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1

Training Manual Performance Appraisal Process  

E-print Network

Training Manual May, 2014 Performance Appraisal Process For Local 2324 Represented Employees Human/or Vice President in each area. The form and training manuals will be available on the Human Resources to provide you with any assistance you may need, including training of supervisors who are responsible

Spence, Harlan Ernest

2

Experimental Study Comparing a Traditional Approach to Performance Appraisal Training to a Whole-Brain Training Method at C.B. Fleet Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a new approach to performance appraisal training. Motivated by split-brain theory and existing studies of cognitive information processing and performance appraisals, this exploratory study examined the effects of a whole-brain approach to training managers for implementing performance

Selden, Sally; Sherrier, Tom; Wooters, Robert

2012-01-01

3

The Dilemma of Performance Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper deals with the dilemma of managing performance using performance appraisal. The authors will evaluate the historical\\u000a development of appraisals and argue that the critical area of line management development that was been identified as a critical\\u000a success factor in appraisals has been ignored in the later literature evaluating the effectiveness of performance through\\u000a appraisals. This paper will evaluate

Peter Prowse; Julie Prowse

4

5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section 301... § 301.303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable...with the agency's performance appraisal plan established under...

2012-01-01

5

5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section 301... § 301.303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable...with the agency's performance appraisal plan established under...

2011-01-01

6

5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section 301... § 301.303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable...with the agency's performance appraisal plan established under...

2013-01-01

7

4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts...UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance appraisal. (a) The GAO shall develop one or more performance appraisal systems which provide for...

2012-01-01

8

4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts...UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance appraisal. (a) The GAO shall develop one or more performance appraisal systems which provide for...

2013-01-01

9

4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts...UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance appraisal. (a) The GAO shall develop one or more performance appraisal systems which provide for...

2011-01-01

10

5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section 301... § 301.303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable...with the agency's performance appraisal plan established under...

2014-01-01

11

Assessing the legality of performance appraisals.  

PubMed

Performance appraisals have recently become the focus of legal scrutiny. Because the appraisal process may lead to salary adjustments, promotions, opportunities for development, discipline, or even termination, issues such as fairness and discrimination are raised. This paper discusses specific constitutional and statutory laws that prohibit discrimination in performance appraisals. In addition, specific rulings from select court cases illuminate key legal defense factors in performance appraisal. Questions are posed to help identify weaknesses in a laboratory's performance appraisal system. PMID:10116382

Snyder, J R

1991-01-01

12

A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural…

Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

2012-01-01

13

5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.  

... Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

2014-01-01

14

5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

2012-01-01

15

5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

2011-01-01

16

5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

2013-01-01

17

Measuring success: CNS performance appraisal.  

PubMed

With the current focus on quality outcomes and economic issues related to health care, clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) must effectively document their unique contributions that enhance the realization of organizational missions. This paper examines an outcome-oriented performance appraisal tool designed to quantify CNS services. Eleven performance criteria with performance behaviors were negotiated by CNSs and their respective supervisors based on job descriptions and organizational goals. A quantitative scoring system was then developed based on specific performance behaviors. This method of objective outcome based evaluation has not only substantiated the CNS's value but also has enhanced collaboration between CNSs and administrators. PMID:1764654

Houston, S; Luquire, R

1991-01-01

18

Rhetorical Dimensions of Performance Appraisal Interviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve the performance appraisal systems used by personnel offices, a study collected the reactions of 200 managers to giving performance appraisals through interviews, scripts, role enactments, a list writing exercise, and an anxiety measure. The data produced three major findings: (1) managers experienced high levels of anxiety when giving…

Skopec, Eric Wm.

19

28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance appraisal for inmate workers. 345.41 Section...Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work...

2011-07-01

20

28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance appraisal for inmate workers. 345.41 Section...Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work...

2012-07-01

21

42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section...SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the...shall be subject to a performance appraisal system which shall be...

2013-10-01

22

42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section...SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the...shall be subject to a performance appraisal system which shall be...

2011-10-01

23

42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section...SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the...shall be subject to a performance appraisal system which shall be...

2012-10-01

24

5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430...for 120 days or longer, the gaining organization must set performance goals and requirements...or temporary assignment. The gaining organization must appraise the senior...

2010-01-01

25

Performance Appraisal: Behavioralism and Its Discontents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of performance appraisal in nonprofit organizations and the difficulties involved in obtaining accurate job feedback examines four types of appraisal: behavioralism; minimal model; heuristic knowledge; and tacit information from in-house experimentation. Conclusions are drawn about the usefulness of these approaches and a suggestion for…

Schwartz, Charles A.

1986-01-01

26

Police officer performance appraisal and overall satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the level of dissatisfaction with police officer performance appraisal systems in many agencies is substantial (Hughes, 1990; Lilley, 2002), a recent nationwide survey of six hundred police organizations indicated that overall satisfaction was significantly higher among agencies with greater levels of community policing implementation (Lilley & Hinduja, 2006a). Given that research has suggested that dissatisfaction with the appraisal process

David Lilley; Sameer Hinduja

2007-01-01

27

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS SETTING EXPECTATIONS, FEEDBACK & APPRAISAL  

E-print Network

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS SETTING EXPECTATIONS, FEEDBACK & APPRAISAL PMP EMPLOYEE FORM Name: Period Covered: Job Title: Department: Division: Supervisor: EXPECTATION SETTING MEETING HELD AND JOB and excellent work are widely recognized. Performance consistently exceeds all defined expectations, producing

Adali, Tulay

28

Justice perceptions of performance appraisal practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying structure of employees' justice perceptions in the context of their organizations' performance appraisal practices. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Ten multi-item scales were designed to measure the perceived fairness of performance appraisal practices. A nested confirmatory factor analysis of employee responses (n=188) compared the four justice dimensions (i.e. procedural, distributive, interpersonal,

Paul W. Thurston Jr; Laurel McNall

2010-01-01

29

Evaluating Library Staff: A Performance Appraisal System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides librarians and library managers with a performance appraisal system that measures staff fairly and objectively and links performance to the goals of the library. The following topics are addressed: (1) identifying expectations for quality service or standards of performance; (2) the importance of a library's code of service,…

Belcastro, Patricia

30

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS  

E-print Network

1 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY NAME: WORK LOCATION: APPRAISAL PERIOD: SUPERVISOR: The overall performance rating for the entire and difficult to achieve because it represents consistently exceptional and documented performance

31

Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

Bagnell, Rhea

2012-01-01

32

Teacher Performance Appraisal in Thailand: Poison or Panacea?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research focuses on the examination of problems related to the national teacher performance appraisal system by the Thai Ministry of Education. It highlights major problems of the current performance appraisal system by delineating the weaknesses and pitfalls of the current appraisal system. The findings indicate problems to three major…

Pimpa, Nattavud

2005-01-01

33

Age stereotyping in performance appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

32 personnel specialists evaluated written performance descriptions of 4 secretaries. The 4th secretary was a target whose age (24 or 61 yrs) and job experience (5 yrs or less than 6 mo) were experimentally manipulated in a ^h 2?×?2 ^H factorial design. Age of participant was also measured and dichotomized at the median (33). Each secretary was evaluated on 6

Donald P. Schwab; Herbert G. Heneman

1978-01-01

34

Administrators' Perceptions of the Performance Appraisal Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on department heads'/ chairs' perceptions of the appraisal interview (a face-to-face interpersonal communication event), assessment of the faculty member's role in the appraisal interview, and assessment of the academic administrator's role in the appraisal interview. The results indicate that approximately 20% of respondents…

McDowell, Earl E.

35

Testing a Model of Performance Appraisal Fit on Attitudinal Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test the effects of the congruence of employees' current versus ideal performance appraisal system on performance appraisal attitudes. This in turn was assessed as to its predictive relationships with affective organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Continuance organizational commitment and job performance were also assessed in the model. A total of 149 surveys were

Hal J. Whiting; Theresa J. B. Kline

2007-01-01

36

Tennessee Extension Agents' Perceptions of Performance Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisal is necessary for summative decisions about employees, such as merit pay and promotion. The research reported here describes Extension agent perceptions of their performance appraisal system. The population studied consisted of all Tennessee Extension agents (N = 312). Surveys were completed by 218 respondents, for a completed…

Donaldson, Joseph L.; French, Russell L.

2013-01-01

37

Principals' Informal Methods for Appraising Poor-Performing Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher appraisal is never an easy task, especially of teachers experiencing difficulties and failures. Nevertheless it is a requirement for good management, in our schools no less than our corporations. Forty elementary school principals in Israel described the informal methods they use to appraise teachers who are performing poorly. Most…

Yariv, Eliezer

2009-01-01

38

The stigma of obesity and discrimination in performance appraisal: a theoretical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a theoretical model to study the effect of obesity stigma on performance appraisal. The model draws from the appraisal, obesity, stigmatization, and prejudice literatures to examine three sets of factors: individual factors in the appraiser(s) and the obese appraisee; factors in performance appraisal; and contextual factors. According to the model, these factors make it easier or harder for

Regina Ferreira Bento; Lourdes Ferreira White; Susan Rawson Zacur

2012-01-01

39

The stigma of obesity and discrimination in performance appraisal: a theoretical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a theoretical model to study the effect of obesity stigma on performance appraisal. The model draws from the appraisal, obesity, stigmatization, and prejudice literatures to examine three sets of factors: individual factors in the appraiser(s) and the obese appraisee; factors in performance appraisal; and contextual factors. According to the model, these factors make it easier or harder for

Regina Ferreira Bento; Lourdes Ferreira White; Susan Rawson Zacur

2011-01-01

40

CEO performance appraisal: review and recommendations.  

PubMed

CEO performance appraisal (PA) is very valuable to an organization, but the chances of obtaining a PA of high quality decrease as executive responsibility increases. The realities of CEO PA are that it: (1) is inevitable; (2) is creative and complex; (3) involves politics; and (4) has a significant effect on the organization and the executive. PA is conducted for legal and social requirements, to enhance communication, to provide opportunities for improvement, and to relate performance to compensation. This article discusses several problems with chief executive officer (CEO) PA and the contemporary approaches that seek to improve it. Three fundamental areas for evaluation are identified: (1) organizational success; (2) areawide health status; and (3) professional role fulfillment. These provide an outline for successful healthcare PA. In addition to a discussion of the strategic considerations behind a successful CEO PA system, several recommendations are offered for the implementation of the annual evaluation process. The final goal of CEO PA is to link its results to CEO incentive compensation. It is strongly recommended that some portion of the CEO's salary directly hinge on his performance in two critical areas: organizational effectiveness and community health status. PMID:11216120

Newman, J F; Tyler, L; Dunbar, D M

2001-01-01

41

Administrators' Views on Teacher Evaluation: Examining Ontario's Teacher Performance Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the views of administrators (i.e., principals and vice-principals) in Ontario, Canada, with regard to the province's Teacher Performance Appraisal process. A total of 178 responses were collected from a survey that examined five areas: 1) preparation and training; 2) classroom observations; 3) preparing the formal…

Maharaj, Sachin

2014-01-01

42

Managerial Competencies and the Managerial Performance Appraisal Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human resource managers (n=277) identified six management competencies as critical: leadership, customer focus, results orientation, problem solving, communication skills, and teamwork. However, many companies do not assess these competencies in the management performance appraisal process. (Contains 22 references.) (SK)

Abraham, Steven E.; Karns, Lanny A.; Shaw, Kenneth; Mena, Manuel A.

2001-01-01

43

Career Development and Performance Appraisal: It Takes Two to Tango.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors state that when career development and performance appraisal are viewed as supporting each other, each becomes stronger. Consequently, each is in a better position to achieve the broad organizational objective of increasing the contributions of human resources. (CT)

Jacobson, Betsy; Kaye, Beverly L.

1986-01-01

44

Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Training Area. DOE Training Coordination Program  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen Tiger Team Assessment and eight Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) final reports have been received and reviewed by the DOE Training Coordination Program during Fiscal Year 1992. These assessments and appraisals included both reactor and non-reactor nuclear facilities in their reports. The Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports both used TSA performance objectives, and list ``concerns`` as a result of their findings. However, the TSA reports categorized concerns into the following functional areas: (1) Organization and Administration, (2) Radiation Protection, (3) Nuclear Criticality Safety, (4) Occupational Safety, (5) Engineering/Technical Support, (6) Emergency Preparedness, (7) Safety Assessments, (8) Quality Verification, (9) Fire Protection, (10) Environmental Protection, and I (1) Energetic Materials Safety. Although these functional areas match most of the TSA performance objectives, not all of the TSA performance objectives are addressed. For example, the TSA reports did not include Training, Maintenance, and Operations as functional areas. Rather, they included concerns that related to these topics throughout the 11 functional areas identified above. For consistency, the Training concerns that were identified in each of the TSA report functional areas have been included in this summary with the corresponding TSA performance objective.

Not Available

1993-01-01

45

Performance appraisal satisfaction and employee outcomes: mediating and moderating roles of work motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore alternative relationships between performance appraisal satisfaction and employee outcomes in the form of self-reported work performance, affective organizational commitment and turnover intention. A cross-sectional survey of 593 employees from 64 Norwegian savings banks showed that performance appraisal satisfaction was directly related to affective commitment and turnover intention. The relationship between performance appraisal

Bård Kuvaas

2006-01-01

46

Experiential Learning in Human Resources: A Performance Appraisal Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experiential exercise appropriate for a human resource management course. While the focus of this exercise was to develop a performance appraisal system for either a retail employee or an officer in a student organization, the exercise could be used in other application settings. The background, procedures and discussion of the experience is discussed. While the application

Dawn Thorndike Pysarchik; E. Lansing

1994-01-01

47

Fair Employment and Performance Appraisal: Legal Requirements and Practical Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of tests in personnel decisions has become an increasing legal liability for employers. The major questions raised by the courts concerning this use of tests are described. Current federal guidelines for performance appraisal systems, as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, are explained and traced to Title VII of…

Edwards, Keith J.

48

Summer Youth Employment and Training Program. California Statewide Report on the Appraisal of Basic Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An amendment to the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) mandated an assessment of the basic skills of all Summer Youth Employment and Training (SYET) Program enrollees. Many agencies in California used the Employability Competency System Appraisal Test to assess 1987 SYET participants' basic reading and math skills. Between June and October 1987,…

Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System Consortium.

49

Square Pegs and Round Holes: Ruminations on the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Performance Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models of comprehensive Performance Management systems include both employee development and evaluative components. The Organizational Behavior Management discipline focuses almost exclusively on the developmental component, while the Industrial and Organizational Psychology discipline is focused on use of performance appraisals. Performance

Gravina, Nicole E.; Siers, Brian P.

2011-01-01

50

Characteristics of Performance Appraisals and Their Impact on Sales Force Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 15 automobile salespeople indicated that job satisfaction increased when performance appraisals provided clear criteria that met workers' approval and when appraisals were fair and used to determine rewards. (Contains 61 references.) (SK)

Pettijohn, Charles E.; Pettijohn, Linda S.; d'Amico, Michael

2001-01-01

51

Staff Appraisal in Further and Higher Education: A Study in Performance Review and Development. Management in College Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The many forms of performance appraisal for faculty in Great Britain are examined. Advice and suggestions about appropriate training are offered, and conclusions are drawn about the kind of system that is most beneficial to the education service and to people employed in higher and further education institutions. Five chapters focus on:…

Scribbins, Keith; Walton, Frank

52

Staff Appraisal in Higher Education--a Study of Performance Review at Nene College, Northampton.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance review process used for faculty evaluation at Nene College (England) was assessed by surveying appraisers, appraisees, and senior administrators. Most appraisees and appraisers thought that appraisers should be line managers rather than peers, and that classroom observation should be included. Opportunity for staff to communicate…

Smith, Robert

1995-01-01

53

Appraising Teacher Performance: A Quantitative Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a brief research review regarding the relationship between teacher behavior and student outcomes, a model is proposed for identifying those teaching behaviors that are significantly related to high-quality student performance. The model's stages include: (1) delineation of questions; (2) establishment of a framework; (3) selection of an…

Wingate, James G.; Bowers, Fred

54

Performance appraisal: match the tool to the task.  

PubMed

Performance appraisals can be vital tools in administering an effective human resources program if they're used properly, although they're particularly useful in salary administration, incentive award determination, and promotability assessment, selecting the method or methods that best meet your needs may not be easy. John D. McMillan, director of compensation services, and Hout W. Doyel, consultant, of A.S. Hansen, Inc., explain the key features, advantages, and disadvantages of four major types of performance appraisal methods: the trait checklist, the management by objectives approach, the free-form approach, and the responsibility rating system. The authors note, for instance, that the most frequently used method, the trait checklist, has these major disadvantages: Traits that are rated tend to be general and don't relate specifically to job performance. The tendency of raters is to focus on personal characteristics rather than job performance results. And the method makes no sense where different levels in a job family are rated on the same form. PMID:10248411

McMillan, J D; Doyel, H W

1980-01-01

55

Developing successful performance appraisals through choosing appropriate words to effectively describe work.  

PubMed

For the health care manager, correct words are essential to describe work and can determine if performance appraisals are high quality, efficient, effective, objective, and fair. Work descriptors were assessed from performance appraisal forms, textbooks, and current literature with word lists presented, assessed, and reviewed. It was found that work descriptors are not always carefully selected and that health care managers should wisely select appropriate words to describe work in performance appraisals. PMID:9702561

Timmreck, T C

1998-01-01

56

1 NIH Office of Human Resources Workforce Relations Division CY 11 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT APPRAISAL PROGRAM (PMAP)  

E-print Network

1 NIH Office of Human Resources ­ Workforce Relations Division CY 11 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT APPRAISAL PROGRAM (PMAP) CLOSEOUT GUIDANCE FOR SUPERVISORS RATINGS Reference the HHS Performance Management for Non-Standard Situations" found on the last page of the HHS Performance Management Appraisal Program

Baker, Chris I.

57

Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Operations Area. DOE Training Coordination Program  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen Tiger Team Assessment and eight Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) final reports have been received and reviewed by the DOE Training Coordination Program during Fiscal Year 1992. These assessments and appraisals included both reactor and non-reactor nuclear facilities in their reports. The Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports both used TSA performance objectives, and list ``concerns`` as a result of their findings. However, the TSA reports categorized concerns into the following functional areas: (1) Organization and Administration, (2) Radiation Protection, (3) Nuclear Criticality Safety, (4) Occupational Safety, (5) Engineering/Technical Support, (6) Emergency Preparedness, (7) Safety Assessments, (8) Quality Verification, (9) Fire Protection, (10) Environmental Protection, and (11) Energetic Materials Safety. Although these functional areas match most of the TSA performance objectives, not all of the TSA performance objectives are addressed. For example, the TSA reports did not include Training, Maintenance, and Operations as functional areas. Rather, they included concerns that related to these topics throughout the 11 functional areas identified above. For consistency, the Operations concerns that were identified in each of the TSA report functional areas have been included in this summary with the corresponding TSA performance objective.

Not Available

1993-01-01

58

Online training course on critical appraisal for nurses: adaptation and assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Research is an essential activity for improving quality and efficiency in healthcare. The objective of this study was to train nurses from the public Basque Health Service (Osakidetza) in critical appraisal, promoting continuous training and the use of research in clinical practice. Methods This was a prospective pre-post test study. The InfoCritique course on critical appraisal was translated and adapted. A sample of 50 nurses and 3 tutors was recruited. Educational strategies and assessment instruments were established for the course. A course website was created that contained contact details of the teaching team and coordinator, as well as a course handbook and videos introducing the course. Assessment comprised the administration of questionnaires before and after the course, in order to explore the main intervention outcomes: knowledge acquired and self-learning readiness. Satisfaction was also measured at the end of the course. Results Of the 50 health professionals recruited, 3 did not complete the course for personal or work-related reasons. The mean score on the pre-course knowledge questionnaire was 70.5 out of 100, with a standard deviation of 11.96. In general, participants’ performance on the knowledge questionnaire improved after the course, as reflected in the notable increase of the mean score, to 86.6, with a standard deviation of 10.00. Further, analyses confirmed statistically significant differences between pre- and post-course results (p?

2014-01-01

59

Caffeine's Effect on Appraisal and Mental Arithmetic Performance: A Cognitive Modeling Approach Tells Us More  

E-print Network

Caffeine's Effect on Appraisal and Mental Arithmetic Performance: A Cognitive Modeling Approach Abstract A human subject experiment was conducted to investigate caffeine's effect on appraisal treatment groups: placebo, 200 mg caffeine, and 400 mg caffeine. Data were analyzed by average across

Ritter, Frank

60

Current Practices in Appraising Employee Performance as Performed by the Business Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major ppurpose of this study was to determine from human resource administrators in the business community the techniques now used in appraising exempt and nonexempt employee performance. Of the 1,000 administrators surveyed, 125 returned usable questionnaires for a response rate of 12.5 percent. The administrators reported that even though…

Allen, Thomas R., Jr., Comp.; Lyne, George E., Jr., Comp.

61

5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 430.205 Section 430.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees...

2010-01-01

62

5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 430.205 Section 430.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees...

2011-01-01

63

5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 430.204 Section 430.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees...

2013-01-01

64

5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 430.204 Section 430.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees...

2010-01-01

65

5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 430.204 Section 430.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees...

2011-01-01

66

5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).  

... 430.205 Section 430.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees...

2014-01-01

67

5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 430.204 Section 430.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees...

2012-01-01

68

5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 430.205 Section 430.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees...

2013-01-01

69

5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).  

... 430.204 Section 430.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees...

2014-01-01

70

5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 430.205 Section 430.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees...

2012-01-01

71

Performance appraisal and pay-for-performance start at the top.  

PubMed

In summary, while performance appraisal has always been present in health care, it is taking on a new dimension. Evaluative criteria based on personality traits are being replaced by quantifiable, specific, job-related factors. Performance appraisal in many organizations is no longer an abstract, generalized concept, but is predicated on specific, predetermined corporate or institutional goals for which the CEO is held directly responsible and accountable. In other words, the activities at the lowest level in the organization have direct impact on the highest levels. While pay-for-performance is still more common at the management level, an increasing number of institutions are applying the concept across the board. It is imperative that first-line supervisors understand how their own performance is appraised and their compensation determined before trying to explain a new concept to their subordinates. Even more important, the first- and second-line supervisors should have direct input into the development of new pay programs for their subordinates. PMID:10292498

Browdy, J D

1989-04-01

72

Establishing Content Validity for a Literacy Coach Performance Appraisal Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study's purpose was to determine whether or not the Literacy Coach Appraisal Instrument developed for use in evaluating literacy coaches had content validity. The study, a fully mixed concurrent equal status design conducted from a pragmatist philosophy, collected qualitative and quantitative data from literacy experts about the elements of…

Lane, Mae; Robbins, Mary; Price, Debra

2013-01-01

73

TRAINING OR FACILITATING SKILLED PERFORMANCE  

E-print Network

III TRAINING OR FACILITATING SKILLED PERFORMANCE Chapter-09.qxd 6/26/2006 7:41 PM Page 229 #12 Detection Training James J. Staszewski Carnegie Mellon University COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND LANDMINE DETECTION TRAINING This chapter describes the successful linkage of basic research on visual imagery

Creswell, J. David

74

Management behavior, group climate and performance appraisal at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationships among manager behavior, group climate and managerial effectiveness are examined. Survey data were collected from 435 GM14-15 managers and their subordinates at NASA concerning management practices and perceptions of the group environment. Performance ratings of managers were obtained from their superiors. The results strongly supported a causal model in which subordinates' climate perceptions mediate the effects of manager behavior on performance. That is, the development of group climate provides the process through which the effects of manager practices may be understood. Analyses also revealed that the function performed by a manager and his group (e.g., research) influenced the specific nature of the causal dynamics. Some implications of the results for management training and development are discussed.

Manderlink, G.; Clark, L. P.; Bernstein, W. M.; Burke, W. W.

1985-01-01

75

Problem-Solving Appraisal, Self-Reported Study Habits, and Performance of Academically At-Risk College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations among problem-solving appraisal, self-reported study habits, and academic performance for 63 college students enrolled in a developmental course for academically unprepared students. The participants completed measures of self-appraised problem-solving ability and study habits. Indexes of academic ability and performance were also collected. Regression analyses revealed that problem-solving appraisal was significantly predictive of study habits and semester

Timothy R. Elliott; Frank Godshall; John R. Shrout; Thomas E. Witty

1990-01-01

76

Software for Performance Training Carrel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A prototype system was developed to evaluate a computer-assisted performance training carrel which was used to present the troubleshooting fundamentals lesson of the Lowry Technical Training Center's Electronic Principles Course. This manual provides a description of the PDP-11 and PLATO programs used to implement this system, and an operators…

Wasmundt, Kenneth C.; Steffen, Dale A.

77

Due process model of procedural justice in performance appraisal: promotion versus termination scenarios.  

PubMed

In a laboratory study, 318 student participants (148 male, 169 female, and one who did not report sex; M age 25.0, SD = 6.0) in introductory organizational behavior classes responded to scenarios in which performance appraisal resulted in either employee promotion or termination. Each scenario had varying levels of three procedural justice criteria for performance appraisal. For both promotion and termination outcomes, analysis showed that, as the number of criteria increased, perceptions of procedural fairness increased. A comparison between the two outcomes showed that perceptions of fairness were significantly stronger for the promotion outcome than for termination. PMID:17305202

Kataoka, Heloneida C; Cole, Nina D; Flint, Douglas A

2006-12-01

78

Performance Appraisal System Impact on University Academic Staff Job Satisfaction and Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Zimbabwe (UZ) introduced a performance appraisal system (PAS) designed to improve performance indicators across the board in Public Service including academic/faculty staff at the University of Zimbabwe as part of a nation wide strategy. The Public service is a body responsible for all civil workers including academic staff,…

Ndambakuwa, Yustina; Mufunda, Jacob

2006-01-01

79

Rethinking the role of performance appraisal in total quality management: An argument for the use of peers as raters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, total quality management theory argues against the use of traditional performance appraisal systems. However,\\u000a contemporary managers need a means of gathering information for human resource decisions concerning individuals. This study\\u000a examines the suitability of peer appraisals for the TQM environment, and the potential impact peer appraisals may have on\\u000a enhancing employee commitment to the TQM process as viewed through

James W. Westerman

1996-01-01

80

Evaluating and rewarding OCBs : Potential consequences of formally incorporating organisational citizenship behaviour in performance appraisal and reward systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to address a topic that has not been systematically studied in the organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), performance appraisal and rewards literature. Specifically, this paper seeks to examine the potential effects of rewarding OCBs by explicitly incorporating them into performance appraisal and reward systems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A review of relevant theory and literature is provided and

J. Bret Becton; William F. Giles; Mike Schraeder

2008-01-01

81

Role of inspectors in external review mechanisms: criteria for selection, training and appraisal.  

PubMed

There is a wide consensus that an external review mechanism, both in the form of a peer review, accreditation and certification according to the ISO 9000 series, is more than its standards. The survey process, the role of inspectors and standard interpretation contribute to the essence of the programme itself. Above all, the criteria used for the selection, training and appraisal of inspectors are of paramount importance. While the ISO norms do not require certification bodies to employ "peer reviewers" for the healthcare sector, experience in this sector is the main criterion for recruiting inspectors in accreditation and peer review programmes. However, the ISO/IEC Guide 58, for the setting up and operation of a laboratory accreditation body, specifies that inspectors should have appropriate technical knowledge of the specific calibrations, tests or types of calibration or tests for which accreditation is sought. Training, updating and assessment of inspectors are clearly defined under ISO, but are also systematic under accreditation programmes. Part-time inspectors who are professionals currently practising in a healthcare facility and are in touch with the day-to-day work reality are preferred for accreditation programmes which have self-regulation, education and quality improvement as their main concerns, while full-time and external inspectors are used in external review mechanisms with registration and certification as their main concerns. As well as harmonising the standards for accreditation, it is important to obtain consensus on the criteria to use for the selection, training and assessment of inspectors in order to ensure that different national or international programmes gain mutual recognition. PMID:11438293

Plebani, M

2001-07-20

82

An investigation of the performance feedback process using a self-appraisal  

E-print Network

vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ? continued Interrater agreement. Satisfaction with the feedback. Perceived accuracy of feedback Expectations for improved performance. . Performance improvements Additional Analyses. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION. 32 32 34... out a self-appraisal evaluating their own performance on the in-basket exercise. This condition served to test whether merely systematic thought regarding one's own performance was enough to affect the dependent measures or if the self...

DeGregorio, Marybeth

2012-06-07

83

New Teachers' Perceptions of a Standards-Based Performance Appraisal System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted with first-year teachers. It provided insight into two key research questions: (1) What were the perceptions of new teachers regarding a standards-based performance appraisal system as it was implemented on their campus? (2) What factors contributed to the perceptions of new teachers regarding this system as it was…

O'Pry, Stephen C.; Schumacher, Gary

2012-01-01

84

The Development Of Human Resources: Public Elementary School Assistant Principals (recruitment, Performance Appraisal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of elementary assistant principals as they relate to components of Human Resource Development: Recruitment, Selection, Orientation, Professional (Management) Development, Performance Appraisal, and Career Development.Procedures. Sample selection consisted of ten elementary assistant principals further divided into those with a strong and not-strong curriculum orientation. Qualitative and descriptive statistics were used

Wendy Leigh Gordon

1987-01-01

85

A Survey of Academic Officers regarding Performance Appraisal in Estonian and American Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education in the Baltic Republic of Estonia is experiencing rapid change as the country adjusts to a market economy in the post-Soviet era and adheres to principles established through the Bologna Process. Research in the area of performance appraisal, and the most effective approaches to motivate academic staff, is a key factor influencing…

Herdlein, Richard; Kukemelk, Hasso; Turk, Kilno

2008-01-01

86

Performance Appraisal Feedback: A Foundation for Effective Self- Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army's Leader Development Program relies on three development methods: institutional training and education, operational assignments, and self-development. The value of a self-development as a means for employee development has also been recogniz...

J. Belanich, K. A. Orvis, S. Garven

2008-01-01

87

Cultural values and performance appraisal: assessing the effects of rater self-construal on performance ratings.  

PubMed

Much of the prior research investigating the influence of cultural values on performance ratings has focused either on conducting cross-national comparisons among raters or using cultural level individualism/collectivism scales to measure the effects of cultural values on performance ratings. Recent research has shown that there is considerable within country variation in cultural values, i.e. people in one country can be more individualistic or collectivistic in nature. Taking the latter perspective, the present study used Markus and Kitayama's (1991) conceptualization of independent and interdependent self-construals as measures of individual variations in cultural values to investigate within culture variations in performance ratings. Results suggest that rater self-construal has a significant influence on overall performance evaluations; specifically, raters with a highly interdependent self-construal tend to show a preference for interdependent ratees, whereas raters high on independent self-construal do not show a preference for specific type of ratees when making overall performance evaluations. Although rater self-construal significantly influenced overall performance evaluations, no such effects were observed for specific dimension ratings. Implications of these results for performance appraisal research and practice are discussed. PMID:23885636

Mishra, Vipanchi; Roch, Sylvia G

2013-01-01

88

Performance Appraisals: One Step in a Comprehensive Staff Supervision Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance reviews, while stressful, can prepare employees for the next stages of their career. The best performance reviews are those where the supervisor knows the employee's skills and talents and offers suggestions on how to use those talents to develop other areas of job performance and professional growth. In this article, the author…

Kilbourne, Susan

2007-01-01

89

Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

ElShenawy, Eman

2010-01-01

90

Understanding adolescents' sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal.  

PubMed

The present paper reviews and critiques studies assessing the relation between sleep patterns, sleep quality, and school performance of adolescents attending middle school, high school, and/or college. The majority of studies relied on self-report, yet the researchers approached the question with different designs and measures. Specifically, studies looked at (1) sleep/wake patterns and usual grades, (2) school start time and phase preference in relation to sleep habits and quality and academic performance, and (3) sleep patterns and classroom performance (e.g., examination grades). The findings strongly indicate that self-reported shortened total sleep time, erratic sleep/wake schedules, late bed and rise times, and poor sleep quality are negatively associated with academic performance for adolescents from middle school through the college years. Limitations of the current published studies are also discussed in detail in this review. PMID:15018092

Wolfson, Amy R; Carskadon, Mary A

2003-12-01

91

Faculty Training in Evidence-Based Medicine: Improving Evidence Acquisition and Critical Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) integrates published clinical evidence with patient values and clinical expertise, the output of which is informed medical decision making. Key skills for evidence-based practice include acquisition and appraisal of clinical information. Faculty clinicians often lack expertise in these skills and are…

Nicholson, Laura J.; Warde, Carole M.; Boker, John R.

