is argued that the development of skill and the effects of workload on the human operator can be modeled within the framework of resource theories of attentional allocation. Also described is how converging evidence from psychophysiological and behavioral studies can be used to examine subtle changes in operator strategies during training.

  16. Comparison of integrated and isolated training on performance measures and neuromuscular control.

    PubMed

    Distefano, Lindsay J; Distefano, Michael J; Frank, Barnett S; Clark, Micheal A; Padua, Darin A

    2013-04-01

    Traditional weight training programs use an exercise prescription strategy that emphasizes improving muscle strength through resistance exercises. Other factors, such as stability, endurance, movement quality, power, flexibility, speed, and agility are also essential elements to improving overall functional performance. Therefore, exercises that incorporate these additional elements may be beneficial additions to traditional resistance training programs. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of an isolated resistance training program (ISO) and an integrated training program (INT) on movement quality, vertical jump height, agility, muscle strength and endurance, and flexibility. The ISO program consisted of primarily upper and lower extremity progressive resistance exercises. The INT program involved progressive resistance exercises, and core stability, power, and agility exercises. Thirty subjects were cluster randomized to either the ISO (n = 15) or INT (n = 15) training program. Each training group performed their respective programs 2 times per week for 8 weeks. The subjects were assessed before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period using the following assessments: a jump-landing task graded using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), vertical jump height, T-test time, push-up and sit-up performance, and the sit-and-reach test. The INT group performed better on the LESS test (pretest: 3.90 ± 1.02, posttest: 3.03 ± 1.02; p = 0.02), faster on the T-test (pretest: 10.35 ± 1.20 seconds, posttest: 9.58 ± 1.02 seconds; p = 0.01), and completed more sit-ups (pretest: 40.20 ± 15.01, posttest: 46.73 ± 14.03; p = 0.045) and push-ups (pretest: 40.67 ± 13.85, posttest: 48.93 ± 15.17; p = 0.05) at posttest compared with pretest, and compared with the ISO group at posttest. Both groups performed more push-ups (p = 0.002), jumped higher (p < 0.001), and reached further (p = 0.008) at posttest compared with that at pretest. Performance enhancement programs should use an integrated approach to exercise selection to optimize performance and movement technique benefits. PMID:23364296

  17. The Development of Web-Based Collaborative Training Model for Enhancing Human Performances on ICT for Students in Banditpattanasilpa Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pumipuntu, Natawut; Kidrakarn, Pachoen; Chetakarn, Somchock

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to develop the model of Web-based Collaborative (WBC) Training model for enhancing human performances on ICT for students in Banditpattanasilpa Institute. The research is divided into three phases: 1) investigating students and teachers' training needs on ICT web-based contents and performance, 2) developing a web-based…

  18. Appraisal and Evaluation: Chimera, Fantasy, or Practicality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marland, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Looks beyond the threatening and remunerative aspects of teacher appraisal in the United Kingdom to the contribution that evaluation can make to professional and school development. Considers five sound reasons for appraisal, the roles and behaviors to be appraised, and some workable approaches and techniques. Effective leadership is the key.…

  19. The Effects of Plyometric Type Neuromuscular Training on Postural Control Performance of Male Team Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Asadi, A, Saez de Villarreal, E, and Arazi, H. The effects of plyometric type neuromuscular training on postural control performance of male team basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 1870-1875, 2015-Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ? 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity. PMID:25563677

  20. Exercise and Training to Optimize Functional Motor Performance in Stroke: Driving Neural Reorganization?

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Roberta B.

    2001-01-01

    Neurorehabilitation is increasingly taking account of scientific findings. Research areas directing stroke rehabilitation are neurophysiology; adaptability to use and activity; biomechanics; skill learning; and exercise science (task, context specificity). Understanding impairments and adaptations enables a reappraisal of interventions—for example,changes in motor control resulting from impairments (decreased descending inputs, reduced motor unit synchronization), secondary soft tissue changes (muscle length and stiffness changes) are adaptations to lesion and disuse. Changes in interventions include increasing emphasis on active exercise and task-specific training, active and passive methods of preserving muscle extensibility. Training has the potential to drive brain reorganization and to optimize functional performance. Research drives the development of training programs, and therapists are relying less on one-to-one, hands-on service delivery, making use of circuit training and group exercise and of technological advances (interactive computerized systems, treadmills) which increase time spent in active practice, Emphasis is on skill training, stressing cognitive engagement and practice, aiming to increase strength, control, skill, endurance, fitness, and social readjustment. Rehabilitation services remain slow to make the changes necessary to upgrade environments, attitudes, and rehabilitation methodologies to those shown to be more scientifically rational and for which there is evidence of effectiveness. PMID:11530883

  1. Physiological and performance test correlates of prolonged, high-intensity, intermittent running performance in moderately trained women team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Sirotic, Anita C; Coutts, Aaron J

    2007-02-01

    A large number of team sports require athletes to repeatedly produce maximal or near maximal sprint efforts of short duration interspersed with longer recovery periods of submaximal intensity. This type of team sport activity can be characterized as prolonged, high-intensity, intermittent running (PHIIR). The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the physiological factors that best relate to a generic PHIIR simulation that reflects team sport running activity. The second purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between common performance tests and the generic PHIIR simulation. Following a familiarization session, 16 moderately trained (VO2max = 40.0 +/- 4.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) women team sport athletes performed various physiological, anthropometrical, and performance tests and a 30-minute PHIIR sport simulation on a nonmotorized treadmill. The mean heart rate and blood lactate concentration during the PHIIR sport simulation were 164 +/- 6 b x min(-1) and 8.2 +/- 3.3 mmol x L(-1), respectively. Linear regression demonstrated significant relationships between the PHIIR sport simulation distance and running velocity attained at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol x L(-1) (LT) (r = 0.77, p < 0.05), 5 x 6-second repeated cycle sprint work (r = 0.56, p < 0.05), 30-second Wingate test (r = 0.61, p < 0.05), peak aerobic running velocity (Vmax) (r = 0.69, p < 0.05), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo IR1) distance (r = 0.50, p < 0.05), respectively. These results indicate that an increased LT is associated with improved PHIIR performance and that PHIIR performance may be monitored by determining Yo-Yo IR1 performance, 5 x 6-second repeated sprint cycle test work, 30-second Wingate test performance, Vmax, or LT. We suggest that training programs should focus on improving both LT and Vmax for increasing PHIIR performance in moderately trained women. Future studies should examine optimal training methods for improving these capacities in team sport athletes. PMID:17313257

  2. Surgical training and certification in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew J; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Warren, Oliver J; Paraskeva, Paraskevas

    2009-02-01

    Training in surgical disciplines in the United Kingdom has undergone tremendous change over the past two decades. The introduction of specialist training programmes, working time directives, quality ratings and a drive toward ambulatory and minimal access surgery have led to challenges with respect to training and service commitments of healthcare professionals. A structured and centralised training system was introduced, with the concept of core followed by specialty-specific progression, in an openly competitive manner. Within this system is the need to commence training on simulation models, and to demonstrate proficiency prior to performance of tasks on patients. This should be underpinned by objective measures such as video or dexterity-based tools. There is also a clear need to provide personal, professional and leadership development in the form of mentorship and appraisal systems. Though continuing to develop, the profession must be mindful of current and future advances to ensure the delivery of surgeons for the future who aspire toward excellence. PMID:19023619

  3. Quiet eye training expedites motor learning and aids performance under heightened anxiety: the roles of response programming and external attention.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee J; Vine, Samuel J; Cooke, Andrew; Ring, Christopher; Wilson, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    Quiet eye training expedites skill learning and facilitates anxiety-resistant performance. Changes in response programming and external focus of attention may explain such benefits. We examined the effects of quiet eye training on golf-putting performance, quiet eye duration, kinematics (clubhead acceleration), and physiological (heart rate, muscle activity) responses. Forty participants were assigned to a quiet eye or technical trained group and completed 420 baseline, training, retention, and pressure putts. The quiet eye group performed more accurately and displayed more effective gaze control, lower clubhead acceleration, greater heart rate deceleration, and reduced muscle activity than the technical trained group during retention and pressure tests. Thus, quiet eye training was linked to indirect measures of improved response programming and an external focus. Mediation analyses partially endorsed a response programming explanation. PMID:22564009

  4. Enhancing dual-task performance with verbal and spatial working memory training: continuous monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics with NIRS.

    PubMed

    McKendrick, Ryan; Ayaz, Hasan; Olmstead, Ryan; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-01-15

    To better understand the mechanisms by which working memory training can augment human performance we continuously monitored trainees with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while they performed a dual verbal-spatial working memory task. Linear mixed effects models were used to model the changes in cerebral hemodynamic response as a result of time spent training working memory. Nonlinear increases in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) were observed with increased exposure to working memory training. Adaptive and yoked training groups also showed differential effects in rostral prefrontal cortex with increased exposure to working memory training. There was also a significant negative relationship between verbal working memory performance and bilateral VLPFC activation. These results are interpreted in terms of decreased proactive interference, increased neural efficiency, reduced mental workload for stimulus processing, and increased working memory capacity with training. PMID:23727530

  5. The Road to Gold: Training and Peaking Characteristics in the Year Prior to a Gold Medal Endurance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Tønnessen, Espen; Sylta, Øystein; Haugen, Thomas A.; Hem, Erlend; Svendsen, Ida S.; Seiler, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe training variations across the annual cycle in Olympic and World Champion endurance athletes, and determine whether these athletes used tapering strategies in line with recommendations in the literature. Methods Eleven elite XC skiers and biathletes (4 male; 28±1 yr, 85±5 mL. min?1. kg?1 , 7 female, 25±4 yr, 73±3 mL. min?1. kg?1 ) reported one year of day-to-day training leading up to the most successful competition of their career. Training data were divided into periodization and peaking phases and distributed into training forms, intensity zones and endurance activity forms. Results Athletes trained ?800 h/500 sessions.year?1, including ?500 h. year?1 of sport-specific training. Ninety-four percent of all training was executed as aerobic endurance training. Of this, ?90% was low intensity training (LIT, below the first lactate threshold) and 10% high intensity training (HIT, above the first lactate threshold) by time. Categorically, 23% of training sessions were characterized as HIT with primary portions executed at or above the first lactate turn point. Training volume and specificity distribution conformed to a traditional periodization model, but absolute volume of HIT remained stable across phases. However, HIT training patterns tended to become more polarized in the competition phase. Training volume, frequency and intensity remained unchanged from pre-peaking to peaking period, but there was a 32±15% (P<.01) volume reduction from the preparation period to peaking phase. Conclusions The annual training data for these Olympic and World champion XC skiers and biathletes conforms to previously reported training patterns of elite endurance athletes. During the competition phase, training became more sport-specific, with 92% performed as XC skiing. However, they did not follow suggested tapering practice derived from short-term experimental studies. Only three out of 11 athletes took a rest day during the final 5 days prior to their most successful competition. PMID:25019608

  6. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists 'open up' appraisal of geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E

    2014-09-15

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth's climate system, known collectively as 'geoengineering', have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely 'close down' upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first 'upstream' appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately 'open up' to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic-deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens' and the specialists' deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives. PMID:25224904

  7. Neurofeedback training improves the dual-task performance ability in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Shin; Bae, Sea-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Hee; Kim, Kyung-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the reduced capacity for information processing following a stroke, patients commonly present with difficulties in performing activities of daily living that combine two or more tasks. To address this problem, in the present study, we investigated the effects of neurofeedback training on the abilities of stroke patients to perform dual motor tasks. We randomly assigned 20 patients who had sustained a stroke within the preceding 6 months to either a pseudo-neurofeedback (n = 10) or neurofeedback (n = 10) group. Both groups participated in a general exercise intervention for 8 weeks, three times a week for 30 min per session, under the same conditions. An electrode was secured to the scalp over the region of the central lobe (Cz), in compliance with the International 10-20 System. The electrode was inactive for the pseudo-training group. Participants in the neurofeedback training group received the 30-min neurofeedback training per session for reinforcing the sensorimotor rhythm. Electroencephalographic activity of the two groups was compared. In addition, selected parameters of gait (velocity, cadence [step/min], stance phase [%], and foot pressure) were analyzed using a 10-m walk test, attention-demanding task, walk task and quantified by the SmartStep system. The neurofeedback group showed significantly improved the regulation of the sensorimotor rhythm (p < 0.001) and ability to execute dual tasks (p < 0.01). Significant improvements on selected gait parameters (velocity and cadence; p < 0.05) were also observed. We thus propose that the neurofeedback training is effective to improve the dual-task performance in stroke patients. PMID:25985858

  8. Autogenic-feedback training improves pilot performance during emergency flying conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellar, Michael A.; Folen, Raymond A.; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Hisert, Glen L.

    1994-01-01

    Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group comprised three pilots of HC-130 Hercules aircraft and four HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group comprised three pilots of HC-130's and six Dolphin helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded for each crew member and individual crew performance was rated by an instructor pilot. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT). The remaining subjects received no training. During a second flight, treatment subjects showed significant improvement in performance, while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFT management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  9. Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise and pilot performance: enhanced functioning under search-and-rescue flying conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Kellar, M. A.; Folen, R. A.; Toscano, W. B.; Burge, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group contained 4 pilots from HC-130 Hercules aircraft and 4 HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group contained 3 pilots of HC-130s and 6 helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded on each crewmember and an instructor pilot rated individual crew performance. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE). The remaining participants received no training. During a second flight, treatment participants showed significant improvement in performance (rated by the same instructor pilot as in pretests) while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFTE management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  10. Autogenic-feedback training improves pilot performance during emergency flying conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellar, Michael A.; Folen, Raymond A.; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Hisert, Glen L.

    1993-01-01

    Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. The effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance was examined. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group comprised four pilots of HC-130 Hercules aircraft and four HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group comprised three pilots of HC-130's and six Dolphin helicopter pilots. During an initial flight physiological data were recorded for each crewmember and individual crew performance and rated by an instructor pilot. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT). The remaining subjects received no training. During a second flight, treatment subjects showed significant improvement in performance, while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFT management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  11. Retaking ability tests in a selection setting: implications for practice effects, training performance, and turnover.

