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1

Training as a Performance Appraisal Improvement Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Top 10 rater skills needed to conduct performance appraisals were identified by 149 managers. These competencies were related to four phases: performance planning, performance management/coaching, written appraisal, and appraisal review. Organizations often failed to train raters because they assumed they knew how to appraise or because of time…

Fink, Laurence S.; Longenecker, Clinton Oliver

1998-01-01

2

Training Appraisers: An Orientation Program for Improving Supervisory Performance Ratings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors address management's need to train supervisors to use employee performance appraisals. Topics covered include (1) application and usefulness of the appraisal system, (2) various approaches to employee evaluation, and (3) training of supervisory personnel. (Author/CH)|

Sims, Ronald R.; And Others

1987-01-01

3

Performance Appraisal: An Obstacle to Training and Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveys and interviews of 39 hospital staff uncovered mixed attitudes about preparation for performance appraisal and the process for formulating and implementing training and development plans, reflecting varying degrees of motivation, involvement, and commitment. Recommendations for improving appraisal and the training associated with it were…

Wilson, John P.; Western, Steven

2001-01-01

4

Performance Appraisal: An Obstacle to Training and Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluation of a hospital's performance appraisal system collected data from 74 survey responses and 39 interviews. Staff comments revealed varying degrees of involvement with and commitment to the process. The need for employees and supervisors to formulate, implement, and review training and development plans jointly was emphasized. (SK)|

Wilson, John P.; Western, Steven

2000-01-01

5

Development of a Performance Appraisal Training Program for the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Nobody wants to get one. Nobody wants to give one." The problem was that the supervisors and managers of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (RIC) did not know how to use the Institute's new performance management system and had not been trained on how to prepare and deliver effective performance appraisals. The problem further included the…

Ford, Deborah Kilgore

2004-01-01

6

An integrated productivity, training, and performance planning\\/appraisal framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving the productivity of computer personnel requires an integrated view of the factors which promote effective and efficient work. Motivation, training, performance planning, and productivity are so closely interrelated that to attack them individually results in initiatives which often conflict with one another and lead to confusion of ends by professional personnel. Successful integration of these factors results in a

R. A. Rouse

1980-01-01

7

Leadership Performance Appraisal Ratings during Cadet Field Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All female cadets (N = 86) and a random sample of male cadets (N = 49) in the Class of 1982 were compared in terms of the performance ratings they received at Cadet Field Training (CFT). Statistically significant results from multivariate analysis of vari...

J. Adams J. M. Hicks

1981-01-01

8

Experimental Study Comparing a Traditional Approach to Performance Appraisal Training to a Whole-Brain Training Method at C.B. Fleet Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a new approach to performance appraisal training. Motivated by split-brain theory and existing studies of cognitive information processing and performance appraisals, this exploratory study examined the effects of a whole-brain approach to training managers for implementing performance

Selden, Sally; Sherrier, Tom; Wooters, Robert

2012-01-01

9

Whither Performance Appraisal?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few companies are comfortable with their performance appraisal system. The author suggests trying (1) systems that recognize competing priorities and attempt to alleviate conflicts through intelligent design and (2) management training that emphasizes the importance of providing staff with ongoing feedback. (CH)

Stroul, Neil A.

1987-01-01

10

Training Appraisees to Participate in Appraisal: Effects on Appraisers and Appraisees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the role of behavior modeling training (BMT) in enhancing appraisee participation during a performance appraisal discussion. In addition, the study examined the effects of enhanced participation on appraisee and appraiser perceptions toward several appraisal outcome variables; in particular, the fairness and accuracy of performance appraisal were of interest. The experimental design was a 2 × 3 completely

Ronald W. Stoffey; Richard R. Reilly

1997-01-01

11

Performance Appraisal Applied to Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Performance appraisal is a measurement process of how well an individual is doing her or his job. In most organisations, this appraisal is an annual event. Generally, it is done to encourage job performance, to flag areas that need attention, to inform both parties as to expectations. Much of the literature speaks to this process in terms of the…

Jefferson, Anne L.

2010-01-01

12

5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section 301...United States § 301.303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable...accordance with the agency's performance appraisal plan established under...

2013-01-01

13

Donn Coffee on Performance Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a management consultant's system of employee appraisal, as outlined in a seminar he conducted for business executives. In addition to improving productivity, performance appraisal is needed to insure nondiscriminatory personnel practices and to provide employee recognition without a compensation link. Most companies can't afford money as…

Coffee, Donn

1978-01-01

14

Donn Coffee on Performance Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports a management consultant's system of employee appraisal, as outlined in a seminar he conducted for business executives. In addition to improving productivity, performance appraisal is needed to insure nondiscriminatory personnel practices and to provide employee recognition without a compensation link. Most companies can't afford money as…

Coffee, Donn

1978-01-01

15

Ratee Preferences Concerning Performance Management and Appraisal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Employees surveyed (265 responses from 344) expressed the following performance appraisal preferences: appraisal by immediate supervisors; prior knowledge of expectations; ongoing informal feedback; semiannual formal appraisals; and developmental evaluation focused on the results of work. (SK)|

Gosselin, Alain; Werner, Jon M.; Halle, Nicole

1997-01-01

16

Employee Satisfaction with Performance Appraisals and Appraisers: The Role of Perceived Appraisal Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a survey of 128 manufacturing employees, the perception that performance appraisal had developmental uses was associated with satisfaction with appraisals and appraisers. Reaction to the evaluation did not depend on the outcome of the appraisal or its perceived fairness. (SK)|

Boswell, Wendy R.; Boudreau, John W.

2000-01-01

17

A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural…

Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

2012-01-01

18

Effects of Self-Appraisal Information, Appraisal Purpose, and Feedback Target on Performance Appraisal Ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment investigated the effects of three factors on performance appraisal ratings: self-appraisal information, appraisal purpose, and feedback target. Two hundred and three subjects rated a subordinate's performance on a clerical task subsequent to receiving either a high or low self-assessment. They were told they would provide performance feedback either to the experimenter (organizational agent) or their subordinate, and their

Ted H. Shore; Janet S. Adams; Armen Tashchian

1998-01-01

19

5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative...MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising...

2013-01-01

20

4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts...ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance appraisal. (a) The GAO shall...

2013-01-01

21

Approaches to Performance Appraisal in Student Affairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to outline models of performance appraisal in business, assess the current status of performance appraisal in higher education, review practices of business which are applicable in the higher education setting, and present a new model of performance appraisal, the DEVELOP model. (Contains 27 references.) (Author)|

Davis, J. Shay

2001-01-01

22

Performance Appraisal Interview: A Review of Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research on performance appraisal interviews (PAI) is reviewed and critiqued. Factors affecting superior and subordinate reactions to the interview include (1) the structure of the PAI (purpose, frequency, source of appraisal, and rating format); (2) ...

T. Biddle C. D. Fisher

1987-01-01

23

28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Performance appraisal for inmate workers. 345.41 Section...PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work...

2009-07-01

24

28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance appraisal for inmate workers. 345.41 Section...PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work...

2010-07-01

25

28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance appraisal for inmate workers. 345.41 Section...PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work...

2013-07-01

26

Task appraisals, emotions, and performance goal orientation.  

PubMed

We predict real-time fluctuations in employees' positive and negative emotions from concurrent appraisals of the immediate task situation and individual differences in performance goal orientation. Task confidence, task importance, positive emotions, and negative emotions were assessed 5 times per day for 3 weeks in an experience sampling study of 135 managers. At the within-person level, appraisals of task confidence, task importance, and their interaction predicted momentary positive and negative emotions as hypothesized. Dispositional performance goal orientation was expected to moderate emotional reactivity to appraisals of task confidence and task importance. The hypothesized relationships were significant in the case of appraisals of task importance. Those high on performance goal orientation reacted to appraisals of task importance with stronger negative and weaker positive emotions than those low on performance goal orientation. PMID:23276116

Fisher, Cynthia D; Minbashian, Amirali; Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E

2012-12-31

27

Employee Performance Appraisal and the 95/5 Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many colleges use some form of an employee performance appraisal process. Yet, despite prevalent use, the performance appraisal process is facing growing criticism. The author reviews the literature regarding the process of performance appraisal in higher education, focusing on articles supportive of the use of the performance appraisal, and…

Rasch, Lee

2004-01-01

28

A review of further training for GP appraisers in Scotland.  

PubMed

A one-day further intensive skills (FIS) course has been developed to provide additional training for existing general practitioner (GP) appraisers in Scotland. The course focuses on skills in developing the appraisee's personal development portfolio (PDP) and skills in responding to significant issues (with emotional content) presented by appraisees - both key areas for effective appraisals. The course is briefly described. An initial pilot of the course led to some changes being made to the content, as it was discovered that the inclusion of training on Summary Form completion in the pilot made the course too dense and distracted from the experiential elements of the training. Two subsequent course deliveries were evaluated by conducting semi-structured interviews with over 40% of the participants from these two courses. The main purpose of the evaluation was to discover to what extent the participants felt they had benefited from the training and whether they felt the training had led to any changes in their practice as appraisers. Secondary aims were to discover the acceptability of the use of video recording as a training technique and views regarding a reaccreditation process for appraisers. Key findings were that almost all participants found this training beneficial and judged it to have led to positive changes in their practice, as well as reassuring them that their skills were up to scratch. Some appraisers felt that it had encouraged a slightly more challenging approach. The acceptability of the use of video recording during the training, as a means of allowing participants to gain further benefit from the work undertaken after the course was finished, was tested. This technique received a mixed response, with opinion divided as to whether it added value. Opinion amongst the participants was also mixed regarding whether this training should contribute towards their reaccreditation as appraisers. However, a number of participants felt this could be a valid element in an appraiser reaccreditation process. PMID:20202318

Staples, Ian; Wakeling, Judy; Cameron, Niall

2010-01-01

29

Evaluating Library Staff: A Performance Appraisal System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides librarians and library managers with a performance appraisal system that measures staff fairly and objectively and links performance to the goals of the library. The following topics are addressed: (1) identifying expectations for quality service or standards of performance; (2) the importance of a library's code of service,…

Belcastro, Patricia

30

Performance appraisal: essential characteristics for strategic control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need for and propose a more aligned and integrated standard for performance evaluation to enhance effective strategic control. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews the various issues creating discontent with the performance appraisal systems within many organizations and demonstrates how these problems inhibit successful strategic control. It attempts to cogently

Donald L. Caruth; John H. Humphreys

2008-01-01

31

Factors influencing expatriate performance appraisal system success: an organizational perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the factors that influence the success of expatriate performance appraisal systems in U.S. multinationals, as perceived by the organizations. Results involving 94 firms suggest that clarifying performance expectations prior to the performance rating, the fairness of the performance appraisal system, and the incorporation of career development positively influence perceptions of expatriate performance appraisal system success. The frequency

David C. Martin; Kathryn M. Bartol

2003-01-01

32

Performance Appraisals: How to Make Them Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite the wide variety of performance appraisal systems in use today and the enormous effort that is expended to support them, very few systems effectively serve their intended purpose. This paper seeks to analyze the process of evaluating people to det...

F. M. Chliszczyk

1987-01-01

33

Employee perceptions of performance appraisal fairness in two organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most research has studied performance appraisal effectiveness in terms of the quality of the performance measurement, a growing literature has begun to recognize that appraisal effectiveness can also be influenced by employee attitudes towards the system. The present study extended this research by exploring: 1) which characteristics comprise the appraisal process from the employees' perspective, and 2) how those

ELAINE M. EVANS; STEVEN L. McSHANE

1988-01-01

34

Teacher Performance Appraisal in Thailand: Poison or Panacea?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research focuses on the examination of problems related to the national teacher performance appraisal system by the Thai Ministry of Education. It highlights major problems of the current performance appraisal system by delineating the weaknesses and pitfalls of the current appraisal system. The findings indicate problems to three major…

Pimpa, Nattavud

2005-01-01

35

Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

VOLIANITIS, S., A. K. MCCONNELL, Y. KOUTEDAKIS, L. MCNAUGHTON, K. BACKX, and D. A. JONES. Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 5, 2001, pp. 803- 809. Purpose: To investigate the effects of a period of resistive inspiratory muscle training (IMT) upon rowing performance. Methods: Performance was appraised in 14 female competitive rowers at

STEFANOS VOLIANITIS; ALISON K. MCCONNELL; YIANNIS KOUTEDAKIS; LARS MCNAUGHTON; KARRIANNE BACKX; DAVID A. JONES

2001-01-01

36

Administrators' Perceptions of the Performance Appraisal Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focused on department heads'/ chairs' perceptions of the appraisal interview (a face-to-face interpersonal communication event), assessment of the faculty member's role in the appraisal interview, and assessment of the academic administrator's role in the appraisal interview. The results indicate that approximately 20% of respondents…

McDowell, Earl E.

37

Testing a Model of Performance Appraisal Fit on Attitudinal Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test the effects of the congruence of employees' current versus ideal performance appraisal system on performance appraisal attitudes. This in turn was assessed as to its predictive relationships with affective organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Continuance organizational commitment and job performance were also assessed in the model. A total of 149 surveys were

Hal J. Whiting; Theresa J. B. Kline

2007-01-01

38

5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal system(s). 430.204... PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing...Employees § 430.204 Agency performance appraisal system(s)....

2009-01-01

39

5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal program(s). 430.205... PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing...Employees § 430.205 Agency performance appraisal program(s)....

2013-01-01

40

5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal system(s). 430.204... PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing...Employees § 430.204 Agency performance appraisal system(s)....

2010-01-01

41

5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal program(s). 430.205... PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing...Employees § 430.205 Agency performance appraisal program(s)....

2010-01-01

42

5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal program(s). 430.205... PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing...Employees § 430.205 Agency performance appraisal program(s)....

2009-01-01

43

New Perspectives Concerning Performance Appraisals of Intercollegiate Coaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite advances in the study of performance appraisals within the intercollegiate athletic context, there are several limitations to the extant research. Specifically, this literature does not take into account the multi-level nature of organizations and performance appraisals or the reciprocal interdependence of coaching staffs. In considering…

Cunningham, George B.; Dixon, Marlene A.

2003-01-01

44

Managerial Competencies and the Managerial Performance Appraisal Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Human resource managers (n=277) identified six management competencies as critical: leadership, customer focus, results orientation, problem solving, communication skills, and teamwork. However, many companies do not assess these competencies in the management performance appraisal process. (Contains 22 references.) (SK)|

Abraham, Steven E.; Karns, Lanny A.; Shaw, Kenneth; Mena, Manuel A.

2001-01-01

45

T and E (Training and Experience) Rating with Objectively Scored Applicant Appraisal Questionnaires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A procedure based on a content validity strategy has been developed for constructing Objectively Scored Applicant Appraisal Questionnaires (OSAAQ) to replace traditional ratings of training and experience (T/E Ratings). There are both technical and admini...

T. J. Lyons

1981-01-01

46

A Review and Analysis of Performance Appraisal Processes, Volume III. Performance Appraisal for Professional Service Employees: Non-Technical Report. Professionalism in Schools Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third of three volumes, this report summarizes the findings of, first, a review and analysis of published literature on performance appraisal in general and particularly on the use of appraisals in public education systems, and, second, a series of field-site investigations of performance appraisal systems in action. The field site studies of…

Ondrack, D. A.; Oliver, C.

47

Performance Appraisal in an Academic Library: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Well-designed performance appraisals should provide employees with feedback concerning their performance, serve as a basis for modifying behavior toward more effective work habits, and provide managers with data which they can use to judge future job assignments and compensation. Poorly-designed ones, used as short-term control systems, can…

George, Verna E.

48

Pregnancy in the workplace: Does pregnancy affect performance appraisal ratings?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archival data were collected to examine bias effects in performance evaluation related to employee pregnancy. Prior survey research has suggested that many supervisors and co-workers hold negative views of pregnant employees. Performance appraisal ratings were collected before, during, and after pregnancy for employees taking maternity leave over a four year time frame. In addition, data was also collected from randomly

Hal G. Gueutal; Joan Luciano; Carole A. Michaels

1995-01-01

49

5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal system(s). 430.204 Section...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule,...

2013-01-01

50

Experiential Learning in Human Resources: A Performance Appraisal Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experiential exercise appropriate for a human resource management course. While the focus of this exercise was to develop a performance appraisal system for either a retail employee or an officer in a student organization, the exercise could be used in other application settings. The background, procedures and discussion of the experience is discussed. While the application

Dawn Thorndike Pysarchik; E. Lansing

1994-01-01

51

Performance appraisal, employee development and organizational justice: exploring the linkages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written about performance appraisal (PA) in such a manner as to suggest that the process is politically driven, even though one of its primary purposes is said to be the development of the individual employee. Our examination of a cross-section of workers' perceptions of this process was therefore motivated by the need to determine whether they believed

Lawrence Nurse

2005-01-01

52

Organizational Justice and Employee Satisfaction in Performance Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper aims to explore the performance appraisal (PA) aspects that are connected with organizational justice, and more specifically three kinds of justice, namely distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a sample of 170 respondents who answered a questionnaire giving…

Palaiologos, Anastasios; Papazekos, Panagiotis; Panayotopoulou, Leda

2011-01-01

53

Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Stability of Performance Failure Appraisals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studied the meaning of Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory (PFAI; Conroy and others, 2002) by evaluating the comparability of PFAI factor structure over repeated assessments and the stability of the subscales over relatively brief intervals. Results for 356 college students generally show high stability for PFAI scores in long and short…

Conroy, David E.; Metzler, Jonathan N.; Hofer, Scott M.

2003-01-01

54

Competency-Based Performance Appraisals: Improving Performance Evaluations of School Nutrition Managers and Assistants/Technicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of the research was to develop a competency-based performance appraisal resource for evaluating school nutrition (SN) managers and assistants/technicians. Methods: A two-phased process was used to develop the competency-based performance appraisal resource for SN managers and assistants/technicians. In Phase I, draft…

Cross, Evelina W.; Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Nettles, Mary Frances

2009-01-01

55

Square Pegs and Round Holes: Ruminations on the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Performance Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Models of comprehensive Performance Management systems include both employee development and evaluative components. The Organizational Behavior Management discipline focuses almost exclusively on the developmental component, while the Industrial and Organizational Psychology discipline is focused on use of performance appraisals. Performance

Gravina, Nicole E.; Siers, Brian P.

2011-01-01

56

Critical appraisal skills training for health care professionals: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN46272378  

PubMed Central

Introduction Critical appraisal skills are believed to play a central role in an evidence-based approach to health practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and costs of a critical appraisal skills educational intervention aimed at health care professionals. Methods This prospective controlled trial randomized 145 self-selected general practitioners, hospital physicians, professions allied to medicine, and healthcare managers/administrators from the South West of England to a half-day critical appraisal skills training workshop (based on the model of problem-based small group learning) or waiting list control. The following outcomes were assessed at 6-months follow up: knowledge of the principles necessary for appraising evidence; attitudes towards the use of evidence about healthcare; evidence seeking behaviour; perceived confidence in appraising evidence; and ability to critically appraise a systematic review article. Results At follow up overall knowledge score [mean difference: 2.6 (95% CI: 0.6 to 4.6)] and ability to appraise the results of a systematic review [mean difference: 1.2 (95% CI: 0.01 to 2.4)] were higher in the critical skills training group compared to control. No statistical significant differences in overall attitude towards evidence, evidence seeking behaviour, perceived confidence, and other areas of critical appraisal skills ability (methodology or generalizability) were observed between groups. Taking into account the workshop provision costs and costs of participants time and expenses of participants, the average cost of providing the critical appraisal workshops was approximately £250 per person. Conclusions The findings of this study challenge the policy of funding 'one-off' educational interventions aimed at enhancing the evidence-based practice of health care professionals. Future evaluations of evidence-based practice interventions need to take in account this trial's negative findings and methodological difficulties.

Taylor, Rod S; Reeves, Barnaby C; Ewings, Paul E; Taylor, Rebecca J

2004-01-01

57

Characteristics of Performance Appraisals and Their Impact on Sales Force Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of 15 automobile salespeople indicated that job satisfaction increased when performance appraisals provided clear criteria that met workers' approval and when appraisals were fair and used to determine rewards. (Contains 61 references.) (SK)|

Pettijohn, Charles E.; Pettijohn, Linda S.; d'Amico, Michael

2001-01-01

58

Performance Appraisal Systems in Higher Education: An Exploration of Christian Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although there is substantial literature on the use of performance appraisal in the for-profit world, there is little literature available concerning the appraisal of staff positions in higher education. More knowledge is needed in this area since there is considerable research indicating that performance appraisal creates benefits to an…

Flaniken, Forrest W.

2009-01-01

59

Performance-based training: industry commitments  

SciTech Connect

During the 1980s the nuclear industry has made a major commitment to performance based training, investing in excess of one thousand person-years in the process. This commitment is evidenced in a variety of initiatives including: 1) the Institute of Nuclear Power Operation's (INPO's) training accreditation program; 2) the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) ''Commission Policy Statement on Training and Qualifications of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel, which,''; 3) the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Order endorsement of ANSI/ANS 3.1 for Category A reactors and the initiation of Technical Safety Appraisals; 4) INPO's conduct of job and task analyses for nuclear power plant personnel and development of an on-line computer system to make the information available to all utilities; and 5) NRC's use of the INPO data base to develop performance-based licensing examinations for reactor operators. Each of the efforts is described briefly and some of the lessons learned through these efforts that can be applied to criticality safety training are discussed. Finally, it is shown how performance-based training is particularly related to the use of computers and simulators in training because the structured approach that is inherent in performance-based training provides the organization and sequencing of the training program and measurable standards of performance that are necessary to develop computer-based training.

Mazour, T.J.

1986-01-01

60

Staff Appraisal in Further and Higher Education: A Study in Performance Review and Development. Management in College Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The many forms of performance appraisal for faculty in Great Britain are examined. Advice and suggestions about appropriate training are offered, and conclusions are drawn about the kind of system that is most beneficial to the education service and to people employed in higher and further education institutions. Five chapters focus on:…

Scribbins, Keith; Walton, Frank

61

Primary Headship and the Issue of Performance Review: a comparison of headteachers' self?appraisals and appraisals of them by their teaching staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to contribute to the ongoing debate on how best the appraisal of headteachers can be effected. It presents an analysis of the findings of a study which compared self?appraisals of their managerial peformance by a sample of primary headteachers (n=36), with appraisals of these headteachers by their teaching staff. Respondents completed the 100?item Management Performance Profile (MPP)

JOHN JOHNSTON

1992-01-01

62

The applied study on three-dimensional dynamics employee performance appraising model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of employee performance appraising is a highlighted and sensitive focus in human resource management practice which depends on an equity and impartiality performance assessment system. However, it is not just a linear problem with popular KPI evaluation, but a sophisticated and multidimensional system. Highlighted by this, the paper put forward a three-dimensional employee performance appraising model which focuses

Shunkun Yu; Yiqun Wu

2010-01-01

63

The effects of an appraisal manipulation: Affect, intrusive cognitions, and performance for two cognitive tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between trait measures of general appraisal and test anxiety, state measures of stress appraisals,\\u000a affect, and intrusive cognition, and performance measures on two cognitive tests (mental math and Raven matrices). Participants\\u000a were randomly assigned to threat, challenge, or control conditions that were created by manipulating both primary and secondary\\u000a appraisals. We predicted that the threat condition

S. H. Hemenover; Richard A. Dienstbier

1996-01-01

64

German Training Revisited: An Appraisal of Corporatist Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The aim of this paper is to re-examine the unique political economy of Germany's dual apprenticeship training model and its underlying philosophy of corporatist governance. It responds to recent arguments suggesting that Germany's collectivist skill regime is under threat, increasingly giving way to the introduction of "segmentalism".…

Lange, Thomas

2012-01-01

65

Managing Reactions to Performance Appraisal: The Influence of Multiple Justice Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the potential for conflict in performance appraisal, researchers have devoted little time and attention to justice concerns when studying this process. The present study used scenarios to investigate the effect of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice mechanisms on responses to performance appraisal reviews. Results suggest that multiple justice mechanisms in the same context may interact to influence perceptions of

1999-01-01

66

Adopting performance appraisal and reward systems : A qualitative analysis of public sector organisational change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a qualitative analysis of change in order to understand which factors inhibit or, conversely, facilitate the enactment process of managers' performance appraisal and reward systems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The problem is investigated empirically through a multiple case study approach. The change processes that result from the adoption of performance appraisal and

Giovanni Azzone; Tommaso Palermo

2011-01-01

67

The Impact of Performance Management Orientations and Appraisal Justices on Employee's Knowledge Sharing Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explored the approaches and effects of performance management orientation and appraisal justice on knowledge sharing behaviors. Results showed intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and control orientation in performance appraisal system had significant positive, weak positive and U shaped separately relation with knowledge sharing behaviors. Distribution justice had the greatest effect on KSBs, while interactive justice not only moderated the

Pengcheng Zhang; Wenxing Liu

2009-01-01

68

The relationship between teachers' perceptions of performance appraisal and job satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between teachers' job satisfaction levels and their perceptions of the merit of imposed performance appraisals. This research sought to determine if aspects of the performance appraisal process were related to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction.^ The study was limited to elementary, middle\\/junior high, and high school teachers in three suburban school districts in one county. School

Camille Durecki-Elkins

1996-01-01

69

Do Job Applicant Credit Histories Predict Performance Appraisal Ratings or Termination Decisions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the authors investigated the criterion validity of job applicant credit report history in predicting subsequent performance appraisal ratings and termination decisions for 178 employees at a large financial services corporation. Predictors extracted from applicant credit reports, such as number of times late with payments, had no relationship with either performance appraisal ratings or termination decisions. The authors

Laura Koppes Bryan; Jerry K. Palmer

2012-01-01

70

Perceived Purposes of Performance Appraisal: Correlates of Individual- and Position-Focused Purposes on Attitudinal Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Performance appraisals have traditionally been directed at individuals, serving either an administrative or developmental purpose. They may serve a role definition purpose as well. This study sought to identify and more broadly define the purposes of performance appraisals to include this role definition purpose. Furthermore, this study examined…

Youngcourt, Satoris S.; Leiva, Pedro I.; Jones, Robert G.