2007-01-01

92

TAP 2: Performance-Based Training Manual  

SciTech Connect

Cornerstone of safe operation of DOE nuclear facilities is personnel performing day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Performance-based training is fundamental to the safe operation. This manual has been developed to support the Training Accreditation Program (TAP) and assist contractors in efforts to develop performance-based training programs. It provides contractors with narrative procedures on performance-based training that can be modified and incorporated for facility-specific application. It is divided into sections dealing with analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.

Not Available

1993-08-01

93

Training high performance skills using above real-time training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) concept is a unique approach to training high performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. Such a training paradigm represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. These techniques allow individuals to acquire these critical skills faster and with greater retention. ARTT also allows an individual trained in 'fast time' to operate at what appears to be a more confident state, when the same task is performed in a real-time environment. Two related experiments are discussed. The findings appear to be consistent with previous findings that show positive effects of task variation during training. Moreover, ARTT has merit in improving or maintaining transfer with sharp reductions in training time. There are indications that the effectiveness of ARTT varies as a function of task content and possibly task difficulty. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

1993-01-01

94

Development, feasibility and performance of a health risk appraisal questionnaire for older persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health risk appraisal is a promising method for health promotion and prevention in older persons. The Health Risk Appraisal for the Elderly (HRA-E) developed in the U.S. has unique features but has not been tested outside the United States. METHODS: Based on the original HRA-E, we developed a scientifically updated and regionally adapted multilingual Health Risk Appraisal for Older

Andreas E Stuck; Kalpa Kharicha; Ulrike Dapp; Jennifer Anders; Wolfgang von Renteln-Kruse; Hans Peter Meier-Baumgartner; Danielle Harari; Cameron G Swift; Katja Ivanova; Matthias Egger; Gerhard Gillmann; Jerilyn Higa; John C Beck; Steve Iliffe

2007-01-01

95

National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.  

PubMed

Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings. PMID:22040261

Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

2012-03-01

96

Perceived Stress, Performance Appraisal Discomfort and Core Self-evaluation in a non-Western context (CP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study is an exploratory investigation of the relationship among perceived stress, performance evaluation discomfort and beliefs, and employee's self-evaluation - specifically core self- evaluation. Little has been done exploring perceived stress as a possible consequence of the discomfort experienced by appraisers and this study attempts to fill this gap. This cross-sectional survey obtained usable data from 167 public and

Gbolahan Gbadamosi

97

Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be…

Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

2010-01-01

98

Performance appraisal politics from appraisee perspective: a study of antecedents in the Indian context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appraisee's perception of appraisal politics (APAP) is conceptualized to be formed by three perceptual dimensions. First is appraiser's manipulation of ratings to achieve their self-serving ends such as own reputation, maintaining good relationships, building in-groups, and handling dependency threats from appraisees. Second dimension constitutes fellow appraisees' upward influence behaviors to get higher ratings and rewards. Third dimension relates to the

Amit Dhiman; Sunil Kumar Maheshwari

2012-01-01

99

Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers  

PubMed Central

Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations. Performance assessment can identify improvement areas that will help reduce translational delays. Currently, no standard method exists to identify models for use in performance assessment. This study aimed to critically appraise translational research models for suitability in performance assessment of cancer centers. Methods. We conducted a systematic review to identify models and developed a set of criteria based on scientometrics, complex adaptive systems, research and development processes, and strategic evaluation. Models were assessed for linkage between research and care components, new knowledge, systems integration, performance assessment, and review of other models. Results. Twelve models were identified; six described phases/components for translational research in different blocks (T models) and six described the process of translational research (process models). Both models view translational research as an accumulation of new knowledge. However, process models more clearly address systems integration, link research and care components, and were developed for evaluating and improving the performance of translational research. T models are more likely to review other models. Conclusion. Process models seem to be more suitable for performance assessment of cancer centers than T models. The most suitable process models (the Process Marker Model and Lean and Six Sigma applications) must be thoroughly tested in practice. PMID:23263926

Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne

2012-01-01

100

Improving Wordspotting Performance with Limited Training Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses the problem of limited training data in pattern detection problems where a small number of target classes must be detected in a varied background. There is typically limited training data and limited knowledge about class distributions in this type of spotting problem and in this case a statistical pattern classifier can not accurately model class distributions. The domain of wordspotting is used to explore new approaches that improve spotting system performance with limited training data. First, a high performance, state-of-the-art whole-word based wordspotter is developed. Two complementary approaches are then introduced to help compensate for the lack of data. Figure of Merit training, a new type of discriminative training algorithm, modifies the spotting system parameters according to the metric used to evaluate wordspotting systems. The effectiveness of discriminative training approaches may be limited due to overtraining a classifier on insufficient training data. While the classifier's performance on the training data improves, the classifier's performance on unseen test data degrades. To alleviate this problem, voice transformation techniques are used to generate more training examples that improve the robustness of the spotting system. The wordspotter is trained and tested on the Switchboard credit-card database, a database of spontaneous conversations recorded over the telephone. The baseline wordspotter achieves a Figure of Merit of 62.5% on a testing set. With Figure of Merit training, the Figure of Merit improves to 65.8%. When Figure of Merit training and voice transformations are used together, the Figure of Merit improves to 71.9%. The final wordspotter system achieves a Figure of Merit of 64.2% on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) September 1992 official benchmark, surpassing the 1992 results from other whole-word based wordspotting systems. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

Chang, Eric I.-Chao

1995-01-01

101

TAP 2, Performance-Based Training Manual  

SciTech Connect

Training programs at DOE nuclear facilities should provide well- trained, qualified personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. A need has been identified for guidance regarding analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of consistent and reliable performance-based training programs. Accreditation of training programs at Category A reactors and high-hazard and selected moderate-hazard nonreactor facilities will assure consistent, appropriate, and cost-effective training of personnel responsible for the operation, maintenance, and technical support of these facilities. Training programs that are designed and based on systematically job requirements, instead of subjective estimation of trainee needs, yield training activities that are consistent and develop or improve knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be directly related to the work setting. Because the training is job-related, the content of these programs more efficiently and effectively meets the needs of the employee. Besides a better trained work force, a greater level of operational reactor safety can be realized. This manual is intended to provide an overview of the accreditation process and a brief description of the elements necessary to construct and maintain training programs that are based on the requirements of the job. Two comparison manuals provide additional information to assist contractors in their efforts to accredit training programs.

Not Available

1991-07-01

102

Is Transfer of Training Related to Firm Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to bridge the gap between micro-training research on the transfer of training and macro-training research on training and firm performance by testing the relationship between transfer of training and firm performance. Training and development professionals completed a survey about the training methods used in their…

Saks, Alan M.; Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

2014-01-01

103

Vocational education and training in schools in victoria: an appraisal six years down the track  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of an initiative designed to integrate vocational education and training in the senior school leaving certificate in the Australian state of Victoria. Drawing on two studies of senior secondary school students conducted by the Educational Outcomes Research Unit at the University of Melbourne, it attempts to assess whether, on the basis of data available to

John Polesel

2001-01-01

104

Diagnostic Performance 1 H after Simulation Training Predicts Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although simulation training improves post-training performance, it is unclear how well performance soon after simulation training predicts longer term outcomes (i.e., learning). Here our objective was to assess the predictive value of performance 1 h post-training of performance 6 weeks later. We trained 84 first year medical students a simulated…

Consoli, Anna; Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene; Sobczak, Matthew; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

2013-01-01

105

Performance appraisals as a selection criterion in downsizing : A comparison of rank-order and banding approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary purpose of this article is to examine two alternative approaches for the use of performance appraisals in selecting individuals out of the organization (i.e. to be laid off). A rank-order approach and a banding approach are compared to provide insight regarding issues associated with each approach. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Literature examining the status of downsizing as an

Mike Schraeder; Dennis R. Self; Douglas R. Lindsay

2006-01-01

106

The effect of apologetic error messages and mood states on computer users’ self-appraisal of performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, in which 310 university students participated, was designed to investigate whether computer interfaces that offer human-like apologetic error messages influence users’ self-appraisals of performance in the computerized environment. The study consists of three phases. In the first phase, using the CCSARP (cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns) coding manual, apology strategy sequences were elicited from Turkish participants.

Mahir Akgun; Kursat Cagiltay; Deniz Zeyrek

2010-01-01

107

Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. p<0.001) in male athletes. The endomorphy component was the most substantial predictor. Reductions in endomorphy by one standard deviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively). An ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes. PMID:23834510

Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter

2014-01-01

108

Performance assessment to enhance training effectiveness.  

SciTech Connect

Training simulators have become increasingly popular tools for instructing humans on performance in complex environments. However, the question of how to provide individualized and scenario-specific assessment and feedback to students remains largely an open question. To maximize training efficiency, new technologies are required that assist instructors in providing individually relevant instruction. Sandia National Laboratories has shown the feasibility of automated performance assessment tools, such as the Sandia-developed Automated Expert Modeling and Student Evaluation (AEMASE) software, through proof-of-concept demonstrations, a pilot study, and an experiment. In the pilot study, the AEMASE system, which automatically assesses student performance based on observed examples of good and bad performance in a given domain, achieved a high degree of agreement with a human grader (89%) in assessing tactical air engagement scenarios. In more recent work, we found that AEMASE achieved a high degree of agreement with human graders (83-99%) for three Navy E-2 domain-relevant performance metrics. The current study provides a rigorous empirical evaluation of the enhanced training effectiveness achievable with this technology. In particular, we assessed whether giving students feedback based on automated metrics would enhance training effectiveness and improve student performance. We trained two groups of employees (differentiated by type of feedback) on a Navy E-2 simulator and assessed their performance on three domain-specific performance metrics. We found that students given feedback via the AEMASE-based debrief tool performed significantly better than students given only instructor feedback on two out of three metrics. Future work will focus on extending these developments for automated assessment of teamwork.

Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Gieseler, Charles J.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris

2010-09-01

109

Endoscopic Sedation: From Training to Performance  

PubMed Central

Adequate sedation and analgesia are considered essential requirements to relieve patient discomfort and pain and ultimately to improve the outcomes of modern gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. The willingness of patients to undergo sedation during endoscopy has increased steadily in recent years and standard sedation practices are needed for both patient safety and successful procedural outcomes. Therefore, regular training and education of healthcare providers is warranted. However, training curricula and guidelines for endoscopic sedation may have conflicts according to varying legal frameworks and/or social security systems of each country, and well-recognized endoscopic sedation training systems are not currently available in all endoscopy units. Although European and American curricula for endoscopic sedation have been extensively developed, general curricula and guidelines for each country and institution are also needed. In this review, an overview of recent curricula and guidelines for training and basic performance of endoscopic sedation is presented based on the current literature. PMID:24765596

Lee, Chang Kyun

2014-01-01

110

The Appraisal of Teachers' Performance and Its Impact on the Mutuality of Principal-Teacher Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examines the mutual discrete emotions among superiors and their above- and below-average workers within a hierarchical organisation (school). Using a survey method within a random sample of 40 elementary schools in Northern Israel, each principal and four of his or her teachers (two who had been appraised as excellent and two who…

Yariv, Eliezer

2009-01-01

111

Game performance and intermittent hypoxic training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live high-train low altitude exposure simulated by hypoxic devices may improve athletic performance. In this study, intermittent normobaric hypoxia was achieved with the GO2altitude® hypoxicator to determine its effects on sea level performance in rugby players. Ten players were randomly assigned to two groups. Players in each group received 14 sessions of either hypoxic (10–15% O2) or normoxic (21% O2)

E A Hinckson; M J Hamlin; M R Wood; W G Hopkins

2007-01-01

112

5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal...met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the appraisal...

2011-01-01

113

5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal...met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the appraisal...

2010-01-01

114

Does musical training improve school performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a retrospective study, we compared school performance of 53 children practicing music (group 1) with 67 controls not practicing\\u000a music (group 2). Overall average marks as well as average marks of all school subjects except sports were significantly higher\\u000a in children who do (group 1) than in those who do not practice music (group 2). In a multiple regression analysis, musical\\u000a training, parent’s

Olive Emil Wetter; Fritz Koerner; Adrian Schwaninger

2009-01-01

115

Graduate Medical Education Training in Clinical Epidemiology, Critical Appraisal, and Evidence-Based Medicine: A Critical Review of Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study systematically reviewed published literature on graduate medical-education curricula in clinical epidemiology, critical appraisal, and evidence-based medicine (EBM). The 18 reports found in the search provide useful guidelines for medical educators but many suffer from incomplete descriptions and inadequate curriculum evaluations.…

Green, Michael L.

1999-01-01

116

Measuring hotel financial performance: The role of training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to develop a comprehensive model measuring the impacts of training on corporate financial performance. Training process complexities reveal that training inputs are costly investments. What seems lacking from the existing literature is the examination of the impact of training investments on the financial performance of a firm. In the hospitality industry, hotel companies

Xiucheng Bai

2001-01-01

117

Tractor Trailer Driver's Training Programs. Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes a project to develop a 320-hour tractor trailer driver training program and a 20-hour commercial driver licensing upgrade training program. Of 34 graduates from the training program, 28 secured employment in the trucking industry. From August 1989 to June 1990, 725 students were trained in the upgrade training program with…

New Hampshire Vocational Technical Coll., Nashua.

118

Mechanisms for training security inspectors to enhance human performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy (DOE) has established qualification standards for protective force personnel employed at nuclear facilities (10 CFR Part 1046 (Federal Register)). Training mechanisms used at Los Alamos to enhance human performance in meeting DOE standards include, but are not limited to, the following: for cardio-respiratory training, they utilize distance running, interval training, sprint training, pacing, indoor aerobics and

H. E. Burkhalter; J. C. Sessions

1988-01-01

119

Relationship between trust in appraisal and appraisal effectiveness: A field study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the influence of trust in the appraisal system on ratees' reactions to performance evaluations. One-hundred and sixty eight bank tellers completed an instrument that assessed their trust in the appraisal system, appraisal satisfaction, perceived utility of evaluations, behavioral intention to improve performance, and intention to leave the job. Trust and performance evaluations were significant predictors of

Gregory H. Dobbins; Stephanie J. Platz; Jeff Houston

1993-01-01

120

Training Investment Can Mean Financial Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a survey conducted by the American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) that provides preliminary evidence that companies that invest more heavily in training are more successful and profitable. Describes the free benchmarking service offered by ASTD. (Author/JOW)

Bassi, Laurie J.; McMurrer, Daniel P.

1998-01-01

121

An Investigation of the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Career Development and Advancement of Mid-Level Women in Student Affairs Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the performance appraisal experience of 14 mid-level women in student affairs administration at four-year colleges and universities in Northern Illinois using a qualitative research approach involving personal interviews. Previous research on career development and advancement of mid-level women in student…

Corral, Christine R.

2009-01-01

122

Dancing in pain: pain appraisal and coping in dancers.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between the type of pain experienced (performance pain and injury pain), the cognitive appraisal of pain and pain coping styles in dancers. Fifty-one professional ballet and contemporary dancers (17 males and 34 females), with the mean age of 25.9 years, completed a general pain questionnaire, the Pain Appraisal Inventory, the Survey of Pain Attitudes Control Subscale, and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that both the cognitive appraisal of the pain and pain coping styles did not differ according to the type of pain experienced or the pain severity. However, it was found that dancers with performance pain of either low or high severity were more likely to dance in pain than dancers experiencing injury pain. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the appraisal of pain as threatening was predictive of the use of avoidance and catastrophizing pain coping styles. Overall, results indicated that dancers may not differentiate between performance pain and injury pain, or modify their appraisal and coping strategies according to the characteristics of the pain experienced. The study highlighted an opportunity for increased education for dancers in recognizing the difference between pain considered to be a routine aspect of training and pain which is a signal of serious injury. PMID:19618573

Anderson, Ruth; Hanrahan, Stephanie J

2008-01-01

123

Empowering Operations: Training and Training Lab Facilities as a Building Performance Tool  

E-print Network

Empowering Operations: Training and Training Lab Facilities as a Building Performance Tool Michael Bobker Asit Patel Daniel Harris Technology Strategy Lead Trainer Manager, Controls RD&D Association for Energy Affordability, New... York, New York ABSTRACT A case study is provided of how lab-based training in New York City has developed through energy efficiency programs for the multifamily housing sector. Training focuses on areas where heating system performance can...

Bobker, M.; Patel, A.; Harris, D.

2005-01-01

124

Effects of intermittent hypoxic training on cycling performance in well-trained athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the effects of a short-term period of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on cycling performance\\u000a in athletes. Nineteen participants were randomly assigned to two groups: normoxic (NT, n = 9) and intermittent hypoxic training group (IHT, n = 10). A 3-week training program (5 × 1 h–1 h 30 min per week) was completed. Training sessions were performed in normoxia\\u000a (?30 m) or hypoxia (simulated altitude of

Belle Roels; David J. Bentley; Olivier Coste; Jacques Mercier; Grégoire P. Millet

2007-01-01

125

Making Connections between the Appraisal, Performance Management and Professional Development of Dentists and Teachers: "Right, What Are the Problems We've Got and How Could We Sort This Out?'"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluating the connections between the appraisal, or performance management, of different professional groups, and their subsequent uptake of continuing professional development (CPD), is valuable for both employees and managers. The linking of appraisal systems with professional/personal development plans amongst health professionals is now…

Butt, Graham; Macnab, Natasha

2013-01-01

126

High intensity training and treadmill sprint performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve county standard hockey players completed a 30 second sprint on a non-motorised treadmill and an uphill treadmill running test to determine maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) before and after 6 weeks of high intensity training (fast runs 3-5 miles, intervals 30-300 m and circuit training), whilst 11 club standard players completed the same tests without any additional training. For

M E Cheetham; C Williams

1987-01-01

127

Use of Martial Art Exercises in Performance Enhancement Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details some of the many martial arts training techniques and their potential applications for inclusion in performance enhancement programs, focusing on the benefits of martial training, the arts continuum, and martial arts training modes. The article concludes that the various martial arts techniques provide a stimulating and intuitively…

McClellan, Tim; Anderson, Warren

2002-01-01

128

7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appraisal for loans or lines of credit for annual...similar, property in the market area. In the absence...publications reflecting market values may be used. Appraisal reports may be on the Agency's...training to establish market (not retail)...

2010-01-01

129

7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...appraisal for loans or lines of credit for annual...similar, property in the market area. In the absence...publications reflecting market values may be used. Appraisal reports may be on the Agency's...training to establish market (not retail)...

2012-01-01

130

7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...appraisal for loans or lines of credit for annual...similar, property in the market area. In the absence...publications reflecting market values may be used. Appraisal reports may be on the Agency's...training to establish market (not retail)...

2011-01-01

131

7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...appraisal for loans or lines of credit for annual...similar, property in the market area. In the absence...publications reflecting market values may be used. Appraisal reports may be on the Agency's...training to establish market (not retail)...

2013-01-01

132

Quiet Eye Training: Effects on Learning and Performance Under Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of quiet eye (QE) training in optimizing the learning and performance under pressure of novices in a putting task. Fourteen participants performed 40 pre-test putts and were randomly allocated into a QE training or control group. They then performed 320 acquisition phase putts and a further 120 test putts in

Samuel J. Vine; Mark R. Wilson

2010-01-01

133

Employee Post-Training Behaviour and Performance: Evaluating the Results of the Training Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the fact that firms invest in training, there is considerable evidence to show that training programmes often fail to achieve the intended result of improving worker and organization performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the medium- to long-term effects of training programmes on firms by means of an integrated research model…

Diamantidis, Anastasios D.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.

2014-01-01

134

Improving performance appraisals using a real-time talent management system : The advantages of a real-time talent management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Reveals how a real-time talent-management system (RTTMS) can improve the performance-appraisal process using existing technologies and current HR best practices. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Describes how a RTTMS works and highlights the factors needed for proper implementation. Findings – Explains that a RTTMS enables management continuously to document an employee's actual performance results and any other job-related actions or behaviors

Peter Samarakone

2010-01-01

135

Seeing Things in a Different Light: Assessing the Effects of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention upon the Further Appraisals and Performance of Golfers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a systematic cognitive-behavioral intervention program were examined upon the further appraisals (i.e., emotional orientation) of four golfers who interpreted their emotions as debilitative towards upcoming performance and the subsequent effect on actual performance. A systematic, theoretically underpinned, multiple-baseline single-subject design was employed, with four main phases adopted over a 34 week period: Phase I involved baseline monitoring

Rich Neil; Sheldon Hanton; Stephen. D. Mellalieu

2012-01-01

136

Can Visual Arts Training Improve Physician Performance?  

PubMed Central

Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts — a subset of medical humanities — into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

Katz, Joel T.; Khoshbin, Shahram

2014-01-01

137

Physiological and performance adaptations to high-intensity interval training.  

PubMed

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) refers to exercise that is characterized by relatively short bursts of vigorous activity, interspersed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise for recovery. In untrained and recreationally active individuals, short-term HIIT is a potent stimulus to induce physiological remodeling similar to traditional endurance training despite a markedly lower total exercise volume and training time commitment. As little as six sessions of 'all-out' HIIT over 14 days, totaling ?15 min of intense cycle exercise within total training time commitment of ?2.5 h, is sufficient to enhance exercise capacity and improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. From an athletic standpoint, HIIT is also an effective strategy to improve performance when supplemented into the already high training volumes of well-trained endurance athletes, although the underlying mechanisms are likely different compared to less trained subjects. Most studies in this regard have examined the effect of replacing a portion (typically ?15-25%) of base/normal training with HIIT (usually 2-3 sessions per week for 4-8 weeks). It has been proposed that a polarized approach to training, in which ?75% of total training volume be performed at low intensities, with 10-15% performed at very high intensities may be the optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who compete in intense endurance events. PMID:23899754

Gibala, Martin J; Jones, Andrew M

2013-01-01

138

Is hypoxia training good for muscles and exercise performance?  

PubMed

Altitude training has become very popular among athletes as a means to further increase exercise performance at sea level or to acclimatize to competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved during the last few decades, with "live high-train low" and "live low-train high" being the most popular. This review focuses on functional, muscular, and practical aspects derived from extensive research on the "live low-train high" approach. According to this, subjects train in hypoxia but remain under normoxia for the rest of the time. It has been reasoned that exercising in hypoxia could increase the training stimulus. Hypoxia training studies published in the past have varied considerably in altitude (2300-5700 m) and training duration (10 days to 8 weeks) and the fitness of the subjects. The evidence from muscle structural, biochemical, and molecular findings point to a specific role of hypoxia in endurance training. However, based on the available performance capacity data such as maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) and (maximal) power output, hypoxia as a supplement to training is not consistently found to be advantageous for performance at sea level. Stronger evidence exists for benefits of hypoxic training on performance at altitude. "Live low-train high" may thus be considered when altitude acclimatization is not an option. In addition, the complex pattern of gene expression adaptations induced by supplemental training in hypoxia, but not normoxia, suggest that muscle tissue specifically responds to hypoxia. Whether and to what degree these gene expression changes translate into significant changes in protein concentrations that are ultimately responsible for observable structural or functional phenotypes remains open. It is conceivable that the global functional markers such as Vo(2)max and (maximal) power output are too coarse to detect more subtle changes that might still be functionally relevant, at least to high-level athletes. PMID:20417346

Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans

2010-01-01

139

The Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a joint labor-management workplace literacy program called SET (Skills Enhancement Training) that targeted the more than 2,000 unionized employees of food service contractors at U.S. government institutions in Washington, D.C. Nineteen classes were offered and a total of 191 people self-selected themselves into the program.…

Food and Beverage Workers Union, Local 32, Washington, DC.

140

A prospective longitudinal investigation of social problem-solving appraisals on adjustment to university, stress, health, and academic motivation and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine the predictive relations between social problem-solving appraisals and subsequent adjustment, stress, health, motivation and performance in a sample of university students during their three years at university. Controlling for gender, age and prior academic aptitude, self-perceived problem-solving abilities, measured on entry to university, had direct beneficial effects on psychosocial adjustment to university,

Sarah R Baker

2003-01-01

141

Training Managers To Train. A Practical Guide To Improve Employee Performance. Staff Training and Development Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, in a workbook format, presents information on how a manager at an institution of higher education can plan, present, and follow up on training programs designed to yield competent employees. Stressed throughout are the four steps of training: (1) defining the job (position analysis); (2) planning the training; (3) presenting the…

Zaccarelli, Herman E.

142

Quiet Eye Training Facilitates Competitive Putting Performance in Elite Golfers  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief quiet eye (QE) training intervention aimed at optimizing visuomotor control and putting performance of elite golfers under pressure, and in real competition. Twenty-two elite golfers (mean handicap 2.7) recorded putting statistics over 10 rounds of competitive golf before attending training individually. Having been randomly assigned to either a QE training or Control group, participants were fitted with an Applied Science Laboratories Mobile Eye tracker and performed 20 baseline (pre-test) putts from 10?ft. Training consisted of video feedback of their gaze behavior while they completed 20 putts; however the QE-trained group received additional instructions related to maintaining a longer QE period. Participants then recorded their putting statistics over a further 10 competitive rounds and re-visited the laboratory for retention and pressure tests of their visuomotor control and putting performance. Overall, the results were supportive of the efficacy of the QE training intervention. QE duration predicted 43% of the variance in putting performance, underlying its critical role in the visuomotor control of putting. The QE-trained group maintained their optimal QE under pressure conditions, whereas the Control group experienced reductions in QE when anxious, with subsequent effects on performance. Although their performance was similar in the pre-test, the QE-trained group holed more putts and left the ball closer to the hole on missed putts than their Control group counterparts in the pressure test. Importantly, these advantages transferred to the golf course, where QE-trained golfers made 1.9 fewer putts per round, compared to pre-training, whereas the Control group showed no change in their putting statistics. These results reveal that QE training, incorporated into a pre-shot routine, is an effective intervention to help golfers maintain control when anxious. PMID:21713182

Vine, Samuel J.; Moore, Lee J.; Wilson, Mark R.

2011-01-01

143

Production Performance and Economic Appraisal of Broiler Farms in Anand District of Gujarat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production performance of different sizes of broiler farms has been studied by collecting data from 60 broiler producers of Anand district during 2005. To examine production performance, the average feed conversion ratio, livability percentage, average body weight and age at marketing have been worked out. Though broiler production is capital-intensive, it has been found profitable. The average cost of

A. S. Shaikh; Y. C. Zala

2011-01-01

144

Using Findings from the Performance Appraisal Literature to Inform the Evaluation of Students in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decades of research in the management literature have guided managers on how to effectively motivate their employees, increase the performance of their employees, and evaluate the performance of their employees. Many of these findings could be applied to higher education, both in research and in practice. More specifically, the findings on…

Mann, Sara L.

2011-01-01

145

Impact of Training Intensity Distribution on Performance in Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esteve-Lanao, J., C. Foster, S. Seiler, and A. Lucia. Impact of training intensity distribution on performance in en- durance athletes. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21(3):943-949. 2007.— The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 2 training programs differing in the relative contribution of training vol- ume, clearly below vs. within the lactate threshold\\/maximal lac- tate steady state

Jonathan Esteve-Lanao; Carl Foster; Stephen Seiler; Alejandro Lucia

2007-01-01

146

Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Improves Motor and Dual-Task Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objective of our project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The goal of our current study was to determine if SA training using variation in visual flow and support surface motion produces improved performance in a novel sensory environment and demonstrate the retention characteristics of SA training.

Bloomberg, J.J.; Peters, B.T.; Mulavara, A.P.; Brady, R.; Batson, C.; Cohen, H.S.

2009-01-01

147

Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an improvement over last year. In contrast, recognition and teamwork are the two major areas where improvement in supervisory performance seems to be most needed. The initial report card results will serve as a baseline against which future performance ratings will be compared. Once supervisors have been presented with their data and given an opportunity to analyze and discus the results, they will be assisted in developing an action plan for improving their performance and work processes. They will be provided with ongoing support from management in following through with the action plan.

Siegfeldt, Denise V.

1994-01-01

148

An appraisal of the 1992 preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has reviewed the WIPP 1992 Performance Assessment (Sandia WIPP Performance Assessment Department, 1992). Although this performance assessment was released after the October 1992 passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (PL 102-579), the work preceded the Act. For individual and ground-water protection, calculations have been done for 1000 years post closure, whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191) issued in 1993 require calculations for 10,000 years. The 1992 Performance Assessment continues to assimilate improved understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site, and evolving conceptual models of natural barriers. Progress has been made towards assessing WIPP`s compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191). The 1992 Performance Assessment has addressed several items of major concern to EEG, outlined in the July 1992 review of the 1991 performance assessment (Neill et al., 1992). In particular, the authors are pleased that some key results in this performance assessment deal with sensitivity of the calculated complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) to alterative conceptual models proposed by EEG -- that flow in the Culebra be treated as single-porosity fracture-flow; with no sorption retardation unless substantiated by experimental data.

Lee, W.W.L.; Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.K.; Weiner, R.; Neill, R.H. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Environmental Evaluation Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

1994-09-01

149

Improving Professional Judgment and Performance Training for Open Job Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion of how to design a training program to teach professional judgment and performance focuses on a model for training police officers. Open job skills are explained, appropriate choices and actions are described, and the components and objectives of open job skill instruction are presented. (LRW)

Yelon, Stephen; Desmedt, John

1988-01-01

150

Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?  

PubMed

Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes. PMID:22845561

Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

2012-09-01

151

Accuracy in performance appraisals: a comparison of two rater cognitive process models  

E-print Network

college 1nstructor. One half of the part1cipants in1t1ally viewed a tape exhibiting primar1ly good lecture behaviors and two days later viewed a videotape con- ta1ning mostly poor performance behaviors . The or der of videotape presentation.... APPENDIX B. Recoonition Task . APPENDIX C. Background Questionnaire VITA. 40 46 49 55 56 61 66 69 LIST OF TABLES Table Number and Kind (Good/Poor) of Behavioral Incidents in Each Performance Dimension of Each Videotape . . . Page 22...

Major, Susan Lee Frank

2012-06-07

152

Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?  

PubMed

The general practice of altitude training is widely accepted as a means to enhance sport performance despite a lack of rigorous scientific studies. For example, the scientific gold-standard design of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial has never been conducted on altitude training. Given that few studies have utilised appropriate controls, there should be more scepticism concerning the effects of altitude training methodologies. In this brief review we aim to point out weaknesses in theories and methodologies of the various altitude training paradigms and to highlight the few well-designed studies to give athletes, coaches and sports medicine professionals the current scientific state of knowledge on common forms of altitude training. Another aim is to encourage investigators to design well-controlled studies that will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of altitude training. PMID:22797528

Lundby, Carsten; Millet, Gregoire P; Calbet, Jose A; Bärtsch, Peter; Subudhi, Andrew W

2012-09-01

153

Peformance Appraisal Behaviors: Supervisor Perceptions and Subordinate Reactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined supervisor perceptions and subordinate reactions to formal performance-appraisal reviews. There were three dimensions of formal performance appraisals: two developmental (being supportive; emphasizing performance improvement) and one administrative (discussing pay and advancement). Support in appraisal review was associated with higher…

Dorfman, Peter W.; And Others

1986-01-01

154

Objective performance metrics for improved space telerobotics training  

E-print Network

NASA astronauts undergo many hours of formal training and self-study to gain proficiency in space teleoperation tasks. After each lesson, instructors score an astronaut's performance in several broad skill categories, ...

Forman, Rachel Emily

2011-01-01

155

Empirical Study of Training and Performance in the Marathon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Similar systematic relationships exist between personal characteristics, training, and performance on the marathon, regardless of whether they derive from differences among individuals participating in the same run or from differences within the same person in two separate marathons. (Author)

Slovic, Paul

1977-01-01

156

Training Lessons Learned from Peak Performance Episodes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major challenge confronting the United States Army is to obtain optimal performance from both its human and machine resources. This study examines episodes of peak performance in soldiers and athletes. Three cognitive components were found to enable episodes of peak performance: psychological readiness (activating optimal arousal and emotion…

Fobes, James L.

