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Sample records for performance appraisal training

  1. Training Supervisors in Employee Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Ronald R.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a training program for supervisors designed to improve an organization's performance appraisal system. Legal issues surrounding performance appraisal are discussed. Course topics include (1) definition and purpose of performance appraisal, (2) how appraisals can improve performance, (3) negative reactions and how to overcome

  2. Training Appraisers: An Orientation Program for Improving Supervisory Performance Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Ronald R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The authors address management's need to train supervisors to use employee performance appraisals. Topics covered include (1) application and usefulness of the appraisal system, (2) various approaches to employee evaluation, and (3) training of supervisory personnel. (Author/CH)

  3. Performance Appraisal: An Obstacle to Training and Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John P.; Western, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Surveys and interviews of 39 hospital staff uncovered mixed attitudes about preparation for performance appraisal and the process for formulating and implementing training and development plans, reflecting varying degrees of motivation, involvement, and commitment. Recommendations for improving appraisal and the training associated with it were

  4. Training the Raters: A Key to Effective Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David C.; Bartol, Kathryn M.

    1986-01-01

    Although appropriate rater behaviors are critical to the success of any performance appraisal system, raters frequently receive little or no training regarding how to carry out their role successfully. This article outlines the major elements that should be included in an effective rater training program. Suggested training approaches and the need

  5. The Practice, Practicality, and Prospects of Training for Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jack M.

    Historically, training for performance appraisal has focused on the same issues as instrument development--the reduction of psychometric errors in ratings. Efforts were centered around teaching people to use rating scales properly. A review of the literature shows these programs met with mixed success. While a meta-analysis of these data are…

  6. Performance Appraisal in the Training Needs Analysis Process: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Glenn R.; Doverspike, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    A literature review leads to a model for using performance appraisal information in the process of analyzing training needs. The model identifies performance discrepancies, determines causes, and chooses interventions based on internal (employee) and external (work environment) factors. (SK)

  7. Development of a Performance Appraisal Training Program for the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Deborah Kilgore

    2004-01-01

    "Nobody wants to get one. Nobody wants to give one." The problem was that the supervisors and managers of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (RIC) did not know how to use the Institute's new performance management system and had not been trained on how to prepare and deliver effective performance appraisals. The problem further included the…

  8. Development of a Performance Appraisal Training Program for the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Deborah Kilgore

    2004-01-01

    "Nobody wants to get one. Nobody wants to give one." The problem was that the supervisors and managers of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (RIC) did not know how to use the Institute's new performance management system and had not been trained on how to prepare and deliver effective performance appraisals. The problem further included the

  9. Experimental Study Comparing a Traditional Approach to Performance Appraisal Training to a Whole-Brain Training Method at C.B. Fleet Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Sally; Sherrier, Tom; Wooters, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a new approach to performance appraisal training. Motivated by split-brain theory and existing studies of cognitive information processing and performance appraisals, this exploratory study examined the effects of a whole-brain approach to training managers for implementing performance

  10. Whither Performance Appraisal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroul, Neil A.

    1987-01-01

    Few companies are comfortable with their performance appraisal system. The author suggests trying (1) systems that recognize competing priorities and attempt to alleviate conflicts through intelligent design and (2) management training that emphasizes the importance of providing staff with ongoing feedback. (CH)

  11. Experimental Study Comparing a Traditional Approach to Performance Appraisal Training to a Whole-Brain Training Method at C.B. Fleet Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Sally; Sherrier, Tom; Wooters, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a new approach to performance appraisal training. Motivated by split-brain theory and existing studies of cognitive information processing and performance appraisals, this exploratory study examined the effects of a whole-brain approach to training managers for implementing performance…

  12. Improving Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mark Graham

    1989-01-01

    Describes strategies for improving performance appraisal systems and examines common features of appraisal systems in large companies. Highlights include rating scales; ranking; forced distributions; tying performance appraisal to strategic business goals; frequency of reviews; development plans versus evaluation only; and group review meetings.

  13. Performance Appraisal: A Win/Win Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Beverly; Krantz, Shelley

    1983-01-01

    Training managers fully for the performance appraisal process can transform an appraisal discussion from an administrative exercise to a worthwhile experience that contributes to the organization as a whole. (Author/SSH)

  14. Why performance appraisals fail.

    PubMed

    McGuire, P J

    1980-09-01

    Our faith in the effectiveness of performance appraisal derives in part from its planned redundancy, in the interplay of employee, appraiser and reviewer. But this very safeguard, as Dr. McGuire points out, means that each party is trying too hard to satisfy the others' needs and expectations, both real and imagined. PMID:10248159

  15. Improving Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Robert E.

    1975-01-01

    A positive and creative results-oriented management appraisal system is needed. This article reviews the benefits and requirements of such a system, lists the common pitfalls of shoddy evaluation attempts, describes the four basic kinds of performance appraisal systems, and offers suggestions for creating a successful system. (DC)

  16. Effective Performance Appraisals for Quality Student Service. Staff Training and Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Robert B.

    This manual, in workbook format, introduces the principles of how to conduct an effective employee performance appraisal in the higher education setting. It uses several case studies to illustrate these principles. It is designed to be used for individual study or group workshops and seminars. The topics discussed include establishing a positive

  17. Appraising boardroom performance.

    PubMed

    Conger, J A; Finegold, D; Lawler, E E

    1998-01-01

    Rare is the company that does not periodically review the performance of its staff, business units, and suppliers. But rare, as well, is the company that does such a review of one of its most important contributors--its board of directors. Reviewing a board's performance is not an easy proposition: it has to be done by the members themselves, people who generally have many other responsibilities and whose time is always at a premium. But done properly, appraisals can help boards become more effective by clarifying individual and collective responsibilities. They can help improve the working relationship between a company's board and its senior management. They can help ensure a healthy balance of power between the board and the CEO. And, once in place, an appraisal process is difficult to dismantle, making it harder for a new CEO to dominate a board or avoid being held accountable for poor performance. Done properly is the key here, though. Done incorrectly, board appraisals can degenerate into self-serving evaluations or unpleasant, time-wasting exercises. Worse, they can evolve into rigid mechanical processes that discourage innovation. In fact, all of the approaches the authors observed in two years of research were incomplete. The authors have therefore drawn on the strengths of several different approaches to synthesize a best-practice process that is both rigorous and comprehensive. PMID:10176916

  18. Performance Appraisal of Management Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Frank

    This paper discusses the use of management by objectives for performance appraisal in education, examining its potential strengths and weaknesses. Among the potential strengths of the performance appraisal approach are the following: 1) it fosters staff development, since an administrator's performance is evaluated according to how well his…

  19. Performance Appraisal Applied to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2010-01-01

    Performance appraisal is a measurement process of how well an individual is doing her or his job. In most organisations, this appraisal is an annual event. Generally, it is done to encourage job performance, to flag areas that need attention, to inform both parties as to expectations. Much of the literature speaks to this process in terms of the…

  20. Performance Appraisal. SPEC Kit 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) collection of library documents illustrates approaches to and techniques of performance appraisal used in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. Included are (1) performance appraisal forms, policies, and procedures from Stanford University, University Library Council, Louisiana State

  1. Rising to the challenge: acute stress appraisals and selection centre performance in applicants to postgraduate specialty training in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Martin J; Gale, Thomas C E; McGrath, John S; Wilson, Mark R

    2016-05-01

    The ability to work under pressure is a vital non-technical skill for doctors working in acute medical specialties. Individuals who evaluate potentially stressful situations as challenging rather than threatening may perform better under pressure and be more resilient to stress and burnout. Training programme recruitment processes provide an important opportunity to examine applicants' reactions to acute stress. In the context of multi-station selection centres for recruitment to anaesthesia training programmes, we investigated the factors influencing candidates' pre-station challenge/threat evaluations and the extent to which their evaluations predicted subsequent station performance. Candidates evaluated the perceived stress of upcoming stations using a measure of challenge/threat evaluation-the cognitive appraisal ratio (CAR)-and consented to release their demographic details and station scores. Using regression analyses we determined which candidate and station factors predicted variation in the CAR and whether, after accounting for these factors, the CAR predicted candidate performance in the station. The CAR was affected by the nature of the station and candidate gender, but not age, ethnicity, country of training or clinical experience. Candidates perceived stations involving work related tasks as more threatening. After controlling for candidates' demographic and professional profiles, the CAR significantly predicted station performance: 'challenge' evaluations were associated with better performance, though the effect was weak. Our selection centre model can help recruit prospective anaesthetists who are able to rise to the challenge of performing in stressful situations but results do not support the direct use of challenge/threat data for recruitment decisions. PMID:26271681

  2. Donn Coffee on Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffee, Donn

    1978-01-01

    Reports a management consultant's system of employee appraisal, as outlined in a seminar he conducted for business executives. In addition to improving productivity, performance appraisal is needed to insure nondiscriminatory personnel practices and to provide employee recognition without a compensation link. Most companies can't afford money as…

  3. Donn Coffee on Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffee, Donn

    1978-01-01

    Reports a management consultant's system of employee appraisal, as outlined in a seminar he conducted for business executives. In addition to improving productivity, performance appraisal is needed to insure nondiscriminatory personnel practices and to provide employee recognition without a compensation link. Most companies can't afford money as

  4. Verifying appraisal evidence using feedback from trained peers: views and experiences of Scottish GP appraisers

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Paul; Cameron, Niall; Staples, Ian; McMillan, Rhona; McKay, John; Lough, Murray

    2009-01-01

    Background GP appraisal is currently considered inadequate because it lacks robustness. Objective assessment of appraisal evidence is needed to enable judgements on professional performance to be made. Aim To determine GP appraisers' views of the acceptability, feasibility, and educational impact of external peer feedback received on three core appraisal activities undertaken as part of this study. Design of study Independent peer review and cross-sectional postal questionnaire study. Setting NHS Scotland. Method One of three core appraisal activities (criterion audit, significant event analysis, or video of consultations) was undertaken by GP appraisers and subjected to peer review by trained colleagues. A follow-up postal questionnaire elicited participants' views on the potential acceptability, feasibility, and educational impact of this approach. Results Of 164 appraisers, 80 agreed to participate; 67/80 (84%) submitted one of three appraisal materials for peer review and returned completed questionnaires. For significant event analyses (n = 44), most responders believed the peer feedback method was feasible (100%) and fair (92.5%) and would add value to appraisal (95.5%). Peer feedback on criterion audits (n = 15) was believed to be acceptable and fair (93.3%) and it was thought it would be a useful educational tool (100%). Completing a consultation video (n = 8) was perceived to be feasible as part of normal general practice (n = 5). It was unanimously agreed that assessment of videos by peers has educational impact and would help improve appraisal. Conclusion This group of GP appraisers strongly supported the role of external and independent feedback by trained peers as one approach to strengthening the existing appraisal process. PMID:19566997

  5. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance appraisal. (a) The GAO shall develop one or more performance appraisal systems which provide for periodic appraisals...

  6. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual appraisals. Agencies must appraise each...

  7. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts... appraisal. (a) The GAO shall develop one or more performance appraisal systems which provide for periodic appraisals of job performance of employees; encourages employee participation in establishing...

  8. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts... appraisal. (a) The GAO shall develop one or more performance appraisal systems which provide for periodic appraisals of job performance of employees; encourages employee participation in establishing...

  9. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts... appraisal. (a) The GAO shall develop one or more performance appraisal systems which provide for periodic appraisals of job performance of employees; encourages employee participation in establishing...

  10. Employee Satisfaction with Performance Appraisals and Appraisers: The Role of Perceived Appraisal Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Wendy R.; Boudreau, John W.

    2000-01-01

    In a survey of 128 manufacturing employees, the perception that performance appraisal had developmental uses was associated with satisfaction with appraisals and appraisers. Reaction to the evaluation did not depend on the outcome of the appraisal or its perceived fairness. (SK)

  11. Constructive performance appraisal feedback for healthcare employees.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, K V

    1992-01-01

    For their own reasons, both healthcare managers and employees dislike performance evaluation interviews. Managers would rather avoid the role of appraiser, and employees often dispute the accuracy of their assessments. The resulting poorly handled interview often resembles a power struggle more than a performance review. This article describes several interview formats that might be appropriate to certain situations and advocates training for managers who must conduct performance evaluation interviews. PMID:10119176

  12. A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural

  13. A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural…

  14. Performance Appraisals: Managing Nonacademic Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnette, Melvin E.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of and necessary procedures for evaluating noninstructional personnel are outlined. A performance appraisal system developed and implemented at Clemson University to help decentralize management of state personnel is described that uses communication and direction to establish personnel goals and expectations. (MSE)

  15. Multiple rater performance appraisals: solutions for hospital personnel.

    PubMed

    Boissoneau, R A; Edwards, M R

    1985-01-01

    Widely used single rater personnel appraisal systems are not as effective as they should be. Moreover, rater training does not improve ratings based on one person's judgment about an employee. Multiple rater appraisal systems improve accuracy by using the judgments of several knowledgeable people in arriving at a decision. Multiple rater performance appraisals are better than single rater systems because they increase participation; improve accuracy and perceived fairness; provide higher quality management information for selection decisions; supply better Equal Employee Opportunity documentation; give quantitative feedback for employees, appraisers and management; take less management time to complete the performance measurement process and, consequently, improve cost effectiveness. PMID:10270712

  16. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section....303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable, but beginning not later than January 1, 1984... in § 315.608(a), of this chapter in accordance with the agency's performance appraisal...

  17. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section....303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable, but beginning not later than January 1, 1984... in § 315.608(a), of this chapter in accordance with the agency's performance appraisal...

  18. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section....303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable, but beginning not later than January 1, 1984... in § 315.608(a), of this chapter in accordance with the agency's performance appraisal...

  19. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section....303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable, but beginning not later than January 1, 1984... in § 315.608(a), of this chapter in accordance with the agency's performance appraisal...

  20. Can Appraisers Rate Work Performance Accurately?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedge, Jerry W.; Laue, Frances J.

    The ability of individuals to make accurate judgments about others is examined and literature on this subject is reviewed. A wide variety of situational factors affects the appraisal of performance. It is generally accepted that the purpose of the appraisal influences the accuracy of the appraiser. The instrumentation, or tools, available to the…

  1. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

  2. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

  3. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

  4. Rising to the Challenge: Acute Stress Appraisals and Selection Centre Performance in Applicants to Postgraduate Specialty Training in Anaesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Martin J.; Gale, Thomas C. E.; McGrath, John S.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to work under pressure is a vital non-technical skill for doctors working in acute medical specialties. Individuals who evaluate potentially stressful situations as challenging rather than threatening may perform better under pressure and be more resilient to stress and burnout. Training programme recruitment processes provide an…

  5. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section 301.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OVERSEAS....303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable, but beginning not later than January 1,...

  6. Rhetorical Dimensions of Performance Appraisal Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skopec, Eric Wm.

    To improve the performance appraisal systems used by personnel offices, a study collected the reactions of 200 managers to giving performance appraisals through interviews, scripts, role enactments, a list writing exercise, and an anxiety measure. The data produced three major findings: (1) managers experienced high levels of anxiety when giving…

  7. Task appraisals, emotions, and performance goal orientation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Cynthia D; Minbashian, Amirali; Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    We predict real-time fluctuations in employees' positive and negative emotions from concurrent appraisals of the immediate task situation and individual differences in performance goal orientation. Task confidence, task importance, positive emotions, and negative emotions were assessed 5 times per day for 3 weeks in an experience sampling study of 135 managers. At the within-person level, appraisals of task confidence, task importance, and their interaction predicted momentary positive and negative emotions as hypothesized. Dispositional performance goal orientation was expected to moderate emotional reactivity to appraisals of task confidence and task importance. The hypothesized relationships were significant in the case of appraisals of task importance. Those high on performance goal orientation reacted to appraisals of task importance with stronger negative and weaker positive emotions than those low on performance goal orientation. PMID:23276116

  8. A Systems Look at Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusher, E. Allen

    1975-01-01

    Results or goal achievement measurements of a manager's performance can be achieved for management with the use of the performance appraisal process which gives a broader perspective in the management of human resources. (Author)

  9. Instructional Aides: Employment, Payroll Procedures, Supervision, Performance Appraisal, Legal Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Earl T.

    Designed to assist school administrators in their efforts to secure, train, and retain the most qualified instructional aides available, the monograph discusses procedures for employment, payroll processing, aide supervision, performance appraisal, and legal aspects involved in the hiring of instructional aides. Specific topics include…

  10. Performance Appraisal: What Does the Future Hold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazer, Robert I.

    1980-01-01

    Included in this examination of performance appraisal practices is an outline of the characteristics of a good system--one that is cheap to install and only requires a manager to do his/her job. (Author/IRT)

  11. Employee Performance Appraisal and the 95/5 Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasch, Lee

    2004-01-01

    Many colleges use some form of an employee performance appraisal process. Yet, despite prevalent use, the performance appraisal process is facing growing criticism. The author reviews the literature regarding the process of performance appraisal in higher education, focusing on articles supportive of the use of the performance appraisal, and those…

  12. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accurate evaluation of job performance on the basis of job-related criteria (which may include the extent... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2...

  13. Physician compensation based on performance appraisal.

    PubMed

    Permut, R

    1990-01-01

    Physician compensation in a group practice setting has long been a subject of discussion and time investment, both on the part of managers and physicians. With a changing external environment, including Medicare fee freeze, capitation, and other forms of discounted, contractual medicine, former income distribution plans may not serve group practices well anymore. The ability of group practices to attract, retain, and develop physicians is at least partially dependent upon physician compensation structure. Taking into consideration marketplace characteristics for different specialties and offering equity in the compensation process are important features of any income distribution plan. This paper emphasizes a longstanding business tool, performance appraisal, which may be a key future determinant of physician compensation. The utilization of performance appraisal in establishing physician compensation is discussed and a sample performance appraisal instrument is included as a model. PMID:10105259

  14. A review of further training for GP appraisers in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Staples, Ian; Wakeling, Judy; Cameron, Niall

    2010-01-01

    A one-day further intensive skills (FIS) course has been developed to provide additional training for existing general practitioner (GP) appraisers in Scotland. The course focuses on skills in developing the appraisee's personal development portfolio (PDP) and skills in responding to significant issues (with emotional content) presented by appraisees - both key areas for effective appraisals. The course is briefly described. An initial pilot of the course led to some changes being made to the content, as it was discovered that the inclusion of training on Summary Form completion in the pilot made the course too dense and distracted from the experiential elements of the training. Two subsequent course deliveries were evaluated by conducting semi-structured interviews with over 40% of the participants from these two courses. The main purpose of the evaluation was to discover to what extent the participants felt they had benefited from the training and whether they felt the training had led to any changes in their practice as appraisers. Secondary aims were to discover the acceptability of the use of video recording as a training technique and views regarding a reaccreditation process for appraisers. Key findings were that almost all participants found this training beneficial and judged it to have led to positive changes in their practice, as well as reassuring them that their skills were up to scratch. Some appraisers felt that it had encouraged a slightly more challenging approach. The acceptability of the use of video recording during the training, as a means of allowing participants to gain further benefit from the work undertaken after the course was finished, was tested. This technique received a mixed response, with opinion divided as to whether it added value. Opinion amongst the participants was also mixed regarding whether this training should contribute towards their reaccreditation as appraisers. However, a number of participants felt this could be a valid element in an appraiser reaccreditation process. PMID:20202318

  15. Teacher Performance Appraisal: More about Performance or Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Given that "teacher appraisal can be a key lever for increasing the focus on teaching quality" (OECD, 2013b, p.9) and that many reforms in the past have failed (Kleinhenz & Ingvarson, 2004), an understanding of the various aspects of successful performance appraisal is essential. The literature has begun to refer to a number of…

  16. Appraising Managerial Performance. Junior College Resource Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Robert G.

    Guidelines are presented for the development of a system for the appraisal of the performance of community college administrators. The importance of such a system to the college's overall success is discussed first, followed by descriptions of seven common evaluation procedures: (1) unstructured essays by supervisors or subordinates describing the…

  17. Performance Appraisal of Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahadir, Ziya

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to determine views of school principals on how performance appraisal of physical education teachers who worked at primary schools should be done. The research was designed in a screening model. The research group composed of 152 school principals and deputy principals who worked at state primary schools located in…

  18. Persistent Ratee Contaminants in Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Fleet, David D.; Chamberlain, Howard

    The hypothesis that conventional approaches to evaluating contaminants in performance appraisal overlook important individual ratee effects was examined. A rating form was developed that consisted of the following dimensions and behaviors: warmth; guided discourse or indirect teaching methods; control of subject matter; enthusiasm and reinforcing;…

  19. Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnell, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

  20. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance appraisal for inmate workers... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a...

  1. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance appraisal for inmate workers... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a...

  2. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance appraisal for inmate workers... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a...

  3. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance appraisal for inmate workers... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a...

  4. Performance Appraisal for Librarians: A Guided Self-Study Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Sally

    Intended for use by library managers, this self-study guide provides an introduction to performance appraisal as an effective tool in human resource management, and a review of the extensive management literature on performance appraisal. Topics discussed include: (1) the functions of performance appraisal, which include the provision of

  5. The supervisor's performance appraisal: evaluating the evaluator.

    PubMed

    McConnell, C R

    1993-04-01

    The focus of much performance appraisal in the coming decade or so will likely be on the level of customer satisfaction achieved through performance. Ultimately, evaluating the evaluator--that is, appraising the supervisor--will likely become a matter of assessing how well the supervisor's department meets the needs of its customers. Since meeting the needs of one's customers can well become the strongest determinant of organizational success or failure, it follows that relative success in ensuring these needs are met can become the primary indicator of one's relative success as a supervisor. This has the effect of placing the emphasis on supervisory performance exactly at the point it belongs, right on the bottom-line results of the supervisor's efforts. PMID:10128796

  6. Teacher Performance Appraisal in Thailand: Poison or Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpa, Nattavud

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the examination of problems related to the national teacher performance appraisal system by the Thai Ministry of Education. It highlights major problems of the current performance appraisal system by delineating the weaknesses and pitfalls of the current appraisal system. The findings indicate problems to three major

  7. Teacher Performance Appraisal in Thailand: Poison or Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpa, Nattavud

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the examination of problems related to the national teacher performance appraisal system by the Thai Ministry of Education. It highlights major problems of the current performance appraisal system by delineating the weaknesses and pitfalls of the current appraisal system. The findings indicate problems to three major…

  8. Appraising and Improving the Performance of School Administrative Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castetter, William B.; Heisler, Richard S.

    This monograph deals with the appraisal and improvement of school administrative personnel performance. It attempts to help the reader understand what performance appraisal is, why it is essential in school organization administration, how an appraisal system functions, and how it can be made to work more effectively. In order to achieve these

  9. The performance appraisal as a developmental tool.

    PubMed

    Schoessler, Mary Theresa; Aneshansley, Pamela; Baffaro, Carrie; Castellano, Terri; Goins, Lindi; Largaespada, Elena; Payne, Raushanah; Stinson, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the key components and outcomes of a performance appraisal tool designed to measure and support the development of registered nurses. The tool is organized by the domains of nursing and based on the novice-to-expert framework. Core competency statements reflect required nursing behaviors. Skill acquisition level descriptors support identification of individual's level of practice. Self-evaluation, developmental goals, and specific evaluator feedback help registered nurses focus their development. PMID:18525407

  10. Experiential Approach to Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Carol M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a student performance evaluation system designed to help students gain needed skill in self-evaluation techniques. Identifies the current research in human resource management supporting the methodology of this evaluation process. (JOW)

  11. The effects of performance appraisal in the Norwegian municipal health services: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous research in performance appraisal (PA) indicates that variation exists in learning and job motivation from performance appraisal between occupational groups. This research evaluates the potential effect of job motivation, learning and self-assessment through performance appraisals for health personnel. Case description This article focuses on goal-setting, feedback, participation and training in performance appraisals in municipal health services in Norway; and job motivation, learning and self-assessment of performance are the dependent factors. Questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample of 600 health personnel from the Norwegian municipal health service, with a response rate of 62%. Factor analysis and regression analysis were run in SPSS 12. Discussion and evaluation The study suggests that respondents learn from performance appraisal. Nurses experienced some higher job motivation from performance appraisal than auxiliary nurses. All subordinates perceived higher job motivation after performance appraisal than managers. Conclusion Useful feedback, active participation and higher education are fundamental elements of discussion in performance appraisal, as well as the role of increasing employees' job motivation. In this study, nurses' job motivation seems to be more effected by PA, than for auxiliary nurses. Both nurses and auxiliary nurses indicate that there is a learning effect from PA. This study may be of interest to health researchers and managers in municipal health services. PMID:21974831

  12. An examination of raters' and ratees' preferences in process and feedback in performance appraisal.

    PubMed

    Manshor, A T; Kamalanabhan, T J

    2000-02-01

    This paper examined the raters' and the ratees' preferences in Malaysia regarding the performance appraisal process and feedback. A total of 52 managers (raters) and 122 subordinates (ratees) participated. Analysis by t test and correlation showed significant differences between raters and the ratees on most factors. Ratees preferred to have more frequent appraisals than once a year and preferred to have more frequent feedback from the managers about their performance. Ratees' preference for the purpose of information on performance was towards salary increase, promotion, training, and career development whereas the raters gave more importance to training and career development. PMID:10778271

  13. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from the industrial work assignment. Copies shall be sent to the unit team. Inmate workers should... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a...

  14. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  15. Tennessee Extension Agents' Perceptions of Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Joseph L.; French, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Performance appraisal is necessary for summative decisions about employees, such as merit pay and promotion. The research reported here describes Extension agent perceptions of their performance appraisal system. The population studied consisted of all Tennessee Extension agents (N = 312). Surveys were completed by 218 respondents, for a completed…

  16. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  17. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  18. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  19. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  20. Communicating with Faculty Using a Diagnostic Performance Appraisal Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Ken

    In spite of the many teacher evaluation models available and the extensive research on performance appraisal, few community colleges have effectively come to terms with this difficult task. Many administrators prefer to avoid the interpersonal conflict and the possible legal ramifications of performance appraisal. However, in times of limited…

  1. Conveying the Performance Appraisal: The Research and Its Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gerald L.

    Results of an examination of research literature on performance-appraisal interviewing and its implications are presented in this report. The appraisal interview functions to (1) provide feedback on performance, (2) counsel and provide help, (3) discover what the employee is thinking, (4) teach the employee to solve problems, (5) help the employee…

  2. Principals' Informal Methods for Appraising Poor-Performing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yariv, Eliezer

    2009-01-01

    Teacher appraisal is never an easy task, especially of teachers experiencing difficulties and failures. Nevertheless it is a requirement for good management, in our schools no less than our corporations. Forty elementary school principals in Israel described the informal methods they use to appraise teachers who are performing poorly. Most

  3. Principals' Informal Methods for Appraising Poor-Performing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yariv, Eliezer

    2009-01-01

    Teacher appraisal is never an easy task, especially of teachers experiencing difficulties and failures. Nevertheless it is a requirement for good management, in our schools no less than our corporations. Forty elementary school principals in Israel described the informal methods they use to appraise teachers who are performing poorly. Most…

  4. Standing Out and Moving Up: Performance Appraisal of Cultural Minority Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyerzapf, Hannah; Abma, Tineke A.; Steenwijk, Reina R.; Croiset, Gerda; Verdonk, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing diversity within society and health care, there seems to be a discrepancy between the number of cultural minority physicians graduating and those in training for specialization (residents) or working as a specialist in Dutch academic hospitals. The purpose of this article is to explore how performance appraisal in daily medical…

  5. Administrators' Views on Teacher Evaluation: Examining Ontario's Teacher Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maharaj, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the views of administrators (i.e., principals and vice-principals) in Ontario, Canada, with regard to the province's Teacher Performance Appraisal process. A total of 178 responses were collected from a survey that examined five areas: 1) preparation and training; 2) classroom observations; 3) preparing the formal…

  6. Performance Appraisals: Alverno College's Self-Assessment Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, William N.; Skebba, Patricia L.

    1985-01-01

    The performance appraisal system for noninstructional personnel at Alverno College uses the self-assessment learning process used in the college's instructional programs and emphasizes accountability, employee development, and communication. (MSE)

  7. Managerial Competencies and the Managerial Performance Appraisal Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Steven E.; Karns, Lanny A.; Shaw, Kenneth; Mena, Manuel A.

    2001-01-01

    Human resource managers (n=277) identified six management competencies as critical: leadership, customer focus, results orientation, problem solving, communication skills, and teamwork. However, many companies do not assess these competencies in the management performance appraisal process. (Contains 22 references.) (SK)

  8. Developing a perioperative peer performance appraisal system.

    PubMed

    Mathews, D E

    2000-12-01

    This article describes the course of action taken by one surgical department to develop and implement a peer appraisal process for nursing staff members. This rural, hospital-based, four-room surgical suite is staffed by 15.5 full-time equivalents (i.e., 22 staff members total) and includes full-time, part-time, and per diem nurses; surgical technologists; two aides; one scheduler; and one part-time educator. The author explains the steps the department took from beginning concept to implementation of the peer appraisal process. PMID:11141705

  9. The Performance Appraisal: A Crucial Business Process and Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Helen Rothschild; McCallum, Virginia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the process of work performance self-assessment, noting the importance of understanding performance appraisal as a rhetorical situation. Describes the process of setting goals, establishing criteria, assessing performance, and adapting to an organizational format. Provides examples of performance evaluation charts. (MM)

  10. Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Training Area. DOE Training Coordination Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen Tiger Team Assessment and eight Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) final reports have been received and reviewed by the DOE Training Coordination Program during Fiscal Year 1992. These assessments and appraisals included both reactor and non-reactor nuclear facilities in their reports. The Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports both used TSA performance objectives, and list ``concerns`` as a result of their findings. However, the TSA reports categorized concerns into the following functional areas: (1) Organization and Administration, (2) Radiation Protection, (3) Nuclear Criticality Safety, (4) Occupational Safety, (5) Engineering/Technical Support, (6) Emergency Preparedness, (7) Safety Assessments, (8) Quality Verification, (9) Fire Protection, (10) Environmental Protection, and I (1) Energetic Materials Safety. Although these functional areas match most of the TSA performance objectives, not all of the TSA performance objectives are addressed. For example, the TSA reports did not include Training, Maintenance, and Operations as functional areas. Rather, they included concerns that related to these topics throughout the 11 functional areas identified above. For consistency, the Training concerns that were identified in each of the TSA report functional areas have been included in this summary with the corresponding TSA performance objective.

  11. A Review and Analysis of Performance Appraisal Processes, Volume III. Performance Appraisal for Professional Service Employees: Non-Technical Report. Professionalism in Schools Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ondrack, D. A.; Oliver, C.

    The third of three volumes, this report summarizes the findings of, first, a review and analysis of published literature on performance appraisal in general and particularly on the use of appraisals in public education systems, and, second, a series of field-site investigations of performance appraisal systems in action. The field site studies of…

  12. A Review and Analysis of Performance Appraisal Processes, Volume III. Performance Appraisal for Professional Service Employees: Non-Technical Report. Professionalism in Schools Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ondrack, D. A.; Oliver, C.

    The third of three volumes, this report summarizes the findings of, first, a review and analysis of published literature on performance appraisal in general and particularly on the use of appraisals in public education systems, and, second, a series of field-site investigations of performance appraisal systems in action. The field site studies of

  13. Development of a Behaviorally Based Performance Appraisal System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinger, George; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development of a behaviorally based performance appraisal system for assessing the performance of highway patrol personnel. The items in the present scale were developed to describe proficiency levels of specific job tasks. This characteristic is expected to enhance the objectivity of the evaluation system. (Author)

  14. Employee Acceptance of BOS and BES Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Gier, Joseph A.

    Previous research on performance evaluation systems has failed to take into account user acceptance. Employee acceptance of a behaviorally-based performance appraisal system was assessed in a field experiment contrasting user preference for Behavioral Expectations Scales (BES) versus Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS). Non-union sales associates…

  15. Performance Appraisal in an Academic Library: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Verna E.

    Well-designed performance appraisals should provide employees with feedback concerning their performance, serve as a basis for modifying behavior toward more effective work habits, and provide managers with data which they can use to judge future job assignments and compensation. Poorly-designed ones, used as short-term control systems, can create

  16. Outcome Expectancies of People Who Conduct Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Nancy K.; Latham, Gary P.