2007-01-01

71

The Performance Appraisal Paradox: An Essential but Neglected Student Affairs Staffing Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Performance appraisal is widely endorsed as an essential part of the staffing process, yet most student affairs practitioners acknowledge that it is done poorly, or not at all, in their institutions. The reasons for this neglect are outlined, and suggestions are offered for ways to make performance appraisal a more valuable staffing tool.…

Creamer, Don G.; Winston, Roger B., Jr.

1999-01-01

72

Appraising the performance of library staff in a Ghanaian academic library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports a study of procedures employed in staff appraisal in a Ghanaian university library over a period of 16 years. A total of 650 appraisal forms filled by 25 assessors in the Balme Library, University of Ghana were examined. The conclusions drawn indicate that the performance procedures used did not provide the information required for management decision making. Recommendations are

A. K. Martey

2002-01-01

73

Employee fairness perceptions of performance appraisal: a Saint Lucian case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research identifies the essential factors which influence employees' fairness perceptions of their performance appraisals, and determines the applicability of these factors to the experiences of employees in a Saint Lucian public service organization. Fairness perceptions are of three main types. First, distributive justice refers to the perceived fairness of an actual appraisal rating. Second, procedural justice refers to the

Sharon Narcisse; Mark Harcourt

2008-01-01

74

Means, motive and opportunity? Disentangling client influence on performance measurement appraisals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the extent to which clients were able to influence performance measurement appraisals during the downturn in commercial property markets that began in the UK during the second half of 2007. The sharp change in market sentiment produced speculation that different client categories were attempting to influence their appraisers in different ways. In particular, it was recognised that

Neil Crosby; Colin Lizieri; Patrick McAllister

2010-01-01

75

Performance Appraisal as Effective Management or Deadly Management DiseaseTwo Initial Empirical Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding person and system sources of work variation is fundamental to performance appraisal. Two divergent perspectives on this issue, the traditional human resource management view and the statistical process control view (Deming, 1986), are contrasted. Two studies are reported that investigate two specific questions that arise from a broader view of the appraisal process. Results indicate that managers and subordinates

Kenneth P. Carson; Robert L. Cardy; Gregory H. Dobbins

1991-01-01

76

The appraisal of teachers' performance and its impact on the mutuality of principal-teacher emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines the mutual discrete emotions among superiors and their above- and below-average workers within a hierarchical organisation (school). Using a survey method within a random sample of 40 elementary schools in Northern Israel, each principal and four of his or her teachers (two who had been appraised as excellent and two who had been appraised as poor-performing)

Eliezer Yariv

2009-01-01

77

Determining the Root Causes of Concerns Associated with the Performance Appraisal Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many organizations use formal appraisals to measure employee performance. Augustana College's Office of Admissions introduced an appraisal process in 2006. Subsequently, staff expressed a number of concerns, ranging from confusion about the process to its link to compensation. Action research proved essential for understanding the problems; it…

Barnds, W. Kent

2011-01-01

78

Does training facilitate SME's performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores relationships between small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) foreign direct investment (FDI), FDI-related training programs and organizational performance. To determine if the implementation of training programs mediate the relationship between FDI and SME performance, and if the alignment between training needs and training implementation leads to higher SME performance, we collected large-scale company-level data (N = 816) from within Taiwan.Research

Nai-Wen Chi; Chih-Yun Wu; Carol Yeh-Yun Lin

2008-01-01

79

Linguist Training and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the effectiveness of training programs delivered by the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC) and Advanced Individual Training (AIT). Data were gathered from linguists assigned to AIT or units, using Web-based que...

J. M. Childs

2004-01-01

80

Modifying adolescent interpretation biases through cognitive training: effects on negative affect and stress appraisals.  

PubMed

Adolescent anxiety is common, impairing and costly. Given the scale of adolescent anxiety and its impact, fresh innovations for therapy are in demand. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) studies of adults show that by training individuals to endorse benign interpretations of ambiguous situations can improve anxious mood-states particularly in response towards stress. While, these investigations have been partially extended to adolescents with success, inconsistent training effects on anxious mood-states have been found. The present study investigated whether positive versus negative CBM-I training influenced appraisals of stress, in forty-nine adolescents, aged 15-18. Data supported the plasticity of interpretational styles, with positively-trained adolescents selecting more benign resolutions of new ambiguous situations, than negatively-trained adolescents. Positively-trained adolescents also rated recent stressors as having less impact on their lives than negatively-trained adolescents. Thus, while negative styles may increase negative responses towards stress, positive styles may boost resilience. PMID:23722473

Telman, Machteld D; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

2013-10-01

81

Data envelopment analysis model for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses at an intensive care unit.  

PubMed

The appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses are very important and beneficial for both nurses and employers in an era of clinical governance, increased accountability and high standards of health care services. They enhance and consolidate the knowledge and practical skills of nurses by identification of training and career development plans as well as improvement in health care quality services, increase in job satisfaction and use of cost-effective resources. In this paper, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is proposed for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses. The model is validated on thirty-two nurses working at an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at one of the most recognized hospitals in Lebanon. The DEA was able to classify nurses into efficient and inefficient ones. The set of efficient nurses was used to establish an internal best practice benchmark to project career development plans for improving the performance of other inefficient nurses. The DEA result confirmed the ranking of some nurses and highlighted injustice in other cases that were produced by the currently practiced appraisal system. Further, the DEA model is shown to be an effective talent management and motivational tool as it can provide clear managerial plans related to promoting, training and development activities from the perspective of nurses, hence increasing their satisfaction, motivation and acceptance of appraisal results. Due to such features, the model is currently being considered for implementation at ICU. Finally, the ratio of the number DEA units to the number of input/output measures is revisited with new suggested values on its upper and lower limits depending on the type of DEA models and the desired number of efficient units from a managerial perspective. PMID:20734223

Osman, Ibrahim H; Berbary, Lynn N; Sidani, Yusuf; Al-Ayoubi, Baydaa; Emrouznejad, Ali

2010-08-24

82

Quality appraisal of higher education research: an action-oriented, process-based alternative to performance indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The policy themes currently steering Australian higher education research practice, have given rise to an output-oriented, performance-based, quality appraisal framework that is oriented towards narrowly conceived accountability purposes. Because it is so narrowly conceived, this framework is both inadequate for quality appraisal purposes and insufficient for legitimating and rewarding research practice. The thesis argues that with this appraisal framework, both

Susanne J. Curtis

1996-01-01

83

An examination of the perceptions of teacher appraisal of principal performance between elementary teachers and principals in Wayne County  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the perceptions of public school elementary teachers and principals towards teacher appraisal of principal performance. A nonexperimental descriptive research design was used in which elementary teachers and principals completed a questionnaire to provide their perceptions or upward appraisal of the principal. The dependent variables included three subscales on the perceptions of the value of upward appraisal, the

Janine Kay Hall

1998-01-01

84

The Study on Appraisal of Enterprise Employee Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human resource is one of the determining factors which the enterprises realize production operation goal, and the important force which the society realizes the economic development and humanity's progressive. The science reasonable achievements appraisal system is the important basis which the enterprise formulates the human resources strategy and effectively implement human resources management. This article used the questionnaire survey

Huibao Cui; Lei Liu

2009-01-01

85

Establishing Content Validity for a Literacy Coach Performance Appraisal Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study's purpose was to determine whether or not the Literacy Coach Appraisal Instrument developed for use in evaluating literacy coaches had content validity. The study, a fully mixed concurrent equal status design conducted from a pragmatist philosophy, collected qualitative and quantitative data from literacy experts about the elements of…

Lane, Mae; Robbins, Mary; Price, Debra

2013-01-01

86

Appraising the functional performance characteristics of office buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of building obsolescence and its relationship with depreciation within office investment portfolios is shown to relate to the changing characteristics and requirements of tenant organizations globally. Building appraisal techniques are introduced as powerful tools used by management to analyse the characteristics of office properties and identify potential problem areas that necessitate modernization. A methodology used for research into

C. W. Bottom; W. S. McGreal; G. Heaney

1999-01-01

87

Software for Performance Training Carrel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A prototype system was developed to evaluate a computer-assisted performance training carrel which was used to present the troubleshooting fundamentals lesson of the Lowry Technical Training Center's Electronic Principles Course. This manual provides a description of the PDP-11 and PLATO programs used to implement this system, and an operators…

Wasmundt, Kenneth C.; Steffen, Dale A.

88

Effects of performance appraisal politics on job satisfaction and turnover intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that performance ratings are often manipulated for political purposes. The present study examined the effects of employees' perceptions of political motives in performance appraisal on their job satisfaction and intention to quit using survey data from an occupationally heterogeneous sample of white-collar employees (N=127) from various organizations. Regression analysis results indicated that when employees perceived performance ratings

June M. L. Poon

2004-01-01

89

Problem-Solving Appraisal, Self-Reported Study Habits, and Performance of Academically At-Risk College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations among problem-solving appraisal, self-reported study habits, and academic performance for 63 college students enrolled in a developmental course for academically unprepared students. The participants completed measures of self-appraised problem-solving ability and study habits. Indexes of academic ability and performance were also collected. Regression analyses revealed that problem-solving appraisal was significantly predictive of study habits and semester

Timothy R. Elliott; Frank Godshall; John R. Shrout; Thomas E. Witty

1990-01-01

90

Due process model of procedural justice in performance appraisal: promotion versus termination scenarios.  

PubMed

In a laboratory study, 318 student participants (148 male, 169 female, and one who did not report sex; M age 25.0, SD = 6.0) in introductory organizational behavior classes responded to scenarios in which performance appraisal resulted in either employee promotion or termination. Each scenario had varying levels of three procedural justice criteria for performance appraisal. For both promotion and termination outcomes, analysis showed that, as the number of criteria increased, perceptions of procedural fairness increased. A comparison between the two outcomes showed that perceptions of fairness were significantly stronger for the promotion outcome than for termination. PMID:17305202

Kataoka, Heloneida C; Cole, Nina D; Flint, Douglas A

2006-12-01

91

The effect of teacher performance appraisal on teachers' beliefs, practices and attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher performance appraisal has not had a smooth passage since it was first mooted by the central office of AKES, P. It was sometimes referred to as a confidential report and was mostly associated with the purpose of weeding out' those teachers whose performance was not satisfactory. It was assumed a sort of anxiety and had been regularly criticised as

Bahadur Al iKhan

1999-01-01

92

The relationship between principals' perceptions of performance appraisal and level of job satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This purpose of the study was to determine whether the extent of input into principals' performance appraisal design, perceptions of its job relatedness, and usefulness of recommendations for improved work performance that were associated with principals' levels job satisfaction as measured by Job Descriptive Index.^ Participants included elementary and middle school principals of urban and suburban school districts with varied

Tonyia M Jeanmarie

2008-01-01

93

At the coalface : identity implications of performance appraisal at an underground coal mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the reasons for negative employee responses to performance appraisal at an underground coal mine in Australia. Through analysis of processes of identity construction and defence among coal miners, the thesis advances understanding of how blue-collar employees react to receiving comparative performance ratings. Using an extended case study method over a five year period, the fieldwork investigated the

Peter McLean

2008-01-01

94

Performance Appraisal System Impact on University Academic Staff Job Satisfaction and Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The University of Zimbabwe (UZ) introduced a performance appraisal system (PAS) designed to improve performance indicators across the board in Public Service including academic/faculty staff at the University of Zimbabwe as part of a nation wide strategy. The Public service is a body responsible for all civil workers including academic staff,…

Ndambakuwa, Yustina; Mufunda, Jacob

2006-01-01

95

Contact points and flash points: Conceptualizing the use of justice mechanisms in the performance appraisal interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a great deal of performance evaluation research, but little has been directed toward understanding subordinate responses to this process and developing ways to manage these responses. In contrast, the justice literature has identified mechanisms that directly influence recipient responses to organizational decisions. The present paper attempts to integrate justice theory and research into the performance appraisal interview.

Robert L Holbrook

2002-01-01

96

Evaluation of Clinical Research Training Programs Using the Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to measure change in clinical research self-efficacy after participating in KL2, Postdoctoral and Predoctoral clinical research training programs at Washington University School of Medicine. We surveyed program participants using a 76-item version of the Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory (CRAI). Principal components analysis (PCA) examined the CRAI's underlying factor structure; Cronbach alpha measured the internal consistency of items on each subscale and the overall CRAI. CRAI score changes from baseline to 1-year follow-up were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance. All 29 KL2, 47 Postdoctoral, and 31 TL1 scholars enrolled 2006-2009 (mean age 31.6 years, range 22-44; 59.6% female; 65.4 % white) completed baseline surveys. Of these participants, 22 KL2, 17 Postdoctoral and 21 TL1scholars completed the 1-year follow-up assessment. PCA resulted in a 7-factor solution with 69 items (alphas > .849 for each sub-scale and 69-item CRAI). Significant improvements at 1-year follow-up were observed across all programs for Study Design/Data Analysis (P=.016), Interpreting/Reporting/Presenting (P=.034), and overall CRAI (P=.050). Differences between programs were observed for all but one subscale (each P<.05). Clinical research self-efficacy increased one year after clinical research training. Whether this short-term outcome correlates with long-term clinical research productivity requires further study.

Lipira, Lauren; Jeffe, Donna B.; Krauss, Melissa; Garbutt, Jane; Piccirillo, Jay; Evanoff, Bradley; Fraser, Victoria

2010-01-01

97

Rethinking the role of performance appraisal in total quality management: An argument for the use of peers as raters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, total quality management theory argues against the use of traditional performance appraisal systems. However,\\u000a contemporary managers need a means of gathering information for human resource decisions concerning individuals. This study\\u000a examines the suitability of peer appraisals for the TQM environment, and the potential impact peer appraisals may have on\\u000a enhancing employee commitment to the TQM process as viewed through

James W. Westerman

1996-01-01

98

Can usefulness of performance appraisal interviews change organizational justice perceptions? A 4-year longitudinal study among public sector employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This large-scale longitudinal study examined the hypothesis that the experienced usefulness of performance appraisal interviews affects justice perceptions and that changes in work life contribute to this effect. Our findings from 6592 employees who were nested in 1291 work groups over a 4-year period and who at baseline had not applied for a performance appraisal interview support this prediction. Specifically,

Anne Linna; Marko Elovainio; Kees Van den Bos; Mika Kivimäki; Jaana Pentti; Jussi Vahtera

2012-01-01

99

Can usefulness of performance appraisal interviews change organizational justice perceptions? A 4-year longitudinal study among public sector employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This large-scale longitudinal study examined the hypothesis that the experienced usefulness of performance appraisal interviews affects justice perceptions and that changes in work life contribute to this effect. Our findings from 6592 employees who were nested in 1291 work groups over a 4-year period and who at baseline had not applied for a performance appraisal interview support this prediction. Specifically,

Anne Linna; Marko Elovainio; Kees Van den Bos; Mika Kivimäki; Jaana Pentti; Jussi Vahtera

2011-01-01

100

Performance Appraisal, Performance Management and Quality in Higher Education: Contradictions, Issues and Guiding Principles for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Systematic staff appraisal/performance management has been assumed to be an important part of quality management in higher-education institutions, but past approaches to it have had confused purposes and have made minimal contributions to enhancing institutional performance. For performance management to be relevant, it must focus on leadership…

Lonsdale, Alan

1998-01-01

101

Gender differences in fear of success: A preliminary validation of the Performance Success Threat Appraisal Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe present study was designed to examine the usefulness of the Performance Success Threat Appraisal Inventory (PSTAI; Metzler & Conroy, 2007) to assess fear of success in male and female elite athletes and its relationships with achievement goal orientations. Introduced originally to explain gender differences in achievement behavior, we verify the usefulness of fear of success (FS) in sport domain

Nathalie André; Jonathan N. Metzler

2011-01-01

102

The Development Of Human Resources: Public Elementary School Assistant Principals (recruitment, Performance Appraisal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of elementary assistant principals as they relate to components of Human Resource Development: Recruitment, Selection, Orientation, Professional (Management) Development, Performance Appraisal, and Career Development.Procedures. Sample selection consisted of ten elementary assistant principals further divided into those with a strong and not-strong curriculum orientation. Qualitative and descriptive statistics were used

Wendy Leigh Gordon

1987-01-01

103

Teaching in the "Performative" State: Implications for Teacher Appraisal in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher appraisal is viewed by bureaucrats as a means of effecting organisational change in schools. It is for this reason that educational policy leaders have turned to technical competency as a way of accounting for teachers' performance in classrooms. In other words, teachers' work is now subject to minute scrutiny by the observation of…

Naidu, Sham

2011-01-01

104

A survey of academic officers regarding performance appraisal in Estonian and American universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education in the Baltic Republic of Estonia is experiencing rapid change as the country adjusts to a market economy in the post?Soviet era and adheres to principles established through the Bologna Process. Research in the area of performance appraisal, and the most effective approaches to motivate academic staff, is a key factor influencing change in a rapidly developing society.

Richard Herdlein; Hasso Kukemelk; Kilno Türk

2008-01-01

105

Action Inquiry and Performance Appraisals: Tools for Organizational Learning and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Introduces the primary concepts behind the practice of action inquiry. Then, examines what current literature suggests about components of the performance appraisal process and identifies areas where applying action inquiry concepts can add a new dimension to our current understanding. Design/methodology/approach: Applies action inquiry,…

Walsh, Kate; Fisher, Dalmar

2005-01-01

106

Performance Appraisals of School Administrators in One Canadian School District: A Contemporary Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research indicates that a sound performance appraisal process for school administrators contains key mechanisms that manifest themselves through dimensions of effective planning, assessment, and evaluation; effective use of resources; and communicating clear expectations. This article documents the development of a contemporary model of…

Normore, Anthony H.

2004-01-01

107

Utilising a Virtual World to Teach Performance Appraisal: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The aim of this paper is to give a critical assessment of a study designed to investigate the potential of a new method for teaching HRD students about performance appraisal. It is argued that this approach is in the vanguard of developments in IT and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the form of an explorative study…

Morse, Shona

2010-01-01

108

Evaluation of 2+2 Alternative Teacher Performance Appraisal Program in Shanxi, People's Republic of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the impact of the 2+2 Alternative Teacher Performance Appraisal System that has been implemented in Shanxi province in China. A mixed research design was used to evaluate the program. Six high schools and a total of 78 teachers (13 teachers in each school) in Shanxi province were selected. Three of the schools participated in…

Wang, Weiping

2007-01-01

109

New Teachers' Perceptions of a Standards-Based Performance Appraisal System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted with first-year teachers. It provided insight into two key research questions: (1) What were the perceptions of new teachers regarding a standards-based performance appraisal system as it was implemented on their campus? (2) What factors contributed to the perceptions of new teachers regarding this system as it was…

O'Pry, Stephen C.; Schumacher, Gary

2012-01-01

110

A Survey of Academic Officers regarding Performance Appraisal in Estonian and American Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Higher education in the Baltic Republic of Estonia is experiencing rapid change as the country adjusts to a market economy in the post-Soviet era and adheres to principles established through the Bologna Process. Research in the area of performance appraisal, and the most effective approaches to motivate academic staff, is a key factor…

Herdlein, Richard; Kukemelk, Hasso; Turk, Kilno

2008-01-01

111

National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by…

Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

2012-01-01

112

Action inquiry and performance appraisals : Tools for organizational learning and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Introduces the primary concepts behind the practice of action inquiry. Then, examines what current literature suggests about components of the performance appraisal process and identifies areas where applying action inquiry concepts can add a new dimension to our current understanding. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Applies action inquiry, a concept from the organizational learning and change literatures, to suggest ways to

Kate Walsh; Dalmar Fisher

2005-01-01

113

Supervisor Appraisal as the Link Between Family–Work Balance and Contextual Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between subordinates’ family to work balance (conflict and enrichment) and two dimensions of\\u000a contextual performance (interpersonal facilitation and job dedication) reported by supervisors. Beyond the direct effects,\\u000a we hypothesized that supervisor’s appraisals of employee conflict and enrichment would influence the supervisor’s contextual\\u000a performance ratings. Data collected from a matched sample of 156 private sector employees and

Dawn S. Carlson; L. A. Witt; Suzanne Zivnuska; K. Michele Kacmar; Joseph G. Grzywacz

2008-01-01

114

Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

ElShenawy, Eman

2010-01-01

115

Performance appraisal of estimation algorithms and application of estimation algorithms to target tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation consists of two parts. The first part deals with the performance appraisal of estimation algorithms. The second part focuses on the application of estimation algorithms to target tracking. Performance appraisal is crucial for understanding, developing and comparing various estimation algorithms. In particular, with the evolvement of estimation theory and the increase of problem complexity, performance appraisal is getting more and more challenging for engineers to make comprehensive conclusions. However, the existing theoretical results are inadequate for practical reference. The first part of this dissertation is dedicated to performance measures which include local performance measures, global performance measures and model distortion measure. The second part focuses on application of the recursive best linear unbiased estimation (BLUE) or linear minimum mean square error (LIB-M-ISE) estimation to nonlinear measurement problem in target tracking. Kalman filter has been the dominant basis for dynamic state filtering for several decades. Beyond Kalman filter, a more fundamental basis for the recursive best linear unbiased filtering has been thoroughly investigated in a series of papers by my advisor Dr. X. Rong Li. Based on the so-called quasi-recursive best linear unbiased filtering technique, the constraints of the Kalman filter Linear-Gaussian assumptions can be relaxed such that a general linear filtering technique for nonlinear systems can be achieved. An approximate optimal BLUE filter is implemented for nonlinear measurements in target tracking which outperforms the existing method significantly in terms of accuracy, credibility and robustness.

Zhao, Zhanlue

116

Iron and Steel Industry Training Board  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The British iron and steel industry training board has developed a training approach called investment appraisal of training. This approach is a forward-looking appraisal in which the estimated costs ofthe proposed training activity are balanced against benefits accruing in fi nancial terms from improved performance. (DS)|

Riley, Alvan D.

1974-01-01

117

Performance Appraisals: One Step in a Comprehensive Staff Supervision Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Performance reviews, while stressful, can prepare employees for the next stages of their career. The best performance reviews are those where the supervisor knows the employee's skills and talents and offers suggestions on how to use those talents to develop other areas of job performance and professional growth. In this article, the author…

Kilbourne, Susan

2007-01-01

118

Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an overview of performance management and appraisal in New Zealand schools. Outlines a model of principal appraisal that demonstrates an integration of development and accountability elements. Draws on three studies to identify key features of appraisal effectiveness. (SLD)|

Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

2003-01-01

119

Annual performance appraisal: one organization's process and retrospective analysis of outcomes.  

PubMed

Performance assessment of personnel is an important component of an organization's quality management program, benefiting the organization, individuals and clients. Performance appraisal is the most common method. This article describes the three-part performance appraisal tool used at the authors' organization, a private inter-professional healthcare agency providing rehabilitation services to clients in the community, and presents the results of a retrospective analysis of the outcomes. Performance appraisals of 13 personnel were randomly selected, representing 39 chart audits and 25 joint client visits. The achievement of mandatory chart audit standards demonstrated 95 ± 7.2% compliance; expected standards showed 96 ± 3.3% compliance. Qualitative findings from the joint visits and interviews showed that therapists enjoyed the process and experience, valued the feedback and appreciated the support they received. Benefits and challenges of the process were identified, resulting in new initiatives being implemented. The authors confirmed that the tool achieves its intended purpose and is relevant in the home care setting. PMID:22354057

Geddes, E Lynne; Gill, Caroline

2012-01-01

120

First-year students’ appraisal of assessment tasks: implications for efficacy, engagement and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated students’ appraisals of assessment tasks and the impact of this on both their task-related efficacy and engagement and subsequent task performance. Two hundred and fifty-seven first-year students rated their experience of an assessment task (essay, oral presentation, laboratory report or exam) that they had previously completed. First-year students evaluated these assessment tasks in terms of two general

Alf Lizzio; Keithia Wilson

2011-01-01

121

Reflected Appraisals, Academic Self-Perceptions, and Math\\/Science Performance During Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested a model of the relations among adolescents' perceptions of parents', teachers', and classmates' support for, valuing of, and beliefs about their competence in math\\/science; adolescents' own academic self-perceptions concerning math\\/science; and their academic performance. The sample included 378 middle school students; 65% were Latino, and 21% were European American. Reflected appraisals of adults' beliefs concerning both the

Heather A. Bouchey; Susan Harter

2005-01-01

122

Training High Performance Skills: Fallacies and Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high performance skill is defined as one which: over 100 hours of training are required, substantial numbers of individuals fail to develop proficiency, and the performance of the expert is qualitatively different from that of the novice. Training progr...

W. Schneider

1984-01-01

123

Effective Communication in the Performance Appraisal Interview: Face-to-Face Communication for Public Managers in the Culturally Diverse Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses six microcommunication skills to help managers communicate effectively in performance-appraisal interviews. Reviews models that have conceptualized interpersonal communication and presents a theoretical model that may assist managers and stimulate scholarly research. (JOW)|

Kikoski, John F.