157

The effect of plyometric training on distance running performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Previous research has reported that plyometric training improves running economy (RE) and ultimately distance-running performance,\\u000a although the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. This study examined whether changes in running performance\\u000a resulting from plyometric training were related to alterations in lower leg musculotendinous stiffness (MTS). Seventeen male\\u000a runners were pre- and post-tested for lower leg MTS, maximum isometric

Robert W. Spurrs; Aron J. Murphy; Mark L. Watsford

2003-01-01

158

A School Improvement-Accountability Process Kit. PAK No. 4.5--Coaching and Appraising Staff Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Personalized Activity Kit presents a new dimension to staff evaluation. Staff appraisal becomes a procedure that promotes the human and professional growth of staff members. An alternative approach to implementing management by objectives in a large school system is also suggested. Finally, there is a summary of the management role, with…

Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. District Planning and Accountability Services.

159

Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA): Participatory Learning and Action (PLA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of this training is to give development students an introduction to the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) development model. The training also makes a distinction between PRA and Participatory Learning and Action (PLA).

Sara Smith; Lindsey Algie; Tom Barwick

2000-01-01

160

An appraisal of the performance of the economic and financial crimes commission in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This article examines how an anti-graft body, the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC), has fared in reducing the incidence of corruption in Nigeria, in particular, bank fraud, Internet scam, and bad governance. It first discusses the corruption situation in Nigeria by highlighting public office holders who have been associated with corruption charges. A Likert-type scale is used in designing the questionnaire for data collection. Descriptive and chi-square analyses are used, and results reveal that the performance of the EFCC has been affected by government interference (p < .05). However, although the anti-graft body has not been able to reduce the incidence of bank fraud (p > .05), bad governance and advance fee fraud have recorded appreciable reduction (p < .05). Areas of success as well as challenges that need to be addressed are identified. Specifically, it is recommended that the bill that established EFCC should be amended to reduce government interference and improve its manpower development, especially in the areas of fraud and Internet scam detection. PMID:19679650

Sowunmi, Fatai Abiola; Adesola, Muniru Adekunle; Salako, Mudashiru Abiodun

2010-12-01

161

Tools for evaluating team performance in simulation-based training  

PubMed Central

Teamwork training constitutes one of the core approaches for moving healthcare systems toward increased levels of quality and safety, and simulation provides a powerful method of delivering this training, especially for face-paced and dynamic specialty areas such as Emergency Medicine. Team performance measurement and evaluation plays an integral role in ensuring that simulation-based training for teams (SBTT) is systematic and effective. However, this component of SBTT systems is overlooked frequently. This article addresses this gap by providing a review and practical introduction to the process of developing and implementing evaluation systems in SBTT. First, an overview of team performance evaluation is provided. Second, best practices for measuring team performance in simulation are reviewed. Third, some of the prominent measurement tools in the literature are summarized and discussed relative to the best practices. Subsequently, implications of the review are discussed for the practice of training teamwork in Emergency Medicine. PMID:21063558

Rosen, Michael A; Weaver, Sallie J; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Salas, Eduardo; Wu, Teresa; Silvestri, Salvatore; Schiebel, Nicola; Almeida, Sandra; King, Heidi B

2010-01-01

162

running performance of trained athletes13  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited scientific justification for the widespread use of vitamin and mineral supplements by athletes. We used a 9-mo, placebo-controlled crossover study design to determine whether a multivitamin and mineral supplement influenced the athletic performance of 30 competitive male athletes. At 0, 3, 6, and 9 mo the runners performed a progressive treadmill test to volitional exhaustion for measurement

Lindsay M Weight; Kathryn H Myburgh; Timothy D Noakes

163

Appraising Hospital Performance by Using the JCHAO/CMS Quality Measures in Southern Italy  

PubMed Central

Objectives The main objective of the present study was to estimate the uptake to quality indicators that reflect the current evidence-based recommendations and guidelines. Methods A retrospective review of medical records of patients admitted to two hospitals in the South of Italy was conducted. For the purposes of the analysis, a sets of quality indicators has been used from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospital Organizations and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Four areas of care were selected: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), pneumonia (PN), and surgical care improvement project (SCIP). Frequency or median was calculated, as appropriate, for each indicator. A composite score was calculated to estimate the overall performance for each area of care. Results A total of 1772 medical records were reviewed. The adherence rates showed a wide-ranging variability among the selected indicators. The use of aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) for AMI, the use of ACEI or ARB for HF, the use of appropriate thromboembolism prophylaxis and appropriate hair removal for surgical patients almost approached optimal adherence. At the other extreme, rates regarding adherence to smoking-cessation counseling in AMI and HF patients, discharge instructions in HF patients, and influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in pneumonia patients were noticeably intangible. Overall, the recommended processes of care among eligible patients were provided in 70% for AMI, in 32.4% for HF, in 46.4% for PN, and in 46% for SCIP. Conclusions The results show that there is still substantial work that lies ahead on the way to improve the uptake to evidence-based processes of care. Improvement initiatives should be focused more on domains of healthcare than on specific conditions, especially on the area of preventive care. PMID:23145023

Flotta, Domenico; Rizza, Paolo; Coscarelli, Pierluigi; Pileggi, Claudia; Nobile, Carmelo G. A.; Pavia, Maria

2012-01-01

164

The effect of plyometric training on distance running performance.  

PubMed

Previous research has reported that plyometric training improves running economy (RE) and ultimately distance-running performance, although the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. This study examined whether changes in running performance resulting from plyometric training were related to alterations in lower leg musculotendinous stiffness (MTS). Seventeen male runners were pre- and post-tested for lower leg MTS, maximum isometric force, rate of force development, 5-bound distance test (5BT), counter movement jump (CMJ) height, RE, VO(2max), lactate threshold (Th(la)), and 3-km time. Subjects were randomly split into an experimental (E) group which completed 6 weeks of plyometric training in conjunction with their normal running training, and a control (C) group which trained as normal. Following the training period, the E group significantly improved 3-km performance (2.7%) and RE at each of the tested velocities, while no changes in VO(2max) or Th(la) were recorded. CMJ height, 5BT, and MTS also increased significantly. No significant changes were observed in any measures for the C group. The results clearly demonstrated that a 6-week plyometric programme led to improvements in 3-km running performance. It is postulated that the increase in MTS resulted in improved RE. We speculate that the improved RE led to changes in 3-km running performance, as there were no corresponding alterations in VO(2max) or Th(la). PMID:12627298

Spurrs, Robert W; Murphy, Aron J; Watsford, Mark L

2003-03-01

165

Teacher Appraisal and Its Outcomes in Singapore Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the performance appraisal system used for primary school teachers in Singapore, and how those attributes affect satisfaction with the appraisal system, stress experienced with the appraisal system, attitudes towards performance bonus, job satisfaction and motivation, and perceived…

Kelly, Khim Ong; Ang, Shi Yun Angela; Chong, Wei Ling; Hu, Wei Sheng

2008-01-01

166

VISION TRAINING SYSTEM ENHANCE THE VISUAL PERFORMANCE  

E-print Network

improvement in number of hits was 90%. Hits plus fouls were also evaluated in a similar fashion. Here improved batting performance in our sample of Little League baseball players. Key Words athlete, EYEPORTTM

Musselman, Lytton John

167

Training at the Optimum Power Zone Produces Similar Performance Improvements to Traditional Strength Training  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to test if substituting a regular maximum strength-oriented training regimen by a power-oriented one at the optimal power load in the first phase of a traditional periodization produces similar performance improvements later on into the training period. Forty five soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG - n = 15, 20.18 ± 0.72 yrs, 1.74 ± 0.06 m, 66.7 ± 9.8 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.14 ± 0.12), a traditional periodization group (TG - n = 15, 20.11 ± 0.7 yrs, 1.72 ± 0.045 m, 63.1 ± 3.6 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.21 ± 0.16); and a maximum-power group (MPG - n = 15, 20.5 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.73 ± 0.049m, 67.3 ± 9.8 kg, 1RM/weight ratio = 1.20 ± 0.14). Maximum strength (26.2% and 24.6%), CMJ height (30.8% and 39.1%) and sprint speed (11.6% and 14.5%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) and similarly for the MPG and TG, respectively, from pre- to post-assessments. Our data suggests that a power training regimen may be used in the initial phase of the training cycle without impairing performance later on into the training period. Key points Training at the optimal power zone during two mesocycles of a traditional periodization did not hamper strength, speed and power performance improvements. Additional research is required in order to find out if longer periods of training at optimal power zone are capable of producing similar performance improvements to traditional strength training regimen. PMID:24149733

Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Roschel, Hamilton; Tricoli, Valmor; Gonzalez-Badillo, Juan Jose

2013-01-01

168

The influence of agility training on physiological and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Agility training (AT) has recently been instituted in several military communities in hopes of improving combat performance and general fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine how substituting AT for traditional military physical training (PT) influences physical and cognitive performance. Forty-one subjects undergoing military technical training were divided randomly into 2 groups for 6 weeks of training. One group participated in standard military PT consisting of calisthenics and running. A second group duplicated the amount of exercise of the first group but used AT as their primary mode of training. Before and after training, subjects completed a physical and cognitive battery of tests including V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, reaction time, Illinois Agility Test, body composition, visual vigilance, dichotic listening, and working memory tests. There were significant improvements within the AT group in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Illinois Agility Test, visual vigilance, and continuous memory. There was a significant increase in time-to-exhaustion for the traditional group. We conclude that AT is as effective or more effective as PT in enhancing physical fitness. Further, it is potentially more effective than PT in enhancing specific measures of physical and cognitive performance, such as physical agility, memory, and vigilance. Consequently, we suggest that AT be incorporated into existing military PT programs as a way to improve war-fighter performance. Further, it seems likely that the benefits of AT observed here occur in various other populations. PMID:23442271

Lennemann, Lynette M; Sidrow, Kathryn M; Johnson, Erica M; Harrison, Catherine R; Vojta, Christopher N; Walker, Thomas B

2013-12-01

169

Does Musical Training Improve School Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a retrospective study, we compared school performance of 53 children practicing music (group 1) with 67 controls not practicing music (group 2). Overall average marks as well as average marks of all school subjects except sports were significantly higher in children who do (group 1) than in those who do not practice music (group 2). In a…

Wetter, Olive Emil; Koerner, Fritz; Schwaninger, Adrian

2009-01-01

170

Vibration or balance training on neuromuscular performance in osteopenic women.  

PubMed

Maintaining neuromuscular function in older age is an important topic for aging societies, especially for older women with low bone density who may be at risk of falls and bone fracture. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of resistive exercise with either whole-body vibration training (VIB) or coordination/balance training (BAL) on neuromuscular function (countermovement jump, multiple 1-leg hopping, sit-to-stand test). 68 postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis were recruited for the study. 57 subjects completed the 9-month, twice weekly, intervention period. All subjects conducted 30?min of resistance exercise each training day. The VIB-group performed additional training on the Galileo vibration exercise device. The BAL-group performed balance training. An "intent-to-treat" analysis showed greater improvement in the VIB-group for peak countermovement power (p=0.004). The mean [95% confidence interval] effect size for this parameter was a ?+?0.9[0.3 to 1.5] W/kg greater change in VIB than BAL after 9 months. In multiple 1-leg hopping, a significantly better performance in the VIB-group after the intervention period was seen on a "per-protocol" analysis only. Both groups improved in the sit-to-stand test. The current study provides evidence that short-duration whole-body vibration exercise can have a greater impact on some aspects of neuromuscular function in post-menopausal women with low bone density than proprioceptive training. PMID:23549694

Stolzenberg, N; Belavý, D L; Rawer, R; Felsenberg, D

2013-11-01

171

Correlating Trainee Attributes to Performance in 3D CAD Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify trainee attributes relevant for development of skills in 3D computer-aided design (CAD). Design/methodology/approach: Participants were trained to perform cognitive tasks of comparable complexity over time. Performance data were collected on the time needed to construct test models, and…

Hamade, Ramsey F.; Artail, Hassan A.; Sikstrom, Sverker

2007-01-01

172

Elements and Principles of Training as a Performance Improvement Solution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Andragogy is the art and science of adult education that focuses on real-life application and problem-solving capacity (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 1998). This approach emphasizes that training effectiveness is enhanced through trainees' actual performance of the task. Workers learn better when they perceive that learning will help them perform

Tek Aik, Chong; Tway, Duane C.

2006-01-01

173

Scapular-Muscle Performance: Two Training Programs in Adolescent Swimmers  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Swimming requires well-balanced scapular-muscle performance. An additional strength-training program for the shoulders is pursued by swimmers, but whether these muscle-training programs need to be generic or specific for endurance or strength is unknown. Objective: To evaluate isokinetic scapular-muscle performance in a population of adolescent swimmers and to compare the results of training programs designed for strength or muscle endurance. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University human research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen adolescent swimmers. Intervention(s): Each participant pursued a 12-week scapular-training program designed to improve either muscle strength or muscle endurance. Main Outcome Measure(s): Bilateral peak force, fatigue index, and protraction/retraction strength ratios before and after the scapular-training program. Results: Scapular protraction/retraction ratios were slightly higher than 1 (dominant side ?=? 1.08, nondominant side ?=? 1.25, P ?=? .006). Side-to-side differences in retraction strength were apparent both before and after the training program (P ?=? .03 and P ?=?.05, respectively). After the training program, maximal protraction (P < .05) and retraction (P < .01) strength improved on the nondominant side. Peak force and fatigue index were not different between the training groups. The fatigue indexes for protraction on both sides (P < .05) and retraction on the nondominant side (P ?=? .009) were higher after the training program. Conclusions: We describe the scapular-muscle characteristics of a group of adolescent swimmers. Both muscle-strength and muscle-endurance programs improved absolute muscle strength. Neither of the strength programs had a positive effect on scapular-muscle endurance. Our results may be valuable for coaches and physiotherapists when they are designing exercise programs for swimmers. PMID:21391801

Van de Velde, Annemie; De Mey, Kristof; Maenhout, Annelies; Calders, Patrick; Cools, Ann M.

2011-01-01

174

Effect of Movement Velocity during Resistance Training on Neuromuscular Performance.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the effect on neuromuscular performance of 2 isoinertial resistance training programs that differed only in actual repetition velocity: maximal intended (MaxV) vs. half-maximal (HalfV) concentric velocity. 21 resistance-trained young men were randomly assigned to a MaxV (n=10) or HalfV (n=11) group and trained for 6 weeks using the full squat exercise. A complementary study (n=8) described the acute metabolic and mechanical response to the protocols used. MaxV training resulted in a likely more beneficial effect than HalfV on squat performance: maximum strength (ES: 0.94 vs. 0.54), velocity developed against all (ES: 1.76 vs. 0.88), light (ES: 1.76 vs. 0.75) and heavy (ES: 2.03 vs. 1.64) loads common to pre- and post-tests, and CMJ height (ES: 0.63 vs. 0.15). The effect on 20-m sprint was unclear, however. Both groups attained the greatest improvements in squat performance at their training velocities. Movement velocity seemed to be of greater importance than time under tension for inducing strength adaptations. Slightly higher metabolic stress (blood lactate and ammonia) and CMJ height loss were found for MaxV vs. HalfV, while metabolite levels were low to moderate for both conditions. MaxV may provide a superior stimulus for inducing adaptations directed towards improving athletic performance. PMID:24886926

Pareja-Blanco, F; Rodríguez-Rosell, D; Sánchez-Medina, L; Gorostiaga, E M; González-Badillo, J J

2014-10-01

175

Evidence Report: Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. Given that training content, timing, intervals, and delivery methods must support crew task performance, and given that training paradigms will be different for long-duration missions with increased crew autonomy, there is a risk that operators will lack the skills or knowledge necessary to complete critical tasks, resulting in flight and ground crew errors and inefficiencies, failed mission and program objectives, and an increase in crew injuries.

Barshi, Immanuel

2012-01-01

176

Assessing the impact of training on staff performance.  

PubMed

This pretested document was prepared as a management and reference tool for a world-wide audience of family planning (FP) policy-makers, program managers, service managers, and trainers. The report describes a training impact evaluation (TIE) process that helps managers identify and strengthen the links between training and staff performance. Introductory information deals with understanding training evaluation, the various types of training evaluation, and conducting a TIE. The following steps of the TIE process are then described: 1) identifying job performance issues (defining key job-related tasks and choosing indicators/setting standards); 2) collecting data (evaluation techniques and instruments, how to design an effective evaluation instrument, sample definition, and how to plan and organize the data collection process); 3) analyzing the data (tabulation, aggregation, cross-tabulation, and disaggregation); 4) interpreting the data (using a decision-tree); 5) reporting the findings (developing a written report and making an oral presentation); and 6) making changes (responsibilities for acting on recommendations, handling resistance to change, agreeing on a new or revised training course and/or changing organizational procedures or systems, and clarifying expectations for a training event). An example is provided of the process and results of a TIE conducted in the Central Asian Republics. The report ends with a discussion of ways to continue the TIE process, the comments of reviewers about various aspects of the process, and a checklist to use when making a TIE. PMID:12292100

1996-01-01

177

49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft...

2013-10-01

178

49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air...

2010-10-01

179

49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air...

2012-10-01

180

49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft...

2010-10-01

181

49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft...

2012-10-01

182

49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air...

2011-10-01

183

49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft...

2011-10-01

184

49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening...training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air...

2013-10-01

185

Metabolic and performance adaptations to interval training in endurance-trained cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of sustained high-intensity interval training (HIT) on the athletic performances and fuel\\u000a utilisation of eight male endurance-trained cyclists. Before HIT, each subject undertook three baseline peak power output\\u000a tests and two simulated 40-km time-trial cycling performance (TT40) tests, of which the variabilities were 1.5 (1.3)% and 1.0 (0.5)%, respectively [mean (SD)]. Over 6 weeks, the

Christopher Westgarth-Taylor; John A. Hawley; Scott Rickard; Kathryn H. Myburgh; Timothy D. Noakes; Steven C. Dennis

1997-01-01

186

Plyometric training performance in elite-oriented prepubertal female gymnasts.  

PubMed

We studied the effectiveness of a combined strength and plyometric training program (experimental period) on jumping performance when compared with a training routine on apparatus (control period) over 2 successive gymnastics training seasons. Nine female elite-orientated gymnasts (around 30-hour training per week) were participated in the study. The study was based on a 20-month longitudinal design covering 2 training seasons separated by a competitive period and transition periods. Each season included 1 control and 1 experimental period (Ctrl?1 + Ex?1 and Ctrl?2 + Ex?2, respectively). Before and after each control and experimental period, we assessed plyometric performance by means of drop jumps (DJs) from 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 cm. The jump performance variables considered were flight time (FT), contact time (CT), flight-contact ratio (FC), and estimated mechanical power (also called Bosco expression [BE]), all of which were expressed as raw data and normalized (expressed as a percentage) with respect to the recordings at the beginning of each period of analysis. Flight time was the only variable to increase not only during both experimental periods but also during both controls. Our results confirmed larger relative increments of all the variables (FT, CT, BE, and FC), except for CT at DJs of 80 and 100 cm, during the experimental periods than during their respective previous control periods. Despite the additive effect of growth, development, and maturation, the gymnasts were not able to maintain the DJ performance accomplished during Ex?1, thereby confirming detraining during the competitive and transition periods. We conclude that a combination of heavy resistance training with high impact plyometric jumps is effective in prepubertal gymnasts, despite their initial high level of physical conditioning. PMID:24088867

Marina, Michel; Jemni, Monem

2014-04-01

187

Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine has become a popular nutritional supplement among athletes. Recent research has also suggested that there may be a number of potential therapeutic uses of creatine. This paper reviews the available research that has examined the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and training adaptations. Review of the literature indicates that over 500 research studies have evaluated

Richard B. Kreider

2003-01-01

188

Acquisition of Performance Parameters in Race-Bike Training  

E-print Network

performance? · Do the displayed indoor parameters help the cyclist? · Which displays are most effective with emphasis on competitive cycling. Measurements from a palette of devices, including common bike computers to the height profile of a cycling track · the recording and visualization of training data measurements (speed

Reiterer, Harald

189

Training for Template Creation: A Performance Improvement Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There are three purposes to this article: first, to offer a training approach to employee learning and performance improvement that makes use of a step-by-step process of skill/knowledge creation. The process offers follow-up opportunities for skill maintenance and improvement; second, to explain the conceptual bases of the approach; and…

Lyons, Paul

2008-01-01

190

Australia's Vocational Education & Training System. Annual National Report. Volume 3: Vocational Education & Training Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The state of vocational education and training (VET) in Australia in 1997 was evaluated by collecting data on the following key performance measures: participation and achievement in VET; employer views on VET; student outcomes from VET; VET's benefits for particular client groups (females, people from rural and remote areas, indigenous…

Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

191

Guidelines for evaluation of nuclear facility training programs  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes a single set of objectives and criteria for the evaluation of training programs developed to meet requirements of DOE Orders 5480.18A and 5480.20, and other directives that address training and qualification. The evaluation includes appraisals, surveillances, audits, reviews, assessments, and other activities intended to evaluate training. The standard is intended to assist personnel in performing evaluations of training and qualification programs.

Not Available

1994-06-01

192

The influence of respiratory muscle training upon intermittent exercise performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of respiratory muscle training (RMT) on intermittent exercise performance, respiratory muscle strength (PI (max)), respiratory muscle fatigue (RMF), and dyspnea in soccer athletes. Collegiate soccer athletes (20 male, 7 female) were randomly divided into either a RMT or control condition during off-season conditioning. The RMT group performed a 30RM protocol (10 times weekly) for 5 weeks using a commercially-available training device, while the controls received no RMT. Performance was evaluated utilizing Level 1 of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (IRT) and dyspnea was assessed during and immediately following the IRT. RMF was quantified within 2 minutes (RMF2) and 10 minutes (RMF10) after completing the IRT. Following training, the RMT group significantly increased IRT performance by 216.6 +/- 231.0 meters (p = .008) while the 49.2 +/- 75.1 meter increase observed in the controls was not significant. PI (max) in the RMT group increased from 138.1 +/- 19.6 to 165.3 +/- 23.5 cmH (2)O (p < .001), with no significant change observed in the controls. RMT did not significantly affect RMF or dyspnea. In conclusion, RMT improved intermittent exercise performance in these soccer athletes. The mechanisms by which RMT improves performance warrant further study. PMID:18975258

Nicks, C R; Morgan, D W; Fuller, D K; Caputo, J L

2009-01-01

193

The implications of enhancing appraisal to meet the requirements of revalidation, as perceived by appraisers: a qualitative study in Scotland.  

PubMed

This paper describes a qualitative study which explored the possible impact of enhanced appraisal and the requirements of revalidation upon GP appraisers in Scotland. So far there has been little research examining the impact 'enhanced' appraisal may have on the appraisee or appraiser population. Key objectives were to identify potential benefits and problems with the introduction of enhanced appraisal for the appraiser population and to explore what they perceive its impact will be on the GP workforce more generally. Three focus groups were held with a purposive sample of 17 highly experienced GP appraisers from across Scotland between February and April 2010. The results showed that this group of appraisers perceived that they would need to become more prescriptive about the standard of basic paperwork and evidence that is submitted by an appraisee. This created some anxieties about taking on a more judgemental role. They were concerned about a possible need to inform a high-achieving GP that their evidence was insufficient. Concerns were also raised about appraisees becoming less open and candid during appraisal once the links to revalidation are in place. Uncertainty was expressed about the relationship between the appraiser and responsible officer (RO) and how appraisers should decide which appraisees ought to be flagged up to the RO. The need for clear, standardised summary forms (known as GP Scot 4 in Scotland) to be passed to the RO was highlighted. Some of the appraisers were unsure about the value of new types of evidence which will be required--notably MSF and continuing professional development (CPD) credits. However, a few appraisers noted that some early adopters of CPD credits liked this way of recording their learning whilst MSF could be valuable and was seldom controversial. Potential benefits of 'enhanced appraisal' were highlighted--particularly increased engagement from some GPs who have hitherto been reluctant appraisees. The appraisers in this study wanted further training for their role, particularly training and calibration in delivering MSF feedback and in verifying CPD credits. They were frustrated by delays to revalidation and concerned that enhanced appraisal might be implemented without sufficient support (remediation and IT systems) being in place. However, they remained cautiously optimistic that some of the formative elements of appraisal can be maintained and were content to continue as appraisers provided they receive appropriate training and support and provided adequate remediation systems are in place for those GPs requiring help. PMID:22413658

Wakeling, Judy; Cameron, Niall

2011-11-01

194

Teaching critical appraisal to medical students in obstetrics and gynecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical appraisal might be the most important skill to acquire in medical school. Despite its importance, this issue has received little attention in obstetrics and gynecology training. This article describes the approach used at San Francisco General Hospital. We teach critical appraisal in several ways. We provide a series of student seminars that foster critical reading of the literature. Topics

David A Grimes; Joseph A Bachicha; Lee A Learman

1998-01-01

195

Anthropometric and training variables related to 10km running performance.  

PubMed Central

Sixty male distance athletes were divided into three equal groups according to their personal best time for the 10km run. The runners were measured anthropometrically and each runner completed a detailed questionnaire on his athletic status, training programme and performance. The runners in this study had similar anthropometric and training profiles to other distance runners of a similar standard. The most able runners were shorter and lighter than those in the other two groups and significantly smaller skinfold values (P less than 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for either bone widths or circumferences but the elite and good runners had significantly higher ponderal indices (P less than 0.05) than the average runners, indicating that they are more linear. Elite and good runners were also less endomorphic but more ectomorphic than the average runners. The elite runners trained more often, ran more miles per week and had been running longer (P less than 0.05) than good or average runners. A multiple regression and discriminant function analysis indicated that linearity, total skinfold, the type and frequency of training and the number of years running were the best predictors of running performance and success at the 10km distance. PMID:3814989

Bale, P; Bradbury, D; Colley, E

1986-01-01

196

Performance comparison of SLFN training algorithms for DNA microarray classification.  

PubMed

The classification of biological samples measured by DNA microarrays has been a major topic of interest in the last decade, and several approaches to this topic have been investigated. However, till now, classifying the high-dimensional data of microarrays still presents a challenge to researchers. In this chapter, we focus on evaluating the performance of the training algorithms of the single hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFNs) to classify DNA microarrays. The training algorithms consist of backpropagation (BP), extreme learning machine (ELM) and regularized least squares ELM (RLS-ELM), and an effective algorithm called neural-SVD has recently been proposed. We also compare the performance of the neural network approaches with popular classifiers such as support vector machine (SVM), principle component analysis (PCA) and fisher discriminant analysis (FDA). PMID:21431554

Huynh, Hieu Trung; Kim, Jung-Ja; Won, Yonggwan

2011-01-01

197

Unique aspects of competitive weightlifting: performance, training and physiology.  

PubMed

Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure of competitive weightlifters is characterized by the frequent use of high-intensity resistance exercise movements. Varied coaching and training philosophies currently exist around the world and further research is required to substantiate the best type of training programme for male and female weightlifters of various age groups. As competitive weightlifting is contested over eight male and seven female body weight categories, the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes widely ranges. The body compositions of weightlifters are similar to that of athletes of comparable body mass in other strength and power sports. However, the shorter height and limb lengths of weightlifters provide mechanical advantages when lifting heavy loads by reducing the mechanical torque and the vertical distance that the barbell must be displaced. Furthermore, the shorter body dimensions coincide with a greater mean skeletal muscle cross-sectional area that is advantageous to weightlifting performance. Weightlifting training induces a high metabolic cost. Although dietary records demonstrate that weightlifters typically meet their required daily energy intake, weightlifters have been shown to over consume protein and fat at the expense of adequate carbohydrate. The resulting macronutrient imbalance may not yield optimal performance gains. Cross-sectional data suggest that weightlifting training induces type IIX to IIA fibre-type transformation. Furthermore, weightlifters exhibit hypertrophy of type II fibres that is advantageous to weightlifting performance and maximal force production. As such, the isometric peak force and contractile rate of force development of weightlifters is ~15-20% and ~13-16% greater, respectively, than in other strength and power athletes. In addition, weightlifting training has been shown to reduce the typical sex-related difference in the expression of neuromuscular strength and power. However, this apparent sex-related difference appears to be augmented with increasing adult age demonstrating that women undergo a greater age-related decline in muscle shortening velocity and peak power when compared with men. Weightlifting training and competition has been shown to induce significant structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system. The collective evidence shows that these adaptations are physiological as opposed to pathological. Finally, the acute exercise-induced testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone responses of weightlifters have similarities to that of following conventional strength and hypertrophy protocols involving large muscle mass exercises. The routine assessment of the basal testosterone?:?cortisol ratio may be beneficial when attempting to quantify the adaptive responses to weightlifting training. As competitive weightlifting is becoming increasingly popular around the world, further research addressing the physiological responses and adaptations of female weightlifters and younger (i.e. ?17 years of age) and older (i.e. ?35 years of age) weightlifters of both sexes is required. PMID:22873835

Storey, Adam; Smith, Heather K

2012-09-01

198

Perk Station - Percutaneous Surgery Training and Performance Measurement Platform  

PubMed Central

Motivation Image-guided percutaneous (through the skin) needle-based surgery has become part of routine clinical practice in performing procedures such as biopsies, injections and therapeutic implants. A novice physician typically performs needle interventions under the supervision of a senior physician; a slow and inherently subjective training process that lacks objective, quantitative assessment of the surgical skill and performance[S1]. Shortening the learning curve and increasing procedural consistency are important factors in assuring high-quality medical care. Methods This paper describes a laboratory validation system, called Perk Station, for standardized training and performance measurement under different assistance techniques for needle-based surgical guidance systems. The initial goal of the Perk Station is to assess and compare different techniques: 2D image overlay, biplane laser guide, laser protractor and conventional freehand. The main focus of this manuscript is the planning and guidance software system developed on the 3D Slicer platform, a free, open source software package designed for visualization and analysis of medical image data. Results The prototype Perk Station has been successfully developed, the associated needle insertion phantoms were built, and the graphical user interface was fully implemented. The system was inaugurated in undergraduate teaching and a wide array of outreach activities. Initial results, experiences, ongoing activities and future plans are reported. PMID:19539446

Vikal, Siddharth; U-Thainual, Paweena; Carrino, John A.; Iordachita, Iulian; Fischer, Gregory S.; Fichtinger, Gabor

2009-01-01

199

Parents' Appraisals, Reflected Appraisals, and Children's Self-Appraisals of Sport Competence: A Yearlong Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the contribution of the reflected appraisal process to the ontogeny of children's self-perceptions of physical competence. Emanating from symbolic interactionist thought, reflected appraisals refer to individuals' perceptions of others' evaluations of their abilities. The influence of parents' appraisals of their child's competence on the child's self-appraisals was hypothesized to be mediated by parents' reflected appraisals. Data were

Julien E. Bois; Philippe G. Sarrazin; Robert J. Brustad; Julien P. Chanal; David O. Trouilloud

2005-01-01

200

Are physicians performing neonatal circumcisions well-trained?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Notwithstanding the recommendations from the Canadian Pediatric Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics on the indications for neonatal circumcision, this procedure is still common in North America and throughout the world. Our purpose is not to argue whether this procedure should be done, but rather to examine who is doing it, their training, how it is performed and how can we prevent unsatisfactory results and complications. The objective is to identify what fields of knowledge require improvement and then design a teaching module to improve the outcomes of neonatal circumcision. Methods: A 19-question cross-sectional survey, including a visual identification item, was submitted to 87 physicians who perform neonatal circumcisions in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. To improve our response rate, study subjects were contacted in a variety of ways, including mail and fax and telephone. Once the survey was completed, we produced a surgical technique training video on using the Gomco clamp and the Plastibell techiques. A knowledge dissemination workshop was held with survey participants to discuss contraindications and the use of anesthesia and management of complications of neonatal circumcision and to evaluate the surgical technique training video. A 6-month follow-up questionnaire was completed to determine the impact of the teaching course on participants’ daily practice. Results: In total, we received 54 responses (62% response rate). From these, 46 (85%) were family doctors and pediatricians, while the remaining 8 (15%) were pediatric general surgeons and urologists. The circumcisions were carried out with the Gomco clamp 35 (63%) and the Plastibell 21 (37%). No respondent admitted to learning the procedure through a structured training course. Of the non-surgeons, 19 (43%) learned to perform a circumcision from a non-surgeon colleague. A little over a third of the participants (17, 31%) were happy to perform a circumcision in a child born with a concealed penis, where circumcision is contraindicated. With respect to the early complications post-circumcision, 8 (100%) surgeons versus 29 (63%) non-surgeons felt comfortable dealing with bleeding (p = 0.046). In total, 7 (88%) surgeons versus 16 (35%) non-surgeons were comfortable dealing with urinary retention (p = 0.01). Also, 8 (100%) surgeons versus 24 (52%) non-surgeons were comfortable dealing with a wound dehiscence (p = 0.02). Moreover, 6 (75%) surgeons and 5 (10%) non-surgeons were comfortable managing meatal stenosis (p < 0.01). Five (63%) surgeons versus 15 (33%) non-surgeons were confident in dealing with a trapped penis post-circumcision (p = 0.24). Conclusions: Our survey findings indicate that most physicians performing neonatal circumcisions in our community have received informal and unstructured training. This lack of formal instruction may explain the complications and unsatisfactory results witnessed in our pediatric urology practice. Many practitioners are not aware of the contraindications to neonatal circumcision and most non-surgeons perform the procedure without being able to handle common post-surgical complications. Based on our survey findings, we planned and carried out a formal training course to address these issues. PMID:24032062

DeMaria, Jorge; Abdulla, Alym; Pemberton, Julia; Raees, Ayman; Braga, Luis H.