    1986-01-01

    Examined outcome expectancies of people who conduct appraisals. Interviews with 32 appraisers in the newsprint industry showed that appraisers perceived no consequences to them of conducting appraisals. Questionnaires completed by 39 appraisers in the banking industry provided moderate support for alternate hypothesis that appraisers perceive…

  17. Organizational Justice and Employee Satisfaction in Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiologos, Anastasios; Papazekos, Panagiotis; Panayotopoulou, Leda

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the performance appraisal (PA) aspects that are connected with organizational justice, and more specifically three kinds of justice, namely distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a sample of 170 respondents who answered a questionnaire giving…

  18. 2+2 Program for Teachers' Performance Appraisal in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Shuli

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 2+2 Alternative Teacher Performance Appraisal System that has been implemented in Shanxi province in China. A mixed research design was used to evaluate the program. Six high schools and a total of 78 teachers (13 teachers in each school) in Shanxi province were selected. Three of the schools participated in…

  19. Performance Appraisal and Organizational Issues in a Mental Health Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodenhauser, Paul; Segal, Morley

    1983-01-01

    Reports on the use of applied behavioral science techniques to develop a performance appraisal instrument and system in a mental health organization. The system integrates individual, professional, and institutional values into an overall framework including parts of the organization in conflict. (Author/WAS)

  20. Teacher Performance Appraisal System. The Standards and Processes for Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Teaching practices that have been correlated by research with positive student achievement are grouped under five major teaching functions in the Teacher Performance Appraisal Instrument (TPAI). These include: (1) management of instructional time; (2) management of student behavior; (3) instructional presentation; (4) instructional monitoring of

  1. Fair Employment and Performance Appraisal: Legal Requirements and Practical Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith J.

    The use of tests in personnel decisions has become an increasing legal liability for employers. The major questions raised by the courts concerning this use of tests are described. Current federal guidelines for performance appraisal systems, as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, are explained and traced to Title VII of…

  2. 5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal system(s... REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.204 Agency performance appraisal system(s). (a) Each agency as defined at...

  3. 5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal program(s... REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.205 Agency performance appraisal program(s). (a) Each agency shall establish...

  4. 5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal program(s... REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.205 Agency performance appraisal program(s). (a) Each agency shall establish...

  5. 5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal system(s... REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.204 Agency performance appraisal system(s). (a) Each agency as defined at...

  6. 5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal program(s... REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.205 Agency performance appraisal program(s). (a) Each agency shall establish...

  7. 5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal system(s... REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.204 Agency performance appraisal system(s). (a) Each agency as defined at...

  8. 5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal program(s... REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.205 Agency performance appraisal program(s). (a) Each agency shall establish...

  9. 5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal system(s... REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.204 Agency performance appraisal system(s). (a) Each agency as defined at...

  10. Competency-Based Performance Appraisals: Improving Performance Evaluations of School Nutrition Managers and Assistants/Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Evelina W.; Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the research was to develop a competency-based performance appraisal resource for evaluating school nutrition (SN) managers and assistants/technicians. Methods: A two-phased process was used to develop the competency-based performance appraisal resource for SN managers and assistants/technicians. In Phase I, draft…

  11. Performance Linked Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanry, Charles

    1988-01-01

    The Performance Assessment Review system links training to employee performance and development. The system forces supervisors to specify training to remedy individual employee needs. Through the aggregation of data, the system also provides a tool for the assessment of broad training needs across agencies and job classes. (Author/CH)

  12. Square Pegs and Round Holes: Ruminations on the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravina, Nicole E.; Siers, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Models of comprehensive Performance Management systems include both employee development and evaluative components. The Organizational Behavior Management discipline focuses almost exclusively on the developmental component, while the Industrial and Organizational Psychology discipline is focused on use of performance appraisals. Performance

  13. Characteristics of Performance Appraisals and Their Impact on Sales Force Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettijohn, Charles E.; Pettijohn, Linda S.; d'Amico, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 15 automobile salespeople indicated that job satisfaction increased when performance appraisals provided clear criteria that met workers' approval and when appraisals were fair and used to determine rewards. (Contains 61 references.) (SK)

  14. Performance Appraisal: Promise and Peril. Key Issues Series--No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenfeld, Elaine F.

    To reveal evolving strategies for and existing problems in performance appraisal, this report summarizes recently published research findings and expert opinions. The first section examines the purposes of performance appraisal in organizations, discusses the relationship of appraisal to the job description, and presents an overview of the basic…

  15. Performance Appraisal Systems in Higher Education: An Exploration of Christian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaniken, Forrest W.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is substantial literature on the use of performance appraisal in the for-profit world, there is little literature available concerning the appraisal of staff positions in higher education. More knowledge is needed in this area since there is considerable research indicating that performance appraisal creates benefits to an…

  16. Performance Appraisal: Promise and Peril. Key Issues Series--No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenfeld, Elaine F.

    To reveal evolving strategies for and existing problems in performance appraisal, this report summarizes recently published research findings and expert opinions. The first section examines the purposes of performance appraisal in organizations, discusses the relationship of appraisal to the job description, and presents an overview of the basic

  17. Performance Appraisal Systems in Higher Education: An Exploration of Christian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaniken, Forrest W.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is substantial literature on the use of performance appraisal in the for-profit world, there is little literature available concerning the appraisal of staff positions in higher education. More knowledge is needed in this area since there is considerable research indicating that performance appraisal creates benefits to an

  18. Square Pegs and Round Holes: Ruminations on the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravina, Nicole E.; Siers, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Models of comprehensive Performance Management systems include both employee development and evaluative components. The Organizational Behavior Management discipline focuses almost exclusively on the developmental component, while the Industrial and Organizational Psychology discipline is focused on use of performance appraisals. Performance…

  19. Performance appraisal in the age of TQM.

    PubMed

    Marr, T J; Kusy, M

    1993-01-01

    Performance evaluation is often used as a tool to determine salary adjustment as well as an opportunity to improve job performance. When inappropriately applied, performance evaluations may be perceived as being unfair, wasteful, and demeaning. In some organizations, there has been a trend to break down job functions to their most detailed level, weight each activity, judge it, and then add up all the invalid numbers to achieve a more invalid judgment of a person's performance. This non-Gestalt evaluation is an inspection philosophy that has not served manufacturing or health care very effectively. Over the past four years, we have evolved a performance evaluation process at Minneapolis Children's Medical Center for physicians in both patient care and management roles. In this article, we will describe the evolution to the present system and discuss its dovetailing with customer service-driven continuous quality improvement efforts and our plans to improve the process. PMID:10161025

  20. Staff Appraisal in Further and Higher Education: A Study in Performance Review and Development. Management in College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribbins, Keith; Walton, Frank

    The many forms of performance appraisal for faculty in Great Britain are examined. Advice and suggestions about appropriate training are offered, and conclusions are drawn about the kind of system that is most beneficial to the education service and to people employed in higher and further education institutions. Five chapters focus on:…

  1. Summary of the Development and Four-Year Operation of an Administrative Salary System Which Includes Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubuque Community School District, IA.

    The Dubuque, Iowa Community School District uses a point system to pay administrators. The evaluation of contract length, professional training, administrative experience, administrative responsibilities, and performance generate point totals that correspond to dollar values. The appraisal procedure uses management-by-objective concepts and

  2. Psychometric Properties of Self-Appraisals of Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, George C., III

    1980-01-01

    Comparisons with appraisals by supervisors, peers, and subordinates suggest that self-appraisals show more leniency, less variability, and less discriminant validity. Self-appraisals show less halo. Self-appraisals significantly correlate with other sources in some studies and fail to correlate in many others. (Author)

  3. Staff Appraisal in Higher Education--a Study of Performance Review at Nene College, Northampton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert

    1995-01-01

    The performance review process used for faculty evaluation at Nene College (England) was assessed by surveying appraisers, appraisees, and senior administrators. Most appraisees and appraisers thought that appraisers should be line managers rather than peers, and that classroom observation should be included. Opportunity for staff to communicate…

  4. Performance-Based Teacher Appraisal Program for the Penn-Harris-Madison School Corporation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn-Harris-Madison School Corp., Mishawaka, IN.

    The first part of the program, the Self-Appraisal Plan, provides an opportunity for all teachers, guidance counselors, and media specialists to evaluate all areas of their professional performance on an annual basis. The Self-Appraisal Schedule and time guidelines are furnished. The second part of the program is the General Appraisal Plan which is…

  5. Standing out and moving up: performance appraisal of cultural minority physicians.

    PubMed

    Leyerzapf, Hannah; Abma, Tineke A; Steenwijk, Reina R; Croiset, Gerda; Verdonk, Petra

    2015-10-01

    Despite a growing diversity within society and health care, there seems to be a discrepancy between the number of cultural minority physicians graduating and those in training for specialization (residents) or working as a specialist in Dutch academic hospitals. The purpose of this article is to explore how performance appraisal in daily medical practice is experienced and might affect the influx of cultural minority physicians into specialty training. A critical diversity study was completed in one academic hospital using interviews (N = 27) and focus groups (15 participants) with cultural minority physicians and residents, instructing specialists and executives of medical wards. Data were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic and integral content analysis was performed. In addition to explicit norms on high motivation and excellent performance, implicit norms on professionalism are considered crucial in qualifying for specialty training. Stereotyped imaging on the culture and identity of cultural minority physicians and categorical thinking on diversity seem to underlie daily processes of evaluation and performance appraisal. These are experienced as inhibiting the possibilities to successfully profile for selection into residency and specialist positions. Implicit criteria appear to affect selection processes on medical wards and possibly hinder the influx of cultural minority physicians into residency and making academic hospitals more diverse. Minority and majority physicians, together with the hospital management and medical education should target inclusive norms and practices within clinical practice. PMID:25549932

  6. Evaluation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jillian; Bridge, Pete; Brown, Elizabeth; Lusk, Ryan; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Constantly evolving technology and techniques within radiation therapy require practitioners to maintain a continuous approach to professional development and training. Systems of performance appraisal and adoption of regular feedback mechanisms are vital to support this development yet frequently lack structure and rely on informal peer support. Methods A Radiation Therapy Performance Appraisal Framework (RT-PAF) for radiation therapists in planning and simulation was developed to define expectations of practice and promote a supportive and objective culture of performance and skills appraisal. Evaluation of the framework was conducted via an anonymous online survey tool. Nine peer reviewers and fourteen recipients provided feedback on its effectiveness and the challenges and limitations of the approach. Results Findings from the evaluation were positive and suggested that both groups gained benefit from and expressed a strong interest in embedding the approach more routinely. Respondents identified common challenges related to the limited ability to implement suggested development strategies; this was strongly associated with time and rostering issues. Conclusions This framework successfully defined expectations for practice and provided a fair and objective feedback process that focussed on skills development. It empowered staff to maintain their skills and reach their professional potential. Management support, particularly in regard to provision of protected time was highlighted as critical to the framework's ongoing success. The demonstrated benefits arising in terms of staff satisfaction and development highlight the importance of this commitment to the modern radiation therapy workforce. PMID:26229676

  7. Evaluation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Jillian; Bridge, Pete; Brown, Elizabeth; Lusk, Ryan; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet

    2015-06-15

    Constantly evolving technology and techniques within radiation therapy require practitioners to maintain a continuous approach to professional development and training. Systems of performance appraisal and adoption of regular feedback mechanisms are vital to support this development yet frequently lack structure and rely on informal peer support. A Radiation Therapy Performance Appraisal Framework (RT-PAF) for radiation therapists in planning and simulation was developed to define expectations of practice and promote a supportive and objective culture of performance and skills appraisal. Evaluation of the framework was conducted via an anonymous online survey tool. Nine peer reviewers and fourteen recipients provided feedback on its effectiveness and the challenges and limitations of the approach. Findings from the evaluation were positive and suggested that both groups gained benefit from and expressed a strong interest in embedding the approach more routinely. Respondents identified common challenges related to the limited ability to implement suggested development strategies; this was strongly associated with time and rostering issues. This framework successfully defined expectations for practice and provided a fair and objective feedback process that focussed on skills development. It empowered staff to maintain their skills and reach their professional potential. Management support, particularly in regard to provision of protected time was highlighted as critical to the framework's ongoing success. The demonstrated benefits arising in terms of staff satisfaction and development highlight the importance of this commitment to the modern radiation therapy workforce.

  8. The appraisal interview: constructive dialogue in action.

    PubMed

    Mancision, J

    1991-09-01

    The rater's role in performance appraisal is pivotal. Providing consistent feedback and winning the trust of the employee by honest and open verbal exchange are deciding factors in the overall success of the appraisal program. The manager must be trained to perform evaluations skillfully and with a commitment to the employee and to the organization. In addition, the appraiser must recognize that actively attempting to improve appraisal skills is a key responsibility of a good manager. PMID:10112256

  9. Conducting Elite Performance Training.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Elliott; Tucker, Scott A; Imsdahl, Solveig; Charles, Justin A; Stellato, Mallory A; Wagner, Mercy D; Brown, Kimberly M

    2015-08-01

    Training to excellence in the conduct of surgical procedures has many similarities to the acquisition and mastery of technical skills in elite-level music and sports. By using coaching techniques and strategies gleaned from analysis of professional music ensembles and athletic training, surgical educators can set conditions that increase the success rate of training to elite performance. This article describes techniques and strategies used in both music and athletic coaching, and it discusses how they can be applied and integrated into surgical simulation and education. PMID:26210975

  10. Towards a Performance Data and Development System: Getting Rid of Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janz, Tom

    If organizations are to measure and use worker performance information effectively, they must distinguish between two components of performance appraisal: performance data (recorded information for comparing workers) and performance development (the process of improving human assets by discouraging ineffective and reinforcing effective job…

  11. Appraisal and regulation of the ship energy performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, N.; Epureanu, A.; Badea, G. V.; Frumuşanu, G.

    2015-11-01

    The ship may be viewed as a living environment associated with two industrial environments, one corresponding to the transport industry and other one to the processing, services, or other specific type of industry developed aboard. Each environment has its own energy system and changes energy with the other two. Nowadays, the appraisal and regulation of the ship energy performance is based on the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). Its definition covers the three mentioned systems, without distinction between them. This paper addresses the assessment and regulation of the ship energy performance, bearing in mind that, by far, the main purpose is to increase the level of performance by selecting, from the available measures of performance improvement, those that are the most effective. The paper highlights the EEDI shortcomings, explaining that they appear mainly due the fact that this index covers a couple of energy systems that are far too different (though these energy systems are intimately interpenetrated).

  12. 5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal program(s). 430.205 Section 430.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and...

  13. 5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal system(s). 430.204 Section 430.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and...

  14. Performance Appraisal for Classified Employees in School Districts. Monographs in Education No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, William W.; And Others

    This monograph is presented as a practical guide for appraising the performance of classified employees in Georgia and contains materials designed for adaptation by other state school districts. The monograph provides a literature synthesis and a generic performance appraisal system. Following an introduction and overview, section 2,…

  15. Children's Ability to Appraise Their Own and Another Person's Communication Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Steven R.

    1976-01-01

    This study used a referent communication task to examine children's ability to appraise or evaluate the quality of communication performance. The results indicated that younger children were less accurate appraisers of performance as well as less accurate communicators than older children. (JMB)

  16. Development of Performance Appraisal System for Local School Teachers in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttaramart, Suphawadee; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sri-am-pai, Anan

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to study current situation and problem in the performance appraisal system of secondary school teachers, under jurisdiction of the Local Administrative Organization (LAO), 2) to develop the performance appraisal system to apply with the LAO school teachers, and 3) to evaluate the application from the…

  17. Work Planning and Performance Appraisal: A Reference Handbook for Managers and Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Jerry E.

    Merit system law, state personnel rules, and collective bargaining contracts require that Oregon state agencies appraise the performance of their employees. The heart of the Oregon performance appraisal system is work planning. Based on management by objectives and the concepts of employee involvement and participation, work planning is a process

  18. Perceived Purposes of Performance Appraisal: Correlates of Individual- and Position-Focused Purposes on Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngcourt, Satoris S.; Leiva, Pedro I.; Jones, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Performance appraisals have traditionally been directed at individuals, serving either an administrative or developmental purpose. They may serve a role definition purpose as well. This study sought to identify and more broadly define the purposes of performance appraisals to include this role definition purpose. Furthermore, this study examined…

  19. Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Operations Area. DOE Training Coordination Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen Tiger Team Assessment and eight Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) final reports have been received and reviewed by the DOE Training Coordination Program during Fiscal Year 1992. These assessments and appraisals included both reactor and non-reactor nuclear facilities in their reports. The Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports both used TSA performance objectives, and list ``concerns`` as a result of their findings. However, the TSA reports categorized concerns into the following functional areas: (1) Organization and Administration, (2) Radiation Protection, (3) Nuclear Criticality Safety, (4) Occupational Safety, (5) Engineering/Technical Support, (6) Emergency Preparedness, (7) Safety Assessments, (8) Quality Verification, (9) Fire Protection, (10) Environmental Protection, and (11) Energetic Materials Safety. Although these functional areas match most of the TSA performance objectives, not all of the TSA performance objectives are addressed. For example, the TSA reports did not include Training, Maintenance, and Operations as functional areas. Rather, they included concerns that related to these topics throughout the 11 functional areas identified above. For consistency, the Operations concerns that were identified in each of the TSA report functional areas have been included in this summary with the corresponding TSA performance objective.

  20. Evaluating Managerial Performance: Is Your Appraisal System Legal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basnight, Thomas A.; Wolkinson, Benjamin W.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of subjective management appraisal systems is examined with regard to existing legislation and court decisions. Considered are the vagueness of standards, pitfalls of so-called objectivity evaluations, inconsistency among appraisers, and the need to apply merit plans uniformly without discrimination. (LBH)

  1. Online training course on critical appraisal for nurses: adaptation and assessment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research is an essential activity for improving quality and efficiency in healthcare. The objective of this study was to train nurses from the public Basque Health Service (Osakidetza) in critical appraisal, promoting continuous training and the use of research in clinical practice. Methods This was a prospective pre-post test study. The InfoCritique course on critical appraisal was translated and adapted. A sample of 50 nurses and 3 tutors was recruited. Educational strategies and assessment instruments were established for the course. A course website was created that contained contact details of the teaching team and coordinator, as well as a course handbook and videos introducing the course. Assessment comprised the administration of questionnaires before and after the course, in order to explore the main intervention outcomes: knowledge acquired and self-learning readiness. Satisfaction was also measured at the end of the course. Results Of the 50 health professionals recruited, 3 did not complete the course for personal or work-related reasons. The mean score on the pre-course knowledge questionnaire was 70.5 out of 100, with a standard deviation of 11.96. In general, participants’ performance on the knowledge questionnaire improved after the course, as reflected in the notable increase of the mean score, to 86.6, with a standard deviation of 10.00. Further, analyses confirmed statistically significant differences between pre- and post-course results (p < 0.001). With regard to self-learning readiness, after the course, participants reported a greater readiness and ability for self-directed learning. Lastly, in terms of level of satisfaction with the course, the mean score was 7 out of 10. Conclusions Participants significantly improved their knowledge score and self-directed learning readiness after the educational intervention, and they were overall satisfied with the course. For the health system and nursing professionals, this type of course has the potential to provide methodological tools for research, promote a research culture, and encourage critical thinking for evidence-based decision making. PMID:24996951

  2. An Appraisal of the Manpower Training Programs Established by Congress in the 1960's. Project Baseline Supplemental Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, George L.

    Offering an overview and informal appraisal of the Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA) and its amendments since 1962, the study focuses on the vocational education program and the development of its legislation and administration. The 12 years of manpower training legislation from MDTA to the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act…

  3. German Training Revisited: An Appraisal of Corporatist Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to re-examine the unique political economy of Germany's dual apprenticeship training model and its underlying philosophy of corporatist governance. It responds to recent arguments suggesting that Germany's collectivist skill regime is under threat, increasingly giving way to the introduction of "segmentalism".…

  4. An Appraisal of Goals for Residency Training in Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dale A.; Voytovich, Anthony E.

    1985-01-01

    The goals of residency training in internal medicine were assessed by faculty and house staff members using a questionnaire based upon American Board of Internal Medicine criteria. Both groups tended to rate highly as ideal goals items they considered to be their own professional strengths. (Author/MLW)

  5. German Training Revisited: An Appraisal of Corporatist Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to re-examine the unique political economy of Germany's dual apprenticeship training model and its underlying philosophy of corporatist governance. It responds to recent arguments suggesting that Germany's collectivist skill regime is under threat, increasingly giving way to the introduction of "segmentalism".

  6. Determining the Root Causes of Concerns Associated with the Performance Appraisal Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnds, W. Kent

    2011-01-01

    Many organizations use formal appraisals to measure employee performance. Augustana College's Office of Admissions introduced an appraisal process in 2006. Subsequently, staff expressed a number of concerns, ranging from confusion about the process to its link to compensation. Action research proved essential for understanding the problems; it…

  7. Current Practices in Appraising Employee Performance as Performed by the Business Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Thomas R., Jr., Comp.; Lyne, George E., Jr., Comp.

    The major ppurpose of this study was to determine from human resource administrators in the business community the techniques now used in appraising exempt and nonexempt employee performance. Of the 1,000 administrators surveyed, 125 returned usable questionnaires for a response rate of 12.5 percent. The administrators reported that even though…

  8. GP perceptions of appraisal: professional development, performance management, or both?

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Oliver; Bradley, Terry; McKnight, Agnes

    2005-01-01

    GPs' perceptions of the tension between the professional development and revalidation aspects of the current GP appraisal scheme were analysed. Evidence was gathered from focus groups representing general practice in Northern Ireland. The results indicate that there is support for the professional development aspects of appraisal but the link with revalidation is problematic, thereby potentially undermining GP support for the scheme. Greater clarity about the precise nature of the linkage is required to avoid a process that fails to fully satisfy the requirements of either appraisal or revalidation. PMID:16004741

  9. Effects of task performance, helping, voice, and organizational loyalty on performance appraisal ratings.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M; Pierce, Jason R

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that several studies have investigated the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and performance appraisal ratings, the vast majority of these studies have been cross-sectional, correlational investigations conducted in organizational settings that do not allow researchers to establish the causal nature of this relationship. To address this lack of knowledge regarding causality, the authors conducted 2 studies designed to investigate the effects of task performance, helping behavior, voice, and organizational loyalty on performance appraisal evaluations. Findings demonstrated that each of these forms of behavior has significant effects on performance evaluation decisions and suggest that additional attention should be directed at both voice and organizational loyalty as important forms of citizenship behavior aimed at the organization. PMID:18211140

  10. Fail or flourish? Cognitive appraisal moderates the effect of solo status on performance.

    PubMed

    White, Judith B

    2008-09-01

    When everyone in a group shares a common social identity except one individual, the one who is different from the majority has solo status. Solo status increases one's visibility and performance pressure, which may result in stress. Stress has divergent effects on performance, and individuals' response to stressful situations is predicted by their cognitive appraisal (challenge or threat) of the situation. Two experiments test the hypothesis that cognitive appraisal moderates the effect of solo status on performance. Experiment 1 finds that at relatively high appraisal levels (resources exceed demands), solo status improves men's and women's performance; at relatively low appraisal levels, solo status hurts performance. Experiment 2 replicates this effect for solo status based on minimal group assignment. Results suggest that for individuals who feel challenged and not threatened by their work, it may help to be a solo. PMID:18678859

  11. Data envelopment analysis model for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses at an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Osman, Ibrahim H; Berbary, Lynn N; Sidani, Yusuf; Al-Ayoubi, Baydaa; Emrouznejad, Ali

    2011-10-01

    The appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses are very important and beneficial for both nurses and employers in an era of clinical governance, increased accountability and high standards of health care services. They enhance and consolidate the knowledge and practical skills of nurses by identification of training and career development plans as well as improvement in health care quality services, increase in job satisfaction and use of cost-effective resources. In this paper, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is proposed for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses. The model is validated on thirty-two nurses working at an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at one of the most recognized hospitals in Lebanon. The DEA was able to classify nurses into efficient and inefficient ones. The set of efficient nurses was used to establish an internal best practice benchmark to project career development plans for improving the performance of other inefficient nurses. The DEA result confirmed the ranking of some nurses and highlighted injustice in other cases that were produced by the currently practiced appraisal system. Further, the DEA model is shown to be an effective talent management and motivational tool as it can provide clear managerial plans related to promoting, training and development activities from the perspective of nurses, hence increasing their satisfaction, motivation and acceptance of appraisal results. Due to such features, the model is currently being considered for implementation at ICU. Finally, the ratio of the number DEA units to the number of input/output measures is revisited with new suggested values on its upper and lower limits depending on the type of DEA models and the desired number of efficient units from a managerial perspective. PMID:20734223

  12. Modifying adolescent interpretation biases through cognitive training: effects on negative affect and stress appraisals.

    PubMed

    Telman, Machteld D; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2013-10-01

    Adolescent anxiety is common, impairing and costly. Given the scale of adolescent anxiety and its impact, fresh innovations for therapy are in demand. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) studies of adults show that by training individuals to endorse benign interpretations of ambiguous situations can improve anxious mood-states particularly in response towards stress. While, these investigations have been partially extended to adolescents with success, inconsistent training effects on anxious mood-states have been found. The present study investigated whether positive versus negative CBM-I training influenced appraisals of stress, in forty-nine adolescents, aged 15-18. Data supported the plasticity of interpretational styles, with positively-trained adolescents selecting more benign resolutions of new ambiguous situations, than negatively-trained adolescents. Positively-trained adolescents also rated recent stressors as having less impact on their lives than negatively-trained adolescents. Thus, while negative styles may increase negative responses towards stress, positive styles may boost resilience. PMID:23722473

  13. Establishing Content Validity for a Literacy Coach Performance Appraisal Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Mae; Robbins, Mary; Price, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to determine whether or not the Literacy Coach Appraisal Instrument developed for use in evaluating literacy coaches had content validity. The study, a fully mixed concurrent equal status design conducted from a pragmatist philosophy, collected qualitative and quantitative data from literacy experts about the elements of…

  14. A Review and Analysis of Performance Appraisal Processes, Volume II. Performance Appraisal for Professional Service Employees: A Field Service Study Report. Professionalism in Schools Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ondrack, D. A.; Oliver, C.

    The second of three volumes, this report consisted of a series of field-site investigations of performance appraisal systems in action to compare actual practices with results reported in the literature review published in volume 1. The field-site studies conducted at 10 professional service organizations in Ontario and 7 public school systems in…

  15. Management behavior, group climate and performance appraisal at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manderlink, G.; Clark, L. P.; Bernstein, W. M.; Burke, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The relationships among manager behavior, group climate and managerial effectiveness are examined. Survey data were collected from 435 GM14-15 managers and their subordinates at NASA concerning management practices and perceptions of the group environment. Performance ratings of managers were obtained from their superiors. The results strongly supported a causal model in which subordinates' climate perceptions mediate the effects of manager behavior on performance. That is, the development of group climate provides the process through which the effects of manager practices may be understood. Analyses also revealed that the function performed by a manager and his group (e.g., research) influenced the specific nature of the causal dynamics. Some implications of the results for management training and development are discussed.

  16. The effect of implicit person theory on performance appraisals.

    PubMed

    Heslin, Peter A; Latham, Gary P; VandeWalle, Don

    2005-09-01

    Four studies examined whether implicit person theory (IPT) regarding the malleability of personal attributes (e.g., personality and ability) affects managers' acknowledgment of change in employee behavior. The extent to which managers held an incremental IPT was positively related to their recognition of both good (Study 1) and poor (Study 2) performance, relative to the employee behavior they initially observed. Incremental theorists' judgments were not anchored by their prior impressions (Study 3). In the 4th study, entity theorists who were randomly assigned to a self-persuasion training condition developed a significantly more incremental IPT. This change in IPT was maintained over a 6-week period and led to greater acknowledgment of an improvement in employee performance than was exhibited by entity theorists in the placebo control group. PMID:16162058

  17. Managing the appraisal.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Doug; McKimm, Judy

    2009-09-01

    Appraisal is a formal process for doctors at all levels, including doctors in training, which supports professional development and stimulates improvements in clinical practice. Appraisal skills are fundamental to the process of educational supervision. PMID:19749644

  18. The Relationship between Self-Appraisal, Professional Training, and Diversity Awareness among Forensic Psychology Students: A Pilot Formative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.; Chandler, Michele D.; Clark, Quelanda C.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing need for formal training in forensic psychology. This pilot study examines the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction, perceived academic competence, and program competency among a sample of forensic psychology students. In theory, the RBM suggests that self-appraisal,…

  19. 24 CFR 200.200 - What is the Appraiser Roster?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... insurable mortgage and to also protect the FHA insurance funds, the inclusion of an appraiser on the... appraisal performed by the listed appraiser. The inclusion of an appraiser on the Appraiser Roster means..., for inclusion on the Appraiser Roster....

  20. Performance Appraisal: A Guide to Better Supervisor Evaluation Processes. PANEL Resource Paper #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Sharon

    The importance of evaluating student interns as part of a regular performance appraisal system for all employees is discussed, along with the role of the internship coordinator or faculty sponsor. The first step is deciding what should be measured: interns' personal characteristics, job performance, and results. The most useful form of performance…

  1. Performance Appraisal System Impact on University Academic Staff Job Satisfaction and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndambakuwa, Yustina; Mufunda, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The University of Zimbabwe (UZ) introduced a performance appraisal system (PAS) designed to improve performance indicators across the board in Public Service including academic/faculty staff at the University of Zimbabwe as part of a nation wide strategy. The Public service is a body responsible for all civil workers including academic staff,

  2. Trust and the Communication of Performance Appraisal Information: The Effect of Feedback on Performance and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Charles A., III; Anderson, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the dimensionality of the feedback construct, the relationships of feedback to individual performance and satisfaction, and the moderating effects of trust on these associations. Communication of performance appraisal information is found to be a more important correlate of satisfaction and performance for subordinates who express low…

  3. Performance Appraisal for Faculty. Implications for Higher Education. From the Program on Faculty as a Key Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Robert T.; Pitney, Judith A.

    This review of the literature on performance appraisal for college and university faculty was undertaken to serve the ultimate goal of improving student cognitive learning. The starting point was to ask what is known about performance appraisal. What are its positive and negative consequences? How does the manner in which it is conducted relate to…

  4. The Future of Performance Appraisal for Certificated Education Staff in the School Boards of Ontario. Professionalism in Schools Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Brian; Sussman, Susan

    This report assesses the current state of the art of personnel performance appraisal in education to provide guidelines for new initiatives and developments in the use of personnel evaluation systems in Ontario schools. It is organized in such a way that the major issues related to performance appraisal are presented in the order in which an

  5. Utilising a Virtual World to Teach Performance Appraisal: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Shona

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to give a critical assessment of a study designed to investigate the potential of a new method for teaching HRD students about performance appraisal. It is argued that this approach is in the vanguard of developments in IT and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the form of an explorative study

  6. Teaching in the "Performative" State: Implications for Teacher Appraisal in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Teacher appraisal is viewed by bureaucrats as a means of effecting organisational change in schools. It is for this reason that educational policy leaders have turned to technical competency as a way of accounting for teachers' performance in classrooms. In other words, teachers' work is now subject to minute scrutiny by the observation of…

  7. A Survey of Academic Officers regarding Performance Appraisal in Estonian and American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Kukemelk, Hasso; Turk, Kilno

    2008-01-01

    Higher education in the Baltic Republic of Estonia is experiencing rapid change as the country adjusts to a market economy in the post-Soviet era and adheres to principles established through the Bologna Process. Research in the area of performance appraisal, and the most effective approaches to motivate academic staff, is a key factor influencing…

  8. The Factor Structure of the North Carolina Teaching Performance Appraisal Instrument: Another Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, William B.; And Others

    This paper extends the factor analytic research of C. W. Swartz and others (1990) on the North Carolina Teaching Performance Appraisal Instrument (NCTPAI), which contains 28 teaching practices grouped into 5 functions (management of instructional time, management of student behavior, instructional presentation, instructional monitoring, and…

  9. National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

  10. A Survey of Academic Officers regarding Performance Appraisal in Estonian and American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Kukemelk, Hasso; Turk, Kilno

    2008-01-01

    Higher education in the Baltic Republic of Estonia is experiencing rapid change as the country adjusts to a market economy in the post-Soviet era and adheres to principles established through the Bologna Process. Research in the area of performance appraisal, and the most effective approaches to motivate academic staff, is a key factor influencing

  11. Evaluation of 2+2 Alternative Teacher Performance Appraisal Program in Shanxi, People's Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weiping

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 2+2 Alternative Teacher Performance Appraisal System that has been implemented in Shanxi province in China. A mixed research design was used to evaluate the program. Six high schools and a total of 78 teachers (13 teachers in each school) in Shanxi province were selected. Three of the schools participated in…

  12. Superior and Subordinate Perceptions of Management Communication Style and Communication Satisfaction during Performance Appraisal Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Timothy M.