1998-01-01

124

Gender differences within 360-degree managerial performance appraisals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of gender on the performance assessments of managers arising from the 360-degree scheme operated within the UK headquarters of a large multi-international financial services organisation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire approach was used to collect data on 66 managers (33 males and 33 females) against four broad capabilities on

Mike Millmore; David Biggs; Laura Morse

2007-01-01

125

Performance objectives and criteria for technical safety appraisals at Department of Energy facilities and sites  

SciTech Connect

This document contains Performance Objectives and Criteria intended to serve as a working reference for the Department of Energy's Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Safety and Quality Assurance in its Technical Safety Appraisals of the Department's more significant facilities and sites. The Performance Objectives are broad in scope. Each generally covers a single, well-defined management area. The supporting Criteria are more specific in scope and typically describe a particular activity that are listed under each Performance Objective. These criteria address requirements of a DOE Order, appropriate nuclear industry lesson-learned, appropriate NRC-licensed facility requirement, or appropriate industry standard.

Not Available

1990-06-01

126

Negative expectancy appraisals and defeatist performance beliefs and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Negative symptoms have clear functional implications in schizophrenia and are typically unresponsive to current treatments. The cognitive model of negative symptoms suggests that dysfunctional beliefs are influential in the development and maintenance of negative symptoms and schizophrenia. The current study reports on a preliminary investigation of a new measure of Negative Expectancy Appraisals (specifically beliefs about limited probability of success and perception of limited cognitive resources), and also evaluates whether dysfunctional beliefs are more closely linked to particular subdomains of negative symptoms. Sixty two individuals with schizophrenia completed measures of dysfunctional beliefs and were rated on negative symptoms. Analyses indicated that the endorsement of beliefs regarding low expectations for success and perception of limited resources (Negative Expectancy Appraisals) are robustly associated with diminished experience negative symptoms (avolition, asociality, and anhedonia), but are not associated with negative symptoms reflecting diminished expressivity (blunted affect, alogia). Similarly, Defeatist Performance Beliefs are modestly related to diminished experience, but not diminished expression, negative symptoms. Negative Expectancy Appraisals were also robustly linked to depressive symptoms. Results from the current study provide evidence that dysfunctional beliefs are clearly relevant to consider in relation to negative symptoms, and may represent a fruitful treatment target. PMID:21704387

Couture, Shannon M; Blanchard, Jack J; Bennett, Melanie E

2011-06-24

127

Self-efficacy-based training for research literature appraisal: a competency for evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Evidence-based practice requires nurses to integrate research findings into patient care. The lack of skill and confidence in effective literature appraisal remains a barrier for many nurses. The author describes a self-efficacy-based pilot project designed to enhance nurses' skill and confidence, thus increasing their ability and willingness to critically evaluate research findings. After the intervention, nurses were better prepared to critically appraise the literature and, through enhanced readiness, were more inclined to make evidence-based practice a clinical reality. This approach may be beneficial to staff development educators to develop and enhance an evidence-based practice culture. PMID:20683302

Kiss, Teri Lynn; O'Malley, Maureen; Hendrix, Thomas J

128

Hardiness training facilitates performance in college  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 25 years of research and practice, hardiness has emerged as a pattern of attitudes and skills that is a pathway to resilience under stressful circumstances. As such, it is important to determine whether hardiness can be trained, and if such training improves performance and health. The few relevant studies available thus far have suggested this training effectiveness among working

Salvatore R. Maddi; Richard H. Harvey; Deborah M. Khoshaba; Mostafa Fazel; Nephthys Resurreccion

2009-01-01

129

Cognitive appraisals of stereotype threat.  

PubMed

Using the cognitive appraisal conceptualisation of the transactional model of stress, the goal was to assess how victims of stereotype threat respond to this situation in terms of primary appraisals (threat/challenge) and to investigate whether those appraisals may mediate the relation between stereotype threat and performance. Results show that, while participants from North Africa living in France did appraise the situation more as a threat and less as a challenge, only challenge appraisal mediated between stereotype threat and performance. PMID:21675572

Berjot, S; Roland-Levy, C; Girault-Lidvan, N

2011-04-01

130

Using implementation intentions to overcome the effects of social anxiety on attention and appraisals of performance.  

PubMed

The present research examines whether forming implementation intentions can help people with social anxiety to control their attention and make more realistic appraisals of their performance. In Experiment 1, socially anxious participants (relative to less anxious participants) exhibited an attentional bias toward social threat words in a Visual Dot Probe task. However, socially anxious participants who formed implementation intentions designed to control attention did not exhibit this bias. Using a spatial cuing task, Experiment 2 showed that forming implementation intentions also promoted rapid disengagement from threatening stimuli. Experiment 3 ruled out the possibility that implementation intentions were effective merely because they provided additional goal-relevant information. In Experiment 4, participants gave a speech and subsequently rated their performance. Forming implementation intentions prevented the underestimation of performance that characterizes socially anxious individuals. Together, the findings suggest that forming implementation intentions may provide an effective means of handling self-regulatory problems in social anxiety. PMID:20371796

Webb, Thomas L; Ononaiye, Margarita S P; Sheeran, Paschal; Reidy, John G; Lavda, Anastasia

2010-04-06

131

Continuing Education and Training Models and Strategies: An Initial Appraisal. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Continuing education and training is an emerging priority for the nation's tertiary education and training system. Changing work, new work requirements, an ageing workforce and lengthening working lives are some of the factors now influencing this priority. Yet, many of the purposes and processes of the Australian tertiary education and training

Billett, Stephen; Henderson, Amanda; Choy, Sarojni; Dymock, Darryl; Kelly, Ann; Smith, Ray; James, Ian; Beven, Fred; Lewis, Jason

2012-01-01

132

12 CFR 564.8 - Appraisal policies and practices of savings associations and subsidiaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hiring of appraisers to perform appraisal services for the savings...membership in professional appraisal organizations may be considered...review on an annual basis the performance of all approved appraisers...the savings association's appraisal policies and...

2013-01-01

133

12 CFR 164.8 - Appraisal policies and practices of Federal savings associations and subsidiaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hiring of appraisers to perform appraisal services for the savings...membership in professional appraisal organizations may be considered...review on an annual basis the performance of all approved appraisers...the savings association's appraisal policies and...

2013-01-01

134

12 CFR 390.447 - Appraisal policies and practices of State savings associations and subsidiaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hiring of appraisers to perform appraisal services for the State...membership in professional appraisal organizations may be considered...review on an annual basis the performance of all approved appraisers...State savings association's appraisal policies and...

2013-01-01

135

Performance Evaluation for In-Service Managers: Introductory Module and Modules 1-4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Performance appraisal and employee development are the major topics of this four - module training package for a seminar designed to identify the strengths and limitations of selected methods and types of appraisal systems. Performance evaluation itself i...

M. P. Scontrino

1977-01-01

136

TAP 2, Performance-Based Training Manual  

SciTech Connect

Training programs at DOE nuclear facilities should provide well- trained, qualified personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. A need has been identified for guidance regarding analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of consistent and reliable performance-based training programs. Accreditation of training programs at Category A reactors and high-hazard and selected moderate-hazard nonreactor facilities will assure consistent, appropriate, and cost-effective training of personnel responsible for the operation, maintenance, and technical support of these facilities. Training programs that are designed and based on systematically job requirements, instead of subjective estimation of trainee needs, yield training activities that are consistent and develop or improve knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be directly related to the work setting. Because the training is job-related, the content of these programs more efficiently and effectively meets the needs of the employee. Besides a better trained work force, a greater level of operational reactor safety can be realized. This manual is intended to provide an overview of the accreditation process and a brief description of the elements necessary to construct and maintain training programs that are based on the requirements of the job. Two comparison manuals provide additional information to assist contractors in their efforts to accredit training programs.

Not Available

1991-07-01

137

National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.  

PubMed

Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings. PMID:22040261

Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

2011-10-31

138

Training and business performance: the Spanish case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between training policies and business performance. Our research seeks to enlarge the empirical bibliography about the impact training has on firms and tries to challenge the criticism previous works with similar characteristics received. With this purpose in mind, we have used a theoretical model based on the hypothesis of a ‘cascade-type relationship’ between four types

Mercedes Úbeda García

2005-01-01

139

Performance Training Carrel for Electronics Principles Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides documentation for the design, construction, and operation of an interactive electronics training panel developed for a computer assisted performance training carrel. The panel is a plug-in module designed to simulate electronic circuitry and a PMS-6 multimeter as required for a troubleshooting fundamentals lesson in an Air…

Kargo, Donald W.; Steffen, Dale A.

140

Psychological capital and performance of Portuguese civil servants: exploring neutralizers in the context of an appraisal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature suggests that psychological capital (PsyCap: self-efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience) predicts work performance. Our case study, carried out in the context of a performance appraisal system (SIADAP) recently implemented in the Portuguese Public Administration, does not corroborate this prediction. In the research 278 civil servants self-reported their performance and PsyCap and their supervisor-rated performance scores according to the SIADAP

Arménio Rego; Carla Marques; Susana Leal; Filipa Sousa; Miguel Pina e Cunha

2010-01-01

141

Perceptions of principals regarding the use of The Personnel Evaluation Standards by superordinates in developing performance appraisals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of principals regarding the use of The Personnel Evaluation Standards by their superordinate when developing the principals' performance appraisal.^ A nonexperimental, descriptive research design was used for this study. Elementary, middle school and high school principals from Wayne, Oakland and Macomb Counties were asked to complete the Personnel Evaluation Practices

Linda Susan Jarkey

1998-01-01

142

Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be…

Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

2010-01-01

143

Performance appraisal politics from appraisee perspective: a study of antecedents in the Indian context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appraisee's perception of appraisal politics (APAP) is conceptualized to be formed by three perceptual dimensions. First is appraiser's manipulation of ratings to achieve their self-serving ends such as own reputation, maintaining good relationships, building in-groups, and handling dependency threats from appraisees. Second dimension constitutes fellow appraisees' upward influence behaviors to get higher ratings and rewards. Third dimension relates to the

Amit Dhiman; Sunil Kumar Maheshwari

2012-01-01

144

Parametrization and performance appraisal of the analytic and variational X? method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linear combination of atomic orbitals, analytic and variational implementation of Slater's X? method that allows arbitrary scaling of the exchange-correlation potential around each atom has been formulated. The method is numerical integration free, and thus delivers machine-precision energies that are stationary in all respects. One choice of scaling uses the ?s that give exact atomic energies. We present the results of a performance assessment of this method by calculating the atomization energies and total energies of the G2 and extended G2 sets of molecules. Similar calculations for uniform ? are also appraised. Minimizing the mean absolute error in both the X? energies and the Hartree-Fock energies shows that Slater's exchange functional with ? = 0.7091 performs significantly better than the G'asp'ar-Kohn-Sham exchange functional for these molecules and for equally weighted atoms H-Kr. The Office of Naval Research, directly and through the Naval Research Laboratory, and the DoD's High Performance Computing Modernization Program, through the Common High Performance Computing Software Support Initiative, Project MBD-5, supported this work. The calculations were performed at the Army Research Laboratory Major Shared Resource Center (ARL MSRC).

Zope, Rajendra; Dunlap, Brett

2005-03-01

145

Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

HELGERUD, J., L. C. ENGEN, U. WISLØFF, and J. HOFF. Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance.Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 11, 2001, pp. 1925-1931. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to study the effects of aerobic training on performance during soccer match and soccer specific tests. Methods: Nineteen male elite junior soccer players, age 18.1 0.8

JAN HELGERUD; LARS CHRISTIAN ENGEN; JAN HOFF

2001-01-01

146

Virtual Reality Training Improves Operating Room Performance  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate that virtual reality (VR) training transfers technical skills to the operating room (OR) environment. Summary Background Data The use of VR surgical simulation to train skills and reduce error risk in the OR has never been demonstrated in a prospective, randomized, blinded study. Methods Sixteen surgical residents (PGY 1–4) had baseline psychomotor abilities assessed, then were randomized to either VR training (MIST VR simulator diathermy task) until expert criterion levels established by experienced laparoscopists were achieved (n = 8), or control non-VR-trained (n = 8). All subjects performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy with an attending surgeon blinded to training status. Videotapes of gallbladder dissection were reviewed independently by two investigators blinded to subject identity and training, and scored for eight predefined errors for each procedure minute (interrater reliability of error assessment r > 0.80). Results No differences in baseline assessments were found between groups. Gallbladder dissection was 29% faster for VR-trained residents. Non-VR-trained residents were nine times more likely to transiently fail to make progress (P < .007, Mann-Whitney test) and five times more likely to injure the gallbladder or burn nontarget tissue (chi-square = 4.27, P < .04). Mean errors were six times less likely to occur in the VR-trained group (1.19 vs. 7.38 errors per case;P < .008, Mann-Whitney test). Conclusions The use of VR surgical simulation to reach specific target criteria significantly improved the OR performance of residents during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This validation of transfer of training skills from VR to OR sets the stage for more sophisticated uses of VR in assessment, training, error reduction, and certification of surgeons.

Seymour, Neal E.; Gallagher, Anthony G.; Roman, Sanziana A.; O'Brien, Michael K.; Bansal, Vipin K.; Andersen, Dana K.; Satava, Richard M.

2002-01-01

147

The Effect of Performance Support and Training on Performer Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While training has been a proven and heavily relied on intervention to impart job-enabling information to performers, its ability to have a positive effect on job performance has been demonstrated to diminish over time. One intervention that has been adopted by performance technologists to provide ongoing support is an electronic performance

Nguyen, Frank

2009-01-01

148

Performance assessment to enhance training effectiveness.  

SciTech Connect

Training simulators have become increasingly popular tools for instructing humans on performance in complex environments. However, the question of how to provide individualized and scenario-specific assessment and feedback to students remains largely an open question. To maximize training efficiency, new technologies are required that assist instructors in providing individually relevant instruction. Sandia National Laboratories has shown the feasibility of automated performance assessment tools, such as the Sandia-developed Automated Expert Modeling and Student Evaluation (AEMASE) software, through proof-of-concept demonstrations, a pilot study, and an experiment. In the pilot study, the AEMASE system, which automatically assesses student performance based on observed examples of good and bad performance in a given domain, achieved a high degree of agreement with a human grader (89%) in assessing tactical air engagement scenarios. In more recent work, we found that AEMASE achieved a high degree of agreement with human graders (83-99%) for three Navy E-2 domain-relevant performance metrics. The current study provides a rigorous empirical evaluation of the enhanced training effectiveness achievable with this technology. In particular, we assessed whether giving students feedback based on automated metrics would enhance training effectiveness and improve student performance. We trained two groups of employees (differentiated by type of feedback) on a Navy E-2 simulator and assessed their performance on three domain-specific performance metrics. We found that students given feedback via the AEMASE-based debrief tool performed significantly better than students given only instructor feedback on two out of three metrics. Future work will focus on extending these developments for automated assessment of teamwork.

Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Gieseler, Charles J.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris

2010-09-01

149

Action theory and the training and performance application: performance templates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper sets forth a description and explanation of how action theory serves as the foundation for the training and performance management approach, performance templates (P-T). In recent years the efficacy of performance templates, given its limitations, has been demonstrated; however, the theory base for the P-T approach had not been sufficiently developed. This paper aims to examine

Paul Lyons

2009-01-01

150

38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...responsibilities, and performance as a Servicer Appraisal Processing Program...practice, or performance by the servicer...practices, or performance include, but are...industry accepted appraisal principles,...

2013-07-01

151

The effect of apologetic error messages and mood states on computer users’ self-appraisal of performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, in which 310 university students participated, was designed to investigate whether computer interfaces that offer human-like apologetic error messages influence users’ self-appraisals of performance in the computerized environment. The study consists of three phases. In the first phase, using the CCSARP (cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns) coding manual, apology strategy sequences were elicited from Turkish participants.

Mahir Akgun; Kursat Cagiltay; Deniz Zeyrek

2010-01-01

152

38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...responsibilities, and performance as a Lender Appraisal Processing Program...sampling or performance related basis...nominated staff appraisal reviewer must...practices or performance include, but...industry accepted appraisal...

2013-07-01

153

Collaborative Peer Coaching That Improves Instruction: The 2 + 2 Performance Appraisal Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Behind a simple equation, 2 + 2, lies a rich yet realistic approach to enhancing teaching and learning. As this book demonstrates, the current method of job appraisal consists of sporadic classroom visits from school administrators that frequently serve to reinforce teacher isolation rather than promote professional development. In contrast, the…

Allen Dwight W.; LeBlanc, Alyce C.

2004-01-01

154

The Appraisal of Teachers' Performance and Its Impact on the Mutuality of Principal-Teacher Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study examines the mutual discrete emotions among superiors and their above- and below-average workers within a hierarchical organisation (school). Using a survey method within a random sample of 40 elementary schools in Northern Israel, each principal and four of his or her teachers (two who had been appraised as excellent and two…

Yariv, Eliezer

2009-01-01

155

Obedience training effects on search dog performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competent search dogs should be accurate, reliable, and work independently, yet be responsive to handler commands. The aim of this study was to identify training factors that contribute to producing competent search dogs. Demographics, obedience training methods, the age training was initiated, previous canine training experience of the trainer, and time spent training were determined using 177 responses to an

Michael Ben Alexander; Ted Friend; Lore Haug

2011-01-01

156

A Contingency Approach to Appraisal Satisfaction: An Initial Investigation of the Joint Effects of Organizational Variables and Appraisal Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the moderating effects of organizational variables on the appraisal characteristic-appraisal satisfaction relationship. Analyses indicated that the appraisal characteristics of action plans, frequency, and rater training were more positively related to appraisal satisfaction when subordinates experienced role conflict, were not closely monitored, and supervisors had a large span of control. The results provide substantial support for conceptualizing

Gregory H. Dobbins; Robert L. Cardy; Stephanie J. Platz-Vieno

1990-01-01

157

24 CFR 248.111 - Appraisal and preservation value of eligible low income housing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and guidelines governing, an appraisal of the project; (2) The...deadline for submission of the appraisal; (3) The need for an appraiser...responsibilities regarding the performance of an appraisal pursuant to this section....

2013-04-01

158

Organizational Performance and Organizational Level Training and Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined relations among retail sales training, organizational support, and store performance and examined whether training interacts with organizational support to predict store performance. Results indicated that training and organizational support were significantly correlated with both measures of store performance, although the relationship…

Russell, James S.; And Others

1985-01-01

159

Training Evaluation as an Integral Component of Training for Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A training evaluation system should address four major areas: reaction, learning, behavior, and results. The training evaluation system at GPU Nuclear Corporation addresses each of these areas through practical approaches such as course and program evaluation. GPU's program evaluation instrument uses a Likert-type scale to assess task development,…

Lapp, H. J., Jr.

160

Ecological Momentary Assessment of social functioning in schizophrenia: impact of performance appraisals and affect on social interactions.  

PubMed

Research concerning the complex interplay between factors that contribute to poor social functioning in schizophrenia has been hampered by limitations of traditional measures, most notably the ecological validity and accuracy of retrospective self-report and interview measures. Computerized Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMAc) permits the real-time assessment of relationships between daily life experiences, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In the current study, EMAc was used to record daily social interactions, subjective performance appraisals of these interactions (e.g., "I succeeded/failed"; "I was liked/rejected"), and affect in 145 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants completed electronic questionnaires on a personal digital assistant (PDA) four times per day for one week. Time-lagged multilevel modeling of the data revealed that more positive interaction appraisals at any point in a day were associated with greater positive affect which, in turn, was a strong predictor of more social interactions over subsequent hours. Social functioning, therefore, was linked to positive performance beliefs about social interactions that were associated with greater positive affect. The findings suggest a useful treatment target for cognitive behavioral therapy and other psychosocial interventions that can be used to challenge defeatist beliefs and increase positive affect to enhance social functioning in schizophrenia. PMID:23402693

Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fulford, Daniel; Swendsen, Joel

2013-02-10

161

Understanding Frame-of-Reference Training: The Impact of Training on the Recall of Performance Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the cognitive mechanisms underlying frame-of-reference (FOR) rater training is extended by examining the impact of FOR training on the recall of performance information. It was hypothesized that the shared performance schema fostered by FOR training would serve as the basis for information processing, resulting in better recall for behavioral performance information as well as more accurate ratings of

David J. Woehr

1994-01-01

162

Anaerobic performances of sedentary and trained subjects.  

PubMed

The objective of this report was to compare the performance of sedentary individuals, physical education students, and athletes of various disciplines in 10 s and 90 s maximal cycle ergometer tests. The 10 s power was the highest power output in one second from the 10 s test, while capacities were defined as the total work output during the best 10 s trial and the 90 s test. ANOVA and Duncan multiple range test indicated that the mean values of the 10 S power and capacity and the 90 S capacity tests were significantly higher in sprinter than in sedentary groups. Sprinters performed significantly better than marathon runners only in the 10 s capacity and power. Bodybuilders and sedentary subjects had similar results in the 90 s capacity test. Mean performance values per kilogram of body weight in sedentary females reached about 60% of sedentary males while marathon runners, physical education students and sprinter females reached about 80% of the male performances for the three indicators. When expressed per kilogram of fat-free mass, females reached a higher proportion of the male values for all performances. These results indicate that: a) there are differences for the power and capacity measured in predominantly anaerobic tests between athletes from different disciplines and sedentary individuals, and b) gender differences exist for these anaerobic performance indicators, but they appear attenuated in trained subjects. PMID:2924222

Serresse, O; Ama, P F; Simoneau, J A; Lortie, G; Bouchard, C; Boulay, M R

1989-03-01

163

Training Needs Assessment: A Must for Developing an Effective Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a rationale for conducting training needs assessment and discusses types of analyses: organizational, task, and individual. Compares advantages and disadvantages of the following assessment methods: surveys, interviews, performance appraisals, observations, tests, assessment centers, focus groups, document reviews, and advisory…

Brown, Judith

2002-01-01

164

Visual performance evaluation and training system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A program for self-evaluating and training a user's visual skills. The program including a plurality of evaluation and training exercises. The program being designed to run on a computer having a color monitor.

2008-02-05

165

Game performance and intermittent hypoxic training  

PubMed Central

Live high?train low altitude exposure simulated by hypoxic devices may improve athletic performance. In this study, intermittent normobaric hypoxia was achieved with the GO2altitude® hypoxicator to determine its effects on sea level performance in rugby players. Ten players were randomly assigned to two groups. Players in each group received 14 sessions of either hypoxic (10–15% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) exposure at rest over 14 consecutive days in a single blind fashion. Various performance measures were obtained consecutively in a single testing session pre? and post?exposure. Effects of hypoxic exposure on maximum speed and sprint times were trivial (<1.0%) but unclear (90% likely range, ±5% to ±9%). In rugby simulation, hypoxic exposure produced impairments of peak power in two scrums (15%, ±8%; 9%, ±7%) and impairments of time in offensive sprints (7%, ±8%) and tackle sprints (11%, ±9%). Pending further research, rugby players would be unwise to use normobaric intermittent hypoxic exposure to prepare for games at sea level.

Hinckson, E A; Hamlin, M J; Wood, M R; Hopkins, W G

2007-01-01

166

Impact of environmental factors on swim training and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

HOLMER I. Impact of environmental factors on swim training and performance. Kinesiology. Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 51-55, 1997. The effect of water temperature and other environmental factors on efficiency of training, as well as performance is discussed. Different types of swimming performance are considered, namely competitive swimming, long-distance swimming and triathlon and swimming performance associated with accidental exposure. The

INGVAR HOLMER

167

Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance

Lyons, Paul R.

2010-01-01

168

Impact of resistance training on endurance performance. A new form of cross-training?  

PubMed

In accordance with the principles of training specificity, resistance and endurance training induce distinct muscular adaptations. Endurance training, for example, decreases the activity of the glycolytic enzymes, but increases intramuscular substrate stores, oxidative enzyme activities, and capillary, as well as mitochondrial, density. In contrast, resistance or strength training reduces mitochondrial density, while marginally impacting capillary density, metabolic enzyme activities and intramuscular substrate stores (except muscle glycogen). The training modalities do induce one common muscular adaptation: they transform type IIb myofibres into IIa myofibres. This transformation is coupled with opposite changes in fibre size (resistance training increases, and endurance training decreases, fibre size), and, in general, myofibre contractile properties. As a result of these distinct muscular adaptations, endurance training facilitates aerobic processes, whereas resistance training increases muscular strength and anaerobic power. Exercise performance data do not fit this paradigm, however, as they indicate that resistance training or the addition of resistance training to an ongoing endurance exercise regimen, including running or cycling, increases both short and long term endurance capacity in sedentary and trained individuals. Resistance training also appears to improve lactate threshold in untrained individuals during cycling. These improvements may be linked to the capacity of resistance training to alter myofibre size and contractile properties, adaptations that may increase muscular force production. In contrast to running and cycling, traditional dry land resistance training or combined swim and resistance training does not appear to enhance swimming performance in untrained individuals or competitive swimmers, despite substantially increasing upper body strength. Combined swim and swim-specific 'in-water' resistance training programmes, however, increase a competitive swimmer's velocity over distances up to 200 m. Traditional resistance training may be a valuable adjunct to the exercise programmes followed by endurance runners or cyclists, but not swimmers; these latter athletes need more specific forms of resistance training to realise performance improvement. PMID:9554029

Tanaka, H; Swensen, T

1998-03-01

169

Goal relevance and goal conduciveness appraisals lead to differential autonomic reactivity in emotional responding to performance feedback.  

PubMed

Using an appraisal framework, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that goal relevance and goal conduciveness have an interactive effect on emotional responding. We expected that elicitation of positive or negative emotions in response to events that are conducive or obstructive to attainment of one's goals depends on the level of goal relevance. To test this hypothesis, we presented 119 participants with positive (success) or negative (failure) performance feedback of high or low relevance in an achievement context. Feeling self-report showed effects of conduciveness, but no interaction with relevance. Physiological reactivity showed the predicted interaction effect on cardiac autonomic regulation (CAR), with higher CAR for high-relevance conducive than obstructive conditions. Moreover, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and skin conductance level (SCL) differed between conducive and obstructive conditions, and heart rate (HR) and SCL differed between relevance conditions. Implications for the plausibility and current empirical support of the interaction hypothesis are discussed. PMID:22947258

Kreibig, Sylvia D; Gendolla, Guido H E; Scherer, Klaus R

2012-08-28

170

Reliability of a 1-h endurance performance test in trained female cyclists.  