2013-01-01

201

Portfolio Assessment as an Alternate Appraisal Method: A Faculty Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisal continues to be an area of research within Human Resource Development. This case study explores the impact of promotion portfolios upon the performance and professional development of university professors. Specific themes from data analysis indicated that portfolios are viewed as a performance appraisal measure/learning tool…

Clements, Kimberly D.; McArdle, Geri; Cole, Ann F.

2005-01-01

202

Appraising Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

Ediger, Marlow

203

Reflected appraisal process 1 Running head: REFLECTED APPRAISAL PROCESS3  

E-print Network

' perceptions of others'4 evaluations of their abilities. The influence of parents' appraisals of their child's5 competence on the child's self-appraisals was hypothesized to be mediated by parents'6 reflected appraisals school year. Structural equation modeling revealed that (1)8 parents' appraisals at Wave 1 influenced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

High performance work practices and firm performance: evidence from the pharmaceutical industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study analyzed the relationship of high performance work practices and firm performance in a sample of pharmaceutical companies in China. We found that the human resource management index composed of high performance work practices such as extensive training, participation, detailed job definition, result-oriented performance appraisal, internal career opportunities, and profit sharing as reported by the human resource or

Yi-Chi Zhang; Shu-Ling Li

2009-01-01

205

Speed-of-Processing and Driving Simulator Training Result in Improved Driving Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Useful field of view, a measure of processing speed and spatial attention, can be improved with training. We evaluated the effects of this improvement on older adults' driving performance. Elderly adults participated in a speed-of-processing training program (N = 48), a traditional driver training program performed in a driving simulator (N = 22), or a low-risk reference group (N =

Daniel L. Roenker; Gayla M. Cissell; Karlene K. Ball; Virginia G. Wadley; Jerri D. Edwards

2003-01-01

206

The effects of concurrent training on performance variables in previously untrained males  

E-print Network

-3 days/week, 20-40 min, 65- 80% HRR), a resistance training (RT, N=13) group performed a resistance training program (2-3 days/week, 3 sets/8 exercises, 6-10 reps, 75-85% 1RM), and a concurrent training (CT, N=16) group performed both the endurance...

Glowacki, Shawn Philip

2005-02-17

207

Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

Sweetser, Wesley

2005-01-01

208

Effects of simultaneously performed cognitive and physical training in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background While many studies confirm the positive effect of cognitive and physical training on cognitive performance of older adults, only little is known about the effects of simultaneously performed cognitive and physical training. In the current study, older adults simultaneously performed a verbal working memory and a cardiovascular training to improve cognitive and motor-cognitive dual task performance. Twenty training sessions of 30 minutes each were conducted over a period of ten weeks, with a test session before, in the middle, and after the training. Training gains were tested in measures of selective attention, paired-associates learning, executive control, reasoning, memory span, information processing speed, and motor-cognitive dual task performance in the form of walking and simultaneously performing a working memory task. Results Sixty-three participants with a mean age of 71.8?±?4.9 years (range 65 to 84) either performed the simultaneous training (N?=?21), performed a single working memory training (N?=?16), or attended no training at all (N?=?26). The results indicate similar training progress and larger improvements in the executive control task for both training groups when compared to the passive control group. In addition, the simultaneous training resulted in larger improvements compared to the single cognitive training in the paired-associates task and was able to reduce the step-to-step variability during the motor-cognitive dual task when compared to the single cognitive training and the passive control group. Conclusions The simultaneous training of cognitive and physical abilities presents a promising training concept to improve cognitive and motor-cognitive dual task performance, offering greater potential on daily life functioning, which usually involves the recruitment of multiple abilities and resources rather than a single one. PMID:24053148

2013-01-01

209

Physiological aspects of soccer refereeing performance and training.  

PubMed

The role of the referee is far from minimal in the economy of soccer, as very often, particularly in professional soccer, a wrong judgment may have profound implications on the outcome of the game. In this regard, a better knowledge of soccer refereeing can obviously benefit the game. Recent studies have shown that during a competitive match, an elite soccer referee may cover 9-13 km attaining approximately 85-90% and approximately 70-80% of maximal heart rate and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), respectively. Of the total distance covered about 4-18% is covered at high intensity. Blood lactate concentration has been reported to be in the range of 4-5 mmol/L; however, during competitive matches, blood lactate concentrations as high as 14 mmol/L have been observed. This figure is similar to that extensively reported for soccer players, specifically paralleling that observed in midfield players. However, compared with players, referees are 15-20 years older, often have a non-professional status and cannot be substituted during the game. Furthermore, this important physical stress superimposes onto a high perceptual-cognitive workload throughout the entire game. In relation to fitness status, referees possess VO2max values somewhat lower than the players they officiate, with mean values in the range of 44-50 mL/kg/min. However, the methods used by the Federation Internationale de Football Association and the Union of European Football Associations to test referee fitness need to be changed as the current fitness tests do not relate to match performance. More task-specific tests such as the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (YYIRT) have been devised and validated for use with referees. Given that aerobic performance is positively correlated with match performance, it is important that referees are trained to improve their ability to cover large distances during a match and also to repeat high-intensity efforts. A number of studies have shown large improvements in YYIRT performance following both short-term (12 weeks) and long-term (16 months) high-intensity interval training. Future research needs to focus on a number of important areas including the decision-making ability of referees when officiating under different conditions, such as high thermal strain, and the impact of age on both physical and mental performance. PMID:17595157

Castagna, Carlo; Abt, Grant; D'Ottavio, Stefano

2007-01-01

210

Britain's Training Deficit. The Centre for Economic Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 12 papers that were produced as a result of a seminar program on selected issues central to the debate over job training in Great Britain. The first paper, "Why We Need a Training Reform Act" (Richard Layard, Ken Mayhew, Geoffrey Owen), examines existing deficiencies in vocational education and training in Britain and proposes a…

Layard, Richard, Ed.; And Others

211

An appraisal of a column-generation-based algorithm for a centralized train-con?ict resolution on metropolitan railway network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In practice, a train-con?ict resolution is decentralized around the dispatchers each of whom, with her rule-of-thumb to operational data, controls a few segments from a global railway network. Conceptually, a global sub-optimality or infeasibility of the decentralized system is resolved by a network controller on the top of the lower layers of the dispatchers and the drivers operating trains on

Sung-Pil Hong; Yun-Hong Min; Soon-Heum Hong

212

Comment: Performance improvement with computer training in Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

Computer-based memory and attention training methods improve episodic recall in older adults who have amnestic mild cognitive impairment.(1,2) Memory and attention are highly interactive and interdependent processes due to their shared circuitry. The cognitive benefits of computer-based memory training appear to persist for at least 6 months.(1) Traditional cognitive training programs are administered by professionals and may cost as much as $15 to $100 an hour, depending on the educational level of the staff member who delivers the training.(2) More cost-effective methods of computer-based memory training are needed. In the study by Zimmermann et al.(3) on patients with Parkinson disease (PD), 2 types of computer training were compared: a specific cognitive training method (CogniPlus) and a nonspecific method, Nintendo Wii, a game console. PMID:24623844

Hershey, Linda A

2014-04-01

213

Transfer effects of fall training on balance performance and spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study examined transfer effects of fall training on fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International [FES-I]), balance performance, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics in older adults. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults (ages 65-85) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group completed 12 training sessions (60 min, 6 weeks). During pre- and posttesting, we measured FES-I, balance performance (double limb, closed eyes; single limb, open eyes; double limb, open eyes with motor-interfered task), and gait parameters (e.g., velocity; cadence; stride time, stride width, and stride length; variability of stride time and stride length) under single- and motor-interfered tasks. Dual tasks were applied to appraise improvements of cognitive processing during balance and gait. FES-I (p = .33) and postural sway did not significantly change (0.36 < p < .79). Trends toward significant interaction effects were found for step width during normal walking and stride length variability during the motor dual task (p = .05, ?p 2 = .22). Fall training did not sufficiently improve fear of falling, balance, or gait performance under single- or dual-task conditions in healthy older adults. PMID:23881433

Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Roth, Ralf; Soltermann, Martin; Kressig, Reto W; Zahner, Lukas

2014-07-01

214

The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers  

PubMed Central

Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training. Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62–87 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention), or (3) a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85%) completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned orthogonal comparisons. Results: The driving simulator-training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention-training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers' safety on the road. PMID:24860497

Casutt, Gianclaudio; Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Keller, Martin; Jancke, Lutz

2014-01-01

215

Relationships Between Design Characteristics of Avionics Subsystems and Training Cost, Training Difficulty, and Job Performance. Final Report, Covering Activity from 1 July 1971 Through 1 September 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the relationship between avionics subsystem design characteristics and training time, training cost, and job performance. A list of design variables believed to affect training and job performance was established and supplemented with personnel variables, including aptitude test scores and the amount of training and…

Lintz, Larry M.; And Others

216

Training and Performance Self-Efficacy, Affect, and Performance in Wheelchair Road Racers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, social cognitive theory was examined with athletes with disabilities. More specifically, hierarchical and self-regulatory performance self-efficacy, self-regulatory training self-efficacy, outcome confidence, and affect were examined with wheelchair road racers ( N = 51). In accordance with social cognitive theory, moderate to strong significant relationships among 3 types of self-efficacy and outcome confidence were found ( rs

Jeffrey J. Martin

217

Relationships between Training Load, Salivary Cortisol Responses and Performance during Season Training in Middle and Long Distance Runners  

PubMed Central

Purpose Monitoring training from a multifactorial point of view is of great importance in elite endurance athletes. This study aims to analyze the relationships between indicators of training load, hormonal status and neuromuscular performance, and to compare these values with competition performance, in elite middle and long-distance runners. Method Fifteen elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age?=?26.3±5.1 yrs) were measured for training volume, training zone and session rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (daily), countermovement jump (CMJ) and salivary free cortisol (weekly) for 39 weeks (i.e., the whole season). Competition performance was also observed throughout the study, registering the season best and worst competitions. Results Season average salivary free cortisol concentrations correlate significantly with CMJ (r?=??0.777) and RPE (r?=?0.551). Also, weekly averages of CMJ significantly correlates with RPE (r?=??0.426), distance run (r?=??0.593, p<0.001) and training zone (r?=?0.437, p<0.05). Finally, it was found that the CMJ (+8.5%, g?=?0.65) and the RPE (?17.6%, g?=?0.94) measured the week before the best competition performance of the season were significantly different compared with the measurement conducted the week before the season’s worst competition performance. Conclusions Monitoring weekly measurements of CMJ and RPE could be recommended to control training process of such athletes in a non-invasive, field-based, systematic way. PMID:25153137

Balsalobre-Fernandez, Carlos; Tejero-Gonzalez, Carlos M?; del Campo-Vecino, Juan

2014-01-01

218

The communication training needs of registered nurses.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine registered nurses' (RN) perceived levels of communication effectiveness and need for communication training. Results of the survey indicate that RNs view themselves as fairly effective in using most job-related communication skills except for performance appraisal interviewing, public speaking, and persuasion. The majority of RNs had received training in most communication skills, the exceptions being persuasion and employment interviewing. The two most prominent sources for this training were college and on-the-job training. The results also indicate that RNs believe a variety of communication skills, including presentational speaking, listening, persuasive speaking, group problem solving, leadership, and technical report writing, are important to their job performance. The majority of RNs thought they needed additional training in these skills and were willing to receive such training. Their preferences for receiving the instruction were in-house or industry-based training seminars and profession-sponsored continuing education programs. PMID:7814699

Johnson, J R

1994-01-01

219

PERFORMANCE OF DISCRIMINATIVELY TRAINED AUDITORY FEATURES ON AURORA2 AND AURORA3  

E-print Network

PERFORMANCE OF DISCRIMINATIVELY TRAINED AUDITORY FEATURES ON AURORA2 AND AURORA3 Brian Mak and Yik) by 30.27% over ICSLP2002 Aurora2 baseline on multi-condition training. Similarly, we obtain a relative WER reduction of 38.42% over ICSLP2002 Aurora3 baseline. 1. INTRODUCTION Discriminative training [1

Mak, Brian Kan-Wing

220

An interdisciplinary performance-based approach to training laboratory animal technicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience has proven that comprehensive training and education make it easier to attract and retain highly qualified animal care technicians, as well as to ensure that research facilities reach maximum performance. The authors outline the training approach used at SoBran, Inc., by describing the subject matter covered in their initial orientation period and in ongoing training sessions. The authors also

Javier Chavez; Bruce Bishop; Molly L. Romick

2006-01-01

221

Concurrent speed endurance and resistance training improves performance, running economy, and muscle NHE1 in moderately trained runners.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether speed endurance training (SET, repeated 30-s sprints) and heavy resistance training (HRT, 80-90% of 1 repetition maximum) performed in succession are compatible and lead to performance improvements in moderately trained endurance runners. For an 8-wk intervention period (INT) 23 male runners [maximum oxygen uptake (V?o2max) 59 ± 1 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1); values are means ± SE] either maintained their training (CON, n = 11) or performed high-intensity concurrent training (HICT, n = 12) consisting of two weekly sessions of SET followed by HRT and two weekly sessions of aerobic training with an average reduction in running distance of 42%. After 4 wk of HICT, performance was improved (P < 0.05) in a 10-km run (42:30 ± 1:07 vs. 44:11 ± 1:08 min:s) with no further improvement during the last 4 wk. Performance in a 1,500-m run (5:10 ± 0:05 vs. 5:27 ± 0:08 min:s) and in the Yo-Yo IR2 test (706 ± 97 vs. 491 ± 65 m) improved (P < 0.001) only following 8 wk of INT. In HICT, running economy (189 ± 4 vs. 195 ± 4 ml·kg(-1)·km(-1)), muscle content of NHE1 (35%) and dynamic muscle strength was augmented (P < 0.01) after compared with before INT, whereas V?o2max, muscle morphology, capillarization, content of muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump subunits, and MCT4 were unaltered. No changes were observed in CON. The present study demonstrates that SET and HRT, when performed in succession, lead to improvements in both short- and long-term running performance together with improved running economy as well as increased dynamic muscle strength and capacity for muscular H(+) transport in moderately trained endurance runners. PMID:25190744

Skovgaard, Casper; Christensen, Peter M; Larsen, Sonni; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

2014-11-15

222

A Descriptive Study of the Performance Appraisal of Supervisors of Spicer Higher Secondary School, Using "360 Degree Feedback" Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research was to study the performance of the supervisors in the aspects leadership, communication, and task managing by the "360 degree feedback" method. A qualitative research was used to carry out the research study. The researcher formulated three questions that guided the study. An opinionnaire which included 23 items in…

Hemati, Hamidreza

2011-01-01

223

Performance Management in the French System of Secondary-Teacher Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study focuses on performance analysis and performance management in teacher training in France. After a brief summary of the French system of secondary-teacher training, determinants affecting performance are analyzed. The analysis shows that three determinants--the number of external competitors, the size of a department and the…

Tchibozo, Guy

2005-01-01

224

Does training make you smarter? The effects of training on dogs' performance (Canis familiaris) in a problem solving task.  

PubMed

This study investigates the influence of training experiences on dogs' performance in a problem solving task, namely opening a box to obtain food. One hundred and eighteen dogs allocated to two different groups according to their training experience (no/basic training vs high level training) were tested. In each group the dogs saw the researcher manipulating either the paw-pad or the lid, prior to being allowed free access to the apparatus. No effect of the locus of manipulation was observed. However, there was a strong effect of training on the dogs' performance regardless of manipulation condition. Compared to untrained dogs, highly trained dogs were more successful in opening the box and spent significantly more time interacting with the apparatus; whereas untrained dogs spent significantly more time looking back at their owners and the researcher. These results indicate that high levels of training improve dogs' problem solving ability, with dogs appearing to be more proactive in the their interaction with novel objects. PMID:18434043

Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Valsecchi, Paola; Petak, Irena; Accorsi, Pier Attilio; Previde, Emanuela Prato

2008-07-01

225

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Training Strategies: Performance Goals and Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Public Health Service policy, Animal Welfare Act regulations, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Labo- ratory Animals all require that institutions provide training for personnel engaged in animal research. Most research facilities have developed training programs to meet these requirements but may not have developed ways of assessing the effectiveness of these programs. Omission of this

Wellesley R. Foshay; Peggy T. Tinkey

226

Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal…

Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

227

Preliminary performance appraisal of Navy V/STOL transport and search-type airplanes using hydrogen fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

First-cut estimates are given of the performance advantages of liquid-hydrogen-fueled, ejector wing, V/STOL aircraft designed for shipboard delivery and search-type missions. Results indicate that the use of LH2 could reduce gross weights 30 percent, empty weights 15 percent, and energy consumption 10 percent for a fixed payload and mission. If gross weight is fixed, the delivery range could be increased about 60 percent or the hover time during a search mission doubled. No analysis or discussion of the economic and operational disadvantages is presented.

Strack, W. C.

1974-01-01

228

The relationship between academic performanceand pilot performance in a collegiate flight training environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While flight time has commonly been used as a measure of a pilot's skill level, little research has been performed to determine what factors are linked to predicting a pilot's performance, particularly in a training environment. If a dependable link was found, prediction of how well an individual would do in flight training would be possible. Time, money and resources could be focused on individuals who are more likely to succeed in pilot training. Therefore, this study was designed to determine if a relationship between GPA and pilot performance exists, in order to determine if academic performance can serve as a predictor of pilot performance in a training environment. The use of historical records from Middle Tennessee State University's Aerospace Department, which included GPA information and flight training records information, was used evaluate this relationship. Results of the study indicate a statistically significant modest correlation between academic performance and pilot performance between some of the variable pairings.

Jones, Carolyn A.

229

Particle packed columns and monolithic columns in high-performance liquid chromatography-comparison and critical appraisal.  

PubMed

The review highlights the fundamentals and the most prominent achievements in the field of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column development over a period of nearly 50 years. After a short introduction on the structure and function of HPLC columns, the first part treats the major steps and processes in the manufacture of a particle packed column: synthesis and control of particle morphology, sizing and size analysis, packing procedures and performance characterization. The next section is devoted to three subjects, which reflect the recent development and the main future directions of packed columns: minimum particle size of packing, totally porous vs. core/shell particles and column miniaturization. In the last section an analysis is given on an alternative to packed columns-monolithic columns, which have gained considerable attraction. The challenges are: improved packing design based on modeling and simulation for targeted applications, and enhanced robustness and reproducibility of monolithic columns. In the field of miniaturization, particularly in chip-based nano-LC systems, monoliths offer a great potential for the separation of complex mixtures e.g. in life science. PMID:18177658

Unger, Klaus K; Skudas, Romas; Schulte, Michael M

2008-03-14

230

Cyclists' improvement of pedaling efficacy and performance after heavy strength training.  

PubMed

The authors tested whether heavy strength training, including hip-flexion exercise, would reduce the extent of the phase in the crank revolution where negative or retarding crank torque occurs. Negative torque normally occurs in the upstroke phase when the leg is lifted by flexing the hip. Eighteen well-trained cyclists either performed 12 wk of heavy strength training in addition to their usual endurance training (E+S; n = 10) or merely continued their usual endurance training during the intervention period (E; n = 8). The strength training consisted of 4 lower body exercises (3 × 4-10 repetition maximum) performed twice a week. E+S enhanced cycling performance by 7%, which was more than in E (P = .02). Performance was determined as average power output in a 5-min all-out trial performed subsequent to 185 min of submaximal cycling. The performance enhancement, which has been reported previously, was here shown to be accompanied by improved pedaling efficacy during the all-out cycling. Thus, E+S shortened the phase where negative crank torque occurs by ~16°, corresponding to ~14%, which was more than in E (P = .002). In conclusion, adding heavy strength training to usual endurance training in well-trained cyclists improves pedaling efficacy during 5-min all-out cycling performed after 185 min of cycling. PMID:23197584

Hansen, Ernst A; Rønnestad, Bent R; Vegge, Geir; Raastad, Truls

2012-12-01

231

Improving driving training with a handheld performance support system  

E-print Network

The handheld computer Driver Trainer application is an element of a new training program by the transportation company to improve the safety of new truck drivers. Its aim is to aid trainers objectively evaluate truck drivers ...

Liu, Xia, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

232

Appraisal of Artificial Screening Techniques of Tomato to Accurately Reflect Field Performance of the Late Blight Resistance  

PubMed Central

Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant). In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with thefield experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato. PMID:25279467

Nowakowska, Marzena; Nowicki, Marcin; K?osi?ska, Urszula; Maciorowski, Robert; Kozik, El?bieta U.

2014-01-01

233

Can Neurofeedback Training Enhance Performance? An Evaluation of the Evidence with Implications for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many claims regarding the possibilities of performance enhancement training. The aim of such training is for\\u000a an individual to complete a specific function or task with fewer errors and greater efficiency, resulting in a more positive\\u000a outcome. The present review examined evidence from neurofeedback training studies to enhance performance in a particular area.\\u000a Previous research has documented

David J. Vernon

2005-01-01

234

TRAINING LOAD, IMMUNE SYSTEM, UPPER RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND PERFORMANCE IN WELL-TRAINED CYCLISTS THROUGHOUT A COMPETITIVE SEASON  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to evaluate the leukocyte subset counts, serum immunoglobulin A, performance and upper respiratory symptoms (URS), as well as their interrelationships, of well-trained cyclists for a 29-week training season using monitored loads. The season was divided into three phases: preparatory (nine weeks), first competitive phase (nine weeks) and second competitive phase (11 weeks). The sample consisted of eight well-trained cyclists, aged 18 ± 2 years. Immunological parameters and performance were evaluated during weeks 1 (baseline), 10 (early first competitive phase), 19 (early second competitive phase) and 29 (end of the second competitive phase). The training loads (volume x rating of perceived exertion) were monitored daily while the monitoring of URS was performed every 15 days using the WURSS-44 questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and a Pearson correlation test with the significance level set at p ? 0.05. No significant differences were found for training load, leukocyte subset counts or serum immunoglobulin A among the three phases. However, serum immunoglobulin A was 50.9% below the control group values. URS were significantly higher during the preparatory period, and there were significant correlations between URS and training load (strain) in the preparatory period (r = 0.72, p = 0.032) and second competitive phase (r = 0.73, p = 0.036). In conclusion, indicators of training load without a significant change throughout the season did not significantly affect immune parameters measured; however, the increase of strain can cause an increase of upper respiratory symptoms throughout the season, but without loss of performance. PMID:24744500

Gobatto, C.A.; Manchado-Gobatto, F.B.

2013-01-01

235

The acute effects intensity and volume of strength training on running performance.  

PubMed

Strength training has been shown to cause acute detrimental effects on running performance. However, there is limited investigation on the effect of various strength training variables, whilst controlling eccentric contraction velocity, on running performance. The present study examined the effects of intensity and volume (i.e. whole body vs. lower body only) of strength training with slow eccentric contractions on running economy (RE) [i.e. below anaerobic threshold (AT)] and time-to-exhaustion (TTE) (i.e. above AT) 6 hours post. Fifteen trained and moderately endurance trained male runners undertook high-intensity whole body (HW), high-intensity lower body only (HL) and low-intensity whole body (LW) strength training sessions with slow eccentric contractions (i.e. 1:4 second concentric-to-eccentric contraction) in random order. Six hours following each strength training session, a RE test with TTE was conducted. The results showed that HW, HL and LW sessions had no effect on RE and that LW session had no effect on TTE (P ? 0.05). However, HW and HL sessions significantly reduced TTE (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that a 6-hour recovery period following HW, HL and LW sessions may minimize attenuation in endurance training performance below AT, although caution should be taken for endurance training sessions above AT amongst trained and moderately endurance trained runners. PMID:24533516

Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen Bede

2014-01-01

236

Examination of Rater Training Effect and Rater Eligibility in L2 Performance Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of rater training in an L2 performance assessment and to examine the eligibility of L2 users of English as raters in L2 performance assessment. Rater training was conducted in order for raters to clearly understand the criteria, the evaluation items, and the evaluation procedure. In this…

Kondo, Yusuke

2010-01-01

237

The Effects of Audiotaped Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training on the Reading Performance of Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the degree to which audiotaped progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training influenced the oral and silent reading performance of eight adolescents who were legally classified as emotionally disturbed. Finds that PMR training can have a positive influence on the reading performance of emotionally disturbed adolescents. (MG)

Margolis, Howard; Pica, Louis, Jr.

1990-01-01

238

Effects of Ingesting Fat Free and Low Fat Chocolate Milk After Resistance Training on Exercise Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collegiate athletes are always looking for ways to improve their performance. Resistance training has been incorporated into most collegiate athletic programs for this very reason. In order to improve strength, lean body mass, and exercise performance, resistance exercise and timely protein ingestion must be followed. Incorporating protein ingestion into a resistance training routine has been shown to improve net protein

Breanna Myers

2010-01-01

239

Effects of concurrent inspiratory and expiratory muscle training on respiratory and exercise performance in competitive swimmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of the respiratory system presents significant limitations on the body’s ability to perform exercise due to the effects of the increased work of breathing, respiratory muscle fatigue, and dyspnoea. Respiratory muscle training is an intervention that may be able to address these limitations, but the impact of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance remains controversial. Therefore, in this

Gregory D. Wells; Michael Plyley; Scott Thomas; Len Goodman; James Duffin

2005-01-01

240

Performance Appraisal Use this form two, three or four times per year to clarify performance expectations, set challenging goals, rate how well the employee  

E-print Network

expectations, set challenging goals, rate how well the employee performed, and develop an action plan for job % of job Monitor by Expectation ­ Performance is completely acceptable when.... Excellence ­ Performance is excellent when... 2. Responsibility % of job Monitor by Expectation ­ Performance is completely acceptable

Amin, S. Massoud

241

A framework for understanding the training process leading to elite performance.  

PubMed

The development of performance in competition is achieved through a training process that is designed to induce automation of motor skills and enhance structural and metabolic functions. Training also promotes self-confidence and a tolerance for higher training levels and competition. In general, there are two broad categories of athletes that perform at the highest level: (i) the genetically talented (the thoroughbred); and (ii) those with a highly developed work ethic (the workhorse) with a system of training guiding their effort. The dynamics of training involve the manipulation of the training load through the variables: intensity, duration and frequency. In addition, sport activities are a combination of strength, speed and endurance executed in a coordinated and efficient manner with the development of sport-specific characteristics. Short- and long-term planning (periodisation) requires alternating periods of training load with recovery for avoiding excessive fatigue that may lead to overtraining. Overtraining is long-lasting performance incompetence due to an imbalance of training load, competition, non-training stressors and recovery. Furthermore, annual plans are normally constructed in macro-, meso- and microcycles around the competitive phases with the objective of improving performance for a peak at a predetermined time. Finally, at competition time, optimal performance requires a healthy body, and integration of not only the physiological elements but also the psychological, technical and tactical components. PMID:14719980

Smith, David J

2003-01-01

242

Evaluating the relationship between change in performance on training tasks and on untrained outcomes  

PubMed Central

Training interventions for older adults are designed to remediate performance on trained tasks and to generalize, or transfer, to untrained tasks. Evidence for transfer is typically based on the trained group showing greater improvement than controls on untrained tasks, or on a correlation between gains in training and in transfer tasks. However, this ignores potential correlational relationships between trained and untrained tasks that exist before training. By accounting for crossed (trained and untrained) and lagged (pre-training and post-training) and cross-lagged relationships between trained and untrained scores in structural equation models, the training-transfer gain relationship can be independently estimated. Transfer is confirmed if only the trained but not control participants' gain correlation is significant. Modeling data from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) study (Smith et al., 2009), transfer from speeded auditory discrimination and syllable span to list and text memory and to working memory was demonstrated in 487 adults aged 65–93. Evaluation of age, sex, and education on pretest scores and on change did not alter this. The overlap of the training with transfer measures was also investigated to evaluate the hypothesis that performance gains in a non-verbal speeded auditory discrimination task may be associated with gains on fewer tasks than gains in a verbal working memory task. Gains in speeded processing were associated with gains on one list memory measure. Syllable span gains were associated with improvement in difficult list recall, story recall, and working memory factor scores. Findings confirmed that more overlap with task demands was associated with gains to more of the tasks assessed, suggesting that transfer effects are related to task overlap in multimodal training. PMID:25165440

Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Peters, Kelly D.; Hindin, Shoshana; Petway, Kevin T.; Kennison, Robert F.

2014-01-01

243

MONITORING TRAINING LOADS, STRESS, IMMUNE-ENDOCRINE RESPONSES AND PERFORMANCE IN TENNIS PLAYERS  

PubMed Central

The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10) were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress) were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A. One repetition maximum strength, running endurance, jump height and agility were assessed before and after training. The periodised training plan led to significant weekly changes in training loads (i.e. increasing in weeks 3 and 4, decreasing in week 5) and post-training improvements in strength, endurance and agility (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentration and the symptoms of stress also increased in weeks 3 and/or 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). Conversely, the testosterone to cortisol ratio decreased in weeks 3 and 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the training plan evoked adaptive changes in stress tolerance and hormonal responses, which may have mediated the improvements in physical performance. PMID:24744485

Moreira, A.; Lodo, L.; Nosaka, K.; Coutts, A.J.; Aoki, M.S.

2013-01-01

244

Predicting State Police Officer Performance in the Field Training Officer Program: What Can We Learn from the Cadet’s Performance in the Training Academy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the influence of the state police law enforcement academy on the performance of commissioned officers\\u000a in the field training officer (FTO) program in a state in the Southeastern region of the United States. The police training\\u000a academy is paramount in preparing cadets for the roles, responsibilities, and activities that graduates assume independently\\u000a in the field. As such,

Cary A. Caro

245

The effects of passive leg press training on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power.  

PubMed

Passive leg press (PLP) training was developed based on the concepts of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and the benefits of high muscle contraction velocity. Passive leg press training enables lower limb muscle groups to apply a maximum downward force against a platform moved up and down at high frequency by an electric motor. Thus, these muscle groups accomplished both concentric and eccentric isokinetic contractions in a passive, rapid, and repetitive manner. This study investigates the effects of 10 weeks of PLP training at high and low movement frequencies have on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power. The authors selected 30 college students who had not performed systematic resistance training in the previous 6 months, including traditional resistance training at a squat frequency of 0.5 Hz, PLP training at a low frequency of 0.5 Hz, and PLP training at a high frequency of 2.5 Hz, and randomly divided them into 3 groups (n = 10). The participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, explosive force, and SSC efficiency were tested under the same experimental procedures at pre- and post-training. Results reveal that high-frequency PLP training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, peak power, and SSC efficiency (p < 0.05). Additionally, their change rate abilities were substantially superior to those of the traditional resistance training (p < 0.05). The low-frequency PLP training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, and peak power (p < 0.05). However, traditional resistance training only increased participants' 30-m sprint performance and peak power (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that jump performance, speed, and muscle power significantly improved after 10 weeks of PLP training at high movement frequency. A PLP training machine powered by an electrical motor enables muscles of the lower extremities to contract faster compared with voluntary contraction. Therefore, muscle training with high contraction velocity is one of the main methods of increasing muscle power. Passive leg press training is a unique method for enhancing jump performance, speed, and muscle power. PMID:22890495

Liu, Chiang; Chen, Chuan-Shou; Ho, Wei-Hua; Füle, Róbert János; Chung, Pao-Hung; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

2013-06-01

246

Administrative Appraisal: A Step to Improved Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report encourages goal and standard setting for administrators and administrator participation in the appraisal process. The first section outlines the weaknesses of present evaluation systems. The second section, which deals with a goal-oriented system, discusses the philosophy behind the system, the standards of performance, and the…

Greene, Robert E.