    PubMed

    Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Farr, James L

    2002-04-01

    This field study investigated the effect of retaking identical selection tests on subsequent test scores of 4,726 candidates for law enforcement positions. For both cognitive ability and oral communication ability selection tests, candidates produced significant score increases between the 1st and 2nd and the 2nd and 3rd test administrations. Furthermore, the repeat testing relationships with posthire training performance and turnover were examined in a sample of 1,515 candidates eventually selected into the organization. As predicted from persistence and continuance commitment rationales, the number of tests necessary to gain entry into the organization was positively associated with training performance and negatively associated with turnover probability. PMID:12002953

  12. Sprinting performance and resistance-based training interventions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bolger, Richard; Lyons, Mark; Harrison, Andrew J; Kenny, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to search the scientific literature for original research, addressing the effects different forms of resistance-based training have on sprinting performance in competitive sprinters. Specific key words (Sprinters OR Sprint) NOT (Rugby, Soccer, Cycling, Swimming, Paralympic, and Nutrition) were used to search relevant databases through November 2013 for related literature. Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Five studies met the inclusion criteria: actively competitive adult male sprinters who participated in a resistance-based intervention (>4 weeks), with outcome measures in the form of 10- to 100-m sprint times. Exclusion criteria included acute studies (<4 weeks), nonsprinting populations, and studies with no performance outcome measures (10- to 100-m sprint times). Three of the 5 studies used both locomotor resistance and fixed plane resistance, whereas the remaining 2 studies used more fixed plane resistance, for example, squat and leg extension. Three of the studies showed a statistical improvement in sprinting performance measures, for example, a decrease in 30-m sprint time (p = 0.044), whereas 1 study showed a decrease in sprinting performance. The analysis concluded that resistance-based training has a positive effect on sprinting performance. Varied input of locomotor resistance and fixed plane resistance has resulted in similar percentage change for sprinting performance. This review adds to the body of knowledge by strongly highlighting the dearth of literature exploring the effects of resistance-based training on sprinting performance in competitive sprinters. The short duration and wide range of exercises implemented in studies to date are of concern, but coaches should not hesitate to implement well-planned resistance programs for their sprint athletes. PMID:25268287

  13. Caffeine Ingestion Reverses the Circadian Rhythm Effects on Neuromuscular Performance in Highly Resistance-Trained Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Mora-Rodríguez; Jesús García Pallarés; Álvaro López-Samanes; Juan Fernando Ortega; Valentín E. Fernández-Elías

    2012-01-01

    PurposeTo investigate whether caffeine ingestion counteracts the morning reduction in neuromuscular performance associated with the circadian rhythm pattern.MethodsTwelve highly resistance-trained men underwent a battery of neuromuscular tests under three different conditions; i) morning (10:00 a.m.) with caffeine ingestion (i.e., 3 mg kg?1; AMCAFF trial); ii) morning (10:00 a.m.) with placebo ingestion (AMPLAC trial); and iii) afternoon (18:00 p.m.) with placebo

  14. Optical Performance Monitoring Using Artificial Neural Network Trained With Asynchronous Amplitude Histograms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. R. Shen; Ke Meng; A. P. T. Lau; Zhao Yang Dong

    2010-01-01

    We propose an optical performance monitoring technique for simultaneous monitoring of optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), chromatic dispersion (CD), and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) using an artificial neural network trained with asynchronous amplitude histograms (AAHs). Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the technique for both 40-Gb\\/s return-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift keying (RZ-DQPSK) and 40-Gb\\/s noneturn-to-zero 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) systems. The OSNR,

  15. Effect of job attitudes, training, and organization climate on performance of the hard-core unemployed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Friedlander; Stuart Greenberg

    1971-01-01

    Examined potential contributors toward the job performance and retention of 478 hard-core unemployed (hcu): (a) the hcu's biographic and demographic background, (b) attitudes toward work, (c) the organizational climate in which he is placed, and (d) the effect of a 2-wk training\\/orientation program. The sole correlate of the hcu's work effectiveness and behavior was the degree of supportiveness of the

  16. How to critically appraise the clinical literature.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Paul; Rawson, James V; Heilbrun, Marta E; Lee, Janie M; Kelly, Aine M; Sanelli, Pina C; Bresnahan, Brian W; Paladin, Angelisa M

    2014-09-01

    Recent efforts have been made to standardize the critical appraisal of clinical health care research. In this article, critical appraisal of diagnostic test accuracy studies, screening studies, therapeutic studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, cost-effectiveness studies, recommendations and/or guidelines, and medical education studies is discussed as are the available instruments to appraise the literature. By having standard appraisal instruments, these studies can be appraised more easily for completeness, bias, and applicability for implementation. Appraisal requires a different set of instruments, each designed for the individual type of research. We also hope that this article can be used in academic programs to educate the faculty and trainees of the available resources to improve critical appraisal of health research. PMID:25107864

  17. How appraisers deal with authenticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okil, Edward N.

    2000-03-01

    Art appraisers have a unique spectator's overview of the fine arts marketplace. Not being involved in buying by auctions, galleries, dealers, and even barter. We hear the stories and claims and see the documents of authenticity from almost every source imaginable. The main conclusion is that there is no standard of expertise and authenticity, and providing one may be very difficult indeed.

  18. Principal Appraisals Get a Remake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of school districts--including large ones like those in Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, and Hawaii--have become recent converts to new principal-evaluation systems that tie school leaders' appraisals to student test scores. As of this school year, student achievement accounts for 40 percent to 50 percent of principals' evaluations…

  19. Short-term ankle motor performance with ankle robotics training in chronic hemiparetic stroke.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anindo; Forrester, Larry W; Macko, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) often results in impaired motor control and persistent weakness that may lead to chronic disability, including deficits in gait and balance function. Finding ways to restore motor control may help reduce these deficits; however, little is known regarding the capacity or temporal profile of short-term motor adaptations and learning at the hemiparetic ankle. Our objective was to determine the short-term effects of a single session of impedance-controlled ankle robot ("anklebot") training on paretic ankle motor control in chronic stroke. This was a double-arm pilot study on a convenience sample of participants with chronic stroke (n = 7) who had residual hemiparetic deficits and an equal number of age- and sex-matched nondisabled control subjects. Training consisted of participants in each group playing a target-based video game with the anklebot for an hour, for a total of 560 movement repetitions in dorsiflexion/plantar flexion ranges followed by retest 48 hours later. Task difficulty was adjusted to ankle range of motion, with robotic assistance decreased incrementally across training. Assessments included robotic measures of ankle motor control on unassisted trials before and after training and at 48 hours after training. Following exposure to the task, subjects with stroke improved paretic ankle motor control across a single training session as indexed by increased targeting accuracy (21.6 +/- 8.0 to 31.4 +/- 4.8, p = 0.05), higher angular speeds (mean: 4.7 +/- 1.5 degrees/s to 6.5 +/- 2.6 degrees/s, p < 0.01, peak: 42.8 +/- 9.0 degrees/s to 45.6 +/- 9.4 degrees/s, p = 0.03), and smoother movements (normalized jerk: 654.1 +/- 103.3 s(-2) to 537.6 +/- 86.7 s(-2), p < 0.005, number of speed peaks: 27.1 +/- 5.8 to 23.7 +/- 4.1, p < 0.01). In contrast, nondisabled subjects did not make statistically significant gains in any metric after training except in the number of successful passages (32.3 +/- 7.5 to 36.5 +/- 6.4, p = 0.006). Gains in all five motor control metrics were retained (p > 0.05) at 48 hours in both groups. Robust maintenance of motor adaptation in the robot-trained paretic ankle over 48 hours may be indicative of short-term motor learning. Our initial results suggest that the anklebot may be a flexible motor learning platform with the potential to detect rapid changes in ankle motor performance poststroke. PMID:21674391

  20. Can balance trampoline training promote motor coordination and balance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder?

    PubMed

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Mitsiou, Maria; Arabatzi, Fotini; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine movement difficulties among typically developing 8- to 9-year-old elementary students in Greece and to investigate the possible effects of a balance training program to those children assessed with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The Body Coordination Test for Children (BCTC; Körperkoordinationstest fur Kinder, KTK, Kiphard & Schilling, 1974) was chosen for the purposes of this study and 20 children out of the total number of 200, exhibited motor difficulties indicating a probable DCD disorder. The 20 students diagnosed with DCD were equally separated into two groups where each individual of the experimental group was paired with an individual of the control group. The intervention group attended a 12-week balance training program while students of the second - control group followed the regular school schedule. All participants were tested prior to the start and after the end of the 12-week period by performing static balance control tasks while standing on an EPS pressure platform and structured observation of trampoline exercises while videotaping. The results indicated that after a 12-week balance training circuit including a trampoline station program, the intervention group improved both factors that were examined. In conclusion, balance training with the use of attractive equipment such as trampoline can be an effective intervention for improving functional outcomes and can be recommended as an alternative mode of physical activity. PMID:25280002

  1. Stair-ascent performance in elderly women: effect of explosive strength training.

    PubMed

    Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Caserotti, Paolo; Puggaard, Lis; Aagaard, Per

    2011-04-01

    Explosive-type strength training may alter kinetics and neuromuscular activity during stair ascent in elderly women. This may improve functional ability. Nineteen women (69.7 ± 3.4 yr) were randomly allocated to strength training (TG; twice per wk, 12 wk) or a control group (CG). Stair ascent was assessed at self-chosen (AFV), standardized (ASV), and maximal velocity (AMV) pre- and posttraining. Ground-reaction force (GRF) and EMG quantified kinetics and neuromuscular activity. After training, TG increased AMV and AFV velocity by 8% (p = .02) and 17% (p= .007), respectively (TG vs. CG; p< .05). This was accompanied by elevated rectus femoris EMG (from 21% to 48%, p< .047). At AFV, TG increased GRF first peak force 4% (p= .047), and CG increased second peak force 5% (p = .036). Muscle coactivation remained unaltered in both groups. Explosive-type strength training led to enhanced stair-climbing performance at maximal and self-chosen speed, reflecting an improved functional ability. PMID:21558567

  2. Structuralized box-trainer laparoscopic training significantly improves performance in complex virtual reality laparoscopic tasks

    PubMed Central

    Stefaniak, Tomasz J.; Makarewicz, Wojciech; Proczko, Monika; Gruca, Zbigniew; ?ledzi?ski, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In the era of flowering minimally invasive surgical techniques there is a need for new methods of teaching surgery and supervision of progress in skills and expertise. Virtual and physical box-trainers seem especially fit for this purpose, and allow for improvement of proficiency required in laparoscopic surgery. Material and methods The study included 34 students who completed the authors‘ laparoscopic training on physical train-boxes. Progress was monitored by accomplishment of 3 exercises: moving pellets from one place to another, excising and clipping. Analysed parameters included time needed to complete the exercise and right and left hand movement tracks. Students were asked to do assigned tasks prior to, in the middle and after the training. Results The duration of the course was 28 h in total. Significant shortening of the time to perform each exercise and reduction of the left hand track were achieved. The right hand track was shortened only in exercise number 1. Conclusions Exercises in the laboratory setting should be regarded as an important element of the process of skills acquisition by a young surgeon. Virtual reality laparoscopic training seems to be a new, interesting educational tool, and at the same time allows for reliable control and assessment of progress. PMID:23255997

  3. Performance and fibre characteristics of human skeletal muscle during short sprint training and detraining on a cycle ergometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-T. Linossier; D. Dormois; A. Geyssant; C. Denis

    1997-01-01

    The ergometric effect of sprint training and detraining was studied in relation to muscle fibre changes in seven students\\u000a trained during 9 weeks on a cycle ergometer. Before and after training and after 7-week detraining, they performed a force-velocity\\u000a test on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer. On these three occasions, muscle samples were taken from vastus lateralis muscle\\u000a at rest for

  4. Effects of the eyerobics visual skills training program on static balance performance of male and female subjects.

    PubMed

    McLeod, B; Hansen, E

    1989-12-01

    10 male and 10 female students in physical education aged 19 to 23 yr. were each randomly assigned to both the experimental and control groups. Experimental subjects were given the 4-wk. Eyerobics visual skills training to assess its effects on static balance performance as measured on a balance stabilometer. Analysis indicated that the women performed significantly better than the men over-all. Balance performance by the trained group improved significantly. PMID:2622724

  5. Position-specific behaviors and their impact on crew performance: Implications for training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, J. Randolph

    1993-01-01

    The present study was motivated by results from a preliminary report documenting the impact of specific crewmembers on overall crew performance (Wilhelm & Law, 1992), and a cross-airline cross-fleet project investigating human factors behaviors of commercial aviation flightcrews (Helmreich, Butler, Whilhelm, & Lofaro, 1992). The purpose of the current investigation is to study how position-specific behaviors impact flightcrew performance, and how these position-specific behaviors differ between two airlines and two flying environments. Implications for training will also be addressed.

  6. Whey Protein Improves Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Trained Mice

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, WEN-CHYUAN; HUANG, WEN-CHING; CHIU, CHIEN-CHAO; CHANG, YU-KAI; HUANG, CHI-CHANG

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The objective of this study is to verify the beneficial effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation on health promotion and enhance exercise performance in an aerobic-exercise training protocol. Methods In total, 40 male Institute of Cancer Research mice (4 wk old) were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): sedentary control with vehicle (SC) or WP supplementation (4.1 g·kg?1, SC + WP), and exercise training with vehicle (ET) or WP supplementation (4.1 g·kg?1, ET + WP). Animals in the ET and ET + WP groups underwent swimming endurance training for 6 wk, 5 d·wk?1. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as by changes in body composition and biochemical parameters at the end of the experiment. Results ET significantly decreased final body and muscle weight and levels of albumin, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol, and triacylglycerol. ET significantly increased grip strength; relative weight (%) of liver, heart, and brown adipose tissue (BAT); and levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and total bilirubin. WP supplementation significantly decreased final body, muscle, liver, BAT, and kidney weight and relative weight (%) of muscle, liver, and BAT as well as levels of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and uric acid. In addition, WP supplementation slightly increased endurance time and significantly increased grip strength and levels of albumin and total protein. Conclusion WP supplementation improved exercise performance, body composition, and biochemical assessments in mice and may be an effective ergogenic aid in aerobic exercise training. PMID:24504433

  7. Reorganization of functional brain networks mediates the improvement of cognitive performance following real-time neurofeedback training of working memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaoyan; Yao, Li; Shen, Jiahui; Yang, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2015-05-01

    Working memory (WM) is essential for individuals' cognitive functions. Neuroimaging studies indicated that WM fundamentally relied on a frontoparietal working memory network (WMN) and a cinguloparietal default mode network (DMN). Behavioral training studies demonstrated that the two networks can be modulated by WM training. Different from the behavioral training, our recent study used a real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI)-based neurofeedback method to conduct WM training, demonstrating that WM performance can be significantly improved after successfully upregulating the activity of the target region of interest (ROI) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Zhang et al., [2013]: PloS One 8:e73735); however, the neural substrate of rtfMRI-based WM training remains unclear. In this work, we assessed the intranetwork and internetwork connectivity changes of WMN and DMN during the training, and their correlations with the change of brain activity in the target ROI as well as with the improvement of post-training behavior. Our analysis revealed an "ROI-network-behavior" correlation relationship underlying the rtfMRI training. Further mediation analysis indicated that the reorganization of functional brain networks mediated the effect of self-regulation of the target brain activity on the improvement of cognitive performance following the neurofeedback training. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the neural basis of real-time neurofeedback and suggest a new direction to improve WM performance by regulating the functional connectivity in the WM related networks. PMID:25545862

  8. Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p < 0.001) and 24 (-13% ± 5%, p < 0.001 and -9% ± 5%, p = 0.001). Strength performance decreased in E at week 24 (-5% ± 5%, p = 0.014) but was maintained in E+S (between-groups at week 12 and 24, p = 0.014 and 0.011, respectively). Basal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations remained unaltered in E and E+S but testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin ratio decreased in E+S at week 12 (-19% ± 26%, p = 0.006). At week 0 and 24, endurance loading-induced acute force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p < 0.001) were similar between E and E+S. This study showed no endurance performance benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S. PMID:25494869

  9. Training, assessment, and measures of performance for effective operational use of millimeter-wave (MMW) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownson, Adam; McClumpha, Andrew J.; Tatlock, Kerry B.