PubMed

Endurance performance is a common criterion used to evaluate training or dietary interventions. However, to accurately appraise the effects of an intervention, the endurance performance measure must be reliable. The purpose of the investigation was to establish the reliability of a 1-h endurance performance test. Twenty trained female subjects (peak VO2 = 47.4 +/- 7.2 ml.kg-1.min-1) completed two trials in which they had to generate the highest power output possible throughout 60 min of cycling. Heart rates (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were also recorded during these two trials. All tests were conducted on a wind-braked cycle ergometer set up to closely resemble the subject's own cycle. The trials were separated by 1 wk, conducted on the same day of the week, and completed at a similar time of the day. The average power outputs (+/-SD) for the two trials were 180.0 (+/-18.1) W and 180.0 (+/-20.6) W. The results revealed that average absolute power output, HR, and RPE were not significantly different between trials. The intraclass correlation coefficient (one way ANOVA) for average absolute power output was 0.97, the coefficient of variation was 2.7%, and the SEM was 3.4 W. These results suggest that under controlled conditions average absolute power output during a 1-h endurance test is a reliable measure for trained female cyclists. PMID:9107640

Bishop, D

1997-04-01

171

5 CFR 430.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes...ratings of record, or other performance appraisal results determined during...certification upon a showing that its performance appraisal systems for senior...

2013-01-01

172

5 CFR 430.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes...ratings of record, or other performance appraisal results determined during...certification upon a showing that its performance appraisal systems for senior...

2009-01-01

173

Use of Martial Art Exercises in Performance Enhancement Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Details some of the many martial arts training techniques and their potential applications for inclusion in performance enhancement programs, focusing on the benefits of martial training, the arts continuum, and martial arts training modes. The article concludes that the various martial arts techniques provide a stimulating and intuitively…

McClellan, Tim; Anderson, Warren

2002-01-01

174

Training programs and performance measurement : Evidence from healthcare organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to present an exploratory study of the evaluation of training programs, based on a theoretical framework reviewing both the training literature and the strategic performance measurement (SPM) literature. The purpose of the paper is to analyse whether the operational approach (suggested by the training literature) and the strategic approach (suggested by the SPM literature) are

Antonella Cifalino; Stefano Baraldi

2009-01-01

175

Coping, mastery, stress appraisals, mental preparation, and unit cohesion predicting distress and performance: a longitudinal study of soldiers undertaking evacuation tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to assess the associations of psychological and military variables with distress and performance evaluation among 168 Israeli soldiers who took part in evacuating fellow Israeli civilians in the summer of 2005 during the disengagement from Gaza. Coping, mastery, stress appraisals, mental preparation, unit cohesion, and psychological distress were assessed at T1, one to two weeks before the

Ora Gilbar; Hasida Ben-Zur; Gadi Lubin

2010-01-01

176

An Investigation of the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Career Development and Advancement of Mid-Level Women in Student Affairs Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to explore the performance appraisal experience of 14 mid-level women in student affairs administration at four-year colleges and universities in Northern Illinois using a qualitative research approach involving personal interviews. Previous research on career development and advancement of mid-level women in student…

Corral, Christine R.

2009-01-01

177

The Influence of Teacher Efficacy and Readiness for Self-Directed Learning on the Implementation of a Growth-Oriented Teacher Performance Appraisal Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study analyzed the implementation of a teacher performance appraisal process that encourages self-directed learning (SDL), highlighting the extent to which teacher efficacy (TE) influenced the its success. The study also examined whether lack of readiness for SDL was an implementation obstacle. Finally, it noted other barriers and obstacles…

Rowe, Barry W.

178

Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training?  

PubMed

Performance in intense exercise events, such as Olympic rowing, swimming, kayak, track running and track cycling events, involves energy contribution from aerobic and anaerobic sources. As aerobic energy supply dominates the total energy requirements after ?75s of near maximal effort, and has the greatest potential for improvement with training, the majority of training for these events is generally aimed at increasing aerobic metabolic capacity. A short-term period (six to eight sessions over 2-4 weeks) of high-intensity interval training (consisting of repeated exercise bouts performed close to or well above the maximal oxygen uptake intensity, interspersed with low-intensity exercise or complete rest) can elicit increases in intense exercise performance of 2-4% in well-trained athletes. The influence of high-volume training is less discussed, but its importance should not be downplayed, as high-volume training also induces important metabolic adaptations. While the metabolic adaptations that occur with high-volume training and high-intensity training show considerable overlap, the molecular events that signal for these adaptations may be different. A polarized approach to training, whereby ?75% of total training volume is performed at low intensities, and 10-15% is performed at very high intensities, has been suggested as an optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who perform intense exercise events. PMID:20840557

Laursen, P B

2010-10-01

179

Selection into specialty training in public health: performance of the Medical Training Application Service shortlisting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the performance of shortlisting against appointability to public health specialty training under the Medical Training Application Service (MTAS) selection methodology using multiple modality in person assessment. Methods Candidates who had applied to public health specialty training programme in Wales and East of England and shortlisted were assessed in the first assessment round. Further to MTAS review, candidates

Nora Pashayan; Celia Duff; Brendan W. Mason

2007-01-01

180

Effects of inspiratory muscle training on time-trial performance in trained cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of specific inspiratory muscle training on simulated time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 16 male cyclists (VO 2max = 64 - 2 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; mean - sx ¥ ) were assigned at random to either an experimental (pressure-threshold inspiratory muscle training) or sham-training control (placebo) group. Pulmonary function, maximum

Lee M. Romer; Alison K. McConnell; David A. Jones

2002-01-01

181

Dancing in pain: pain appraisal and coping in dancers.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between the type of pain experienced (performance pain and injury pain), the cognitive appraisal of pain and pain coping styles in dancers. Fifty-one professional ballet and contemporary dancers (17 males and 34 females), with the mean age of 25.9 years, completed a general pain questionnaire, the Pain Appraisal Inventory, the Survey of Pain Attitudes Control Subscale, and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that both the cognitive appraisal of the pain and pain coping styles did not differ according to the type of pain experienced or the pain severity. However, it was found that dancers with performance pain of either low or high severity were more likely to dance in pain than dancers experiencing injury pain. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the appraisal of pain as threatening was predictive of the use of avoidance and catastrophizing pain coping styles. Overall, results indicated that dancers may not differentiate between performance pain and injury pain, or modify their appraisal and coping strategies according to the characteristics of the pain experienced. The study highlighted an opportunity for increased education for dancers in recognizing the difference between pain considered to be a routine aspect of training and pain which is a signal of serious injury. PMID:19618573

Anderson, Ruth; Hanrahan, Stephanie J

2008-01-01

182

5 CFR 1330.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes...ratings of record, or other performance appraisal results determined during...certification upon a showing that its performance appraisal systems for senior...

2009-01-01

183

5 CFR 1330.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes...ratings of record, or other performance appraisal results determined during...certification upon a showing that its performance appraisal systems for senior...

2013-01-01

184

Changes in O 2 max and running performance with training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study was undertaken to determine the response of \\u000a$$\\\\dot V$$\\u000aO2 max and of running performance (805 and 3218 m) to the onset of training in untrained individuals and to an increase in the volume and intensity of training in well trained individuals. In series A, \\u000a$$\\\\dot V$$\\u000aO2 max and performances of 12 previously untrained individuals were determined

J. T. Daniels; R. A. Yarbrough; C. Foster

1978-01-01

185

Mechanisms for training security inspectors to enhance human performance  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has established qualification standards for protective force personnel employed at nuclear facilities (10 CFR Part 1046 (Federal Register)). Training mechanisms used at Los Alamos to enhance human performance in meeting DOE standards include, but are not limited to, the following: for cardio-respiratory training, they utilize distance running, interval training, sprint training, pacing, indoor aerobics and circuit training; for muscular strength, free weights, weight machines, light hand weights, grip strength conditioners, and calistenics are employed; for muscular endurance, participants do high repetitions (15 - 40) using dumbbells, flex weights, resistive rubber bands, benches, and calisthenics; for flexibility, each training session devotes specific times to stretch the muscles involved for a particular activity. These training mechanisms with specific protocols can enhance human performance.

Burkhalter, H.E.; Sessions, J.C.

1988-01-01

186

The effects of rhythm training on tennis performance.  

PubMed

Rhythm training is an integral part of sports. The purposes of the study were to analyze the effects of rhythm training on tennis performance and rhytmic competence of tennis players, to compare the improvement levels of tennis specific and general rhythm training and to examine the effects of shorter and longer tempos on rhythmic competence. Thirty university students whose mean score of International Tennis Number (ITN) was 7.3 (±0.9) were divided randomly into three sub-groups: Tennis Group, General Rhythm Training Group and Tennis-Specific Rhythm Training Group. The experimental procedure lasted 8 weeks. During this period, all groups had the same tennis training twice a week. The Tennis Group had regular tennis training sessions. In addition to regular tennis training sessions, the General Rhythm Training Group followed the general rhythm training sessions and the Tennis-Specific Rhythm Training Group had tennis-specific rhythm training. The measurement instruments were ITN, Rhythmic Competence Analysis Test and Untimed Consecutive Rally Test. The results indicated that participation in tennis-specific or general rhythm training resulted in progress in tennis playing levels, forehand consistency performance and rhythmic competence of the participants. On the other hand, attendance to the regular 8-week tennis training was enough to solely increase the tennis playing level but not sufficient to develop forehand consistency performance and rhythmic competence. Although the participants in the TRTG had better improvement scores than the ones in the GRTG, no significant difference was found between the rhythm training groups. The results also revealed that participants exhibited higher rhythmic competence scores on fast tempo compared to slow tempo. PMID:23486093

Sö?üt, Mustafa; Kirazci, Sadettin; Korkusuz, Feza

2012-07-04

187

Motivation and Platoon Performance at Combat Training Centers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is widely assumed that motivation powerfully affects the quality of performance. To improve Army leadership training, soldier motivation was measured and its relation to performance was assessed. As part of a larger effort, two scales designed to asses...

G. H. Lawrence

1992-01-01

188

Influence of Agility Training on Physiological and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agility training (AT) has recently been instituted in several combat athlete communities in hopes of improving combat performance as well as general fitness. AT has been demonstrated to improve performance in agility tests while traditional linear exercis...

E. Doczy K. Sidrow L. Lennemann R. Klein T. B. Walker

2010-01-01

189

An appraisal of a column-generation-based algorithm for centralized train-conflict resolution on a metropolitan railway network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In practice, a train-conflict resolution is decentralized around dispatchers each of whom controls a few segments in a global railway network with her rule-of-thumb to operational data. Conceptually, the global sub-optimality or infeasibility of the decentralized system is resolved by a network controller who coordinates the dispatchers and train operators at the lower layers on a real-time basis. However, such

Yun-Hong Min; Myoung-Ju Park; Sung-Pil Hong; Soon-Heum Hong

2011-01-01

190

An appraisal of a column-generation-based algorithm for centralized train-conflict resolution on a metropolitan railway network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In practice, a train-conflict resolution is decentralized around dispatchers each of whom controls a few segments in a global railway network with her rule-of-thumb to operational data. Conceptually, the global sub-optimality or infeasibility of the decentralized system is resolved by a network controller who coordinates the dispatchers and train operators at the lower layers on a real-time basis. However, such

Yun-Hong Min; Myoung-Ju Park; Sung-Pil Hong; Soon-Heum Hong

2010-01-01

191

Appraisal Quality and Residential Mortgage Default: Evidence from Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

We empirically examine the effect of appraisal quality on subsequent mortgage loan performance using data from the high volatility housing market of Alaska in the 1980s. We develop measures of appraisal quality by computing the residual between a hedonic estimate of house value using available information from other appraisals compared to actual ex ante appraised value. We then estimate proportional

Michael LaCour-Little; Stephen Malpezzi

2003-01-01

192

Seeing Things in a Different Light: Assessing the Effects of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention upon the Further Appraisals and Performance of Golfers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a systematic cognitive-behavioral intervention program were examined upon the further appraisals (i.e., emotional orientation) of four golfers who interpreted their emotions as debilitative towards upcoming performance and the subsequent effect on actual performance. A systematic, theoretically underpinned, multiple-baseline single-subject design was employed, with four main phases adopted over a 34 week period: Phase I involved baseline monitoring

Rich Neil; Sheldon Hanton; Stephen. D. Mellalieu

2012-01-01

193

A Survey of Competency-Based Training of Senior House Officers in Performing Minor Surgical Procedures  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The aim of this survey was to ascertain the level of competency and training of basic surgical trainees (SHOs) in performing incision and drainage of a perianal abscess (a minor surgical procedure). MATERIALS AND METHODS Questionnaires were sent to SHOs enquiring about preferred methods of incision and drainage and the teaching received to perform this procedure. RESULTS Of respondent SHOs, 10% did not receive teaching when performing their first incision and drainage and over half did not received any feedback from their trainers. A mere 65% received practical supervision. Use of the curette and de-roofing of the abscess are not routine methods used. In addition, 13% reported inadequate incision and drainage, which required a second procedure. CONCLUSIONS Competency-based training in minor surgical procedures benefits not only from didactic teaching, immediate supervision and appraisal but also from frequent practise. This was found to be lacking for incision and drainage of perianal abscesses by basic surgical trainees surveyed in the study.

Leong, Samuel CL; Waghorn, Alison J

2006-01-01

194

Automated Manufacturing Training Center. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project conducted by Northampton Community College established an automated manufacturing training center for use by industry in eastern Pennsylvania. The center assists small and medium-size manufacturing firms in evaluating and integrating off-the-shelf technology to make them more competitive in the global marketplace. Comprehensive services…

Northampton Community Coll., Bethlehem, PA.

195

Quiet eye training facilitates competitive putting performance in elite golfers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief quiet eye (QE) training intervention aimed at optimizing visuomotor control and putting performance of elite golfers under pressure, and in real competition. Twenty-two elite golfers (mean handicap 2.7) recorded putting statistics over 10 rounds of competitive golf before attending training individually. Having been randomly assigned to either a QE training or Control group, participants were fitted with an Applied Science Laboratories Mobile Eye tracker and performed 20 baseline (pre-test) putts from 10?ft. Training consisted of video feedback of their gaze behavior while they completed 20 putts; however the QE-trained group received additional instructions related to maintaining a longer QE period. Participants then recorded their putting statistics over a further 10 competitive rounds and re-visited the laboratory for retention and pressure tests of their visuomotor control and putting performance. Overall, the results were supportive of the efficacy of the QE training intervention. QE duration predicted 43% of the variance in putting performance, underlying its critical role in the visuomotor control of putting. The QE-trained group maintained their optimal QE under pressure conditions, whereas the Control group experienced reductions in QE when anxious, with subsequent effects on performance. Although their performance was similar in the pre-test, the QE-trained group holed more putts and left the ball closer to the hole on missed putts than their Control group counterparts in the pressure test. Importantly, these advantages transferred to the golf course, where QE-trained golfers made 1.9 fewer putts per round, compared to pre-training, whereas the Control group showed no change in their putting statistics. These results reveal that QE training, incorporated into a pre-shot routine, is an effective intervention to help golfers maintain control when anxious. PMID:21713182

Vine, Samuel J; Moore, Lee J; Wilson, Mark R

2011-01-28

196

Alpha Neurofeedback Training for Performance Enhancement: Reviewing the Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Considerable interest has been, and still is, generated by the potential performance enhancing benefits of alpha neurofeedback training (NFT) for healthy participants. A plausible rationale for such training, with an aim to improve mood and\\/or enhance cognition, can be made based upon what is already known of the links between alpha EEG activity and behavior. However, designing an optimal

D. Vernon; T. Dempster; O. Bazanova; N. Rutterford; M. Pasqualini; S. Andersen

2009-01-01

197

Relationship between production performance, visual appraisal and body measurements of young Dorper rams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body measurements of 433 young Dorper rams participating in the Free State and Northern Cape veld-ram projects were correlated with their production performance. These measurements included a selection index, body weight (kg), average daily gain (g\\/day) and scrotal circumference (cm). The performance of the animals in the two projects compared well, although the means in the Free State project

P. J. Fourie; F. W. C. Neser; J. J. Olivier; C. van der Westhuizen

198

Analyzing the Interaction of Performance Appraisal Factors Using Interpretive Structural Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In today's changed environment where the economy and industry are driven by customers, business is open to worldwide competition. Manufacturing firms have looked at employee performance improvement as a means to succeed. These findings advocate setting up priorities for employee performance improvement. This requires a continuous improvement…

Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

2010-01-01

199

Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?  

PubMed

The general practice of altitude training is widely accepted as a means to enhance sport performance despite a lack of rigorous scientific studies. For example, the scientific gold-standard design of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial has never been conducted on altitude training. Given that few studies have utilised appropriate controls, there should be more scepticism concerning the effects of altitude training methodologies. In this brief review we aim to point out weaknesses in theories and methodologies of the various altitude training paradigms and to highlight the few well-designed studies to give athletes, coaches and sports medicine professionals the current scientific state of knowledge on common forms of altitude training. Another aim is to encourage investigators to design well-controlled studies that will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of altitude training. PMID:22797528

Lundby, Carsten; Millet, Gregoire P; Calbet, Jose A; Bärtsch, Peter; Subudhi, Andrew W

2012-07-14

200

The Effects of Cognitive Appraisal of Stress on Heart Rate and Task Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In aviation occupations, performance impairment under stress conditions is particularly undesirable. However, individuals may show differing amounts of impairment under stress, and the reasons for these differences are not clear. The present study explore...

R. I. Thackray D. W. Pearson

1968-01-01

201

E? ects of inspiratory muscle training on time -trial performance in trained cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 ´min -1 ; mean ± sx Å ) were assigned at random to either an experimental (pressure -threshold inspiratory muscle training) or sham-training control (placebo) group. Pulmonary function, maximum dynamic inspiratory muscle function and the physiological and perceptual responses to maximal incremental cycling were assessed. Simulated time-trial performance (20 and 40 km) was quanti ® ed as the time

LEE M. ROMER; ALISON K. McCONNELL; DAVID A. JONES

202

Individualised training to address variability of radiologists' performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer-based tools are increasingly used for training and the continuing professional development of radiologists. We propose an adaptive training system to support individualised learning in mammography, based on a set of real cases, which are annotated with educational content by experienced breast radiologists. The system has knowledge of the strengths and weakness of each radiologist's performance: each radiologist is assessed to compute a profile showing how they perform on different sets of cases, classified by type of abnormality, breast density, and perceptual difficulty. We also assess variability in cognitive aspects of image perception, classifying errors made by radiologists as errors of search, recognition or decision. This is a novel element in our approach. The profile is used to select cases to present to the radiologist. The intelligent and flexible presentation of these cases distinguishes our system from existing training tools. The training cases are organised and indexed by an ontology we have developed for breast radiologist training, which is consistent with the radiologists' profile. Hence, the training system is able to select appropriate cases to compose an individualised training path, addressing the variability of the radiologists' performance. A substantial part of the system, the ontology has been evaluated on a large number of cases, and the training system is under implementation for further evaluation.

Sun, Shanghua; Taylor, Paul; Wilkinson, Louise; Khoo, Lisanne

2008-04-01

203

An appraisal of the 1992 preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has reviewed the WIPP 1992 Performance Assessment (Sandia WIPP Performance Assessment Department, 1992). Although this performance assessment was released after the October 1992 passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (PL 102-579), the work preceded the Act. For individual and ground-water protection, calculations have been done for 1000 years post closure, whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191) issued in 1993 require calculations for 10,000 years. The 1992 Performance Assessment continues to assimilate improved understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site, and evolving conceptual models of natural barriers. Progress has been made towards assessing WIPP`s compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191). The 1992 Performance Assessment has addressed several items of major concern to EEG, outlined in the July 1992 review of the 1991 performance assessment (Neill et al., 1992). In particular, the authors are pleased that some key results in this performance assessment deal with sensitivity of the calculated complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) to alterative conceptual models proposed by EEG -- that flow in the Culebra be treated as single-porosity fracture-flow; with no sorption retardation unless substantiated by experimental data.

Lee, W.W.L.; Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.K.; Weiner, R.; Neill, R.H. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Environmental Evaluation Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

1994-09-01

204

Appraisal of Supervisor's Attitude and Managerial Performance in Health Care Facilities-Mashhad-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an applied, cross-sectional descriptive research which includes all supervisors and Staffs in Mashhad health care facilities. It was used of 2 different questionnaires. Data was gathered and then had been coded and analyzed with SPSS software and t-test. In practice, the maximum notice of administrations was to organization and the minimum one referred to assessment. Between administration attitudes and their performance about planning and assessment was a significant direction positive but there was a significant difference about organization between these groups. The length of services of employee's was the only factor that was effective about the administration performance. The finding depicted that supervisor's performance evaluation as one of the most effective recognition and control methods and has an important role and is effective in promoting productivity of services in health care facilities.

Vafaee, A.; Majdi, M.; Kabazkhoob, M.

205

Threat and challenge: cognitive appraisal and stress responses in simulated trauma resuscitations.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES Training and practice in medicine are inherently stressful. Research into the effects of acute stressors has revealed significant variability in individual responses to stressors, with performance impairments occurring in those who demonstrate elevated subjective and physiological responses. Cognitive appraisals (subjective assessment of situational demands and available resources) of a stressor have been proposed as a predictor variable in stress responses. However, the relationship between cognitive appraisal and stress responses has not been tested empirically in complex realistic situations. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which cognitive appraisal affects a medical trainee's subjective and physiological stress responses to high-acuity simulated clinical situations. METHODS Thirteen emergency medicine and general surgery residents participated in high (HS) and low (LS) stress trauma resuscitation simulations. Subjective (cognitive appraisal and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]) and physiological (salivary cortisol) measures were collected at baseline and in response to participation in each scenario. RESULTS Post-scenario STAI scores, cognitive appraisal and cortisol levels were higher in the HS scenario compared with the LS scenario. For the participants who appraised the scenarios as 'threats' (in which the demands outweighed the resources), the ratio of perceived demands to resources was positively correlated with cortisol levels (r = 0.59, p < 0.05) and STAI responses (r = 0.64, p < 0.05). By contrast, for the participants who appraised the scenarios as 'challenges' (in which resources were sufficient to meet the demands), the perceived ratio of demands to resources was not correlated with either the STAI scores or cortisol levels. CONCLUSIONS Subjective appraisals of a situation appear to play an important role in stress responses, which have previously been shown to impair performance. As such, training for high-acuity events should include interventions targeting stress management skills. PMID:20604855

Harvey, Adrian; Nathens, Avery B; Bandiera, Glen; Leblanc, Vicki R

2010-06-01

206

How Do Endurance Runners Actually Train? Relationship with Competition Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ESTEVE-LANAO, J., A. F. SAN JUAN, C. P. EARNEST, C. FOSTER, and A. LUCIA. How Do Endurance Runners Actually Train? Relationship with Competition Performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 496 -504, 2005. Purpose: To quantify the relationship between total training load and running performance during the most important competitions of the season (national cross-country championships, 4.175-

JONATHAN ESTEVE-LANAO; CONRAD P. EARNEST; CARL FOSTER; ALEJANDRO LUCIA

2005-01-01

207

Effects of Acute Stretching on Resistance Training Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Marek, Shaun J., Wolfarth, Jon M., Dettinger, Luke J., Kelley, Darin C. Effects of Acute Stretching on Resistance Training Performance. J. Undergrad. Kin. Res. 2005;1(1):9-15. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training performance on a 1 RM bench press test using a stretching routine vs. no stretching routine. Ten healthy male students took

Shaun J. Marek; Jon M. Wolfarth; Luke J. Dettinger; Darin C. Kelley

208

Declared versus actual organizational culture as indicated by an organization's performance appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the incompatible aspects of the declared and actual organizational norms as cultural aspects. Data were drawn from a performance evaluation conducted in a large multinational pharmaceutical organization. The selected evaluation dimensions are based on the publicly articulated behavioral norms stated by top level management. The empirical model partially supported the hypothesis. Two predictors, intrinsic normative motivation dimensions

Hila Hofstetter; Itzhak Harpaz

2011-01-01

209

The Influence of Agility Training on Physiological and Cognitive Performance.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: Agility training (AT) has recently been instituted in several military communities in hopes of improving combat performance as well as general fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine how substituting AT for traditional military physical training (PT) influences physical and cognitive performance. 41 subjects undergoing military technical training were divided randomly into two groups for 6 weeks of training. One group participated in standard military PT consisting of calisthenics and running. A second group duplicated the amount of exercise of the first group, but used AT as their primary mode of training. Prior to and following training, subjects completed a physical and cognitive battery of tests including VO2max, reaction time, Illinois Agility Test, body composition, visual vigilance, dichotic listening, and working memory tests. There were significant improvements within the AT group in VO2max, Illinois Agility Test, visual vigilance, and continuous memory. There was a significant increase in time-to-exhaustion for the traditional group. We conclude that AT is as effective or more effective as PT in enhancing physical fitness. Further, it is potentially more effective than PT in enhancing specific measures of physical and cognitive performance, such as physical agility, memory, and vigilance. Consequently, we suggest that AT be incorporated into existing military physical training programs as a way to improve warfighter performance. Further, it seems likely that the benefits of AT observed here occur in various other populations. PMID:23442271

Lennemann, Lynette; Sidrow, Kathryn; Johnson, Erica; Harrison, Catherine; Vojta, Christopher; Walker, Thomas

2013-02-25

210

Comparison of ISO standards for device performance; 20072 and 27427: a critical appraisal.  