247

Predicting space telerobotic operator training performance from human spatial ability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal was to determine whether existing tests of spatial ability can predict an astronaut's qualification test performance after robotic training. Because training astronauts to be qualified robotics operators is so long and expensive, NASA is interested in tools that can predict robotics performance before training begins. Currently, the Astronaut Office does not have a validated tool to predict robotics ability as part of its astronaut selection or training process. Commonly used tests of human spatial ability may provide such a tool to predict robotics ability. We tested the spatial ability of 50 active astronauts who had completed at least one robotics training course, then used logistic regression models to analyze the correlation between spatial ability test scores and the astronauts' performance in their evaluation test at the end of the training course. The fit of the logistic function to our data is statistically significant for several spatial tests. However, the prediction performance of the logistic model depends on the criterion threshold assumed. To clarify the critical selection issues, we show how the probability of correct classification vs. misclassification varies as a function of the mental rotation test criterion level. Since the costs of misclassification are low, the logistic models of spatial ability and robotic performance are reliable enough only to be used to customize regular and remedial training. We suggest several changes in tracking performance throughout robotics training that could improve the range and reliability of predictive models.

Liu, Andrew M.; Oman, Charles M.; Galvan, Raquel; Natapoff, Alan

2013-11-01

248

The order of concurrent training does not affect soccer-related performance adaptations.  

PubMed

Despite the wealth of evidence regarding physical training strategies in soccer, there is little information regarding soccer-specific concurrent training and the effects of training order. The current study aimed to: i) quantify the effects of concurrent high-intensity run-based training (HIT) and strength- and power-based training (STR) on soccer-specific performance, and ii) investigate the order effect of completing HIT and STR either first or second within training sessions. Eighteen semi- and fully-professional players completed a battery of field- and gym-based tests before and after a 5-week pre-season training intervention. Players were pair-matched and completed 3 sessions per week of HIT followed by STR (n=9) or STR followed by HIT (n=9). ANCOVA tests revealed no differences between groups for changes in any of the measures (p>0.05). However, a training effect was observed for all measures (p<0.05), with 10-m sprint, 6×30-m repeated sprint, 40-m agility and Yo-Yo test performances improving by 1.8±2.6%, 1.3±1.8%, 1.0±1.5% and 19.4±23.4%, respectively (n=18). In conclusion, there was a positive effect of the concurrent training approach on key measures of soccer performance, but the order of completing HIT and STR appears inconsequential to performance adaptations. PMID:23700329

McGawley, K; Andersson, P-I

2013-11-01

249

Expert and Novice Performance: Implications for Clinical Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of advanced expertise development in a number of areas are reviewed in order to provide general suggestions about the elements of clinical training that might enhance counseling and educational psychology expertise. The emphasis of the discussion is on the connections between classroom instruction and practicum or internship experiences. Recommendations include changes in the sequencing, context, knowledge content, practice conditions,

Kathy O'Byrne; Richard E. Clark; Ruzbeh Malakuti

1997-01-01

250

Scientific Talent, Training, and Performance: Intellect, Personality, and Genetic Endowment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite over a century of research, psychologists have still not established scientific talent as an empirically demonstrable phenomenon. To help solve this problem, a talent definition was first proposed that provided the basis for three quantitative estimators of criterion heritability that can be applied to meta-analytic and behavior genetic research concerning the intellectual and personality predictors of scientific training and

Dean Keith Simonton

2008-01-01

251

Training distress and performance readiness: Laboratory and field validation of a brief self-report measure.  

PubMed

Three studies were conducted to validate the Training Distress Scale (TDS), a 19-item measure of training-related distress and performance readiness. Study 1 was a randomized, controlled laboratory experiment in which a treatment group undertook daily interval training until a 25% decrement occurred in time-to-fatigue performance. Comparisons with a control group showed that TDS scores increased over time within the treatment group but not in the control group. Study 2 was a randomized, controlled field investigation in which performance capabilities and TDS responses were compared across a high-intensity interval training group and a control group that continued normal training. Running performance decreased significantly in the training group but not in the control group, and scores on the TDS mirrored those changes in performance capabilities. Study 3 examined the relationship between TDS scores obtained over a 2-week period before major swimming competitions and subsequent performance in those competitions. Significantly, better performance was observed for swimmers with low TDS scores compared with those with moderate or high TDS scores. These findings provide both laboratory and field evidence for the validity of the TDS as a measure of short-term training distress and performance readiness. PMID:24646366

Grove, J R; Main, L C; Partridge, K; Bishop, D J; Russell, S; Shepherdson, A; Ferguson, L

2014-12-01

252

Self-attitude awareness training: An aid to effective performance in microgravity and virtual environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes ongoing development of training procedures to enhance self-attitude awareness in astronaut trainees. The procedures are based on observations regarding self-attitude (perceived self-orientation and self-motion) reported by astronauts. Self-attitude awareness training is implemented on a personal computer system and consists of lesson stacks programmed using Hypertalk with Macromind Director movie imports. Training evaluation will be accomplished by an active search task using the virtual Spacelab environment produced by the Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME-PAT) as well as by assessment of astronauts' performance and sense of well-being during orbital flight. The general purpose of self-attitude awareness training is to use as efficiently as possible the limited DOME-PAT training time available to astronauts prior to a space mission. We suggest that similar training procedures may enhance the performance of virtual environment operators.

Parker, Donald E.; Harm, D. L.; Florer, Faith L.

1993-01-01

253

Endurance training protocol and longitudinal performance assays for Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

One of the most pressing problems facing modern medical researchers is the surging levels of obesity, with the consequent increase in associated disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (1-3). An important topic of research into these associated health problems involves the role of endurance exercise as a beneficial intervention. Exercise training is an inexpensive, non-invasive intervention with several beneficial results, including reduction in excess body fat (4), increased insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle (5), increased anti-inflammatory and antioxidative responses (6), and improved contractile capacity in cardiomyocytes (7). Low intensity exercise is known to increase mitochondrial activity and biogenesis in humans (8) and mice, with the transcriptional coactivator PGC1-? as an important intermediate (9,10). Despite the importance of exercise as a tool for combating several important age-related diseases, extensive longitudinal genetic studies have been impeded by the lack of an endurance training protocol for a short-lived genetic model species. The variety of genetic tools available for use with Drosophila, together with its short lifespan and inexpensive maintenance, make it an appealing model for further study of these genetic mechanisms. With this in mind we have developed a novel apparatus, known as the Power Tower, for large scale exercise-training in Drosophila melanogaster (11). The Power Tower utilizes the flies' instinctive negative geotaxis behavior to repetitively induce rapid climbing. Each time the machine lifts, then drops, the platform of flies, the flies are induced to climb. Flies continue to respond as long as the machine is in operation or until they become too fatigued to respond. Thus, the researcher can use this machine to provide simultaneous training to large numbers of age-matched and genetically identical flies. Additionally, we describe associated assays useful to track longitudinal progress of fly cohorts during training. PMID:22472601

Tinkerhess, Martin J; Ginzberg, Sara; Piazza, Nicole; Wessells, Robert J

2012-01-01

254

training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights new nutritional concerns or practices that may influence the adaptation to training. The discussion is based on the assumption that the adaptation to repeated bouts of training occurs during recovery periods and that if one can train harder, the adaptation will be greater. The goal is to maximize with nutrition the recovery\\/adaptation that occurs in all rest

LAWRENCE L. SPRIET; MARTIN J. GIBALA

255

Effects of Alcohol and Training on Exercise Performance and Muscle Recovery Biochemistry in the Brown Anole (Anolis sagrei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to previous research, training may improve exercise performance in a lizard, the brown anole. A brief, two-week training period resulted in increased performance speed and distance before exhaustion in trained lizards. Trained lizards were also able to more effectively use leg glycogen stores, however each of these improvements were not found in lizards treated with alcohol. Liver glycogen concentrations

MaryClaire McGovern

2008-01-01

256

Effects of contract-relax stretching training on muscle performance in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of an 8-week unilateral contract-relax (CR) stretching training program (passive stretch after isometric contraction)\\u000a on muscular performance were investigated in a group of 16 athletes. The flexibility, maximum torque and angular position\\u000a as well as contraction work in movements of the knee joint were determined before training and after 4 and 8 weeks of training.\\u000a The torque measurements

M. Handel; T. Horstmann; H.-H. Dickhuth; R. W. Gülch

1997-01-01

257

Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

Helmreich, Robert L.

1987-01-01

258

Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of heavy resistance, explosive resistance, and muscle endurance training on neuromuscular, endurance, and high-intensity running performance in recreational endurance runners. Twenty-seven male runners were divided into one of three groups: heavy resistance, explosive resistance or muscle endurance training. After 6 weeks of preparatory training, the groups underwent an 8-week resistance

Jussi Mikkola; Ville Vesterinen; Ritva Taipale; Benoit Capostagno; Keijo Häkkinen; Ari Nummela

2011-01-01

259

Training Top-Down Attention Improves Performance on a Triple-Conjunction Search Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training has been shown to improve perceptual performance on limited sets of stimuli. However, whether training can generally improve top-down biasing of visual search in a target-nonspecific manner remains unknown. We trained subjects over ten days on a visual search task, challenging them with a novel target (top-down goal) on every trial, while bottom-up uncertainty (distribution of distractors) remained constant.

Farhan Baluchg; Laurent Itti; Michael H. Herzog

2010-01-01

260

Minimal effects of visual memory training on the auditory performance of adult cochlear implant users  

PubMed Central

Auditory training has been shown to significantly improve cochlear implant (CI) users’ speech and music perception. However, it is unclear whether post-training gains in performance were due to improved auditory perception or to generally improved attention, memory and/or cognitive processing. In this study, speech and music perception, as well as auditory and visual memory were assessed in ten CI users before, during, and after training with a non-auditory task. A visual digit span (VDS) task was used for training, in which subjects recalled sequences of digits presented visually. After the VDS training, VDS performance significantly improved. However, there were no significant improvements for most auditory outcome measures (auditory digit span, phoneme recognition, sentence recognition in noise, digit recognition in noise), except for small (but significant) improvements in vocal emotion recognition and melodic contour identification. Post-training gains were much smaller with the non-auditory VDS training than observed in previous auditory training studies with CI users. The results suggest that post-training gains observed in previous studies were not solely attributable to improved attention or memory, and were more likely due to improved auditory perception. The results also suggest that CI users may require targeted auditory training to improve speech and music perception. PMID:23516087

Oba, Sandra I.; Galvin, John J.; Fu, Qian-Jie

2014-01-01

261

Development of a Human Behavior and Performance Training Curriculum for ISS Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper will describe the DACUM process and summarize the core competencies that were agreed upon, internationally, as important for ISS astronauts. The paper will further discuss the ongoing work being completed by the subgroup, Human Behaviour and Performance Training Working Group, including defining the competencies and behavioural markers. Finally, an overview of remaining work will be provided, including determining which competencies require formal training and which require no formal training, developing training objectives, sequencing the training, and establishing how to assess training effectiveness. DISCUSSION: Designing a common set of goals for behavioural training has been the desire of the SHBP WG since its inception in 1998. This group, along with training specialists and astronauts, are making great strides toward defining these competencies. The road ahead will be exceedingly challenging as training objectives are defined and a training flow is proposed to the MCOP; with proposed ISS crews increasing to six people in the near future, such enhanced behavioural training may be all the more essential for mission success.

VanderArk, Steve; Tomi, Leena; Vassin, Alexander; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Bessone, Lorendana; OConnor, Sharon; Mukai, Chiaki; Coffee, Emily; Sipes, Walter; Salnitskiy, Vyecheslav; Ren, Victor; Spychalski, Annette

2007-01-01

262

Performance effects of 6 weeks of aerobic production training in junior elite soccer players.  

PubMed

This study investigates the performance effects of a 6-week biweekly anaerobic speed endurance production training among junior elite soccer players. Sixteen junior (age 16.9 ± 0.6 years) elite soccer players were tested in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 (IR2), 10-m and 35-m sprints, 7 × 35-m repeated-sprint ability (RSA) tests, countermovement jump and squat jump tests, and randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) performing their normal training schedule, which included 4 weekly soccer training sessions of approximately 90 minutes, or a training group performing anaerobic speed endurance production training twice weekly for 6 weeks in addition to their normal weekly schedule. We found that the intervention group significantly improved (p < 0.05) their performance in the Yo-Yo IR2 (63 ± 74 m) and 10-m sprint time (-0.06 ± 0.06 seconds). No significant performance changes were found in the CG. Between-group pretest to posttest differences were found for 10-m sprint times (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in the 35-m sprint times, RSA, or jump performances. These results indicate that short-term anaerobic production training is effective in improving acceleration and intermittent exercise performance among well-trained junior elite players. PMID:23552340

Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Tønnessen, Espen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

2013-07-01

263

12 CFR 164.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a state certified or licensed appraiser.  

...Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a state certified...OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS Appraisals § 164.3 Appraisals required;...

2014-01-01

264

12 CFR 34.43 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.43 Appraisals required;...

2013-01-01

265

12 CFR 34.43 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

...Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.43 Appraisals required;...

2014-01-01

266

12 CFR 34.43 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.43 Appraisals required;...

2010-01-01

267

12 CFR 34.43 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.43 Appraisals required;...

2012-01-01

268

12 CFR 34.43 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.43 Appraisals required;...

2011-01-01

269

Home Energy Appraisal Form of the Texas Association of Builders  

E-print Network

The Home Energy Appraisal Rating form is a versatile, climate specific point system, based on actual performance characteristics of homes throughout Texas. For example, Texas residences often include tinted glass, wide overhangs or sunscreens...

Moore, J.

1986-01-01

270

Evaluating the Impact of Electronic Training on Organizational Performance in an SME Food Manufacturing Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many small to medium sized manufacturing organizations do not have adequate resources to conduct formalized workplace training or properly evaluate its results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of electronic training on workplace behavior and small business organizational performance in the manufacturing environment using…

Fry, Richard C.

2011-01-01

271

Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

2013-01-01

272

Effect of intermittent hypoxic training on 20 km time trial and 30 s anaerobic performance.  

PubMed

This study aimed to verify whether the "live low, train high" approach is beneficial for endurance and/or anaerobic cycling performance. Sixteen well-trained athletes completed 90 min of endurance training (60-70% of heart rate reserve), followed by two 30-s all-out sprints (Wingate test), daily, for 10 consecutive days. Nine subjects [intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) group] trained with an F(I)O(2) set to produce arterial oxygen saturations of approximately 88-82%, while seven subjects (placebo group) trained while breathing a normal gas mixture (F(I)O(2)=0.21). Four performance tests were conducted at sea level including a familiarization and baseline trial, followed by repeat trials at 2 and 9 days post-intervention. Relative to the placebo group, the mean power during the 30-s Wingate test increased by 3.0% (95% confidence limits, CL +/- 3.5%) 2 days, and 1.7% (+/- 3.8%) 9 days post-IHT. Changes in other performance variables (30 s peak power, 20 km mean power and 20 km oxygen cost) were unclear. During the time trial, the IHT participants' blood lactate concentration, respiratory exchange ratio, and SpO(2), relative to the placebo group, was substantially increased at 2 days post-intervention. The addition of IHT to the normal training program of well-trained athletes produced worthwhile gains in 30 s sprint performance possibly through enhanced glycolysis. PMID:19793215

Hamlin, M J; Marshall, H C; Hellemans, J; Ainslie, P N; Anglem, N

2010-08-01

273

Can Young Preschool Children Be Trained to Perform Percept Deprivation Tasks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young preschool children aged 2 and 3 years were exposed to a novel paradigm designed to train visual perception skills. The results indicate that children of this age can be trained to perform a percept deprivation task that requires a sophisticated understanding of attention not normally mastered until 3.5-4 years. Results are discussed with…

McGuigan, Nicola

2007-01-01

274

Does Training Influence Organisational Performance?: Analysis of the Spanish Hotel Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify which variables of training policy have a significant and positive impact on organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: A targeted literature review was conducted to identify and collate a comprehensive range of human resource management and training conceptualisations/investigations. This…

Ubeda-Garcia, Mercedes; Marco-Lajara, Bartolome; Sabater-Sempere, Vicente; Garcia-Lillo, Francisco

2013-01-01

275

Bilingual Vocational Dental Assistant Training. Program Performance Report, Final, August 15, 1979-August 14, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In addition to a 20-page program narrative, this report provides materials from a bilingual vocational dental assistant training project (1979-80). These program accomplishments are discussed: curriculum, English as a Second Language (ESL), student performance, in-service training, and languages and cultures represented. Major activities and…

California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

276

Impact of Working Memory Training on Memory Performance in Old–Old Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory impairments constitute an increasing objective and subjective problem with advancing age. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of working memory training on memory performance. The authors trained a sample of 80-year-old adults twice weekly over a time period of 3 months. Participants were tested on 4 different memory measures before, immediately after, and 1

Martin Buschkuehl; Susanne M. Jaeggi; Sara Hutchison; Pasqualina Perrig-Chiello; Christoph Däpp; Matthias Müller; Fabio Breil; Hans Hoppeler; Walter J. Perrig

2008-01-01

277

Peer Assessment Training in Teacher Education: Effects on Performance and Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a teacher education class, compared student teachers trained in peer assessment (including defining performance criteria, giving feedback, and writing assessment reports) with a control group. Found that trained students surpassed controls in the quality of assessment skill; they also received higher class grades and were more satisfied. (EV)

Sluijsmans, Dominique M. A.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2002-01-01

278

Cognitive-Adaptation Training for Improving Performance and Stress Management of Air Force Pilots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of cognitive-adaptation training on flight performance and stress management in a sample of pilot cadets who were undergoing a basic flying program (N?=?21). The aim of the training was to enhance the participants' awareness of the cognitive processes that they used in a given situation, and to strengthen reflective processes. Cadets were assigned to a

Marie-Pierre Fornette; Marie-Héloïse Bardel; Camille Lefrançois; Jacques Fradin; Farid El Massioui; René Amalberti

2012-01-01

279

Training Transfer: A Suggested Course of Action for Local Authorities to Leverage Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maximization of training influence on individual performance through changes in employee knowledge, skills, and abilities is a paramount concern of organizations. However, training without implementation in a work setting cannot achieve its goals. In this article, the author maps the primary factors that influence transfer of what is learned in…

Ascher, Jacques

2013-01-01

280

Exercise Training Reduces Depression and Increases the Performance of Pleasant Activities in Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the effects of a structured exercise training program to the therapeutic benefits of a ‘support’ group on the depressed mood and reduced performance of pleasant activities by hemodialysis patients. After 6 months of an aerobic exercise training program, the 10 exercisers showed a significant increase in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and a significant decrease in dysphoric mood

Robert M. Carney; Bonnie Templeton; Barry A. Hong; Herschel R. Harter; James M. Hagberg; Kenneth B. Schechtman; Andrew P. Goldberg

1987-01-01

281

The Effect of Three Months of Aerobic Training on Stroop Performance in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence supports the use of physical training interventions to improve both physical and cognitive performances in healthy older adults. Few studies have examined the impact of aerobic exercise on Stroop task performance, a measure of executive functions. In the current 3-month aerobic training study, 50 older adults (mean age = 67.96 ± 6.25 years) were randomly assigned to either a three-month physical training group or to a control group (waiting list). Training sessions were 3 times per week for 60 minutes. All participants completed pre- and post-test measures of cognitive performance using the modified Stroop task and physical performance (Rockport one-mile test). Compared to controls, the training group showed significant improvements in physical capacity (P < 0.001) and enhanced Stroop performance, but only in the inhibition/switching condition (P < 0.03). Furthermore, the increase in aerobic capacity induced by the training regimen correlated negatively with reaction time in the inhibition/switching condition of the Stroop task at posttest (r = ?0.538; P = 0.007). Importantly, the reported gains in cognitive performance were observed after only three months of physical training. Taken together, the results suggest that even short-term physical interventions can enhance older adults' executive functions. PMID:23304504

Predovan, David; Fraser, Sarah A.; Renaud, Melanie; Bherer, Louis

2012-01-01

282

The Status of Training and Performance Research in the AECT Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last two decades, a shift has emerged in business and government sectors from a focus on training to a focus on performance improvement. This shift to Human Performance Technology (HPT), also called Human Performance Improvement (HPI) or performance technology, emerged in the educational technology literature in the late 1970s and early…

Conn, Cynthia A.; Gitonga, Jacqueline

2004-01-01

283

Implications of OCB and Contextual Performance for Human Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literatures concerning organizational citizenship behavior and contextual performance are selectively reviewed in an effort to build a case for citizenship behaviors as one central element in a multi-dimensional individual performance construct. Next, five human resource management topics are reviewed (selection, training, compensation, appraisal, and labor\\/employee relations). Emphasis is placed upon how these functions are impacted by an explicit recognition

Jon M. Werner

2000-01-01

284

Effects of intermittent training on anaerobic performance and MCT transporters in athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT) expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n?=?8; 150 mmHg PIO2) or hypoxic (H; n?=?10; ?3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2) over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30 x week(-1)) period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT) was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT). Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO) increased (p<0.05) after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively), but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively). No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective. PMID:24797797

Millet, Grégoire; Bentley, David J; Roels, Belle; Mc Naughton, Lars R; Mercier, Jacques; Cameron-Smith, David

2014-01-01

285

Nurses' perceptions of staff appraisal.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of qualified nurses on the implementation of staff appraisal. The sample consisted of eight nurses, varying in age, professional status and experience, within the clinical area in a hospital located in the South of England. Each participant was interviewed in depth. The unstructured interviews were then transcribed, coded and analysed in line with the strategies of grounded theory. The data yielded several important factors which require consideration by senior nurses and managers if they are to execute appraisals effectively. Contrary to expectations, the majority of participants expected, and even eagerly anticipated, the implementation of appraisals. However, several informants expressed concern that appraisals may be used against them. 'Gaining direction and purpose' was seen by staff as the main benefit of the appraisal from a personal and organizational point of view. Recommendations were made which might facilitate the implementation of future appraisal schemes throughout the organization. PMID:8954393

Goble, D; Holloway, I

1996-09-01

286

Comparison of land- and aquatic-based plyometric training on vertical jump performance.  

PubMed

Plyometric training is a popular method by which athletes may increase power and explosiveness. However, plyometric training is considered a highly intense and potentially damaging activity particularly if practiced by the novice individual or if overdone. The purpose of this study was to compare vertical jump performance after land- and aquatic-based plyometric training. A convenience sample of 21 active, college-age (24 +/- 2.5 years) men were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: group I, aquatic; group II, land; and group III, control. Training for the AQ and LN groups consisted of a 10-minute warm-up followed by 3 sets of 15 squat jumps, side hops, and knee-tuck jumps separated by 1-minute rests. The aquatic group performed the exercises in knee-level water adjusted to parallel the axis of the knee joint (+1 in.). The land group performed identical plyometric exercises on land. The control group engaged in no training. Participants trained twice a week for 6 weeks, and all training sessions were monitored. Pre- and post-test data were collected on maximum vertical jump height. A 2x3 analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to compare vertical jump height among the 3 groups. Results suggested that the aquatic- and land-based groups significantly (p < 0.05) outperformed the control group in the vertical jump. No significant difference was found in vertical jump performance between the aquatic- and land-based groups. It was concluded that aquatic training resulted in similar training effects as land-based training, with a possible reduction in stress due to the reduction of impact afforded by the buoyancy and resistance of the water upon landing. PMID:17530969

Stemm, John D; Jacobson, Bert H

2007-05-01

287

Effects of inspiratory muscle training on respiratory function and repetitive sprint performance in wheelchair basketball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is considerable evidence that respiratory muscle training improves pulmonary function, quality of life and exercise performance in healthy athletic populations. The benefits for wheelchair athletes are less well understood. Therefore, in the present study, influence of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory function and repetitive propulsive sprint performance in wheelchair basketball players was examined.MethodsUsing a placebo-controlled design, 16 wheelchair

V. Goosey-Tolfrey; E. Foden; C. Perret; H. Degens

2010-01-01

288

GAIN Appraisal Program II. Second Report, November 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) program provides job services, as well as training, education, and support services to Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients to help them attain unsubsidized employment. The GAIN program includes an initial appraisal of participants' basic reading, mathematics, and functional…

Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System, San Diego, CA.

289

The effects of employee training on the relationship between environmental attitude and firms' performance in sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should employee training influence firms' performance in sustainable development? Based on research, we predict both direct and moderating effects of employee training on the performance. Assuming the institutional demands in modern societies for environmental protection, we hypothesize that employee training consistent with the demands should have a direct and positive effect on firms' performance in sustainable development. In addition, we

Li Ji; Jun Huang; Zhiqiang Liu; Hong Zhu; Zhenyao Cai

2012-01-01

290

The effects of employee training on the relationship between environmental attitude and firms' performance in sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should employee training influence firms' performance in sustainable development? Based on research, we predict both direct and moderating effects of employee training on the performance. Assuming the institutional demands in modern societies for environmental protection, we hypothesize that employee training consistent with the demands should have a direct and positive effect on firms' performance in sustainable development. In addition, we

Li Ji; Jun Huang; Zhiqiang Liu; Hong Zhu; Zhenyao Cai

2011-01-01

291

Effect of endurance training on performance and muscle reoxygenation rate during repeated-sprint running  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of an 8-week endurance training program on repeated-sprint (RS) performance\\u000a and post-sprints muscle reoxygenation rate in 18 moderately trained males (34 ± 5 years). Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), 10 km\\u000a running and RS (2 × 15-s shuttle-sprints, interspersed with 15 s of passive recovery) performance were assessed before and\\u000a after the training intervention. Total distance covered

Martin Buchheit; Pierre Ufland

2011-01-01

292

Maximal intended velocity training induces greater gains in bench press performance than deliberately slower half-velocity training.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the effect on strength gains of two isoinertial resistance training (RT) programmes that only differed in actual concentric velocity: maximal (MaxV) vs. half-maximal (HalfV) velocity. Twenty participants were assigned to a MaxV (n = 9) or HalfV (n = 11) group and trained 3 times per week during 6 weeks using the bench press (BP). Repetition velocity was controlled using a linear velocity transducer. A complementary study (n = 10) aimed to analyse whether the acute metabolic (blood lactate and ammonia) and mechanical response (velocity loss) was different between the MaxV and HalfV protocols used. Both groups improved strength performance from pre- to post-training, but MaxV resulted in significantly greater gains than HalfV in all variables analysed: one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength (18.2 vs. 9.7%), velocity developed against all (20.8 vs. 10.0%), light (11.5 vs. 4.5%) and heavy (36.2 vs. 17.3%) loads common to pre- and post-tests. Light and heavy loads were identified with those moved faster or slower than 0.80 m·s(-1) (?60% 1RM in BP). Lactate tended to be significantly higher for MaxV vs. HalfV, with no differences observed for ammonia which was within resting values. Both groups obtained the greatest improvements at the training velocities (?0.80 m·s(-1)). Movement velocity can be considered a fundamental component of RT intensity, since, for a given %1RM, the velocity at which loads are lifted largely determines the resulting training effect. BP strength gains can be maximised when repetitions are performed at maximal intended velocity. PMID:24734902

González-Badillo, Juan José; Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando

2014-11-01

293

Re-appraisal of negative emotions in cocaine dependence: dysfunctional corticolimbic activation and connectivity.  

PubMed

Cocaine dependence is associated with pronounced elevations of negative affect and deficient regulation of negative emotions. We aimed to investigate the neural substrates of negative emotion regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI), as compared to non-drug-using controls, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a re-appraisal task. Seventeen CDI abstinent for at least 15 days and without other psychiatric co-morbidities and 18 intelligence quotient-matched non-drug-using controls participated in the study. Participants performed the re-appraisal task during fMRI scanning: they were exposed to 24 blocks of negative affective or neutral pictures that they should Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Suppress (regulate the emotion elicited by negative pictures through previously trained re-appraisal techniques). Task-related activations during two conditions of interest (Maintain>Observe and Suppress>Maintain) were analyzed using the general linear model in SPM8 software. We also performed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) seed-based analyses based on one region from each condition: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC-Maintain>Observe) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG-Suppress>Maintain). Results showed that cocaine users had increased right dlPFC and bilateral temporoparietal junction activations during Maintain>Observe, whereas they showed decreased right IFG, posterior cingulate cortex, insula and fusiform gyrus activations during Suppress>Maintain. PPI analyses showed that cocaine users had increased functional coupling between the dlPFC and emotion-related regions during Maintain>Observe, whereas they showed decreased functional coupling between the right IFG and the amygdala during Suppress>Maintain. These findings indicate that CDI have dysfunctional corticolimbic activation and connectivity during negative emotion experience and re-appraisal. PMID:22978709

Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Asensio, Samuel; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Martínez-González, José M; Verdejo-García, Antonio

2014-05-01

294

32 CFR 644.42 - Appraisal report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appraiser's final conclusion of market value. (2) The use of preprinted...appraisal, and a definition of all values required, and property rights appraised...nonexistence of mineral deposits having a commercial value. In case of a partial...

2010-07-01

295

43 CFR 2201.3 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appraisals. 2201.3 Section 2201...Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.3 Appraisals. The Federal and non-Federal...exchange shall comply with the appraisal standards set forth...

2012-10-01

296

36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks...BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products Appraisal and Pricing § 223.222 Appraisal. The Chief of the Forest Service...

2013-07-01

297

7 CFR 763.14 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals. 763.14 Section 763...GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 763.14 Appraisals. (a) Standard guarantee...purchased will be established by an appraisal obtained at Agency expense...

2013-01-01

298

43 CFR 2201.3 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appraisals. 2201.3 Section 2201...Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.3 Appraisals. The Federal and non-Federal...exchange shall comply with the appraisal standards set forth...

2013-10-01

299

7 CFR 770.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals. 770.9 Section 770.9...ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.9 Appraisals. (a) The applicant or...appropriate, will pay the cost of any appraisal required under this part....

2011-01-01

300

7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144...and Industry Loans § 4279.144 Appraisals. Lenders will be responsible for ensuring that appraisal values adequately reflect the...

2012-01-01

301

36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks...BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products Appraisal and Pricing § 223.222 Appraisal. The Chief of the Forest Service...

2011-07-01

302

7 CFR 770.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals. 770.9 Section 770.9...ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.9 Appraisals. (a) The applicant or...appropriate, will pay the cost of any appraisal required under this part....

2012-01-01

303

30 CFR 882.12 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisals. 882.12 Section 882.12 Mineral...RECLAMATION ON PRIVATE LAND § 882.12 Appraisals. (a) A notarized appraisal of private land to be reclaimed which...

2010-07-01

304

36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26...Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite...determined following Forest Service appraisal procedures and the Uniform...

2011-07-01

305

7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144...and Industry Loans § 4279.144 Appraisals. Lenders will be responsible for ensuring that appraisal values adequately reflect the...

2014-01-01

306

36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26...Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite...determined following Forest Service appraisal procedures and the Uniform...

2013-07-01

307

30 CFR 882.12 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appraisals. 882.12 Section 882.12 Mineral...RECLAMATION ON PRIVATE LAND § 882.12 Appraisals. (a) A notarized appraisal of private land to be reclaimed which...

2012-07-01

308

7 CFR 770.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals. 770.9 Section 770.9...ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.9 Appraisals. (a) The applicant or...appropriate, will pay the cost of any appraisal required under this part....

2010-01-01

309

36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26...Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite...determined following Forest Service appraisal procedures and the Uniform...

2012-07-01

310

12 CFR 626.6015 - Nondiscriminatory appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory appraisal. 626.6015 Section 626...6015 Nondiscriminatory appraisal. No Farm Credit institution...using, or relying upon an appraisal of residential real...