    2003-09-01

    As technologies emerge that have the potential to significantly improve the detection and recognition of concealed weapons and objects on personnel, the ultimate effectiveness of these systems is still reliant on the performance of the operator of that system. This paper will report the work undertaken to evaluate and optimise the effectiveness of a millimetre wave (MMW) system. This was achieved through an extensive series of trials carried out at a large UK airport and also under more controlled field conditions. The paper will discuss the work carried out to develop a simple and usable human-computer interface, and the development and implementation of the training program. This training program was based on a detailed task analysis, leading to the identification of competencies required for effective weapon detection and recognition. Ultimately, however, the effectiveness of emerging technologies, such as the MMW, needs to be empirically demonstrated. To that end we will report the results of comprehensive psychophysical performance assessments that has led, probably for the first time, to performance metrics for a MMW system that combine the performance of the system with the performance of the user. For emerging technologies to be truly successful a collaborative and co-operative approach from technologists, regulators, airport authorities, human factors specialists and occupational psychologists is required. The work reported will emphasise the importance of the collaboration that has occurred.

  10. Tonic pain experienced during locomotor training impairs retention despite normal performance during acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Jason; Bouyer, Laurent J; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Mercier, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    Many patients are in pain when they receive gait training during rehabilitation. Based on animal studies, it has been proposed that central sensitization associated to nociception (maladaptive plasticity) and plasticity related to the sensorimotor learning (adaptive plasticity) share similar neural mechanisms and compete with each other. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental tonic pain influences motor learning (acquisition and next-day retention) of a new locomotor task. Thirty healthy human subjects performed a locomotor adaptation task (perturbing force field applied to the ankle during swing using a robotized orthosis) on 2 consecutive days. Learning was assessed using kinematic measures (peak and mean absolute plantarflexion errors) and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Half of the participants performed the locomotor adaptation task with pain on Day 1 (capsaicin cream around the ankle), while the task was performed pain-free for all subjects on Day 2 to assess retention. Pain had no significant effect on baseline gait parameters nor on performance during the locomotor adaptation task (for either kinematic or EMG measures) on Day 1. Despite this apparently normal motor acquisition, pain-free Day 2 performance was markedly and significantly impaired in the Pain group, indicating that pain during training had an impact on the retention of motor memories (interfering with consolidation and/or retrieval). These results suggest that the same motor rehabilitation intervention could be less effective if administered in the presence of pain. PMID:25009252

  11. Reading Performance Is Enhanced by Visual Texture Discrimination Training in Chinese-Speaking Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Lin, Ou; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Yuzheng; Song, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background High order cognitive processing and learning, such as reading, interact with lower-level sensory processing and learning. Previous studies have reported that visual perceptual training enlarges visual span and, consequently, improves reading speed in young and old people with amblyopia. Recently, a visual perceptual training study in Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia found that the visual texture discrimination thresholds of these children in visual perceptual training significantly correlated with their performance in Chinese character recognition, suggesting that deficits in visual perceptual processing/learning might partly underpin the difficulty in reading Chinese. Methodology/Principal Findings To further clarify whether visual perceptual training improves the measures of reading performance, eighteen children with dyslexia and eighteen typically developed readers that were age- and IQ-matched completed a series of reading measures before and after visual texture discrimination task (TDT) training. Prior to the TDT training, each group of children was split into two equivalent training and non-training groups in terms of all reading measures, IQ, and TDT. The results revealed that the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT were significantly higher for the children with dyslexia than for the control children before training. Interestingly, training significantly decreased the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT for both the typically developed readers and the children with dyslexia. More importantly, the training group with dyslexia exhibited significant enhancement in reading fluency, while the non-training group with dyslexia did not show this improvement. Additional follow-up tests showed that the improvement in reading fluency is a long-lasting effect and could be maintained for up to two months in the training group with dyslexia. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that basic visual perceptual processing/learning and reading ability in Chinese might at least partially rely on overlapping mechanisms. PMID:25247602

  12. The Buffering Effects of Rejection-Inhibiting Attentional Training on Social and Performance Threat among Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandeneau, Stephane D.; Baldwin, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about social rejection can be disruptive in an academic context. We set out to train a positive cognitive habit that would buffer against social and performance threat thereby making students less vulnerable and more resilient to rejection. Participants from adult education centers (n=150) were first trained to inhibit rejection using a…

  13. Robotic surgical education: A systematic approach to training urology residents to perform robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hani H. Rashid; Yuk-Yuen M. Leung; Megan J. Rashid; Gregory Oleyourryk; John R. Valvo; Louis Eichel

    2006-01-01

    ObjectivesRobotic-assisted surgery using the da Vinci Surgical System is gaining popularity among urologists. However, training residents to use this system presents new challenges for surgical educators. We describe a method for training residents to perform robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.

  14. The Impact of Collegiate Aviation Student Learning Styles on Flight Performance: A Scenario-Based Training Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Stanley L.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the glass cockpit, as well as a whole new generation of high performance general aviation aircraft, highlights the need for a comprehensive overhaul of the traditional approach to training pilots. Collegiate aviation institutions that are interested in upgrading their training aircraft fleets will need to design new curricula…

  15. Effects of Above Real Time Training (ARTT) On Individual Skills and Contributions to Crew/Team Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia J.; Crane, Peter; Guckenberger, Dutch; Bageon, Kellye

    2001-01-01

    Above Real Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments on training of pilots performed by NASA engineers and others have indicated that real time training (RTT) reinforced with ARTT would offer an effective training strategy for such tasks which require significant effort at time and workload management. A study was conducted to find how ARTT and RTT complement each other for training of novice pilot-navigator teams to fly on a required route. In the experiment, each of the participating pilot-navigator teams was required to conduct simulator flights on a prescribed two-legged ground track while maintaining required air speed and altitude. At any instant in a flight, the distance between the actual spatial point location of the airplane and the required spatial point was used as a measure of deviation from the required route. A smaller deviation represented better performance. Over a segment of flight or over complete flight, an average value of the deviation represented consolidated performance. The deviations were computed from the information on latitude, longitude, and altitude. In the combined ARTT and RTT program, ARTT at intermediate training intervals was beneficial in improving the real time performance of the trainees. It was observed that the team interaction between pilot and navigator resulted in maintaining high motivation and active participation throughout the training program.

  16. The impact of collegiate aviation student learning styles on flight performance: A scenario-based training approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley L Harriman

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the glass cockpit, as well as a whole new generation of high performance general aviation aircraft, highlights the need for a comprehensive overhaul of the traditional approach to training pilots. Collegiate aviation institutions that are interested in upgrading their training aircraft fleets will need to design new curricula for aircraft with glass panel cockpits and this new

  17. Assessment Training Effects on Student Assessment Skills and Task Performance in a Technology-Facilitated Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of an assessment training module on student assessment skills and task performance in a technology-facilitated peer assessment. Seventy-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants completed an assessment training exercise, prior to engaging in peer-assessment activities. During the…

  18. Effects of hypnotic and sleep-inducing drugs on objective assessments of human psychomotor performance and subjective appraisals of sleep and early morning behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hindmarch, I.

    1979-01-01

    1 An acute dose comparison against placebo of the effects of nitrazepam 5 mg and temazepam 15 and 30 mg on measures of arousal and performance and on subjective assessment of sleep was carried out in 20 subjects with a history of using night-time medication for insomnia. 2 Amylobarbitone (100 mg) was included as an active control and each drug was given in hard gelatin capsules. Subjects reported improved sleep with nitrazepam 5 mg and temazepam 30 mg, but there was evidence of impaired performance the next day with temazepam 30 mg. 3 The effect of temazepam 20 mg prepared in the Scherer formulation was compared against placebo in a further ten subjects. The subjects reported improved sleep without evidence of impaired performance the next day. PMID:508503

  19. "Brain training" improves cognitive performance and survival in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Wood, Nigel I; Glynn, Dervila; Morton, A Jennifer

    2011-06-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to improve neurological function and cognitive performance in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). We have shown recently that even when they are already living in an enriched environment, additional EE had beneficial effects in R6/2 mice. Here we examined the effects of three different enrichment paradigms on cognitive dysfunction in R6/2 mice in a longitudinal study. The EE consisted of either enforced physical exercise on the Rotarod (predominantly motor stimulation), training in a novel type of maze, the 'noughts and crosses' (OX) maze (mainly cognitive stimulation), or access to a playground, that gave the mice the opportunity for increased, self-motivated activity using running wheels and other toys in a social context (mixed EE). We designed the OX maze to test spatial memory in the R6/2 mouse while minimizing motor demands. Control mice remained in their home cages during the training period. Mice were given enrichment between 6 and 8 weeks of age, followed by cognitive (Lashley maze) and motor testing (Rotarod) between 8 and 10 weeks. Mice were then given a further period of enrichment between 10 and 12 weeks, and their behavior was re-tested between 12 and 14 weeks of age. We also collected body weights and age at death from all mice. The OX maze was as sensitive for detecting learning deficits in the R6/2 mice as other types of mazes (such as the Morris water maze). Interestingly, providing cognitive stimulation via training in the OX maze produced significant improvements in subsequent cognitive performance by male, but not female, R6/2 mice in the Lashley maze task. OX maze training also significantly improved loss of body weight and survival in male R6/2 mice. These effects became apparent after as little as 2 weeks of training in the OX maze. These data suggest that there is a cognitive reserve that may be exploited in neurodegenerative disease. While brain training was not beneficial for all mice, it produced no deleterious effects, and so warrants further study in rodent models of HD. PMID:21324361

  20. Effects of respiratory muscle training on performance in athletes: a systematic review with meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    HajGhanbari, Bahareh; Yamabayashi, Cristiane; Buna, Teryn R; Coelho, Jonathan D; Freedman, Kyle D; Morton, Trevor A; Palmer, Sheree A; Toy, Melissa A; Walsh, Cody; Sheel, A William; Reid, W Darlene

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review to determine if respiratory muscle training (RMT) improves sport performance and respiratory muscle strength and endurance. Methodology followed the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, EMBASE, EBM reviews, and COCHRANE electronic databases were searched until July 2011. Articles were included if: (a) participants were athletes; (b) RMT was compared with sham or control in a randomized controlled design and included outcomes of respiratory muscle and sport performance; and (d) published in English. Quality assessment using PEDro and data abstraction was performed by 2 authors. Outcomes evaluated were measures of sport performance, exercise capacity, spirometry, and respiratory muscle strength and endurance. Meta-analyses were performed on outcomes reported in 2 or more papers. Results of this systematic review revealed that of the 6,923 citations retrieved from the search strategy, 21 met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses demonstrated a significant positive effect of RMT on sport performance outcomes of time trials, exercise endurance time, and repetitions on Yo-Yo tests. Inspiratory muscle strength and endurance improved in most studies, which in part, was dependent on the type of RMT employed. Determination of the type of athlete that may benefit most from RMT was limited by small sample sizes, differing RMT protocols, and differences in outcome measures across studies. In conclusion, RMT can improve sport performance. Closer attention to matching the ventilatory demands of RMT to those required during athletic competition and more aggressive progression of training intensity may show greater improvements in future studies. PMID:22836606

  1. ?-Alanine supplementation slightly enhances repeated plyometric performance after high-intensity training in humans.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Alain; Olbrechts, Naïma; Vieillevoye, Stéphanie; Poortmans, Jacques R

    2015-07-01

    ?-Alanine (BA) supplementation has become an ergogenic aid amongst competitive athletes to augment intramuscular carnosine content, leading to higher buffer capacity and exercise performance. We investigated 27 regularly trained young males and females who were randomly allocated either to placebo (PL) or BA ingestion for 8 weeks. Every single day, BA or PL (4.0-5.6 g day(-1)) supplements were ingested by participants and associated with a strong plyometric high-intensity training (two sessions per week during the 8 weeks). Before and after training, maximal jump heights were recorded during squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) and an index of fatigue was recorded as a mean height of 45 consecutive CMJ. Blood lactate was measured at rest, after completing the fatigue test and every 5 min thereafter up to 30 min recovery. After plyometric training, SJ and CMJ were increased, respectively, by 8.8 and 6.4 % in PL group and 9.9 and 11.0 % in BA group (p < 0.01, no difference between groups). Blood lactate reached a maximal value of 9.4 ± 1.6 mmol l(-1) in PL group, and 10.3 ± 1.3 mmol l(-1) in BA group, with a slight better performance in the fatigue test (+8.6 %, p ? 0.01) for BA group as compared to PL group. To conclude, 2-month ?-alanine supplementation resulted in a slight improvement of explosive force after 45 maximal consecutive jumps in young athletes. However, the practical adequacy of supplementation remains questionable in an active and healthy population. PMID:25894892

  2. The impact of brain size on pilot performance varies with aviation training and years of education

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Maheen M.; Samarina, Viktoriya; Xiangyan, Xu; Huynh, Virginia; Kennedy, Quinn; Weiner, Michael; Yesavage, Jerome; Taylor, Joy L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently reported age-related changes in cognitive abilities and brain structure. Previous studies also suggest compensatory roles for specialized training, skill, and years of education in the age-related decline of cognitive function. The Stanford/VA Aviation Study examines the influence of specialized training and skill level (expertise) on age-related changes in cognition and brain structure. This preliminary report examines the effect of aviation expertise, years of education, age, and brain size on flight simulator performance in pilots aged 45–68 years. Fifty-one pilots were studied with structural magnetic resonance imaging, flight simulator, and processing speed tasks. There were significant main effects of age (p < .01) and expertise (p < .01), but not of whole brain size (p > .1) or education (p > .1), on flight simulator performance. However, even though age and brain size were correlated (r = ?0.41), age differences in flight simulator performance were not explained by brain size. Both aviation expertise and education were involved in an interaction with brain size in predicting flight simulator performance (p < .05). These results point to the importance of examining measures of expertise and their interactions to assess age-related cognitive changes. PMID:20193103

  3. Cramer-Rao Bounds and Coherence Performance Analysis for Next Generation Radar with Pulse Trains

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaowei; Tang, Jun; He, Qian; Wan, Shuang; Tang, Bo; Sun, Peilin; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    We study the Cramer-Rao bounds of parameter estimation and coherence performance for the next generation radar (NGR). In order to enhance the performance of NGR, the signal model of NGR with master-slave architecture based on a single pulse is extended to the case of pulse trains, in which multiple pulses are emitted from all sensors and then integrated spatially and temporally in a unique master sensor. For the MIMO mode of NGR where orthogonal waveforms are emitted, we derive the closed-form Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for the estimates of generalized coherence parameters (GCPs), including the time delay differences, total phase differences and Doppler frequencies with respect to different sensors. For the coherent mode of NGR where the coherent waveforms are emitted after pre-compensation using the estimates of GCPs, we develop a performance bound of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain for NGR based on the aforementioned CRBs, taking all the estimation errors into consideration. It is shown that greatly improved estimation accuracy and coherence performance can be obtained with pulse trains employed in NGR. Numerical examples demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results. PMID:23612588

  4. Example 5: Supplier Appraisal Form University of Aberdeen Supplier Appraisal Form

    E-print Network

    Siddharthan, Advaith

    Example 5: Supplier Appraisal Form University of Aberdeen Supplier Appraisal Form Please complete be relevant to the proposed University of Aberdeen supply: Does your firm have a nationally recognised quality

  5. Sensitivity of monthly heart rate and psychometric measures for monitoring physical performance in highly trained young handball players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether monthly resting heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and psychometric measures can be used to monitor changes in physical performance in highly-trained adolescent handball players. Data were collected in 37 adolescent players (training 10±2.1?h.wk(-1)) on 11 occasions from September to May during the in-season period, and included an estimation of training status (resting HR and HRV, the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire), and 3 physical performance tests (a 10-m sprint, a counter movement jump and a graded aerobic intermittent test, 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test). The sensitivity of HR and psychometric measures to changes in physical performance was poor (training status markers and the performance measures. The specificity was however strong (>?75%), irrespective of the markers and the performance measures. Finally, the difference in physical performance between players with better vs. worse estimated training status were all almost certainly trivial. The present results highlight the limitation of monthly measures of resting HR, HRV and perceived mood and fatigue for predicting in-season changes in physical performance in highly-trained adolescent handball players. This suggests that more frequent monitoring might be required, and/or that other markers might need to be considered. PMID:25429552

  6. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. Methods A 10-week crossover, placebo controlled study was conducted. Eight trained male cyclists and two triathletes were randomly assigned to consume 75 g/d whole almonds (ALM) or isocaloric cookies (COK) with equal subject number. They consumed the assigned food for 4 wks and then the alternate food for another 4 wks. They underwent 3 performance tests including 125-min steady status exercise (SS) and 20-min time trial (TT) on an indoor stationary trainer at the start of the study (BL) and at the end of each intervention phase. Venous blood was collected in the morning prior to the performance test for biochemical measurements and finger blood during the test for glucose determination. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and oxygen use were calculated using respiratory gas analysis. Results ALM increased cycling distance during TT by 1.7 km as compared BL (21.9 vs. 20.2 km, P?=?0.053) and COK increased 0.6 km (20.8 vs. 20.2 km, P?>?0.05). ALM, but not COK, led to higher CHO and lower fat oxidation and less oxygen consumption during TT than BL (P??0.05) than BL, and a higher total antioxidant capacity than COK (P?performance more than isocaloric cookies in trained athletes as some nutrients in almonds may contribute to CHO reservation and utilization and effective oxygen utilization. The results suggest that almonds can be incorporated into diets of those who undertake exercise training for performance improvement. PMID:24860277

  7. Optical performance monitoring by use of artificial neural networks trained with parameters derived from delay-tap asynchronous sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Jargon; Xiaoxia Wu; Alan E. Willner

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a technique for optical performance monitoring by simultaneously identifying optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), chromatic dispersion (CD), and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) using artificial neural networks trained with parameters derived from delay-tap asynchronous sampling.