PubMed

Two separate international standards, ISO 20072:2009 and ISO 27427:2010, have recently been published that relate to the development and performance testing of oral inhaled products (OIPs). The scope of ISO 20072 encompasses all OIP forms except nebulizing systems, whereas ISO 27427 was developed specifically for this class of OIP. Compliance with these standards will likely be necessary for manufacturers seeking approval to market inhaler devices in the European Union (EU). Their adoption in the United States may take a considerable time, but the FDA has expressed support in general terms for the ISO process. Key aspects of both standards that are very different in style and content are identified and discussed from the perspective of a potential user. In the approach adopted by ISO 20072, a formalized risk assessment is undertaken as a key part of design verification, in order to develop the Device Functionality Profile (DFP) of the device. The DFP is subsequently verified by the System Verification Test (SVT), in which pharmacopeial test methods are used to evaluate in vitro performance of the device with a chosen drug product in a statistically robust manner. On the other hand, ISO 27427 adopts a more prescriptive approach that involves performance verification of the finished nebulizing system using 1% w/v salbutamol as the test formulation. Although ISO 27427 is currently undergoing revision, at present it is unclear whether the changes that are made will significantly alter its fundamentally different approach to device performance verification. A strong case can be made for a single OIP-wide ISO standard, based on the principles developed in ISO 20072 and that makes use of the well-understood and validated in vitro test procedures that are available or will shortly be available in the case of nebulizing systems, in the United States and European pharmacopeias. PMID:22857272

Nerbrink, Ola; Mitchell, Jolyon P

2012-08-01

211

Training-Based MIMO Systems - Part I: Performance Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we make a performance comparison between two different training-based schemes for MIMO channel estimation. The two schemes are the conventional time-multiplexed pilot (CP) scheme and the more recently suggested superimposed pilot (SIP) scheme. Unlike previous comparisons found in the literature that are mostly based on estimation error performances, the performance comparison is here made by deriving and

Patrik Bohlin

2007-01-01

212

Tools for evaluating team performance in simulation-based training  

PubMed Central

Teamwork training constitutes one of the core approaches for moving healthcare systems toward increased levels of quality and safety, and simulation provides a powerful method of delivering this training, especially for face-paced and dynamic specialty areas such as Emergency Medicine. Team performance measurement and evaluation plays an integral role in ensuring that simulation-based training for teams (SBTT) is systematic and effective. However, this component of SBTT systems is overlooked frequently. This article addresses this gap by providing a review and practical introduction to the process of developing and implementing evaluation systems in SBTT. First, an overview of team performance evaluation is provided. Second, best practices for measuring team performance in simulation are reviewed. Third, some of the prominent measurement tools in the literature are summarized and discussed relative to the best practices. Subsequently, implications of the review are discussed for the practice of training teamwork in Emergency Medicine.

Rosen, Michael A; Weaver, Sallie J; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Salas, Eduardo; Wu, Teresa; Silvestri, Salvatore; Schiebel, Nicola; Almeida, Sandra; King, Heidi B

2010-01-01

213

Training Content and Potential Impact on Performance: A Comparison of Young Male and Female Endurance-Trained Runners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training

Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.

2006-01-01

214

Single and repeated dose comparison of three antihistamines and phenylpropanolamine: psychomotor performance and subjective appraisals of sleep.  

PubMed Central

1 In a double-blind cross-over study, nine healthy male students received placebo, brompheniramine 12 mg), carbinoxamine (12 mg), clemastine (1 mg), and phenylpropanolamine (50 mg) orally. Three doses of each drug were given: at 08.30 h and 21.00 h on the first day of treatment and at 08.30 h on the following day. 2 Psychomotor skills and subjective feelings were recorded before and 2, 6 and 12 h after the first dose on day 1 as well as before and 2 and 6 h after the third dose on day 2. Subjective appraisals of sleep were requested on the morning of day 2. 3 All antihistamines tended to cause subjective drowsiness on the first day of treatment. Drowsiness was felt for a maximum of 2 h after carbinoxamine, 6 h after brompheniramine, and 12 h after clemastine. In contrast to antihistamines, phenylpropanolamine made subjects more alert and quick witted. Tolerance to the antihistamine-induced drowsiness developed on the second day. 4 Divided attention, tracking, speed anticipation and sleep were not affected by any drug. Carbinoxamine slowed reactions 2 h after the first dose, but no impairment was measured in objective tests after brompheniramine or clemastine. 5 Phenylpropanolamine improved reaction speed and reaction accuracy and enhanced flicker recognition throughout the study. Phenylpropanolamine plasma levels and improvement in flicker fusion test results correlated with each other on day 2. 6 The results suggest that phenylpropanolamine and the antihistamines studied are comparatively harmless to psychomotor performance and driving skills.

Seppala, T; Nuotto, E; Korttila, K

1981-01-01

215

Negotiation Performance: Antecedents, Outcomes, and Training Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One capability that is increasingly important to military leadership is effective negotiation skills. This report provides a comprehensive review of negotiation performance, outcomes, and antecedents, and presents a model describing the major linkages bet...

A. A. Jadallah H. Foldes M. Cullen M. Ferro M. Wisecarver

2011-01-01

216

Training Lessons Learned from Peak Performance Episodes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An examination of episodes of peak performance indicates that three cognitive components enable these episodes: psychological readiness (activating optimal arousal and emotion appropriate for the task), information processing (attending to and interpretin...

J. L. Fobes

1986-01-01

217

Performance appraisal of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as controlled low-strength material.  

PubMed

Controlled low-strength material (CLSM) is slurry made by mixing sand, cement, ash, and water. It is primarily used as a replacement for soil and structural fillings. This paper presents the findings of a preliminary investigation carried out on the performance of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as CLSM. CLSM mixes were designed using industrial waste incineration bottom ash, and cement. Tests for density, setting time, bleed, and compressive strength on cubes under various curing conditions, corrosivity, and leaching of heavy metals and salts were carried out on the CLSM mixtures, and the results discussed. Compressive strength for the designed CLSM mixtures ranged from 0.1 to 1.7 MPa. It is shown that the variations in curing conditions have less influence on the compressive strength of CLSM at high values of water to cement ratio (w/c), but low values of w/c influences the strength of CLSM. The CLSM produced does not exhibit corrosive characters as evidenced by pH. Leaching of heavy metals and salts is higher in bleed than in leachate collected from hardened CLSM. Cement reduces the leaching of Boron in bleed. It is concluded that there is good potential for the use of industrial waste incineration bottom ash in CLSM. PMID:19665294

Razak, Hashim Abdul; Naganathan, Sivakumar; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

2009-07-25

218

Training at the Optimum Power Zone Produces Similar Performance Improvements to Traditional Strength Training  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of this study was to test if substituting a regular maximum strength-oriented training regimen by a power-oriented one at the optimal power load in the first phase of a traditional periodization produces similar performance improvements later on into the training period. Forty five soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG - n = 15, 20.18 ± 0.72 yrs, 1.74 ± 0.06 m, 66.7 ± 9.8 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.14 ± 0.12), a traditional periodization group (TG - n = 15, 20.11 ± 0.7 yrs, 1.72 ± 0.045 m, 63.1 ± 3.6 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.21 ± 0.16); and a maximum-power group (MPG - n = 15, 20.5 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.73 ± 0.049m, 67.3 ± 9.8 kg, 1RM/weight ratio = 1.20 ± 0.14). Maximum strength (26.2% and 24.6%), CMJ height (30.8% and 39.1%) and sprint speed (11.6% and 14.5%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) and similarly for the MPG and TG, respectively, from pre- to post-assessments. Our data suggests that a power training regimen may be used in the initial phase of the training cycle without impairing performance later on into the training period. Key points Training at the optimal power zone during two mesocycles of a traditional periodization did not hamper strength, speed and power performance improvements. Additional research is required in order to find out if longer periods of training at optimal power zone are capable of producing similar performance improvements to traditional strength training regimen.

Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Roschel, Hamilton; Tricoli, Valmor; Gonzalez-Badillo, Juan Jose

2013-01-01

219

Peformance Appraisal Behaviors: Supervisor Perceptions and Subordinate Reactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined supervisor perceptions and subordinate reactions to formal performance-appraisal reviews. There were three dimensions of formal performance appraisals: two developmental (being supportive; emphasizing performance improvement) and one administrative (discussing pay and advancement). Support in appraisal review was associated with higher…

Dorfman, Peter W.; And Others

1986-01-01

220

High-performance robust speech recognition using stereo training data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a novel technique of SPLICE (Stereo-based Piecewise Linear Compensation for Environments) for high performance robust speech recognition. It is an efficient noise reduction and channel distortion compensation technique that makes effective use of stereo training data. We present a new version of SPLICE using the minimum-mean-square-error decision, and describe an extension by training clusters of hidden Markov models

Li Deng; Alex Acero; Li Jiang; Jasha Droppo; Xuedong Huang

2001-01-01

221

US Department of Energy Central Training Academy performance testing fundamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that performance testing is required for training and inspection, and for validation of results of the vulnerability assessment which is a section of the US DOE Master Safeguards and Security Agreement (NSSA). It is essential, regardless of the reason for performing the test, that the collection of data be well planned to eliminate the bias of the

1991-01-01

222

Using Importance-Performance Analysis to Evaluate Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance-performance analysis (IPA) is a tool that can provide timely and usable feedback to improve training. IPA measures the gaps between the importance and how good (performance) a class is perceived by a student and is presented on a 2x2 matrix. The quadrant in which data land in this matrix aids in determining potential future action.…

Siniscalchi, Jason M.; Beale, Edward K.; Fortuna, Ashley

2008-01-01

223

Performance determined instruction for training in remedial reading1  

PubMed Central

A system called Performance Determined Instruction (PDI) is presented as a methodological tactic for training in remedial reading. The system incorporates aspects of binary logic, instrumental conditioning, and programmed instruction. Results suggest that PDI is a high-precision instructional procedure effective in obtaining desired changes in reading-task performance.

Gray, Burl B.; Baker, Richard D.; Stancyk, Susan E.

1969-01-01

224

In-season strength maintenance training increases well-trained cyclists' performance.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of strength maintenance training on thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), leg strength, determinants of cycling performance, and cycling performance. Well-trained cyclists completed either (1) usual endurance training supplemented with heavy strength training twice a week during a 12-week preparatory period followed by strength maintenance training once a week during the first 13 weeks of a competition period (E + S; n = 6 [? = 6]), or (2) usual endurance training during the whole intervention period (E; n = 6 [? = 5, ? = 1]). Following the preparatory period, E + S increased thigh muscle CSA and 1RM (p < 0.05), while no changes were observed in E. Both groups increased maximal oxygen consumption and mean power output in the 40-min all-out trial (p < 0.05). At 13 weeks into the competition period, E + S had preserved the increase in CSA and strength from the preparatory period. From the beginning of the preparatory period to 13 weeks into the competition period, E + S increased peak power output in the Wingate test, power output at 2 mmol l(-1) [la(-)], maximal aerobic power output (W (max)), and mean power output in the 40-min all-out trial (p < 0.05). The relative improvements in the last two measurements were larger than in E (p < 0.05). For E, W (max) and power output at 2 mmol l(-1) [la(-)] remained unchanged. In conclusion, in well-trained cyclists, strength maintenance training in a competition period preserved increases in thigh muscle CSA and leg strength attained in a preceding preparatory period and further improved cycling performance determinants and performance. PMID:20799042

Rønnestad, Bent R; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Raastad, Truls

2010-08-27

225

Frame of Reference Rater Training Issues: Recall, Time and Behavior Observation Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Graduate students were trained as raters either using frame of reference (FOR, n=220, behavior observation training (BOT, n=21), or performance appraisal (controls, n=21). They rated videotaped lecturers twice. FOR increased number of behaviors recalled; FOR and BOT improved recall quality. FOR improved rating accuracy even after 2 weeks.…

Roch, Sylvia G.; O'Sullivan, Brian J.

2003-01-01

226

Appraisal and Performance Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a chapter in "The Principles and Practice of Educational Management," which aims to provide a systematic and analytical introduction to the study of educational management. The structure of the book reflects the main substantive areas of educational leadership and management, and most of the major themes are covered in the…

Middlewood, David

227

The effects of strength training and endurance training order on running economy and performance.  

PubMed

This study examined the acute effect of strength and endurance training sequence on running economy (RE) at 70% and 90% ventilatory threshold (VT) and on running time to exhaustion (TTE) at 110% VT the following day. Fourteen trained and moderately trained male runners performed strength training prior to running sessions (SR) and running prior to strength training sessions (RS) with each mode of training session separated by 6 h. RE tests were conducted at baseline (Base-RE) and the day following each sequence to examine cost of running (CR), TTE, and lower extremity kinematics. Maximal isometric knee extensor torque was measured prior to and following each training session and the RE tests. Results showed that CR at 70% and 90% VT for SR-RE (0.76 ± 0.10 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mL·kg(-0.75)·m(-1)) was significantly greater than Base-RE (0.72 ± 0.10 and 0.70 ± 0.11 mL·kg(-0.75)·m(-1)) and RS-RE (0.73 ± 0.09 and 0.72 ± 0.09 mL·kg(-0.75)·m(-1)) (P < 0.05). TTE was significantly less for SR-RE (237.8 ± 67.4 s) and RS-RE (275.3 ± 68.0 s) compared with Base-RE (335.4 ± 92.1 s) (P < 0.01). The torque during the SR sequence was significantly reduced for every time point following the strength training session (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found in torque following the running session (P > 0.05), although it was significantly reduced following the strength training session (P < 0.05) during the RS sequence. These findings show that running performance is impaired to a greater degree the day following the SR sequence compared with the RS sequence. PMID:23724883

Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen Bede

2013-01-25

228

Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train features and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most CPV systems are based on Fresnel lenses. Among these, LPI-patented Fresnel-Köhler (FK) concentrator outstands owing to performance and practical reasons. The Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train is the first off-the-shelf commercial product based on the FK and comprises both the primary (POE) lenses (a 36-units 1×1 m2 acrylic panel) and glass (or silica glass) secondary optics (SOE). This high concentration optical train (Cg=1,024×, ~250mm optical depth) fits with 5×5 mm2 (at least) solar cells. The optical train is the fruit of a 1-year development that has included design, modeling, prototyping and characterization, and through the process we had the opportunity to find out how well the actual performance correlates with models, but also learned practical aspects of a CPV system of this kind, some of which have very positive impact on system performance and reliability.

Mohedano, R.; Benitez, P.; Zamora, P.; Miñano, J. C.; Mendes, J.; Cvetkovic, A.; Vilaplana, J.; Hernandez, M.; Chaves, J.; Biot, G.

2013-09-01

229

Coping, mastery, stress appraisals, mental preparation, and unit cohesion predicting distress and performance: a longitudinal study of soldiers undertaking evacuation tasks.  

PubMed

The study aimed to assess the associations of psychological and military variables with distress and performance evaluation among 168 Israeli soldiers who took part in evacuating fellow Israeli civilians in the summer of 2005 during the disengagement from Gaza. Coping, mastery, stress appraisals, mental preparation, unit cohesion, and psychological distress were assessed at T1, one to two weeks before the disengagement. A sub-sample of 68 of the 168 soldiers completed the distress measure again at T2, eight to nine weeks after T1, together with performance evaluation of the disengagement task. The main findings indicated positive associations of T1 distress with high T1 emotion-focused coping, and negative associations with education and T1 mastery. Emotion-focused coping at T1 predicted low performance evaluation at T2, while mental preparation at T1 predicted high performance evaluation at T2. Stress appraisals at T1 were found to be an important mediator of the associations of T1 coping, mastery, unit cohesion, and mental preparation with T1 distress. Similar mediator results were found for T2 performance evaluation. PMID:20178016

Gilbar, Ora; Ben-Zur, Hasida; Lubin, Gadi

2010-10-01

230

Troop performance on a training maneuver involving the use of atomic weapons. Technical memo  

Microsoft Academic Search

ORO set out to appraise the performance and psychological reaction of troops undergoing their first experience with the A-Bomb. Analysts were with the troops (before, during, and after the Exercise) observing individual behavior as evidenced by views expressed publicly and privately, by conduct, and by emotional reaction indicated by the polygraph. The men performed adequately and gave no outward signs

A. H. Hausrath; S. G. Billingsley; S. W. Davis; H. P. Griggs; F. N. Trefethen

1952-01-01

231

Teacher Appraisal and Its Outcomes in Singapore Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the performance appraisal system used for primary school teachers in Singapore, and how those attributes affect satisfaction with the appraisal system, stress experienced with the appraisal system, attitudes towards performance bonus, job satisfaction and motivation, and perceived…

Kelly, Khim Ong; Ang, Shi Yun Angela; Chong, Wei Ling; Hu, Wei Sheng

2008-01-01

232

Inspiratory muscle training improves 100 and 200 m swimming performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve time trial performance in competitive athletes across a range\\u000a of sports. Surprisingly, however, the effect of specific IMT on surface swimming performance remains un-investigated. Similarly,\\u000a it is not known whether any ergogenic influence of IMT upon swimming performance is confined to specific race distances. To\\u000a determine the influence of IMT upon

Andrew E. Kilding; Sarah Brown; Alison K. McConnell

2010-01-01

233

Information Feedback: Contributions to Learning and Performance in Perceptual Identification Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In training people to perform auditory identification tasks (e.g., training students to identify sound characteristics in a sonar classification task) it is important to know whether or not training procedures are merely sustaining performance during trai...

A. J. Abrams R. L. Cook

1971-01-01

234

Training nonhuman primates to perform behaviors useful in biomedical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data collected from NHPs that are trained to participate voluntarily in husbandry, veterinary, and research procedures are likely to have particular value. The authors present the results of a series of studies that examined the effects of PRT on the performance by chimpanzees of a variety of biomedically relevant behaviors: presenting their perineum for pinworm testing, providing a semen sample,

Jaine E. Perlman; Erica Thiele; Susan Lambeth; Steven J. Schapiro

2005-01-01

235

Visuospatial Ability Factors and Performance Variables in Laparoscopic Simulator Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus complexity, in their emphasis on identifying…

Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

2012-01-01

236

Visuospatial Ability Factors and Performance Variables in Laparoscopic Simulator Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus complexity, in their emphasis on identifying…

Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

2012-01-01

237

Training Needs for High Performance in the Automotive Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A project was conducted in Australia to identify the training needs of the emerging industry required to support the development of the high performance areas of the automotive machining and reconditioning field especially as it pertained to auto racing. Data were gathered through a literature search, interviews with experts in the field, and…

Clyne, Barry; And Others

238

Using Performance Indicators to Evaluate Training Effectiveness: Lessons Learned.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several approaches to the development of performance indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of safety training in the nuclear power industry. A rationale is presented for a method of generating measures of effectiveness that uses criteria developed by several experts with different viewpoints, and the benefits of this method are…

Wreathall, John; Connelly, Edward M.

1992-01-01

239

Does finger training increase young children's numerical performance?  

PubMed

Butterworth (1999) suggested that fingers are important in representing numerosities. Furthermore, scores on a finger gnosis test are a better predictor of numerical performance up to 3 years later than intellectual measures (Marinthe et al., 2001; Noël, 2005). We hypothesised that training in finger differentiation would increase finger gnosis and might also improve numerical performance. Accordingly, 47 first-grade children were selected and divided into 3 groups: children with poor finger gnosis who followed the finger-differentiation training programme (G1), a control-intervention who were trained in story comprehension (G2), and a group with high finger gnosis scores who just continued with normal school lessons (G3). The finger training consisted of 2 weekly sessions of half an hour each, for 8 weeks. Before the training period, children in G3 performed better in finger gnosis and enumeration than children in the two other groups. After the training period this pattern remained for the children in G2 and G3, but the children in G1 were significantly better than those in G2 at finger gnosis, representation of numerosities with fingers, and quantification tasks; they also tended to be better at the processing of Arabic digits. These results indicate that improving finger gnosis in young children is possible and that it can provide a useful support to learning mathematics. Such an approach could be particularly appropriate for children with a developmental Gerstmann syndrome. Theoretically, these results are important because they suggest a functional link between finger gnosis and number skills. PMID:18387567

Gracia-Bafalluy, Maria; Noël, Marie-Pascale

2008-01-08

240

Performance Improvement: Applying a Human Performance Model to Organizational Processes in a Military Training Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides a description and the results of a study that utilized the human performance (HP) model and methods to explore and analyze a training organization. The systemic and systematic practices of the HP model are applicable to military training organizations as well as civilian organizations. Implications of the study for future…

Aaberg, Wayne; Thompson, Carla J.; West, Haywood V.; Swiergosz, Matthew J.

2009-01-01

241

Evaluating the effectiveness of training strategies: performance goals and testing.  

PubMed

The Public Health Service policy, Animal Welfare Act regulations, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals all require that institutions provide training for personnel engaged in animal research. Most research facilities have developed training programs to meet these requirements but may not have developed ways of assessing the effectiveness of these programs. Omission of this critical activity often leads to training that is ineffective, inefficient, or unnecessary. Evaluating the effectiveness of biomedical research and animal care training should involve a combination of assessments of performance, competence and knowledge, and appropriate tests for each type of knowledge, used at appropriate time intervals. In this article, the hierarchical relationship between performance, competence, and knowledge is described. The discussion of cognitive and psychomotor knowledge includes the important distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge. Measurement of performance is described and can include a variety of indirect and direct measurement techniques. Each measurement option has its own profile of strengths and weaknesses in terms of measurement validity, reliability, and costs of development and delivery. It is important to understand the tradeoffs associated with each measurement option, and to make appropriate choices of measurement strategy based on these tradeoffs arrayed against considerations of frequency, criticality, difficulty of learning, logistics, and budget. The article concludes with an example of how these measurement strategies can be combined into a cost-effective assessment plan for a biomedical research facility. PMID:17420536

Foshay, Wellesley R; Tinkey, Peggy T

2007-01-01

242

Increasing mathematical problem-solving performance through relaxation training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in the same general education mathematics course were each administered the IPSP Mathematics Problem Solving Test and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. Both groups experienced the same syllabus, lectures, course requirements, and assessment techniques; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5 to 7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which had received relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher mathematics performance at the end of the course. The results suggest that relaxation training may be a useful tool for treating anxiety in undergraduate general education mathematics students.

Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, Amykay

2000-04-01

243

Effects of Alternative Training Methods on Self-Efficacy and Performance in Computer Software Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative training methods on self-efficacy and mastery of a computer software program were compared in the context of a field experiment involving 108 university managers. A behavioral modeling approach relative to a tutorial approach yielded higher self-efficacy scores and higher performance on an objective measure of computer software mastery. Participants scoring high in self-efficacy performed significantly better than participants with

Marilyn E. Gist; Catherine Schwoerer; Benson Rosen

1989-01-01

244

Team versus individual training, training task fidelity, and task organization effects on transfer performance by three-man teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer performance of teams was measured in a simulated radar-controlled aerial intercept task. Superior performance occurred after training on an independently organized task (as compared to that after training which required verbal interaction among controllers), and superior performance occurred in an independently organized transfer task. However, these 2 variables interacted such that performance on an interaction condition of the transfer

George E. Briggs; James C. Naylor

1965-01-01

245

Experience with performance based training of nuclear criticality safety engineers  

SciTech Connect

Historically, new entrants to the practice of nuclear criticality safety have learned their job primarily by on-the-job training (OJT) often by association with an experienced nuclear criticality safety engineer who probably also learned their job by OJT. Typically, the new entrant learned what he/she needed to know to solve a particular problem and accumulated experience as more problems were solved. It is likely that more formalism will be required in the future. Current US Department of Energy requirements for those positions which have to demonstrate qualification indicate that it should be achieved by using a systematic approach such as performance based training (PBT). Assuming that PBT would be an acceptable mechanism for nuclear criticality safety engineer training in a more formal environment, a site-specific analysis of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job was performed. Based on this analysis, classes are being developed and delivered to a target audience of newer nuclear criticality safety engineers. Because current interest is in developing training for selected aspects of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job, the analysis i`s incompletely developed in some areas. Details of this analysis are provided in this report.

Taylor, R.G.

1993-12-20

246

Guidelines for evaluation of nuclear facility training programs  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes a single set of objectives and criteria for the evaluation of training programs developed to meet requirements of DOE Orders 5480.18A and 5480.20, and other directives that address training and qualification. The evaluation includes appraisals, surveillances, audits, reviews, assessments, and other activities intended to evaluate training. The standard is intended to assist personnel in performing evaluations of training and qualification programs.

Not Available

1994-06-01

247

Importance of Crew Resource Management Behaviors in Mission Performance: Implications for Training Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cockpit/crew resource management (CRM) training within the military has grown rapidly despite the paucity of empirical data linking CRM to mission performance. CRM training objectives (and course content) are often too vague to allow meaningful training e...

R. T. Nullmeyer V. A. Spiker

2003-01-01

248

Repeated training with augmentative vibrotactile feedback increases object manipulation performance.  

PubMed

Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies. PMID:22384283

Stepp, Cara E; An, Qi; Matsuoka, Yoky

2012-02-27

249

Teaching critical appraisal to medical students in obstetrics and gynecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical appraisal might be the most important skill to acquire in medical school. Despite its importance, this issue has received little attention in obstetrics and gynecology training. This article describes the approach used at San Francisco General Hospital. We teach critical appraisal in several ways. We provide a series of student seminars that foster critical reading of the literature. Topics

David A Grimes; Joseph A Bachicha; Lee A Learman

1998-01-01

250

Military Officer Appraisal, An Examination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is little or no argument that the four military services (U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Navy) have different approaches when performing an evaluation and appraisal of their officers. One unfailing theme is that each service ...