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between management communication style and communication satisfaction during performance appraisal interviews. Generating a 50% response rate, 83 staff employees (47 supervisors and 36 subordinates) at a large midwestern university returned a questionnaire survey assessing communication during…

  13. Combining BARS and MBO: Using an Appraisal System to Diagnose Performance Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneier, Craig Eric; Beatty, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    The last of a three-part series, this article explains how behaviorally anchored rating scales, an appraisal system, can be integrated with management by objectives. A diagnostic technique for identifying performance problems using the integrated approach is explained. Forms required for the integration are provided. (Author/IRT)

  14. Beyond Evaluation: Performance Appraisal as a Planning and Motivational Tool in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, H. Rebecca

    1983-01-01

    Types of performance evaluation for academic librarians are discussed, noting strengths and weaknesses--formats, relative ranking system, dimensionalized ranking system, management by objectives, and degree of participation. Use of appraisal program to aid library administration in monitoring ongoing activity, planning ahead, and motivating

  15. A New Appraisal- Lessons from the History of Efforts to Value Green and High-Performance Home Attributes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2015-10-21

    Rigorous consideration of green and high-performance (“green/HP”) features is rarely included in the property valuation process._ To help illuminate why this is the case, this report takes stock of the history of efforts to improve practices, and identifies barriers that have emerged and opportunities for overcoming them. Particular emphasis is placed on what energy and environmental policymakers and other stakeholders outside the appraisal community can contribute to the broader effort to advance professional practices. The history has unfolded in parallel with turbulent periods in the housing market for which appraisers and their customers are deemed to share responsibility, followed by cycles of regulations, siloing of appraisers in the name of professional integrity, and commoditization of the valuation process itself. This pattern has important ramifications for aspirations that appraisers engage more fully in identifying and valuing the green/HP characteristics of homes. On the one hand, it is legally and ethically incumbent on appraisers to do so, yet on the other hand it is perceived as a risky avenue to follow. Risks arise where findings can be challenged as either over- or under-stating value, together with a market environment in which the complexity of their assignments increases despite downward pressure on appraiser fees. While efforts to address green/HP considerations date back to the early 1980s, the vast majority of activity has taken place within the past five years. Many players have engaged in the efforts to promote improved valuation practices. These include the Appraisal Foundation, The Appraisal Institute, Colorado Energy Office, Earth Advantage, EcoBroker, Elevate Energy, Fannie Mae, Federal Housing Administration, Home Innovation Research Labs, The Institute for Market Transformation, Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, National Association of Homebuilders, National Association of State Energy Officials, National Association of Appraisers, RESNET, USEPA, USDOE and its National Laboratories, the U.S. Green Buildings Council, and the Vermont Green Homes Alliance. Many activities have resulted, ranging from trainings, to data-gathering instruments, and the emergence of a literature attempting to statistically isolate the effects of green/HP characteristics on home values. In some cases, the results of studies have been overgeneralized and oversold, and embodied flawed methods. Although the green/HP community has encouraged appraisers to focus on exemplary buildings (e.g., LEED or ENERGY STAR Certified), any level of green or energy performance can in fact influence value, including below-average performance (a.k.a. “brown discount”), irrespective of whether or not the building has been formally rated. This overly narrow focus represents a significant missed opportunity. Other surmountable challenges include limitations to non-appraisers’ understanding of the appraisal process (and practical constraints therein). A byproduct of this can be unrealistic expectations of what appraisers can and will do in the marketplace. These challenges notwithstanding, the environment for moving forward has improved. There is better data today (a critical need); expanded efforts to disclose energy use information (characteristics, consumption, bills); improved and more pervasive building energy codes, building rating and labeling initiatives; and a host of federal, state, and local policies that have collectively brought green/HP practices much more into the mainstream. Meanwhile, a renewed focus on professional standards of care and competency for assessing green/HP homes make it increasingly important for appraisers to consider these factors in their assignments. Despite the past four decades of studies, there is little if any discernible uptake of these practices by the appraisal practice at large. It would behoove interested parties to step back and consider what new strategies might be productive. A key element of any new plan should be to reset the nature of interactions with the industry, with the goal a more collaborative, two-way discussion to help improve outsiders’ understanding of the valuation process. It is not only the appraiser that needs to be engaged and could benefit from awareness raising. Homeowners, builders, lenders, utilities, insurance companies should also provide input on how green/HP factors impact property valuations and ways to accurately reflect these considerations in appraisals and real estate transactions more broadly. Given extensive inertia within the appraisal industry and a mixed history of interactions with the non-appraisal stakeholders, it is unlikely that the status quo will achieve much unless followed with more coordinated and persistent efforts. Workshops, studies, and memoranda of understanding will not on their own have much impact, and do not address deeper structural issues. Expectations are often unrealistic and not attentive to real-world constraints faced by appraisers. The report identifies key barriers impeding more thorough consideration of green/HP factors in residential real estate appraisals, and solutions for mitigating them. Barriers • Although industry standards of practice caution against bias of any sort, a skeptical predisposition towards “green” is reinforced by information deficiencies. • Information deficiencies result from the lack or difficulty of obtaining usable data on green/HP features in subject properties as well as valid sales comparisons or cashflow analyses. • Competency deficiencies, such as lack of conversancy in relevant technical topics, leads to oversights, and disjointed treatment of relevant information. • Time/cost pressure and process commoditization (e.g., template-based approaches) result from highly constrained budgets, quick turn-around times expected of appraisers, and standardized practices that were not developed with green/HP considerations in mind. • Professional differences between appraisers and sustainability professionals include divergent objectives, the former being market observers and the latter market influencers. • Risk aversion arises from multiple concerns including veracity, accuracy, and persistence of energy data, impacts of operational choices, new sources of appraiser liability associated with green/HP assessments, industry pressures not to over-value buildings or suggestion of bias, and concern about spending non-billable time on complex assignments. • A public policy vacuum has been created by disjointed and uncoordinated efforts from public-sector stakeholders, insufficient efforts to discuss and understand the appraisal industry and process, and a perception by some valuation professionals that green/HP is oversold. Opportunities • Elevating the competency of appraisers can be achieved through a combination of improved industry standards of care and equal-access training and professional development offerings. • Development of better information resources must focus on building-level information that provides robust documentation as well as aggregate sales-comparison data and other contextual information such as local codes, typical upgrade costs, energy prices, etc. • Improved energy benchmarking and rating tools could provide appraisers with information more well-adapted to their particular needs, which differ from those of typical audiences such as energy managers. • Better characterizing and managing risk will enable appraisers to cope with uncertainties in performance information, and help identify where risks may be introduced or mitigated by green/HP features, including higher costs or obsolescence of poorly-performing buildings. • Integrating disaster resilience and sustainability in appraisals would recognize important synergisms among these features, including durability and ability of green/HP buildings to better withstand external hazards. • Mitigating the problem of additional time/cost for performing assignments is an essential need that can be addressed by providing easier access to information and analytic procedures, perhaps coupled with new resources to defray the associated costs. • Enhancing demand for improved appraisals is a fundamental need, and depends on owners, developers, lenders, and others soliciting competent appraisers to perform scopes that expressly call out green/HP considerations, and to critically review the work product for compliance before acceptance. • Engaging new market participants, such as energy utilities and insurance companies can ensure fuller representation and participation of market stakeholders already engaged in green/HP activities and capable of furnishing valuable data and managing associated risks. Cutting across these individual activities, there is a need for outside stakeholders to formulate and follow a roadmap instead of piecemeal initiatives, bridging the professional/cultural divide between appraisers and green/HP communities, and tracking progress in order to know what is working. A more coherent communication and training strategy is needed, as the appraisal industry is highly fragmented, with two-thirds of appraisers opting out of membership in trade associations. In sum, while there is no silver bullet for advancing the practice of valuing green/HP features, there are concrete opportunities. Parties seeking solutions must identify barriers they wish to address and select from among potential initiatives that map to those barriers. Close collaboration with the appraisal community is critical, as non-appraisers have historically obtained limited traction with this industry due to lack of understanding of the nuances involved in the valuation profession. Large organizations and agencies should have a united approach; the perception or reality of a fragmented and uncoordinated strategy is unsettling for prospective partners in the appraisal industry. This requires improved communication and education within and among these communities.

  16. Real estate market and building energy performance: Data for a mass appraisal approach.

    PubMed

    Bonifaci, Pietro; Copiello, Sergio

    2015-12-01

    Mass appraisal is widely considered an advanced frontier in the real estate valuation field. Performing mass appraisal entails the need to get access to base information conveyed by a large amount of transactions, such as prices and property features. Due to the lack of transparency of many Italian real estate market segments, our survey has been addressed to gather data from residential property advertisements. The dataset specifically focuses on property offer prices and dwelling energy efficiency. The latter refers to the label expressed and exhibited by the energy performance certificate. Moreover, data are georeferenced with the highest possible accuracy: at the neighborhood level for a 76.8% of cases, at street or building number level for the remaining 23.2%. Data are related to the analysis performed in Bonifaci and Copiello [1], about the relationship between house prices and building energy performance, that is to say, the willingness to pay in order to benefit from more efficient dwellings. PMID:26793751

  17. Real estate market and building energy performance: Data for a mass appraisal approach

    PubMed Central

    Bonifaci, Pietro; Copiello, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Mass appraisal is widely considered an advanced frontier in the real estate valuation field. Performing mass appraisal entails the need to get access to base information conveyed by a large amount of transactions, such as prices and property features. Due to the lack of transparency of many Italian real estate market segments, our survey has been addressed to gather data from residential property advertisements. The dataset specifically focuses on property offer prices and dwelling energy efficiency. The latter refers to the label expressed and exhibited by the energy performance certificate. Moreover, data are georeferenced with the highest possible accuracy: at the neighborhood level for a 76.8% of cases, at street or building number level for the remaining 23.2%. Data are related to the analysis performed in Bonifaci and Copiello [1], about the relationship between house prices and building energy performance, that is to say, the willingness to pay in order to benefit from more efficient dwellings. PMID:26793751

  18. How to Construct a Successful Performance Appraisal System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneier, Craig Eric; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the design of a performance management system that not only enables managers to solve performance problems, but also enables human resource development specialists and staff to provide a useful tool and a successful program. (CT)

  19. Performance Appraisals: One Step in a Comprehensive Staff Supervision Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbourne, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Performance reviews, while stressful, can prepare employees for the next stages of their career. The best performance reviews are those where the supervisor knows the employee's skills and talents and offers suggestions on how to use those talents to develop other areas of job performance and professional growth. In this article, the author…

  20. Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of performance management and appraisal in New Zealand schools. Outlines a model of principal appraisal that demonstrates an integration of development and accountability elements. Draws on three studies to identify key features of appraisal effectiveness. (SLD)

  1. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. (a) Appraisals required. An appraisal performed by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate... value of $1,000,000 or more shall require an appraisal prepared by a State certified appraiser....

  2. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. (a) Appraisals required. An appraisal performed by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate... value of $1,000,000 or more shall require an appraisal prepared by a State certified appraiser....

  3. 12 CFR 722.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a State certified or licensed appraiser. (a) Appraisals required. An appraisal performed by a State... or more shall require an appraisal prepared by a state-certified appraiser. (2) (Nonresidential... appraiser to complete the appraisal. (c) Transactions requiring either a State-certified or...

  4. Appraisal system for community child health doctors.

    PubMed

    Horn, N; Pullan, C

    1996-03-01

    An appraisal system for Community Child Health Doctors in Nottingham is described and evaluated. All staff are invited to an annual meeting with their consultant, preparation documents having been filled in by both appraisee and appraiser beforehand. These form the basis of the session, which is predominantly a self-assessment. A written report of the appraisal is produced, with sections on current performance (kept by appraiser and appraise only), training needs, and objectives (copies sent to the academic team and the medical manager). The system was assessed by questionnaires to both appraisers and appraisees. There was general agreement that the system had been adequately explained, and that the preparation documents and the appraisal time were useful. The written report was generally accepted as being a reliable record of the appraisal. Three of the fifteen appraisees were unhappy with the system, feeling it was a negative experience which concentrated on weaknesses. Others made positive comments. It was not always possible to achieve protected time. Some of the reports were delayed. The appraisal system described was found to be acceptable and workable by most people involved. The need for adequate administrative and clerical support was noted. PMID:8901252

  5. Appraising Audiovisual Media: Only Appraisers Create Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Explains media appraisal, i.e., the process of placing monetary values on audiovisual media for tax or other financial purposes. Topics discussed include stages of a media appraisal, how appraisers are qualified, sources of qualified appraisers, cost of an appraisal, and donations and tax deductions. Examples of media appraisals are given. (LRW)

  6. Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElShenawy, Eman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

  7. Effective Communication in the Performance Appraisal Interview: Face-to-Face Communication for Public Managers in the Culturally Diverse Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikoski, John F.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses six microcommunication skills to help managers communicate effectively in performance-appraisal interviews. Reviews models that have conceptualized interpersonal communication and presents a theoretical model that may assist managers and stimulate scholarly research. (JOW)

  8. Iron and Steel Industry Training Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Alvan D.

    1974-01-01

    The British iron and steel industry training board has developed a training approach called investment appraisal of training. This approach is a forward-looking appraisal in which the estimated costs ofthe proposed training activity are balanced against benefits accruing in fi nancial terms from improved performance. (DS)

  9. Performance Appraisal in Research Libraries. SPEC Kit 140.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This kit and flyer produced by the Systems and Procedures Exchange Center of the Association of Research Libraries provides documents submitted by 14 universities that are used in the performance evaluation of professional library staff. Commentary based on a thorough review of documents submitted by 60 libraries includes an overview of the…

  10. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a... perform an appraisal are involved in the lending, investment, or collection functions of the...

  11. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a... perform an appraisal are involved in the lending, investment, or collection functions of the...

  12. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a... perform an appraisal are involved in the lending, investment, or collection functions of the...

  13. Effects of cognitive appraisal and mental workload factors on performance in an arithmetic task.

    PubMed

    Galy, Edith; Mélan, Claudine

    2015-12-01

    We showed in a previous study an additive interaction between intrinsic and extraneous cognitive loads and of participants' alertness in an 1-back working memory task. The interaction between intrinsic and extraneous cognitive loads was only observed when participants' alertness was low (i.e. in the morning). As alertness is known to reflect an individual's general functional state, we suggested that the working memory capacity available for germane cognitive load depends on a participant's functional state, in addition to intrinsic and extraneous loads induced by the task and task conditions. The relationships between the different load types and their assessment by specific load measures gave rise to a modified cognitive load model. The aim of the present study was to complete the model by determining to what extent and at what processing level an individual's characteristics intervene in order to implement efficient strategies in a working memory task. Therefore, the study explored participants' cognitive appraisal of the situation in addition to the load factors considered previously-task difficulty, time pressure and alertness. Each participant performed a mental arithmetic task in four different cognitive load conditions (crossover of two task difficulty conditions and of two time pressure conditions), both while their alertness was low (9 a.m.) and high (4 p.m.). Results confirmed an additive effect of task difficulty and time pressure, previously reported in the 1-back memory task, thereby lending further support to the modified cognitive load model. Further, in the high intrinsic and extraneous load condition, performance was reduced on the morning session (i.e. when alertness was low) on one hand, and in those participants' having a threat appraisal of the situation on the other hand. When these factors were included into the analysis, a performance drop occurred in the morning irrespective of cognitive appraisal, and with threat appraisal in the afternoon (i.e. high alertness). Taken together, these findings indicate that mental overload can be the result of a combination of subject-related characteristics, including alertness and cognitive appraisal, in addition to well-documented task-related components (intrinsic and extraneous load). As the factors investigated in the study are known to be critically involved in a number of real job-activities, the findings suggest that solutions designed to reduce incidents and accidents at work should consider the situation from a global perspective, including individual characteristics, task parameters, and work organization, rather than dealing with each factor separately. PMID:26205469

  14. Smart Training: The Manager's Guide to Training for Improved Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Clay

    This book describes and advocates "smart training," an approach to on-the-job training that helps employees gain competence and empowers them to act to satisfy customers. The book is organized in 16 chapters grouped into 4 parts. Part 1 outlines the basics of smart training, including its performance base, the need for initial analysis, and the…

  15. Accuracy of Subjective Performance Appraisal is Not Modulated by the Method Used by the Learner During Motor Skill Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jae T; McRae, Matthew; Lai, Sharon

    2016-04-01

    The present experiment examined whether the method of subjectively appraising motor performance during skill acquisition would differentially strengthen performance appraisal capabilities and subsequent motor learning. Thirty-six participants (18 men and 18 women; M age = 20.8 years, SD = 1.0) learned to execute a serial key-pressing task at a particular overall movement time (2550 ms). Participants were randomly separated into three groups: the Generate group estimated their overall movement time then received knowledge of results of their actual movement time; the Choice group selected their perceived movement time from a list of three alternatives; the third group, the Control group, did not self-report their perceived movement time and received knowledge of results of their actual movement time on every trial. All groups practiced 90 acquisition trials and 30 no knowledge of results trials in a delayed retention test. Results from the delayed retention test showed that both methods of performance appraisal (Generate and Choice) facilitated superior motor performance and greater accuracy in assessing their actual motor performance compared with the control condition. Therefore, the processing required for accurate appraisal of performance was strengthened, independent of performance appraisal method. PMID:27166340

  16. Safety appraisal guide for use with DOE Order 5482. 1A

    SciTech Connect

    Buys, J.R.; Nertney, R.J.; Bullock, M.G.; Klinestiver, L.K.; Knox, N.W.

    1982-08-01

    The DOE Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) appraisal program consists of internal audits, confirmatory management and functional appraisals, program reviews and assessments, and independent overview reviews and appraisals. The purpose of this guide is to implement the appraisal factors of DOE Order 5482.1A, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Appraisal Program. It thereby provides a basis for appraisal in accordance with the DOE Order 5482.1A, which is free of oversights, and which has a well defined, standardized structure. Finally, this guide is used as a primary text and workbook in the DOE Appraisal Training Workshop, as well as in actual field appraisals which are an integral part of the total DOE Safety Performance Measurement System (SPMS).

  17. War outside, ceasefire inside: An analysis of the performance appraisal system of a public hospital in a zone of conflict.

    PubMed

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea; Sebastiano, Antonio; Tamimi, Hadeel Al

    2012-02-01

    Our study examines the use of the performance appraisal system at Hebron Public Hospital (Palestine) during the second intifada, started in 2000. The aim of the article is to shed light on the reasons behind the use of performance appraisal systems in organizations operating in zones of conflicts, an area relatively neglected by HR scholars. To create the theoretical fundament we draw on mainstream literature on performance appraisal, contextualizing it to the Middle-Eastern context. From the literature analysis, we identify five guiding logics for the implementation and use of performance appraisal systems (Appendix A). We use a multi-method approach, qualitative and quantitative, to analyze the longitudinal performance evaluation data over the period 2000-2002 for about 250 individuals. These data are complemented with interviews and observations in the field. Our analysis shows that the trends evidenced in the quantitative analysis are similar to trends evident in Western contexts. However, these trends were not the consequence of the same five Western logics found in the literature. The qualitative study allows us to identify two additional logics for making sense of the performance appraisal system at Hebron Public Hospital: the need to find peace within the organization (organizational peacefulness logic); and the need to maintain order through the acceptance of the status quo (dominance logic). These results allow us to draw conclusions for theory and practice of HR management and to identify useful criteria for doing research in areas of conflicts. PMID:21168215

  18. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. (a) Appraisals required. An appraisal performed by a State certified or... transactions having a transaction value of $1,000,000 or more shall require an appraisal prepared by a...

  19. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Appraisals required; transactions requiring a... SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. (a) Appraisals required. An appraisal performed by a State certified...

  20. Depression, Cognition, and Self-Appraisal of Functional Abilities in HIV: An Examination of Subjective Appraisal Versus Objective Performance

    PubMed Central

    Thames, April D.; Becker, Brian W.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Hines, Lindsay J.; Foley, Jessica M.; Ramezani, Amir; Singer, Elyse J.; Castellon, Steven A.; Heaton, Robert K.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with HIV infection and can result in self-reported overestimates of cognitive deficits. Conversely, genuine cognitive dysfunction can lead to an under-appreciation of cognitive deficits. The degree to which depression and cognition influence self-report of capacity for instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of depression and cognitive deficits on self-appraisal of functional competence among 107 HIV-infected adults. As hypothesized, higher levels of depression were found among those who over-reported problems in medication management, driving, and cognition when compared to those who under-reported or provided accurate self-assessments. In contrast, genuine cognitive dysfunction was predictive of under-reporting of functional deficits. Together, these results suggest that over-reliance on self-reported functional status poses risk for error when diagnoses require documentation of both cognitive impairment and associated functional disability in everyday life. PMID:21331979

  1. Preferences of Training Performance Measurement: A Comparative Study of Training Professionals and Non-Training Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.

    2004-01-01

    This survey-based study addressed a perceived gap between training performance evaluation practice and decision-making criteria required in business. Training professionals and non-training managers in North Carolina were surveyed. The study found that the groups differ in the performance measures that motivate them to act on training issues.…

  2. TAP 2: Performance-Based Training Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Cornerstone of safe operation of DOE nuclear facilities is personnel performing day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Performance-based training is fundamental to the safe operation. This manual has been developed to support the Training Accreditation Program (TAP) and assist contractors in efforts to develop performance-based training programs. It provides contractors with narrative procedures on performance-based training that can be modified and incorporated for facility-specific application. It is divided into sections dealing with analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.

  3. Training high performance skills using above real-time training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

    1993-01-01

    The Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) concept is a unique approach to training high performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. Such a training paradigm represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. These techniques allow individuals to acquire these critical skills faster and with greater retention. ARTT also allows an individual trained in 'fast time' to operate at what appears to be a more confident state, when the same task is performed in a real-time environment. Two related experiments are discussed. The findings appear to be consistent with previous findings that show positive effects of task variation during training. Moreover, ARTT has merit in improving or maintaining transfer with sharp reductions in training time. There are indications that the effectiveness of ARTT varies as a function of task content and possibly task difficulty. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

  4. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... updated by a qualified appraisal if not completed within the past 12 months. (1) Appraiser qualifications... that the appraiser possesses sufficient experience or training to estimate the market value of... interest through the closing date, the appraisal must be completed by a State certified general...

  5. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... updated by a qualified appraisal if not completed within the past 12 months. (1) Appraiser qualifications... that the appraiser possesses sufficient experience or training to estimate the market value of... interest through the closing date, the appraisal must be completed by a State certified general...

  6. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... updated by a qualified appraisal if not completed within the past 12 months. (1) Appraiser qualifications... that the appraiser possesses sufficient experience or training to estimate the market value of... interest through the closing date, the appraisal must be completed by a State certified general...

  7. National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-03-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings. PMID:22040261

  8. Mindfulness Training Targets Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Addiction at the Attention-Appraisal-Emotion Interface

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Prominent neuroscience models suggest that addictive behavior occurs when environmental stressors and drug-relevant cues activate a cycle of cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological mechanisms, including dysregulated interactions between bottom-up and top-down neural processes, that compel the user to seek out and use drugs. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) target pathogenic mechanisms of the risk chain linking stress and addiction. This review describes how MBIs may target neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs ameliorate addiction by enhancing cognitive regulation of a number of key processes, including: clarifying cognitive appraisal and modulating negative emotions to reduce perseverative cognition and emotional arousal; enhancing metacognitive awareness to regulate drug-use action schema and decrease addiction attentional bias; promoting extinction learning to uncouple drug-use triggers from conditioned appetitive responses; reducing cue-reactivity and increasing cognitive control over craving; attenuating physiological stress reactivity through parasympathetic activation; and increasing savoring to restore natural reward processing. Treatment and research implications of our neurocognitive framework are presented. We conclude by offering a temporally sequenced description of neurocognitive processes targeted by MBIs through a hypothetical case study. Our neurocognitive framework has implications for the optimization of addiction treatment with MBIs. PMID:24454293

  9. Development, feasibility and performance of a health risk appraisal questionnaire for older persons

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Andreas E; Kharicha, Kalpa; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Meier-Baumgartner, Hans Peter; Harari, Danielle; Swift, Cameron G; Ivanova, Katja; Egger, Matthias; Gillmann, Gerhard; Higa, Jerilyn; Beck, John C; Iliffe, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Background Health risk appraisal is a promising method for health promotion and prevention in older persons. The Health Risk Appraisal for the Elderly (HRA-E) developed in the U.S. has unique features but has not been tested outside the United States. Methods Based on the original HRA-E, we developed a scientifically updated and regionally adapted multilingual Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O) instrument consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and software-generated feed-back reports. We evaluated the practicability and performance of the questionnaire in non-disabled community-dwelling older persons in London (U.K.) (N = 1090), Hamburg (Germany) (N = 804), and Solothurn (Switzerland) (N = 748) in a sub-sample of an international randomised controlled study. Results Over eighty percent of invited older persons returned the self-administered HRA-O questionnaire. Fair or poor self-perceived health status and older age were correlated with higher rates of non-return of the questionnaire. Older participants and those with lower educational levels reported more difficulty in completing the HRA-O questionnaire as compared to younger and higher educated persons. However, even among older participants and those with low educational level, more than 80% rated the questionnaire as easy to complete. Prevalence rates of risks for functional decline or problems were between 2% and 91% for the 19 HRA-O domains. Participants' intention to change health behaviour suggested that for some risk factors participants were in a pre-contemplation phase, having no short- or medium-term plans for change. Many participants perceived their health behaviour or preventative care uptake as optimal, despite indications of deficits according to the HRA-O based evaluation. Conclusion The HRA-O questionnaire was highly accepted by a broad range of community-dwelling non-disabled persons. It identified a high number of risks and problems, and provided information on participants' intention to change health behaviour. PMID:17217545

  10. Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be…

  11. Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be

  12. Reaction of Employees to Performance Appraisal Interviews as a Function of Their Participation in Rating Scale Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Stanley B.; Wexley, Kenneth N.

    1984-01-01

    Examined whether employee involvement (N=65) in the development of behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) used in the feedback interview affected ratees' perceptions of the interview. Results showed that participation in BARS construction led to favorable perceptions regarding the performance appraisal interview process as well as positive

  13. Monitoring of performance and training in rowing.

    PubMed

    Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Jaak; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Rowing is a strength-endurance type of sport and competition performance depends on factors such as aerobic and anaerobic power, physical power, rowing technique and tactics. Therefore, a rower has to develop several capacities in order to be successful and a valid testing battery of a rower has to include parameters that are highly related to rowing performance. Endurance training is the mainstay in rowing. For the 2000 m race, power training at high velocities should be preferred to resistance training at low velocities in order to train more specifically during the off-season. The specific training of the international rower has to be approximately 70% of the whole training time. Several studies have reported different biochemical parameters for monitoring the training of rowers. There is some evidence that plasma leptin is more sensitive to training volume changes than specific stress hormones (e.g. cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone). In rowing, the stress hormone reactions to training volume and/or intensity changes are controversial. The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes measures both stress and recovery, and may therefore be more effective than the previously used Borg ratio scale or the Profile of Mood States, which both focus mainly on the stress component. In the future, probably the most effective way to evaluate the training of rowers is to monitor both stress and recovery components at the same time, using both psychometric data together with the biochemical and performance parameters. PMID:16026173

  14. VISUAL TRAINING AND READING PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANAPOLLE, LOUIS

    VISUAL TRAINING IS DEFINED AS THE FIELD OF OCULAR REEDUCATION AND REHABILITATION OF THE VARIOUS VISUAL SKILLS THAT ARE OF PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE TO SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT, AUTOMOBILE DRIVING, OUTDOOR SPORTS ACTIVITIES, AND OCCUPATIONAL PURSUITS. A HISTORY OF ORTHOPTICS, THE SUGGESTED NAME FOR THE ENTIRE FIELD OF OCULAR REEDUCATION, IS GIVEN. READING AS…

  15. A Comparison of Results-Oriented and Trait-Based Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Stuart

    1983-01-01

    Data from questionnaires administered to 163 company middle managers and from their personnel files revealed that the 87 managers from a division using the management-by-objectives appraisal system are more satisfied with this system and its feedback than are the 76 respondents from a division using a subjective appraisal system. (MLF)

  16. The Cycle of Bias in Health Research: A Framework and Toolbox for Critical Appraisal Training

    PubMed Central

    Odierna, Donna H.; Forsyth, Susan R.; White, Jenny; Bero, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing bias in health research is crucial for evidence-based decision making. We worked with eight community groups to develop materials for nine modular, individualized critical appraisal workshops we conducted with 102 consumers (four workshops), 43 healthcare providers (three workshops), and 33 journalists (two workshops) in California. We presented workshops using a “cycle of bias” framework, and developed a toolbox of presentations, problem-based small group sessions, and skill-building materials to improve participants’ ability to evaluate research for financial and other conflicts of interest, bias, validity, and applicability. Participant feedback indicated that the adaptability of the toolbox and our focus on bias were critical elements in the success of our workshops. PMID:23432773

  17. Improving Wordspotting Performance with Limited Training Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eric I.-Chao

    1995-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of limited training data in pattern detection problems where a small number of target classes must be detected in a varied background. There is typically limited training data and limited knowledge about class distributions in this type of spotting problem and in this case a statistical pattern classifier can not accurately model class distributions. The domain of wordspotting is used to explore new approaches that improve spotting system performance with limited training data. First, a high performance, state-of-the-art whole-word based wordspotter is developed. Two complementary approaches are then introduced to help compensate for the lack of data. Figure of Merit training, a new type of discriminative training algorithm, modifies the spotting system parameters according to the metric used to evaluate wordspotting systems. The effectiveness of discriminative training approaches may be limited due to overtraining a classifier on insufficient training data. While the classifier's performance on the training data improves, the classifier's performance on unseen test data degrades. To alleviate this problem, voice transformation techniques are used to generate more training examples that improve the robustness of the spotting system. The wordspotter is trained and tested on the Switchboard credit-card database, a database of spontaneous conversations recorded over the telephone. The baseline wordspotter achieves a Figure of Merit of 62.5% on a testing set. With Figure of Merit training, the Figure of Merit improves to 65.8%. When Figure of Merit training and voice transformations are used together, the Figure of Merit improves to 71.9%. The final wordspotter system achieves a Figure of Merit of 64.2% on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) September 1992 official benchmark, surpassing the 1992 results from other whole-word based wordspotting systems. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

  18. TAP 2, Performance-Based Training Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Training programs at DOE nuclear facilities should provide well- trained, qualified personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. A need has been identified for guidance regarding analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of consistent and reliable performance-based training programs. Accreditation of training programs at Category A reactors and high-hazard and selected moderate-hazard nonreactor facilities will assure consistent, appropriate, and cost-effective training of personnel responsible for the operation, maintenance, and technical support of these facilities. Training programs that are designed and based on systematically job requirements, instead of subjective estimation of trainee needs, yield training activities that are consistent and develop or improve knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be directly related to the work setting. Because the training is job-related, the content of these programs more efficiently and effectively meets the needs of the employee. Besides a better trained work force, a greater level of operational reactor safety can be realized. This manual is intended to provide an overview of the accreditation process and a brief description of the elements necessary to construct and maintain training programs that are based on the requirements of the job. Two comparison manuals provide additional information to assist contractors in their efforts to accredit training programs.