  8. Level and appraisal of fatigue are not specific in burnout.

    PubMed

    Van Dam, Arno; Keijsers, Ger; Verbraak, Marc; Eling, Paul; Becker, Eni

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a main feature of the burnout syndrome but also very common in other psychiatric disorders such as major depression and anxiety disorders. This raises the question of whether the level and appraisal of fatigue is experienced differently by individuals suffering from burnout than by those exhibiting anxiety disorders and major depression. If fatigue is experienced differently in burnout compared with other disorders, this may clarify why fatigue is the main feature of the burnout syndrome. This knowledge may lead to the application of specific therapeutic interventions aimed at the experience of fatigue in burnout. In the present study, we investigated whether fatigue is experienced differently in burnout patients than in patients suffering from anxiety disorders or major depression. We presented 73 burnout patients, 67 depressed patients, 57 patients with an anxiety disorder and 127 healthy participants with a rating scale containing statements about the fatigue-performance relationship, and we assessed the level of fatigue, depression and anxiety. The level of fatigue reported by burnout patients was high but did not differ from that of the other patient groups. The appraisal of fatigue also did not differ among the patient groups. The burnout patients did not appraise their fatigue as a result of unrewarding activities nor did they catastrophize fatigue in an exceptional way. Thus, the level of fatigue and the appraisal of fatigue may be less relevant to the understanding of the specific pathological processes associated with burnout than is often presumed. PMID:24022877

  9. Evaluation of physiological, performance and self report reactivity to cue-controlled and progressive muscle relaxation training

    E-print Network

    Reardon, Dennis Joseph

    1982-01-01

    EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL, PERFORMANCE AND SELF REPORT REACTIVITY TO CUF-CONTROLLED AND PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION TRAINING A Thesis by DENNIS JOSEPH REARDON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major Subject: Psychology EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL, PERFORMANCE AND SELF REPORT REACTIVITY TO CUE-CONTROLLED AND PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION TRAINING A Thesis by DENNIS...

  10. Task-related circuit training improves performance of locomotor tasks in chronic stroke: A randomized, controlled pilot trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine M. Dean; Carol L. Richards; Francine Malouin

    2000-01-01

    Dean CM, Richards CL, Malouin F. Task-related circuit training improves performance of locomotor tasks in chronic stroke: a randomized, controlled pilot trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:409-17. Objective: To evaluate the immediate and retention effects of a 4-week training program on the performance of locomotor-related tasks in chronic stroke. Design: Randomized, controlled pilot study with 2-month follow-up. Setting: Rehabilitation center.

  11. Extending role by Japanese pharmacists after training for performing vital signs monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Fujiko; Hazama, Kenji; Ikeda, Shunya; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, the circumstances in which pharmacists work are changing. Pharmacists are expected to assess conditions of patients subject to medication to ensure proper use of pharmaceutical products. To ensure fulfilment of these roles, there have already been pharmacists’ efforts in performing vital signs monitoring. Objective To clarify the necessity and related issues, by investigating the state of vital sign monitoring in clinical field by pharmacists who have been trained in vital sign monitoring. Method A web survey was conducted from 4th October to 3rd December 2012, subjecting 1,026 pharmacists who completed the vital signs training hosted by The Japanese Association of Home Care Pharmacies (JAHCP). Survey items were 1) basic information of a respondent, 2) situation of homecare conducted by pharmacists, 3) seminar attendance status, and 4) vital signs monitoring status after the seminar. Results The number of valid respondents was 430 and the response rate was 41.9%. As a result of the present research, it was revealed that 168 pharmacists (41.4%), had the opportunity to perform vital signs monitoring. By conducting vital sign monitoring, effects such as 1) improved motivation of pharmacists and better communication with patients, 2) proper use of medication, and 3) cost reduction were confirmed. Conclusion Judging from the results of the survey, pharmacists can improve medication therapy for patients by attaining vital sign skills and conduct vital sign monitoring. Pharmacists who perform vital sign monitoring should share cases where they experienced positive patient outcomes. PMID:25243033

  12. 32 CFR 644.47 - Appraisal of other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Appraisal...logging, haulage, and market conditions will be given...appraisals and local market conditions to prepare...value estimate of the estate to be appraised....

  13. 32 CFR 644.47 - Appraisal of other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Appraisal...logging, haulage, and market conditions will be given...appraisals and local market conditions to prepare...value estimate of the estate to be appraised....

  14. 32 CFR 644.47 - Appraisal of other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Appraisal...logging, haulage, and market conditions will be given...appraisals and local market conditions to prepare...value estimate of the estate to be appraised....

  15. 32 CFR 644.47 - Appraisal of other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Appraisal...logging, haulage, and market conditions will be given...appraisals and local market conditions to prepare...value estimate of the estate to be appraised....

  16. 32 CFR 644.47 - Appraisal of other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Appraisal...logging, haulage, and market conditions will be given...appraisals and local market conditions to prepare...value estimate of the estate to be appraised....

  17. Performance, throughput, and cost of in-home training for the Army Reserve: Using asynchronous computer conferencing as an alternative to resident training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Hahn; R. L. Jr. Ashworth; R. H. Phelps; J. C. Byers

    1990-01-01

    Asynchronous computer conferencing (ACC) was investigated as an alternative to resident training for the Army Reserve Component (RC). Specifically, the goals were to (1) evaluate the performance and throughput of ACC as compared with traditional Resident School instruction and (2) determine the cost-effectiveness of developing and implementing ACC. Fourteen RC students took a module of the Army Engineer Officer Advanced

  18. Training-overtraining: influence of a defined increase in training volume vs training intensity on performance, catecholamines and some metabolic parameters in experienced middle- and long-distance runners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lehmann; P. Baumgartl; C. Wiesenack; A. Seidel; H. Baumann; S. Fischer; U. Spöri; G. Gendrisch; R. Kaminski; J. Keul

    1992-01-01

    Summary  The influence of an increase in training volume (ITV; February 1989) vs intensity (ITI; February 1990) on performance, catecholamines, energy metabolism and serum lipids was examined in two studies on eight, and nine experienced middle- or long-distance runners; seven participated in both studies. During ITV, mean training volume was doubled from 85.9 km · week–1 (pretrial phase) to 174.6 km

  19. Does a bout of strength training affect 2,000 m rowing ergometer performance and rowing-specific maximal power 24 h later?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas I. Gee; Duncan N. French; Glyn Howatson; Stephen J. Payton; Nicolas J. Berger; Kevin G. Thompson

    Rowers regularly undertake rowing training within 24 h of performing bouts of strength training; however, the effect of this\\u000a practice has not been investigated. This study evaluated the impact of a bout of high-intensity strength training on 2,000 m\\u000a rowing ergometer performance and rowing-specific maximal power. Eight highly trained male club rowers performed baseline measures\\u000a of five separate, static squat jumps (SSJ)

  20. Aerobic training during hemodialysis improves body composition, muscle function, physical performance, and quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min; Jo, Jong Il

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We assessed the influences of individualized aerobic training on body composition, knee joint muscle function, physical performance, and quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients. [Subjects] Ten chronic kidney disease patients undergoing dialysis. [Methods] Overall physical function and quality of life before and after 12 weeks of aerobic training were evaluated by body composition, the six-minute walk test, cardiopulmonary exercise tests, and Short Form 36-item questionnaire. [Results] The six-minute walk test distance increased significantly after 12 weeks aerobic training. Resting metabolic rate, lactate threshold, maximum oxygen uptake, and quality of life tended to increase after training. Post-training weight, muscle mass, body fat mass, fat percentage, body mass index, and peak torque of right and left knee extension and flexion did not change significantly. [Conclusion] Intra-dialytic training can a safe approach to maintain or improve physical performance and quality of life of chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis without adverse events or negative cardiovascular responses. Aerobic training may prevent a decline in body composition and knee joint muscle function due to inactivity in chronic kidney disease patients. Clinically, aerobic training may initially be adapted to maintain overall physical function or improve quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  1. Gradual training reduces the challenge to lateral balance control during practice and subsequent performance of a novel locomotor task.

    PubMed

    Sawers, Andrew; Kelly, Valerie E; Kartin, Deborah; Hahn, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Locomotor balance control mechanisms and impairments have been well described in the literature. In contrast, the role of evidence-based motor learning strategies in the recovery or restoration of locomotor balance control has received much less attention. Little is known about the efficacy of motor learning strategies to improve locomotor tasks and their unique requirements, such as lateral balance control. This study examined whether gradual versus sudden training influenced lateral balance control among unimpaired adults (n=16) during training and 24-h transfer performance of a novel locomotor task. This was accomplished by examining the variability of whole-body frontal plane kinematics throughout training and 24-h transfer performance of asymmetric split-belt treadmill walking. Compared to sudden training, gradual training significantly reduced the challenge to lateral balance control (exhibited by a reduction in frontal plane kinematic variability) during training and during subsequent transfer task performance. These results indicate that gradual training could play an important role in restoring locomotor balance control during physical rehabilitation. PMID:23706506

  2. Real-time fMRI training-induced changes in regional connectivity mediating verbal working memory behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Zhang, G; Yao, L; Zhao, X

    2015-03-19

    Working memory refers to the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information that is necessary for complex cognition activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that working memory capacity can be improved by behavioral training, and brain activities in the frontal and parietal cortices and the connections between these regions are also altered by training. Our recent neurofeedback training has proven that the regulation of the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) can improve working memory performance. However, how working memory training promotes interaction between brain regions and whether this promotion correlates with performance improvement remain unclear. In this study, we employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to calculate the interactions between the regions within the working memory network during neurofeedback training. The results revealed that the direct effect of the frontoparietal connection in the left hemisphere was enhanced by the rtfMRI training. Specifically, the increase in the path from the left DLPFC to the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was positively correlated with improved performance in verbal working memory. These findings demonstrate the important role of the frontoparietal connection in working memory training and suggest that increases in frontoparietal connectivity might be a key factor associated with behavioral improvement. PMID:25595984

  3. APPRAISAL INFORMATION Under state and federal law, only state licensed appraisers are permitted to provide appraisals or evaluations. Policies

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    APPRAISAL INFORMATION Under state and federal law, only state licensed appraisers are permitted Services Email: RBWapr@aol.com Washington, DC, area and Santa Fe, NM ArtTable, Washington, DC, chapter Evans Telephone: 530-542-3450 PO Box 7101 Email: jeromeevans@sbcglobal.net South Lake Tahoe, CA 96158

  4. Beetroot juice does not enhance altitude running performance in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Josh Timothy; Oliver, Samuel James; Lewis-Jones, Tammy Maria; Wylie, Lee John; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) provided as concentrated beetroot juice supplement would improve endurance running performance of well-trained runners in normobaric hypoxia. Ten male runners (mean (SD): sea level maximal oxygen uptake, 66 (7) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 10 km personal best, 36 (2) min) completed incremental exercise to exhaustion at 4000 m and a 10-km treadmill time-trial at 2500 m simulated altitude on separate days after supplementation with ?7 mmol NO3(-) and a placebo at 2.5 h before exercise. Oxygen cost, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during the incremental exercise test. Differences between treatments were determined using means [95% confidence intervals], paired sample t tests, and a probability of individual response analysis. NO3(-) supplementation increased plasma nitrite concentration (NO3(-), 473 (226) nmol·L(-1) vs. placebo, 61 (37) nmol·L(-1), P < 0.001) but did not alter time to exhaustion during the incremental test (NO3(-), 402 (80) s vs. placebo 393 (62) s, P = 0.5) or time to complete the 10-km time-trial (NO3(-), 2862 (233) s vs. placebo, 2874 (265) s, P = 0.6). Further, no practically meaningful beneficial effect on time-trial performance was observed as the 11 [-60 to 38] s improvement was less than the a priori determined minimum important difference (51 s), and only 3 runners experienced a "likely, probable" performance improvement. NO3(-) also did not alter oxygen cost, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, or RPE. Acute dietary NO3(-) supplementation did not consistently enhance running performance of well-trained athletes in normobaric hypoxia. PMID:25942474

  5. An Assessment of Naval ROTC Graduate Performance in Post-Accession Training. Focus on the Trained Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidt, Edward A.; Zajkowski, M. Michael

    The U.S. Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC), offered through host colleges and universities, requires enrolled midshipmen to complete all institutional requirements for the baccalaureate degree in a technical or scientific field or an academic major of interest to the Navy, and to complete specific naval science courses. This study…

  6. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400?mg+C: 600?mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200?m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: -51% vs. RC: -41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (?48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training. PMID:25251930

  7. Teaching Critical Appraisal of Articles on Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Pavel; Hoschl, Cyril; Volavka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatrists and other physicians sometimes read publications superficially, relying excessively on abstracts. The authors addressed this problem by teaching critical appraisal of individual articles. Method: The authors developed a 23-item appraisal instrument to assess articles in the area of psychopharmacology. The results were…

  8. University of Aberdeen Career Development & Appraisal Scheme

    E-print Network

    Siddharthan, Advaith

    University of Aberdeen Career Development & Appraisal Scheme Setting Objectives Introduction An individual's appraisal objectives should link to team objectives and the University's strategic objectives on ......... to be held by....... Develop a project plan for delivering the event by ........ · Enhance your international

  9. Smoothing in appraisal-based returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Michael Geltner

    1991-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual analysis of smoothing in the second moments of appraisal-based returns series in commercial real estate. The intent of the article is to lay the groundwork necessary for the more scientific use of appraisal-based returns time series for the purpose of inferring the true second moments. Formal smoothing models are presented together with their theoretical implications

  10. Bias in Appraisal-Based Returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Geltner

    1989-01-01

    This note quantifies and extends Giliberto's [AREUEA Journal 16(1)] analysis of bias in appraisal-based returns. An important clarification and distinction is made, defining two different perspectives from which one may view appraisal return bias. The Giliberto analysis addressed bias in the holding period return only. Here, after reviewing and extending Giliberto's analysis in this regard, bias is considered from another

  11. Effects of resistance training on jumping performance in pre-adolescent rhythmic gymnasts: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Marina; Battaglia, Claudia; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Innocenti, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Aquino, Giovanna; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Giombini, Arrigo; Di Cagno, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of two different resistance training programs on lower limb explosive and reactive strength in young female athletes. Fifty seven rhythmic gymnasts were randomly assigned to unspecific resistance training with dumbbells (12 repetition maximum squats) (n = 19; age = 12.0 +/- 1.8 years) or to specific resistance training with weighted belts (6% of body mass; n = 18; age = 11.9 +/- 1.0 years). Squat jump test, counter movement jump test, hopping test, flexibility of the hip, and anthropometric measures were assessed before and after six weeks training. The main result was that both unspecific resistance training and specific resistance training protocols positively affected the jumping performance, with an increase of the lower limb explosive strength of 6-7%, with no side effects. Counter movement jump flight time increased significantly (p < 0.01) while hopping test ground contact time significantly decreased (p < 0.01). No significant differences were detected among groups for flexibility, body mass, calf and thigh circumferences. Therefore, six weeks of resistance training that integrates different elements of rhythmic gymnastics training enhance jumping ability in young female athletes. PMID:25345071

  12. 5 CFR 430.310 - Performance Review Boards (PRBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...way that assures consistency, stability, and objectivity in SES performance appraisal. (3) When appraising a career appointee's...performance award, more than one-half of the PRB's members must be SES career appointees. (4) The agency must publish notice...