J. S. Lewis

1999-01-01

251

Information Feedback: Contributions to Learning and Performance in Perceptual Identification Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In training people to perform auditory identification tasks (e.g., training students to identify sound characteristics in a sonar classification task), it is important to know whether or not training procedures are merely sustaining performance during training or whether they enhance learning of the task. Often an incorrect assumption is made that…

Abrams, Alvin J.; Cook, Richard L.

252

Unique aspects of competitive weightlifting: performance, training and physiology.  

PubMed

Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure of competitive weightlifters is characterized by the frequent use of high-intensity resistance exercise movements. Varied coaching and training philosophies currently exist around the world and further research is required to substantiate the best type of training programme for male and female weightlifters of various age groups. As competitive weightlifting is contested over eight male and seven female body weight categories, the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes widely ranges. The body compositions of weightlifters are similar to that of athletes of comparable body mass in other strength and power sports. However, the shorter height and limb lengths of weightlifters provide mechanical advantages when lifting heavy loads by reducing the mechanical torque and the vertical distance that the barbell must be displaced. Furthermore, the shorter body dimensions coincide with a greater mean skeletal muscle cross-sectional area that is advantageous to weightlifting performance. Weightlifting training induces a high metabolic cost. Although dietary records demonstrate that weightlifters typically meet their required daily energy intake, weightlifters have been shown to over consume protein and fat at the expense of adequate carbohydrate. The resulting macronutrient imbalance may not yield optimal performance gains. Cross-sectional data suggest that weightlifting training induces type IIX to IIA fibre-type transformation. Furthermore, weightlifters exhibit hypertrophy of type II fibres that is advantageous to weightlifting performance and maximal force production. As such, the isometric peak force and contractile rate of force development of weightlifters is ~15-20% and ~13-16% greater, respectively, than in other strength and power athletes. In addition, weightlifting training has been shown to reduce the typical sex-related difference in the expression of neuromuscular strength and power. However, this apparent sex-related difference appears to be augmented with increasing adult age demonstrating that women undergo a greater age-related decline in muscle shortening velocity and peak power when compared with men. Weightlifting training and competition has been shown to induce significant structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system. The collective evidence shows that these adaptations are physiological as opposed to pathological. Finally, the acute exercise-induced testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone responses of weightlifters have similarities to that of following conventional strength and hypertrophy protocols involving large muscle mass exercises. The routine assessment of the basal testosterone?:?cortisol ratio may be beneficial when attempting to quantify the adaptive responses to weightlifting training. As competitive weightlifting is becoming increasingly popular around the world, further research addressing the physiological responses and adaptations of female weightlifters and younger (i.e. ?17 years of age) and older (i.e. ?35 years of age) weightlifters of both sexes is required. PMID:22873835

Storey, Adam; Smith, Heather K

2012-09-01

253

Perk Station - Percutaneous Surgery Training and Performance Measurement Platform  

PubMed Central

Motivation Image-guided percutaneous (through the skin) needle-based surgery has become part of routine clinical practice in performing procedures such as biopsies, injections and therapeutic implants. A novice physician typically performs needle interventions under the supervision of a senior physician; a slow and inherently subjective training process that lacks objective, quantitative assessment of the surgical skill and performance[S1]. Shortening the learning curve and increasing procedural consistency are important factors in assuring high-quality medical care. Methods This paper describes a laboratory validation system, called Perk Station, for standardized training and performance measurement under different assistance techniques for needle-based surgical guidance systems. The initial goal of the Perk Station is to assess and compare different techniques: 2D image overlay, biplane laser guide, laser protractor and conventional freehand. The main focus of this manuscript is the planning and guidance software system developed on the 3D Slicer platform, a free, open source software package designed for visualization and analysis of medical image data. Results The prototype Perk Station has been successfully developed, the associated needle insertion phantoms were built, and the graphical user interface was fully implemented. The system was inaugurated in undergraduate teaching and a wide array of outreach activities. Initial results, experiences, ongoing activities and future plans are reported.

Vikal, Siddharth; U-Thainual, Paweena; Carrino, John A.; Iordachita, Iulian; Fischer, Gregory S.; Fichtinger, Gabor

2009-01-01

254

The effects of driver training on simulated driving performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that the beneficial effects of driver training on accident risk may not be an appropriate criterion measure, this study investigates whether professionally trained and experienced drivers exhibit safer driving behaviour in a simulated driving task compared with drivers without professional driver training. A sample of 54 police trained drivers and a sample of 56 non-police trained drivers were required

Lisa Dorn; David Barker

2005-01-01

255

The Predictive Validity of Self-Efficacy in Training Performance: Little More Than Past Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research on the influence of self-efficacy in training has provided mixed results. Key differences between studies pertain to whether past performance is operationalized as a residual variable or as an unadjusted variable and to the type of task used. In this study, the authors conducted and performed a reanalysis to examine the influence of self-efficacy using both operationalizations of

Eric D. Heggestad; Ruth Kanfer

2005-01-01

256

Predictive Validity of the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test for USAF Air Battle Manager Training Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) was validated for the prediction of academic performance during Undergraduate Air Battle Manager (UABM) training. Participants were 680 men and women selected for UABM training on the basis of academic perform...

T. R. Carretta

2008-01-01

257

AN EXPERIMENT IN BASIC AIRBORNE ELECTRONICS TRAINING, PART IV-- EFFECT OF REDUCTION IN TRAINING TIME ON FLEET PERFORMANCE. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THREE PRECEDING REPORTS PRESENTED THE EFFECTS OF SHORTENING TRAINING TIME IN AVIONICS FUNDAMENTALS AND AVIATION ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN (RADAR) TRAINING UPON THE FINAL COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION IN THESE COURSES AND UPON PERFORMANCE IN A SUBSEQUENT EQUIPMENT COURSE. THIS REPORT COMPARES THE ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF GRADUATES FROM FOUR GROUPS…

BALDWIN, ROBERT O.; AND OTHERS

258

Real Estate Appraisals: Appraisal Subcommittee Needs to Improve Monitoring Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Real estate appraisals have come under increased scrutiny in the wake of the recent mortgage crisis. Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 created an oversight structure for appraisals and appraisers that inv...

2012-01-01

259

Air force officer qualifying test validity for predicting pilot training performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AFOQT was validated for the prediction of pilot training criteria. Subjects were 7,563 men and women selected for pilot training on the basis of educational attainment and AFOQT scores. Criterion variables included daily flight training grades, check flight grades in subsonic and transonic aircraft, and overall academic performance in the 53 week pilot training course. Test validities were presented

Thomas R. Carretta; Malcolm James Ree

1995-01-01

260

Negative post-event processing and decreased self-appraisals of performance following social stress in childhood social anxiety: an experimental study.  

PubMed

Cognitive models of social phobia (SP) assume that following social evaluative stress, individuals with SP engage into dysfunctional post-event processing (PEP), a detailed negative review of the past event. While previous research has already shown, that children with high levels of social fears suffer from more frequent negative PEP, it remains unclear how stable PEP is across time in this age group and whether it leads to degraded self-appraisals of performance. Therefore in the present study we exposed a group of high (HSA) and low socially anxious children (LSA; both n = 20), aged 10-12 years, to a social evaluative situation and assessed negative and positive PEP as well as self-rated performance at 2.5 h and one week after the task. Our results revealed that HSA children reported more negative PEP than LSA children, independent of levels of depression. Moreover, negative PEP was related to measures of social anxiety and performance ratings within the tasks. Only the performance ratings in HSA children worsened over the course of the following week and were related to more negative PEP. Thus, these results speak for the high clinical relevance dysfunctional PEP may have for the maintenance of social fears already in childhood. PMID:21930262

Schmitz, Julian; Krämer, Martina; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

2011-09-09

261

Quality of initial vocational training in Morocco and impact of job training on the performance of Moroccan companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this chapter is to estimate the performance and the return of professional training in term of integration of the professional training graduates in labour market. Using a micro econometric study based on data of the OFPPT graduates over the period 2000, 2001 and 2002, the estimations are made by considering two models. The first one is a

Jamal Bouoiyour; Audrey Dumas; Said Hanchane

2008-01-01

262

New approaches to performance-based project management training  

SciTech Connect

Installing modifications to a nuclear generating facility present challenges beyond the engineering and design tasks necessary to fix the problem. Starting with problem identification, every engineering task associated with a modification, every engineering task associated with a modification can be complemented with a dozen nonengineering tasks. It is not unusual for these other tasks to represent most of the time and much of the money devoted to a modification. Modification process workshops prepared for nuclear utilities have proven successful in providing a foundation on which engineers can build their expertise in performing plant modifications. This paper describes these programs. Three types of modification workshops have been developed to provide these process skills. The first was for recent engineering graduates and was prepared in conjunction with a 6-week engineering training program that included basic training on plant technology, regulatory agencies, and codes and standards. The second program was for seasoned engineers and technicians who worked for a utility that just implemented a new modification control process. The third program was developed for the central design organization of a multiplant utility. This organization is responsible for managing modifications at all of the utility's nuclear plants, and the students were experienced engineers who were either new to the company or transferred from other departments.

Spitulnik, J.J.; Rath, W.R.

1986-01-01

263

Education and Training Report. Performance Report, FY 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During FY 97, 152 MUREP education and training projects were conducted at OMU institutions. The institutions conducted precollege and bridge programs, education partnerships with other universities and industry, NRTS, teacher training, and graduate and/or...

1997-01-01

264

Training and Qualifying Personnel for Performing Measurements for the Control and Accounting of Special Nuclear Material  

SciTech Connect

This report presents general procedures for training and qualifying personnel who perform sampling and measurements used for special nuclear material accounting. Considerations for establishing training and qualifying procedures are discussed.

,

1980-11-01

265

Appraising Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

Ediger, Marlow

266

Agent-Customized Training for Human Learning Performance Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Training individuals from diverse backgrounds and in changing environments requires customized training approaches that align with the individual learning styles and ever-evolving organizational needs. Scaffolding is a well-established instructional approach that facilitates learning by incrementally removing training aids as the learner…

Blake, M. Brian; Butcher-Green, Jerome D.

2009-01-01

267

Performance, cardiovascular, and health behavior effects of an inhibitory strength training intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female undergraduates were assigned to one of three groups, two involving regulatory training and one not. Training participants\\u000a performed for 2 weeks tasks that required strong behavioral restraint (Strong Training) or weak behavioral restraint (Weak\\u000a Training). Later, they took part in (1) a laboratory session in which they performed tasks with inhibitory components, and\\u000a (2) a follow-up week in which they

Siu-kuen Azor Hui; Rex A. Wright; Christopher C. Stewart; Angel Simmons; Bradley Eaton; R. Nicholas Nolte

2009-01-01

268

The influence of learning style and training method on self-efficacy and learning performance in WWW homepage design training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compares the relative effects of two training methods on learner's computer self-efficacy and learning performance in WWW homepage design. A field experiment was conducted by employing two classes of 10th graders. Results indicated that the behavior modeling training method yielded consistently superior performance and higher computer self-efficacy as compared with the instruction-based approach. Subjects with various learning

Huey-Wen Chou; Tsung-Bin Wang

2000-01-01

269

Performance gains from directed training do not transfer to untrained tasks.  

PubMed

Given the increasing complexity of the tasks and skills needed in modern society, developing effective training strategies is of tremendous practical importance. Furthermore, training that improves performance of both trained and untrained tasks would be highly efficient. In the present study, we examined how directed training contributes to skill acquisition, and more importantly, to engendering transfer of training to untrained tasks. Participants learned a complex video game for 30 h (Space Fortress, Donchin, Fabiani, & Sanders, 1989) using one of two training regimens: Hybrid Variable-Priority Training (HVT), with a focus on improving specific skills and managing task priority, or Full Emphasis Training (FET) in which participants simply practiced the game to obtain the highest overall score. We compared game performance, retention of training gains, and transfer of training to untrained tasks as a function of the training regimen. Compared to FET, HVT learners reached higher levels of mastery on the game and HVT was particularly beneficial for initially poor performing participants. This benefit persisted seven months after training. However, contrary to expectation, both HVT and FET were unsuccessful in producing transfer to untrained tasks compared to a group that received limited game experience, suggesting that directed training and practice can produce task-specific improvements, but improvements do not necessarily transfer from trained to untrained tasks. PMID:22133724

Lee, HyunKyu; Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Neider, Mark; Erickson, Kirk I; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Low, Kathy A; Kramer, Arthur F

2011-11-30

270

Relationships Between Design Characteristics of Avionics Subsystems and Training Cost, Training Difficulty, and Job Performance. Final Report, Covering Activity from 1 July 1971 Through 1 September 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated the relationship between avionics subsystem design characteristics and training time, training cost, and job performance. A list of design variables believed to affect training and job performance was established and supplemented with personnel variables, including aptitude test scores and the amount of training and…

Lintz, Larry M.; And Others

271

Training and Performance Self-Efficacy, Affect, and Performance in Wheelchair Road Racers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, social cognitive theory was examined with athletes with disabilities. More specifically, hierarchical and self-regulatory performance self-efficacy, self-regulatory training self-efficacy, outcome confidence, and affect were examined with wheelchair road racers ( N = 51). In accordance with social cognitive theory, moderate to strong significant relationships among 3 types of self-efficacy and outcome confidence were found ( rs

Jeffrey J. Martin

272

Acute antioxidant supplementation improves endurance performance in trained athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the acute effects of a single dose of an antioxidant (AO; Lactaway® containing pycnogenol) on time to fatigue (TTF). Nine trained cyclists [mean ± SD age 35 ± 10 yrs; body mass 71.6 ± 10.2 kg; VO2 peak 63 ± 11 ml/kg/min] performed on two separate occasions a continuous protocol of 5 min at 50% of peak power output (PPO), 8 min at 70% of PPO, and then cycled to fatigue at 95% PPO. Four hours prior to the exercise protocol, the subjects consumed the supplement or a placebo (counterbalanced, double blind protocol). Cyclists, on average, rode for 80 s more in the Lactaway trial than they did in the placebo trial. There was considerable evidence (chances ?94.5%) for substantial positive treatment effects for TTF and the other performance-related variables (excluding [BLa] at 95% PPO). Other studies are necessary to confirm these results and identify the mechanisms underlying the observed effects. PMID:22242733

Bentley, David J; Dank, Steven; Coupland, Rory; Midgley, Adrian; Spence, Ian

2012-01-01

273

An appraisal of a column-generation-based algorithm for a centralized train-con?ict resolution on metropolitan railway network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In practice, a train-con?ict resolution is decentralized around the dispatchers each of whom, with her rule-of-thumb to operational data, controls a few segments from a global railway network. Conceptually, a global sub-optimality or infeasibility of the decentralized system is resolved by a network controller on the top of the lower layers of the dispatchers and the drivers operating trains on

Sung-Pil Hong; Yun-Hong Min; Soon-Heum Hong

274

Relationship of training with Employees' Performance in Hoteling Industry Case of Pearl Continental hotels in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important aspects in the contemporary hoteling industry is employees' acquaintance with new methods and techniques of Hotel management through training. In fact training is formal as well as an informal process, which is carried out for improving the performance of employees. Therefore the implementation of an effective training process at all levels of management has a

Fakhar Ul Afaq; Anwar Khan

275

Replacement Air Group Performance as a Criterion for Naval Aviation Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current criterion for prediction of performance of student naval aviators is the dichotomy of success versus failure in undergraduate flight training. This criterion has enabled the naval air training command to make reasonable estimates of the probability of an applicant or student completing flight training. However, a costly attrition…

Bale, Ronald M.; And Others

276

Training methods of military dog handlers and their effects on the team's performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

While only a few studies have analysed training methods used on working dogs, a recent survey in 303 Belgian military handlers revealed the use of harsh training methods on military working dogs (MWD). The present work aims at analysing the training methods used on Belgian MWD and the behaviour of handlers to objectify the performances of the dog handlers teams

A. Haverbeke; B. Laporte; E. Depiereux; J.-M. Giffroy; C. Diederich

2008-01-01

277

Training for the Healthcare Manufacturing Industries. Tools and Techniques To Improve Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book describes a systematic method for producing instructional programs, courses, and materials that focus on human performance and how to improve it, not merely on training itself. It addresses such diverse topics as the following: how adults learn best, analyzing the training need, developing evaluation tools, delivering training courses,…

Vesper, James L.

278

OTTO Revisited: Management Training and Management Performance. Some Perceptions of Headteachers and Key Subordinates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a follow-up study to the 1984 One Term Training Opportunity (OTTO) for headteachers and senior teachers conducted by the City of Birmingham Polytechnic. Discusses the effects of the management training course and attempts to determine whether the performance of managers was significantly affected by management training. (GEA)|

Hellawell, David E.

1988-01-01

279

An interdisciplinary performance-based approach to training laboratory animal technicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience has proven that comprehensive training and education make it easier to attract and retain highly qualified animal care technicians, as well as to ensure that research facilities reach maximum performance. The authors outline the training approach used at SoBran, Inc., by describing the subject matter covered in their initial orientation period and in ongoing training sessions. The authors also

Javier Chavez; Bruce Bishop; Molly L. Romick

2006-01-01

280

Influence of a 2-year strength training programme on power performance in elite youth soccer players.  

PubMed

Abstract In soccer, strength, power and speed are very important because of the large number of power actions performed during the game. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of periodised strength training for power performance more than 2 years. In this study, 134 elite youth soccer players were recruited from two youth training centres. The cohorts were arranged as follows: A (under 19 years), B (under 17 years) and C (under 15 years). The participants in each cohort were divided into two groups. One group (Strength training group [STG]) was subjected to regular soccer training in addition to strength training twice a week for 2 years. The other group (Control group [CG]) completed only the regular soccer training. The strength training was periodised with hypertrophy and intramuscular coordination blocks. For strength training, both the front squat and the back squat were performed once a week. The subjects were tested on the one-repetition maximum (1RM) of the front and back squat and a linear sprint over 30 m. There was significantly better performance from the STG on 1RM (p <0.001). In the sprint, the STG displayed significantly better improvements (p <0.05 to p <0.001) of up to 6%. The effects of strength training are reflected in the sprint performance. Therefore, it seems beneficial for youth to perform strength training to exploit the reserve capacity in sprint performances. PMID:24050460

Sander, André; Keiner, Michael; Wirth, Klaus; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

2012-11-13

281

Prediction of performance in stressful underwater demolition training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the relevance of selected biographical, physical fitness, and health-status measures for success in Underwater Demolition Team (UDT) training. 293 United States Navy enlisted men in 5 UDT classes participated as Ss. A combination of 5 variables, including a Cornell Medical Index subscale, yielded highly significant cross-validity coefficients with training success. Physical fitness tests were the most important predictors of

E. K. Gunderson; R. H. Rahe; R. J. Arthur

1972-01-01

282

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Training Strategies: Performance Goals and Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Public Health Service policy, Animal Welfare Act regulations, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Labo- ratory Animals all require that institutions provide training for personnel engaged in animal research. Most research facilities have developed training programs to meet these requirements but may not have developed ways of assessing the effectiveness of these programs. Omission of this

Wellesley R. Foshay; Peggy T. Tinkey

283

Performance Management in the French System of Secondary-Teacher Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study focuses on performance analysis and performance management in teacher training in France. After a brief summary of the French system of secondary-teacher training, determinants affecting performance are analyzed. The analysis shows that three determinants--the number of external competitors, the size of a department and the…

Tchibozo, Guy

2005-01-01

284

An interdisciplinary performance-based approach to training laboratory animal technicians.  

PubMed

Experience has proven that comprehensive training and education make it easier to attract and retain highly qualified animal care technicians, as well as to ensure that research facilities reach maximum performance. The authors outline the training approach used at SoBran, Inc., by describing the subject matter covered in their initial orientation period and in ongoing training sessions. The authors also address recordkeeping methods and training-program assessment. PMID:17077833

Romick, Molly L; Chavez, Javier; Bishop, Bruce

2006-11-01

285

The effect of ”living high–training low” on physical performance in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we hypothesized that, in rats, adaptation to high altitude (2500 m) plus training at low altitude (610 m),\\u000a ”living high–training low”, improves physical performance at low altitude more than living and training at low altitude (610\\u000a m). Rats were divided into four groups: (1) living at low altitude (LL, n=12), (2) living and training at low altitude

Satoru Miyazaki; Akio Sakai

2000-01-01

286

Primary Study of Aerodynamic Performance Evaluation and Optimization of the High-Speed Train  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the train speed becoming faster and faster, the aerodynamic drag turns to be one of the essential factor that restricts the train speed ascent. However, no public literature, home or abroad, has dealt with the flow field and aerodynamic performance of the train with the speed reaching 500 km per hour. This paper has studied in the flow field and the aerodynamic performance of the train at 500 km per hour with symmetrical and unsymmetrical nose shape. With the given two nose shape models, the authors composed four kinds train shapes and generated grids around the four train models. With the gathered and analyzed data, the paper comes to the conclusion that the unsymmetrical nose shape is better than the symmetrical one in aerodynamic performance. Comparing with the other three train shape, we found that the s-r composition best satisfies the practical demands.

Wang, X. P.; Cui, K.; Hu, S. C.; Gao, T. Y.; Yang, G. W.

2011-09-01

287

Barriers and attitudes influencing non-engagement in a peer feedback model to inform evidence for GP appraisal  

PubMed Central

Background The UK general practitioner (GP) appraisal system is deemed to be an inadequate source of performance evidence to inform a future medical revalidation process. A long-running voluntary model of external peer review in the west of Scotland provides feedback by trained peers on the standard of GP colleagues' core appraisal activities and may 'add value' in strengthening the robustness of the current system in support of revalidation. A significant minority of GPs has participated in the peer feedback model, but a clear majority has yet to engage with it. We aimed to explore the views of non-participants to identify barriers to engagement and attitudes to external peer review as a means to inform the current appraisal system. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with a sample of west of Scotland GPs who had yet to participate in the peer review model. A thematic analysis of the interview transcriptions was conducted using a constant comparative approach. Results 13 GPs were interviewed of whom nine were males. Four core themes were identified in relation to the perceived and experienced 'value' placed on the topics discussed and their relevance to routine clinical practice and professional appraisal: 1. Value of the appraisal improvement activity. 2. Value of external peer review. 3. Value of the external peer review model and host organisation and 4. Attitudes to external peer review. Conclusions GPs in this study questioned the 'value' of participation in the external peer review model and the national appraisal system over the standard of internal feedback received from immediate work colleagues. There was a limited understanding of the concept, context and purpose of external peer review and some distrust of the host educational provider. Future engagement with the model by these GPs is likely to be influenced by policy to improve the standard of appraisal and contractual related activities, rather than a self-directed recognition of learning needs.

2012-01-01

288

Review: Resistance Training Meta-Analyses Do Not Support Performance of Multiple Sets or High Volume Resistance Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

META-ANALYSES DO NOT SUPPORT PERFORMANCE OF MULTIPLE SETS OR HIGH VOLUME RESISTANCE TRAINING. Richard A. Winett JEPonline. 2004;7(5):10-20. Four recently published meta-analyses claim their results show that multiple-set resistance training protocols (higher volume) are superior to a single set of each exercise (lower volume) for producing strength gains in experienced trainees. This critique examines the framework, logic, procedures, statistics, results

Richard A. Winett

289

Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key points Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks. In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance. The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase of the mass of type IIx muscle fibres and no change in their proportion. Thus, this type of training might be used effectively during the last weeks before competition, when the strength training load is usually reduced, in order to increase muscle power and shot put performance in novice shot putters.

Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

2013-01-01

290

Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Health workers’ motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers’ experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers’ motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers attesting to the importance of the salary for motivation. Lessons learned from OPRAS can be utilized in the implementation of P4P and can enhance our knowledge on motivation and performance in the health services in low-income contexts such as Tanzania.

2012-01-01

291

Development of Predictors of Performance under Stress in Jumpmaster Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Questionnaires asking about background and jump experience, sports participation, and reaction to stress were given to 128 men from four consecutive classes of students from the Jumpmaster Training Course at Fort Benning, Georgia, during 1979 and 1980. Us...

W. P. Burke

1980-01-01

292

Graduate Training Program in Industrial Hygiene. Final Performance Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of Arizona graduate training program in Industrial Hygiene for the period July 1, 1990 through June 30, 1995 was described. During this reporting period a total of 26 Industrial Hygiene students were graduated from the program. Fourteen of ...