  19. Continuing Education and Training Models and Strategies: An Initial Appraisal. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Henderson, Amanda; Choy, Sarojni; Dymock, Darryl; Kelly, Ann; Smith, Ray; James, Ian; Beven, Fred; Lewis, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Continuing education and training is an emerging priority for the nation's tertiary education and training system. Changing work, new work requirements, an ageing workforce and lengthening working lives are some of the factors now influencing this priority. Yet, many of the purposes and processes of the Australian tertiary education and training…

  20. Development and Use of Performance Appraisal of Certificated Education Staff in Ontario School Boards. Volume I: Technical Report. Professionalism in Schools Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, S. B.; And Others

    This study addresses four questions: (1) What types of performance appraisal policy for educational staff have been adopted by Ontario school boards? (2) To what extent have these policies been implemented in practice? (3) What types of appraisal policies are most effective? and (4) What processes have school boards used to develop and implement

  1. Performance Training Carrel for Electronics Principles Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargo, Donald W.; Steffen, Dale A.

    This manual provides documentation for the design, construction, and operation of an interactive electronics training panel developed for a computer assisted performance training carrel. The panel is a plug-in module designed to simulate electronic circuitry and a PMS-6 multimeter as required for a troubleshooting fundamentals lesson in an Air…

  2. The Effect of Performance Support and Training as Performance Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Frank; Klein, James D.

    2008-01-01

    For decades, training has been one of the most common interventions used by organizations to improve the performance of their employees and teach them new ideas and skills. But owing to the cost of developing and delivering training, organizations have adopted alternative ways to enable employee performance while reducing the cost and minimizing…

  3. Realistic training for effective crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of incident and accident statistics reveals that most problems occur not because of a lack of proficiency in pilot training, but because of the inability to coordinate skills into effective courses of action. Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) programs provide training which will develop both individual crew member skills, as well as those associated with effective group function. A study conducted by NASA at the request of the U.S. Congress supports the argument for training that enhances crew performance in addition to providing individual technical skills, and is described in detail.

  4. Is Transfer of Training Related to Firm Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Alan M.; Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to bridge the gap between micro-training research on the transfer of training and macro-training research on training and firm performance by testing the relationship between transfer of training and firm performance. Training and development professionals completed a survey about the training methods used in their…

  5. Diagnostic Performance 1H after Simulation Training Predicts Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consoli, Anna; Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene; Sobczak, Matthew; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Although simulation training improves post-training performance, it is unclear how well performance soon after simulation training predicts longer term outcomes (i.e., learning). Here our objective was to assess the predictive value of performance 1h post-training of performance 6weeks later. We trained 84 first year medical students a simulated

  6. An Appraisal of the Training Programmes for Social Education Workers in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansari, N. A.

    1971-01-01

    A study of the India training programmes for social education workers at different levels was conducted to find out the relative success and impact of these programs on the worker. The study found that the programs were "good" and some suggestions for improvement are discussed. (RR/Author)

  7. Investing in Change. An Appraisal of Staff Development Needs for the Delivery of Modernised Occupational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    Regional and national seminars provided an opportunity for some 500 experts from industry and further education (FE) to analyze staff development needs related to modernization of occupational training in England. Eight issues affecting staff development were identified: environmental factors, access, relevance, design, delivery, assessment,…

  8. Effective Appraisal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Jerry L.

    An examination of the goals of an effective employee appraisal system of an effective employee evaluation procedure is the focus of this paper.The paper discusses the purposes of the appraisal system and its objectivity (or lack of it), the selection of items to be judged, the standards for judging the performance of an employee, and the person…

  9. Train Right or Don't Train at All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Nancy K.; Deller, John

    1985-01-01

    A program to train bank operations supervisors to conduct quarterly informal performance appraisals involved three modes: content-only training, content-plus-procedure training, and no training. While content-plus-procedure was predictably the most satisfactory, content-only, because it lacked a practice component, was less effective than no…

  10. Ideas on Staff Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Outlines guidelines for effective appraisal of day care center staff. Lists 11 questions for employers to ask themselves about their role in their employees' performance. Includes observations about performance evaluations from the management literature. (DR)

  11. The Effect of Performance Support and Training on Performer Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Frank

    2009-01-01

    While training has been a proven and heavily relied on intervention to impart job-enabling information to performers, its ability to have a positive effect on job performance has been demonstrated to diminish over time. One intervention that has been adopted by performance technologists to provide ongoing support is an electronic performance…

  12. Performance assessment to enhance training effectiveness.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Gieseler, Charles J.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris

    2010-09-01

    Training simulators have become increasingly popular tools for instructing humans on performance in complex environments. However, the question of how to provide individualized and scenario-specific assessment and feedback to students remains largely an open question. To maximize training efficiency, new technologies are required that assist instructors in providing individually relevant instruction. Sandia National Laboratories has shown the feasibility of automated performance assessment tools, such as the Sandia-developed Automated Expert Modeling and Student Evaluation (AEMASE) software, through proof-of-concept demonstrations, a pilot study, and an experiment. In the pilot study, the AEMASE system, which automatically assesses student performance based on observed examples of good and bad performance in a given domain, achieved a high degree of agreement with a human grader (89%) in assessing tactical air engagement scenarios. In more recent work, we found that AEMASE achieved a high degree of agreement with human graders (83-99%) for three Navy E-2 domain-relevant performance metrics. The current study provides a rigorous empirical evaluation of the enhanced training effectiveness achievable with this technology. In particular, we assessed whether giving students feedback based on automated metrics would enhance training effectiveness and improve student performance. We trained two groups of employees (differentiated by type of feedback) on a Navy E-2 simulator and assessed their performance on three domain-specific performance metrics. We found that students given feedback via the AEMASE-based debrief tool performed significantly better than students given only instructor feedback on two out of three metrics. Future work will focus on extending these developments for automated assessment of teamwork.

  13. Classifying young soccer players by training performances.

    PubMed

    Abade, Eduardo A; Gonalves, Bruno V; Silva, Alexandra M; Leite, Nuno M; Castagna, Carlo; Sampaio, Jaime E

    2014-12-01

    Players within the same age group may present different physical and physiological profiles. This study classified young soccer players according to their physical and physiological profiles obtained during the training sessions and compared classification by age and playing position criteria. 151 male elite Portuguese soccer players (under 15, under 17, and under 19 years old) participated. Time-motion and body acceleration and deceleration data were collected using GPS technology with heart rate monitored continuously across the selected training sessions. The data were grouped using two-step cluster analysis to classify athletes. A repeated-measures factorial ANOVA was performed to identify differences in the variables. Three clusters comprised 15.2%, 37.1%, and 47.7% of the total sample, respectively. Players of the same ages and playing experience had different performance profiles. Grouping players with similar physiological profiles during training sessions may allow coaches to balance oppositions and reduce the variability of the physiological outcomes. PMID:25456252

  14. Developing an Appraisal Program. Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Marion G.

    1978-01-01

    In this first of a two-part article, issues to be considered and alternatives available in developing a performance appraisal program are reviewed and discussed. Topics covered include selecting an appraisal base and appraisal techniques, and determining appraisers and reducing individual bias. (TA)

  15. The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal and the Performance of Business Management Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, R. E.; Southey, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    The 80-item Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Form A was administered to 415 business management students in Australia as a step toward adapting the test for Australian use. The results correspond reasonably closely to the U.S. data. Analysis of group results and item statistics provided information about necessary modifications. (SLD)

  16. The Appraisal of Teachers' Performance and Its Impact on the Mutuality of Principal-Teacher Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yariv, Eliezer

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines the mutual discrete emotions among superiors and their above- and below-average workers within a hierarchical organisation (school). Using a survey method within a random sample of 40 elementary schools in Northern Israel, each principal and four of his or her teachers (two who had been appraised as excellent and two who…

  17. Collaborative Peer Coaching That Improves Instruction: The 2 + 2 Performance Appraisal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen Dwight W.; LeBlanc, Alyce C.

    2004-01-01

    Behind a simple equation, 2 + 2, lies a rich yet realistic approach to enhancing teaching and learning. As this book demonstrates, the current method of job appraisal consists of sporadic classroom visits from school administrators that frequently serve to reinforce teacher isolation rather than promote professional development. In contrast, the 2…

  18. Measuring Student Performances and Performance Appraisals with the College Life Task Assessment Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Aaron M.

    1994-01-01

    The College Life Task Assessment Instrument (CLT), a 35-item questionnaire, assesses college student performance in 7 life-task domains important to college life. Reliability and Validity results demonstrate the CLT's ability to predict freshman and cumulative GPA, freshman and cumulative credits earned, academic, social, and personal-emotional…

  19. Performance Politics in Military Training Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzler, Hubert H., Jr.; Sansom, Robert G.

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses the phases and components of the IPISD (Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development), reviews three critical points (initial analysis, determining training objectives, criterion referenced test development), and provides recommendations to assist the performance technologist in playing the difficult roles of…

  20. Looking For Value in All The Wrong Places. Toward Expanded Consideration of Green and High Performance Attributes in Non-residential Property Appraisals in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2015-10-21

    Large numbers of commercial buildings have sought to improve their energy and environmental performance, with half of all leasable U.S. offices now designated at some level of “green”. All proper/es fall somewhere on the green/high-­performance spectrum (above and below average) whether or not they bear a formal label or ra/ng.1 Variations in the level of performance can either positively or negatively influence value. This component of value can be shaped by many factors, from utility costs to tenant/owner preferences that translate into income (rent levels, vacancy rates, lease-­up /mes, etc.). Occupant perceptions of indoor environmental quality are another potential influence on value. While there has been little uptake of this thinking by practicing appraisers, the increased prevalence of green/HP practices combined with concerns about appraiser competency are compelling the industry to adapt their traditional techniques to this new driver of value. However, the overly narrow focus of policymakers on appraisal of labeled or rated exemplary buildings (e.g., LEED or ENERGY STAR Certified) represents a significant missed opportunity. Any level of green or energy performance can in fact influence value, including below-­average performance (a.k.a. “brown discount”), irrespec/ve of whether or not the building has been formally rated. Another surmountable challenge is the limitations to non-­appraisers’ understanding of the appraisal process (and constraints therein). A crucial byproduct of this is unrealistic expectations of what appraisers can and will do in the marketplace. This report identifies opportunities for catalyzing improvement of the green/HP appraisal process, which apply to all involved actors—from owner, report-­ordering client, the appraiser, and the appraisal reviewer—and fostering more demand for appraisals that recognize green/HP property attributes. The intended audience is primarily the public policy community and other stakeholders outside the formal appraisal community who can contribute to the broader effort to advance professional practces. The discussion begins with a descripton of the appraisal process and the points at which green/HP consideratons can enter the analysis. A series of major barriers to better practces are identfied along with approaches to reducing them.

  1. Characterizing “fibrofog”: Subjective appraisal, objective performance, and task-related brain activity during a working memory task

    PubMed Central

    Walitt, Brian; Čeko, Marta; Khatiwada, Manish; Gracely, John L.; Rayhan, Rakib; VanMeter, John W.; Gracely, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    The subjective experience of cognitive dysfunction (“fibrofog”) is common in fibromyalgia. This study investigated the relation between subjective appraisal of cognitive function, objective cognitive task performance, and brain activity during a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen fibromyalgia patients and 13 healthy pain-free controls completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ), a measure of self-perceived cognitive difficulties. Participants were evaluated for working memory performance using a modified N-back working memory task while undergoing Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements. Fibromyalgia patients and controls did not differ in working memory performance. Subjective appraisal of cognitive function was associated with better performance (accuracy) on the working memory task in healthy controls but not in fibromyalgia patients. In fibromyalgia patients, increased perceived cognitive difficulty was positively correlated with the severity of their symptoms. BOLD response during the working memory task did not differ between the groups. BOLD response correlated with task accuracy in control subjects but not in fibromyalgia patients. Increased subjective cognitive impairment correlated with decreased BOLD response in both groups but in different anatomic regions. In conclusion, “fibrofog” appears to be better characterized by subjective rather than objective impairment. Neurologic correlates of this subjective experience of impairment might be separate from those involved in the performance of cognitive tasks. PMID:26955513

  2. Tractor Trailer Driver's Training Programs. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Vocational Technical Coll., Nashua.

    This document describes a project to develop a 320-hour tractor trailer driver training program and a 20-hour commercial driver licensing upgrade training program. Of 34 graduates from the training program, 28 secured employment in the trucking industry. From August 1989 to June 1990, 725 students were trained in the upgrade training program with…

  3. Exploring the experiences of general practice nurse peer appraisers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Julie; Kennedy, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Appraisals linked to personal development plans (PDPs) are a requirement for NHS organisations to carry out with all staff. NHS policy documents emphasise the importance of appraisal, professional development plans, lifelong learning and clinical supervision for nurses. However, there is limited research regarding appraisal for general practice nurses (GPNs). The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of trained GPN appraisers when appraising nurse colleagues, with a particular focus on identifying the barriers and facilitators associated with the implementation of the appraisal process. Appraisals were undertaken using volunteer GPN peer appraisers (n=10) following a NES-approved appraiser course. Forty appraisals were carried out (3-5/appraiser). Following the appraisals, the appraisers were invited to participate in one of two focus groups. The focus groups were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis of the data identified three main themes: role issues, reflection and appraisal interview practicalities. The findings highlighted that effective appraisal can be provided by GPNs and was highly valued by both appraisee and appraiser. The findings identified a number of barriers and facilitators to implementing peer appraisal. Given the unique and varied role GPNs undertake, this study has highlighted the importance of offering high-quality peer appraisal that encourages both reflection and the facilitation of more person-centred PDPs. PMID:25625834

  4. The Effects of Isolated and Integrated ‘Core Stability’ Training on Athletic Performance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Casey A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. Objective This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. Data sources A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June2011). Study selection A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Study appraisal and synthesis methods Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. Results In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Limitations Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic development programme, making it difficult to directly isolate its affect on athletic performance. The population biases of some studies of athletic performance also confound the results. Conclusions Targeted core stability training provides marginal benefits to athletic performance. Conflicting findings and the lack of a standardization for measurement of outcomes and training focused to improve core strength and stability pose difficulties. Because of this, further research targeted to determine this relationship is necessary to better understand how core strength and stability affect athletic performance. PMID:22784233

  5. Technical Safety Appraisal of the T-Building, Mound Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of one in a series of Technical Safety Appraisals of DOE's nuclear operations being conducted by the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health's Office of Nuclear Safety. This Technical Safety Appraisal of the T-Building tritium operations at the Mound Plant was conducted from October 19 to 23, and from November 2 to 13, 1987. The purpose of the Technical Safety Appraisal Program is to evaluate and strengthen DOE's nuclear operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial nuclear operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. The team's evaluation is guided by a set of pre-established Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 13 subject areas. These 13 areas are: organization and administration, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency readiness, technical support, security/safety interface, experimental activities, facility safety review, radiological protection, personnel protection, and fire protection.

  6. COLLEGE MAJOR DIFFERENCES IN NAVAL FLIGHT OFFICER TRAINING PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANE, NORMAN E.; PETERSON, FLOYD E.

    PERFORMANCE IN NAVAL FLIGHT OFFICER (NFO) TRAINING WAS EXAMINED IN RELATION TO MAJOR AREAS OF STUDY IN COLLEGE. EACH OF 1,231 STUDENT NFO'S WAS ASSIGNED TO ONE OF 16 COLLEGE MAJOR CATEGORIES. MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF EACH CATEGORY WERE COMPUTED ON EACH OF 24 TESTS AND TRAINING PERFORMANCE VARIABLES, AND THE TRAINING COMPLETION RATE WAS…

  7. The effects of replacing a portion of endurance training by explosive strength training on performance in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Bastiaans, J J; van Diemen, A B; Veneberg, T; Jeukendrup, A E

    2001-11-01

    To investigate the effects of replacing a portion of endurance training by strength training on exercise performance, 14 competitive cyclists were divided into an experimental (E; n = 6) and a control (C; n = 8) group. Both groups received a training program of 9 weeks. The total training volume for both groups was the same [E: 8.8 (1.1) h/week; C: 8.9 (1.7) h/week], but 37% of training for E consisted of explosive-type strength training, whilst C received endurance training only. Simulated time trial performance (TT), short-term performance (STP), maximal workload (Wmax) and gross (GE) and delta efficiency (DE) were measured before, after 4 weeks and at the end of the training program (9 weeks). No significant group-by-training effects for the markers of endurance performance (TT and Wmax) were found after 9 weeks, although after 4 weeks, these markers had only increased (P < 0.05) in E. STP decreased (P < 0.05) in C, whereas no changes were observed in E. For DE, a significant group-by-training interaction (P < 0.05) was found, and for GE the group-by-training interaction was not significant. It is concluded that replacing a portion of endurance training by explosive strength training prevents a decrease in STP without compromising gains in endurance performance of trained cyclists. PMID:11820327

  8. Game performance and intermittent hypoxic training

    PubMed Central

    Hinckson, E A; Hamlin, M J; Wood, M R; Hopkins, W G

    2007-01-01

    Live high‐train low altitude exposure simulated by hypoxic devices may improve athletic performance. In this study, intermittent normobaric hypoxia was achieved with the GO2altitude® hypoxicator to determine its effects on sea level performance in rugby players. Ten players were randomly assigned to two groups. Players in each group received 14 sessions of either hypoxic (10–15% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) exposure at rest over 14 consecutive days in a single blind fashion. Various performance measures were obtained consecutively in a single testing session pre‐ and post‐exposure. Effects of hypoxic exposure on maximum speed and sprint times were trivial (<1.0%) but unclear (90% likely range, ±5% to ±9%). In rugby simulation, hypoxic exposure produced impairments of peak power in two scrums (15%, ±8%; 9%, ±7%) and impairments of time in offensive sprints (7%, ±8%) and tackle sprints (11%, ±9%). Pending further research, rugby players would be unwise to use normobaric intermittent hypoxic exposure to prepare for games at sea level. PMID:17311807

  9. Game performance and intermittent hypoxic training.

    PubMed

    Hinckson, E A; Hamlin, M J; Wood, M R; Hopkins, W G

    2007-08-01

    Live high-train low altitude exposure simulated by hypoxic devices may improve athletic performance. In this study, intermittent normobaric hypoxia was achieved with the GO2altitude hypoxicator to determine its effects on sea level performance in rugby players. Ten players were randomly assigned to two groups. Players in each group received 14 sessions of either hypoxic (10-15% O(2)) or normoxic (21% O(2)) exposure at rest over 14 consecutive days in a single blind fashion. Various performance measures were obtained consecutively in a single testing session pre- and post-exposure. Effects of hypoxic exposure on maximum speed and sprint times were trivial (<1.0%) but unclear (90% likely range, +/-5% to +/-9%). In rugby simulation, hypoxic exposure produced impairments of peak power in two scrums (15%, +/-8%; 9%, +/-7%) and impairments of time in offensive sprints (7%, +/-8%) and tackle sprints (11%, +/-9%). Pending further research, rugby players would be unwise to use normobaric intermittent hypoxic exposure to prepare for games at sea level. PMID:17311807

  10. An Investigation of the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Career Development and Advancement of Mid-Level Women in Student Affairs Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corral, Christine R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the performance appraisal experience of 14 mid-level women in student affairs administration at four-year colleges and universities in Northern Illinois using a qualitative research approach involving personal interviews. Previous research on career development and advancement of mid-level women in student…

  11. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  12. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management

  13. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisal period. 9901.411 Section 9901... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) and (b) of this section, the appraisal period will be October 1 to September...

  14. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND... staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment, and collection functions... perform an appraisal are involved in the lending, investment, or collection functions of the...

  15. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND... staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment, and collection functions... perform an appraisal are involved in the lending, investment, or collection functions of the...

  16. GP peer appraisal in Scotland: an ongoing and developing exercise in quality.

    PubMed

    Law, Susan; Haman, Hilary; Cameron, Niall; Staples, Ian

    2009-03-01

    GP appraisal in Scotland is a strong and vibrant process. Not least this is due to NES's commitment to the ongoing development of its appraisers. Research suggests that the key to effective appraisal is the skill of the appraiser. Training in Scotland has developed using feedback from a wide range of sources. The move from information-based courses towards skills-based courses enhances appraiser development and allows the effective evaluation of appraiser competencies. With appraisal becoming a key element in the revalidation process the quality assurance of appraisal and appraisers becomes increasingly important. PMID:19519993

  17. Pre vertical jump performance to regulate the training volume.

    PubMed

    Claudino, J G; Mezêncio, B; Soncin, R; Ferreira, J C; Couto, B P; Szmuchrowski, L A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of training load regulation, using the CMJ at the beginning of the session, on the total plyometric training load and the vertical jump performance. 44 males were divided into 4 groups: No Regulation Group (nRG), Regulation Group (RG), Yoked Group (YG) and Control Group (CG). The nRG received 6 weeks of plyometric training, with no adjustment in training load. The RG underwent the same training; however, the training load was adjusted according to the CMJ performance at the beginning of each session. The adjustment made in RG was replicated for the volunteers from the corresponding quartile in the YG, with no consideration given to the YG participant's condition at the beginning of its session. At the end of the training, the CMJ and SJ performance of all of the participants was reassessed. The total training load was significantly lower (p=0.036; ES=0.82) in the RG and the YG (1905±37 jumps) compared to the nRG (1926±0 jumps). The enhancement in vertical jump performance was significant for the groups that underwent the training (p<0.001). Vertical jump performance, performed at the beginning of the session, as a tool to regulate the training load resulted in a decrease of the total training load, without decreasing the long-term effects on vertical jump performance. PMID:22187384

  18. Making Connections between the Appraisal, Performance Management and Professional Development of Dentists and Teachers: "Right, What Are the Problems We've Got and How Could We Sort This Out?'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butt, Graham; Macnab, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the connections between the appraisal, or performance management, of different professional groups, and their subsequent uptake of continuing professional development (CPD), is valuable for both employees and managers. The linking of appraisal systems with professional/personal development plans amongst health professionals is now…

  19. Making Connections between the Appraisal, Performance Management and Professional Development of Dentists and Teachers: "Right, What Are the Problems We've Got and How Could We Sort This Out?'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butt, Graham; Macnab, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the connections between the appraisal, or performance management, of different professional groups, and their subsequent uptake of continuing professional development (CPD), is valuable for both employees and managers. The linking of appraisal systems with professional/personal development plans amongst health professionals is now

  20. Performance Errors in Weight Training and Their Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John H.; Lander, Jeffrey E.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses general performance errors in weight training, also discussing each category of error separately. The paper focuses on frequency and intensity, incorrect training velocities, full range of motion, and symmetrical training. It also examines specific errors related to the bench press, squat, military press, and bent- over and seated row…

  1. Performance Errors in Weight Training and Their Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John H.; Lander, Jeffrey E.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses general performance errors in weight training, also discussing each category of error separately. The paper focuses on frequency and intensity, incorrect training velocities, full range of motion, and symmetrical training. It also examines specific errors related to the bench press, squat, military press, and bent- over and seated row

  2. Use of Martial Art Exercises in Performance Enhancement Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Tim; Anderson, Warren

    2002-01-01

    Details some of the many martial arts training techniques and their potential applications for inclusion in performance enhancement programs, focusing on the benefits of martial training, the arts continuum, and martial arts training modes. The article concludes that the various martial arts techniques provide a stimulating and intuitively…

  3. Using Mental Computation Training to Improve Complex Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Allison S.; Kallai, Arava Y.; Schunn, Christian D.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical fluency is important for academic and mathematical success. Fluency training programs have typically focused on fostering retrieval, which leads to math performance that does not reliably transfer to non-trained problems. More recent studies have focused on training number understanding and representational precision, but few have…

  4. Use of Martial Art Exercises in Performance Enhancement Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Tim; Anderson, Warren

    2002-01-01

    Details some of the many martial arts training techniques and their potential applications for inclusion in performance enhancement programs, focusing on the benefits of martial training, the arts continuum, and martial arts training modes. The article concludes that the various martial arts techniques provide a stimulating and intuitively

  5. Employee Post-Training Behaviour and Performance: Evaluating the Results of the Training Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantidis, Anastasios D.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that firms invest in training, there is considerable evidence to show that training programmes often fail to achieve the intended result of improving worker and organization performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the medium- to long-term effects of training programmes on firms by means of an integrated research model…

  6. Can Visual Arts Training Improve Physician Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel T.; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts — a subset of medical humanities — into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

  7. Can visual arts training improve physician performance?

    PubMed

    Katz, Joel T; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts - a subset of medical humanities - into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

  8. Mechanisms for training security inspectors to enhance human performance

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhalter, H.E.; Sessions, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established qualification standards for protective force personnel employed at nuclear facilities (10 CFR Part 1046 (Federal Register)). Training mechanisms used at Los Alamos to enhance human performance in meeting DOE standards include, but are not limited to, the following: for cardio-respiratory training, they utilize distance running, interval training, sprint training, pacing, indoor aerobics and circuit training; for muscular strength, free weights, weight machines, light hand weights, grip strength conditioners, and calistenics are employed; for muscular endurance, participants do high repetitions (15 - 40) using dumbbells, flex weights, resistive rubber bands, benches, and calisthenics; for flexibility, each training session devotes specific times to stretch the muscles involved for a particular activity. These training mechanisms with specific protocols can enhance human performance.

  9. Physiological and performance adaptations to high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) refers to exercise that is characterized by relatively short bursts of vigorous activity, interspersed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise for recovery. In untrained and recreationally active individuals, short-term HIIT is a potent stimulus to induce physiological remodeling similar to traditional endurance training despite a markedly lower total exercise volume and training time commitment. As little as six sessions of 'all-out' HIIT over 14 days, totaling ∼15 min of intense cycle exercise within total training time commitment of ∼2.5 h, is sufficient to enhance exercise capacity and improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. From an athletic standpoint, HIIT is also an effective strategy to improve performance when supplemented into the already high training volumes of well-trained endurance athletes, although the underlying mechanisms are likely different compared to less trained subjects. Most studies in this regard have examined the effect of replacing a portion (typically ∼15-25%) of base/normal training with HIIT (usually 2-3 sessions per week for 4-8 weeks). It has been proposed that a polarized approach to training, in which ∼75% of total training volume be performed at low intensities, with 10-15% performed at very high intensities may be the optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who compete in intense endurance events. PMID:23899754

  10. Resistance training for performance and injury prevention in golf

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Gregory J

    2006-01-01

    This introductory resistance training program is designed to minimize injury risk, improve golf swing speed and the overall fitness of recreational golfers. This article aims to introduce to the Chiropractor the basic concepts sport specific resistance training, periodization models of resistance training and proposes a year round conditioning resistance training program specific to golf. The exercises have been chosen based on the best biomechanical evidence to minimize injury risk and on the research supporting the use of movement specific training adaptations. Upper body strength exercises are performed standing to develop both trunk and hip stabilizing musculature and the primary movement of the golf swing. PMID:17549167

  11. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... An appraisal performed by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate... Mortgage Corporation appraisal standards applicable to that category of real estate; (11) The regulated... lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is...

  12. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... An appraisal performed by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate... Mortgage Corporation appraisal standards applicable to that category of real estate; (11) The regulated... lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is...

  13. Using Findings from the Performance Appraisal Literature to Inform the Evaluation of Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Sara L.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research in the management literature have guided managers on how to effectively motivate their employees, increase the performance of their employees, and evaluate the performance of their employees. Many of these findings could be applied to higher education, both in research and in practice. More specifically, the findings on…

  14. Analyzing the Interaction of Performance Appraisal Factors Using Interpretive Structural Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    In today's changed environment where the economy and industry are driven by customers, business is open to worldwide competition. Manufacturing firms have looked at employee performance improvement as a means to succeed. These findings advocate setting up priorities for employee performance improvement. This requires a continuous improvement…

  15. [Appraisal of Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steve

    This document consists of four separate handouts all related to the appraisal of audiovisual (AV) materials: "How to Work with an Appraiser of AV Media: A Convenient Check List for Clients and Their Advisors," helps a client prepare for an appraisal, explaining what is necessary before the appraisal, the appraisal process and its costs, the kind…

  16. The Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Beverage Workers Union, Local 32, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a joint labor-management workplace literacy program called SET (Skills Enhancement Training) that targeted the more than 2,000 unionized employees of food service contractors at U.S. government institutions in Washington, D.C. Nineteen classes were offered and a total of 191 people self-selected themselves into the program.…

  17. Performance Assessment in Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestley, Michael

    This paper suggests alternatives for assessing various types of learner outcomes, along with a procedure for deciding which method to use. Whatever the context--continuing education, training, business, or the professions--assessing learner outcomes involves a set of four steps. (1) The first step in designing an assessment is to determine its…

  18. Quiet Eye Training Facilitates Competitive Putting Performance in Elite Golfers

    PubMed Central

    Vine, Samuel J.; Moore, Lee J.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief quiet eye (QE) training intervention aimed at optimizing visuomotor control and putting performance of elite golfers under pressure, and in real competition. Twenty-two elite golfers (mean handicap 2.7) recorded putting statistics over 10 rounds of competitive golf before attending training individually. Having been randomly assigned to either a QE training or Control group, participants were fitted with an Applied Science Laboratories Mobile Eye tracker and performed 20 baseline (pre-test) putts from 10 ft. Training consisted of video feedback of their gaze behavior while they completed 20 putts; however the QE-trained group received additional instructions related to maintaining a longer QE period. Participants then recorded their putting statistics over a further 10 competitive rounds and re-visited the laboratory for retention and pressure tests of their visuomotor control and putting performance. Overall, the results were supportive of the efficacy of the QE training intervention. QE duration predicted 43% of the variance in putting performance, underlying its critical role in the visuomotor control of putting. The QE-trained group maintained their optimal QE under pressure conditions, whereas the Control group experienced reductions in QE when anxious, with subsequent effects on performance. Although their performance was similar in the pre-test, the QE-trained group holed more putts and left the ball closer to the hole on missed putts than their Control group counterparts in the pressure test. Importantly, these advantages transferred to the golf course, where QE-trained golfers made 1.9 fewer putts per round, compared to pre-training, whereas the Control group showed no change in their putting statistics. These results reveal that QE training, incorporated into a pre-shot routine, is an effective intervention to help golfers maintain control when anxious. PMID:21713182

  19. An appraisal of the 1992 preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.W.L.; Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.K.; Weiner, R.; Neill, R.H. |

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has reviewed the WIPP 1992 Performance Assessment (Sandia WIPP Performance Assessment Department, 1992). Although this performance assessment was released after the October 1992 passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (PL 102-579), the work preceded the Act. For individual and ground-water protection, calculations have been done for 1000 years post closure, whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191) issued in 1993 require calculations for 10,000 years. The 1992 Performance Assessment continues to assimilate improved understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site, and evolving conceptual models of natural barriers. Progress has been made towards assessing WIPP`s compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191). The 1992 Performance Assessment has addressed several items of major concern to EEG, outlined in the July 1992 review of the 1991 performance assessment (Neill et al., 1992). In particular, the authors are pleased that some key results in this performance assessment deal with sensitivity of the calculated complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) to alterative conceptual models proposed by EEG -- that flow in the Culebra be treated as single-porosity fracture-flow; with no sorption retardation unless substantiated by experimental data.

  20. Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.

    1994-01-01

    This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an improvement over last year. In contrast, recognition and teamwork are the two major areas where improvement in supervisory performance seems to be most needed. The initial report card results will serve as a baseline against which future performance ratings will be compared. Once supervisors have been presented with their data and given an opportunity to analyze and discus the results, they will be assisted in developing an action plan for improving their performance and work processes. They will be provided with ongoing support from management in following through with the action plan.

  1. Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Improves Motor and Dual-Task Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J.J.; Peters, B.T.; Mulavara, A.P.; Brady, R.; Batson, C.; Cohen, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of our project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The goal of our current study was to determine if SA training using variation in visual flow and support surface motion produces improved performance in a novel sensory environment and demonstrate the retention characteristics of SA training.