2010-01-01

311

36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks...SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Appraisal and Pricing § 223.222 Appraisal. The Chief of the Forest Service...

2010-07-01

312

12 CFR 626.6015 - Nondiscriminatory appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory appraisal. 626.6015 Section 626...6015 Nondiscriminatory appraisal. No Farm Credit institution...using, or relying upon an appraisal of residential real...

2011-01-01

313

7 CFR 770.9 - Appraisals.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisals. 770.9 Section 770.9...ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.9 Appraisals. (a) The applicant or...appropriate, will pay the cost of any appraisal required under this part....

2014-01-01

314

7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144...and Industry Loans § 4279.144 Appraisals. Lenders will be responsible for ensuring that appraisal values adequately reflect the...

2010-01-01

315

7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144...and Industry Loans § 4279.144 Appraisals. Lenders will be responsible for ensuring that appraisal values adequately reflect the...

2011-01-01

316

12 CFR 626.6015 - Nondiscriminatory appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory appraisal. 626.6015 Section 626...6015 Nondiscriminatory appraisal. No Farm Credit institution...using, or relying upon an appraisal of residential real...

2013-01-01

317

36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26...Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite...determined following Forest Service appraisal procedures and the Uniform...

2010-07-01

318

12 CFR 626.6015 - Nondiscriminatory appraisal.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory appraisal. 626.6015 Section 626...6015 Nondiscriminatory appraisal. No Farm Credit institution...using, or relying upon an appraisal of residential real...

2014-01-01

319

7 CFR 763.14 - Appraisals.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisals. 763.14 Section 763...GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 763.14 Appraisals. (a) Standard guarantee...purchased will be established by an appraisal obtained at Agency expense...

2014-01-01

320

32 CFR 644.436 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisal. 644.436 Section 644...Easement Interests § 644.436 Appraisal. Under the usual circumstances...concurrently with its classification. Appraisals will not be undertaken for...

2011-07-01

321

30 CFR 882.12 - Appraisals.  

...Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appraisals. 882.12 Section 882.12 Mineral...RECLAMATION ON PRIVATE LAND § 882.12 Appraisals. (a) A notarized appraisal of private land to be reclaimed which...

2014-07-01

322

7 CFR 770.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals. 770.9 Section 770.9...ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.9 Appraisals. (a) The applicant or...appropriate, will pay the cost of any appraisal required under this part....

2013-01-01

323

7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144...and Industry Loans § 4279.144 Appraisals. Lenders will be responsible for ensuring that appraisal values adequately reflect the...

2013-01-01

324

36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks...BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products Appraisal and Pricing § 223.222 Appraisal. The Chief of the Forest Service...

2012-07-01

325

12 CFR 626.6015 - Nondiscriminatory appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory appraisal. 626.6015 Section 626...6015 Nondiscriminatory appraisal. No Farm Credit institution...using, or relying upon an appraisal of residential real...

2012-01-01

326

32 CFR 644.436 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisal. 644.436 Section 644...Easement Interests § 644.436 Appraisal. Under the usual circumstances...concurrently with its classification. Appraisals will not be undertaken for...

2013-07-01

327

43 CFR 2201.3 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appraisals. 2201.3 Section 2201...Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.3 Appraisals. The Federal and non-Federal...exchange shall comply with the appraisal standards set forth...

2011-10-01

328

30 CFR 882.12 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisals. 882.12 Section 882.12 Mineral...RECLAMATION ON PRIVATE LAND § 882.12 Appraisals. (a) A notarized appraisal of private land to be reclaimed which...

2011-07-01

329

30 CFR 882.12 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisals. 882.12 Section 882.12 Mineral...RECLAMATION ON PRIVATE LAND § 882.12 Appraisals. (a) A notarized appraisal of private land to be reclaimed which...

2013-07-01

330

12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 722.5 Section 722.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS § 722.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff...

2010-01-01

331

Endurance training of respiratory muscles improves cycling performance in fit young cyclists  

PubMed Central

Background Whether or not isolated endurance training of the respiratory muscles improves whole-body endurance exercise performance is controversial, with some studies reporting enhancements of 50 % or more, and others reporting no change. Twenty fit (VO2 max 56.0 ml/kg/min), experienced cyclists were randomly assigned to three groups. The experimental group (n = 10) trained their respiratory muscles via 20, 45 min sessions of hyperpnea. The placebo group (n = 4) underwent "sham" training (20, 5 min sessions), and the control group (n = 6) did no training. Results After training, the experimental group increased their respiratory muscle endurance capacity by 12 %. Performance on a bicycle time trial test designed to last about 40 min improved by 4.7 % (9 of 10 subjects showed improvement). There were no test-re-test improvements in either respiratory muscle or bicycle exercise endurance performance in the placebo group, nor in the control group. After training, the experimental group had significantly higher ventilatory output and VO2, and lower PCO2, during constant work-rate exercise; the placebo and control groups did not show these changes. The perceived respiratory effort was unchanged in spite of the higher ventilation rate after training. Conclusions The results suggest that respiratory muscle endurance training improves cycling performance in fit, experienced cyclists. The relative hyperventilation with no change in respiratory effort sensations suggest that respiratory muscle training allows subjects to tolerate the higher exercise ventilatory response without more dyspnea. Whether or not this can explain the enhanced performance is unknown. PMID:15132753

Holm, Paige; Sattler, Angela; Fregosi, Ralph F

2004-01-01

332

The influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence and performance in marathon runners.  

PubMed

There has been a considerable increase in the number of participants running marathons over the past several years. The 26.2-mile race requires physical and mental stamina to successfully complete it. However, studies have not investigated how running and mental skills preparation influence injury and performance. The purpose of our study was to describe the training and mental skills preparation of a typical group of runners as they began a marathon training program, assess the influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence, and examine how training and mental skills preparation influence marathon performance. Healthy adults (N = 1,957) participating in an 18-week training program for a fall 2011 marathon were recruited for the study. One hundred twenty-five runners enrolled and received 4 surveys: pretraining, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, posttraining. The pretraining survey asked training and mental skills preparation questions. The 6- and 12-week surveys asked about injury incidence. The posttraining survey asked about injury incidence and marathon performance. Tempo runs during training preparation had a significant positive relationship to injury incidence in the 6-week survey (?[93] = 0.26, p = 0.01). The runners who reported incorporating tempo and interval runs, running more miles per week, and running more days per week in their training preparation ran significantly faster than did those reporting less tempo and interval runs, miles per week, and days per week (p ? 0.05). Mental skills preparation did not influence injury incidence or marathon performance. To prevent injury, and maximize performance, while marathon training, it is important that coaches and runners ensure that a solid foundation of running fitness and experience exists, followed by gradually building volume, and then strategically incorporating runs of various speeds and distances. PMID:23439344

Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Coumbe-Lilley, John E; Kim, Hajwa; McFarland, Jose A; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

2013-10-01

333

Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

2012-01-01

334

Influence of training status on high-intensity intermittent performance in response to ?-alanine supplementation.  

PubMed

Recent investigations have suggested that highly trained athletes may be less responsive to the ergogenic effects of ?-alanine (BA) supplementation than recreationally active individuals due to their elevated muscle buffering capacity. We investigated whether training status influences the effect of BA on repeated Wingate performance. Forty young males were divided into two groups according to their training status (trained: T, and non-trained: NT cyclists) and were randomly allocated to BA and a dextrose-based placebo (PL) groups, providing four experimental conditions: NTPL, NTBA, TPL, TBA. BA (6.4 g day(-1)) or PL was ingested for 4 weeks, with participants completing four 30-s lower-body Wingate bouts, separated by 3 min, before and after supplementation. Total work done was significantly increased following supplementation in both NTBA (p = 0.03) and TBA (p = 0.002), and it was significantly reduced in NTPL (p = 0.03) with no difference for TPL (p = 0.73). BA supplementation increased mean power output (MPO) in bout 4 for the NTBA group (p = 0.0004) and in bouts 1, 2 and 4 for the TBA group (p ? 0.05). No differences were observed in MPO for NTPL and TPL. BA supplementation was effective at improving repeated high-intensity cycling performance in both trained and non-trained individuals, highlighting the efficacy of BA as an ergogenic aid for high-intensity exercise regardless of the training status of the individual. PMID:24500111

de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger Charles; Solis, Marina Yázigi; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

2014-05-01

335

Use of Peers to Train and Monitor the Performance of Adolescents with Severe Handicaps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two peer trainers, one moderately and one severely mentally retarded, each taught three severely disabled peers to perform separate steps of a complex assembly line task. Peer trainers were taught to demonstrate correct performance and to praise or correct trainees' performance contingently. Trainers were successful in training and monitoring the…

Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.

1985-01-01

336

DCPE Rollout: Scaling Performance Engineering Training and Certification across a Very Large Enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance engineering is a badly needed skill for implementing and running IT systems, but performance engineers are hard to find in the market. This paper presents our experiences in rolling out training and certification in a first level course on performance engineering across a large enterprise. We present data and lessons learned on the nominations for the rollout, the design

Rajesh Mansharamani; Arunava Bag; Kishor Gujarathi; Kunal Gupta; Amol Khanapurkar; Manoj Nambiar; Mehul Raval

2009-01-01

337

5 CFR 1330.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...relative performance against performance expectations in any given appraisal period reflecting...performance standards, requirements, or expectations for the employees they supervise...performance standards, requirements, or expectations and the performance ratings of...

2012-01-01

338

5 CFR 1330.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

...relative performance against performance expectations in any given appraisal period reflecting...performance standards, requirements, or expectations for the employees they supervise...performance standards, requirements, or expectations and the performance ratings of...

2014-01-01

339

5 CFR 1330.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...relative performance against performance expectations in any given appraisal period reflecting...performance standards, requirements, or expectations for the employees they supervise...performance standards, requirements, or expectations and the performance ratings of...

2011-01-01

340

5 CFR 1330.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...relative performance against performance expectations in any given appraisal period reflecting...performance standards, requirements, or expectations for the employees they supervise...performance standards, requirements, or expectations and the performance ratings of...

2013-01-01

341

Quantitative training system assessments using General Systems Performance Theory  

E-print Network

3 4 6 9 10 BACKGROUND A. CBT Systems 1. Performance Assessment of CBT Systems 2. Gaming Simulations B. General Systems Performance Theory. . . . . . . . 1. Basic Constructs of GSPT a. The Resource Construct b. Dimensions of Performance c... obtained using the t-test 147 VII Event cardinalities for the 3 target task simulation games . . . . . . 151 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Flow of events in a typical CBT system 2 PCE for an idealized system with 2 DOPs 3 PCE for a non-ideal system...

Kashyap, Sujatha

2012-06-07

342

The Resilience of the "Corporate" in Post-Corporate Teacher Appraisal: A Case Study from Mauritius  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to replace the traditional and authoritative staff appraisal at a case-study school by a concept of performance management depicted as the performance enhancement and peer appraisal of teachers. It is achieved by elaborating an open system of performance management where teachers are empowered within the existing vertical…

Luchoomun, Dharmadeo

2007-01-01

343

Transference of Traditional Versus Complex Strength and Power Training to Sprint Performance  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two different strength-power training models on sprint performance. Forty-eight soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG: n = 15, age: 20.2 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.74 ± 0.06 m, and body mass: 66.7 ± 9.8 kg), a traditional training group (TT: n = 18, age: 20.1 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.05 m, and body mass: 64.2 ± 4.7 kg), and a complex training group (CT: n = 15, age: 20.3 ± 0.8 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.07 m; and body mass: 64.0 ± 8.8 kg). Maximum strength (25% and 26%), CMJ height (36% and 39%), mean power (30% and 35%) and mean propulsive power (22% and 28%) in the loaded jump squat exercise, and 20-m sprint speed (16% and 14%) increased significantly (p?0.05) following the TT and CT, respectively. However, the transfer effect coefficients (TEC) of strength and power performances to 20-m sprint performance following the TT were greater than the CT throughout the 9-week training period. Our data suggest that TT is more effective than CT to improve sprint performance in moderately trained subjects. PMID:25114753

Loturco, Irineu; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo; Cal Abad, Cesar Cavinato; Kobal, Ronaldo; Gil, Saulo; Gonzalez-Badillo, Juan Jose

2014-01-01

344

The effect of resisted sprint training on speed and strength performance in male rugby players.  

PubMed

Various studies have demonstrated that resistance sprint (RS) training can produce significant changes in running speed and running kinematics. The longer-term training adaptations after RS training remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an RS training intervention would enhance the running speed and dynamic strength measures in male rugby players. Fifteen male rugby players aged 20.5 (+/- 2.8) years who were proficient in resisted sledge training took part in the study. The subjects were randomly assigned to control or RS groups. The RS group performed two sessions per week of RS training for 6 weeks, and the control group did no RS training. Pre- and postintervention tests were carried out for 30-m sprint, drop, squat, and rebound jumps on a force sledge system. A laser measurement device was used to obtain velocities and distance measures during all running trials. The results show a statistically significant decrease in time to 5 m for the 30-m sprint for the RS group (p = 0.02). The squat jump and drop jump variables also showed significant increases in starting strength (p = 0.004) and height jumped (p = 0.018) for the RS group from pre- to post-testing sessions. The results suggest that it may be beneficial to employ an RS training intervention with the aim of increasing initial acceleration from a static start for sprinting. PMID:19125101

Harrison, Andrew J; Bourke, Gillian

2009-01-01

345

Effectiveness of behavioral skills training on staff performance in a job training setting for high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have focused on improving staff performance in naturalistic training settings for high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Behavioral skills training, consisting of group instruction and supervisory feedback, was used to improve staff performance on (a) providing positive reinforcement, (b) providing error correction, and (c) initiating opportunities for students to show the target response (i.e. asking for help). Also

Annemiek Palmen; Robert Didden; Hubert Korzilius

2010-01-01

346

Assessment of critical appraisal skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStudies have provided little evidence that critical appraisal skills improve with focused courses. However, outcome measures in these studies have been questionable. The goal of this study was to develop a feasible, reliable, and valid assessment of critical appraisal skills.

Helen M MacRae; Glenn Regehr; Fred Brenneman; Marg McKenzie; Robin S McLeod

2004-01-01

347

49 CFR 232.405 - Design and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Two-way end-of-train devices shall be designed and perform with the features applicable to one-way end-of-train devices described in § 232.403, except those included in § 232.403(b)(3). In addition, a two-way end-of-train device shall be designed and perform with the following...

2010-10-01

348

Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

Elder, Stephen D.

2010-01-01

349

Training Americans: Ideology, Performance, and Social Studies Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through an analysis of activities called for in social studies texts at three grade levels, the author critically examines the links between children's improvisational performance and social studies curricula. He asks: What is unique about the process of embodying a historical or contemporary character as part of the learning process (such as a…

Chappell, Drew

2010-01-01

350

Measurement, Prediction, and Training of Harmonic Audiation and Performance Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated music majors' ability to harmonize notated melodies and recorded melodies with chord symbols, and to perform harmonic accompaniments to recorded melodies. Results showed, among other findings, that subjects (n = 45) improved ability to harmonize simple melodic patterns and that melodic echo-playing ability was highly correlated with…

Humphreys, Jere T.

1986-01-01

351

Strength training effects on physical performance and serum hormones in young soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effects of simultaneous explosive strength and soccer training in young men, 8 experimental (S) and 11 control (C) players, aged 17.2 (0.6) years, were tested before and after an 11-week training period with respect to the load-vertical jumping curve [loads of 0–70 kg (counter-movement jump CMJ0–70)], 5- and 15-m sprint performances, submaximal running endurance and basal serum concentrations of

E. M. Gorostiaga; M. Izquierdo; M. Ruesta; J. Iribarren; J. J. González-Badillo; J. Ibáñez

2004-01-01

352

20 CFR 1001.121 - Performance standard on facilities and support for Veterans' Employment and Training Service...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on facilities and support for Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS...OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SERVICES FOR VETERANS Standards of Performance...

2010-04-01

353

20 CFR 1001.121 - Performance standard on facilities and support for Veterans' Employment and Training Service...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...on facilities and support for Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS...OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SERVICES FOR VETERANS Standards of Performance...

2011-04-01

354

20 CFR 1001.121 - Performance standard on facilities and support for Veterans' Employment and Training Service...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...on facilities and support for Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS...OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SERVICES FOR VETERANS Standards of Performance...

2012-04-01

355

20 CFR 1001.121 - Performance standard on facilities and support for Veterans' Employment and Training Service...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...on facilities and support for Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS...OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SERVICES FOR VETERANS Standards of Performance...

2013-04-01

356

20 CFR 1001.121 - Performance standard on facilities and support for Veterans' Employment and Training Service...  

...on facilities and support for Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS...OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SERVICES FOR VETERANS Standards of Performance...

2014-04-01

357

Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes  

PubMed Central

Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2?h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

2013-01-01

358

Communication in Performance-Based Training and Instruction: From Design to Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication is inextricably important to instructional design and performance-based training. Promoting effective communication as an integral part of the performance support system improves professional instructional design functions and offers greater avenues for meaningful discourse among end users of the instruction. In this article, we…

Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

2009-01-01

359

The Use of Simulation to Improve the Effectiveness of Training in Performance Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance management is an important managerial tool that directs employees’ goals and behavior toward the organization’s strategic goals. This article focuses on simulation-based training in performance management systems. The simulation developed at the School of Business Administration of the College of Management in Israel is based on a typical life insurance firm. It is designed to promote understanding of the

Dalia Rachman-Moore; Ron S. Kenett

2006-01-01

360

MEMORY TRAINING IN THE COMMUNITY AGED: EFFECTS ON DEPRESSION, MEMORY COMPLAINT, AND MEMORY PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the effects of two types of training programs on memory complaints, memory performance, and affective status in the community elderly. Prior research has suggested that although there are some age differences in memory, the memory complaints of older persons are related to depression and not to actual memory performance. In the present project subjects were randomly assigned

Steven H. Zarit; Dolores Gallagher; Nan Kramer

1981-01-01

361

The Use of Simulation to Improve the Effectiveness of Training in Performance Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance management is an important managerial tool that directs employees' goals and behavior toward the organization's strategic goals. This article focuses on simulation-based training in performance management systems. The simulation developed at the School of Business Administration of the College of Management in Israel is based on a…

Rachman-Moore, Dalia; Kenett, Ron S.

2006-01-01

362

Learning Unplugged: Using Mobile Technologies for Organizational Training and Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, which is written by a training consultant, is intended to help organizations determine whether specific readily available mobile technologies make sense for their particular learning and performance needs. Chapter 1 discusses the mobile revolution in learning and performance, with special attention to the new work and learning…

Gayeski, Diane

363

The Acute Effects of a Resistance Training Warmup on Sprint Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty male rugby union players were tested to determine the acute effect of a resistance training warmup on subsequent 20-m sprint performance. The study consisted of a repeated measures design with two experimental conditions. During the control (C) condition, the participants performed a 20-m sprint, rested for 10min, and then repeated the 20-m sprint. During the experimental (E) condition, the

MARTYN J. MATTHEWS; HELEN P. MATTHEWS; BEN SNOOK

2004-01-01

364

Trends of tactical performance analysis in team sports: bridging the gap between research, training and competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance in Team Sports is carried out through a long term and methodical training process planned to improve skills and competence required to deal with competitive demands. Despite that tactical constraint play a major role in Team Sports performance the history of its scientific analysis has been driven by physiological and biomechanical approach, pay - ing little attention to the

Júlio Garganta

365

Effects of training with a dynamic moment of inertia bat on swing performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the 8-week dynamic moment of inertia (DMOI) bat training on swing velocity, batted-ball speed, hitting distance, muscle power, and grip force. The DMOI bat is characterized in that the bat could be swung more easily by reducing the moment of inertia at the initial stage of swing without decreasing the bat weight and has a faster swing velocity and lower muscle activity. Seventeen varsity baseball players were randomly assigned to the DMOI bat training group (n = 9) and the normal bat training group (n = 8). The training protocol was 7 swings each set, 5-8 sets each time, 3 times each week, and 8 weeks' training period. The results showed that the swing training with the DMOI bat for 8 weeks significantly increased swing velocity by about 6.20% (96.86 ± 8.48 vs. 102.82 ± 9.93 km·h(-1)), hitting distance by about 6.69% (80.06 ± 9.16 vs. 84.99 ± 7.26 m), muscle power of the right arm by about 12.04% (3.34 ± 0.41 vs. 3.74 ± 0.61 m), and muscle power of the left arm by about 8.23% (3.36 ± 0.46 vs. 3.61 ± 0.39 m) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the DMOI bat training group had a significantly better change percentage in swing velocity, hitting distance, and grip force of the left hand than did the normal bat training group (p < 0.05). The findings suggested that the swing training with the DMOI bat has a positive benefit on swing performance and that the DMOI bat could be used as a new training tool in baseball. PMID:21993041

Liu, Chiang; Liu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Ying-Chieh; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

2011-11-01

366

The effect of motor imagery and static stretching on anaerobic performance in trained cyclists.  

PubMed

Athletes perform many different protocols as part of their warm-up routine before competition. Stretching has been suggested to decrease force and power production, whereas motor imagery (MI), the visualization of simple or complex motor activities in the absence of physical movement, may increase force and power production in young healthy individuals. Few studies have investigated either of these in trained individuals. No studies have compared the effects of static stretching (SS) with MI on anaerobic performance in trained cyclists. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SS compared with MI and quiet rest (QR) on anaerobic performance in trained cyclists. Thirteen trained cyclists (9 men: 4 women; aged 21 ± 2 years) were assessed for height (1.76 ± 0.07 m), weight (73.4 ± 13 kg), % body fat (10.8 ± 6.2%), and maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max of 42.0 ± 5.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) on a cycle ergometer. The participants performed 3 randomized sessions consisting of cycling for 30 minutes at 65% of V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max before undergoing 16 minutes of SS, MI, or QR followed by an anaerobic performance test. The SS consisted of 3 sets of 30-second stretches of the hamstrings, quadriceps, hip flexors, and piriformis. Imagery was based on the physical, environmental, task, learning, emotion, and perspective approach and was conducted by a trained technician. Both relative and absolute powers, and peak revolutions per minute, were quantified using the Wingate anaerobic threshold test. No significant interactions existed among SS, MI, and QR for relative peak power, absolute peak power, or peak RPM. In disagreement with current literature, this study suggests that neither SS nor a single session of MI immediately affect anaerobic performance in trained cyclists. If an event is <30 seconds, then SS or MI may not affect performance. PMID:22476165

Kingsley, J Derek; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A; Nesser, Thomas W; Gage, Matthew J

2013-01-01

367

A comparison of drop jump training methods: effects on leg extensor strength qualities and jumping performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two drop jump (DJ) training methods on the strength qualities of the leg extensors and vertical jumping performance. Thirty-five males were allocated to either a control group or one of two training groups, required to perform 72-90 DJ per week for 6 weeks: DJ for maximum rebound height (DJ-H) or DJ for maximum height and minimum ground contact time (DJ-H/t). The subjects were tested before and after the training on leg extensor function for maximum strength and speed-strength under concentric and stretch-shortening cycle muscular actions, and on vertical jumps from a standing position and a run-up. ANOVA with repeated measures showed that a 20% gain in reactive strength (RS) for the DJ-H/t group was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the other groups, however, this did not transfer to vertical jumping performance. The DJ-H group did not achieve a significant training effect. It was concluded that DJ-H/t method was effective for the development of RS, but training with DJ-H was not intense and/or specific enough to stimulate gains in strength qualities of the leg extensors or jumping performance. PMID:10452226

Young, W B; Wilson, G J; Byrne, C

1999-07-01

368

Effect of 10 Week Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Competition and Training Performance in Elite Swimmers  

PubMed Central

Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD) were supplemented with either beta-alanine (4 weeks loading phase of 4.8 g/day and 3.2 g/day thereafter) or placebo for 10 weeks. Competition performance times were log-transformed, then evaluated before (National Championships) and after (international or national selection meet) supplementation. Swimmers also completed three standardized training sets at baseline, 4 and 10 weeks of supplementation. Capillary blood was analyzed for pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentration in both competition and training. There was an unclear effect (0.4%; ±0.8%, mean, ±90% confidence limits) of beta-alanine on competition performance compared to placebo with no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. While there was a transient improvement on training performance after 4 weeks with beta-alanine (?1.3%; ±1.0%), there was an unclear effect at ten weeks (?0.2%; ±1.5%) and no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. Beta-alanine supplementation appears to have minimal effect on swimming performance in non-laboratory controlled real-world training and competition settings. PMID:23201763

Chung, Weiliang; Shaw, Greg; Anderson, Megan E.; Pyne, David B.; Saunders, Philo U.; Bishop, David J.; Burke, Louise M.

2012-01-01

369

Does strategic memory training improve the working memory performance of younger and older adults?  

PubMed

The paper examines the effect of strategic training on the performance of younger and older adults in an immediate list-recall and a working memory task. The experimental groups of younger and older adults received three sessions of memory training, teaching the use of mental images to improve the memorization of word lists. In contrast, the control groups were not instructed to use any particular strategy, but they were requested to carry out the memory exercises. The results showed that strategic training improved performance of both the younger and older experimental groups in the immediate list recall and in the working memory task. Of particular interest, the improvement in working memory performance of the older experimental group was comparable to that of the younger experimental group. PMID:17953152

Carretti, Barbara; Borella, Erika; De Beni, Rossana

2007-01-01

370

A clarification of the goal setting and appraisal processes in MBO.  

PubMed

Under the guise of Management by Objectives, "goal setting" and "performance appraisal" have assumed many different shapes and purposes. To clarify the concept of MBO, this review examines the writings of leading MBO experts, extracts those elements common to their respective definitions of goal setting and performance appraisal, and joins them into a single definition of MBO. PMID:10240342

McConkie, M L

1979-01-01

371

The effect of an aerobic interval training program on intermittent anaerobic performance.  

PubMed

The effects of a 9-week aerobic interval training program on anaerobic intermittent performance were investigated. Intermittent work consisted of four repeat 30-sec maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer (Wingate test) with 3-min recovery intervals. Thirteen men trained 3 days a week on the cycle ergometer, completing 3-min work-to-rest intervals and progressing from 5 to 10 reps. Relative and absolute values of aerobic power increased significantly for the training group (p < .05). No significant change was observed for the control group (n = 11). The training group demonstrated significant increases in the four anaerobic variables of short-term peak power (SPP), short-term anaerobic capacity (SAC), intermediate-term peak power (IPP), and total work (TW), and across the four 30-sec maximal repeats for anaerobic performance (T1-T4) (p < .05). Greater percentages of increase occurred for IPP and TW, especially during Repeats 3 and 4. The control group only demonstrated a significant increase in SPP for Repeat 3. These data suggest that the type of interval training program used in the study increased aerobic power and also enhanced performance in repeated high intensity, short duration work. PMID:8563677

Gaiga, M C; Docherty, D

1995-12-01

372

Effects of dietary antioxidants on training and performance in female runners.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced oxidative stress is implicated in muscle damage and fatigue which has led athletes to embark on antioxidant supplementation regimes to negate these effects. This study investigated the intake of vitamin C (VC) (1 g), blackcurrant (BC) juice (15 mg VC, 300 mg anthocyanins) and placebo in isocaloric drink form on training progression, incremental running test and 5-km time-trial performance. Twenty-three trained female runners (age, 31 ± 8 y; mean ± SD) completed three blocks of high-intensity training for 3 wks and 3 days, separated by a washout (~3.7 wks). Changes in training and performance with each treatment were analysed with a mixed linear model, adjusting for performance at the beginning of each training block. Markers of oxidative status included protein carbonyl, malondialdehyde (in plasma and in vitro erythrocytes), ascorbic acid, uric acid and erythrocyte enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were analysed. There was a likely harmful effect on mean running speed during training when taking VC (1.3%; 90% confidence limits ±1.3%). Effects of the two treatments relative to placebo on mean performance in the incremental test and time trial were unclear, but runners faster by 1 SD of peak speed demonstrated a possible improvement on peak running speed with BC juice (1.9%; ±2.5%). Following VC, certain oxidative markers were elevated: catalase at rest (23%; ±21%), protein carbonyls at rest (27%; ±38%) and superoxide dismutase post-exercise (8.3%; ±9.3%). In conclusion, athletes should be cautioned about taking VC chronically, however, BC may improve performance in the elite. PMID:23600891

Braakhuis, Andrea J; Hopkins, Will G; Lowe, Tim E

2014-01-01

373

Enhancing visuospatial performance through video game training to increase learning in visuospatial science domains.  

PubMed

Although previous research has demonstrated that performance on visuospatial assessments can be enhanced through relevant experience, an unaddressed question is whether such experience also produces a similar increase in target domains (such as science learning) where visuospatial abilities are directly relevant for performance. In the present study, participants completed either spatial or nonspatial training via interaction with video games and were then asked to read and learn about the geologic topic of plate tectonics. Results replicate the benefit of playing appropriate video games in enhancing visuospatial performance and demonstrate that this facilitation also manifests itself in learning science topics that are visuospatial in nature. This novel result suggests that visuospatial training not only can impact performance on measures of spatial functioning, but also can affect performance in content areas in which these abilities are utilized. PMID:22037919

Sanchez, Christopher A

2012-02-01

374

Using after-action review based on automated performance assessment to enhance training effectiveness.  

SciTech Connect

Training simulators have become increasingly popular tools for instructing humans on performance in complex environments. However, the question of how to provide individualized and scenario-specific assessment and feedback to students remains largely an open question. In this work, we follow-up on previous evaluations of the Automated Expert Modeling and Automated Student Evaluation (AEMASE) system, which automatically assesses student performance based on observed examples of good and bad performance in a given domain. The current study provides a rigorous empirical evaluation of the enhanced training effectiveness achievable with this technology. In particular, we found that students given feedback via the AEMASE-based debrief tool performed significantly better than students given only instructor feedback on two out of three domain-specific performance metrics.

Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Gieseler, Charles J.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris

2010-09-01

375

12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring...REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.63 Appraisals required; transactions...

2011-01-01

376

12 CFR 164.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a state certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a state...THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 164.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2012-01-01

377

12 CFR 390.442 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Appraisals § 390.442 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2012-01-01

378

12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2013-01-01

379

12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2011-01-01

380

12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2012-01-01

381

12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2011-01-01

382

12 CFR 722.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS § 722.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2012-01-01

383

12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring...REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.63 Appraisals required; transactions...

2012-01-01

384

12 CFR 722.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS § 722.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2011-01-01

385

12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring...REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.63 Appraisals required; transactions...

2013-01-01

386

12 CFR 164.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a state certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a state...THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 164.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2013-01-01

387

12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2010-01-01

388

12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring...REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.63 Appraisals required; transactions...

2014-01-01

389

12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2010-01-01

390

12 CFR 722.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS § 722.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2013-01-01

391

12 CFR 390.442 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Appraisals § 390.442 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2013-01-01

392

12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

2012-01-01

393

12 CFR 722.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 722.3 Section 722.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS § 722.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring...

2010-01-01

394

Effect of plyometric training on swimming block start performance in adolescents.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify the effect of plyometric training (PT), when added to habitual training (HT) regimes, on swim start performance. After the completion of a baseline competitive swim start, 22 adolescent swimmers were randomly assigned to either a PT (n = 11, age: 13.1 +/- 1.4 yr, mass: 50.6 +/- 12.3 kg, stature: 162.9 +/- 11.9 cm) or an HT group (n = 11, age: 12.6 +/- 1.9 yr, mass: 43.3 +/- 11.6 kg, stature: 157.6 +/- 11.9 cm). Over an 8-week preseason period, the HT group continued with their normal training program, whereas the PT group added 2 additional 1-hour plyometric-specific sessions, incorporating prescribed exercises relating to the swimming block start (SBS). After completion of the training intervention, post-training swim start performance was reassessed. For both baseline and post-trials, swim performance was recorded using videography (50 Hz Canon MVX460) in the sagital plane of motion. Through the use of Silicon Coach Pro analysis package, data revealed significantly greater change between baseline and post-trials for PT when compared with the HT group for swim performance time to 5.5 m (-0.59 s vs. -0.21 s; p < 0.01) and velocity of take-off to contact (0.19 ms vs. -0.07 ms; p < 0.01). Considering the practical importance of a successful swim start to overall performance outcome, the current study has found that inclusion of suitable and safely implemented PT to adolescent performers, in addition to HT routines, can have a positive impact on swim start performance. PMID:19855343

Bishop, Daniel C; Smith, Russell J; Smith, Mark F; Rigby, Hannah E

2009-10-01

395

Evaluation of a Strategy Oriented Training Program on the Verbal Abstraction Performance of Educable Retardates. Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare the effects of hypothesis testing strategy training and paired associate training on the verbal abstraction performance of mentally handicapped adolescents, 50 male educable mentally handicapped in residence at a state school were tested. Subjects receiving strategy-oriented training learned to test out associates against nouns that…

McIvor, William B.