C. D. Crutchfield

1995-01-01

293

Effects of frequency on transfer performance after successive discrimination training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports 2 studies, with 64 college-aged adults, investigating the Binder-Estes transfer (novelty) effect after 2-choice successive discrimination training. Training stimuli were nonsense syllables, or Greek or English letters, presented in compounds which did not have any common components. Transfer results did not reveal any tendency for responding to be based on the least frequently occurring cue, suggesting that the novelty

Douglas L. Medin; Donald Robbins

1971-01-01

294

Evaluating Frame-of-Reference Rater Training Effectiveness Using Performance Schema Accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frame-of-reference training has been shown to be an effective intervention for improving the accuracy of performance ratings (e.g., Woehr & Huffcutt, 1994). Despite evidence in support of the effectiveness of frame-of-reference training, few studies have empirically addressed the ultimate goal of such training, which is to teach raters to share a common conceptualization of performance (Athey & McIntyre, 1987; Woehr,

C. Allen Gorman; Joan R. Rentsch

2009-01-01

295

Rhythm synchronization performance and auditory working memory in early- and late-trained musicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural and neuroimaging studies provide evidence for a possible “sensitive” period in childhood development during which\\u000a musical training results in long-lasting changes in brain structure and auditory and motor performance. Previous work from\\u000a our laboratory has shown that adult musicians who begin training before the age of 7 (early-trained; ET) perform better on\\u000a a visuomotor task than those who begin

Jennifer A. BaileyVirginia; Virginia B. Penhune

2010-01-01

296

Salivary steroid changes and physical performance in highly trained cyclists.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to study the seasonal salivary cortisol and testosterone changes, and their relationships with lean body mass variations, in highly trained cyclists. Physical fitness, body composition (6 skinfolds) and basal salivary testosterone were evaluated in 7 male cyclists, on two separate occasions. The first assessment was made at the onset of the competitive season and the second 6 months later. Two kinds of exercise tests were carried out. The first test was an incremental exercise test to determine the maximum O2 consumption (VO2max) and the maximum workload (Wmax). We also measured the VO2 and workload (W) attained at the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VO2VT1, WVT1, VO2VT2, WVT2). During the tests the VO2 was recorded every 30 seconds (Oxycon-5, Mijhardt BV, Odijk). As a second test two days later, we assessed the anaerobic capacity expressed as the maximal accumulated O2 deficit (MAOD). Briefly, each subject underwent five submaximal exercises each lasting 6 min at an intensity of 200, 220, 240, 260 and 280 W. We estimated individually the O2 demand by extrapolating the linear relationship between the power and the O2 demand previously established. Afterwards the subjects performed a supramaximal bout at an intensity producing exhaustion between 2 and 4 minutes. The accumulated O2 demand was calculated by multiplying the O2 demand by the supramaximal test duration. The MAOD was computed as the difference between the accumulated O2 demand and the O2 consumed during the supramaximal rides. We found a significant increase in some physical fitness parameters related to aerobic capacity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8509237

López Calbet, J A; Navarro, M A; Barbany, J R; Garcia Manso, J; Bonnin, M R; Valero, J

1993-04-01

297

The effects of auditory-visual vowel and consonant training on speechreading performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work examined the effects of a novel approach to speechreading training using vowels, for normal-hearing listeners tested in masking noise [C. Richie and D. Kewley-Port, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2337 (2003)]. That study showed significant improvements in sentence-level speechreading abilities for trained listeners compared to untrained listeners. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of combining vowel training with consonant training on speechreading abilities. Normal-hearing adults were tested in auditory-visual conditions in noise designed to simulate a mild-to-moderate sloping sensorineural hearing loss. One group of listeners received training on consonants in monosyllable context, and another group received training on both consonants and vowels in monosyllable context. A control group was tested but did not receive any training. All listeners performed speechreading pre- and post-tests, on words and sentences. Results are discussed in terms of differences between groups, dependent upon which type of training was administered; vowel training, consonant training, or vowel and consonant training combined. Comparison is made between these and other speechreading training methods. Finally, the potential benefit of these vowel- and consonant-based speechreading training methods for rehabilitation of hearing-impaired listeners is discussed. [Work supported by NIHDCD02229.

Richie, Carolyn; Kewley-Port, Diane

2001-05-01

298

On superimposed training for channel estimation: performance analysis, training power allocation, and frame synchronization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Channel estimation for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) time-invariant channels using superimposed training has been recently considered by several authors. A periodic (nonrandom) training sequence is arithmetically added (superimposed) at a low power to the information sequence at the transmitter before modulation and transmission. In particular, in , the channel is estimated using only the first-order statistics of the data under a

Jitendra K. Tugnait; Xiaohong Meng

2006-01-01

299

Effects of employee training on the performance of North-American firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the impact of employee training on the performance, measured in terms of Tobin's Q and total returns to shareholders, of North-American firms, by using a survey of senior executives in human capital management carried out in 2000. The results indicate that higher training can have a positive effect on firm performance through factors such as employee satisfaction

J. A. Molina; R. Ortega

2003-01-01

300

Evaluating the Implementation of Performance Improvement Training: The E[superscript 3] Process for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides a comprehensive approach to careful review and evaluation of the implementation of performance training intervention. It discusses the E[superscript 3] process for success, a basic framework for evaluating the implementation phase of a training program implemented as a broad-based performance improvement strategy. The intent…

Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

2008-01-01

301

The Effects of Assertive Training on Performance in Highly Anxious Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effects of assertive training on measures of assertiveness, state anxiety, and mathematics performance in highly anxious ninth graders (N=96). Found that assertive training resulted in increased assertiveness and decreased state anxiety, with no significant effect on mathematics performance, and no significant effect due to sex.…

Wehr, Sara H.; Kaufman, Melvin E.

1987-01-01

302

Examination of Rater Training Effect and Rater Eligibility in L2 Performance Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of rater training in an L2 performance assessment and to examine the eligibility of L2 users of English as raters in L2 performance assessment. Rater training was conducted in order for raters to clearly understand the criteria, the evaluation items, and the evaluation procedure. In this…

Kondo, Yusuke

2010-01-01

303

Exploring the Performance Benefits of Group Training: Transactive Memory or Improved Communication?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments (see Hollingshead, 1998a; Moreland, 1999) have shown that groups perform tasks better if their members are trained together rather than apart. The performance benefits of group training have been attributed to the development of transactive memory systems. This experiment tested whether such benefits are due instead to improved communication among group members. The results indicated that they are

Richard L. Moreland; Larissa Myaskovsky

2000-01-01

304

PROPERTY APPRAISAL PROVIDES CONTROL, INSURANCE BASIS, AND VALUE ESTIMATE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A COMPLETE PROPERTY APPRAISAL SERVES AS A BASIS FOR CONTROL, INSURANCE AND VALUE ESTIMATE. A PROFESSIONAL APPRAISAL FIRM SHOULD PERFORM THIS FUNCTION BECAUSE (1) IT IS FAMILIAR WITH PROPER METHODS, (2) IT CAN PREPARE THE REPORT WITH MINIMUM CONFUSION AND INTERRRUPTION OF THE COLLEGE OPERATION, (3) USE OF ITS PRICING LIBRARY REDUCES TIME NEEDED…

THOMSON, JACK

305

Performance Management in the French System of Secondary-Teacher training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study focuses on performance analysis and performance management in teacher training in France. After a brief summary of the French system of secondary-teacher training, determinants affecting performance are analyzed. The analysis shows that three determinants - the number of external competitors, the size of a department and the number of posts to be filled by recruitment examinations - are crucial to the performance of a training department. The analysis reveals, however, that although a department's performance may be related to its size, efficiency and inefficiency limits have to be taken into account in growth strategies.

Tchibozo, Guy

2005-01-01

306

Mood, neuromuscular function, and performance during training in female swimmers.  

PubMed

The effect of seasonal changes in training load on mood, neuromuscular function, and measures of physical power were examined in 12 collegiate women swimmers. These subjects were studied at three training stages during a competitive swim season: baseline (5,000 m.d-1), peak training (8,300 m.d-1), and taper (2,300 m.d-1). Mood was evaluated with the Profile of Mood States. Neuromuscular function was measured via the soleus Hoffmann-reflex (H-reflex). Anaerobic swimming power was assessed with a 30-s tethered swim test, and maximal aerobic power was determined following a maximal 378-m swim. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that at peak training H-reflex and peak anaerobic swimming power were reduced (P < 0.05) below baseline values by 8.6% and 9.4%, respectively, and total mood disturbance was elevated above baseline (P < 0.01). These variables returned to baseline values at the taper assessment. H-reflex values were correlated with peak (r = 0.52, P < 0.01) and mean (r = 0.39, P < 0.05) anaerobic swimming power. Total mood disturbance was correlated (r = -0.34, P < 0.05) with mean swimming power. The results suggest that neurological mechanisms play a role in the adaptations that result from periodized training. PMID:8776226

Raglin, J S; Koceja, D M; Stager, J M; Harms, C A

1996-03-01

307

Teacher Appraisal Research Networks 1980-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Legislation requiring site-based performance management in British schools gave rise to the development of practitioner research networks, in which instrumental performance appraisal has predominated over humanist and critical approaches. Even marginalized networks have involved important collaborations among teachers, higher education…

Gunter, Helen M.

2001-01-01

308

A framework for understanding the training process leading to elite performance.  

PubMed

The development of performance in competition is achieved through a training process that is designed to induce automation of motor skills and enhance structural and metabolic functions. Training also promotes self-confidence and a tolerance for higher training levels and competition. In general, there are two broad categories of athletes that perform at the highest level: (i) the genetically talented (the thoroughbred); and (ii) those with a highly developed work ethic (the workhorse) with a system of training guiding their effort. The dynamics of training involve the manipulation of the training load through the variables: intensity, duration and frequency. In addition, sport activities are a combination of strength, speed and endurance executed in a coordinated and efficient manner with the development of sport-specific characteristics. Short- and long-term planning (periodisation) requires alternating periods of training load with recovery for avoiding excessive fatigue that may lead to overtraining. Overtraining is long-lasting performance incompetence due to an imbalance of training load, competition, non-training stressors and recovery. Furthermore, annual plans are normally constructed in macro-, meso- and microcycles around the competitive phases with the objective of improving performance for a peak at a predetermined time. Finally, at competition time, optimal performance requires a healthy body, and integration of not only the physiological elements but also the psychological, technical and tactical components. PMID:14719980

Smith, David J

2003-01-01

309

Speed-of-processing and driving simulator training result in improved driving performance.  

PubMed

Useful field of view, a measure of processing speed and spatial attention, can be improved with training. We evaluated the effects of this improvement on older adults' driving performance. Elderly adults participated in a speed-of-processing training program (N = 48), a traditional driver training program performed in a driving simulator (N = 22), or a low-risk reference group (N = 25). Before training, immediately after training or an equivalent time delay, and after an 18-month delay each participant was evaluated in a driving simulator and completed a 14-mile (22.5-km) open-road driving evaluation. Speed-of-processing training, but not simulator training, improved a specific measure of useful field of view (UFOV), transferred to some simulator measures, and resulted in fewer dangerous maneuvers during the driving evaluation. The simulator-trained group improved on two driving performance measures: turning into the correct lane and proper signal use. Similar effects were not observed in the speed-of-processing training or low-risk reference groups. The persistence of these effects over an 18-month test interval was also evaluated. Actual or potential applications of this research include driver assessment and/or training programs and cognitive intervention programs for older adults. PMID:14529195

Roenker, Daniel L; Cissell, Gayla M; Ball, Karlene K; Wadley, Virginia G; Edwards, Jerri D

2003-01-01

310

Balance Training for Neuromuscular Control and Performance Enhancement: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: As a result of inconsistencies in reported findings, controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of balance training for improving functional performance and neuromuscular control. Thus, its practical benefit in athletic training remains inconclusive. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of training interventions in enhancing neuromuscular control and functional performance. Data Sources: Two independent reviewers performed a literature search in Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Register and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database), and SCOPUS. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials and controlled trials without randomization with healthy and physically active participants aged up to 40 years old were considered for inclusion. Outcomes of interest were postural control, muscle strength, agility, jump performance, sprint performance, muscle reflex activity, rate of force development, reaction time, and electromyography. Data Extraction: Data of interest were methodologic assessment, training intervention, outcome, timing of the outcome assessment, and results. Standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated when data were sufficient. Data Synthesis: In total, 20 randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. Balance training was effective in improving postural sway and functional balance when compared with untrained control participants. Larger effect sizes were shown for training programs of longer duration. Although controversial findings were reported for jumping performance, agility, and neuromuscular control, there are indications for the effectiveness of balance training in these outcomes. When compared with plyometric or strength training, conflicting results or no effects of balance training were reported for strength improvements and changes in sprint performance. Conclusions: We conclude that balance training can be effective for postural and neuromuscular control improvements. However, as a result of the low methodologic quality and training differences, further research is strongly recommended.

Zech, Astrid; Hubscher, Markus; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried; Hansel, Frank; Pfeifer, Klaus

2010-01-01

311

Development of a training protocol to improve reading performance in peripheral vision  

PubMed Central

People with central-field loss must use peripheral vision for reading. Previous studies have shown that reading performance in peripheral vision can improve with extensive practice on a trigram letter-recognition task. The present study compared training on this task with training on two other character-based tasks (lexical decision and RSVP (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation) reading) which might plausibly produce more improvement in peripheral reading speed. Twenty-eight normally sighted young adults were trained at 10° in the lower visual field in a pre/post design. All three training methods produced significant improvements in reading speed, with average gains of 39% for lexical-decision, 54% for trigram letter-recognition, and 72% for RSVP training. Although the RSVP training was most effective, the lexical-decision task has the advantage of easy self administration making it more practical for home-based training.

Yu, Deyue; Legge, Gordon E.; Park, Heejung; Gage, Emily; Chung, Susana T. L.

2009-01-01

312

Predicting space telerobotic operator training performance from human spatial ability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal was to determine whether existing tests of spatial ability can predict an astronaut's qualification test performance after robotic training. Because training astronauts to be qualified robotics operators is so long and expensive, NASA is interested in tools that can predict robotics performance before training begins. Currently, the Astronaut Office does not have a validated tool to predict robotics ability as part of its astronaut selection or training process. Commonly used tests of human spatial ability may provide such a tool to predict robotics ability. We tested the spatial ability of 50 active astronauts who had completed at least one robotics training course, then used logistic regression models to analyze the correlation between spatial ability test scores and the astronauts' performance in their evaluation test at the end of the training course. The fit of the logistic function to our data is statistically significant for several spatial tests. However, the prediction performance of the logistic model depends on the criterion threshold assumed. To clarify the critical selection issues, we show how the probability of correct classification vs. misclassification varies as a function of the mental rotation test criterion level. Since the costs of misclassification are low, the logistic models of spatial ability and robotic performance are reliable enough only to be used to customize regular and remedial training. We suggest several changes in tracking performance throughout robotics training that could improve the range and reliability of predictive models.

Liu, Andrew M.; Oman, Charles M.; Galvan, Raquel; Natapoff, Alan

2013-11-01

313

The Effect of Simulation Training on the Performance of Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In December, 2005, the Air Force Auditing Agency conducted an interview of 282 nurses and physicians stationed in Iraq. The majority of the nurses from the interview reported they were not prepared to care for critically injured soldiers. This study investigated whether a new training technology, using scenario-based simulations, could improve…

Taylor, Lynne

2011-01-01

314

The Effectiveness of Teacher Training as Measured by Pupil Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports research conducted with materials from the Anthropology Curriculum Project, which follows a substantive model, to answer the question: was pupil achievement in anthropology primarily a functon of the trained teacher, or a function of the materials used by any teacher in anthropology. A quasi-experimental design involving intact…

Rice, Marion J.

315

Heuristics for Improving the Performance of Online SVM Training Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the sequential minimal optimization algorithm (SMO) was in- troduced (1, 2) as an effective method for training support v ector ma- chines (SVMs) on classification tasks defined on sparse data s ets. SMO differs from most SVM algorithms in that it does not require a quadratic programming (QP) solver. One problem with SMO is that its rate of con-

Gary William Flake

1999-01-01

316

Remote ride quality monitoring of Acela train set performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal Track Safety Standards require daily measurements of car body and truck accelerations on trains operating at speeds above 125-mph. In compliance with this requirement, twelve high-speed Acela coaches, operating in the Northeast Corridor between Boston, MA, and Washington DC, have been equipped with remote monitoring systems. The systems provide continuous measurement of car body and truck motions, detect various

Patrick Ackroyd; Steven Angelo; Jeffrey Stevens

2002-01-01

317

Training Basic Writing Teachers through Collaboration: Exploring Pedagogies through Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collaborative teaching model that replaces the hierarchical graduate teaching assistant (TA)/tutor structure can be used to train basic writing TAs with a pedagogy that stresses reflection and dialogue. Usually, new graduate students tutor for a semester in Basic Writing classrooms and then later move on to teach their own classes; in this…

Salvo, Michael J.; Lane, Daniel

318

Individual Differences and Learning Performance in Computer-based Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work is in support of a multi-year project to evaluate 'people- centered' aspects of computer-based training (CBT) or technology assisted instruction. The core component of the work will be developing a longitudinal database that will include individ...

A. B. Hyneman D. L. Alderton R. A. Schultz

2011-01-01

319

Endurance training protocol and longitudinal performance assays for Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

One of the most pressing problems facing modern medical researchers is the surging levels of obesity, with the consequent increase in associated disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (1-3). An important topic of research into these associated health problems involves the role of endurance exercise as a beneficial intervention. Exercise training is an inexpensive, non-invasive intervention with several beneficial results, including reduction in excess body fat (4), increased insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle (5), increased anti-inflammatory and antioxidative responses (6), and improved contractile capacity in cardiomyocytes (7). Low intensity exercise is known to increase mitochondrial activity and biogenesis in humans (8) and mice, with the transcriptional coactivator PGC1-? as an important intermediate (9,10). Despite the importance of exercise as a tool for combating several important age-related diseases, extensive longitudinal genetic studies have been impeded by the lack of an endurance training protocol for a short-lived genetic model species. The variety of genetic tools available for use with Drosophila, together with its short lifespan and inexpensive maintenance, make it an appealing model for further study of these genetic mechanisms. With this in mind we have developed a novel apparatus, known as the Power Tower, for large scale exercise-training in Drosophila melanogaster (11). The Power Tower utilizes the flies' instinctive negative geotaxis behavior to repetitively induce rapid climbing. Each time the machine lifts, then drops, the platform of flies, the flies are induced to climb. Flies continue to respond as long as the machine is in operation or until they become too fatigued to respond. Thus, the researcher can use this machine to provide simultaneous training to large numbers of age-matched and genetically identical flies. Additionally, we describe associated assays useful to track longitudinal progress of fly cohorts during training. PMID:22472601

Tinkerhess, Martin J; Ginzberg, Sara; Piazza, Nicole; Wessells, Robert J

2012-03-26

320

Effects of isometric squat training on the tendon stiffness and jump performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of isometric squat training on human tendon stiffness and jump performances.\\u000a Eight subjects completed 12 weeks (4 days\\/week) of isometric squat training, which consisted of bilateral leg extension at\\u000a 70% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 15 s per set (10 sets\\/day). Before and after training, the elongations of the\\u000a tendon–aponeurosis complex in the vastus lateralis

Keitaro Kubo; Hideaki Yata; Hiroaki Kanehisa; Tetsuo Fukunaga

2006-01-01

321

Effects of contract-relax stretching training on muscle performance in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of an 8-week unilateral contract-relax (CR) stretching training program (passive stretch after isometric contraction)\\u000a on muscular performance were investigated in a group of 16 athletes. The flexibility, maximum torque and angular position\\u000a as well as contraction work in movements of the knee joint were determined before training and after 4 and 8 weeks of training.\\u000a The torque measurements

M. Handel; T. Horstmann; H.-H. Dickhuth; R. W. Gülch

1997-01-01

322

Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of heavy resistance, explosive resistance, and muscle endurance training on neuromuscular, endurance, and high-intensity running performance in recreational endurance runners. Twenty-seven male runners were divided into one of three groups: heavy resistance, explosive resistance or muscle endurance training. After 6 weeks of preparatory training, the groups underwent an 8-week resistance

Jussi Mikkola; Ville Vesterinen; Ritva Taipale; Benoit Capostagno; Keijo Häkkinen; Ari Nummela

2011-01-01

323

DETERMINING VARIABLES OF PLYOMETRIC TRAINING FOR IMPROVING VERTICAL JUMP HEIGHT PERFORMANCE: AM ETA-ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saez Saez de Villarreal, E, Kellis, E, Kraemer, WJ, and Izquierdo, M. Determining variables of plyometric training for improving vertical jump height performance: a meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 23(2): xxx-xxx, 2009—Plyometric training improves vertical jump height (VJH). However, the effectiveness of plyometric training depends on various factors. A meta-analysis of 56 studies with a total of 225 effect sizes

EDUARDO SAEZ-SAEZ DE VILLARREAL; ELEFTHERIOS KELLIS; WILLIAM J. KRAEMER; MIKEL IZQUIERDO

324

Performance Appraisal for Matrix Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A matrix management system designed for use by a highly technical nuclear weapons research and development facility to improve productivity and flexibility by the use of multiple authority, responsibility, and accountability relationships is described. (MSE)

Edwards, M. R.; Sproull, J. Ruth

1985-01-01

325

Performance Appraisal for Matrix Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A matrix management system designed for use by a highly technical nuclear weapons research and development facility to improve productivity and flexibility by the use of multiple authority, responsibility, and accountability relationships is described. (MSE)|

Edwards, M. R.; Sproull, J. Ruth

1985-01-01

326

[Performance enhancement through training at medium altitude-- from the perspective of sports medicine].  

PubMed

In the last 20 years, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of athletes in different sport disciplines has increased, and the world records in endurance sports have improved markedly. One of the factors that has influenced the increase in endurance performance has been perceived to be altitude training. In this paper we describe the advantages and disadvantages of a "regular" altitude training (live high/train high) aiming to improve sea level performance and compare it with a new method, the so called "live high/train low" method. This method uses the advantages and avoids the side effects of altitude exposure. Several papers have shown that altitude training is able to improve VO2max but the individual response may be substantially different. In most cases it is not possible to prove statistical significance and therefore we have no data about differences between both altitude training methods. However, it is suspected that the risk of overtraining is reduced in the high/low method. Although not statistically significant it is suggested that the "high/low" method can more efficiently improve endurance performance at sea level. A monitoring of submaximal variables of exercise performance is recommended to avoid overtraining and to control the development of performance. From the current knowledge the "live high/train low" method is suggested to be the more effective altitude training method for athletes. PMID:10960960

Hofmann, P

2000-01-01

327

Performance effects of 6 weeks of aerobic production training in junior elite soccer players.  

PubMed

This study investigates the performance effects of a 6-week biweekly anaerobic speed endurance production training among junior elite soccer players. Sixteen junior (age 16.9 ± 0.6 years) elite soccer players were tested in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 (IR2), 10-m and 35-m sprints, 7 × 35-m repeated-sprint ability (RSA) tests, countermovement jump and squat jump tests, and randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) performing their normal training schedule, which included 4 weekly soccer training sessions of approximately 90 minutes, or a training group performing anaerobic speed endurance production training twice weekly for 6 weeks in addition to their normal weekly schedule. We found that the intervention group significantly improved (p < 0.05) their performance in the Yo-Yo IR2 (63 ± 74 m) and 10-m sprint time (-0.06 ± 0.06 seconds). No significant performance changes were found in the CG. Between-group pretest to posttest differences were found for 10-m sprint times (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in the 35-m sprint times, RSA, or jump performances. These results indicate that short-term anaerobic production training is effective in improving acceleration and intermittent exercise performance among well-trained junior elite players. PMID:23552340

Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Tønnessen, Espen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

2013-07-01

328

Effect of isokinetic cycling versus weight training on maximal power output and endurance performance in cycling.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a weight training program for the leg extensors with isokinetic cycling training (80 rpm) on maximal power output and endurance performance. Both strength training interventions were incorporated twice a week in a similar endurance training program of 12 weeks. Eighteen trained male cyclists (VO(2peak) 60 +/- 1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were grouped into the weight training (WT n = 9) or the isokinetic training group (IT n = 9) matched for training background and sprint power (P (max)), assessed from five maximal sprints (5 s) on an isokinetic bicycle ergometer at cadences between 40 and 120 rpm. Crank torque was measured (1 kHz) to determine the torque distribution during pedaling. Endurance performance was evaluated by measuring power, heart rate and lactate during a graded exercise test to exhaustion and a 30-min performance test. All tests were performed on subjects' individual race bicycle. Knee extension torque was evaluated isometrically at 115 degrees knee angle and dynamically at 200 degrees s(-1) using an isokinetic dynamometer. P (max) at 40 rpm increased in both the groups (~15%; P < 0.05). At 120 rpm, no improvement of P (max) was found in the IT training group, which was possibly related to an observed change in crank torque at high cadences (P < 0.05). Both groups improved their power output in the 30-min performance test (P < 0.05). Isometric knee extension torque increased only in WT (P < 0.05). In conclusion, at low cadences, P (max) improved in both training groups. However, in the IT training group, a disturbed pedaling technique compromises an improvement of P (max) at high cadences. PMID:20213468

Koninckx, Erwin; Van Leemputte, Marc; Hespel, Peter

2010-03-07

329

Source-monitoring training facilitates preschoolers' eyewitness memory performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preschool children are more susceptible to misleading postevent information than are older children and adults. One reason for young children's suggestibility is their failure to monitor the source of their memories, as in, for example, discriminating whether an event was seen live versus on television. The authors investigated whether source-monitoring training would decrease preschoolers' suggestibility. Thirty-six 3- 4-year-olds observed target

Karen L. Thierry; Melanie J. Spence

2002-01-01

330

Improving job performance through training in goal setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the generality of goal-setting theory to an industrial setting. 20 pulpwood-logging operators were matched and randomly assigned to either a 1-day training program in goal setting or a control group. Measures of production, turnover, absenteeism, and injuries were collected for 12 consecutive wks. Analyses of variance indicated that goal setting can lead to an increase in production and a

Gary P. Latham; Sydney B. Kinne

1974-01-01

331

The influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in highly trained cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this experiment was to investigate the influence of low dose bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in cyclists over a 10 week period that included 5 days of high intensity training (HIT).Methods: Over 7 days of preliminary testing, 29 highly trained male road cyclists completed a VO2max test (in which their ventilatory threshold was estimated), a

C M Shing; D G Jenkins; L Stevenson; J S Coombes

2006-01-01

332

Using Theatrical Means and Performance Training Methods to Foster Critically Reflective Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1993 until 1999, I worked with my colleagues at Florida State University to develop a series of workshops and presentations to advance some new approaches to teacher training for graduate teaching assistants. In these workshops, we used methods of instruction from theatre performance training, such as those of Keith Johnstone, Patsy Rodenburg, Moishe Feldenkrais, and theories and methodologies from

Francis John Trezza

2002-01-01

333

The Dread Factor: How Hazards and Safety Training Influence Learning and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous…

Burke, Michael J.; Salvador, Rommel O.; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

2011-01-01

334

Incorporating Industry Specific Training into School Education: Enrolment and Performance Trends in a Senior Secondary System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Incorporating industry-specific training into senior secondary education has not always succeeded in attaining status alongside general education courses. This paper reports enrolment and student performance trends from 2001-2008 in industry-specific training courses developed in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) where around one in…

Stanley, Gordon; McCann, Robert G.