  2. Effects of training on performance in competitive swimming.

    PubMed

    Mujika, I; Chatard, J C; Busso, T; Geyssant, A; Barale, F; Lacoste, L

    1995-12-01

    The relationships between the mean intensity of a training season, training volume and frequency, and the variations in performance were studied in a group of 18 elite swimmers. Additionally, differences between the swimmers who improved their personal record of the previous year during the follow-up training season (GIR, n = 8) and those who did not (GNI, n = 10) were investigated. The improvement in performance during the follow-up season was significantly correlated with the mean intensity of the training season (r = 0.69, p < 0.01), but not with training volume or frequency. The performance improvement during the follow-up season was negatively related to the initial performance level (r = 0.90, p < 0.01). The decline in performance during detraining from the previous year was less for the GIR than for the GNI (6.21 +/- 2.30% vs. 9.79 +/- 2.18%, p < 0.01). The present findings suggest that training intensity is the key factor in performance improvement in a group of elite swimmers. Factors such as previous detraining and initial performance level could jeopardize success in spite of a good adaptation to training. PMID:8563672

  3. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training.

    PubMed

    Bloomberg, Jacob J; Peters, Brian T; Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments-enhancing their ability to "learn to learn." We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:26441561

  4. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training

    PubMed Central

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments—enhancing their ability to “learn to learn.” We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:26441561

  5. An innovative appraisal/reward strategy for high-performance teams.

    PubMed

    Joy, L W

    1997-11-01

    Competitive pressures require today's corporate leaders to maximize productivity. And to achieve long-term bottom line results, they've found that it is necessary to create a culture in which company members want to be their best and work at peak efficiency levels. But what is the formula for success? Perhaps, as suggested by this article, it involves the creation of high-performance teams. PMID:10173990

  6. Comparison of ISO standards for device performance; 20072 and 27427: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Nerbrink, Ola; Mitchell, Jolyon P

    2012-08-01

    Two separate international standards, ISO 20072:2009 and ISO 27427:2010, have recently been published that relate to the development and performance testing of oral inhaled products (OIPs). The scope of ISO 20072 encompasses all OIP forms except nebulizing systems, whereas ISO 27427 was developed specifically for this class of OIP. Compliance with these standards will likely be necessary for manufacturers seeking approval to market inhaler devices in the European Union (EU). Their adoption in the United States may take a considerable time, but the FDA has expressed support in general terms for the ISO process. Key aspects of both standards that are very different in style and content are identified and discussed from the perspective of a potential user. In the approach adopted by ISO 20072, a formalized risk assessment is undertaken as a key part of design verification, in order to develop the Device Functionality Profile (DFP) of the device. The DFP is subsequently verified by the System Verification Test (SVT), in which pharmacopeial test methods are used to evaluate in vitro performance of the device with a chosen drug product in a statistically robust manner. On the other hand, ISO 27427 adopts a more prescriptive approach that involves performance verification of the finished nebulizing system using 1% w/v salbutamol as the test formulation. Although ISO 27427 is currently undergoing revision, at present it is unclear whether the changes that are made will significantly alter its fundamentally different approach to device performance verification. A strong case can be made for a single OIP-wide ISO standard, based on the principles developed in ISO 20072 and that makes use of the well-understood and validated in vitro test procedures that are available or will shortly be available in the case of nebulizing systems, in the United States and European pharmacopeias. PMID:22857272

  7. Factors Influencing Preservice Teachers' End-of-Training Teaching Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablonski, Ann M.

    This study investigated components of preservice training likely to influence the development of expertise in teaching. The study examined whether perceived self-efficacy, cognitive skills for teaching, basic teaching skills, beginning training teacher performance, knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of teaching, teacher work environment, and…

  8. Australian National Training Authority. Annual Performance Report 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    This document is the 1997-1998 annual performance report of the Australian National Training Authority (ANTA), which was established in 1992 as a commonwealth statutory authority to advise commonwealth, state, and territory ministers on policies and mechanisms to help the vocational and training (VET) sector achieve a more national focus. Section…

  9. CHANGES IN FLIGHT TRAINEE PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING SYNTHETIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A…

  10. Cross-Cultural Training and Workplace Performance. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This document was produced by the author(s) based on their research for the report "Cross- Cultural Training and Workplace Performance" (ED503402). It contains the following materials related to the report: (1) Primary approach letters; (2) Tests for statistical significance; (3) Survey of current cross-cultural training practice; (4) Survey of…

  11. CHANGES IN FLIGHT TRAINEE PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING SYNTHETIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A

  12. Military Applicability of Interval Training for Health and Performance.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J; Gagnon, Patrick J; Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    Militaries from around the globe have predominantly used endurance training as their primary mode of aerobic physical conditioning, with historical emphasis placed on the long distance run. In contrast to this traditional exercise approach to training, interval training is characterized by brief, intermittent bouts of intense exercise, separated by periods of lower intensity exercise or rest for recovery. Although hardly a novel concept, research over the past decade has shed new light on the potency of interval training to elicit physiological adaptations in a time-efficient manner. This work has largely focused on the benefits of low-volume interval training, which involves a relatively small total amount of exercise, as compared with the traditional high-volume approach to training historically favored by militaries. Studies that have directly compared interval and moderate-intensity continuous training have shown similar improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism, despite large differences in total exercise and training time commitment. Interval training can also be applied in a calisthenics manner to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, and this approach could easily be incorporated into a military conditioning environment. Although interval training can elicit physiological changes in men and women, the potential for sex-specific adaptations in the adaptive response to interval training warrants further investigation. Additional work is needed to clarify adaptations occurring over the longer term; however, interval training deserves consideration from a military applicability standpoint as a time-efficient training strategy to enhance soldier health and performance. There is value for military leaders in identifying strategies that reduce the time required for exercise, but nonetheless provide an effective training stimulus. PMID:26506197

  13. Performance appraisal of VAS radiometry for GOES-4, -5 and -6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, D.; Robinson, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The first three VISSR Atmospheric Sounders (VAS) were launched on GOES-4, -5, and -6 in 1980, 1981 and 1983. Postlaunch radiometric performance is assessed for noise, biases, registration and reliability, with special attention to calibration and problems in the data processing chain. The postlaunch performance of the VAS radiometer meets its prelaunch design specifications, particularly those related to image formation and noise reduction. The best instrument is carried on GOES-5, currently operational as GOES-EAST. Single sample noise is lower than expected, especially for the small longwave and large shortwave detectors. Detector to detector offsets are correctable to within the resolution limits of the instrument. Truncation, zero point and droop errors are insignificant. Absolute calibration errors, estimated from HIRS and from radiation transfer calculations, indicate moderate, but stable biases. Relative calibration errors from scanline to scanline are noticeable, but meet sounding requirements for temporarily and spatially averaged sounding fields of view. The VAS instrument is a potentially useful radiometer for mesoscale sounding operations. Image quality is very good. Soundings derived from quality controlled data meet prelaunch requirements when calculated with noise and bias resistant algorithms.

  14. Perceived training intensity and performance changes quantification in judo.

    PubMed

    Agostinho, Marcus F; Philippe, Antony G; Marcolino, Gilvan S; Pereira, Ewerton R; Busso, Thierry; Candau, Robin B; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the methods of quantification for training and performance, which would be the most appropriate for modeling the responses to long-term training in cadet and junior judo athletes. For this, 10 young male judo athletes (15.9 ± 1.3 years, 64.9 ± 10.3 kg, and 170.8 ± 5.4 cm) competing at a regional/state level volunteered to take part in this study. Data were collected during a 2-year training period (i.e., 702 days) from January 2011 to December 2012. Their mean training volume was 6.52 ± 0.43 hours per week during the preparatory periods and 4.75 ± 0.49 hours per week during the competitive periods. They followed a training program prescribed by the same coach. The training load (TL) was quantified through the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and expressed in arbitrary unit (a.u.). Performance was quantified from 5 parameters and divided into 2 categories: performance in competition and performance in training. The evaluation of performance in competition was based on the number of points per level. Performance in training was assessed through 4 different tests. A physical test battery consisting of a standing long jump, 2 judo-specific tests that were the maximal number of dynamic chin-up holding the judogi, and the Special Judo Fitness Test was used. System modeling for describing training adaptations consisted of mathematically relating the TL of the training sessions (system input) to the change in performance (system output). The quality of the fit between TL and performance was similar, whether the TL was computed directly from RPE (R = 0.55 ± 0.18) or from the session RPE (R = 0.56 ± 0.18) and was significant in 8 athletes over 10, excluding the standing jump from the computation of the TL, leading to a simplest method. Thus, this study represents a first attempt to model TL effects on judo-specific performance and has shown that the best relationships between amounts of training and changes in performance were obtained when training amounts were quantified simply from RPE. PMID:25436630

  15. Factor Analysis of Aviation Training Measures and Post-Training Performance Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Richard F.; Berkshire, James R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate the factor structure of naval air training measures to the performance of Marine pilots in operational squadrons. Five post-training criteria were developed; four were Commanding Officer (C.O.) nominations of junior officers for hypothetical special assignments, and the fifth was a general

  16. Factor Analysis of Aviation Training Measures and Post-Training Performance Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Richard F.; Berkshire, James R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate the factor structure of naval air training measures to the performance of Marine pilots in operational squadrons. Five post-training criteria were developed; four were Commanding Officer (C.O.) nominations of junior officers for hypothetical special assignments, and the fifth was a general…

  17. Lessons Learned: 20 Keys to Successful Training and Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Dean R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to training and performance improvement, including practice required for skill learning; knowledge versus skills; core skills; competence; learning to learn; team orientation; enabling business results; interpersonal and conceptual skills; timing; focusing on priorities; organizational learning and management

  18. An Illustration of Evaluating Post-Training Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin E.

    1979-01-01

    This evaluation study illustrates several ways of measuring post-training job performance, a variety of measurement problems, and the impact of evaluation upon administrative decisions. Measurement problems are discussed in terms of six dimensions. (Author)

  19. Importance of eccentric actions in performance adaptations to resistance training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Miller, Bruce J.; Buchanan, Paul; Tesch, Per A.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of eccentric (ecc) muscle actions in resistance training for the maintenance of muscle strength and mass in hypogravity was investigated in experiments in which human subjects, divided into three groups, were asked to perform four-five sets of 6 to 12 repetitions (rep) per set of three leg press and leg extension exercises, 2 days each weeks for 19 weeks. One group, labeled 'con', performed each rep with only concentric (con) actions, while group con/ecc with performed each rep with only ecc actions; the third group, con/con, performed twice as many sets with only con actions. Control subjects did not train. It was found that resistance training wih both con and ecc actions induced greater increases in muscle strength than did training with only con actions.

  20. Empirical Study of Training and Performance in the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Similar systematic relationships exist between personal characteristics, training, and performance on the marathon, regardless of whether they derive from differences among individuals participating in the same run or from differences within the same person in two separate marathons. (Author)

  1. Employee Appraisal System: A Supervisor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Personnel, St. Paul.

    The manual provides supervisors with both a reference as they assist employees in writing descriptions and developing performance indicators and with a guide for conducting performance appraisal interviews with employees. It contains the basic guidelines for the operation of the performance appraisal system, discussing such matters as how often

  2. An appraisal of the performance of the economic and financial crimes commission in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sowunmi, Fatai Abiola; Adesola, Muniru Adekunle; Salako, Mudashiru Abiodun

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how an anti-graft body, the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC), has fared in reducing the incidence of corruption in Nigeria, in particular, bank fraud, Internet scam, and bad governance. It first discusses the corruption situation in Nigeria by highlighting public office holders who have been associated with corruption charges. A Likert-type scale is used in designing the questionnaire for data collection. Descriptive and chi-square analyses are used, and results reveal that the performance of the EFCC has been affected by government interference (p < .05). However, although the anti-graft body has not been able to reduce the incidence of bank fraud (p > .05), bad governance and advance fee fraud have recorded appreciable reduction (p < .05). Areas of success as well as challenges that need to be addressed are identified. Specifically, it is recommended that the bill that established EFCC should be amended to reduce government interference and improve its manpower development, especially in the areas of fraud and Internet scam detection. PMID:19679650

  3. Performance appraisal of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as controlled low-strength material.

    PubMed

    Razak, Hashim Abdul; Naganathan, Sivakumar; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2009-12-30

    Controlled low-strength material (CLSM) is slurry made by mixing sand, cement, ash, and water. It is primarily used as a replacement for soil and structural fillings. This paper presents the findings of a preliminary investigation carried out on the performance of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as CLSM. CLSM mixes were designed using industrial waste incineration bottom ash, and cement. Tests for density, setting time, bleed, and compressive strength on cubes under various curing conditions, corrosivity, and leaching of heavy metals and salts were carried out on the CLSM mixtures, and the results discussed. Compressive strength for the designed CLSM mixtures ranged from 0.1 to 1.7 MPa. It is shown that the variations in curing conditions have less influence on the compressive strength of CLSM at high values of water to cement ratio (w/c), but low values of w/c influences the strength of CLSM. The CLSM produced does not exhibit corrosive characters as evidenced by pH. Leaching of heavy metals and salts is higher in bleed than in leachate collected from hardened CLSM. Cement reduces the leaching of Boron in bleed. It is concluded that there is good potential for the use of industrial waste incineration bottom ash in CLSM. PMID:19665294

  4. A School Improvement-Accountability Process Kit. PAK No. 4.5--Coaching and Appraising Staff Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. District Planning and Accountability Services.

    This Personalized Activity Kit presents a new dimension to staff evaluation. Staff appraisal becomes a procedure that promotes the human and professional growth of staff members. An alternative approach to implementing management by objectives in a large school system is also suggested. Finally, there is a summary of the management role, with

  5. Peformance Appraisal Behaviors: Supervisor Perceptions and Subordinate Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Peter W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined supervisor perceptions and subordinate reactions to formal performance-appraisal reviews. There were three dimensions of formal performance appraisals: two developmental (being supportive; emphasizing performance improvement) and one administrative (discussing pay and advancement). Support in appraisal review was associated with higher…

  6. Peformance Appraisal Behaviors: Supervisor Perceptions and Subordinate Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Peter W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined supervisor perceptions and subordinate reactions to formal performance-appraisal reviews. There were three dimensions of formal performance appraisals: two developmental (being supportive; emphasizing performance improvement) and one administrative (discussing pay and advancement). Support in appraisal review was associated with higher

  7. The effect of plyometric training on distance running performance.

    PubMed

    Spurrs, Robert W; Murphy, Aron J; Watsford, Mark L

    2003-03-01

    Previous research has reported that plyometric training improves running economy (RE) and ultimately distance-running performance, although the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. This study examined whether changes in running performance resulting from plyometric training were related to alterations in lower leg musculotendinous stiffness (MTS). Seventeen male runners were pre- and post-tested for lower leg MTS, maximum isometric force, rate of force development, 5-bound distance test (5BT), counter movement jump (CMJ) height, RE, VO(2max), lactate threshold (Th(la)), and 3-km time. Subjects were randomly split into an experimental (E) group which completed 6 weeks of plyometric training in conjunction with their normal running training, and a control (C) group which trained as normal. Following the training period, the E group significantly improved 3-km performance (2.7%) and RE at each of the tested velocities, while no changes in VO(2max) or Th(la) were recorded. CMJ height, 5BT, and MTS also increased significantly. No significant changes were observed in any measures for the C group. The results clearly demonstrated that a 6-week plyometric programme led to improvements in 3-km running performance. It is postulated that the increase in MTS resulted in improved RE. We speculate that the improved RE led to changes in 3-km running performance, as there were no corresponding alterations in VO(2max) or Th(la). PMID:12627298

  8. Evidence Report: Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Dempsey, Donna L.

    2016-01-01

    Substantial evidence supports the claim that inadequate training leads to performance errors. Barshi and Loukopoulos (2012) demonstrate that even a task as carefully developed and refined over many years as operating an aircraft can be significantly improved by a systematic analysis, followed by improved procedures and improved training (see also Loukopoulos, Dismukes, & Barshi, 2009a). Unfortunately, such a systematic analysis of training needs rarely occurs during the preliminary design phase, when modifications are most feasible. Training is often seen as a way to compensate for deficiencies in task and system design, which in turn increases the training load. As a result, task performance often suffers, and with it, the operators suffer and so does the mission. On the other hand, effective training can indeed compensate for such design deficiencies, and can even go beyond to compensate for failures of our imagination to anticipate all that might be needed when we send our crew members to go where no one else has gone before. Much of the research literature on training is motivated by current training practices aimed at current training needs. Although there is some experience with operations in extreme environments on Earth, there is no experience with long-duration space missions where crews must practice semi-autonomous operations, where ground support must accommodate significant communication delays, and where so little is known about the environment. Thus, we must develop robust methodologies and tools to prepare our crews for the unknown. The research necessary to support such an endeavor does not currently exist, but existing research does reveal general challenges that are relevant to long-duration, high-autonomy missions. The evidence presented here describes issues related to the risk of performance errors due to training deficiencies. Contributing factors regarding training deficiencies may pertain to organizational process and training programs for spaceflight, such as when training programs are inadequate or unavailable. Furthermore, failure to match between tasks on the one hand, and learning and memory abilities on the other hand is a contributing factor, especially when individuals' relative efficiency with which new information is acquired, and adjustments made in behavior or thinking, are inconsistent with mission demands. Thus, if training deficiencies are present, the likelihood of errors or of the inability to successfully complete a task increases. What's more, the overall risk to the crew, the vehicle, and the mission increases.

  9. Appraisal and Performance Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlewood, David

    This document is a chapter in "The Principles and Practice of Educational Management," which aims to provide a systematic and analytical introduction to the study of educational management. The structure of the book reflects the main substantive areas of educational leadership and management, and most of the major themes are covered in the

  10. Training Content and Potential Impact on Performance: A Comparison of Young Male and Female Endurance-Trained Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training

  11. The influence of agility training on physiological and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Lennemann, Lynette M; Sidrow, Kathryn M; Johnson, Erica M; Harrison, Catherine R; Vojta, Christopher N; Walker, Thomas B

    2013-12-01

    Agility training (AT) has recently been instituted in several military communities in hopes of improving combat performance and general fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine how substituting AT for traditional military physical training (PT) influences physical and cognitive performance. Forty-one subjects undergoing military technical training were divided randomly into 2 groups for 6 weeks of training. One group participated in standard military PT consisting of calisthenics and running. A second group duplicated the amount of exercise of the first group but used AT as their primary mode of training. Before and after training, subjects completed a physical and cognitive battery of tests including V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, reaction time, Illinois Agility Test, body composition, visual vigilance, dichotic listening, and working memory tests. There were significant improvements within the AT group in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Illinois Agility Test, visual vigilance, and continuous memory. There was a significant increase in time-to-exhaustion for the traditional group. We conclude that AT is as effective or more effective as PT in enhancing physical fitness. Further, it is potentially more effective than PT in enhancing specific measures of physical and cognitive performance, such as physical agility, memory, and vigilance. Consequently, we suggest that AT be incorporated into existing military PT programs as a way to improve war-fighter performance. Further, it seems likely that the benefits of AT observed here occur in various other populations. PMID:23442271

  12. Diagnostic Performance 1 H after Simulation Training Predicts Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consoli, Anna; Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene; Sobczak, Matthew; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Although simulation training improves post-training performance, it is unclear how well performance soon after simulation training predicts longer term outcomes (i.e., learning). Here our objective was to assess the predictive value of performance 1 h post-training of performance 6 weeks later. We trained 84 first year medical students a simulated…

  13. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the appraisal....411 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR...

  14. Performance Measurement in Helicopter Training and Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prophet, Wallace W.

    For almost 15 years, HumRRO Division No. 6 has conducted an active research program on techniques for measuring the flight performance of helicopter trainees and pilots. This program addressed both the elemental aspects of flying (i.e., maneuvers) and the mission- or goal-oriented aspects. A variety of approaches has been investigated, with the…

  15. Does Musical Training Improve School Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetter, Olive Emil; Koerner, Fritz; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    In a retrospective study, we compared school performance of 53 children practicing music (group 1) with 67 controls not practicing music (group 2). Overall average marks as well as average marks of all school subjects except sports were significantly higher in children who do (group 1) than in those who do not practice music (group 2). In a…

  16. Incorporating sprint training with endurance training improves anaerobic capacity and 2,000-m Erg performance in trained oarsmen.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Alexander W J; Olver, Terry T; Lemon, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    A 2,000-m time-trial performance, aerobic capacity, and anaerobic capacity were assessed in 16 trained oarsmen after sprint interval training (SIT) replaced a portion of an endurance-based training program (EBTSIT) vs. an endurance-based program alone (EBTAlone). The EBTSIT involved 10 SIT sessions over 4 weeks, in addition to 12 continuous exercise sessions, 2 anaerobic threshold exercise sessions, and 4 strength training sessions. The EBTAlone consisted of 20 continuous, 6 anaerobic threshold, 2 interval exercise sessions, and 8 strength training sessions. Time-trial performance (2,000-m erg performance) improved with EBTSIT (baseline = 414.6 ± 18.5, post = 410.6 ± 17.5 seconds; p < 0.001) but only approached significance in EBTAlone (baseline = 413.0 ± 27.7, post = 411.4 ± 27.9 seconds; p = 0.06). In a 60-second "all-out" anaerobic capacity test, peak power output (PPO) increased significantly with EBTSIT (PPO: EBTSIT: baseline = 566 ± 82, post = 623 ± 60 W; p = 0.02) but not with EBTAlone (EBTAlone: baseline = 603 ± 81, post = 591 ± 123 W; p = 0.59). Changes in average power output (APO) also approached significance (p = 0.07) (APO: EBTSIT: baseline = 508 ± 48, post = 530 ± 52 W; EBTAlone: baseline = 532 ± 55, post = 533 ± 68 W). Neither group experienced any change in aerobic capacity ((Equation is included in full-text article.)or ventilatory threshold; p ≥ 0.16). We conclude that replacing a portion of EBT with SIT can improve both 2,000-m erg performance and anaerobic capacity, while maintaining aerobic fitness in trained oarsmen. Incorporating SIT within endurance training programs may be useful during periods of low-volume training, to improve performance without sacrificing aerobic capacity. PMID:24978833

  17. Training at the Optimum Power Zone Produces Similar Performance Improvements to Traditional Strength Training

    PubMed Central

    Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Roschel, Hamilton; Tricoli, Valmor; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test if substituting a regular maximum strength-oriented training regimen by a power-oriented one at the optimal power load in the first phase of a traditional periodization produces similar performance improvements later on into the training period. Forty five soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG - n = 15, 20.18 ± 0.72 yrs, 1.74 ± 0.06 m, 66.7 ± 9.8 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.14 ± 0.12), a traditional periodization group (TG - n = 15, 20.11 ± 0.7 yrs, 1.72 ± 0.045 m, 63.1 ± 3.6 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.21 ± 0.16); and a maximum-power group (MPG - n = 15, 20.5 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.73 ± 0.049m, 67.3 ± 9.8 kg, 1RM/weight ratio = 1.20 ± 0.14). Maximum strength (26.2% and 24.6%), CMJ height (30.8% and 39.1%) and sprint speed (11.6% and 14.5%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) and similarly for the MPG and TG, respectively, from pre- to post-assessments. Our data suggests that a power training regimen may be used in the initial phase of the training cycle without impairing performance later on into the training period. Key points Training at the optimal power zone during two mesocycles of a traditional periodization did not hamper strength, speed and power performance improvements. Additional research is required in order to find out if longer periods of training at optimal power zone are capable of producing similar performance improvements to traditional strength training regimen. PMID:24149733

  18. Teacher Appraisal and Its Outcomes in Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Khim Ong; Ang, Shi Yun Angela; Chong, Wei Ling; Hu, Wei Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the performance appraisal system used for primary school teachers in Singapore, and how those attributes affect satisfaction with the appraisal system, stress experienced with the appraisal system, attitudes towards performance bonus, job satisfaction and motivation, and perceived…

  19. Performance determined instruction for training in remedial reading1

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Burl B.; Baker, Richard D.; Stancyk, Susan E.

    1969-01-01

    A system called Performance Determined Instruction (PDI) is presented as a methodological tactic for training in remedial reading. The system incorporates aspects of binary logic, instrumental conditioning, and programmed instruction. Results suggest that PDI is a high-precision instructional procedure effective in obtaining desired changes in reading-task performance. PMID:16795229

  20. Correlating Trainee Attributes to Performance in 3D CAD Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamade, Ramsey F.; Artail, Hassan A.; Sikstrom, Sverker

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify trainee attributes relevant for development of skills in 3D computer-aided design (CAD). Design/methodology/approach: Participants were trained to perform cognitive tasks of comparable complexity over time. Performance data were collected on the time needed to construct test models, and…

  1. Using Importance-Performance Analysis to Evaluate Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniscalchi, Jason M.; Beale, Edward K.; Fortuna, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The importance-performance analysis (IPA) is a tool that can provide timely and usable feedback to improve training. IPA measures the gaps between the importance and how good (performance) a class is perceived by a student and is presented on a 2x2 matrix. The quadrant in which data land in this matrix aids in determining potential future action.…

  2. Correlating Trainee Attributes to Performance in 3D CAD Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamade, Ramsey F.; Artail, Hassan A.; Sikstrom, Sverker

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify trainee attributes relevant for development of skills in 3D computer-aided design (CAD). Design/methodology/approach: Participants were trained to perform cognitive tasks of comparable complexity over time. Performance data were collected on the time needed to construct test models, and

  3. Scapular-Muscle Performance: Two Training Programs in Adolescent Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Van de Velde, Annemie; De Mey, Kristof; Maenhout, Annelies; Calders, Patrick; Cools, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Swimming requires well-balanced scapular-muscle performance. An additional strength-training program for the shoulders is pursued by swimmers, but whether these muscle-training programs need to be generic or specific for endurance or strength is unknown. Objective: To evaluate isokinetic scapular-muscle performance in a population of adolescent swimmers and to compare the results of training programs designed for strength or muscle endurance. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University human research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen adolescent swimmers. Intervention(s): Each participant pursued a 12-week scapular-training program designed to improve either muscle strength or muscle endurance. Main Outcome Measure(s): Bilateral peak force, fatigue index, and protraction/retraction strength ratios before and after the scapular-training program. Results: Scapular protraction/retraction ratios were slightly higher than 1 (dominant side  =  1.08, nondominant side  =  1.25, P  =  .006). Side-to-side differences in retraction strength were apparent both before and after the training program (P  =  .03 and P  = .05, respectively). After the training program, maximal protraction (P < .05) and retraction (P < .01) strength improved on the nondominant side. Peak force and fatigue index were not different between the training groups. The fatigue indexes for protraction on both sides (P < .05) and retraction on the nondominant side (P  =  .009) were higher after the training program. Conclusions: We describe the scapular-muscle characteristics of a group of adolescent swimmers. Both muscle-strength and muscle-endurance programs improved absolute muscle strength. Neither of the strength programs had a positive effect on scapular-muscle endurance. Our results may be valuable for coaches and physiotherapists when they are designing exercise programs for swimmers. PMID:21391801

  4. Frame of Reference Rater Training Issues: Recall, Time and Behavior Observation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roch, Sylvia G.; O'Sullivan, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Graduate students were trained as raters either using frame of reference (FOR, n=220, behavior observation training (BOT, n=21), or performance appraisal (controls, n=21). They rated videotaped lecturers twice. FOR increased number of behaviors recalled; FOR and BOT improved recall quality. FOR improved rating accuracy even after 2 weeks.…

  5. Effect of movement velocity during resistance training on neuromuscular performance.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Blanco, F; Rodríguez-Rosell, D; Sánchez-Medina, L; Gorostiaga, E M; González-Badillo, J J

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect on neuromuscular performance of 2 isoinertial resistance training programs that differed only in actual repetition velocity: maximal intended (MaxV) vs. half-maximal (HalfV) concentric velocity. 21 resistance-trained young men were randomly assigned to a MaxV (n=10) or HalfV (n=11) group and trained for 6 weeks using the full squat exercise. A complementary study (n=8) described the acute metabolic and mechanical response to the protocols used. MaxV training resulted in a likely more beneficial effect than HalfV on squat performance: maximum strength (ES: 0.94 vs. 0.54), velocity developed against all (ES: 1.76 vs. 0.88), light (ES: 1.76 vs. 0.75) and heavy (ES: 2.03 vs. 1.64) loads common to pre- and post-tests, and CMJ height (ES: 0.63 vs. 0.15). The effect on 20-m sprint was unclear, however. Both groups attained the greatest improvements in squat performance at their training velocities. Movement velocity seemed to be of greater importance than time under tension for inducing strength adaptations. Slightly higher metabolic stress (blood lactate and ammonia) and CMJ height loss were found for MaxV vs. HalfV, while metabolite levels were low to moderate for both conditions. MaxV may provide a superior stimulus for inducing adaptations directed towards improving athletic performance. PMID:24886926

  6. Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train features and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, R.; Benitez, P.; Zamora, P.; Miñano, J. C.; Mendes, J.; Cvetkovic, A.; Vilaplana, J.; Hernandez, M.; Chaves, J.; Biot, G.

    2013-09-01

    Most CPV systems are based on Fresnel lenses. Among these, LPI-patented Fresnel-Köhler (FK) concentrator outstands owing to performance and practical reasons. The Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train is the first off-the-shelf commercial product based on the FK and comprises both the primary (POE) lenses (a 36-units 1×1 m2 acrylic panel) and glass (or silica glass) secondary optics (SOE). This high concentration optical train (Cg=1,024×, ˜250mm optical depth) fits with 5×5 mm2 (at least) solar cells. The optical train is the fruit of a 1-year development that has included design, modeling, prototyping and characterization, and through the process we had the opportunity to find out how well the actual performance correlates with models, but also learned practical aspects of a CPV system of this kind, some of which have very positive impact on system performance and reliability.

  7. Evidence Report: Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2012-01-01

    The Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. Given that training content, timing, intervals, and delivery methods must support crew task performance, and given that training paradigms will be different for long-duration missions with increased crew autonomy, there is a risk that operators will lack the skills or knowledge necessary to complete critical tasks, resulting in flight and ground crew errors and inefficiencies, failed mission and program objectives, and an increase in crew injuries.