  13. 5 CFR 430.310 - Performance Review Boards (PRBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...way that assures consistency, stability, and objectivity in SES performance appraisal. (3) When appraising a career appointee's...performance award, more than one-half of the PRB's members must be SES career appointees. (4) The agency must publish notice...

  14. 5 CFR 430.310 - Performance Review Boards (PRBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...way that assures consistency, stability, and objectivity in SES performance appraisal. (3) When appraising a career appointee's...performance award, more than one-half of the PRB's members must be SES career appointees. (4) The agency must publish notice...

  15. Design, Control and Performance of RiceWrist: A Force Feedback Wrist Exoskeleton for Rehabilitation and Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhishek Gupta; Marcia Kilchenman O'malley; Volkan Patoglu; Charles G. Burgar

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design, control and performance of a high fidelity four degree-of-freedom wrist exoskeleton robot, RiceWrist, for training and rehabilitation. The RiceWrist is intended to provide kinesthetic \\u000afeedback during the training of motor skills or rehabilitation of reaching movements. Motivation for such applications is based on findings that show robot-assisted physical therapy aids in the rehabilitation process following

  16. Adaptation learning control scheme for a high performance permanent magnet stepper motor using online random training of neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Rubaai; Raj Kotaru

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling the speed of a permanent magnet stepper motor assumed to operate in a high-performance drives environment. An artificial neural network control scheme which uses continual on-line random training (with no off-line training) to simultaneously identify and adaptively control the speed of the stepper motor is proposed. The control scheme utilizes two three-layer feed-forward

  17. Knowledge modeling and the creation of El-Tech: a performance support and training system for electronic technicians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Coffey; Alberto J. Cañas; Greg Hill; Roger Carff; Thomas Reichherzer; Niranjan Suri

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a unique approach to the creation of a system to provide electronic performance support and training for electronics technicians. This work starts with a survey of relevant approaches to knowledge elicitation and modeling for performance support, and a review of other systems that have been created to assist with electronics troubleshooting. We then describe a

  18. The Effects of Intra-amygdala Infusion of the AMPA Receptor Antagonist CNQX on Retention Performance Following Aversive Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Mesches; Marino Bianchin; James L. McGaugh

    1996-01-01

    The aim of these experiments was to determine whether impaired retention performance in aversively motivated tasks, induced by blockade of amygdala AMPA receptors, is due to influences on mechanisms underlying memory retrieval or to other influences on performance. Rats received either footshock escape training (1 or 10 trials), or no foot shock, in a two-compartment straight alley and bilateral intra-amygdala

  19. Eccentric Viewing Training in the Home Environment: Can It Improve the Performance of Activities of Daily Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukicevic, Meri; Fitzmaurice, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Macular degeneration has a severe impact on a person's ability to perform activities of daily living. This study investigated the impact of in-home training in eccentric viewing on near acuity and performance of activities of daily living. The results suggest that eccentric viewing can ameliorate the impact of the loss of vision that is due to…

  20. The Effect of Extra-Curricular Mental Training with Biofeedback on Short Running Performance of Adolescent Physical Education Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Eli, Michael; Blumenstein, Boris

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between mental training with biofeedback and performance was investigated. An adapted version of the Wingate five-step approach was used as a mental preparation technique for enhancing the short-running performance among 16-18-year-old adolescent physical education pupils. Participants (n = 79) were randomly…

  1. Effects of plyometric training on endurance and explosive strength performance in competitive middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Alvarez, Cristian; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Baez, Eduardo B; Martínez, Cristian; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a short-term plyometric training program on explosive strength and endurance performance in highly competitive middle- and long-distance runners. Athletes were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 18, 12 men) and an explosive strength training group (TG, n = 18, 10 men). Drop jump (DJ) from 20 (DJ20) and 40 cm (DJ40), countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-m sprint time, and 2.4-km endurance run time test were carried out before and after 6 weeks of explosive strength training. Also, the combined standardized performance (CSP) in the endurance and explosive strength test was analyzed. After intervention, the CG did not show any significant change in performance, whereas the TG showed a significant reduction in 2.4-km endurance run time (-3.9%) and 20-m sprint time (-2.3%) and an increase in CMJA (+8.9%), DJ20 (+12.7%), and DJ40 (16.7%) explosive performance. Strength training group also exhibited a significant increase in CSP, although the CG showed significant reduction. We conclude that properly programmed concurrent explosive strength and endurance training could be advantageous for middle- and long-distance runners in their competitive performance, especially in events characterized by sprinting actions with small time differences at the end of the race. PMID:23838975

  2. Altering the rest interval during high-intensity interval training does not affect muscle or performance adaptations.

    PubMed

    Edge, Johann; Eynon, Nir; McKenna, Michael J; Goodman, Craig A; Harris, Roger C; Bishop, David J

    2013-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that exercise-induced changes in metabolites and ions are crucial in the adaptation of contracting muscle. We tested this hypothesis by comparing adaptations to two different interval-training protocols (differing only in the rest duration between intervals), which provoked different perturbations in muscle metabolites and acid-base status. Prior to and immediately after training, 12 women performed the following tests: (1) a graded exercise test to determine peak oxygen uptake (V(O2)); (2) a high-intensity exercise bout (followed 60 s later by a repeated-sprint-ability test; and (3) a repeat of the high-intensity exercise bout alone with muscle biopsies pre-exercise, immediately postexercise and after 60 s of recovery. Subjects performed 5 weeks (3 days per week) of training, with either a short (1 min; HIT-1) or a long rest period (3 min; HIT-3) between intervals; training intensity and volume were matched. Muscle [H(+)] (155 ± 15 versus 125 ± 8 nmol l(-1); P < 0.05) and muscle lactate content (84.2 ± 7.9 versus 46.9 ± 3.1 mmol (g wet weight)(-1)) were both higher after HIT-1, while muscle phosphocreatine (PCr) content (52.8 ± 8.3 versus 63.4 ± 9.8 mmol (g wet weight)(-1)) was lower. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the increases in , repeated-sprint performance or muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase content. Following training, both groups had a significant decrease in postexercise muscle [H(+)] and lactate content, but not postexercise ATP or PCr. Postexercise PCr resynthesis increased following both training methods. In conclusion, intense interval training results in marked improvements in muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase content, PCr resynthesis and . However, manipulation of the rest period during intense interval training did not affect these changes. PMID:22923232

  3. Categories of Auditory Performance and Speech Intelligibility Ratings of Early-Implanted Children without Speech Training

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huiqun; Chen, Zhengnong; Shi, Haibo; Wu, Yaqin; Yin, Shankai

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether speech therapy can lead to better results for early cochlear implantation (CI) children. Patients A cohort of thirty-four congenitally profoundly deaf children who underwent CI before the age of 18 months at the Sixth Hospital affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University from January 2005 to July 2008 were included. Nineteen children received speech therapy in rehabilitation centers (ST), whereas the remaining fifteen cases did not (NST), but were exposed to the real world, as are normal hearing children. Methods All children were assessed before surgery and at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery with the Categories of Auditory Performance test (CAP) and the Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR). Each assessment was given by the same therapist who was blind to the situation of the child at each observation interval. CAP and SIR scores of the groups were compared at each time point. Results Our study showed that the auditory performance and speech intelligibility of trained children were almost the same as to those of untrained children with early implantation. The CAP and SIR scores of both groups increased with increased time of implant use during the follow-up period, and at each time point, the median scores of the two groups were about equal. Conclusions These results indicate that great communication benefits are achieved by early implantation (<18 months) without routine speech therapy. The results exemplify the importance of enhanced social environments provided by everyday life experience for human brain development and reassure parents considering cochlear implants where speech training is unavailable. PMID:23349752

  4. Towards a Systematic Metric Based Approach to Evaluate SCAMPI Appraisals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simona Pricope; Horst Lichter

    2009-01-01

    CMMI SCAMPI based appraisals are used worldwide to assess the process quality of organizations. In this paper we introduce a metric-based approach to assess and improve CMMI SCAMPI appraisals. To have a sound basis we at first present an appraisal meta model which defines all types of appraisal elements and their relationships. This meta model can be instantiated to get

  5. Effects of Different Recovery Interventions on Anaerobic Performances Following Preseason Soccer Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Tessitore; Romain Meeusen; Cristina Cortis; Laura Capranica

    2007-01-01

    Tessitore, A., R. Meeusen, C. Cortis, and L. Capran- ica. Effects of different recovery interventions on anaerobic per- formances following preseason soccer training. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21(3):745-750. 2007.—In the preseason soccer training, morning and afternoon training sessions often are scheduled daily. The high frequency of training sessions could place heavy strain on biological systems, and it is necessary to

  6. Training to Enhance Design Team Performance: A Cure for Tunnel Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, James W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Design Team performance is a function of the quality and degree of academic training and the cumulative, learned experience of the individual members of the team. Teamwork, leadership, and communications certainly are factors that affect the measure of the performance of the team, but they are not addressed here. This paper focuses on accelerating the learned experience of team members and describes an organizational approach that can significantly increase the effective experience level for any engineering design team. The performance measure of the whole team can be increased by increasing the engineering disciplines' cross awareness of each other and by familiarizing them with their affect at the system level. Discipline engineers know their own discipline well, but typically are not intimately familiar with their technical interaction with and dependencies on all the other disciplines of engineering. These dependencies are design integration functions and are worked out well by the discipline engineers as long as they are involved in the design of types of systems that they have experience with.

  7. Playing vs. nonplaying aerobic training in tennis: physiological and performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players. PMID:25816346

  8. Evaluating the Impact of a Performance-Based Methodology on Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazbour, Richard R.; McGee, Heather M.; Mooney, Timothy; Masica, Laura; Brinkerhoff, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    Transfer of training is the degree to which trainees can apply the knowledge, skills, and attitudes gained in training to the job. Currently only between 5% and 20% of what is learned in training is ever applied on the job. At this time, little is known about the effects of work environment factors, such as support, feedback, and goal setting, on…

  9. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  10. How Helpful Are Error Management and Counterfactual Thinking Instructions to Inexperienced Spreadsheet Users' Training Task Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputi, Peter; Chan, Amy; Jayasuriya, Rohan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the impact of training strategies on the types of errors that novice users make when learning a commonly used spreadsheet application. Fifty participants were assigned to a counterfactual thinking training (CFT) strategy, an error management training strategy, or a combination of both strategies, and completed an easy task…

  11. Training-overtraining: performance, and hormone levels, after a defined increase in training volume versus intensity in experienced middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, M; Gastmann, U; Petersen, K G; Bachl, N; Seidel, A; Khalaf, A N; Fischer, S; Keul, J

    1992-01-01

    Performance and hormones were determined in eight middle- and nine long-distance runners after an increase in training volume (ITV, February 1989) or intensity (ITI, February 1990). Seven runners participated in both studies. The objective was to cause an overtraining syndrome. The mean training volume of 85.9 km week-1 increased within 3 weeks to 176.6 km week-1 during ITV and 96-98% of training volume was performed as long-distance runs at mean(s.d.) 67(8)% of maximum capacity. Speed endurance, high-speed and interval runs averaging 9 km week-1 increased within 3 weeks to 22.7 km during ITI, and the total volume increased from 61.6 to 84.7 km. A plateau in endurance performance and decrease in maximum performance occurred during ITV, probably due to overtraining, with performance incompetence over months. Nocturnal catecholamine excretion decreased markedly (47-53%), contrary to exercise-related plasma catecholamine responses, which increased. Resting and exercise-related cortisol and aldosterone levels decreased. Improvement in endurance and maximum performance occurred during ITI indicating a failure to cause an overtraining syndrome in ITI. Decrease in noctural catecholamine excretion was clearly lower (9-26%), exercise-related catecholamine responses showed a significant decrease, cortisol and aldosterone levels remained almost constant, exercise-related prolactin levels decreased slightly. There were no differences in insulin, C-peptide, free testosterone, somatotropic hormone (STH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The decrease in nocturnal catecholamine excretion during ITV might indicate a decrease in intrinsic sympathetic activity in exhausted sportsmen. But it remains open whether this reflected a central nervous system incompetence. PMID:1490214

  12. Assessment of the Green Building Education Needs of North Carolina Real Estate Appraisers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Lee F., Jr.

    2011-12-01

    The construction industry has experienced little growth since the beginning of the 2008 recession. Despite this phenomenon, green building remains in the forefront as a growing sector within the industry. There are, however, many barriers to the success and widespread adoption of high performance green building practices. This study focused on the real estate appraisal industry's role in determining the value of properties with green features. The study sample included appraisers from regions within North Carolina that have the largest numbers of certified commercial and residential green buildings. The central hypothesis predicted that, regardless of the number of certified green buildings or properties with green building features within the study areas, appraisers lack the experience and knowledge needed in order to provide an accurate appraisal of these properties. The research methods used for this study included surveys, interviews, case studies, and an extensive international literature review. In addition, industry experts throughout the United States were interviewed. The study generated a green building education gap analysis of real estate appraisers in addition to identification of the primary methods currently being used in the valuation of properties with green features. The results of this research will be utilized by green building workforce development providers and for the creation of green building continuing education and regional certification programs for real estate appraisers and other building professionals.