396

Instructor Training on British Railways  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of instructor training was recognized by British Railways as early as 1950 with the setting up of a training center at Darlington. This article shows the results of this continuous training experience in the benefits to be obtained from re-appraisal techniques and practical work. (Author/EB)

Gibson, J. D.

1970-01-01

397

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Verbal Working Memory Training Performance over Time and Near Transfer Outcomes.  

PubMed

Studies attempting to increase working memory (WM) capacity show promise in enhancing related cognitive functions but have also raised criticism in the broader scientific community given the inconsistent findings produced by these studies. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance WM performance in a single session [Fregni, F., Boggio, P., Nitsche, M., Bermpohl, F., Anatal, A., Feredoes, E., et al. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. Experimental Brain Research, 166, 23-30, 2005]; however, the extent to which tDCS might enhance learning on a WM training regime and the extent to which learning gains might transfer outside the training task remains largely unknown. To this end, participants engaged in an adaptive WM training task [previously utilized in Richmond, L., Morrison, A., Chein, J., & Olson, I. Working memory training and transfer in older adults. Psychology & Aging, 26, 813-822, 2011; Chein, J., & Morrison, A. Expanding the mind's workspace: Training and transfer effects with a complex working memory span task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 193-199, 2010] for 10 sessions over 2 weeks, concurrent with either active or sham stimulation of dorsolateral pFC. Before and after training, a battery of tests tapping domains known to relate to WM abilities was administered. Results show that tDCS enhanced learning on the verbal portion of the training task by 3.65 items. Furthermore, tDCS was shown to enhance near transfer to other untrained WM tasks in comparison with a no-contact control group. These results lend support to the idea that tDCS might bolster training and transfer gains in populations with compromised WM abilities. PMID:24742190

Richmond, Lauren L; Wolk, David; Chein, Jason; Olson, Ingrid R

2014-11-01

398

Training Program Performance 2000. Employment and Earnings of Training Program Participants Exiting Alaska Training Programs in FY 2000. With a Comparison of Performance with FY 1997, FY 1998, and FY 1999 Program Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of Alaska's State Training and Employment Program (STEP) in fiscal 2000 was evaluated by matching the records of participants of the following STEP subprograms with Alaska and Washington state unemployment insurance (UI) wage records and federal military and federal civilian payroll records. Data were collected for participants of…

Hadland, Jeff; Landry, Gerald

399

The Importance of Sports Performance Factors and Training Contents From the Perspective of Futsal Coaches  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify the importance assigned by futsal coaches with different education levels to the sports performance factors (technical, tactical, physical and psychological) and to the training contents. The sample was divided into three groups (novice: n=35, intermediate: n=42; and elite coaches: n=15) depending on the degree of specific education, coaching experience and the level of the teams trained. To achieve this goal, the coaches answered a questionnaire previously validated by specialists in sport sciences. The results showed significant differences between the novice and elite group in small-sided games, inferiority games, opposition and execution timing of the training and drill items. The analyses also showed significant differences between the novice and intermediate group in inferiority games and opposition of the training and drill items. Although, no differences were identified between groups for the remaining performance factors and training and drill items considered, the identified trends provide a baseline related to the knowledge that contributes to the development of expertise of futsal coaches. PMID:24235991

Serrano, Joao; Shahidian, Shakib; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

2013-01-01

400

Training in Mental Rotation and Spatial Visualization and Its Impact on Orthographic Drawing Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings from an experimental study based on the pretest posttest research design that studied mental rotation (MR) and spatial visualization (SV) training outcomes and their impact on orthographic drawing performance. The sample of the study comprised 98 secondary school students (36 girls, 62 boys, Mage = 15.5 years, age…

Samsudin, Khairulanuar; Rafi, Ahmad; Hanif, Abd Samad

2011-01-01

401

The controller design and performance index analysis of Maglev train's suspension system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mathematic model considering magnetic flux loss of Maglev train and the design of PID controller are studied. During the process of analysis and design of PID controller, some new performance indexes, which were firstly put forward by Wang Guangxiong and are used to judge sufficient stable degree for controlling unstable system, are studied. Bode plot is used to validate

Huixing Chen; Aming Hao; Zhiqiang Long

2004-01-01

402

Different training programs for improving muscular performance in healthy inactive elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a general conditioning (callisthenic exercise) versus a machine based resistance-training protocol or an isokinetic exercise program would be similarly effective in improving knee extension muscular performance in healthy inactive elderly. Fifty two individuals, 26 men and 26 women, were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control group (C, n

P. Malliou; I. Fatouros; A Beneka; A. Gioftsidou; V. Zissi; G. Godolias; P. Fotinakis

403

The Effect of Alternative Training Methods on the Trouble-Shooting Performances of Maintenance Technicians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study to determine the effects of conceptual versus specific (traditional) training techniques on the trouble-shooting performance of maintenance technicians are presented. The research subjects were students at Bowling Green State University and citizens in Northwest Ohio with no post high school technical coursework. Those that…

Schorgmayer, Helmut; Swanson, Richard A.

404

Cycling with Video Feedback Improves Performance in Untrained, but Not in Trained Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to assess whether exercise performance responses could be altered when subjects were exposed to interactive video feedback and music (VFM), compared to music only feedback (M). Ten women, 5 well-trained (46.4 ± 4.7 ml × kg × min) and 5 untrained (34.5 ± 5.7 ml × kg × min) participated in the study. Neither

Holden MacRae

2003-01-01

405

Relationship between Past Academic Performance and Results of Specialty In-Training Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Records of 63 medical school graduates were examined for predictors of achievement on in-training examinations in anesthesia and orthopedic surgery. The previous academic records were found to contain little to predict examination results, and the correlation between college nonscience subjects and exam performance was negative. (Author/MSE)

Ronai, Ann K.; And Others

1984-01-01

406

Using Performance Analysis for Training in an Organization Implementing ISO-9000 Manufacturing Practices: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examines the application of the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) Model in an organization that was implementing ISO-9000 (International Standards Organization) processes for manufacturing practices. Discusses the interaction of organization characteristics, decision maker characteristics, and analyst characteristics to…

Kunneman, Dale E.; Sleezer, Catherine M.

2000-01-01

407

Counterfactual Thinking and Anticipated Emotions Enhance Performance in Computer Skills Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the relationship between novice learners' counterfactual thinking (i.e. generating "what if" and "if only" thoughts) about their initial training experience with a computer application and subsequent improvement in task performance. The role of anticipated emotions towards goal attainment in task…

Chan, Amy Y. C.; Caputi, Peter; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Browne, Jessica L.

2013-01-01

408

The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of neurofeedback as an operant conditioning paradigm has disclosed that participants are able to gain some control over particular aspects of their electroencephalogram (EEG). Based on the association between theta activity (4–7 Hz) and working memory performance, and sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity (12–15 Hz) and attentional processing, we investigated the possibility that training healthy individuals to enhance either

David Vernon; Tobias Egner; Nick Cooper; Theresa Compton; Claire Neilands; Amna Sheri; John Gruzelier

2003-01-01

409

Performing Titration Analyses for Water Quality. Module 17. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on performing titration analysis for water quality. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each part of…

Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

410

MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE AFTER HANDBALL TRAINING VERSUS PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.- The purpose of the study was to compare a 6-month specific handball training program and a typical physical education program on various strength and jumping skills. The participants (M age = 13.7 years, SD = 1.5) were divided into the Handball Group (n = 51) and the Physical Education Group (n = 70). The Handball Group performed 3 sessions\\/week

NIKOLAOS OXYZOGLOU; Kanioglou Aggelos; Rizos Stelios; Mavridis George; Kabitsis Christos; Amiridis G. Ioannis

2007-01-01

411

Assessment of Leadership Training of Head Teachers and Secondary School Performance in Mubende District, Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between leadership training of head teachers and school performance in secondary schools in Mubende district, Uganda. Descriptive-correlational research design was used. Six schools out of 32 were selected and the sample size of head teachers, teachers and students leaders was 287 out of…

Benson, Kayiwa

2011-01-01

412

Tutor Versus Peer Group Assessment of Student Performance in a Simulation Training Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a group of third?year higher diploma students from the Department of Hotel & Tourism in a simulation training exercise was assessed separately by the tutor and peer group, using an identical checklist. Ninety?six pairs of tutor and peer group assessment marks were obtained and compared. Results showed that there was some degree of agreement between tutor and

Roberta Wong Leung

1996-01-01

413

Amygdala norepinephrine levels after training predict inhibitory avoidance retention performance in rats  

E-print Network

and enhancing effects of drugs affecting GABA, opiate and glucocorticoid receptors (McGaugh et al., 1995., 1998). Additionally, systemic injections of epinephrine or drugs that enhance memory consolida- tionAmygdala norepinephrine levels after training predict inhibitory avoidance retention performance

O'Toole, Alice J.

414

Physical performance and training response during Ramadan observance, with particular reference to protein metabolism.  

PubMed

This review examines information on the effects of Ramadan observance upon the metabolism, training and performance of athletes, with particular reference to proteins and amino acids. Increased gluconeogenesis and/or a reduced intake of protein could lead to a decrease of lean tissue, with adverse effects on muscular performance, and the lack of immediate protein ingestion could compromise responses to strength training. Actual responses vary quite widely, depending on culture and the individual's level and type of athletic involvement. In elite competitors, there is typically an increased fractional ingestion of protein with a small reduction in overall energy intake, and this may lead to small reductions of body and lean tissue mass. There are often small decreases of performance, particularly in activities requiring vigorous and/or repetitive muscular contraction. More information is needed on responses in situations where protein intake is likely to be inadequate (adolescent growth, those maintaining vegetarian diets or from poor countries and disciplines with very high overall energy needs) and when vigorous muscle training is in progress. However, in most of the situations studied to date, Ramadan observance has had only limited adverse consequences for either training or competitive performance. PMID:22554842

Shephard, Roy J

2012-06-01

415

Preliminary results from the evaluation of Cockpit Resource Management training - Performance ratings of flightcrews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first data from the NASA/University of Texas Crew Performance project on the behavior of flightcrews with and without formal training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is reported. Expert observers made detailed ratings of 15 components of crew behavior in both line operations and in full mission simulations. The results indicate that such training in crew coordination concepts increases the percentage of crews rated as above average in performance and decreases the percentage rated as below average. The data also show high and unexpected degrees of variations in rated performance among crews flying different aircraft within the same organization. It was also found that the specific behaviors that triggered observer ratings of above or below average performance differed markedly between organizations. Characteristics of experts' ratings and future research needs are also discussed.

Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Chidester, Thomas R.

1990-01-01

416

The influence of training status, age, and muscle fiber type on cycling efficiency and endurance performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of age, training status, and muscle fiber-type distribution on cycling efficiency. Forty men were recruited into one of four groups: young and old trained cyclists, and young and old untrained individuals. All participants completed an incremental ramp test to measure their peak O2 uptake, maximal heart rate, and maximal minute power output; a submaximal test of cycling gross efficiency (GE) at a series of absolute and relative work rates; and, in trained participants only, a 1-h cycling time trial. Finally, all participants underwent a muscle biopsy of their right vastus lateralis muscle. At relative work rates, a general linear model found significant main effects of age and training status on GE (P < 0.01). The percentage of type I muscle fibers was higher in the trained groups (P < 0.01), with no difference between age groups. There was no relationship between fiber type and cycling efficiency at any work rate or cadence combination. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that muscle fiber type did not influence cycling performance (P > 0.05). Power output in the 1-h performance trial was predicted by average O2 uptake and GE, with standardized ?-coefficients of 0.94 and 0.34, respectively, although some mathematical coupling is evident. These data demonstrate that muscle fiber type does not affect cycling efficiency and was not influenced by the aging process. Cycling efficiency and the percentage of type I muscle fibers were influenced by training status, but only GE at 120 revolutions/min was seen to predict cycling performance. PMID:23813527

Hopker, James G; Coleman, Damian A; Gregson, Hannah C; Jobson, Simon A; Von der Haar, Tobias; Wiles, Jonathan; Passfield, Louis

2013-09-01

417

Training set optimization and classifier performance in a top-down diabetic retinopathy screening system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects more than 4.4 million Americans age 40 and over. Automatic screening for DR has shown to be an efficient and cost-effective way to lower the burden on the healthcare system, by triaging diabetic patients and ensuring timely care for those presenting with DR. Several supervised algorithms have been developed to detect pathologies related to DR, but little work has been done in determining the size of the training set that optimizes an algorithm's performance. In this paper we analyze the effect of the training sample size on the performance of a top-down DR screening algorithm for different types of statistical classifiers. Results are based on partial least squares (PLS), support vector machines (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (kNN), and Naïve Bayes classifiers. Our dataset consisted of digital retinal images collected from a total of 745 cases (595 controls, 150 with DR). We varied the number of normal controls in the training set, while keeping the number of DR samples constant, and repeated the procedure 10 times using randomized training sets to avoid bias. Results show increasing performance in terms of area under the ROC curve (AUC) when the number of DR subjects in the training set increased, with similar trends for each of the classifiers. Of these, PLS and k-NN had the highest average AUC. Lower standard deviation and a flattening of the AUC curve gives evidence that there is a limit to the learning ability of the classifiers and an optimal number of cases to train on.

Wigdahl, J.; Agurto, C.; Murray, V.; Barriga, S.; Soliz, P.

2013-03-01

418

The Effects of Imagery Training on Swimming Performance: An Applied Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple-baseline design was used to examine the influence of an imagery intervention on the performance of swimmers’ times on a 1000-yard practice set. Performance times for four swimmers were collected over a 15-week period during preseason training. The intervention took place over a three-week period and was introduced after the fourth week of the study. The results revealed that

Phillip Post; Sean Muncie; Duncan Simpson

2012-01-01

419

Training for the e-Business Competition: An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between Competence, Training and Performance in European SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationship between e-business competence, training, and the performance of e-business in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). E-business competencies and e-business performance were investigated based on survey data from a sample of 339 SMEs in three European countries. In addition, data of the training supply related to e-business was collected from a sample of 116 providers of

Dag H. Olsen; Tom R. Eikebrokk

2006-01-01

420

Astragalus membranaceus improves exercise performance and ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue in trained mice.  

PubMed

Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is a popular "Qi-tonifying" herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group) for treatment: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control); and (3) exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1) or (4) 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5). Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training. PMID:24595275

Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Mei-Chich

2014-01-01

421

Sustainability Appraisals of Regional Planning Guidance and Regional Economic Strategies in England: An Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability appraisal involves the systematic identification and evaluation of the potential impacts on sustainability concerns of a policy, plan, programme or project, in order that its performance in relation to sustainable development may be improved. UK government guidance currently requires regional planning guidance (RPG) and regional economic strategies (RESs) prepared for each English region to undergo a sustainability appraisal. To

Steven Smith; William Sheate

2001-01-01

422

Defining the "dose" of altitude training: how high to live for optimal sea level performance enhancement.  

PubMed

Chronic living at altitudes of ?2,500 m causes consistent hematological acclimatization in most, but not all, groups of athletes; however, responses of erythropoietin (EPO) and red cell mass to a given altitude show substantial individual variability. We hypothesized that athletes living at higher altitudes would experience greater improvements in sea level performance, secondary to greater hematological acclimatization, compared with athletes living at lower altitudes. After 4 wk of group sea level training and testing, 48 collegiate distance runners (32 men, 16 women) were randomly assigned to one of four living altitudes (1,780, 2,085, 2,454, or 2,800 m). All athletes trained together daily at a common altitude from 1,250-3,000 m following a modified live high-train low model. Subjects completed hematological, metabolic, and performance measures at sea level, before and after altitude training; EPO was assessed at various time points while at altitude. On return from altitude, 3,000-m time trial performance was significantly improved in groups living at the middle two altitudes (2,085 and 2,454 m), but not in groups living at 1,780 and 2,800 m. EPO was significantly higher in all groups at 24 and 48 h, but returned to sea level baseline after 72 h in the 1,780-m group. Erythrocyte volume was significantly higher within all groups after return from altitude and was not different between groups. These data suggest that, when completing a 4-wk altitude camp following the live high-train low model, there is a target altitude between 2,000 and 2,500 m that produces an optimal acclimatization response for sea level performance. PMID:24157530

Chapman, Robert F; Karlsen, Trine; Resaland, Geir K; Ge, R-L; Harber, Matthew P; Witkowski, Sarah; Stray-Gundersen, James; Levine, Benjamin D

2014-03-15

423

Blood lactate recovery measurements, training, and performance during a 23-week period of competitive swimming.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to relate measurements of blood lactate concentration, performance during a maximal anaerobic lactic test (MANLT) and training loads during a 23-week swimming season. Six elite 200-m freestyle male swimmers [mean age 19.5 (SD 1.6) years, height 184 (SD 5) cm and body mass 77.7 (SD 9.0) kg], participated in the study. The MANLT consisted of four all-out 50-m swims interspersed with 10-s recovery periods. Blood lactate concentrations were determined at 3 and 12-min post-exercise and were performed on weeks 2,6,10,14,18 and 21. Swimmers participated in 200-m freestyle competitions on weeks 1,7,13 and 23 (national championships). During weeks 1-10, training mostly involved aerobic exercise, while during weeks, 11-23, it involved anaerobic exercise. At 3-min and 12-min post-MANLT lactate concentrations varied throughout the season [range from 14.9 (SD 1.2) to 18.7 (SD 1.0) mmol.l-1] but demonstrated non-systematic variations. In contrast, the percentage of mean blood lactate decrease (% [La-]recovery) between min 3 and min 12 of the passive recovery post-MANLT increased from week 2 to 10 with aerobic training and decreased from week 10 to 21 with anaerobic training. The MANLT performance improved continuously throughout the season, while competition performance improved during the first three competitions but declined in the final championships, coinciding with the lowest % [La-]recovery and signs of overtraining, such as bad temper and increased sleeping heart rate. The results of this study indicated that % [La-]recovery could be an efficient marker for monitoring the impact of aerobic and anaerobic training and avoiding overtraining in elite 200-m swimmers. PMID:8891508

Pelayo, P; Mujika, I; Sidney, M; Chatard, J C

1996-01-01

424

Teaching high-performance skills using above-real-time training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The above real-time training (ARTT) concept is an approach to teaching high-performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. It represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. Two related experiments are discussed. In the first, 25 naive male subjects performed three tank gunnery tasks on a simulator under varying levels of time acceleration (i.e., 1.0x, 1.6x, 2.0x, sequential, and mixed). They were then transferred to a standard (1.0x) condition for testing. Every accelerated condition or combination of conditions produced better training and transfer than the standard condition. Most effective was the presentation of trials at 1.0x, 1.6x, and 2.0x in a random order during training. Overall, the best ARTT group scored about 50 percent higher and trained in 25 percent less time compared to the real-time control group. In the second experiment, 24 mission-capable F-16 pilots performed three tasks on a part-task F-16A flight simulator under varying levels of time compression (i.e., 1.0x, 1.5x, 2.0x, and random). All subjects were then tested in a real-time environment. The emergency procedure (EP) task results showed increased accuracy for the ARTT groups. In testing (transfer), the ARTT groups not only performed the EP more accurately, but dealt with a simultaneous enemy significantly better than a real-time control group. Although the findings on an air combat maneuvering task and stern conversion task were mixed, most measures indicated that the ARTT groups performed better and faster than a real-time control group. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

1993-01-01

425

7 CFR 3560.753 - Agency appraisal standards and requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The appraisal report format may be a form appraisal...specify the appraisal format that is most appropriate...Form appraisal reports. The Agency will...variances. The final opinion of value...history for the housing project being...

2010-01-01

426

Mitochondrial and performance adaptations to exercise training in mice lacking skeletal muscle LKB1  

PubMed Central

LKB1 and its downstream targets of the AMP-activated protein kinase family are important regulators of many aspects of skeletal muscle cell function, including control of mitochondrial content and capillarity. LKB1 deficiency in skeletal and cardiac muscle (mLKB1-KO) greatly impairs exercise capacity. However, cardiac dysfunction in that genetic model prevents a clear assessment of the role of skeletal muscle LKB1 in the observed effects. Our purposes here were to determine whether skeletal muscle-specific knockout of LKB1 (skmLKB1-KO) decreases exercise capacity and mitochondrial protein content, impairs accretion of mitochondrial proteins after exercise training, and attenuates improvement in running performance after exercise training. We found that treadmill and voluntary wheel running capacity was reduced in skmLKB1-KO vs. control (CON) mice. Citrate synthase activity, succinate dehydrogenase activity, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase content were lower in KO vs. CON muscles. Three weeks of treadmill training resulted in significantly increased treadmill running performance in both CON and skmLKB1-KO mice. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly with training in both genotypes, but protein content and activity for components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain increased only in CON mice. Capillarity and VEGF protein was lower in skmLKB1-KO vs. CON muscles, but VEGF increased with training only in skmLKB1-KO. Three hours after an acute bout of muscle contractions, PGC-1?, cytochrome c, and VEGF gene expression all increased in CON but not skmLKB1-KO muscles. Our findings indicate that skeletal muscle LKB1 is required for accretion of some mitochondrial proteins but not for early exercise capacity improvements with exercise training. PMID:23982155

Tanner, Colby B.; Madsen, Steven R.; Hallowell, David M.; Goring, Darren M. J.; Moore, Timothy M.; Hardman, Shalene E.; Heninger, Megan R.; Atwood, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

427

A training program to improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if a sports-specific training program could improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players. We combined components from a published anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program for jump and strength training with other exercises and drills to improve speed, agility, overall strength, and aerobic conditioning. We hypothesized that this sports-specific training program would lead to significant improvements in neuromuscular and performance indices in high school female basketball players. Fifty-seven female athletes aged 14-17 years participated in the supervised 6-week program, 3 d·wk(-1) for approximately 90-120 minutes per session. The program was conducted on the basketball court and in weight room facilities in high schools. The athletes underwent a video drop-jump test, multistage fitness test, vertical jump test, and an 18-m sprint test before and upon completion of the training program. All the subjects attended at least 14 training sessions. After training, a significant increase was found in the mean estimated VO2max (p < 0.001), with 89% of the athletes improving this score. In the drop-jump video test, significant increases were found in the mean absolute knee separation distance (p < 0.0001) and in the mean normalized knee separation distance (p < 0.0001), indicating a more neutral lower limb alignment on landing. A significant improvement was found in the vertical jump test (p < 0.0001); however, the effect size was small (0.09). No improvement was noted in the sprint test. This program significantly improved lower limb alignment on a drop-jump test and estimated maximal aerobic power and may be implemented preseason or off-season in high school female basketball players. PMID:22289699

Noyes, Frank R; Barber-Westin, Sue D; Smith, Stephanie T; Campbell, Thomas; Garrison, Tiina T

2012-03-01

428

Change in performance in response to training load adjustment based on autonomic activity.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to assess performance (Perf) changes in response to a new training strategy. Specifically, based on spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV) to determine autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, training doses were adjusted to maintain vagal activity at a high and relatively stable level during training preparation. Trained athletes (5 male and 5 female) aged 23.2±4.2 years voluntarily participated in the study. ANS activity was assessed during an orthoclinostatic test, and was represented by calculating HRV variables and a total score index. Over 17 weeks, improvement (1.4-8.5%) and deterioration (0.1-8.8%) in Perf were detected in 7 and 3 athletes, respectively. A relationship (rs=0.684; P<0.05) between the change in Perf (?Perf) and supine PHF during season was found. Supine HRV indices (PHF, PT, and MSSD) for the last 3 weeks of the HRV-adjusting period correlated (rs=0.636; 0.648; 0.648, P<0.05) with ?Perf. Based on the results, a high and relative stable vagal activity during preparation may indicate a readiness to train or appropriate recovery that positively affects Perf. In conclusion, daily quantification of ANS activity by SA HRV seems to be a promising tool for the enhancement of Perf. PMID:24129989

Botek, M; McKune, A J; Krejci, J; Stejskal, P; Gaba, A

2014-06-01

429

Comparison of integrated and isolated training on performance measures and neuromuscular control.  

PubMed

Traditional weight training programs use an exercise prescription strategy that emphasizes improving muscle strength through resistance exercises. Other factors, such as stability, endurance, movement quality, power, flexibility, speed, and agility are also essential elements to improving overall functional performance. Therefore, exercises that incorporate these additional elements may be beneficial additions to traditional resistance training programs. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of an isolated resistance training program (ISO) and an integrated training program (INT) on movement quality, vertical jump height, agility, muscle strength and endurance, and flexibility. The ISO program consisted of primarily upper and lower extremity progressive resistance exercises. The INT program involved progressive resistance exercises, and core stability, power, and agility exercises. Thirty subjects were cluster randomized to either the ISO (n = 15) or INT (n = 15) training program. Each training group performed their respective programs 2 times per week for 8 weeks. The subjects were assessed before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period using the following assessments: a jump-landing task graded using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), vertical jump height, T-test time, push-up and sit-up performance, and the sit-and-reach test. The INT group performed better on the LESS test (pretest: 3.90 ± 1.02, posttest: 3.03 ± 1.02; p = 0.02), faster on the T-test (pretest: 10.35 ± 1.20 seconds, posttest: 9.58 ± 1.02 seconds; p = 0.01), and completed more sit-ups (pretest: 40.20 ± 15.01, posttest: 46.73 ± 14.03; p = 0.045) and push-ups (pretest: 40.67 ± 13.85, posttest: 48.93 ± 15.17; p = 0.05) at posttest compared with pretest, and compared with the ISO group at posttest. Both groups performed more push-ups (p = 0.002), jumped higher (p < 0.001), and reached further (p = 0.008) at posttest compared with that at pretest. Performance enhancement programs should use an integrated approach to exercise selection to optimize performance and movement technique benefits. PMID:23364296

Distefano, Lindsay J; Distefano, Michael J; Frank, Barnett S; Clark, Micheal A; Padua, Darin A

2013-04-01

430

A Gold Standards Approach to Training Instructors to Evaluate Crew Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Qualification Program requires that airlines evaluate crew performance in Line Oriented Simulation. For this evaluation to be meaningful, instructors must observe relevant crew behaviors and evaluate those behaviors consistently and accurately against standards established by the airline. The airline industry has largely settled on an approach in which instructors evaluate crew performance on a series of event sets, using standardized grade sheets on which behaviors specific to event set are listed. Typically, new instructors are given a class in which they learn to use the grade sheets and practice evaluating crew performance observed on videotapes. These classes emphasize reliability, providing detailed instruction and practice in scoring so that all instructors within a given class will give similar scores to similar performance. This approach has value but also has important limitations; (1) ratings within one class of new instructors may differ from those of other classes; (2) ratings may not be driven primarily by the specific behaviors on which the company wanted the crews to be scored; and (3) ratings may not be calibrated to company standards for level of performance skill required. In this paper we provide a method to extend the existing method of training instructors to address these three limitations. We call this method the "gold standards" approach because it uses ratings from the company's most experienced instructors as the basis for training rater accuracy. This approach ties the training to the specific behaviors on which the experienced instructors based their ratings.

Baker, David P.; Dismukes, R. Key

2003-01-01

431

The Effects of Intermittent Hypoxic Training on Aerobic Capacity and Endurance Performance in Cyclists  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) with 95 % of lactate threshold workload (WRLT) on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in well-trained cyclists. Twenty male elite cyclists, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=10; age 22 ± 2.7years; VO2max 67.8 ± 2.5 ml·kg-1·min-1; body height (BH) 1.78 ± 0.05 m; body mass (BM) 66.7 ± 5.4kg; fat free mass (FFM) 59.3 ± 5.1kg; fat content (FAT%) 11.3 ± 2.1%), and a control (C) group (n = 10; age 23.5 ± 3. 5years; VO2max 67.7 ± 2.0 ml·kg-1·min-1; BH 1.79 ± 3.2 m; BM 69.2 ± 5.5 kg; FFM 63.6 ± 4.8 kg; FAT% 7.9 ± 1.94 %) took part in the research project. The training program used during the experiment was the same for the both groups. For three weeks, the subjects in H group performed 3 training sessions per week in normobaric hypoxia environment (IHT - O2 = 15. 2%). During the elemental core of the IHT session, the intensity was set at 95% WRLT for 30-min in 1st microcycle, 35-min in 2nd microcycle and 40-min in 3rd microcycle. The same training procedure was provided in C group, yet the intensity of the main sessions were set at 100% WRLT in the normoxia environment. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VO2max,VO2LT, WRmax, WRLT and change in lactate concentration (?LA) during incremental test in H group. Also a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in time of the time trial was seen, associated with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in average generated power (Pavg) and average speed (Vavg) during the time trial. The intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) applied in this research did not significantly affect the hematological variables considered: number of erythrocytes (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (HGB) and haematocrit value (HCT). Significant blood value increases (p < 0.05) were only observed in MCV in H group. This data suggests that intermittent hypoxic training at lactate threshold intensity and medium duration (30-40min) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity and endurance performance at sea level. Key points The efficacy of the intermittent hypoxic training is mostly dependent on volume and intensity of exercise in the hypoxic environment. The observed results suggests that intermittent hypoxic training at lactate threshold intensity and medium duration (30-40min) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity and endurance performance at sea level. PMID:24149312

Czuba, Milosz; Waskiewicz, Zbigniew; Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Roczniok, Robert

2011-01-01

432

The Road to Gold: Training and Peaking Characteristics in the Year Prior to a Gold Medal Endurance Performance  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe training variations across the annual cycle in Olympic and World Champion endurance athletes, and determine whether these athletes used tapering strategies in line with recommendations in the literature. Methods Eleven elite XC skiers and biathletes (4 male; 28±1 yr, 85±5 mL. min?1. kg?1 , 7 female, 25±4 yr, 73±3 mL. min?1. kg?1 ) reported one year of day-to-day training leading up to the most successful competition of their career. Training data were divided into periodization and peaking phases and distributed into training forms, intensity zones and endurance activity forms. Results Athletes trained ?800 h/500 sessions.year?1, including ?500 h. year?1 of sport-specific training. Ninety-four percent of all training was executed as aerobic endurance training. Of this, ?90% was low intensity training (LIT, below the first lactate threshold) and 10% high intensity training (HIT, above the first lactate threshold) by time. Categorically, 23% of training sessions were characterized as HIT with primary portions executed at or above the first lactate turn point. Training volume and specificity distribution conformed to a traditional periodization model, but absolute volume of HIT remained stable across phases. However, HIT training patterns tended to become more polarized in the competition phase. Training volume, frequency and intensity remained unchanged from pre-peaking to peaking period, but there was a 32±15% (P<.01) volume reduction from the preparation period to peaking phase. Conclusions The annual training data for these Olympic and World champion XC skiers and biathletes conforms to previously reported training patterns of elite endurance athletes. During the competition phase, training became more sport-specific, with 92% performed as XC skiing. However, they did not follow suggested tapering practice derived from short-term experimental studies. Only three out of 11 athletes took a rest day during the final 5 days prior to their most successful competition. PMID:25019608

T?nnessen, Espen; Sylta, ?ystein; Haugen, Thomas A.; Hem, Erlend; Svendsen, Ida S.; Seiler, Stephen

2014-01-01

433

Physiological implications of altitude training for endurance performance at sea level: a review.  