  8. Anthropometric correlates with strength performance among resistance trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J L; Piper, F C; Ware, J S

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected anthropometric dimensions and strength performance in resistance trained athletes. Fifty-eight college football players were measured following the completion of a 10-week resistance training program for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lifts in the bench press, squat, and dead lift and for 11 anthropometric dimensions. Results indicated that the highest relationships existed between estimates of regional muscle mass (arm circumference, arm muscle cross-sectional area, and thigh circumference) and lifting performance. Multiple regression analysis selected arm size and %fat as variables common to the prediction of all three lifts. The fewer joints and muscle groups involved in a lift, the greater the predictive accuracy from structural dimensions. It was concluded that body structure and conformation make significant contributions to maximum strength performance in highly trained strength athletes. PMID:8412051

  9. Assessing the impact of training on staff performance.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This pretested document was prepared as a management and reference tool for a world-wide audience of family planning (FP) policy-makers, program managers, service managers, and trainers. The report describes a training impact evaluation (TIE) process that helps managers identify and strengthen the links between training and staff performance. Introductory information deals with understanding training evaluation, the various types of training evaluation, and conducting a TIE. The following steps of the TIE process are then described: 1) identifying job performance issues (defining key job-related tasks and choosing indicators/setting standards); 2) collecting data (evaluation techniques and instruments, how to design an effective evaluation instrument, sample definition, and how to plan and organize the data collection process); 3) analyzing the data (tabulation, aggregation, cross-tabulation, and disaggregation); 4) interpreting the data (using a decision-tree); 5) reporting the findings (developing a written report and making an oral presentation); and 6) making changes (responsibilities for acting on recommendations, handling resistance to change, agreeing on a new or revised training course and/or changing organizational procedures or systems, and clarifying expectations for a training event). An example is provided of the process and results of a TIE conducted in the Central Asian Republics. The report ends with a discussion of ways to continue the TIE process, the comments of reviewers about various aspects of the process, and a checklist to use when making a TIE. PMID:12292100

  10. Choosing One's Own Appraiser: A College Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Nigel

    1997-01-01

    Performance of staff at a British college is evaluated through assessment of portfolios by appraisers chosen by the appraisee. The nature of the professional relationship between appraiser and appraisee is a key determinant of the quality of the portfolio review and the formulation of individual development plans. (SK)

  11. Musical training and the role of auditory feedback during performance.

    PubMed

    Pfordresher, Peter Q

    2012-04-01

    Recent research has shown that music training enhances music-related sensorimotor associations, such as the relationship between a key press on the keyboard and its associated musical pitch (auditory feedback). Such results suggest that the role of auditory feedback in performance may be based on learned associations that are task specific. Here, results from various studies will be presented that suggest that the real state of affairs is more complex. Several recent studies have shown similar effects of altered auditory feedback during piano performance for pianists and individuals with no piano training. Other recent research suggests dramatic differences between pianists and nonmusicians concerning the influence of auditory feedback on melody switching that suggest greater influence of auditory feedback among nonmusicians than pianists. Taken together, results suggest that musical training refines preexisting sensorimotor associations. PMID:22524356

  12. Plyometric training performance in elite-oriented prepubertal female gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Marina, Michel; Jemni, Monem

    2014-04-01

    We studied the effectiveness of a combined strength and plyometric training program (experimental period) on jumping performance when compared with a training routine on apparatus (control period) over 2 successive gymnastics training seasons. Nine female elite-orientated gymnasts (around 30-hour training per week) were participated in the study. The study was based on a 20-month longitudinal design covering 2 training seasons separated by a competitive period and transition periods. Each season included 1 control and 1 experimental period (CtrlΔ1 + ExΔ1 and CtrlΔ2 + ExΔ2, respectively). Before and after each control and experimental period, we assessed plyometric performance by means of drop jumps (DJs) from 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 cm. The jump performance variables considered were flight time (FT), contact time (CT), flight-contact ratio (FC), and estimated mechanical power (also called Bosco expression [BE]), all of which were expressed as raw data and normalized (expressed as a percentage) with respect to the recordings at the beginning of each period of analysis. Flight time was the only variable to increase not only during both experimental periods but also during both controls. Our results confirmed larger relative increments of all the variables (FT, CT, BE, and FC), except for CT at DJs of 80 and 100 cm, during the experimental periods than during their respective previous control periods. Despite the additive effect of growth, development, and maturation, the gymnasts were not able to maintain the DJ performance accomplished during ExΔ1, thereby confirming detraining during the competitive and transition periods. We conclude that a combination of heavy resistance training with high impact plyometric jumps is effective in prepubertal gymnasts, despite their initial high level of physical conditioning. PMID:24088867

  13. What do doctors really think about the relevance and impact of GP appraisal 3 years on? A survey of Scottish GPs

    PubMed Central

    Colthart, Iain; Cameron, Niall; McKinstry, Brian; Blaney, David

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of appraisal is to provide an opportunity for individuals to reflect on their work to facilitate learning and development. Appraisal for GPs has been a contractual requirement since 2004 in Scotland, and is seen as an integral part of revalidation. Aim To investigate the outcomes of GP appraisal in terms of whether it has prompted change in medical practice, education and learning, career development, attitudes to health and probity, how GPs organise their work, and their perception of the overall value of the process. Design of study A cross-sectional postal questionnaire. Setting GP performers in Scotland who had undertaken appraisal. Method The questionnaire was based on the seven principles outlined in Good Medical Practice, a literature review, and previous local research. The survey was conducted on a strictly anonymous basis with a random, representative sample of GPs. Results Fifty-three per cent (671/1278) responded. Forty-seven per cent (308/661) thought that appraisal had altered their educational activity, 33% (217/660) reported undertaking further education or training as a result of appraisal, and 13% (89/660) felt that appraisal had influenced their career development. Opinion was evenly split on the overall value of appraisal. Conclusion Appraisal can have a significant impact on all aspects of a GP's professional life, and those who value the process report continuing benefit in how they manage their education and professional development. However, many perceive limited or no benefit. The renewed emphasis on appraisal requires examination of these findings and discussion of how appraisal can become more relevant. PMID:18307850

  14. Visuospatial Ability Factors and Performance Variables in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus complexity, in their emphasis on identifying

  15. Individual Training, Performance Improvement, and the Future for Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Human competence is a vital element for any organization that expects to survive and then thrive. Developing individual performance ability is necessary but not sufficient because trained people alone will not make an organization successful. We must determine what people should deliver and why it should be delivered in order to add measurable…

  16. Elements and Principles of Training as a Performance Improvement Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tek Aik, Chong; Tway, Duane C.

    2006-01-01

    Andragogy is the art and science of adult education that focuses on real-life application and problem-solving capacity (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 1998). This approach emphasizes that training effectiveness is enhanced through trainees' actual performance of the task. Workers learn better when they perceive that learning will help them perform…

  17. Business Models for Training and Performance Improvement Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul

    2004-01-01

    Although typically applied to entire enterprises, the concept of business models applies to training and performance improvement groups. Business models are "the method by which firm[s] build and use [their] resources to offer.. value." Business models affect the types of projects, services offered, skills required, business processes, and type of…

  18. The Effects of Training on Resident Assistant Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joseph L.; Snider, Brian R.; Midkiff, Robert M., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the relationship between resident assistant (R.A.) training and improvement of job performance. Results indicate that while even short-term interventions can bring about favorable outcomes in R.A.s' behavior on the job, these benefits may be limited to the promotion of sound work practices, as opposed to the elimination of problematic…

  19. Using Performance Indicators to Evaluate Training Effectiveness: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wreathall, John; Connelly, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes several approaches to the development of performance indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of safety training in the nuclear power industry. A rationale is presented for a method of generating measures of effectiveness that uses criteria developed by several experts with different viewpoints, and the benefits of this method are…

  20. Visuospatial Ability Factors and Performance Variables in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus complexity, in their emphasis on identifying…

  1. Training Needs for High Performance in the Automotive Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyne, Barry; And Others

    A project was conducted in Australia to identify the training needs of the emerging industry required to support the development of the high performance areas of the automotive machining and reconditioning field especially as it pertained to auto racing. Data were gathered through a literature search, interviews with experts in the field, and…

  2. Individual Training, Performance Improvement, and the Future for Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Human competence is a vital element for any organization that expects to survive and then thrive. Developing individual performance ability is necessary but not sufficient because trained people alone will not make an organization successful. We must determine what people should deliver and why it should be delivered in order to add measurable

  3. Training for Template Creation: A Performance Improvement Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There are three purposes to this article: first, to offer a training approach to employee learning and performance improvement that makes use of a step-by-step process of skill/knowledge creation. The process offers follow-up opportunities for skill maintenance and improvement; second, to explain the conceptual bases of the approach; and…

  4. Minimizing Injuries and Enhancing Performance in Golf Through Training Programs

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Erik P.; Brumitt, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Context: Golf is a popular sport, particularly in older populations. Regardless of age and skill level, golfers risk injury to the back, shoulder, wrist and hand, elbow, and knee. Because of the unique compressive, shear, rotational, and lateral bending forces created in the lumbar region during the golf swing, the primary sport-related malady experienced by amateurs and professionals is low back pain. Extrinsic and intrinsic injury risk factors have been reported in the literature. A growing body of evidence supports the prescription of strength training routines to enhance performance and reduce the risk of injury. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were reviewed on golf injuries, swing mechanics, training routines, and general training program design. The following electronic databases were used to identify research relevant to this report: MEDLINE (from 1950–November 2009), CINAHL (1982–November 2009), and SPORTDiscus (1830–November 2009). Results: Injuries may be associated with lack of warm-up, poor trunk flexibility and strength, faulty swing technique, and overuse. Conclusions: Implementing a training program that includes flexibility, strength, and power training with correction of faulty swing mechanics will help the golfer reduce the likelihood of injury and improve overall performance. PMID:23015957

  5. Performance Improvement: Applying a Human Performance Model to Organizational Processes in a Military Training Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaberg, Wayne; Thompson, Carla J.; West, Haywood V.; Swiergosz, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a description and the results of a study that utilized the human performance (HP) model and methods to explore and analyze a training organization. The systemic and systematic practices of the HP model are applicable to military training organizations as well as civilian organizations. Implications of the study for future…

  6. Vibration or balance training on neuromuscular performance in osteopenic women.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, N; Belavý, D L; Rawer, R; Felsenberg, D

    2013-11-01

    Maintaining neuromuscular function in older age is an important topic for aging societies, especially for older women with low bone density who may be at risk of falls and bone fracture. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of resistive exercise with either whole-body vibration training (VIB) or coordination/balance training (BAL) on neuromuscular function (countermovement jump, multiple 1-leg hopping, sit-to-stand test). 68 postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis were recruited for the study. 57 subjects completed the 9-month, twice weekly, intervention period. All subjects conducted 30 min of resistance exercise each training day. The VIB-group performed additional training on the Galileo vibration exercise device. The BAL-group performed balance training. An "intent-to-treat" analysis showed greater improvement in the VIB-group for peak countermovement power (p=0.004). The mean [95% confidence interval] effect size for this parameter was a  + 0.9[0.3 to 1.5] W/kg greater change in VIB than BAL after 9 months. In multiple 1-leg hopping, a significantly better performance in the VIB-group after the intervention period was seen on a "per-protocol" analysis only. Both groups improved in the sit-to-stand test. The current study provides evidence that short-duration whole-body vibration exercise can have a greater impact on some aspects of neuromuscular function in post-menopausal women with low bone density than proprioceptive training. PMID:23549694

  7. Training Content and Potential Impact on Performance: A Comparison of Young Male and Female Endurance-Trained Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training…

  8. Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

  9. Australia's Vocational Education & Training System. Annual National Report. Volume 3: Vocational Education & Training Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    The state of vocational education and training (VET) in Australia in 1997 was evaluated by collecting data on the following key performance measures: participation and achievement in VET; employer views on VET; student outcomes from VET; VET's benefits for particular client groups (females, people from rural and remote areas, indigenous…

  10. Increasing mathematical problem-solving performance through relaxation training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, Amykay

    2000-04-01

    Two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in the same general education mathematics course were each administered the IPSP Mathematics Problem Solving Test and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. Both groups experienced the same syllabus, lectures, course requirements, and assessment techniques; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5 to 7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which had received relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher mathematics performance at the end of the course. The results suggest that relaxation training may be a useful tool for treating anxiety in undergraduate general education mathematics students.

  11. Appraisal: The Salford Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardoe, Janet; Attfield, Robin

    1989-01-01

    The process of teacher appraisal is illustrated in this examination of the experiences of two British schools for children with disabilities. Issues discussed include: use of a triadic model involving teacher, support teacher, and appraiser; job descriptions; secretarial requirements; time demands; multidisciplinary approach; and appraisal of…

  12. Maximizing Cochlear Implant Patients’ Performance with Advanced Speech Training Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in implant technology and speech processing have provided great benefit to many cochlear implant patients. However, some patients receive little benefit from the latest technology, even after many years’ experience with the device. Moreover, even the best cochlear implant performers have great difficulty understanding speech in background noise, and music perception and appreciation remain major challenges. Recent studies have shown that targeted auditory training can significantly improve cochlear implant patients’ speech recognition performance. Such benefits are not only observed in poorly performing patients, but also in good performers under difficult listening conditions (e.g., speech noise, telephone speech, music, etc.). Targeted auditory training has also been shown to enhance performance gains provided by new implant devices and/or speech processing strategies. These studies suggest that cochlear implantation alone may not fully meet the needs of many patients, and that additional auditory rehabilitation may be needed to maximize the benefits of the implant device. Continuing research will aid in the development of efficient and effective training protocols and materials, thereby minimizing the costs (in terms of time, effort and resources) associated with auditory rehabilitation while maximizing the benefits of cochlear implantation for all recipients. PMID:18295992

  13. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of preclinical studies: why perform them and how to appraise them critically

    PubMed Central

    Sena, Emily S; Currie, Gillian L; McCann, Sarah K; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W

    2014-01-01

    The use of systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical studies has become more common, including those of studies describing the modeling of cerebrovascular diseases. Empirical evidence suggests that too many preclinical experiments lack methodological rigor, and this leads to inflated treatment effects. The aim of this review is to describe the concepts of systematic review and meta-analysis and consider how these tools may be used to provide empirical evidence to spur the field to improve the rigor of the conduct and reporting of preclinical research akin to their use in improving the conduct and reporting of randomized controlled trials in clinical research. As with other research domains, systematic reviews are subject to bias. Therefore, we have also suggested guidance for their conduct, reporting, and critical appraisal. PMID:24549183

  14. The implications of enhancing appraisal to meet the requirements of revalidation, as perceived by appraisers: a qualitative study in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Wakeling, Judy; Cameron, Niall

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study which explored the possible impact of enhanced appraisal and the requirements of revalidation upon GP appraisers in Scotland. So far there has been little research examining the impact 'enhanced' appraisal may have on the appraisee or appraiser population. Key objectives were to identify potential benefits and problems with the introduction of enhanced appraisal for the appraiser population and to explore what they perceive its impact will be on the GP workforce more generally. Three focus groups were held with a purposive sample of 17 highly experienced GP appraisers from across Scotland between February and April 2010. The results showed that this group of appraisers perceived that they would need to become more prescriptive about the standard of basic paperwork and evidence that is submitted by an appraisee. This created some anxieties about taking on a more judgemental role. They were concerned about a possible need to inform a high-achieving GP that their evidence was insufficient. Concerns were also raised about appraisees becoming less open and candid during appraisal once the links to revalidation are in place. Uncertainty was expressed about the relationship between the appraiser and responsible officer (RO) and how appraisers should decide which appraisees ought to be flagged up to the RO. The need for clear, standardised summary forms (known as GP Scot 4 in Scotland) to be passed to the RO was highlighted. Some of the appraisers were unsure about the value of new types of evidence which will be required--notably MSF and continuing professional development (CPD) credits. However, a few appraisers noted that some early adopters of CPD credits liked this way of recording their learning whilst MSF could be valuable and was seldom controversial. Potential benefits of 'enhanced appraisal' were highlighted--particularly increased engagement from some GPs who have hitherto been reluctant appraisees. The appraisers in this study wanted further training for their role, particularly training and calibration in delivering MSF feedback and in verifying CPD credits. They were frustrated by delays to revalidation and concerned that enhanced appraisal might be implemented without sufficient support (remediation and IT systems) being in place. However, they remained cautiously optimistic that some of the formative elements of appraisal can be maintained and were content to continue as appraisers provided they receive appropriate training and support and provided adequate remediation systems are in place for those GPs requiring help. PMID:22413658

  15. Motor imagery training improves upper extremity performance in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate whether motor imagery training has a positive influence on upper extremity performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: motor imagery (n = 12) or control (n = 12). Over the course of 4 weeks, the motor imagery group participated in 30 minutes of motor imagery training on each of the 18 tasks (9 hours total) related to their daily living activities. After the 4-week intervention period, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity outcomes and Wolf Motor Function Test outcomes were compared. [Results] The post-test score of the motor imagery group on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity outcomes was significantly higher than that of the control group. In particular, the shoulder and wrist sub-items demonstrated improvement in the motor imagery group. [Conclusion] Motor imagery training has a positive influence on upper extremity performance by improving functional mobility during stroke rehabilitation. These results suggest that motor imagery training is feasible and beneficial for improving upper extremity function in stroke patients. PMID:26311968

  16. Three weeks of eccentric training combined with overspeed exercises enhances power and running speed performance gains in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian J; Beaven, C Martyn; Kilduff, Liam P

    2013-05-01

    Eccentric and overspeed training modalities are effective in improving components of muscular power. Eccentric training induces specific training adaptations relating to muscular force, whereas overspeed stimuli target the velocity component of power expression. We aimed to compare the effects of traditional or eccentric training with volume-matched training that incorporated overspeed exercises. Twenty team-sport athletes performed 4 counterbalanced 3-week training blocks consecutively as part of a preseason training period: (1) traditional resistance training; (2) eccentric-only resistance training; (3) traditional resistance training with overspeed exercises; and (4) eccentric resistance training with overspeed exercises. The overspeed exercises performed were assisted countermovement jumps and downhill running. Improvements in bench press (15.0 ± 5.1 kg; effect size [ES]: 1.52), squat (19.5 ± 9.1 kg; ES: 1.12), and peak power in the countermovement jump (447 ± 248 W; ES: 0.94) were observed following the 12-week training period. Greater strength increases were observed as a result of the eccentric training modalities (ES: 0.72-1.09) with no effect of the overspeed stimuli on these measures (p > 0.05). Eccentric training with overspeed stimuli was more effective than traditional resistance training in increasing peak power in the countermovement jump (94 ± 55 W; ES: 0.95). Eccentric training induced no beneficial training response in maximal running speed (p > 0.05); however, the addition of overspeed exercises salvaged this relatively negative effect when compared with eccentric training alone (0.03 ± 0.01 seconds; ES: 1.33). These training results achieved in 3-week training blocks suggest that it is important to target-specific aspects of both force and movement velocity to enhance functional measures of power expression. PMID:22820207

  17. 24 CFR 248.111 - Appraisal and preservation value of eligible low income housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... appraiser retained by the Commissioner to inspect the project and the project's financial records; and (4... regarding the performance of an appraisal pursuant to this section. (c) Appraisers. The Commissioner and the owner shall each select and compensate an appraiser who shall: (1) Neither be an employee of the...

  18. Guidelines for evaluation of nuclear facility training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document establishes a single set of objectives and criteria for the evaluation of training programs developed to meet requirements of DOE Orders 5480.18A and 5480.20, and other directives that address training and qualification. The evaluation includes appraisals, surveillances, audits, reviews, assessments, and other activities intended to evaluate training. The standard is intended to assist personnel in performing evaluations of training and qualification programs.

  19. Repeated training with augmentative vibrotactile feedback increases object manipulation performance.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Cara E; An, Qi; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2012-01-01

    Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies. PMID:22384283

  20. Repeated Training with Augmentative Vibrotactile Feedback Increases Object Manipulation Performance

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Cara E.; An, Qi; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2012-01-01

    Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies. PMID:22384283

  1. Performance comparison of SLFN training algorithms for DNA microarray classification.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hieu Trung; Kim, Jung-Ja; Won, Yonggwan

    2011-01-01

    The classification of biological samples measured by DNA microarrays has been a major topic of interest in the last decade, and several approaches to this topic have been investigated. However, till now, classifying the high-dimensional data of microarrays still presents a challenge to researchers. In this chapter, we focus on evaluating the performance of the training algorithms of the single hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFNs) to classify DNA microarrays. The training algorithms consist of backpropagation (BP), extreme learning machine (ELM) and regularized least squares ELM (RLS-ELM), and an effective algorithm called neural-SVD has recently been proposed. We also compare the performance of the neural network approaches with popular classifiers such as support vector machine (SVM), principle component analysis (PCA) and fisher discriminant analysis (FDA). PMID:21431554

  2. Alpha neurofeedback training improves SSVEP-based BCI performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Feng; Nuno da Cruz, Janir; Nan, Wenya; Wong, Chi Man; Vai, Mang I.; Rosa, Agostinho

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide relatively easy, reliable and high speed communication. However, the performance is still not satisfactory, especially in some users who are not able to generate strong enough SSVEP signals. This work aims to strengthen a user’s SSVEP by alpha down-regulating neurofeedback training (NFT) and consequently improve the performance of the user in using SSVEP-based BCIs. Approach. An experiment with two steps was designed and conducted. The first step was to investigate the relationship between the resting alpha activity and the SSVEP-based BCI performance, in order to determine the training parameter for the NFT. Then in the second step, half of the subjects with ‘low’ performance (i.e. BCI classification accuracy <80%) were randomly assigned to a NFT group to perform a real-time NFT, and the rest half to a non-NFT control group for comparison. Main results. The first step revealed a significant negative correlation between the BCI performance and the individual alpha band (IAB) amplitudes in the eyes-open resting condition in a total of 33 subjects. In the second step, it was found that during the IAB down-regulating NFT, on average the subjects were able to successfully decrease their IAB amplitude over training sessions. More importantly, the NFT group showed an average increase of 16.5% in the SSVEP signal SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and an average increase of 20.3% in the BCI classification accuracy, which was significant compared to the non-NFT control group. Significance. These findings indicate that the alpha down-regulating NFT can be used to improve the SSVEP signal quality and the subjects’ performance in using SSVEP-based BCIs. It could be helpful to the SSVEP related studies and would contribute to more effective SSVEP-based BCI applications.

  3. Inspiratory muscle training improves 100 and 200 m swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Kilding, Andrew E; Brown, Sarah; McConnell, Alison K

    2010-02-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve time trial performance in competitive athletes across a range of sports. Surprisingly, however, the effect of specific IMT on surface swimming performance remains un-investigated. Similarly, it is not known whether any ergogenic influence of IMT upon swimming performance is confined to specific race distances. To determine the influence of IMT upon swimming performance over 3 competitive distances, 16 competitive club-level swimmers were assigned at random to either an experimental (pressure threshold IMT) or sham IMT placebo control group. Participants performed a series of physiological and performance tests, before and following 6 weeks of IMT, including (1) an incremental swim test to the limit of tolerance to determine lactate, heart rate and perceived exertion responses; (2) standard measures of lung function (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, peak expiratory flow) and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP); and (3) 100, 200 and 400 m swim time trials. Training utilised a hand-held pressure threshold device and consisted of 30 repetitions, twice per day. Relative to control, the IMT group showed the following percentage changes in swim times: 100 m, -1.70% (90% confidence limits, +/-1.4%), 200 m, -1.5% (+/-1.0), and 400 m, 0.6% (+/-1.2). Large effects were observed for MIP and rates of perceived exertion. In conclusion, 6 weeks of IMT has a small positive effect on swimming performance in club-level trained swimmers in events shorter than 400 m. PMID:19841931

  4. The Acute Effect of Concurrent Training on Running Performance over 6 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of strength training on alternating days and endurance training on consecutive days on running performance for 6 days. Methods: Sixteen male and 8 female moderately trained individuals were evenly assigned into concurrent-training (CCT) and strength-training (ST) groups. The CCT group undertook strength

  5. The Acute Effect of Concurrent Training on Running Performance over 6 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of strength training on alternating days and endurance training on consecutive days on running performance for 6 days. Methods: Sixteen male and 8 female moderately trained individuals were evenly assigned into concurrent-training (CCT) and strength-training (ST) groups. The CCT group undertook strength…

  6. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 16, Environmental appraisal and surveillance program. Draft revision

    SciTech Connect

    Amobi, C.

    1993-11-10

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) environmental-appraisal/surveillance program is designed to monitor environmental performance and to ensure that regulatory requirements are met. The appraisal/surveillance program is a two-tiered system which consists of external and internal appraisals and surveillances. External appraisals/surveillances are conducted by organizations not reporting to SRS management. The internal appraisals/surveillances are conducted by site organizations referred to as organizations. External appraisals include Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) regulatory appraisals, DOE-SR and DOE-HQ appraisals, and operating contractor reviews. These appraisals are the result of regulatory requirements, DOE orders, or operating contractor policies. The Environmental Protection Department (EPD) leads the coordination, planning, and scheduling support. The internal appraisal program consists of three types; management appraisals, program appraisals, and facility appraisals. All organizations developed and implemented a formal facility-appraisal program in February 1989. The first facility appraisal was completed during FY 89. To ensure consistency between departments, the SRS environmental appraisal procedure was completed in December 1988. EPD conducts both the management and program appraisals.

  7. Technical safety appraisal of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    On June 27, 1989, Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, US Navy (Retired), announced a 10-point initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES&H) programs and waste management operations in the Department of Energy (DOE). One of the initiatives involved conducting independent Tiger Team Assessments (TTA) at DOE operating facilities. A TTA of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was performed during June and July 1991. Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were conducted in conjunction with the TTA as its Safety and Health portion. However, because of operational constraints the the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), operated for the DOE by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), was not included in the Safety and Health Subteam assessment at that time. This TSA, conducted April 12 - May 8, 1992, was performed by the DOE Office of Performance Assessment to complete the normal scope of the Safety and Health portion of the Tiger Team Assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of TSAs is to evaluate and strengthen DOE operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. A total of 139 Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 19 subject areas. These 19 areas are: organization and administration, quality verification, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency preparedness, technical support, packaging and transportation, nuclear criticality safety, safety/security interface, experimental activities, site/facility safety review, radiological protection, worker safety and health compliance, personnel protection, fire protection, medical services and natural phenomena.

  8. 5 CFR 430.207 - Monitoring performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... appraisal program shall include methods for appraising each critical and non-critical element during the appraisal period. Performance on each critical and non-critical element shall be appraised against...

  9. 5 CFR 430.207 - Monitoring performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... appraisal program shall include methods for appraising each critical and non-critical element during the appraisal period. Performance on each critical and non-critical element shall be appraised against...

  10. Unique aspects of competitive weightlifting: performance, training and physiology.

    PubMed

    Storey, Adam; Smith, Heather K

    2012-09-01

    Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure of competitive weightlifters is characterized by the frequent use of high-intensity resistance exercise movements. Varied coaching and training philosophies currently exist around the world and further research is required to substantiate the best type of training programme for male and female weightlifters of various age groups. As competitive weightlifting is contested over eight male and seven female body weight categories, the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes widely ranges. The body compositions of weightlifters are similar to that of athletes of comparable body mass in other strength and power sports. However, the shorter height and limb lengths of weightlifters provide mechanical advantages when lifting heavy loads by reducing the mechanical torque and the vertical distance that the barbell must be displaced. Furthermore, the shorter body dimensions coincide with a greater mean skeletal muscle cross-sectional area that is advantageous to weightlifting performance. Weightlifting training induces a high metabolic cost. Although dietary records demonstrate that weightlifters typically meet their required daily energy intake, weightlifters have been shown to over consume protein and fat at the expense of adequate carbohydrate. The resulting macronutrient imbalance may not yield optimal performance gains. Cross-sectional data suggest that weightlifting training induces type IIX to IIA fibre-type transformation. Furthermore, weightlifters exhibit hypertrophy of type II fibres that is advantageous to weightlifting performance and maximal force production. As such, the isometric peak force and contractile rate of force development of weightlifters is ~15-20% and ~13-16% greater, respectively, than in other strength and power athletes. In addition, weightlifting training has been shown to reduce the typical sex-related difference in the expression of neuromuscular strength and power. However, this apparent sex-related difference appears to be augmented with increasing adult age demonstrating that women undergo a greater age-related decline in muscle shortening velocity and peak power when compared with men. Weightlifting training and competition has been shown to induce significant structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system. The collective evidence shows that these adaptations are physiological as opposed to pathological. Finally, the acute exercise-induced testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone responses of weightlifters have similarities to that of following conventional strength and hypertrophy protocols involving large muscle mass exercises. The routine assessment of the basal testosterone : cortisol ratio may be beneficial when attempting to quantify the adaptive responses to weightlifting training. As competitive weightlifting is becoming increasingly popular around the world, further research addressing the physiological responses and adaptations of female weightlifters and younger (i.e. ≤17 years of age) and older (i.e. ≥35 years of age) weightlifters of both sexes is required. PMID:22873835

  11. Perk Station – Percutaneous Surgery Training and Performance Measurement Platform

    PubMed Central

    Vikal, Siddharth; U-Thainual, Paweena; Carrino, John A.; Iordachita, Iulian; Fischer, Gregory S.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2009-01-01

    Motivation Image-guided percutaneous (through the skin) needle-based surgery has become part of routine clinical practice in performing procedures such as biopsies, injections and therapeutic implants. A novice physician typically performs needle interventions under the supervision of a senior physician; a slow and inherently subjective training process that lacks objective, quantitative assessment of the surgical skill and performance[S1]. Shortening the learning curve and increasing procedural consistency are important factors in assuring high-quality medical care. Methods This paper describes a laboratory validation system, called Perk Station, for standardized training and performance measurement under different assistance techniques for needle-based surgical guidance systems. The initial goal of the Perk Station is to assess and compare different techniques: 2D image overlay, biplane laser guide, laser protractor and conventional freehand. The main focus of this manuscript is the planning and guidance software system developed on the 3D Slicer platform, a free, open source software package designed for visualization and analysis of medical image data. Results The prototype Perk Station has been successfully developed, the associated needle insertion phantoms were built, and the graphical user interface was fully implemented. The system was inaugurated in undergraduate teaching and a wide array of outreach activities. Initial results, experiences, ongoing activities and future plans are reported. PMID:19539446

  12. Information Feedback: Contributions to Learning and Performance in Perceptual Identification Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Alvin J.; Cook, Richard L.

    In training people to perform auditory identification tasks (e.g., training students to identify sound characteristics in a sonar classification task), it is important to know whether or not training procedures are merely sustaining performance during training or whether they enhance learning of the task. Often an incorrect assumption is made that…

  13. Performances of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongying; Luo, Changjie; Wang, Huimin

    2012-07-01

    The current research of a balanced hydraulic motor focuses on the characteristics of the motor with three planet gears. References of a balanced hydraulic motor with more than three planet gears are hardly found. In order to study the characteristics of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train that includes more than three planet gears, on the basis of analysis of the structure and working principle of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train, formulas are deduced for calculating the hydraulic motor's primary performance indexes such as displacement, unit volume displacement, flowrate fluctuation ratio, etc. Influences of the gears' tooth number on displacement and flowrate characteristics are analyzed. In order to guarantee the reliability of sealing capability, the necessary conditions that tooth number of the sun gear and the planet gears should satisfy are discussed. Selecting large unit volume displacement and small displacement fluctuation ratio as designing objectives, a balanced hydraulic motor with three planet gears and a common gear motor are designed under the conditions of same displacement, tooth addendum coefficien and clearance coefficient. By comparing the unit volume displacement and fluctuation ratio of the two motors, it can be seen that the balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train has the advantages of smaller fluctuation ratio and larger unit volume displacement. The results provide theoretical basis for choosing gear tooth-number of this kind of hydraulic motor.