  13. Assessing the implementation process and outcomes of newly introduced assistant roles: a qualitative study to examine the utility of the Calderdale Framework as an appraisal tool

    PubMed Central

    Nancarrow, Susan; Moran, Anna; Wiseman, Leah; Pighills, Alison C; Murphy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Internationally, the health workforce has undergone rapid transformation to help meet growing staffing demands and population requirements. Several tools have been developed to support workforce change processes. The Calderdale Framework (CF) is one such tool designed to facilitate competency-based training by engaging team members in a seven step process involving awareness raising, service and task analysis, competency identification, establishing support systems, training, and sustaining. This paper explores the utility of the CF as an appraisal tool to assess whether adherence to the tool influences outcomes. The CF was applied retrospectively to three complete evaluations of allied health assistant role introduction: a new podiatry assistant role (Australia), speech pathology assistant (Australia), and occupational therapy assistant practitioner role (UK). Adherence to the CF was associated with more effective and efficient use of the role, role flexibility and career development opportunities for assistants, and role sustainability. Services are less likely to succeed in their workforce change process if they fail to plan for and use a structured approach to change, assign targeted leadership, undertake staff engagement and consultation, and perform an initial service analysis. The CF provides a clear template for appraising the implementation of new roles and highlights the potential consequences of not adhering to particular steps in the implementation process. PMID:23271913

  14. Assessing the implementation process and outcomes of newly introduced assistant roles: a qualitative study to examine the utility of the Calderdale Framework as an appraisal tool.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan; Moran, Anna; Wiseman, Leah; Pighills, Alison C; Murphy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Internationally, the health workforce has undergone rapid transformation to help meet growing staffing demands and population requirements. Several tools have been developed to support workforce change processes. The Calderdale Framework (CF) is one such tool designed to facilitate competency-based training by engaging team members in a seven step process involving awareness raising, service and task analysis, competency identification, establishing support systems, training, and sustaining. This paper explores the utility of the CF as an appraisal tool to assess whether adherence to the tool influences outcomes. The CF was applied retrospectively to three complete evaluations of allied health assistant role introduction: a new podiatry assistant role (Australia), speech pathology assistant (Australia), and occupational therapy assistant practitioner role (UK). Adherence to the CF was associated with more effective and efficient use of the role, role flexibility and career development opportunities for assistants, and role sustainability. Services are less likely to succeed in their workforce change process if they fail to plan for and use a structured approach to change, assign targeted leadership, undertake staff engagement and consultation, and perform an initial service analysis. The CF provides a clear template for appraising the implementation of new roles and highlights the potential consequences of not adhering to particular steps in the implementation process. PMID:23271913

  15. The Relationship Between Faculty Performance Assessment and Results on the In-Training Examination for Residents in an Emergency Medicine Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, James G.; Barlas, David; Pollack, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical knowledge (MK) in residents is commonly assessed by the in-training examination (ITE) and faculty evaluations of resident performance. Objective We assessed the reliability of clinical evaluations of residents by faculty and the relationship between faculty assessments of resident performance and ITE scores. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study at an academic emergency department with a postgraduate year (PGY)-1 to PGY-3 emergency medicine residency program, comparing summative, quarterly, faculty evaluation data for MK and overall clinical competency (OC) with annual ITE scores, accounting for PGY level. We also assessed the reliability of faculty evaluations using a random effects, intraclass correlation analysis. Results We analyzed data for 59 emergency medicine residents during a 6-year period. Faculty evaluations of MK and OC were highly reliable (???=??0.99) and remained reliable after stratification by year of training (mean ???=??0.68–0.84). Assessments of resident performance (MK and OC) and the ITE increased with PGY level. The MK and OC results had high correlations with PGY level, and ITE scores correlated moderately with PGY. The OC and MK results had a moderate correlation with ITE score. When residents were grouped by PGY level, there was no significant correlation between MK as assessed by the faculty and the ITE score. Conclusions Resident clinical performance and ITE scores both increase with resident PGY level, but ITE scores do not predict resident clinical performance compared with peers at their PGY level. PMID:24455005

  16. Hypotensive effects and performance responses between different resistance training intensities and exercise orders in apparently health women.

    PubMed

    Bentes, Claudio M; Costa, Pablo B; Neto, Gabriel R; Costa e Silva, Gabriel V; de Salles, Belmiro F; Miranda, Humberto L; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2015-05-01

    To compare the hypotensive effect and performance responses between different resistance training intensities and different exercise orders in apparently healthy women, thirteen apparently healthy women performed four resistance training sessions in randomized order. One group performed the resistance training exercises with 60% of 1RM (SeqA60%): leg press (LG), chest press (CP), leg extension (LE), lat pull down (PD), leg curl (LC) and biceps curl (BC). Another group performed the resistance training exercises with 80% of 1RM (SeqA80%) with the same exercise order. Two other groups performed the resistance training exercises with 60% (SeqB60%) and 80% of 1RM (SeqB80%), however, in another sequence of exercises: CP, PD, BC or LG, LE, LC. The blood pressure was measured before, and at every 15 min until 60 min postexercise. The different intensities and different exercise orders resulted in a significant hypotensive effect in systolic and diastolic blood pressures that remained until 15 min. In addition, significant reductions in systolic blood pressure were observed at 30 min for SeqA in both intensities and for SeqB with intensities of 80% of 1RM. However, there was no significant difference between intensities and different prescription orders (P>0·05). Although the current study showed significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures after different resistance training sessions, the manipulation of intensity and exercise sequence, such as those used in the present study, was not able to generate significant changes in the duration and magnitude of hypotensive effect. PMID:24690383

  17. Appraisals and Anger: How Complete Are the Usual Appraisal Accounts of Anger?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Berkowitz

    \\u000a Without questioning that people’s appraisals of the situations they are in can greatly determine what emotions they experience,\\u000a this chapter argues that traditional appraisal accounts of anger genesis are seriously incomplete and that anger can at times\\u000a arise in ways not anticipated by appraisal formulations. Anger is here regarded as an experience that is part of a constellation\\u000a of physiological,

  18. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  19. Whole-Body Vibration Training Effect on Physical Performance and Obesity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25317067

  20. Stimulus appraisal modulates cardiac reactivity to briefly presented mutilation pictures.

    PubMed

    Mocaiber, Izabela; Perakakis, Pandelis; Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; Pinheiro, Walter Machado; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Letícia; Vila, Jaime

    2011-09-01

    Emotional reactions to threatening situations can be either advantageous for human adaptation or unfavorable for physical and mental health if sustained over prolonged periods of time. These contrasting effects mostly depend on the individual's capacity for emotion regulation. It has been shown, for example, that changing appraisal can alter the course of emotional processing. In the present study, the influence of stimulus appraisal over cardiac reactivity to briefly presented (200ms) mutilation pictures was tested in the context of an affective classification task. Heart rate and reaction time of twenty-four undergraduate students were monitored during the presentation of pictures (neutral or mutilated bodies) in successive blocks. In one condition (real), participants were told that the pictures depicted real events. In the other condition (fictitious), they were told that the pictures were taken from movie scenes. As expected, the results showed a more pronounced bradycardia to mutilation pictures, in comparison to neural pictures, in the real context. In the fictitious context, a significant attenuation of the emotional modulation (defensive bradycardia) was observed. However, this attenuation seemed to be transient because it was only observed in the first presentation block of the fictitious context. Reaction time to classify mutilation pictures, compared to neutral pictures, was slower in both contexts, reflecting the privileged processing of emotionally laden material. The present findings show that even briefly presented mutilation pictures elicit a differential cardiac reactivity and modulate behavioral performance. Importantly, changing stimulus appraisal attenuates the emotional modulation of cardiac reactivity (defensive bradycardia). PMID:21820017

  1. Changes in cerebellar activity and inter-hemispheric coherence accompany improved reading performance following Quadrato Motor Training

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Soussan, Tal Dotan; Avirame, Keren; Glicksohn, Joseph; Goldstein, Abraham; Harpaz, Yuval; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia is a multifactorial reading deficit that involves multiple brain systems. Among other theories, it has been suggested that cerebellar dysfunction may be involved in dyslexia. This theory has been supported by findings from anatomical and functional imaging. A possible rationale for cerebellar involvement in dyslexia could lie in the cerebellum’s role as an oscillator, producing synchronized activity within neuronal networks including sensorimotor networks critical for reading. If these findings are causally related to dyslexia, a training regimen that enhances cerebellar oscillatory activity should improve reading performance. We examined the cognitive and neural effects of Quadrato Motor Training (QMT), a structured sensorimotor training program that involves sequencing of motor responses based on verbal commands. Twenty-two adult Hebrew readers (12 dyslexics and 10 controls) were recruited for the study. Using Magnetoencephalography (MEG), we measured changes in alpha power and coherence following QMT in a within-subject design. Reading performance was assessed pre- and post-training using a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. Our results demonstrate improved performance on a speeded reading task following one month of intensive QMT in both the dyslexic and control groups. Dyslexic participants, but not controls, showed significant increase in cerebellar oscillatory alpha power following training. In addition, across both time points, inter-hemispheric alpha coherence was higher in the dyslexic group compared to the control group. In conclusion, the current findings suggest that the combination of motor and language training embedded in QMT increases cerebellar oscillatory activity in dyslexics and improves reading performance. These results support the hypothesis that the cerebellum plays a role in skilled reading, and begin to unravel the underlying mechanisms that mediate cerebellar contribution in cognitive and neuronal augmentation. PMID:24847224

  2. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

  3. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

  4. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

  5. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

  6. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

  7. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions...requirements of this subpart and is otherwise acceptable. [Reg. Y, 55 FR 27771, July 5, 1990, as amended at 59 FR 29501,...

  8. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions...requirements of this subpart and is otherwise acceptable. [Reg. Y, 55 FR 27771, July 5, 1990, as amended at 59 FR 29501,...

  9. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions...requirements of this subpart and is otherwise acceptable. [Reg. Y, 55 FR 27771, July 5, 1990, as amended at 59 FR 29501,...

  10. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions...requirements of this subpart and is otherwise acceptable. [Reg. Y, 55 FR 27771, July 5, 1990, as amended at 59 FR 29501,...

  11. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions...requirements of this subpart and is otherwise acceptable. [Reg. Y, 55 FR 27771, July 5, 1990, as amended at 59 FR 29501,...

  12. 32 CFR 644.436 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.436 Appraisal. Under the usual...

  13. 32 CFR 644.436 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.436 Appraisal. Under the usual...

  14. 32 CFR 644.43 - Gross appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Preparation. (1) The gross appraisal sections of real estate design memoranda and planning reports are subject to minute scrutiny by higher authority in the Department of Defense and by Congressional Committees. It is essential that they be...

  15. 32 CFR 644.43 - Gross appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Preparation. (1) The gross appraisal sections of real estate design memoranda and planning reports are subject to minute scrutiny by higher authority in the Department of Defense and by Congressional Committees. It is essential that they be...

  16. 32 CFR 644.43 - Gross appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Preparation. (1) The gross appraisal sections of real estate design memoranda and planning reports are subject to minute scrutiny by higher authority in the Department of Defense and by Congressional Committees. It is essential that they be...

  17. 32 CFR 644.43 - Gross appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Preparation. (1) The gross appraisal sections of real estate design memoranda and planning reports are subject to minute scrutiny by higher authority in the Department of Defense and by Congressional Committees. It is essential that they be...

  18. Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men.

    PubMed

    Barber, James J; McDermott, Ann Y; McGaughey, Karen J; Olmstead, Jennifer D; Hagobian, Todd A

    2013-01-01

    Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 supplements is more beneficial on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of combining creatine monohydrate and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance. Thirteen healthy, trained men (21.1 ± 0.6 years, 23.5 ± 0.5 kg·m(-2), 66.7 ± 5.7 ml·(kg·m)(-1) completed 3 conditions in a double-blinded, crossover fashion: (a) Placebo (Pl; 20 g maltodextrin + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), (b) Creatine (Cr; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), and (c) Creatine plus sodium bicarbonate (Cr + Sb; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate). Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint. Compared with Pl, relative peak power was significantly higher in Cr (4%) and Cr + Sb (7%). Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both Pl and Cr. However, in Cr + Sb, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with in Pl and Cr, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6, although not significantly. Combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased peak and mean power and had the greatest attenuation of decline in relative peak power over the 6 repeated sprints. These data suggest that combining these 2 supplements may be advantageous for athletes participating in high-intensity, intermittent exercise. PMID:23254493

  19. Block training periodization in alpine skiing: effects of 11-day HIT on VO2max and performance.

    PubMed

    Breil, Fabio A; Weber, Simone N; Koller, Stefan; Hoppeler, Hans; Vogt, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Attempting to achieve the high diversity of training goals in modern competitive alpine skiing simultaneously can be difficult and may lead to compromised overall adaptation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of block training periodization on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and parameters of exercise performance in elite junior alpine skiers. Six female and 15 male athletes were assigned to high-intensity interval (IT, N = 13) or control training groups (CT, N = 8). IT performed 15 high-intensity aerobic interval (HIT) sessions in 11 days. Sessions were 4 x 4 min at 90-95% of maximal heart rate separated by 3-min recovery periods. CT continued their conventionally mixed training, containing endurance and strength sessions. Before and 7 days after training, subjects performed a ramp incremental test followed by a high-intensity time-to-exhaustion (tlim) test both on a cycle ergometer, a 90-s high-box jump test as well as countermovement (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ) on a force plate. IT significantly improved relative VO2max by 6.0% (P < 0.01; male +7.5%, female +2.1%), relative peak power output by 5.5% (P < 0.01) and power output at ventilatory threshold 2 by 9.6% (P < 0.01). No changes occurred for these measures in CT. tlim remained unchanged in both groups. High-box jump performance was significantly improved in males of IT only (4.9%, P < 0.05). Jump peak power (CMJ -4.8%, SJ -4.1%; P < 0.01), but not height decreased in IT only. For competitive alpine skiers, block periodization of HIT offers a promising way to efficiently improve VO2max and performance. Compromised explosive jump performance might be associated with persisting muscle fatigue. PMID:20364385

  20. Effect of Vertical, Horizontal, and Combined Plyometric Training on Explosive, Balance, and Endurance Performance of Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Gallardo, Francisco; Henriquez-Olguín, Carlos; Meylan, Cesar M P; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cadore, Eduardo L; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-07-01

    Ramírez-Campillo, R, Gallardo, F, Henriquez-Olguín, C, Meylan, CMP, Martínez, C, Álvarez, C, Caniuqueo, A, Cadore, EL, and Izquierdo, M. Effect of vertical, horizontal, and combined plyometric training on explosive, balance, and endurance performance of young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 1784-1795, 2015-The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of vertical, horizontal, or combined vertical and horizontal plyometric training on muscle explosive, endurance, and balance performance. Forty young soccer players aged between 10 and 14 years were randomly divided into control (CG; n = 10), vertical plyometric group (VG; n = 10), horizontal plyometric group (HG; n = 10), and combined vertical and horizontal plyometric group (VHG; n = 10). Players performance in the vertical and horizontal countermovement jump with arms, 5 multiple bounds test (MB5), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1), and balance was measured. No significant or meaningful changes in the CG, apart from small change in the Yo-Yo IR1, were observed while all training programs resulted in meaningful changes in explosive, endurance, and balance performance. However, only VHG showed a statistically significant (p ? 0.05) increase in all performance test and most meaningful training effect difference with the CG across tests. Although no significant differences in performance changes were observed between experimental groups, the VHG program was more effective compared with VG (i.e., jumps, MKV, sprint, CODS, and balance performance) and HG (i.e., sprint, CODS, and balance performance) to small effect. The study demonstrated that vertical, horizontal, and combined vertical and horizontal jumps induced meaningful improvement in explosive actions, balance, and intermittent endurance capacity. However, combining vertical and horizontal drills seems more advantageous to induce greater performance improvements. PMID:25559903