PubMed Central

Acclimatisation to environmental hypoxia initiates a series of metabolic and musculocardio-respiratory adaptations that influence oxygen transport and utilisation, or better still, being born and raised at altitude, is necessary to achieve optimal physical performance at altitude, scientific evidence to support the potentiating effects after return to sea level is at present equivocal. Despite this, elite athletes continue to spend considerable time and resources training at altitude, misled by subjective coaching opinion and the inconclusive findings of a large number of uncontrolled studies. Scientific investigation has focused on the optimisation of the theoretically beneficial aspects of altitude acclimatisation, which include increases in blood haemoglobin concentration, elevated buffering capacity, and improvements in the structural and biochemical properties of skeletal muscle. However, not all aspects of altitude acclimatisation are beneficial; cardiac output and blood flow to skeletal muscles decrease, and preliminary evidence has shown that hypoxia in itself is responsible for a depression of immune function and increased tissue damage mediated by oxidative stress. Future research needs to focus on these less beneficial aspects of altitude training, the implications of which pose a threat to both the fitness and the health of the elite competitor. Paul Bert was the first investigator to show that acclimatisation to a chronically reduced inspiratory partial pressure of oxygen (P1O2) invoked a series of central and peripheral adaptations that served to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation in healthy skeletal muscle, physiological adaptations that have been subsequently implicated in the improvement in exercise performance during altitude acclimatisation. However, it was not until half a century later that scientists suggested that the additive stimulus of environmental hypoxia could potentially compound the normal physiological adaptations to endurance training and accelerate performance improvements after return to sea level. This has stimulated an exponential increase in scientific research, and, since 1984, 22 major reviews have summarised the physiological implications of altitude training for both aerobic and anaerobic performance at altitude and after return to sea level. Of these reviews, only eight have specifically focused on physical performance changes after return to sea level, the most comprehensive of which was recently written by Wolski et al. Few reviews have considered the potentially less favourable physiological responses to moderate altitude exposure, which include decreases in absolute training intensity, decreased plasma volume, depression of haemopoiesis and increased haemolysis, increases in sympathetically mediated glycogen depletion at altitude, and increased respiratory muscle work after return to sea level. In addition, there is a risk of developing more serious medical complications at altitude, which include acute mountain sickness, pulmonary oedema, cardiac arrhythmias, and cerebral hypoxia. The possible implications of changes in immune function at altitude have also been largely ignored, despite accumulating evidence of hypoxia mediated immunosuppression. In general, altitude training has been shown to improve performance at altitude, whereas no unequivocal evidence exists to support the claim that performance at sea level is improved. Table 1 summarises the theoretical advantages and disadvantages of altitude training for sea level performance. This review summarises the physiological rationale for altitude training as a means of enhancing endurance performance after return to sea level. Factors that have been shown to affect the acclimatisation process and the subsequent implications for exercise performance at sea level will also be discussed. Studies were located using five major database searches, which included Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Sports Discus, and Sport, in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9298550

Bailey, D M; Davies, B

1997-01-01

434

Autogenic-feedback training improves pilot performance during emergency flying conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. The effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance was examined. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group comprised four pilots of HC-130 Hercules aircraft and four HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group comprised three pilots of HC-130's and six Dolphin helicopter pilots. During an initial flight physiological data were recorded for each crewmember and individual crew performance and rated by an instructor pilot. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT). The remaining subjects received no training. During a second flight, treatment subjects showed significant improvement in performance, while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFT management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

Kellar, Michael A.; Folen, Raymond A.; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Hisert, Glen L.

1993-01-01

435

Autogenic-feedback training improves pilot performance during emergency flying conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group comprised three pilots of HC-130 Hercules aircraft and four HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group comprised three pilots of HC-130's and six Dolphin helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded for each crew member and individual crew performance was rated by an instructor pilot. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT). The remaining subjects received no training. During a second flight, treatment subjects showed significant improvement in performance, while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFT management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

Kellar, Michael A.; Folen, Raymond A.; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Hisert, Glen L.

1994-01-01

436

Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise and pilot performance: enhanced functioning under search-and-rescue flying conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group contained 4 pilots from HC-130 Hercules aircraft and 4 HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group contained 3 pilots of HC-130s and 6 helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded on each crewmember and an instructor pilot rated individual crew performance. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE). The remaining participants received no training. During a second flight, treatment participants showed significant improvement in performance (rated by the same instructor pilot as in pretests) while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFTE management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

Cowings, P. S.; Kellar, M. A.; Folen, R. A.; Toscano, W. B.; Burge, J. D.

2001-01-01

437

5 CFR 430.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 430.405 Section 430.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.405 Procedures for...

2013-01-01

438

5 CFR 430.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

... 430.405 Section 430.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.405 Procedures for...

2014-01-01

439

5 CFR 430.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 430.405 Section 430.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.405 Procedures for...

2012-01-01

440

5 CFR 430.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 430.405 Section 430.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.405 Procedures for...

2011-01-01

441

The relationship between the age of onset of musical training and rhythm synchronization performance: validation of sensitive period effects  

PubMed Central

A sensitive period associated with musical training has been proposed, suggesting the influence of musical training on the brain and behavior is strongest during the early years of childhood. Experiments from our laboratory have directly tested the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by comparing musicians who began their training prior to age seven with those who began their training after age seven, while matching the two groups in terms of musical experience (Watanabe et al., 2007; Bailey and Penhune, 2010, 2012). Using this matching paradigm, the early-trained groups have demonstrated enhanced sensorimotor synchronization skills and associated differences in brain structure (Bailey et al., 2013; Steele et al., 2013). The current study takes a different approach to investigating the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by examining a single large group of unmatched musicians (N = 77) and exploring the relationship between age of onset of musical training as a continuous variable and performance on the Rhythm Synchronization Task (RST), a previously used auditory-motor RST. Interestingly, age of onset was correlated with task performance for those who began training earlier, however, no such relationship was observed among those who began training in their later childhood years. In addition, years of formal training showed a similar pattern. However, individual working memory scores were predictive of task performance, regardless of age of onset of musical training. Overall, these results support the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training and suggest a non-linear relationship between age of onset of musical training and auditory-motor rhythm synchronization abilities, such that a relationship exists early in childhood but then plateaus later on in development, similar to maturational growth trajectories of brain regions implicated in playing music. PMID:24348323

Bailey, Jennifer A.; Penhune, Virginia B.

2013-01-01

442

Gender Bias in the Evaluation of Male and Female Police Officer Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study undertaken to evaluate the likelihood of anti-female bias in performance appraisals. Based on investigative reports, depositions, and eye-witness accounts in the subsequent litigation, four versions of a written scenario were prepared of an actual arrest sequence in which a male training officer was shot, and the…

Shoenfelt, Elizabeth L.; Mendel, R. Max

443

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2014-01-01

444

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2012-01-01

445

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2011-01-01

446

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2010-01-01

447

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2013-01-01

448

28 CFR 8.6 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisal. 8.6 Section 8.6 Judicial Administration...STATUTES Seizure and Forfeiture of Property § 8.6 Appraisal. The seizing agency or its designee shall...

2013-07-01

449

The sleep and performance of train drivers during an extended freight-haul operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sleep and performance of train drivers was monitored across a 106-h rail operation between the Australian cities of Adelaide and Perth. The drivers worked alternating 8-h shift rotations across the operation and rested in specially equipped, crew-van carriages during non-work periods. The crew-van rest opportunities were associated with shorter bedtime spans, less total sleep time, and poorer sleep efficiency

David Darwent; Nicole Lamond; Drew Dawson

2008-01-01

450

Effect of football or strength training on functional ability and physical performance in untrained old men.  

PubMed

The effects of 16 weeks of football or strength training on performance and functional ability were investigated in 26 (68.2 ± 3.2 years) untrained men randomized into a football (FG; n = 9), a strength training (ST; n = 9), or a control group (CO; n = 8). FG and ST trained 1.6 ± 0.1 and 1.5 ± 0.1 times per week, respectively, with higher (P < 0.05) average heart rate (HR) (?140 vs 100 bpm) and time >90%HRmax (17 vs 0%) in FG than ST, and lower (P < 0.05) peak blood lactate in FG than ST (7.2 ± 0.9 vs 10.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L). After the intervention period (IP), VO? max (15%; P < 0.001), cycle time to exhaustion (7%; P < 0.05), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Level 1 performance (43%; P < 0.01) were improved in FG, but unchanged in ST and CO. HR during walking was 12% and 10% lower (P < 0.05) in FG and ST, respectively, after IP. After IP, HR and blood lactate during jogging were 7% (P < 0.05) and 30% lower (P < 0.001) in FG, but unchanged in ST and CO. Sit-to-stand performance was improved (P < 0.01) by 29% in FG and 26% in ST, but not in CO. In conclusion, football and strength training for old men improves functional ability and physiological response to submaximal exercise, while football additionally elevates maximal aerobic fitness and exhaustive exercise performance. PMID:24903323

Andersen, T R; Schmidt, J F; Nielsen, J J; Randers, M B; Sundstrup, E; Jakobsen, M D; Andersen, L L; Suetta, C; Aagaard, P; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

2014-08-01

451

Effects of a 6-week plyometric training program on performances in pubescent swimmers.  

PubMed

This study examined in pubescent swimmers the effects on front crawl performances of a 6-week plyometric training (PT) in addition to the habitual swimming program. Swimmers were assigned to a control group (n = 11, age: 14.1 ± 0.2 years; G(CONT)) and a combined swimming and plyometric group (n = 12, age: 14.3 ± 0.2 years; GSP), both groups swimming 5.5 h · wk(-1) during a 6-week preseason training block. In the GSP, PT consisted of long, lateral high and depth jumps before swimming training 2 times per week. Pre and posttests were performed by jump tests (squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ]) and swim tests: a gliding task, 400- and 50-m front crawl with a diving start (V400 and V50, m · s(-1)), and 2 tests with a water start without push-off on the wall (25 m in front crawl and 25 m only with kicks). Results showed improvement only for GSP for jump tests (? = 4.67 ± 3.49 cm; ? = 3.24 ± 3.17 cm; for CMJ and SJ, respectively; p < 0.05) and front crawl tests (? = 0.04 ± 0.04 m · s(-1); ? = 0.04 ± 0.05 m · s(-1); for V50 and V400, respectively; p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found for GSP between improvements in SJ and V50 (R = 0.73, p < 0.05). Results suggested a positive effect of PT on specific swimming tasks such as dive or turn but not in kicking propulsion. Because of the practical setup of the PT and the relevancy of successful starts and turns in swimming performances, it is strongly suggested to incorporate PT in pubescent swimmers' training and control it by jump performances. PMID:21157388

Potdevin, François J; Alberty, Morgan E; Chevutschi, Alain; Pelayo, Patrick; Sidney, Michel C

2011-01-01

452

Increased heart rate variability and executive performance after aerobic training in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of two short physical training programs on various parameters of heart rate variability (HRV)\\u000a and on executive performance in older people. Twenty-four sedentary men and women aged 65–78 years were randomly assigned\\u000a to an aerobic exercise program or a stretching program three times a week for 12 weeks. Resting HRV was measured in time and\\u000a frequency domains

Cédric T. Albinet; Geoffroy Boucard; Cédric A. Bouquet; Michel Audiffren

2010-01-01

453

UNDULATION TRAINING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF HIERARCHICAL FITNESS AND IMPROVED FIREFIGHTER JOB PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peterson, MD, Dodd, DJ, Alvar, BA, Rhea, MR, and Favre, M. Undulation training for development of hierarchical fitness and improvedfirefighter job performance. J StrengthCond Res 22(5): 1683-1695, 2008—Firefighters routinely encounter physical demands that contribute to countless musculoskeletal injuries. Seemingly, a progressive prescription for fitness would offer superior protection against intrinsic job risks. The purpose of this study was to investigate

MARK D. PETERSON; DANIEL J. DODD; BRENT A. ALVAR; MATTHEW R. RHEA; MIKE FAVRE

454

The effects of interval training on oxygen pulse and performance in supra-threshold runs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine (i) the effects of a severe interval training period on oxygen pulse kinetics (O2-p, the ratio between VO2 and heart rate), and (ii) to study the consequences of these effects on the variation of performance (time to exhaustion) during severe runs. Seven athletes were tested before and after an eight-weeks period of a specific intermittent training at v Delta 50, i.e., the intermediate velocity between the lactate threshold (vLT) and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max ). During the test sessions, athletes performed an incremental test and an all-out test at the pretraining v Delta 50. After the training period they also completed an additional all-out test at the posttraining v Delta 50 (v Delta 50bis). Results showed that after training there was i) an increase in the O2-p maximal value during the incremental test (22.7 +/- 1.5 mlO2.b-1 vs. 20.6 +/- 1.5 mlO2.b-1; p < 0.04), ii) a decrease in the time to reach the O2-p steady state (TRO2-p ) at the same absolute v Delta 50 (33 +/- 7 s vs. 60 +/- 27 s; p < 0.04) and iii) an increase in the O2-p steady state duration (TSSO2-p) at the same absolute v Delta 50 (552 +/- 201 s vs. 407 +/- 106 s; p < 0.04). However, there was no relationship between the improvement of these two O 2 -p kinetics parameters (TRO2-p and TSS O2-p) and those of the performance. This study found that after an individualised interval-training program conducted at the same absolute velocity, the O2-p kinetics reached a steady state quicker and for a longer duration than before training. This is however not related with the improvement of performance. PMID:14972740

Laffite, L P; Mille-Hamard, L; Koralsztein, J P; Billat, V L

2003-07-01

455

Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

2000-01-01

456

Angelica sinensis improves exercise performance and protects against physical fatigue in trained mice.  

PubMed

Angelica sinensis (AS) is a well-known medicinal herb and food material with antioxidative and multifunctional pharmacological activities. However, we lack evidence of the effect of AS on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of AS on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions after physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n=10 per group) for treatment: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control); (3) exercise training with AS treatment at 0.41 g/kg/day (Ex-AS1); and (4) 2.05 g/kg/day (Ex-AS5); both the vehicle and AS were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. Trend analysis revealed that AS treatments significantly increased endurance swimming time and blood glucose level, and decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels. Liver and muscle glycogen contents were higher for Ex-AS1 and Ex-AS5 groups than the exercise control. Therefore, AS supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue properties in mice and may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training. PMID:24691065

Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Hsu, Mei-Chich

2014-01-01

457

Short-term ankle motor performance with ankle robotics training in chronic hemiparetic stroke.  

PubMed

Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) often results in impaired motor control and persistent weakness that may lead to chronic disability, including deficits in gait and balance function. Finding ways to restore motor control may help reduce these deficits; however, little is known regarding the capacity or temporal profile of short-term motor adaptations and learning at the hemiparetic ankle. Our objective was to determine the short-term effects of a single session of impedance-controlled ankle robot ("anklebot") training on paretic ankle motor control in chronic stroke. This was a double-arm pilot study on a convenience sample of participants with chronic stroke (n = 7) who had residual hemiparetic deficits and an equal number of age- and sex-matched nondisabled control subjects. Training consisted of participants in each group playing a target-based video game with the anklebot for an hour, for a total of 560 movement repetitions in dorsiflexion/plantar flexion ranges followed by retest 48 hours later. Task difficulty was adjusted to ankle range of motion, with robotic assistance decreased incrementally across training. Assessments included robotic measures of ankle motor control on unassisted trials before and after training and at 48 hours after training. Following exposure to the task, subjects with stroke improved paretic ankle motor control across a single training session as indexed by increased targeting accuracy (21.6 +/- 8.0 to 31.4 +/- 4.8, p = 0.05), higher angular speeds (mean: 4.7 +/- 1.5 degrees/s to 6.5 +/- 2.6 degrees/s, p < 0.01, peak: 42.8 +/- 9.0 degrees/s to 45.6 +/- 9.4 degrees/s, p = 0.03), and smoother movements (normalized jerk: 654.1 +/- 103.3 s(-2) to 537.6 +/- 86.7 s(-2), p < 0.005, number of speed peaks: 27.1 +/- 5.8 to 23.7 +/- 4.1, p < 0.01). In contrast, nondisabled subjects did not make statistically significant gains in any metric after training except in the number of successful passages (32.3 +/- 7.5 to 36.5 +/- 6.4, p = 0.006). Gains in all five motor control metrics were retained (p > 0.05) at 48 hours in both groups. Robust maintenance of motor adaptation in the robot-trained paretic ankle over 48 hours may be indicative of short-term motor learning. Our initial results suggest that the anklebot may be a flexible motor learning platform with the potential to detect rapid changes in ankle motor performance poststroke. PMID:21674391

Roy, Anindo; Forrester, Larry W; Macko, Richard F

2011-01-01

458

Structuralized box-trainer laparoscopic training significantly improves performance in complex virtual reality laparoscopic tasks  

PubMed Central

Introduction In the era of flowering minimally invasive surgical techniques there is a need for new methods of teaching surgery and supervision of progress in skills and expertise. Virtual and physical box-trainers seem especially fit for this purpose, and allow for improvement of proficiency required in laparoscopic surgery. Material and methods The study included 34 students who completed the authors‘ laparoscopic training on physical train-boxes. Progress was monitored by accomplishment of 3 exercises: moving pellets from one place to another, excising and clipping. Analysed parameters included time needed to complete the exercise and right and left hand movement tracks. Students were asked to do assigned tasks prior to, in the middle and after the training. Results The duration of the course was 28 h in total. Significant shortening of the time to perform each exercise and reduction of the left hand track were achieved. The right hand track was shortened only in exercise number 1. Conclusions Exercises in the laboratory setting should be regarded as an important element of the process of skills acquisition by a young surgeon. Virtual reality laparoscopic training seems to be a new, interesting educational tool, and at the same time allows for reliable control and assessment of progress. PMID:23255997

Stefaniak, Tomasz J.; Makarewicz, Wojciech; Proczko, Monika; Gruca, Zbigniew; Sledzinski, Zbigniew

2011-01-01

459

25 CFR 152.24 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appraisal. 152.24 Section 152.24 Indians...Or Restricted Lands § 152.24 Appraisal. Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, an appraisal shall be made indicating the fair...

2011-04-01

460

25 CFR 152.24 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appraisal. 152.24 Section 152.24 Indians...Or Restricted Lands § 152.24 Appraisal. Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, an appraisal shall be made indicating the fair...

2010-04-01

461

25 CFR 152.24 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Appraisal. 152.24 Section 152.24 Indians...Or Restricted Lands § 152.24 Appraisal. Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, an appraisal shall be made indicating the fair...

2013-04-01

462

25 CFR 152.24 - Appraisal.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appraisal. 152.24 Section 152.24 Indians...Or Restricted Lands § 152.24 Appraisal. Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, an appraisal shall be made indicating the fair...

2014-04-01

463

Six weeks of a polarized training-intensity distribution leads to greater physiological and performance adaptations than a threshold model in trained cyclists.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate physiological adaptation with two endurance-training periods differing in intensity distribution. In a randomized crossover fashion, separated by 4 wk of detraining, 12 male cyclists completed two 6-wk training periods: 1) a polarized model [6.4 (±1.4 SD) h/wk; 80%, 0%, and 20% of training time in low-, moderate-, and high-intensity zones, respectively]; and 2) a threshold model [7.5 (±2.0 SD) h/wk; 57%, 43%, and 0% training-intensity distribution]. Before and after each training period, following 2 days of diet and exercise control, fasted skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained for mitochondrial enzyme activity and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 and 4 expression, and morning first-void urine samples were collected for NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics analysis. Endurance performance (40-km time trial), incremental exercise, peak power output (PPO), and high-intensity exercise capacity (95% maximal work rate to exhaustion) were also assessed. Endurance performance, PPOs, lactate threshold (LT), MCT4, and high-intensity exercise capacity all increased over both training periods. Improvements were greater following polarized rather than threshold for PPO [mean (±SE) change of 8 (±2)% vs. 3 (±1)%, P < 0.05], LT [9 (±3)% vs. 2 (±4)%, P < 0.05], and high-intensity exercise capacity [85 (±14)% vs. 37 (±14)%, P < 0.05]. No changes in mitochondrial enzyme activities or MCT1 were observed following training. A significant multilevel, partial least squares-discriminant analysis model was obtained for the threshold model but not the polarized model in the metabolomics analysis. A polarized training distribution results in greater systemic adaptation over 6 wk in already well-trained cyclists. Markers of muscle metabolic adaptation are largely unchanged, but metabolomics markers suggest different cellular metabolic stress that requires further investigation. PMID:23264537

Neal, Craig M; Hunter, Angus M; Brennan, Lorraine; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Hamilton, D Lee; De Vito, Giuseppe; Galloway, Stuart D R

2013-02-15

464

Whey Protein Improves Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Trained Mice  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose The objective of this study is to verify the beneficial effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation on health promotion and enhance exercise performance in an aerobic-exercise training protocol. Methods In total, 40 male Institute of Cancer Research mice (4 wk old) were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): sedentary control with vehicle (SC) or WP supplementation (4.1 g·kg?1, SC + WP), and exercise training with vehicle (ET) or WP supplementation (4.1 g·kg?1, ET + WP). Animals in the ET and ET + WP groups underwent swimming endurance training for 6 wk, 5 d·wk?1. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as by changes in body composition and biochemical parameters at the end of the experiment. Results ET significantly decreased final body and muscle weight and levels of albumin, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol, and triacylglycerol. ET significantly increased grip strength; relative weight (%) of liver, heart, and brown adipose tissue (BAT); and levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and total bilirubin. WP supplementation significantly decreased final body, muscle, liver, BAT, and kidney weight and relative weight (%) of muscle, liver, and BAT as well as levels of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and uric acid. In addition, WP supplementation slightly increased endurance time and significantly increased grip strength and levels of albumin and total protein. Conclusion WP supplementation improved exercise performance, body composition, and biochemical assessments in mice and may be an effective ergogenic aid in aerobic exercise training. PMID:24504433

CHEN, WEN-CHYUAN; HUANG, WEN-CHING; CHIU, CHIEN-CHAO; CHANG, YU-KAI; HUANG, CHI-CHANG

2014-01-01

465

Effects of a short-term plyometric and resistance training program on fitness performance in boys age 12 to 15 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a six week training period of combined plyometric and resistance training (PRT, n = 13) or resistance training alone (RT, n = 14) on fitness performance in boys (12-15 yr). The RT group per- formed static stretching exercises followed by resistance training whereas the PRT group performed plyometric exercises

Avery D. Faigenbaum; James E. McFarland; Fred B. Keiper; William Tevlin; Nicholas A. Ratamess; Jie Kang; Jay R. Hoffman

466

The effect of prolonged exercise training on swimming performance and the underlying biochemical mechanisms in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of prolonged exercise training on swimming performance and the underlying biochemical mechanisms in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we measured the critical swimming speed (Ucrit), the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), the activity of red and white muscle enzymes [pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and citrate synthase (CS)], the tissue substrates (glycogen and glucose content of muscle and liver) and metabolite (the lactate content of plasma and muscle) content of exercise-trained (60% Ucrit for 4 weeks) and non-trained fish. We also measured the biochemical indices of both trained and non-trained fish immediately after Ucrit, after exhaustive exercise and 1h after exhaustive exercise. The aerobic swimming performance, as indicated by Ucrit, increased significantly after exercise training, most likely because of the higher tissue metabolic capacity, as suggested by the higher CS activity in the red muscle tissue, and the higher energy store and more efficient substrate utilization, as suggested by higher liver and muscle glycogen contents at rest but lower tissue glycogen contents after Ucrit. The lower lactate content after Ucrit is most likely because of higher aerobic metabolic capacity, and (or) the clearance rate of lactate in trained fish may also contribute to improved aerobic swimming performance. Compared to Ucrit, exhaustive exercise elicited higher plasma and muscle lactate contents. The anaerobic metabolic performance is not affected by the exercise training, as suggested by the EPOC. However, trained fish did show higher lactate clearance rates, as suggested by lower muscle lactate content after a 1h recovery period following exhaustive exercise compared to non-trained fish. Furthermore, trained fish decreased their liver and muscle glycogen contents more profoundly after exhaustive exercise, suggesting that training can improve the substrate utilization during anaerobic exercise. PMID:23838144

He, Wei; Xia, Wei; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

2013-10-01

467

Systematic development of a communication skills training course for physicians performing work disability assessments: from evidence to practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source\\u000a of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses\\u000a during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for\\u000a them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1) to systematically develop a training course

H Jolanda van Rijssen; Antonius JM Schellart; Johannes R Anema; Wout EL de Boer; Allard J van der Beek

2011-01-01

468

Training, assessment, and measures of performance for effective operational use of millimeter-wave (MMW) systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As technologies emerge that have the potential to significantly improve the detection and recognition of concealed weapons and objects on personnel, the ultimate effectiveness of these systems is still reliant on the performance of the operator of that system. This paper will report the work undertaken to evaluate and optimise the effectiveness of a millimetre wave (MMW) system. This was achieved through an extensive series of trials carried out at a large UK airport and also under more controlled field conditions. The paper will discuss the work carried out to develop a simple and usable human-computer interface, and the development and implementation of the training program. This training program was based on a detailed task analysis, leading to the identification of competencies required for effective weapon detection and recognition. Ultimately, however, the effectiveness of emerging technologies, such as the MMW, needs to be empirically demonstrated. To that end we will report the results of comprehensive psychophysical performance assessments that has led, probably for the first time, to performance metrics for a MMW system that combine the performance of the system with the performance of the user. For emerging technologies to be truly successful a collaborative and co-operative approach from technologists, regulators, airport authorities, human factors specialists and occupational psychologists is required. The work reported will emphasise the importance of the collaboration that has occurred.

Brownson, Adam; McClumpha, Andrew J.; Tatlock, Kerry B.

2003-09-01

469

Using Rubrics To Support the Teacher Appraisal Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Delaware Performance Appraisal Process includes indicators that contain subjective terminology and are open to various interpretations, leading to concerns about interrater reliability and professional staff morale. The Lake Forest School District developed a two-pronged approach that retains the three-observation method while eliminating the…

VanSciver, James H.

1998-01-01

470

Cognitive hardiness, appraisal and coping: comparing two transactional models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to test the relationship of the personality variable of cognitive hardiness to job satisfaction, performance and intention to turnover. These relationships are to be tested via two alternative models, with a sequential and simultaneous structure for appraisal and coping processes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Employees (n=297) from a range of large New Zealand organisations completed a questionnaire

Melanie L. Cash; Dianne Gardner

2011-01-01

471

The effects of temperature and exercise training on swimming performance in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis).  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of temperature and exercise training on swimming performance in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis), we measured the following: (1) the resting oxygen consumption rate (MO(2rest)), critical swimming speed (U(crit)) and active oxygen consumption rate (MO(2active)) of fish at acclimation temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C and (2) the MO(2rest), U(crit) and MO(2active) of both exercise-trained (exhaustive chasing training for 14 days) and control fish at both low and high acclimation temperatures (15 and 25 °C). The relationship between U(crit) and temperature (T) approximately followed a bell-shaped curve as temperature increased: U(crit) = 8.21/{1 + [(T - 27.2)/17.0]²} (R² = 0.915, P < 0.001, N = 40). The optimal temperature for maximal U(crit) (8.21 BL s(-1)) in juvenile qingbo was 27.2 °C. Both the MO(2active) and the metabolic scope (MS, MO(2active) - MO(2rest)) of qingbo increased with temperature from 10 to 25 °C (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences between fish acclimated to 25 and 30 °C. The relationships between MO(2active) or MS and temperature were described as MO(2active) = 1,214.29 /{1 + [(T - 28.8)/10.6]²} (R² = 0.911, P < 0.001, N = 40) and MS = 972.67/{1 + [(T - 28.0)/9.34]²} (R² = 0.878, P < 0.001, N = 40). The optimal temperatures for MO(2active) and MS in juvenile qingbo were 28.8 and 28.0 °C, respectively. Exercise training resulted in significant increases in both U(crit) and MO(2active) at a low temperature (P < 0.05), but training exhibited no significant effect on either U(crit) or MO(2active) at a high temperature. These results suggest that exercise training had different effects on swimming performance at different temperatures. These differences may be related to changes in aerobic metabolic capability, arterial oxygen delivery, available dissolved oxygen, imbalances in ion fluxes and stimuli to remodel tissues with changes in temperature. PMID:22903168

Pang, Xu; Yuan, Xing-Zhong; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

2013-01-01

472

Reading Performance Is Enhanced by Visual Texture Discrimination Training in Chinese-Speaking Children with Developmental Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Background High order cognitive processing and learning, such as reading, interact with lower-level sensory processing and learning. Previous studies have reported that visual perceptual training enlarges visual span and, consequently, improves reading speed in young and old people with amblyopia. Recently, a visual perceptual training study in Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia found that the visual texture discrimination thresholds of these children in visual perceptual training significantly correlated with their performance in Chinese character recognition, suggesting that deficits in visual perceptual processing/learning might partly underpin the difficulty in reading Chinese. Methodology/Principal Findings To further clarify whether visual perceptual training improves the measures of reading performance, eighteen children with dyslexia and eighteen typically developed readers that were age- and IQ-matched completed a series of reading measures before and after visual texture discrimination task (TDT) training. Prior to the TDT training, each group of children was split into two equivalent training and non-training groups in terms of all reading measures, IQ, and TDT. The results revealed that the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT were significantly higher for the children with dyslexia than for the control children before training. Interestingly, training significantly decreased the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT for both the typically developed readers and the children with dyslexia. More importantly, the training group with dyslexia exhibited significant enhancement in reading fluency, while the non-training group with dyslexia did not show this improvement. Additional follow-up tests showed that the improvement in reading fluency is a long-lasting effect and could be maintained for up to two months in the training group with dyslexia. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that basic visual perceptual processing/learning and reading ability in Chinese might at least partially rely on overlapping mechanisms. PMID:25247602

Meng, Xiangzhi; Lin, Ou; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Yuzheng; Song, Yan

2014-01-01

473

Short-term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance  

PubMed Central

Brief, intense exercise training may induce metabolic and performance adaptations comparable to traditional endurance training. However, no study has directly compared these diverse training strategies in a standardized manner. We therefore examined changes in exercise capacity and molecular and cellular adaptations in skeletal muscle after low volume sprint-interval training (SIT) and high volume endurance training (ET). Sixteen active men (21 ± 1 years, ) were assigned to a SIT or ET group (n = 8 each) and performed six training sessions over 14 days. Each session consisted of either four to six repeats of 30 s ‘all out’ cycling at ?250% with 4 min recovery (SIT) or 90–120 min continuous cycling at ?65% (ET). Training time commitment over 2 weeks was ?2.5 h for SIT and ?10.5 h for ET, and total training volume was ?90% lower for SIT versus ET (?630 versus?6500 kJ). Training decreased the time required to complete 50 and 750 kJ cycling time trials, with no difference between groups (main effects, P ? 0.05). Biopsy samples obtained before and after training revealed similar increases in muscle oxidative capacity, as reflected by the maximal activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and COX subunits II and IV protein content (main effects, P ? 0.05), but COX II and IV mRNAs were unchanged. Training-induced increases in muscle buffering capacity and glycogen content were also similar between groups (main effects, P ? 0.05). Given the large difference in training volume, these data demonstrate that SIT is a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid adaptations in skeletal muscle and exercise performance that are comparable to ET in young active men. PMID:16825308

Gibala, Martin J; Little, Jonathan P; van Essen, Martin; Wilkin, Geoffrey P; Burgomaster, Kirsten A; Safdar, Adeel; Raha, Sandeep; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

2006-01-01

474

Linking Rhetorical Sensitivity with the Ability of an Athletic Training Student to Successfully Perform a Patient Medical Interview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the self-reported rhetorical sensitivity of a sample of athletic training students is positively related to successfully performing a patient medical interview. Particularly, the study focused on if athletic training students' reported communication behaviors is related to their…

Bertoncino, Thomas K.

2010-01-01

475

Effects of Selection and Training on Unit-Level Performance over Time: A Latent Growth Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surprisingly few data exist concerning whether and how utilization of job-related selection and training procedures affects different aspects of unit or organizational performance over time. The authors used longitudinal data from a large fast-food organization (N = 861 units) to examine how change in use of selection and training relates to…

Van Iddekinge, Chad H.; Ferris, Gerald R.; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Perryman, Alexa A.; Blass, Fred R.; Heetderks, Thomas D.

2009-01-01

476

Brain training in older adults: Evidence of transfer to memory span performance and pseudo-Matthew effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the effects of ‘brain training’ using the Nintendo DS Brain Training program were examined in two groups of older adults; the cognitive performance of an experimental group (n?=?21) who were asked to use the Nintendo DS regularly over a 6-week period was compared with the control group (n?=?20). Groups were matched on age (mean age = 74

Siné McDougall; Becky House

2012-01-01