  14. Metabolic and performance adaptations to interval training in endurance-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Westgarth-Taylor, C; Hawley, J A; Rickard, S; Myburgh, K H; Noakes, T D; Dennis, S C

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the effects of sustained high-intensity interval training (HIT) on the athletic performances and fuel utilisation of eight male endurance-trained cyclists. Before HIT, each subject undertook three baseline peak power output Wpeak tests and two simulated 40-km time-trial cycling performance (TT40) tests, of which the variabilities were 1.5 (1.3)% and 1.0 (0.5)%, respectively [mean (SD)]. Over 6 weeks, the cyclists then replaced 15 (2)% of their 300 (66) km.week-1 endurance training with 12 HIT sessions, each consisting of six to nine 5-min rides at 80% of Wpeak, separated by a l-min recovery. HIT increased Wpeak from 404 (40) to 424 (53) W (P < 0.01) and improved TT40 speeds from 42.0 (3.6) to 43.0 (4.2) km.h-1 (P < 0.05). Faster TT40 performances were due to increases in both the absolute work rates from 291 (43) to 327 (51) W (P < 0.05) and the relative work rates from 72.6 (5.3)% of pre-HIT Wpeak to 78.1 (2.8)% of post-HIT Wpeak (P < 0.05). HIT decreased carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation, plasma lactate concentration and ventilation when the cyclists rode at the same absolute work rates of 60, 70 and 80% of pre-HIT Wpeak (P < 0.05), but not when they exercised at the same relative (% post-HIT Wpeak) work rates. Thus, the ability of the cyclists to sustain higher percentages of Wpeak in TT40 performances after HIT was not due to lower rates of CHO oxidation. Higher relative work rates in the TT40 rides following HIT increased the estimated rates of CHO oxidation from approximately 4.3 to approximately 5.1 g.min-1. PMID:9134360

  15. AN EXPERIMENT IN BASIC AIRBORNE ELECTRONICS TRAINING, PART IV-- EFFECT OF REDUCTION IN TRAINING TIME ON FLEET PERFORMANCE. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BALDWIN, ROBERT O.; AND OTHERS

    THREE PRECEDING REPORTS PRESENTED THE EFFECTS OF SHORTENING TRAINING TIME IN AVIONICS FUNDAMENTALS AND AVIATION ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN (RADAR) TRAINING UPON THE FINAL COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION IN THESE COURSES AND UPON PERFORMANCE IN A SUBSEQUENT EQUIPMENT COURSE. THIS REPORT COMPARES THE ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF GRADUATES FROM FOUR GROUPS…

  16. Performance of First-Tour WAC Enlisted Women: Data Base for the Performance Orientation of Women's Basic Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, H. Alton; And Others

    The introduction of performance-oriented instructional procedures into Women's Basic Training (BT) at Fort McClellan and the revision of Army Training Program 21-121 to incorporate the philosophy and principles of performance-oriented training are described in the document. Results from a questionnaire regarding duties, activities, and attitudes…

  17. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).`` The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, ``Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,`` requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  18. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).'' The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,'' requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  19. Use of appraisals for professional effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Birabi, Bridget

    2006-01-01

    Appraisal is usually linked with performance but it can also apply to intervention programmes. It is a distinct and formal management procedure used in the evaluation of work performance or the impact of a programme based on set objectives which are usually SMART. Every programme requires continual and meaningful feedback that transforms what looks technical into a dynamic and interactive process. This ties outcomes to intervention. Of great importance for a professional is self appraisal. When a professional is passion-driven to meet the needs of a client, the need to build capacity becomes obvious to remain in the market. Facility appraisal is as important as the environment of any service delivery and psychologically impacts on the consumer. Appraisal seems both inevitable and universal. To continually raise the standard of health care delivery, capacity building is at the crux. This will thoroughly equip health professionals for client-patient centered "best practices." PMID:17396754

  20. Concurrent training in elite male runners: the influence of strength versus muscular endurance training on performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Marín, Pedro J; Cuadrado, Gonzalo; Redondo, Juan C

    2013-09-01

    Much recent attention has been given to the compatibility of combined aerobic and anaerobic training modalities. However, few of these studies have reported data related to well-trained runners, which is a potential limitation. Therefore, because of the limited evidence available for this population, the main aim was to determine which mode of concurrent strength-endurance training might be the most effective at improving running performance in highly trained runners. Eighteen well-trained male runners (age 23.7 ± 1.2 years) with a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) more than 65 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) were randomly assigned into 1 of the 3 groups: Endurance-only Group (n = 6), who continued their usual training, which included general strength training with Thera-band latex-free exercise bands and endurance training; Strength Group (SG; n = 6) who performed combined resistance and plyometric exercises and endurance training; Endurance-SG (ESG; n = 6) who performed endurance-strength training with loads of 40% and endurance training. The study comprised 12 weeks of training in which runners trained 8 times a week (6 endurance and 2 strength sessions) and 5 weeks of detraining. The subjects were tested on 3 different occasions (countermovement jump height, hopping test average height, 1 repetition maximum, running economy (RE), VO2max, maximal heart rate [HRmax], peak velocity (PV), rating of perceived exertion, and 3-km time trial were measured). Findings revealed significant time × group interaction effects for almost all tests (p < 0.05). We can conclude that concurrent training for both SG and ESG groups led to improved maximal strength, RE, and PV with no significant effects on the VO2 kinetics pattern. The SG group also seems to show improvements in 3-km time trial tests. PMID:23287831

  1. Argonne National Laboratory Internal Appraisal Program environment, safety, health/quality assurance oversight

    SciTech Connect

    Winner, G.L.; Siegfried, Y.S.; Forst, S.P.; Meshenberg, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Internal Appraisal Program has developed a quality assurance team member training program. This program has been developed to provide training to non-quality assurance professionals. Upon successful completion of this training and approval of the Internal Appraisal Program Manager, these personnel are considered qualified to assist in the conduct of quality assurance assessments. The training program has been incorporated into a self-paced, computerized, training session.

  2. Gift Books and Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Don; Anderson, Glenn

    1979-01-01

    Properly used, the body of literature on the value of books can help the inexperienced librarian or bookdealer recognize donations that require a professional's appraisal or can provide appraisal information when a specialist's fee would outweigh the value of the books in question. (Author)

  3. Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults: Effects of Age, Baseline Performance, and Training Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S.; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For…

  4. Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

  5. Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

  6. The Effects of Training Method and Individual Differences on Learning Performance and Computer Self-Efficacy in WWW Design Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Huey-Wen

    This study compared the effects of two training methods--instruction-based and behavior modeling--on learners' computer self-efficacy and performance in World Wide Web home page design. A field experiment was conducted with two classes of 10th grade students. Results indicated that the behavior modeling training method yielded consistently…

  7. Standards of Work Performance. A Functional Assessment and Training Manual for Training People with Disabilities for Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riches, Vivienne C.

    This manual is designed to assist trainers in using the Australian Standards of Work Performance in ongoing functional assessment and databased training of disabled persons for employment. It is divided into three sections. Section 1 begins with an overview of the functional assessment component of a databased training system and details the…

  8. Perceptual Training and Figure-Ground Performance in Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-five older adults with age-related macular degeneration were separated into one of three groups: in-clinic training, take-home-training, or no-training. After testing, results showed that the ability to distinguish figure from ground is an improvable skill with the take-home group improving the most. (Author/DB)

  9. Australian National Training Authority Annual Performance Report 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    The Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) achieved the following objectives in 1996-97: (1) sought and obtained the agreement of the Ministerial Council to make the National Training Framework more flexible and usable by training providers and their major clients (businesses and individual learners); (2) obtained in principle agreement to…

  10. Britain's Training Deficit. The Centre for Economic Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layard, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 12 papers that were produced as a result of a seminar program on selected issues central to the debate over job training in Great Britain. The first paper, "Why We Need a Training Reform Act" (Richard Layard, Ken Mayhew, Geoffrey Owen), examines existing deficiencies in vocational education and training in Britain and proposes a…

  11. Britain's Training Deficit. The Centre for Economic Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layard, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 12 papers that were produced as a result of a seminar program on selected issues central to the debate over job training in Great Britain. The first paper, "Why We Need a Training Reform Act" (Richard Layard, Ken Mayhew, Geoffrey Owen), examines existing deficiencies in vocational education and training in Britain and proposes a

  12. Source-Monitoring Training Facilitates Preschoolers' Eyewitness Memory Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry, Karen L.; Spence, Melanie J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether source-monitoring training would decrease 3- to 4-year-olds' suggestibility. After observing live or video target-events, children received source-monitoring or recognition (control) training. Found that children given source-monitoring training were more accurate than control group children in response to misleading and…

  13. Agent-Customized Training for Human Learning Performance Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, M. Brian; Butcher-Green, Jerome D.

    2009-01-01

    Training individuals from diverse backgrounds and in changing environments requires customized training approaches that align with the individual learning styles and ever-evolving organizational needs. Scaffolding is a well-established instructional approach that facilitates learning by incrementally removing training aids as the learner…

  14. Effects of Novel Supramaximal Interval Training Versus Continuous Training on Performance in Preconditioned Collegiate, National, and International Class Rowers.

    PubMed

    Richer, Sylvie D; Nolte, Volker W; Bechard, Dan J; Belfry, Glen R

    2016-06-01

    Richer, SD, Nolte, VW, Bechard, DJ, and Belfry, GR. Effects of novel supramaximal interval training versus continuous training on performance in preconditioned collegiate, national, and international class rowers. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1752-1762, 2016-This investigation compared supramaximal oxygen uptake interval training with continuous training in collegiate, national, and international class rowers. It was hypothesized that 6 supramaximal intensity sessions over 11 days would increase power on selected power measures. After 8 weeks of training for a new season, 10 heavyweight and 6 lightweight rowers were randomized into 2 groups. A ramp test to limit of tolerance to determine peak aerobic power (6 females: 25 W·min; 10 males: 30 W·min) and an all-out 3-minute test to determine peak power, 60-second power, critical power, and work above critical power (W') were performed before and after training. A supramaximal training session consisted of 10 cycles of 10-second work (140% peak aerobic power):5-second recovery followed by 8 minutes of active recovery, and repeated 6 times. The continuous group performed predominantly moderate intensity (below lactate threshold) training. All training was performed on rowing ergometers. Critical power increased pre-to-post supramaximal (Δ7%) and continuous training (Δ9%), respectively (336 ± 59W to 360 ± 59W; 290 ± 73W to 316 ± 74W; p ≤ 0.05), whereas the mean power output from all performance measures increased only after supramaximal training (Δ7%) (464 ± 158W to 496 ± 184W; p ≤ 0.05). Testing also revealed decreased W' (Δ21%) and 60-second power (Δ4%) pre-to-post continuous training only (p ≤ 0.05). No differences (p > 0.05) in peak aerobic power or peak power were observed pre-to-post training in either group. In conclusion, after an 8-week preconditioning period, supramaximal interval training preserved anaerobic capacity compared with predominantly continuous training and elicited similar increases in critical power in rowers. PMID:27213500

  15. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabled shifting of weight to the right and left sides, for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The patients in the task-oriented training group practiced additional task-oriented programs for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. Patients in both groups also underwent conventional physical therapy for 60 min/day, 5 times/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Balance and functional reach test outcomes were examined in both groups. The results showed that the static balance and functional reach test outcomes were significantly higher in the virtual reality-based training group than in the task-oriented training group. [Conclusion] This study suggested that virtual reality-based training might be a more feasible and suitable therapeutic intervention for dynamic balance in stroke patients compared to task-oriented training. PMID:26180341

  16. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabled shifting of weight to the right and left sides, for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The patients in the task-oriented training group practiced additional task-oriented programs for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. Patients in both groups also underwent conventional physical therapy for 60 min/day, 5 times/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Balance and functional reach test outcomes were examined in both groups. The results showed that the static balance and functional reach test outcomes were significantly higher in the virtual reality-based training group than in the task-oriented training group. [Conclusion] This study suggested that virtual reality-based training might be a more feasible and suitable therapeutic intervention for dynamic balance in stroke patients compared to task-oriented training. PMID:26180341

  17. Low cadence interval training at moderate intensity does not improve cycling performance in highly trained veteran cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Morten; Gundersen, Hilde; Leirdal, Stig; Iversen, Vegard V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of low cadence training at moderate intensity on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, gross efficiency, freely chosen cadence, and leg strength in veteran cyclists. Method: Twenty-two well trained veteran cyclists [age: 47 ± 6 years, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 57.9 ± 3.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1] were randomized into two groups, a low cadence training group and a freely chose cadence training group. Respiratory variables, power output, cadence and leg strength were tested before and after a 12 weeks training intervention period. The low cadence training group performed 12 weeks of moderate [73–82% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] interval training (5 × 6 min) with a cadence of 40 revolutions per min (rpm) two times a week, in addition to their usual training. The freely chosen cadence group added 90 min of training at freely chosen cadence at moderate intensity. Results: No significant effects of the low cadence training on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, power output, cadence, gross efficiency, or leg strength was found. The freely chosen cadence group significantly improved both VO2max (58.9 ± 2.4 vs. 62.2 ± 3.2 ml · kg−1 · min−1), VO2 consumption at lactate threshold (49.4 ± 3.8 vs. 51.8 ± 3.5 ml · kg−1 · min−1) and during the 30 min performance test (52.8 ± 3.0 vs. 54.7 ± 3.5 ml · kg−1 · min−1), and power output at lactate threshold (284 ± 47 vs. 294 ± 48 W) and during the 30 min performance test (284 ± 42 vs. 297 ± 50 W). Moreover, a significant difference was seen when comparing the change in freely chosen cadence from pre- to post between the groups during the 30 min performance test (2.4 ± 5.0 vs. −2.7 ± 6.2). Conclusion: Twelve weeks of low cadence (40 rpm) interval training at moderate intensity (73–82% of HRmax) twice a week does not improve aerobic capacity, cycling performance or leg strength in highly trained veteran cyclists. However, adding training at same intensity (% of HRmax) and duration (90 min weekly) at freely chosen cadence seems beneficial for performance and physiological adaptations. PMID:24550843

  18. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  19. Appraising Support Staff: Not Just a Silly Paper Ritual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Anne M.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses aspects of a good system for library employee performance appraisal, stressing the importance of treating workers as adults and making the appraisal process a two-way exchange. The role of the line supervisor and how to deal with poor performance are also addressed. (MES)

  20. 12 CFR 390.444 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 390.444 Section 390.444... REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Appraisals § 390.444 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be...

  1. 12 CFR 564.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Appraiser independence. 564.5 Section 564.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must...

  2. 12 CFR 164.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 164.5 Section 164.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 164.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must...

  3. 12 CFR 390.444 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 390.444 Section 390.444... REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Appraisals § 390.444 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be...

  4. 12 CFR 164.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 164.5 Section 164.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 164.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must...

  5. 12 CFR 323.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 323.5 Section 323.5... APPRAISALS § 323.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment, and collection functions and...

  6. 12 CFR 564.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 564.5 Section 564.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must...

  7. 12 CFR 323.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 323.5 Section 323.5... APPRAISALS § 323.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment, and collection functions and...

  8. 12 CFR 564.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Appraiser independence. 564.5 Section 564.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must...

  9. 12 CFR 564.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 564.5 Section 564.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must...

  10. 12 CFR 390.444 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 390.444 Section 390.444... REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Appraisals § 390.444 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be...

  11. 12 CFR 323.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 323.5 Section 323.5... APPRAISALS § 323.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment, and collection functions and...

  12. Comment: Performance improvement with computer training in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Linda A

    2014-04-01

    Computer-based memory and attention training methods improve episodic recall in older adults who have amnestic mild cognitive impairment.(1,2) Memory and attention are highly interactive and interdependent processes due to their shared circuitry. The cognitive benefits of computer-based memory training appear to persist for at least 6 months.(1) Traditional cognitive training programs are administered by professionals and may cost as much as $15 to $100 an hour, depending on the educational level of the staff member who delivers the training.(2) More cost-effective methods of computer-based memory training are needed. In the study by Zimmermann et al.(3) on patients with Parkinson disease (PD), 2 types of computer training were compared: a specific cognitive training method (CogniPlus) and a nonspecific method, Nintendo Wii, a game console. PMID:24623844

  13. Performance in sports--With specific emphasis on the effect of intensified training.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, J

    2015-12-01

    Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance. Specifically how intensified training, i.e., increasing the amount of aerobic high-intensity and speed endurance training, affects physiological adaptations and performance of trained subjects. Periods of speed endurance training do improve performance in events lasting 30 s-4 min, and when combined with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase expression of muscle Na(+), K(+) pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect of other types of training. It is not, however, clear how various training modalities are affecting each other, and this issue should be addressed in future studies. PMID:26589122

  14. Performance gains from directed training do not transfer to untrained tasks.

    PubMed

    Lee, HyunKyu; Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Neider, Mark; Erickson, Kirk I; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Low, Kathy A; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-01-01

    Given the increasing complexity of the tasks and skills needed in modern society, developing effective training strategies is of tremendous practical importance. Furthermore, training that improves performance of both trained and untrained tasks would be highly efficient. In the present study, we examined how directed training contributes to skill acquisition, and more importantly, to engendering transfer of training to untrained tasks. Participants learned a complex video game for 30 h (Space Fortress, Donchin, Fabiani, & Sanders, 1989) using one of two training regimens: Hybrid Variable-Priority Training (HVT), with a focus on improving specific skills and managing task priority, or Full Emphasis Training (FET) in which participants simply practiced the game to obtain the highest overall score. We compared game performance, retention of training gains, and transfer of training to untrained tasks as a function of the training regimen. Compared to FET, HVT learners reached higher levels of mastery on the game and HVT was particularly beneficial for initially poor performing participants. This benefit persisted seven months after training. However, contrary to expectation, both HVT and FET were unsuccessful in producing transfer to untrained tasks compared to a group that received limited game experience, suggesting that directed training and practice can produce task-specific improvements, but improvements do not necessarily transfer from trained to untrained tasks. PMID:22133724

  15. Ten Exercises Toward Planning a Superintendent Appraisal System. A Companion Workbook to Planned Appraisal of the Superintendent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Ronald R.; Glaub, Gerald R.

    This workbook is intended to help the school board and superintendent tailor a performance appraisal system to suit their own needs. It consists of ten separate exercises that guide the board and superintendent through the planning and decision-making that must precede successful performance appraisal. The workbook contains exercises through which

  16. The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    PubMed Central

    Casutt, Gianclaudio; Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Keller, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training. Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62–87 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention), or (3) a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85%) completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned orthogonal comparisons. Results: The driving simulator-training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention-training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers' safety on the road. PMID:24860497

  17. The NHS breast screening programme (pathology) EQA: experience in recent years relating to issues involved in individual performance appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Parham, D M; Coleman, D; Kodikara, S; Moss, S; Ellis, I O; Al-sam, S; Anderson, N; Bobrow, L; Buley, I; Connolly, C E; Dallimore, N S; Hales, S; Hanby, A; Humphreys, S; Knox, F; Lowe, J; Macartney, J; Nash, R; Patnick, J; Pinder, S E; Quinn, C M; Robertson, A J; Shrimankar, J; Walker, R A; Wells, C; Winder, R; Patel, N

    2006-01-01

    Background The original role of the National Health Service breast screening programme (pathology) external quality assessment (EQA) scheme was educational; it aimed to raise standards, reinforce use of common terminology, and assess the consistency of pathology reporting of breast disease in the UK. Aims/Methods To examine the performance (scores) of pathologists participating in the scheme in recent years. The scheme has evolved to help identify poor performers, reliant upon setting an acceptable cutpoint. Therefore, the effects of different cutpoint strategies were evaluated and implications discussed. Results/Conclusions Pathologists who joined the scheme improved over time, particularly those who did less well initially. There was no obvious association between performance and the number of breast cancer cases reported each year. This is not unexpected because the EQA does not measure expertise, but was established to demonstrate a common level of performance (conformity to consensus) for routine cases, rather than the ability to diagnose unusual/difficult cases. A new method of establishing cutpoints using interquartile ranges is proposed. The findings also suggest that EQA can alter a pathologist's practice: those who leave the scheme (for whatever reason) have, on average, marginally lower scores. Consequently, with the cutpoint methodology currently used (which is common to several EQA schemes) there is the potential for the cutpoint to drift upwards. In future, individuals previously deemed competent could subsequently be erroneously labelled as poor performers. Due consideration should be given to this issue with future development of schemes. PMID:16443726

  18. Transfer effects of fall training on balance performance and spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Roth, Ralf; Soltermann, Martin; Kressig, Reto W; Zahner, Lukas

    2014-07-01

    This study examined transfer effects of fall training on fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International [FES-I]), balance performance, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics in older adults. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults (ages 65-85) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group completed 12 training sessions (60 min, 6 weeks). During pre- and posttesting, we measured FES-I, balance performance (double limb, closed eyes; single limb, open eyes; double limb, open eyes with motor-interfered task), and gait parameters (e.g., velocity; cadence; stride time, stride width, and stride length; variability of stride time and stride length) under single- and motor-interfered tasks. Dual tasks were applied to appraise improvements of cognitive processing during balance and gait. FES-I (p = .33) and postural sway did not significantly change (0.36 < p < .79). Trends toward significant interaction effects were found for step width during normal walking and stride length variability during the motor dual task (p = .05, ηp 2 = .22). Fall training did not sufficiently improve fear of falling, balance, or gait performance under single- or dual-task conditions in healthy older adults. PMID:23881433

  19. Plutonium Uranium Extraction plant (PUREX) annual integrated appraisal, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Wedlick, H.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual safety appraisal of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility fulfills contractor internal audit requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE). Fifteen subject areas, and their relevant criteria, were selected for this appraisal. The criteria, findings or observations and the individual appraiser's recommendations make up the body of this report. This is the first annual appraisal performed for PUREX by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. Some new methods and practices were implemented; for example, this is the first time a seriousness category classification system was used to rate the importance of each item.

  20. A Descriptive Study of the Performance Appraisal of Supervisors of Spicer Higher Secondary School, Using "360 Degree Feedback" Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemati, Hamidreza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study the performance of the supervisors in the aspects leadership, communication, and task managing by the "360 degree feedback" method. A qualitative research was used to carry out the research study. The researcher formulated three questions that guided the study. An opinionnaire which included 23 items in…

  1. Relationships Between Design Characteristics of Avionics Subsystems and Training Cost, Training Difficulty, and Job Performance. Final Report, Covering Activity from 1 July 1971 Through 1 September 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Larry M.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship between avionics subsystem design characteristics and training time, training cost, and job performance. A list of design variables believed to affect training and job performance was established and supplemented with personnel variables, including aptitude test scores and the amount of training and…

  2. Barriers and attitudes influencing non-engagement in a peer feedback model to inform evidence for GP appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The UK general practitioner (GP) appraisal system is deemed to be an inadequate source of performance evidence to inform a future medical revalidation process. A long-running voluntary model of external peer review in the west of Scotland provides feedback by trained peers on the standard of GP colleagues' core appraisal activities and may 'add value' in strengthening the robustness of the current system in support of revalidation. A significant minority of GPs has participated in the peer feedback model, but a clear majority has yet to engage with it. We aimed to explore the views of non-participants to identify barriers to engagement and attitudes to external peer review as a means to inform the current appraisal system. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with a sample of west of Scotland GPs who had yet to participate in the peer review model. A thematic analysis of the interview transcriptions was conducted using a constant comparative approach. Results 13 GPs were interviewed of whom nine were males. Four core themes were identified in relation to the perceived and experienced 'value' placed on the topics discussed and their relevance to routine clinical practice and professional appraisal: 1. Value of the appraisal improvement activity. 2. Value of external peer review. 3. Value of the external peer review model and host organisation and 4. Attitudes to external peer review. Conclusions GPs in this study questioned the 'value' of participation in the external peer review model and the national appraisal system over the standard of internal feedback received from immediate work colleagues. There was a limited understanding of the concept, context and purpose of external peer review and some distrust of the host educational provider. Future engagement with the model by these GPs is likely to be influenced by policy to improve the standard of appraisal and contractual related activities, rather than a self-directed recognition of learning needs. PMID:22443714

  3. The effect of appraisers in estimating metabolic rate with the Edholm scale.

    PubMed

    Kähkönen, E; Nykyri, E; Ilmarinen, R; Ketola, R; Lusa, S; Nygård, C H; Suurnäkki, T

    1992-06-01

    A study was made of the appraisers' effect on the estimation of metabolic rate with the Edholm scale and a table of the ISO 7243 heat stress standard. The appraisers, five experienced and five inexperienced persons, estimated the metabolic rate of three different work tasks from videotapes. Analysis of variance indicated significant ( [Formula: see text] ) differences in the appraisers' recordings of the activities. The appraisers were grouped according to the similarity of the estimated values they gave. The groups thus contained both experienced and inexperienced appraisers, and it was not possible to classify the appraisers into experienced and inexperienced groups according to their earlier experience. The metabolic rates according to the Edholm scale were higher than according to the ISO 7243 table. The differences in metabolic rates given by the individual observers varied from 38 to 118 W/m(2). The variations in the estimation of metabolic rates were greater when the Edholm scale was used. This variation caused considerable variation also in the predicted mean vote, PMV index. It is recommended that the appraisers be selected carefully, because it is not possible to know whether a randomly selected appraiser is an 'average' or an 'extreme' appraiser without a test. Before conducting extensive field surveys where several appraisers estimate the metabolic rates, it would be useful to arrange training in order to calibrate the levels of the Edholm scale as well as ISO method among the appraisers because training clearly unified the estimation. PMID:15676866

  4. Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health workers’ motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers’ experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers’ motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers attesting to the importance of the salary for motivation. Lessons learned from OPRAS can be utilized in the implementation of P4P and can enhance our knowledge on motivation and performance in the health services in low-income contexts such as Tanzania. PMID:22963317

  5. Training for the Healthcare Manufacturing Industries. Tools and Techniques To Improve Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesper, James L.

    This book describes a systematic method for producing instructional programs, courses, and materials that focus on human performance and how to improve it, not merely on training itself. It addresses such diverse topics as the following: how adults learn best, analyzing the training need, developing evaluation tools, delivering training courses,…

  6. Replacement Air Group Performance as a Criterion for Naval Aviation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Ronald M.; And Others

    The current criterion for prediction of performance of student naval aviators is the dichotomy of success versus failure in undergraduate flight training. This criterion has enabled the naval air training command to make reasonable estimates of the probability of an applicant or student completing flight training. However, a costly attrition…

  7. The Role of Training, Individual Differences and Knowledge Representation in Cognitive-Oriented Task Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koubek, Richard J.

    The roles of training, problem representation, and individual differences on performance of both automated (simple) and controlled (complex) process tasks were studied. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) training and cognitive style affect the representation developed; (2) training and cognitive style affect the development and performance…

  8. Effects of Short-Term Isokinetic Training on Standing Long-Jump Performance in Untrained Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morriss, Calvin J.; Tolfrey, Keith; Coppack, Russell J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the effects of a brief isokinetic training program on quadriceps and hamstring peak torque (PT) and standing long-jump performance. Tests on 12 untrained men indicated that the brief training program was at least as effective in improving quadriceps isokinetic (but not hamstring) PT. PT gains subsequent to isokinetic resistance training

  9. Preliminary performance appraisal of Navy V/STOL transport and search-type airplanes using hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    First-cut estimates are given of the performance advantages of liquid-hydrogen-fueled, ejector wing, V/STOL aircraft designed for shipboard delivery and search-type missions. Results indicate that the use of LH2 could reduce gross weights 30 percent, empty weights 15 percent, and energy consumption 10 percent for a fixed payload and mission. If gross weight is fixed, the delivery range could be increased about 60 percent or the hover time during a search mission doubled. No analysis or discussion of the economic and operational disadvantages is presented.

  10. Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders

  11. Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders…

  12. Education, Training and Economic Performance 1944 to 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldcroft, Derek H.

    A study examined the relationship between economic growth and compulsory education, vocational education and training, higher education, and the education and training of managers in Great Britain in the period between 1944 and 1988. Deficiencies in language and mathematical skills were found among completers of compulsory education, participants…

  13. The Wonderlic Scholastic Level Exam as a Predictor of Training Success and Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, John E.

    The relationship between general cognitive ability and both training and job performance is reviewed. Existing scientific data show that there are large differences in training achievement and in job performance. Consequently, any good predictor of achievement or performance can yield a large gain in workforce productivity. General cognitive…

  14. Performance Management in the French System of Secondary-Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchibozo, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The present study focuses on performance analysis and performance management in teacher training in France. After a brief summary of the French system of secondary-teacher training, determinants affecting performance are analyzed. The analysis shows that three determinants--the number of external competitors, the size of a department and the…

  15. Strongman vs. traditional resistance training effects on muscular function and performance.

    PubMed

    Winwood, Paul W; Cronin, John B; Posthumus, Logan R; Finlayson, Steven J; Gill, Nicholas D; Keogh, Justin W L

    2015-02-01

    Currently, no evidence exists as to the effectiveness of strongman training programs for performance enhancement. This study compared the effects of 7 weeks of strongman resistance training vs. traditional resistance training on body composition, strength, power, and speed measures. Thirty experienced resistance-trained rugby players were randomly assigned to one of the 2 groups; strongman (n = 15; mean ± SD: age, 23.4 ± 5.6 years; body mass, 91.2 ± 14.8 kg; height, 180.1 ± 6.8 cm) or traditional (n = 15; mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 3.4 years; body mass, 93.7 ± 12.3 kg; height, 181.3 ± 5.9 cm). The strongman and traditional training programs required the participants to train twice a week and contained exercises that were matched for biomechanical similarity with equal loading. Participants were assessed for body composition, strength, power, speed, and change of direction (COD) performance. Within-group analyses indicated that all performance measures improved with training (0.2-7%) in both the strongman and traditional training groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in functional performance measures after 7 weeks of resistance training. Between-group differences indicated small positive effects in muscle mass and acceleration performance and large improvements in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bent over row strength associated with strongman compared with traditional training. Small to moderate positive changes in 1RM squat and deadlift strength, horizontal jump, COD turning ability, and sled push performance were associated with traditional compared with strongman training. Practitioners now have the first evidence on the efficacy of a strongman training program, and it would seem that short-term strongman training programs are as effective as traditional resistance training programs in improving aspects of body composition, muscular function, and performance. PMID:25627449

  16. Strongman versus traditional resistance training effects on muscular function and performance.

    PubMed

    Winwood, P W; Cronin, J B; Posthumus, L R; Finlayson, S; Gill, N D; Keogh, J W L

    2014-07-21

    Currently, no evidence exists as to the effectiveness of strongman training programs for performance enhancement. This study compared the effects of seven weeks of strongman resistance training versus traditional resistance training on body composition, strength, power, and speed measures. Thirty experienced resistance-trained rugby players were randomly assigned to one of two groups; strongman (n = 15; mean ± SD: age, 23.4 ± 5.6 years; body mass, 91.2 ± 14.8 kg; height, 180.1 ± 6.8cm) or traditional (n = 15; mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 3.4 years; body mass, 93.7 ± 12.3kg; height, 181.3 ± 5.9 cm). The strongman and traditional training programs required the participants to train twice a week and contained exercises that were matched for biomechanical similarity with equal loading. Participants were assessed for body composition, strength, power, speed and change of direction (COD) performance. Within-group analyses indicated that all performance measures improved with training (0.2% to 7%) in both the strongman and traditional training groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in functional performance measures after 7-weeks of resistance training. Between group differences indicated small positive effects in muscle mass and acceleration performance and large improvements in 1RM bent over row strength associated with strongman compared to traditional training. Small to moderate positive changes in 1RM squat and deadlift strength, horizontal jump, COD turning ability and sled push performance were associated with traditional compared to strongman training. Practitioners now have the first evidence on the efficacy of a strongman training program and it would seem that short term strongman training programs are as effective as traditional resistance training programs in improving aspects of body composition, muscular function and performance. PMID:25051003

  17. Modeling the training-performance relationship using a mixed model in elite swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Marta; Hellard, Philippe; Chatard, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to model the relationship between training and performance in 13 competitive swimmers, over 3 seasons, and to identify individual and group responses to training. Methods A linear mixed model was used as an alternative to the Banister model. Training effect on performance was studied over 3 training periods: short-term, the average of training load accomplished during the 2 weeks preceding each performance of the studied period; mid-term, the average of training load accomplished during weeks 3, 4 and 5 before each performance; and long-term, weeks 6, 7 and 8. Results Cluster analysis identified 4 groups of subjects according to their reactions to training. The first group corresponded to the subjects who responded well to the long-term training period, the second group to the long- and mid-term period, the third to the short- and mid-term period, and the fourth to the combined periods. In the model, the inter-subject differences and the evolution over the 3 seasons were statistically significant for the identified groups of swimmers. Influence of short-term training was negative on performance in the 4 groups while mid- and long-term training had, on the average, a positive effect in 3 groups out of 4. Between seasons 1 and 3, the effect of mid-term training declined, while the effect of long-term training increased. The fit between real and modeled performances was significant for all swimmers (0.15 ? r2 ? 0.65; P ? 0.01). Conclusion The mixed model described a significant relationship between training and performance both for individuals and for groups of swimmers. This relationship was different over the 3 years. Personalized training schedules could be prescribed on the basis of the model results. PMID:12750595

  18. Does training make you smarter? The effects of training on dogs' performance (Canis familiaris) in a problem solving task.