  1. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

  2. Effects of Group Parent-Training with Online Parent-Teacher Communication on the Homework Performance of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Homework Improvement Program, a 5-week group-formatted parent training program, in enhancing the homework performance of children experiencing homework difficulties. The study was conducted in an elementary school with a sample consisting of the parents of seven students (N = 7)…

  3. General Cognitive Ability vs. General and Specific Aptitudes in the Prediction of Training Performance: Some Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Frank L.; And Others

    Recently there appears to have been an increase in interest in the relative power of general ability and narrower cognitive aptitudes to predict real world performance in training programs and on the job. This area has important practical implications for personnel selection and classification, particularly for large organizations such as the…

  4. The Influence of Intense Tai Chi Training on Physical Performance and Hemodynamic Outcomes in Transitionally Frail, Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven L. Wolf; Michael O'Grady; Kirk A. Easley; Ying Guo; Reto W. Kressig; Michael Kutner

    2006-01-01

    Background. Few data exist to evaluate whether Tai Chi (TC) training improves physical performance and hemodynamic outcomes more than a wellness education (WE) program does among older fallers transitioning to frailty. Methods. This 48-week randomized clinical trial was provided at 10 matched pairs of congregate living facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area to 291 women and 20 men, who were

  5. An Evaluation of Minority and Female Performance in Army Rotary Wing Aviation Training. Volume II: Evaluation Report. Research Report 1319.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.; And Others

    An evaluation was conducted of minority (Black, Hispanic, Asian, American Indian) and female performance in the Army's Initial Entry Rotary Wing flight training program. Each minority group was compared to a matched sample of majority students. The groups were matched on several test scores, education level, age, rank, and source of entry. The…

  6. Optical performance monitoring in 40-Gbps optical duobinary system using artificial neural networks trained with reconstructed eye diagram parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-sen Lai; Ai-ying Yang; Lin Zuo; Yu-nan Sun

    2011-01-01

    A technique using artificial neural networks trained with parameters derived from reconstructed eye diagrams for optical performance monitoring in 40-Gbps optical duobinary (ODB) system is demonstrated. Firstly, the optical signal is asynchronously sampled by short pulse in the nonlinear medium such as semiconductor optical amplifier and highly nonlinear fiber, the sampled and collected data is then processed by improved software

  7. The Relationship between Employer Endorsement of Continuing Education and Training and Work and Study Performance: A Hong Kong Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Humphry; Wong, Yiu Hing

    2007-01-01

    Based on psychological contract theory and expectancy disconfirmation theory, we posit that if employers support their staff by endorsing their continuing education and training, these employees will in turn be more satisfied and will perform better not only in their studies but also in their jobs. We also propose that such an endorsement will…

  8. The Effect of LEGO Training on Pupils' School Performance in Mathematics, Problem Solving Ability and Attitude: Swedish Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Shakir; Lindh, Jorgen; Shukur, Ghazi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of one year of regular "LEGO" training on pupils' performances in schools. The underlying pedagogical perspective is the constructivist theory, where the main idea is that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the pupil by active learning. The investigation has been made in two steps. The…

  9. The Relationship Between Team Sex Composition and Team Performance in the Context of Training Complex, Psychomotor, Team–based Tasks 

    E-print Network

    Jarrett, Steven

    2011-02-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of team sex composition in team training performance and team processes in the context of a complex, psychomotor, information–processing task. With the growing number of women in the workplace...

  10. The Effects of Training in Peer Assessment on University Students' Writing Performance and Peer Assessment Quality in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Yun

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of peer-assessment skill training on students' writing performance, the quality of students' feedback, the quality (validity and reliability) of student-generated scores, and the students' satisfaction with the peer assessment method in an online environment. A quasi-experimental design was employed…

  11. Performance Pay Improves Engagement, Progress, and Satisfaction in Computer-Based Job Skills Training of Low-Income Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training

  12. Multivariate Predictors of Music Perception and Appraisal by Adult Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Kate; Oleson, Jacob; Knutson, John F.; Breheny, Patrick; Driscoll, Virginia; Olszewski, Carol

    2009-01-01

    The research examined whether performance by adult cochlear implant recipients on a variety of recognition and appraisal tests derived from real-world music could be predicted from technological, demographic, and life experience variables, as well as speech recognition scores. A representative sample of 209 adults implanted between 1985 and 2006 participated. Using multiple linear regression models and generalized linear mixed models, sets of optimal predictor variables were selected that effectively predicted performance on a test battery that assessed different aspects of music listening. These analyses established the importance of distinguishing between the accuracy of music perception and the appraisal of musical stimuli when using music listening as an index of implant success. Importantly, neither device type nor processing strategy predicted music perception or music appraisal. Speech recognition performance was not a strong predictor of music perception, and primarily predicted music perception when the test stimuli included lyrics. Additionally, limitations in the utility of speech perception in predicting musical perception and appraisal underscore the utility of music perception as an alternative outcome measure for evaluating implant outcomes. Music listening background, residual hearing (i.e., hearing aid use), cognitive factors, and some demographic factors predicted several indices of perceptual accuracy or appraisal of music. PMID:18669126

  13. Effects of different resistance training frequencies on the muscle strength and functional performance of active women older than 60 years.

    PubMed

    Farinatti, Paulo T V; Geraldes, Amandio A R; Bottaro, Martim F; Lima, Maria Verônica I C; Albuquerque, Rodrigo B; Fleck, Steve J

    2013-08-01

    Training frequency is an important resistance training variable, but its relative contribution to strength and functional performance (FP) gains in senior populations is not yet well defined. The present study investigated the effect of different resistance training frequencies on the strength and FP in active women aged 60 years and older. A total of 48 women (60-78 years) underwent a 16-week training program for 1 set of 10 repetition maximums (10RMs) of each exercise, being assigned in groups that performed training frequencies of 1, 2, or 3 days per week (EG1, EG2, and EG3) and a control group. Strength and FP tests were applied before and after the training protocol. All EGs, but not the control group, exhibited 10RM increases (bench press, seated dumbbell curl, knee extension, standing calf raise, p < 0.01). The 10RM increase for seated dumbbell curl and knee extension was always greater in the higher frequencies (p < 0.05). Timed up and go test improved equally in all EGs (p < 0.01). Chair sit-and-stand improvements in EG3 (-15.7%) and EG2 (-9.8%) were greater than in EG1 (-4.6%) (p < 0.01). Gait-speed improvement in EG3 (-11.6%) was greater than in EG2 (-5.1%) and EG1 (-3.9%) (p < 0.01). In conclusion, a higher weekly training frequency increased FP and strength to a greater extent than lower frequencies in active senior women. PMID:23168371

  14. Understanding how appraisal of doctors produces its effects: a realist review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Nicola; Bryce, Marie; Pearson, Mark; Wong, Geoff; Cooper, Chris; Archer, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction UK doctors are now required to participate in revalidation to maintain their licence to practise. Appraisal is a fundamental component of revalidation. However, objective evidence of appraisal changing doctors’ behaviour and directly resulting in improved patient care is limited. In particular, it is not clear how the process of appraisal is supposed to change doctors’ behaviour and improve clinical performance. The aim of this research is to understand how and why appraisal of doctors is supposed to produce its effect. Methods and analysis Realist review is a theory-driven interpretive approach to evidence synthesis. It applies realist logic of inquiry to produce an explanatory analysis of an intervention that is, what works, for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects. Using a realist review approach, an initial programme theory of appraisal will be developed by consulting with key stakeholders in doctors’ appraisal in expert panels (ethical approval is not required), and by searching the literature to identify relevant existing theories. The search strategy will have a number of phases including a combination of: (1) electronic database searching, for example, EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, ASSIA, (2) ‘cited by’ articles search, (3) citation searching, (4) contacting authors and (5) grey literature searching. The search for evidence will be iteratively extended and refocused as the review progresses. Studies will be included based on their ability to provide data that enable testing of the programme theory. Data extraction will be conducted, for example, by note taking and annotation at different review stages as is consistent with the realist approach. The evidence will be synthesised using realist logic to interrogate the final programme theory of the impact of appraisal on doctors’ performance. The synthesis results will be written up according to RAMESES guidelines and disseminated through peer-reviewed publication and presentations. Trial registration number The protocol is registered with PROSPERO 2014:CRD42014007092. PMID:24958211

  15. Training-related changes in dual-task walking performance of elderly persons with balance impairment: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Silsupadol, Patima; Lugade, Vipul; Shumway-Cook, Anne; van Donkelaar, Paul; Chou, Li-Shan; Mayr, Ulrich; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of three different balance training strategies in an effort to understand the mechanisms underlying training-related changes in dual-task balance performance of older adults with balance impairment. Elderly individuals with balance impairment, age 65 and older, were randomly assigned to one of three individualized training programs: single-task (ST) balance training; dual-task training with fixed-priority (FP) instruction; and dual-task training with variable-priority (VP) instruction. Balance control during gait, under practiced and novel conditions, was assessed by calculating the center of mass and ankle joint center inclination angles in the frontal plane. A smaller angle indicated better balance performance. Other outcomes included gait velocity, stride length, verbal reaction time, and rate of response. All measures were collected at baseline and the end of the 4-week training. Results indicated that all training strategies were equally effective (P > .05) at improving balance performance (smaller inclination angle) under single-task contexts. However, the VP training strategy was more effective (P = .04) in improving both balance and cognitive performance under dual-task conditions than either the ST or the FP training strategies. Improved dual-task processing skills did not transfer to a novel dual-task condition. Results support Kramer et al.’s proposal that VP training improves both single-task automatization and the development of task-coordination skills. PMID:19201610

  16. Improved Physical Performance in Older Adults Undertaking a Short-Term Programme of High-Velocity Resistance Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim R. Henwood; Dennis R. Taaffe

    2005-01-01

    Background: The age-related loss of muscle power in older adults is greater than that of muscle strength and is associated with a decline in physical performance. Objective: To investigate the effects of a short-term high-velocity varied resistance training programme on physical performance in healthy community-dwelling adults aged 60–80 years. Methods: Subjects undertook exercise (EX; n = 15) or maintained customary

  17. The effects of creatine supplementation on muscular performance and body composition responses to short-term resistance training overreaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff S. Volek; Nicholas A. Ratamess; Martyn R. Rubin; Ana L. Gómez; Duncan N. French; Michael M. McGuigan; Timothy P. Scheett; Matthew J. Sharman; Keijo Häkkinen; William J. Kraemer

    2004-01-01

    To determine the effects of creatine supplementation during short-term resistance training overreaching on performance, body composition, and resting hormone concentrations, 17 men were randomly assigned to supplement with 0.3 g\\/kg per day of creatine monohydrate (CrM: n=9) or placebo (P: n=8) while performing resistance exercise (5 days\\/week for 4 weeks) followed by a 2-week taper phase. Maximal squat and bench press and

  18. Improving motor performance without training: the effect of combining mirror visual feedback with transcranial direct current stimulation.

    PubMed

    von Rein, Erik; Hoff, Maike; Kaminski, Elisabeth; Sehm, Bernhard; Steele, Christopher J; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Mirror visual feedback (MVF) during motor training has been shown to improve motor performance of the untrained hand. Here we thought to determine if MVF-induced performance improvements of the left hand can be augmented by upregulating plasticity in right primary motor cortex (M1) by means of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) while subjects trained with the right hand. Participants performed a ball-rotation task with either their left (untrained) or right (trained) hand on two consecutive days (days 1 and 2). During training with the right hand, MVF was provided concurrent with two tDCS conditions: group 1 received a-tDCS over right M1 (n = 10), whereas group 2 received sham tDCS (s-tDCS, n = 10). On day 2, performance was reevaluated under the same experimental conditions compared with day 1 but without tDCS. While baseline performance of the left hand (day 1) was not different between groups, a-tDCS exhibited stronger MVF-induced performance improvements compared with s-tDCS. Similar results were observed for day 2 (without tDCS application). A control experiment (n = 8) with a-tDCS over right M1 as outlined above but without MVF revealed that left hand improvement was significantly less pronounced than that induced by combined a-tDCS and MVF. Based on these results, we provide novel evidence that upregulating activity in the untrained M1 by means of a-tDCS is capable of augmenting MVF-induced performance improvements in young normal volunteers. Our findings suggest that concurrent MVF and tDCS might have synergistic and additive effects on motor performance of the untrained hand, a result of relevance for clinical approaches in neurorehabilitation and/or exercise science. PMID:25632079

  19. Waking EEG power spectra in the rat: correlations with training performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Mandile; Antonio Giuditta; Fabio Romano; Paola Montagnese; Stefania Piscopo; Mario Cotugno; Stefania Vescia

    2003-01-01

    Adult rats chronically implanted with supradural electrodes were telemetrically EEG recorded during a baseline session, a training session for a two-way active avoidance task, and a retention session. Rats were assigned to a fast learning (FL), slow learning (SL) and non learning (NL) group if they achieved criterion during the training session, the retention session, or in neither session. High-resolution

  20. Training to Improve New Product Sales Performance: The Case of Samsung in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Frank Q.; Yi, Hong; Zhai, Nanji

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a case study conducted with over 8,000 Samsung salespeople in the Chinese market. Using research-oriented, evidence-based, and systematic approaches, training professionals contributed to Samsung's business outcomes at multiple levels. The case highlights the valuable impacts of training on salespeople's behaviors and…

  1. Advanced crew procedures development techniques: Procedures and performance program training plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A plan developed to support the training of PPP users in the operations associated with PPP usage is described. This document contains an overview of the contents of each training session and a detailed outline to be used as the guideline for each session.

  2. Diversity at Work: A Case Study of Using Videotape Training To Enhance Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, Jacqueline M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the rise of diversity in the workforce and explains how this demographic change has led to businesses developing appropriate training programs. Examines what diversity is, where, when, and why it developed, and where it is going; and applies semiotic analysis to a corporate training video that addresses diversity issues. (Contains 54…

  3. The Laborers-AGC Construction Skills Training Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippie, John L.; Rice, Eric

    Patterned after a previously successful Laborers-Associated General Contractors model named the Construction Skills Training Program, a demonstration project was implemented at five regional training centers. At least eight courses were created, combined, or revised. Four full-length audiovisual support pieces were completed. Three courses were…

  4. Four weeks of optimal load ballistic resistance training at the end of season attenuates declining jump performance of women volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Newton, Robert U; Rogers, Ryan A; Volek, Jeff S; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kraemer, William J

    2006-11-01

    Anecdotal and research evidence is that vertical jump performance declines over the competitive volleyball season. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a short period of ballistic resistance training would attenuate this loss. Fourteen collegiate women volleyball players were trained for 11 weeks with periodized traditional and ballistic resistance training. There was a 5.4% decrease (p < 0.05) in approach jump and reach height during the traditional training period (start of season to midseason), and a 5.3% increase (p < 0.05) during the ballistic training period (midseason to end of season), but values were not different from start to end of season. These changes in overall jump performance were reflective of changes in underlying neuromuscular performance variables: in particular, power output and peak velocity during loaded jump squats, countermovement jumps, and drop jumps. During the first 7 weeks of traditional heavy resistance training, it appears that the neuromuscular system is depressed, perhaps by the combination of training, game play, and skills practice precluding adequate recovery. Introduction of a novel training stimulus in the form of ballistic jump squats and reduction of heavy resistance training of the leg extensors stimulated a rebound in performance, in some cases to exceed the athlete's ability at the start of the season. Periodization of in-season training programs similar to that used in this study may provide volleyball players with good vertical jump performance for the crucial end-of-season games. PMID:17194257

  5. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training for chair rising performance on untrained elderly: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Slavko; Hilfiker, Roger; Schmid, Stefan; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    The present randomized controlled pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the study protocol and the effects of four-week-long sessions involving stochastic resonance whole-body vibration (SR-WBV) training on chair rising in elderly individuals. Twenty elderly participants were divided into a SR-WBV group or a sham group. Peak force, rate of force development, rising time, time to stabilization and total time during chair rising performance were investigated. Intraclass correlation coefficients, Mann-Whitney U-tests and Wilcoxon signed-ranked tests were used. Low volume SR-WBV over 12 training sessions might provide a safe treatment method. PMID:22425243

  6. The effect of growth hormone treatment or physical training on motor performance in Prader-Willi syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A; Staal, J Bart; Otten, Barto J; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2012-09-01

    Although motor problems in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are prominent in infants, and continue into childhood and adulthood, there is little insight into the factors important for clinical management. The literature was reviewed to: (1) provide an overview of the characteristics and prevalence of motor problems and (2) evaluate the effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment and physical training on motor performance. A systematic search revealed 34 papers: 13 on motor performance; 12 on GH treatment; and nine on physical training. In infants, motor development is 30-57% of the normal reference values, and children and adults also have significant problems in skill acquisition, muscle force, cardiovascular fitness, and activity level. GH treatment positively influenced motor performance in infants, children, and adults, although not all studies demonstrated an effect. All studies on physical training demonstrated beneficial effects in PWS patients. We suggest a combination of GH treatment and physical training to be started as soon as possible, especially in infants, to improve motor development as this will positively influence general development. PMID:22652271

  7. An Examination of Mediators of the Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Everyday Functional Performance

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Ruva, Christine L.; O’Brien, Jennifer L.; Haley, Christine B.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (Edwards, Wadley, Vance, Roenker, & Ball, 2005). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 community dwelling adults 63 to 87 years of age. In the SKILL study, participants were randomized to an active control group or cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT), a non-verbal, computerized intervention involving perceptual practice of visual tasks. Prior analyses found significant effects of training as measured by the UFOV and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Tests. Results from the present analyses indicate that speed of processing for a divided attention task significantly mediated the effect of SOPT on everyday performance (e.g., TIADL) in a multiple mediation model accounting for 91% of the variance. These findings suggest that everyday functional improvements found from SOPT are directly attributable to improved UFOV performance, speed of processing for divided attention in particular. Targeting divided attention in cognitive interventions may be important to positively affect everyday functioning among older adults. PMID:23066808

  8. The match between motivation and performance management of health sector workers in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Toonen, Jurrien; Touré, Hamadassalia; Martineau, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Human resources for health (HRH) play a central role in improving accessibility to services and quality of care. Their motivation influences this. In Mali, operational research was conducted to identify the match between motivation and the range and use of performance management activities. Objectives To describe the factors motivating and demotivating health workers in Mali and match the motivators with the implementation of performance management. Methods First an exploratory qualitative study was conducted: 28 interviews and eight group discussions were held. This was followed by a cross-sectional survey, during which 370 health workers were interviewed. The study population consisted of health workers of eight professional groups. The following issues were investigated: • motivating and demotivating factors; • experiences with performance management, including: job descriptions, continuous education, supervision, performance appraisal and career development. Findings The study showed that the main motivators of health workers were related to responsibility, training and recognition, next to salary. These can be influenced by performance management (job descriptions, supervisions, continuous education and performance appraisal). Performance management is not optimally implemented in Mali, as job descriptions were not present or were inappropriate; only 13% of interviewees received 4× per year supervision, and training needs were not analysed. Some 48% of the interviewees knew their performance had been appraised in the last two years; the appraisals were perceived as subjective. No other methods were in place to show recognition. The results enabled the research team to propose adaptations or improvements upon existing performance management. Conclusion The results showed the importance of adapting or improving upon performance management strategies to influence staff motivation. This can be done by matching performance management activities to motivators identified by operational research. PMID:16469107

  9. Effectiveness of a dry-land resistance training program on strength, power, and swimming performance in paralympic swimmers.

    PubMed

    Dingley, Andrew A; Pyne, David B; Youngson, Jamie; Burkett, Brendan

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a dry-land resistance training program in Paralympic swimmers to increase swimming power and strength measures, and how these changes affect swimming performance. Seven elite-level Paralympic swimmers (1 man and 6 women; age: 19.4 ± 6.5 years; body mass: 57 ± 12 kg; height: 1.66 ± 0.21 m) performed a 6-week coach-prescribed strength training intervention program designed to improve power, flexibility, and postural control. Exercises targeted the main swimming movements: the start and turn, postural control in the water, and the pull and kick focusing on the gluteals, upper body, and trunk. Swimming-specific tests, involving a 50-m time trial, and timed dive starts were conducted at baseline and after the 6-week program. A bilateral swim-bench ergometer and jump tests were conducted to quantify arm and leg strength and power. After the 6-week intervention, 50-m time trials improved by 1.2%, ± 1.5% (mean, ± 90% confidence limits). Increases in both mean power (6.1%, ± 5.9%) and acceleration (3.7%, ± 3.7%) generated during the dive start enabled swimmers to substantially improve start times to the 5-m (5.5%, ± 3.2) and 15-m (1.8%, ± 1.1%) marks. The resistance training intervention resulted in a very large (r = 0.78, ± 0.37) correlation between dive start velocity and the counter movement jump mean velocity. The 6-week resistance training program for Paralympic swimmers yielded substantial improvements in dry-land measures that corresponded with improvements in both timed dive starts and 50-m time trial performance, thus highlighting the usefulness of dry-land training for enhancing swimming performance in Paralympic swimming. PMID:25226306

  10. Focused training for goal-oriented hand-held echocardiography performed by noncardiologist residents in the intensive care unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Vignon; Anthony Dugard; Julie Abraham; Dominique Belcour; Guillaume Gondran; Frédéric Pepino; Benoît Marin; Bruno François; Hervé Gastinne

    2007-01-01

    Objective  We sought to evaluate the efficacy of a limited training dedicated to residents without knowledge in ultrasound for performing\\u000a goal-oriented echocardiography in ICU patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective pilot observational study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Medical-surgical ICU of a teaching hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients  61 consecutive adult ICU patients (SAPS?II score: 38???17; 46 ventilated patients) requiring a transthoracic echocardiography\\u000a were studied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Interventions  After a curriculum including a 3-h training course and 5?h of hands-on training, one

  11. Energy costs and valuation of commercial properties by appraisers and lenders

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, M.; Goldstein, D.B.; Conlon, T.P.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper the authors explore linkages between energy costs and asset value of commercial buildings. Common methods of appraisal practice determine building value as a function of net operating income; therefore it should follow that lower costs be directly correlated with higher building value. They argue, however, that because of a number of market barriers--including lack of information, entrenched professional practices, and doubt about the consistency of energy performance over time--energy costs are insufficiently recognized in the property-valuation methods of appraisers and lenders. The authors believe that enhanced energy-performance documentation systems supported by diagnostics and maintenance could bolster consideration of energy costs in appraisals. Stronger recognition of energy costs, in turn, could present sellers and buyers of buildings with powerful financial incentives to pursue energy-efficiency investments, including higher resale value and expanded borrowing privileges.

  12. The effects of 4 weeks of jump training on landing knee valgus and crossover hop performance in female basketball players.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Lee

    2010-12-01

    Female basketball players would appear particularly prone to knee injuries. These injuries have been associated with the nature of the sport, but more specifically with the particular movement strategies adopted. A valgus or abducted position of the knee on landing has been reported to be associated with a number of different knee injuries. Jump-training programs have been reported to improve both landing knee valgus and functional performance. The majority of the jump-training programs have been of 6 weeks' duration, 3 sessions per week often lasting up to 1 hour. For most sports coaches, team conditioners, and athletes, this duration and program length is not acceptable. The aim of this study was to assess if an abridged jump-training program could have similar effects to those previously reported. Fifteen female basketball players had their knee valgus angles assessed during 2 landing tasks, drop jump landing, and when undertaking a jump shot and along with crossover hop distance before and after a progressive jump-training program. The jump-training program lasted 4 weeks, 3 times per week, each session lasting 15 minutes. After training, crossover hop distance showed an average percentage improvement on distance jumped of 73.6% (p = 0.001); the drop jump knee valgus angle in the left leg on average was reduced by 9.8° (p = 0.002), right leg reduced by 12.3° (p = 0.0001); during the jump shot, the knee valgus angle in the left leg showed a mean reduction of 4.5° (p = 0.035), and the right leg was reduced by 4.3° (p = 0.01). The study undertaken achieved comparable results to those previously reported with an abridged program over considerably shortened session duration and training period. PMID:20664369

  13. Strategic Management Training and Commitment to Planning: Critical Partners in Stimulating Firm Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk-Moore, Susan; Bracker, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 157 small financial firms found a significant relationship between strategic management training for senior managers and the firm's level of commitment to planning, resulting in a return on investment for stockholders. (SK)

  14. Effects of intensive exercise training on myocardial performance and coronary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Barnard, R J; Duncan, H W; Baldwin, K M; Grimditch, G; Buckberg, G D

    1980-09-01

    Five instrumented and eight noninstrumented dogs were progressively trained for 12-18 wk on a motor-driven treadmill. Data were compared with 14 instrumented and 8 noninstrumented control dogs. Gastrocnemius malate dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased in the trained dogs (887 +/- 75 vs. 667 +/- 68 mumol . g-1 . min-1). The trained dogs also showed significant increases in maximum work capacity, cardiac output (7.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 9.1 +/- 0.7 1/min), stroke volume (25.9 +/- 2.0 vs. 32.0 +/- 2.0 ml/beat), and left ventricular (LV) positive dP/dtmax (9,242 +/- 405 vs. 11,125 +/- 550 Torr/s). Negative dP/dtmax was not significantly different. Peak LV systolic pressure increased with exercise, but there was no significant difference between the trained and control dogs. LV end-diastolic pressure did not change with exercise and was the same in both groups. Tension-time index was lower in the trained dogs at rest and submaximum exercise (9.7 km/h, 10%) but was not different at maximum exercise. Diastolic pressure-time index was significantly higher in the trained dogs at rest and during submaximum exercise but was not different at maximum exercise. LV coronary blood flow was significantly reduced at rest (84 +/- 4 vs. 67 +/- 6 mo . min-1 . 100 g-1) and during submaximum exercise (288 +/- 24 vs. 252 +/- 8 ml . min-1 . 100 g-1). During maximum exercise flow was not significantly different (401 +/- 22 vs. 432 +/- 11 ml . min-1 . 100 g-1) between the control and trained groups. The maximum potential for subendocardial flow was unchanged with training despite the development of mild hypertrophy. PMID:7204167

  15. New architecture for improving performance in embedded training system using embedded virtual avionics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun Su Yoon; Sang Woo Yang; Chae Il Song

    2009-01-01

    T-50's embedded training system (ETS) has been developed by Korea Aerospace Industries, Ltd. (KAI) using the embedded virtual avionics (EVA). KAI ETS contains several functions of simulation for the air-to-air and air-to-ground combat training. In the architecture of KAI ETS, the target\\/threat database is the main component of the ETS. Virtual sensors, equipments, and weapons can share the data of

  16. Effect of Progressive Volume-Based Overload During Plyometric Training on Explosive and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Burgos, Carlos; Andrade, David C; Zapata, Daniel; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Baez, Eduardo I; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Peñailillo, Luis; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-07-01

    Ramírez-Campillo, R, Henríquez-Olguín, C, Burgos, C, Andrade, DC, Zapata, D, Martínez, C, Álvarez, C, Baez, EI, Castro-Sepúlveda, M, Peñailillo, L, and Izquierdo, M. Effect of progressive volume-based overload during plyometric training on explosive and endurance performance in young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 1884-1893, 2015-The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of progressive volume-based overload with constant volume-based overload on muscle explosive and endurance performance adaptations during a biweekly short-term (i.e., 6 weeks) plyometric training intervention in young soccer players. Three groups of young soccer players (age 13.0 ± 2.3 years) were divided into: control (CG; n = 8) and plyometric training with (PPT; n = 8) and without (NPPT; n = 8) a progressive increase in volume (i.e., 16 jumps per leg per week, with an initial volume of 80 jumps per leg each session). Bilateral and unilateral horizontal and vertical countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), 10-m sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1) were measured. Although both experimental groups significantly increased CMJA, RSI20, CODS, and endurance performance, only PPT showed a significant improvement in MKV and 10-m sprint time. In addition, only PPT showed a significantly higher performance improvement in jumping, MKV, and Yo-Yo IR1 compared with CG. Also, PPT showed higher meaningful improvement compared with NPPT in all (except 1) jump performance measures. Furthermore, although PPT involved a higher total volume compared with NPPT, training efficiency (i.e., percentage change in performance/total jump volume) was similar between groups. Our results show that PPT and NPPT ensured significant improvement in muscle explosive and endurance performance measures. However, a progressive increase in plyometric training volume seems more advantageous to induce soccer-specific performance improvements. PMID:25559905

  17. Assessing and appraising nursing students' professional communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diers, Jane E.

    The purpose of this research was to define professional communication in nursing and to develop a prototype to assess and appraise communication at a selected college. The research focused on verbal and nonverbal communication between the nurse and the client using a simulated environment. The first objective was to identify the major characteristics of professional communication in nursing. In this study, the characteristics of professional communication emerged from the constant comparison method of the results of research studies in the fields of healthcare and communication. These characteristics became the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions to assess and appraise verbal and nonverbal communication at the college of study. The second objective was to develop a template to assess verbal and nonverbal communication at a selected college. Using a two-fold process, the researcher used the results from the first objective to begin template construction. First, specialists in the fields of communication and nursing established the content validity of the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions. Second, the course educators determined the relevancy and importance of the elements, properties, and descriptive dimensions to the objectives of two courses at the college of study. The third objective was to develop a rubric to appraise nursing students' verbal and nonverbal communication in a videotaped communication review. An appraisal rubric was constructed from an extension of the template. This rubric was then tested by faculty at the selected college to appraise the communication of five students each in the junior and senior years of the nursing program.

  18. Manipulating cardiovascular indices of challenge and threat using resource appraisals.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin J; Jones, Marc V; Sheffield, David; Barker, Jamie B; Coffee, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Challenge and threat reflect two distinct psychophysiological approaches to motivated performance situations. Challenge is related to superior performance in a range of tasks compared to threat, thus methods to promote challenge are valuable. In this paper we manipulate challenge and threat cardiovascular reactivity using only resource appraisals, without altering perceived task demands between challenge and threat conditions. Study 1 used a competitive throwing task and Study 2 used a physically demanding climbing task. In both studies challenge task instructions led to challenge cardiovascular reactivity and threat task instructions led to threat cardiovascular reactivity. In Study 1, participants who received challenge instructions performed better than participants who received threat instructions. In Study 2, attendance at the climbing task did not differ across groups. The findings have implications for stress management in terms of focusing on manipulating appraisals of upcoming tasks by promoting self-efficacy and perceived control and focusing on approach goals. Future research could more reliably assess the influence of similar task instructions on performance. PMID:25036595

  19. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3 Animals...ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and...

  20. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3 Animals...ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and...