    PubMed

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Valsecchi, Paola; Petak, Irena; Accorsi, Pier Attilio; Previde, Emanuela Prato

    2008-07-01

    This study investigates the influence of training experiences on dogs' performance in a problem solving task, namely opening a box to obtain food. One hundred and eighteen dogs allocated to two different groups according to their training experience (no/basic training vs high level training) were tested. In each group the dogs saw the researcher manipulating either the paw-pad or the lid, prior to being allowed free access to the apparatus. No effect of the locus of manipulation was observed. However, there was a strong effect of training on the dogs' performance regardless of manipulation condition. Compared to untrained dogs, highly trained dogs were more successful in opening the box and spent significantly more time interacting with the apparatus; whereas untrained dogs spent significantly more time looking back at their owners and the researcher. These results indicate that high levels of training improve dogs' problem solving ability, with dogs appearing to be more proactive in the their interaction with novel objects. PMID:18434043

  19. The influence of nontraditional training modalities on physical performance: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Reginald B; Serres, Jennifer; Traver, Kyle L; Wright, Bruce; Vojta, Chris; Eveland, Ed

    2012-10-01

    The primary purpose of this effort was to review several forms of nontraditional (NT) training programs, including heavy lower extremity strength training, CrossFit training, kettlebell training, and agility training, and discuss the effects of these exercise regimens on physical performance. The secondary purpose was to evaluate NT fitness training programs for evidence that they may provide beneficial options to help airmen improve their fitness scores. A search of the literature for 1980-2010 was performed using the Franzello Aeromedical Library, Public Medicine, and Air Force Institute of Technology search engines. There were 50 articles located and the authors selected 29 articles that specifically addressed the primary and secondary purposes of this literature review. This review indicates that an NT training approach is warranted in the general Air Force population. Heavy leg strength training and agility training show promise in enhancing aerobic fitness and improving fitness scores, particularly among members who have difficulty passing a physical fitness test. Most of the nontraditional forms of physical training are not supported in the scientific literature, with the exception of heavy leg strength training and agility training. However, even these NT forms of training require further investigation. PMID:23066621

  20. PROPERTY APPRAISAL PROVIDES CONTROL, INSURANCE BASIS, AND VALUE ESTIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THOMSON, JACK

    A COMPLETE PROPERTY APPRAISAL SERVES AS A BASIS FOR CONTROL, INSURANCE AND VALUE ESTIMATE. A PROFESSIONAL APPRAISAL FIRM SHOULD PERFORM THIS FUNCTION BECAUSE (1) IT IS FAMILIAR WITH PROPER METHODS, (2) IT CAN PREPARE THE REPORT WITH MINIMUM CONFUSION AND INTERRRUPTION OF THE COLLEGE OPERATION, (3) USE OF ITS PRICING LIBRARY REDUCES TIME NEEDED AND…

  1. A Detailed Analysis of Statewide Teacher Appraisal Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, LeaAnn; Silverman, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Differences in the Texas Teacher Appraisal System scores of teacher subgroups over 2 years were examined for 2,366 teachers for scores on individual domains, sums of scores of the 1st 4 domains, and overall summary performance scores, as well as appraiser differences. Implications for teacher evaluation are discussed. (SLD)

  2. Appraisal of Artificial Screening Techniques of Tomato to Accurately Reflect Field Performance of the Late Blight Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska, Marzena; Nowicki, Marcin; Kłosińska, Urszula; Maciorowski, Robert; Kozik, Elżbieta U.

    2014-01-01

    Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant). In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with thefield experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato. PMID:25279467

  3. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Background Marathon (42 km) and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat), the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. PMID:25995653

  4. Self-appraisal in behavioural variant frontotemporal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Massimo, Lauren; Libon, David J; Chandrasekaran, Keerthi; Dreyfuss, Michael; McMillan, Corey T; Rascovsky, Katya; Boller, Ashley; Grossman, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous work investigating deficits in self-appraisal in behavioural-variant frontotemporal degeneration (bvFTD) has focused on a single domain: social/behavioural processes. We examined whether a domain-specific versus multi-domain model best explains degraded self-appraisal in bvFTD. Methods 49 patients with bvFTD and 73 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) were administered quantitative assessments of episodic memory, naming and grammatical comprehension. Self-appraisal of cognitive test performance was assessed by asking patients to rate their performance immediately after completing each neuropsychological test. A discrepancy score was created to reflect the difference between patient performance on neuropsychological tests and self-appraisal of their test performance. Self-appraisal for each neuropsychological measure was related to grey matter (GM) density in each group using voxel-based morphometry. Results bvFTD patients were poor at evaluating their own performance on all cognitive tests, with no significant correlations between self-appraisal and actual performance. By contrast, poor self-appraisal in AD was restricted to episodic memory performance. Poor self-appraisal on each task in bvFTD and AD was related to reduced GM density in several ventral and rostral medial prefrontal regions. Crucially, poor self-appraisal for all domains in bvFTD was related to a specific area of reduced GM density in the subgenual cingulate (BA 25). Conclusion Poor self-appraisal in bvFTD affects multiple domains, and this multi-domain impairment pattern is associated with frontal disease in the subgenual cingulate. PMID:22952324

  5. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance.

    PubMed

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key pointsBallistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks.In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance.The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase of the mass of type IIx muscle fibres and no change in their proportion. Thus, this type of training might be used effectively during the last weeks before competition, when the strength training load is usually reduced, in order to increase muscle power and shot put performance in novice shot putters. PMID:24149736

  6. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key points Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks. In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance. The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase of the mass of type IIx muscle fibres and no change in their proportion. Thus, this type of training might be used effectively during the last weeks before competition, when the strength training load is usually reduced, in order to increase muscle power and shot put performance in novice shot putters. PMID:24149736

  7. The relationship between academic performanceand pilot performance in a collegiate flight training environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Carolyn A.

    While flight time has commonly been used as a measure of a pilot's skill level, little research has been performed to determine what factors are linked to predicting a pilot's performance, particularly in a training environment. If a dependable link was found, prediction of how well an individual would do in flight training would be possible. Time, money and resources could be focused on individuals who are more likely to succeed in pilot training. Therefore, this study was designed to determine if a relationship between GPA and pilot performance exists, in order to determine if academic performance can serve as a predictor of pilot performance in a training environment. The use of historical records from Middle Tennessee State University's Aerospace Department, which included GPA information and flight training records information, was used evaluate this relationship. Results of the study indicate a statistically significant modest correlation between academic performance and pilot performance between some of the variable pairings.

  8. The Effects of Predictive Solutions on Training Time and Post-Training Performance for Control Systems with Human Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David Lee

    The effect of predictive solutions on training time (speed) and subsequent performance in a complex manual control system was investigated. A control system with a slow and complex response to the input signals was formulated. Fifty control operators, 25 with the aid of predictive solutions and 25 without, were tested; the mean performances of the…

  9. Source-monitoring training facilitates preschoolers' eyewitness memory performance.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Karen L; Spence, Melanie J

    2002-05-01

    Preschool children are more susceptible to misleading postevent information than are older children and adults. One reason for young children's suggestibility is their failure to monitor the source of their memories, as in, for example, discriminating whether an event was seen live versus on television. The authors investigated whether source-monitoring training would decrease preschoolers' suggestibility. Thirty-six 3-4-year-olds observed target live and video events and were then given source-monitoring or recognition (control) training on nontarget events. Following training, all children answered 24 misleading and nonmisleading target-event questions. Children given source-monitoring training were more accurate than control group children in response to misleading and nonmisleading yes-no questions and in response to nonmisleading, open-ended questions. Implications for strategy development, dual representation, and child witness interviewing are discussed. PMID:12005385

  10. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children

    PubMed Central

    Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J.; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training. PMID:25671082

  11. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  12. [Effect of hypoxia on muscular performance capacity: "living low--training high"].

    PubMed

    Vogt, M; Billeter, R; Hoppeler, H

    2003-07-01

    Altitude training is very popular among endurance athletes. But athletes respond very different on acute altitude exposure and altitude training. There are individual differences in the decrement of maximal oxygen consumption making general advices on the effect of altitude training very difficult. During the last few years different altitude training regimes have been developed. Beside "living high--training low," the concept of "living low--training high" becomes more and more popular. By this regime, athletes train under simulated or natural hypoxic conditions, while recovery time is spent at sea-level. Several studies show that with "living low--training high" maximal oxygen consumption as well as aerobic and anaerobic endurance performance can be improved. Molecular analysis reveal that a transcription factor called Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) acts as a master gene in the regulation of hypoxia-dependent gene expression. In human skeletal muscle "living low-training high" induces the expression of glycolytic enzymes, the angiogenic factor VEGF, myoglobin as well as the increase of capillarity and mitochondrial content in parallel to the induction of the HIF-1 system. In trained human skeletal muscle, these adaptations cause a shift of substrate selection to an increased oxidation of carbohydrates as well as to an improvement of the conditions for transport and utilization of oxygen. Depending on the kind of sports, "living low--training high" can be used to train these muscular adaptations and to increase exercise performance. PMID:12956036

  13. 12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 722.5 Section 722.5... § 722.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraiser. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment, and collection functions and...

  14. 12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 722.5 Section 722.5... § 722.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraiser. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment, and collection functions and...

  15. 12 CFR 164.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 164.5 Section 164.5... Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment, and collection functions and not involved,...

  16. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65... for Federally Related Transactions § 225.65 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending,...

  17. 12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 722.5 Section 722.5... § 722.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraiser. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment, and collection functions and...

  18. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65... for Federally Related Transactions § 225.65 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending,...

  19. 12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 722.5 Section 722.5... § 722.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraiser. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment, and collection functions and...

  20. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65... Federally Related Transactions § 225.65 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment,...

  1. 12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 722.5 Section 722.5... § 722.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraiser. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment, and collection functions and...

  2. 24 CFR 4001.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Appraisal. 4001.114 Section 4001... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 4001.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to be security for a Program...

  3. 24 CFR 257.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appraisal. 257.114 Section 257.114... PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 257.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to...

  4. 24 CFR 257.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Appraisal. 257.114 Section 257.114... PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 257.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to...

  5. 24 CFR 257.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appraisal. 257.114 Section 257.114... PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 257.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to...

  6. 24 CFR 4001.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Appraisal. 4001.114 Section 4001... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 4001.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to be security for a Program...

  7. 24 CFR 4001.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appraisal. 4001.114 Section 4001... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 4001.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to be security for a Program...

  8. 24 CFR 257.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Appraisal. 257.114 Section 257.114... PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 257.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to...

  9. 24 CFR 4001.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appraisal. 4001.114 Section 4001... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 4001.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to be security for a Program...

  10. 75 FR 36270 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL 12 CFR Part 1102 Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act... (October 1998). List of Subjects in 12 CFR Part 1102 Administrative practice and procedure, Banks, banking... of the Code of Federal Regulations is amended as follows: PART 1102--APPRAISER REGULATION Subpart...

  11. TRAINING LOAD, IMMUNE SYSTEM, UPPER RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND PERFORMANCE IN WELL-TRAINED CYCLISTS THROUGHOUT A COMPETITIVE SEASON

    PubMed Central

    Gobatto, C.A.; Manchado-Gobatto, F.B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the leukocyte subset counts, serum immunoglobulin A, performance and upper respiratory symptoms (URS), as well as their interrelationships, of well-trained cyclists for a 29-week training season using monitored loads. The season was divided into three phases: preparatory (nine weeks), first competitive phase (nine weeks) and second competitive phase (11 weeks). The sample consisted of eight well-trained cyclists, aged 18 ± 2 years. Immunological parameters and performance were evaluated during weeks 1 (baseline), 10 (early first competitive phase), 19 (early second competitive phase) and 29 (end of the second competitive phase). The training loads (volume x rating of perceived exertion) were monitored daily while the monitoring of URS was performed every 15 days using the WURSS-44 questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and a Pearson correlation test with the significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. No significant differences were found for training load, leukocyte subset counts or serum immunoglobulin A among the three phases. However, serum immunoglobulin A was 50.9% below the control group values. URS were significantly higher during the preparatory period, and there were significant correlations between URS and training load (strain) in the preparatory period (r = 0.72, p = 0.032) and second competitive phase (r = 0.73, p = 0.036). In conclusion, indicators of training load without a significant change throughout the season did not significantly affect immune parameters measured; however, the increase of strain can cause an increase of upper respiratory symptoms throughout the season, but without loss of performance. PMID:24744500

  12. Effect of Different Sprint Training Methods on Sprint Performance Over Various Distances: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Rumpf, Michael C; Lockie, Robert G; Cronin, John B; Jalilvand, Farzad

    2016-06-01

    Rumpf, MC, Lockie, RG, Cronin, JB, and Jalilvand, F. Effect of different sprint training methods on sprint performance over various distances: a brief review. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1767-1785, 2016-Linear sprinting speed is an essential physical quality for many athletes. There are a number of different training modalities that can be used to improve sprint performance. Strength and conditioning coaches must select the most appropriate modalities for their athletes, taking into consideration the sprint distances that typically occur during competition. The study purpose was to perform a brief review as to the effect of specific (free sprinting; resisted sprinting by sleds, bands, or incline running; assisted sprinting with a towing device or a downhill slope), nonspecific (resistance and plyometric training), and combined (a combination of specific and nonspecific) training methods on different sprint distances (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, and 31+ m). A total of 48 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, resulting in 1,485 subjects from a range of athletic backgrounds. The training effects associated with specific sprint training were classified as moderate (effect size [ES] = -1.00; %change = -3.23). Generally, the effect of specific sprint training tended to decrease with distance, although the largest training effects were observed for the 31+ m distance. The greatest training effects (ES = -0.43; %change = -1.65) of nonspecific training were observed for the 31+ m distance. The combined training revealed greatest effects (ES = -0.59; %change = -2.81) for the 0-10 m distance. After this review, specific sprint training methods seem the most beneficial over the investigated distances. However, the implementation of nonspecific training methods (e.g., strength and power training) could also benefit speed and athletic performance. PMID:26492101

  13. 77 FR 43084 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act...-Performance Green Buildings, Office of Governmentwide Policy, GSA. ACTION: Notice of release of core... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. John Simpson, Program Manager, Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act, Office...

  14. Evaluating the Implementation of Performance Improvement Training: The E[superscript 3] Process for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive approach to careful review and evaluation of the implementation of performance training intervention. It discusses the E[superscript 3] process for success, a basic framework for evaluating the implementation phase of a training program implemented as a broad-based performance improvement strategy. The intent…

  15. U.S. Army Primary Helicopter School Training Program Performance Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, John A.; Statham, Flavous D.

    The Helicopter Pilot Training Program of the Army differs from those of the other services in concept. It takes nonpilot servicemen and trains them to fly helicopters. The study provides normative performance data for a pilot trainee in an army light-observation helicopter as a first step toward establishing normative data for pilot performance in

  16. U.S. Army Primary Helicopter School Training Program Performance Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, John A.; Statham, Flavous D.

    The Helicopter Pilot Training Program of the Army differs from those of the other services in concept. It takes nonpilot servicemen and trains them to fly helicopters. The study provides normative performance data for a pilot trainee in an army light-observation helicopter as a first step toward establishing normative data for pilot performance in…

  17. Performance Management in the French System of Secondary-Teacher training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchibozo, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The present study focuses on performance analysis and performance management in teacher training in France. After a brief summary of the French system of secondary-teacher training, determinants affecting performance are analyzed. The analysis shows that three determinants - the number of external competitors, the size of a department and the number of posts to be filled by recruitment examinations - are crucial to the performance of a training department. The analysis reveals, however, that although a department's performance may be related to its size, efficiency and inefficiency limits have to be taken into account in growth strategies.

  18. Performance Appraisal for Matrix Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. R.; Sproull, J. Ruth

    1985-01-01

    A matrix management system designed for use by a highly technical nuclear weapons research and development facility to improve productivity and flexibility by the use of multiple authority, responsibility, and accountability relationships is described. (MSE)

  19. Validating machine vision MRT performance against trained observer performance for linear shift invariant sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, Stephen D.; Doe, Joshua M.; Teaney, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    Researchers at the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate have added the functionality of Machine Vision MRT (MV-MRT) to the NVLabCap software package. While the original calculations of MV-MRT were compared to human observers performance using digital imagery in a previous effort,1 the technical approach was not tested on 8-bit imagery using a variety of sensors in a variety of gain and level settings. Now that it is more simple to determine the MV-MRT for a sensor in multiple gain settings, it is prudent to compare the results of MV-MRT in multiple gain settings to the performance of human observers for thermal imaging systems that are linear and shift invariant. Here, a comparison of the results for a LWIR system to trained human observers is presented.

  20. Olympic weightlifting and plyometric training with children provides similar or greater performance improvements than traditional resistance training.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Hammami, Raouf; Kaabi, Sofiene; Chamari, Karim; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2014-06-01

    A number of organizations recommend that advanced resistance training (RT) techniques can be implemented with children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), plyometrics, and traditional RT programs with children. Sixty-three children (10-12 years) were randomly allocated to a 12-week control OWL, plyometric, or traditional RT program. Pre- and post-training tests included body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds, countermovement jump (CMJ), horizontal jump, balance, 5- and 20-m sprint times, isokinetic force and power at 60 and 300° · s(-1). Magnitude-based inferences were used to analyze the likelihood of an effect having a standardized (Cohen's) effect size exceeding 0.20. All interventions were generally superior to the control group. Olympic weightlifting was >80% likely to provide substantially better improvements than plyometric training for CMJ, horizontal jump, and 5- and 20-m sprint times, whereas >75% likely to substantially exceed traditional RT for balance and isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1). Plyometric training was >78% likely to elicit substantially better training adaptations than traditional RT for balance, isokinetic force at 60 and 300° · s(-1), isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1), and 5- and 20-m sprints. Traditional RT only exceeded plyometric training for BMI and isokinetic power at 60° · s(-1). Hence, OWL and plyometrics can provide similar or greater performance adaptations for children. It is recommended that any of the 3 training modalities can be implemented under professional supervision with proper training progressions to enhance training adaptations in children. PMID:24172724

  1. Relationships between Training Load, Salivary Cortisol Responses and Performance during Season Training in Middle and Long Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Mª; del Campo-Vecino, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Monitoring training from a multifactorial point of view is of great importance in elite endurance athletes. This study aims to analyze the relationships between indicators of training load, hormonal status and neuromuscular performance, and to compare these values with competition performance, in elite middle and long-distance runners. Method Fifteen elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age = 26.3±5.1 yrs) were measured for training volume, training zone and session rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (daily), countermovement jump (CMJ) and salivary free cortisol (weekly) for 39 weeks (i.e., the whole season). Competition performance was also observed throughout the study, registering the season best and worst competitions. Results Season average salivary free cortisol concentrations correlate significantly with CMJ (r = −0.777) and RPE (r = 0.551). Also, weekly averages of CMJ significantly correlates with RPE (r = −0.426), distance run (r = −0.593, p<0.001) and training zone (r = 0.437, p<0.05). Finally, it was found that the CMJ (+8.5%, g = 0.65) and the RPE (−17.6%, g = 0.94) measured the week before the best competition performance of the season were significantly different compared with the measurement conducted the week before the season’s worst competition performance. Conclusions Monitoring weekly measurements of CMJ and RPE could be recommended to control training process of such athletes in a non-invasive, field-based, systematic way. PMID:25153137

  2. Evaluating the relationship between change in performance on training tasks and on untrained outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Peters, Kelly D.; Hindin, Shoshana; Petway, Kevin T.; Kennison, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Training interventions for older adults are designed to remediate performance on trained tasks and to generalize, or transfer, to untrained tasks. Evidence for transfer is typically based on the trained group showing greater improvement than controls on untrained tasks, or on a correlation between gains in training and in transfer tasks. However, this ignores potential correlational relationships between trained and untrained tasks that exist before training. By accounting for crossed (trained and untrained) and lagged (pre-training and post-training) and cross-lagged relationships between trained and untrained scores in structural equation models, the training-transfer gain relationship can be independently estimated. Transfer is confirmed if only the trained but not control participants' gain correlation is significant. Modeling data from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) study (Smith et al., 2009), transfer from speeded auditory discrimination and syllable span to list and text memory and to working memory was demonstrated in 487 adults aged 65–93. Evaluation of age, sex, and education on pretest scores and on change did not alter this. The overlap of the training with transfer measures was also investigated to evaluate the hypothesis that performance gains in a non-verbal speeded auditory discrimination task may be associated with gains on fewer tasks than gains in a verbal working memory task. Gains in speeded processing were associated with gains on one list memory measure. Syllable span gains were associated with improvement in difficult list recall, story recall, and working memory factor scores. Findings confirmed that more overlap with task demands was associated with gains to more of the tasks assessed, suggesting that transfer effects are related to task overlap in multimodal training. PMID:25165440

  3. Monitoring training loads, stress, immune-endocrine responses and performance in tennis players.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R V; Moreira, A; Lodo, L; Nosaka, K; Coutts, A J; Aoki, M S

    2013-09-01

    The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10) were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress) were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A. One repetition maximum strength, running endurance, jump height and agility were assessed before and after training. The periodised training plan led to significant weekly changes in training loads (i.e. increasing in weeks 3 and 4, decreasing in week 5) and post-training improvements in strength, endurance and agility (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentration and the symptoms of stress also increased in weeks 3 and/or 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). Conversely, the testosterone to cortisol ratio decreased in weeks 3 and 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the training plan evoked adaptive changes in stress tolerance and hormonal responses, which may have mediated the improvements in physical performance. PMID:24744485

  4. MONITORING TRAINING LOADS, STRESS, IMMUNE-ENDOCRINE RESPONSES AND PERFORMANCE IN TENNIS PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, A.; Lodo, L.; Nosaka, K.; Coutts, A.J.; Aoki, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10) were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress) were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A. One repetition maximum strength, running endurance, jump height and agility were assessed before and after training. The periodised training plan led to significant weekly changes in training loads (i.e. increasing in weeks 3 and 4, decreasing in week 5) and post-training improvements in strength, endurance and agility (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentration and the symptoms of stress also increased in weeks 3 and/or 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). Conversely, the testosterone to cortisol ratio decreased in weeks 3 and 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the training plan evoked adaptive changes in stress tolerance and hormonal responses, which may have mediated the improvements in physical performance. PMID:24744485

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Inductive Reasoning Performance: Findings from the ACTIVE Reasoning Training Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Jeanine M.; Franchetti, Mary Kathryn; Rebok, George W.; Spira, Adam P.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Willis, Sherry L.; Gross, Alden L.

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study, we examined the longitudinal association of baseline depressive symptoms on inductive reasoning performance over a ten-year period between the reasoning training and control conditions (N = 1,375). At baseline, 322 participants (23%) reported elevated depressive symptoms, defined by a score ≥ 9 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (12-item). Differences in baseline depressive status were not associated with immediate post-training gains or with subsequent annual change in reasoning performance, suggesting that the presence of elevated baseline depressive symptoms does not impact the ability to benefit from reasoning training. PMID:25244465

  6. The Effect of Simulation Training on the Performance of Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    In December, 2005, the Air Force Auditing Agency conducted an interview of 282 nurses and physicians stationed in Iraq. The majority of the nurses from the interview reported they were not prepared to care for critically injured soldiers. This study investigated whether a new training technology, using scenario-based simulations, could improve

  7. The Effect of Simulation Training on the Performance of Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    In December, 2005, the Air Force Auditing Agency conducted an interview of 282 nurses and physicians stationed in Iraq. The majority of the nurses from the interview reported they were not prepared to care for critically injured soldiers. This study investigated whether a new training technology, using scenario-based simulations, could improve…

  8. Student Cooperative Training Units. Business Partnerships Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeles, Rebecca

    The North Clackamas School District (Oregon) conducted the Student Cooperative Training Units (CTU) program. The CTU program addressed two key issues that disrupted the development and maintenance of local high technology businesses: (1) The aerospace parts casting, health care, and graphic reproduction industries have experienced a shortage of…

  9. Predicting space telerobotic operator training performance from human spatial ability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Andrew M.; Oman, Charles M.; Galvan, Raquel; Natapoff, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Our goal was to determine whether existing tests of spatial ability can predict an astronaut's qualification test performance after robotic training. Because training astronauts to be qualified robotics operators is so long and expensive, NASA is interested in tools that can predict robotics performance before training begins. Currently, the Astronaut Office does not have a validated tool to predict robotics ability as part of its astronaut selection or training process. Commonly used tests of human spatial ability may provide such a tool to predict robotics ability. We tested the spatial ability of 50 active astronauts who had completed at least one robotics training course, then used logistic regression models to analyze the correlation between spatial ability test scores and the astronauts' performance in their evaluation test at the end of the training course. The fit of the logistic function to our data is statistically significant for several spatial tests. However, the prediction performance of the logistic model depends on the criterion threshold assumed. To clarify the critical selection issues, we show how the probability of correct classification vs. misclassification varies as a function of the mental rotation test criterion level. Since the costs of misclassification are low, the logistic models of spatial ability and robotic performance are reliable enough only to be used to customize regular and remedial training. We suggest several changes in tracking performance throughout robotics training that could improve the range and reliability of predictive models.

  10. Establishing the Concepts and Techniques of Performance-Oriented Training in Army Training Centers: A Summary Report. Technical Report No. 75-21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John E.; And Others

    The specific objective of Work Unit ATC-PERFORM was to provide technical research and development assistance to the Army agencies involved in the review, evaluation, and refinement of performance-based training techniques in Army Training Centers. It continued and extended the Army's effort to accomplish major training innovations that had been…

  11. Does Combined Dry Land Strength and Aerobic Training Inhibit Performance of Young Competitive Swimmers?

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A.; Reis, Victor M.; van den Tillaar, Roland; Costa, Aldo M.; Silva, António J.; Marques, Mário C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was twofold: (i) to examine the effects of eight weeks of combined dry land strength and aerobic swimming training for increasing upper and lower body strength, power and swimming performance in young competitive swimmers and, (ii) to assess the effects of a detraining period (strength training cessation) on strength and swimming performance. The participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (eight boys and four girls) and a control group (six boys and five girls). Apart from normal practice sessions (six training units per week of 1 h and 30 min per day), the experimental group underwent eight weeks (two sessions per week) of strength training. The principal strength exercises were the bench press, the leg extension, and two power exercises such as countermovement jump and medicine ball throwing. Immediately following this strength training program, all the swimmers undertook a 6 week detraining period, maintaining the normal swimming program, without any strength training. Swimming (25 m and 50 m performances, and hydrodynamic drag values), and strength (bench press and leg extension) and power (throwing medicine ball and countermovement jump) performances were tested in three moments: (i) before the experimental period, (ii) after eight weeks of combined strength and swimming training, and (iii) after the six weeks of detraining period. Both experimental and control groups were evaluated. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved. Key points This study investigated the effect of dry land strength training on sprint performance in young competitive swimmers. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved. PMID:24149700

  12. Plyometric Training Effects on Athletic Performance in Youth Soccer Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Abigail A; Miltenberger, Matthew R; Lopez, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to critically analyze the literature to determine the effectiveness of plyometric training on athletic performance in youth soccer athletes. A total of 7 studies were included in this review after meeting the following criteria: (a) used plyometric training programs to assess athletic performance, (b) subjects were soccer athletes aged preadolescent up to 17 years, and (c) were published from 2000 to January 2014. Study methods were assessed using the PEDro scale with scores ranging from 4 to 6. Results showed similarities and differences in methodologies and procedures among the included studies. Athletic performance consisting of kicking distance, speed, jumping ability, and agility significantly improved because of plyometric training interventions. The current evidence suggests that plyometric training should be completed 2 days per week for 8-10 weeks during soccer practice with a 72-hour rest period between plyometric training days. The initial number of foot contacts should be 50-60 per session and increase to no more than 80-120 foot contacts per session for this age group to prevent overuse injuries. A total of 3-4 plyometric training exercises should be performed 2-4 sets for 6-15 repetitions per training session. The evidence and the literature suggest that plyometric training for this age group should only be implemented using recommended safety guidelines such as those published by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and the National Strength and Conditioning Association and under appropriate supervision by trained personnel. PMID:25756326

  13. Flight Crew Training: Multi-Crew Pilot License Training versus Traditional Training and Its Relationship with Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the International Civil Aviation Organization promulgated requirements for a Multi-Crew Pilot License for First Officers, in which the candidate attends approximately two years of ground school and trains as part of a two-person crew in a simulator of a Boeing 737 or an Airbus 320 airliner. In the traditional method, a candidate qualifies

  14. Flight Crew Training: Multi-Crew Pilot License Training versus Traditional Training and Its Relationship with Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the International Civil Aviation Organization promulgated requirements for a Multi-Crew Pilot License for First Officers, in which the candidate attends approximately two years of ground school and trains as part of a two-person crew in a simulator of a Boeing 737 or an Airbus 320 airliner. In the traditional method, a candidate qualifies…

  15. Using emotional intelligence to facilitate strengthened appraiser development.

    PubMed

    Tavabie, Abdol; Koczwara, Anna; Patterson, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to developing strengthened medical appraiser skills prior to the introduction of medical revalidation. We describe how we extended previous skills-based models and competency checklists to produce a behavioural model of effective appraiser performance. Development centre (DC) methods were used to produce a one-day workshop to encourage appraisers to reflect on their current level of ability and to identify and address additional required skills through observation, practice and feedback. In describing the DC, we discuss the impact of using the concept of emotional intelligence (EI) to develop appraiser skills and improve self-awareness. This aimed to support appraisers to effectively influence appraisees' continual professional development (CPD) and review appraisee practice through audit, significant events and patient and colleague feedback, with the ultimate aim of improving patient care. Finally, we provide initial evaluation data for our DC approach. PMID:20202316

  16. Self-attitude awareness training: An aid to effective performance in microgravity and virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald E.; Harm, D. L.; Florer, Faith L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing development of training procedures to enhance self-attitude awareness in astronaut trainees. The procedures are based on observations regarding self-attitude (perceived self-orientation and self-motion) reported by astronauts. Self-attitude awareness training is implemented on a personal computer system and consists of lesson stacks programmed using Hypertalk with Macromind Director movie imports. Training evaluation will be accomplished by an active search task using the virtual Spacelab environment produced by the Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME-PAT) as well as by assessment of astronauts' performance and sense of well-being during orbital flight. The general purpose of self-attitude awareness training is to use as efficiently as possible the limited DOME-PAT training time available to astronauts prior to a space mission. We suggest that similar training procedures may enhance the performance of virtual environment operators.

  17. Teacher Appraisal Program, 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde Park Central School District, NY.

    This teacher appraisal program, developed by the Hyde Park School District, is based on the following objectives: (a) clarifying performance expectations of the individual; (b) establishing short- and long-term job targets to bring about learner, professional, or program improvement; (c) improving the relationship between the appraisee and…

  18. Administrative Appraisal: A Step to Improved Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Robert E.

    This report encourages goal and standard setting for administrators and administrator participation in the appraisal process. The first section outlines the weaknesses of present evaluation systems. The second section, which deals with a goal-oriented system, discusses the philosophy behind the system, the standards of performance, and the

  19. Sustained effect of simulation-based ultrasound training on clinical performance: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Tolsgaard, M G; Ringsted, C; Dreisler, E; Nørgaard, L N; Petersen, J H; Madsen, M E; Freiesleben, N L C; Sørensen, J L; Tabor, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of initial simulation-based transvaginal sonography (TVS) training compared with clinical training only, on the clinical performance of residents in obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn), assessed 2 months into their residency. Methods In a randomized study, new Ob-Gyn residents (n = 33) with no prior ultrasound experience were recruited from three teaching hospitals. Participants were allocated to either simulation-based training followed by clinical training (intervention group; n = 18) or clinical training only (control group; n = 15). The simulation-based training was performed using a virtual-reality TVS simulator until an expert performance level was attained, and was followed by training on a pelvic mannequin. After 2 months of clinical training, one TVS examination was recorded for assessment of each resident's clinical performance (n = 26). Two ultrasound experts blinded to group allocation rated the scans using the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS) scale. Results During the 2 months of clinical training, participants in the intervention and control groups completed an average ± SD of 58 ± 41 and 63 ± 47 scans, respectively (P = 0.67). In the subsequent clinical performance test, the intervention group achieved higher OSAUS scores than did the control group (mean score, 59.1% vs 37.6%, respectively; P < 0.001). A greater proportion of the intervention group passed a pre-established pass/fail level than did controls (85.7% vs 8.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusion Simulation-based ultrasound training leads to substantial improvement in clinical performance that is sustained after 2 months of clinical training. © 2015 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. PMID:25580809

  20. Maladaptive Self-Appraisals before Trauma Exposure Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Guthrie, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the proposal that negative appraisals represent a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma. Trainee firefighters (N = 68) were assessed during training (before trauma exposure) for PTSD, history of traumatic events, and tendency to engage in negative appraisals. Firefighters were reassessed 4…