2009-01-01

335

Bilingual Vocational Dental Assistant Training. Program Performance Report, Final, August 15, 1979-August 14, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In addition to a 20-page program narrative, this report provides materials from a bilingual vocational dental assistant training project (1979-80). These program accomplishments are discussed: curriculum, English as a Second Language (ESL), student performance, in-service training, and languages and cultures represented. Major activities and…

California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

336

SUSTAINING AND ADVANCING PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS ACHIEVED BY CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TRAINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of experience in applying team coordination training reflect the differences in areas of emphasis between organizations. For example, the US Army's Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT) program emphasized mission performance measures and changes in behaviors while the US Air Force Air Combat Command\\/US Air Forces Europe (ACC\\/USAFE) Crew Resource Management (CRM) program relied heavily on attitudinal measures and student

Gary Grubb; John C. Morey; Robert Simon

337

Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical…

Perez, Jose A., Jr.; Greer, Sharon

2009-01-01

338

Effects of Medicine Ball Training on Fitness Performance of High-School Physical Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of medicine ball training on the fitness performance of high-school physical education students. Sixty-nine high-school students participated in a 6-week medicine training program during the first 10 to 15 minutes of each physical education class. A group of 49 students who participated in…

Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Mediate, Patrick

2006-01-01

339

Impact of Working Memory Training on Memory Performance in Old–Old Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory impairments constitute an increasing objective and subjective problem with advancing age. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of working memory training on memory performance. The authors trained a sample of 80-year-old adults twice weekly over a time period of 3 months. Participants were tested on 4 different memory measures before, immediately after, and 1

Martin Buschkuehl; Susanne M. Jaeggi; Sara Hutchison; Pasqualina Perrig-Chiello; Christoph Däpp; Matthias Müller; Fabio Breil; Hans Hoppeler; Walter J. Perrig

2008-01-01

340

Should Athletic Training Educators Utilize Grades When Evaluating Student Clinical Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To explore and address some of the challenges for assessing, interpreting, and grading athletic training students' clinical performance and to suggest athletic training educators consider using a more universal assessment method for professional consistency. Background: In years past students learned from teachers or mentors on an…

Scriber, Kent; Gray, Courtney; Millspaugh, Rose

2010-01-01

341

Bilingual Vocational Dental Assistant Training. Program Performance Report, Final, August 15, 1979-August 14, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In addition to a 20-page program narrative, this report provides materials from a bilingual vocational dental assistant training project (1979-80). These program accomplishments are discussed: curriculum, English as a Second Language (ESL), student performance, in-service training, and languages and cultures represented. Major activities and…

California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

342

Does Training Influence Organisational Performance?: Analysis of the Spanish Hotel Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify which variables of training policy have a significant and positive impact on organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: A targeted literature review was conducted to identify and collate a comprehensive range of human resource management and training conceptualisations/investigations.…

Ubeda-Garcia, Mercedes; Marco-Lajara, Bartolome; Sabater-Sempere, Vicente; Garcia-Lillo, Francisco

2013-01-01

343

Four weeks of training with different aerobic workload distributions – Effect on aerobic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous authors have studied the effect of different training procedures on athlete's resistance performance, there are no studies on how the improvement of aerobic resistance is affected by the distribution of training loads. This research sets out to analyse the effectiveness on aerobic activity of distributions with a constant load (CON) and with increments in intensity (INC) over a

Vicente Javier Clemente Suárez; Jose M. González-Ravé

2011-01-01

344

Frequency of Loaded Road March Training and Performance on a Loaded Road March.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four groups of soldiers (N=137) participated in a 9 week physical training program that was similar except for the amount of loaded road march training. Group O (GPO) did not perform any road marching; Group 1 (GP1) road marched once a month; Group 2 (GP2...

J. O'Connor J. Knapik M. Bahrke J. Staab K. Reynolds

1990-01-01

345

Effects of Different Uphill Interval-Training Programs on Running Economy and Performance.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: Runners use uphill running as a movement-specific form of resistance training to enhance performance. However, the optimum parameters for prescribing intervals are unknown. We adopted a dose-response design to investigate the effects of various uphill interval-training programs on physiological and performance measures. METHODS: Twenty well-trained runners performed an incremental treadmill test to determine aerobic and biomechanical measures, a series of jumps on a force plate to determine neuromuscular measures, and a 5-km time-trial. Runners were then randomly assigned to one of five uphill interval-training programs. After 6 wk all tests were repeated. To identify the optimum training program for each measure, each runner's percent change was modeled as a quadratic function of the rank order of the intensity of training. Uncertainty in the optimum training and in the corresponding effect on the given measure was estimated as 90% confidence limits using bootstrapping. RESULTS: There was no clear optimum for time-trial performance, and the mean improvement over all intensities was 2.0% (confidence limits ±0.6%). The highest intensity was clearly optimal for running economy (improvement of 2.4%, ±1.4%) and for all neuromuscular measures, whereas other aerobic measures were optimal near the middle intensity. There were no consistent optima for biomechanical measures. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support anecdotal reports for incorporating uphill interval training in the training programs of distance runners to improve physiological parameters relevant to running performance. Until more data are obtained, runners can assume that any form of high-intensity uphill interval training will benefit 5-km time-trial performance. PMID:23538293

Barnes, Kyle R; Hopkins, Will G; McGuigan, Michael R; Kilding, Andrew E

2013-03-26

346

Maladaptive Self-Appraisals before Trauma Exposure Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the proposal that negative appraisals represent a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma. Trainee firefighters (N = 68) were assessed during training (before trauma exposure) for PTSD, history of traumatic events, and tendency to engage in negative appraisals. Firefighters were reassessed 4…

Bryant, Richard A.; Guthrie, Rachel M.

2007-01-01

347

The Status of Training and Performance Research in the AECT Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last two decades, a shift has emerged in business and government sectors from a focus on training to a focus on performance improvement. This shift to Human Performance Technology (HPT), also called Human Performance Improvement (HPI) or performance technology, emerged in the educational technology literature in the late 1970s and early…

Conn, Cynthia A.; Gitonga, Jacqueline

2004-01-01

348

Making Change Happen Through Appraisal and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|College and university strategic planning works best when staff performance appraisal and development are used together to bring about both organizational and individual change. However, these must be more than bureaucratic exercises unrelated to daily staff management. Individual staff must be able to see themselves as important in carrying out…

Lewis, Phyllis H.

1996-01-01

349

Appraisal of companies with Bayesian networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appraisal of companies is an important business activity. We mainly apply Bayesian networks for this classification task for Japanese electric company data. Firstly, few standard statistical techniques are performed. Then Bayesian networks are applied in four steps; (1) for implementing a current procedure of economical experts, where economical variables are clustered and then summarised for computing a score for deciding

Priyantha Wijayatunga; Shigeru Mase; Masanori Nakamura

2006-01-01

350

Impact on laboratory training in subsequent performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-lasting influence of laparoscopic training during residency course on outcomes\\u000a of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We compared outcomes of LC in patients treated by surgeons who have learned LC by the traditional surgical residency program\\u000a (traditional group; n?=?15) with those of LC operated on by surgeons who received additional intensive

Toshihiko Shinohara; Tetsuji Fujita; Takeyuki Misawa; Taro Sakamoto; Kazuhiko Yoshida; Hideyuki Kashiwagi; Katsuhiko Yanaga

2009-01-01

351

Effects of 12 weeks of block periodization on performance and performance indices in well-trained cyclists.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists during a 12-week preparation period. One group of cyclists performed block periodization (BP; n?=?8), wherein every fourth week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one HIT session. Another group performed a more traditional organization (TRAD; n?=?7), with 12 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions. The HIT was interspersed with low-intensity training (LIT) so that similar total volumes of both HIT and LIT were performed in the two groups. BP achieved a larger relative improvement in VO(2max) than TRAD (8.8?±?5.9% vs 3.7?±?2.9%, respectively, P?training (ES range was 0.62-1.12). The present study suggests that BP of endurance training has superior effects on several endurance and performance indices compared with TRAD. PMID:23134196

Rønnestad, B R; Ellefsen, S; Nygaard, H; Zacharoff, E E; Vikmoen, O; Hansen, J; Hallén, J

2012-11-01

352

Visual and kinesthetic locomotor imagery training integrated with auditory step rhythm for walking performance of patients with chronic stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the effect of visual and kinesthetic locomotor imagery training on walking performance and to determine the clinical feasibility of incorporating auditory step rhythm into the training.Design: Randomized crossover trial.Setting: Laboratory of a Department of Physical Therapy.Subjects: Fifteen subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis.Intervention: Four locomotor imagery trainings on walking performance: visual locomotor imagery training, kinesthetic locomotor imagery training, visual

Jin-Seop Kim; Duck-Won Oh; Suhn-Yeop Kim; Jong-Duk Choi

2011-01-01

353

ASUPT (Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training) Automated Objective Performance Measurement System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To realize its full research potential a need exists for the development of an automated objective pilot performance evaluation system for use in the Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) facility. The present report documents the ap...

W. L. Waag E. E. Eddowes J. H. Fuller R. R. Fuller

1975-01-01

354

Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences: Performing Analyses for Waterborne Bacteria, Module 13.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this instructional module, students learn to perform an examination of drinking water for the presence of indicator bacteria (coliform). Training Prerequisites: Before beginning this module, students should have had a course in high school biology or h...

F. C. May

1981-01-01

355

Exercise performance and training in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this preliminary study was to compare exercise performance and the effect of exercise training in cardiac patients with and without an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). There are few data on exercise performance and on the effect of exercise training in patients with an ICD. Data in patients with an ICD (n = 8) were compared with those from a matched control group (n = 16). Patients performed maximal cycle-ergometer testing before and after 3 months of exercise training. All patients had to stop the exercise test for reasons of exhaustion. The predetermined heart rate threshold in ICD patients, set at the detection rate of the ICD minus 30 beats/min, was not reached. Before training, peak oxygen uptake was not different in the ICD patients compared with the control group (21.0 +/- 6.9 vs 21.9 +/- 5.0 ml oxygen standard temperature pressure dry/min/kg). Exercise training increased peak oxygen uptake to a similar extent in both groups, 20% and 24%, respectively. One ICD patient developed uneventful ventricular tachycardia at the end of the post-training exercise test, and another during training. Thus, exercise performance and the favorable response to a 3-month exercise training program are comparable in patients with ICD and matched control patients. However, tachyarrhythmias may occur during exercise testing or training and require special attention. Selected patients with ICD can be encouraged to participate in medically supervised exercise training programs. The results of this study should be confirmed with additional studies on larger numbers of subjects. PMID:11249888

Vanhees, L; Schepers, D; Heidbüchel, H; Defoor, J; Fagard, R

2001-03-15

356

Effects of low- vs. high-cadence interval training on cycling performance.  

PubMed

High-resistance interval training produces substantial gains in sprint and endurance performance of cyclists in the competitive phase of a season. Here, we report the effect of changing the cadence of the intervals. We randomized 18 road cyclists to 2 groups for 4 weeks of training. Both groups replaced part of their usual training with 8 30-minute sessions consisting of sets of explosive single-leg jumps alternating with sets of high-intensity cycling sprints performed at either low cadence (60-70 min(-1)) or high cadence (110-120 min(-1)) on a training ergometer. Testosterone concentration was assayed in saliva samples collected before and after each session. Cycle ergometry before and after the intervention provided measures of performance (mean power in a 60-s time trial, incremental peak power, 4-mM lactate power) and physiologic indices of endurance performance (maximum oxygen uptake, exercise economy, fractional utilization of maximum oxygen uptake). Testosterone concentration in each session increased by 97% +/- 39% (mean +/- between-subject SD) in the low-cadence group but by only 62% +/- 23% in the high-cadence group. Performance in the low-cadence group improved more than in the high-cadence group, with mean differences of 2.5% (90% confidence limits, +/-4.8%) for 60-second mean power, 3.6% (+/-3.7%) for peak power, and 7.0% (+/-5.9%) for 4-mM lactate power. Maximum oxygen uptake showed a corresponding mean difference of 3.2% (+/-4.2%), but differences for other physiologic indices were unclear. Correlations between changes in performance and physiology were also unclear. Low-cadence interval training is probably more effective than high-cadence training in improving performance of well-trained competitive cyclists. The effects on performance may be related to training-associated effects on testosterone and to effects on maximum oxygen uptake. PMID:19675486

Paton, Carl D; Hopkins, Will G; Cook, Christian

2009-09-01

357

Combined resistance and endurance training improves physical capacity and performance on tactical occupational tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of aerobic endurance (E), strength (R), and combined endurance\\u000a and strength (CB) training for improving performance of tactical occupational tasks and determine if combined training interferes\\u000a with performance enhancements of E or R alone. A total of 56 recreationally active women were randomly placed into four groups:\\u000a R (n = 18), E

Nathan R. Hendrickson; Marilyn A. Sharp; Joseph A. Alemany; Leila A. Walker; Everett A. Harman; Barry A. Spiering; Disa L. Hatfield; Linda M. Yamamoto; Carl M. Maresh; William J. Kraemer; Bradley C. Nindl

2010-01-01

358

Performance Implications of Leader Briefings and Team-Interaction Training for Team Adaptation to Novel Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined how leader briefings and team-interaction training influence team members' knowledge structures concerning processes related to effective performance in both routine and novel environments. Two-hundred thirty-seven undergraduates from a large mid-Atlantic university formed 79 three-member tank platoon teams and participated in a low-fidelity tank simulation. Team-interaction training, leader briefings, and novelty of performance environment were manipulated. Findings indicated

Michelle A. Marks; Stephen J. Zaccaro; John E. Mathieu

2000-01-01

359

The effects of employee training on the relationship between environmental attitude and firms' performance in sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should employee training influence firms' performance in sustainable development? Based on research, we predict both direct and moderating effects of employee training on the performance. Assuming the institutional demands in modern societies for environmental protection, we hypothesize that employee training consistent with the demands should have a direct and positive effect on firms' performance in sustainable development. In addition, we

Li Ji; Jun Huang; Zhiqiang Liu; Hong Zhu; Zhenyao Cai

2012-01-01

360

The effects of employee training on the relationship between environmental attitude and firms' performance in sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should employee training influence firms' performance in sustainable development? Based on research, we predict both direct and moderating effects of employee training on the performance. Assuming the institutional demands in modern societies for environmental protection, we hypothesize that employee training consistent with the demands should have a direct and positive effect on firms' performance in sustainable development. In addition, we

Li Ji; Jun Huang; Zhiqiang Liu; Hong Zhu; Zhenyao Cai

2011-01-01

361

Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

2012-01-01

362

Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by…

Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

2012-01-01

363

Effects of Resistance Training on Running Economy and Cross-country Performance.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: Heavy-resistance training and plyometric training offer distinct physiological and neuromuscular adaptations that could enhance running economy and consequently distance-running performance. To date no studies have examined the effect of combining the two modes of training on running economy or performance. METHODS: Fifty collegiate male and female cross-country runners performed a 5-km time-trial and a series of laboratory-based tests to determine aerobic, anthropometric, biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. Thereafter, each athlete participated in a season of 6-8 collegiate cross-country races over 13 weeks. After the first four weeks, athletes were randomly assigned to either heavy-resistance or plyometric plus heavy-resistance training. Five days after completing their final competition, runners repeated the same set of laboratory tests. We also estimated effects of the intervention on competition performance throughout the season using athletes of other teams as controls. RESULTS: Heavy-resistance training produced small-moderate improvements in peak speed, running economy and neuromuscular characteristics relative to plyometric resistance training, whereas changes in biomechanical measures favored plyometric resistance training. Males made less gains than females in most tests. Both treatments had possibly harmful effects on competition times in males (mean 0.5%; 90% confidence limits ±?1.2%), but there may have been benefit for some individuals. Both treatments were likely beneficial for all females (-?1.2%; ±?1.3%), but heavy-resistance was possibly better than plyometric resistance training. CONCLUSION: The changes in laboratory-based parameters related to distance-running performance were consistent with the changes in competition times for females but only partly for males. Our data indicate that females should include heavy-resistance training in their programs, but males should be cautious about using it in season until more research establishes whether certain males are positive or negative responders. PMID:23698241

Barnes, Kyle R; Hopkins, Will G; McGuigan, Michael R; Northuis, Mark E; Kilding, Andrew E

2013-05-21

364

A facilitative versus directive approach in training clinical skills? Investigating students' clinical performance and perceptions.  

PubMed

Over the years, many medical school curricula have started implementing diverse student-centred teaching and learning methodologies. Previous studies, however, have indicated that students prefer more traditional and directive methodologies instead, raising questions on which training approach should be advocated. This study contrasts the effects of a student-centred (i.e. facilitative) training approach on students' clinical skills learning with students' perceptions. More specifically, a quasi-experimental study was set up in which students experienced either a directive or facilitative training approach. Data were collected by means of an OSCE on the one hand, and a questionnaire on students' perceptions of the training sessions, and two open-ended questions about students' likes and dislikes on the other hand. While no general differences were found in terms of clinical knowledge and understanding, and actual clinical performance, an interaction between students' course-specific prior knowledge and the training approach was found. Especially students with low levels of knowledge benefited more from the facilitative training approach in terms of clinical knowledge, while highly knowledgeable students experienced a negative effect of this training approach. Moreover, students' perceptions revealed that facilitative-trained students reported more deep-level learning, while the directive training approach turned out to score higher in terms of quality and perceived effects. PMID:23316467

Berghmans, Inneke; Druine, Nathalie; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien

2012-06-15

365

"Living high-training low" altitude training improves sea level performance in male and female elite runners.  

PubMed

Acclimatization to moderate high altitude accompanied by training at low altitude (living high-training low) has been shown to improve sea level endurance performance in accomplished, but not elite, runners. Whether elite athletes, who may be closer to the maximal structural and functional adaptive capacity of the respiratory (i.e., oxygen transport from environment to mitochondria) system, may achieve similar performance gains is unclear. To answer this question, we studied 14 elite men and 8 elite women before and after 27 days of living at 2,500 m while performing high-intensity training at 1,250 m. The altitude sojourn began 1 wk after the USA Track and Field National Championships, when the athletes were close to their season's fitness peak. Sea level 3,000-m time trial performance was significantly improved by 1.1% (95% confidence limits 0.3-1.9%). One-third of the athletes achieved personal best times for the distance after the altitude training camp. The improvement in running performance was accompanied by a 3% improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (72.1 +/- 1.5 to 74.4 +/- 1.5 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Circulating erythropoietin levels were near double initial sea level values 20 h after ascent (8.5 +/- 0.5 to 16.2 +/- 1.0 IU/ml). Soluble transferrin receptor levels were significantly elevated on the 19th day at altitude, confirming a stimulation of erythropoiesis (2.1 +/- 0.7 to 2.5 +/- 0.6 microg/ml). Hb concentration measured at sea level increased 1 g/dl over the course of the camp (13.3 +/- 0.2 to 14.3 +/- 0.2 g/dl). We conclude that 4 wk of acclimatization to moderate altitude, accompanied by high-intensity training at low altitude, improves sea level endurance performance even in elite runners. Both the mechanism and magnitude of the effect appear similar to that observed in less accomplished runners, even for athletes who may have achieved near maximal oxygen transport capacity for humans. PMID:11509506

Stray-Gundersen, J; Chapman, R F; Levine, B D

2001-09-01

366

Relationship Between Training and Unit Performance for Naval Patrol Aircraft - Revised.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report develops quantitative relationships between how much air crews train and how well they perform important aspects of their missions. It examines the performance of Navy Patrol air crews in the P-3 aircraft. The performance data were derived fro...

C. P. Hammon S. A. Horowitz

1996-01-01

367

DCPE Rollout: Scaling Performance Engineering Training and Certification across a Very Large Enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance engineering is a badly needed skill for implementing and running IT systems, but performance engineers are hard to find in the market. This paper presents our experiences in rolling out training and certification in a first level course on performance engineering across a large enterprise. We present data and lessons learned on the nominations for the rollout, the design

Rajesh Mansharamani; Arunava Bag; Kishor Gujarathi; Kunal Gupta; Amol Khanapurkar; Manoj Nambiar; Mehul Raval

2009-01-01

368

Experience with Training a Remotely Located Performance Test Team in a Quasi-agile Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe our experience of training a remotely located team of developers and testers to prepare and execute performance tests. The team is located in India. The lead performance engineer and the test project manager are based in New Jersey. The team members had little or no prior experience of performance testing. We describe how we overcame cultural differences and

André B. Bondi; Johannes P. Ros

2009-01-01

369

Implications of OCB and Contextual Performance for Human Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literatures concerning organizational citizenship behavior and contextual performance are selectively reviewed in an effort to build a case for citizenship behaviors as one central element in a multi-dimensional individual performance construct. Next, five human resource management topics are reviewed (selection, training, compensation, appraisal, and labor\\/employee relations). Emphasis is placed upon how these functions are impacted by an explicit recognition

Jon M. Werner

2000-01-01

370

Development and Trial Evaluation of Alternate Programs for Unit Training Managers and Trainers. Appendixes A, Performance Objectives. B, Comprehensive Performance Tests, C. Miniaturized Performance/Knowledge Tests. .  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Self-contained programs, developed to teach instructors and training managers how to use performance-based training and evaluation practices in Army units, are described in ARI Technical Report 77-A12. Products include the Directed Practice Program for TO...

J. E. Hungerland J. E. Taylor M. Showel M. F. Brennan W. H. Melching

1977-01-01

371

Exploring the roles of training programs in Small and Medium-sized enterprises' foreign investment and their performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study explores relationships between small ,and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) foreign direct investment (FDI), FDI-related training programs and organizational performance. To determine,if the implementation,of training programs mediate the relationship between FDI and SME performance, and if the alignment between training needs and training implementation leads to higher SME performance, we collected a large-scale and company-level data (N = 816)

Nai-Wen Chi; Chih-Yun Wu

372

Influence of altitude training modality on performance and total haemoglobin mass in elite swimmers.  

PubMed

We compared changes in performance and total haemoglobin mass (tHb) of elite swimmers in the weeks following either Classic or Live High:Train Low (LHTL) altitude training. Twenty-six elite swimmers (15 male, 11 female, 21.4 ± 2.7 years; mean ± SD) were divided into two groups for 3 weeks of either Classic or LHTL altitude training. Swimming performances over 100 or 200 m were assessed before altitude, then 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after returning to sea-level. Total haemoglobin mass was measured twice before altitude, then 1 and 14 days after return to sea-level. Changes in swimming performance in the first week after Classic and LHTL were compared against those of Race Control (n = 11), a group of elite swimmers who did not complete altitude training. In addition, a season-long comparison of swimming performance between altitude and non-altitude groups was undertaken to compare the progression of performances over the course of a competitive season. Regardless of altitude training modality, swimming performances were substantially slower 1 day (Classic 1.4 ± 1.3% and LHTL 1.6 ± 1.6%; mean ± 90% confidence limits) and 7 days (0.9 ± 1.0% and 1.9 ± 1.1%) after altitude compared to Race Control. In both groups, performances 14 and 28 days after altitude were not different from pre-altitude. The season-long comparison indicated that no clear advantage was obtained by swimmers who completed altitude training. Both Classic and LHTL elicited ~4% increases in tHb. Although altitude training induced erythropoeisis, this physiological adaptation did not transfer directly into improved competitive performance in elite swimmers. PMID:22234397

Gough, Clare E; Saunders, Philo U; Fowlie, John; Savage, Bernard; Pyne, David B; Anson, Judith M; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Prommer, Nicole; Gore, Christopher J

2012-01-11

373

Race performance in male mountain ultra-marathoners: anthropometry or training?  

PubMed

The association of anthropometric variables, training volume, and prerace experience with race time was investigated in 25 male mountain ultra-marathoners (M age = 44.5 yr., SD = 7.0; M body mass = 73.0 kg, SD = 7.8; M body height = 1.78 m, SD = 0.07; M Body Mass Index = 22.9 kg/m2, SD = 1.8) in a 7-day mountain ultra-marathon over 350 km with a total 11,000 m of altitude gained and lost. The relationship of anthropometry (body mass, body height, Body Mass Index, percent body fat, circumferences of limbs, and thicknesses of skin-folds), training, and prerace experience (years as active runner, average training volume in hours and kilometres per week, average running speed in training, and personal best time in marathon running) with total race time was investigated using bivariate correlation analysis. None of the variables of anthropometry were related to total race time. Average speed in running during training and personal best time in marathon running were associated with total race time. Speed in running during training was correlated with personal best time in marathon running. The finding that average speed in running during training and personal best marathon time were related to race performance suggests that training and especially intensity might be of increased importance in these ultra-runners compared to anthropometry. PMID:20681327

Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

2010-06-01

374

Effects of combined strength and endurance training on treadmill load carrying walking performance in aging men.  

PubMed

The present study examined the effects of twice weekly total body strength training (ST), endurance cycling (ET), and combined ST and ET (2+2 times a week) (SET) training on the load carrying walking test performance on the treadmill (TM) and changes in neuromuscular and endurance performance during a 21-week training period in aging men. Forty healthy men (54.8+/-8.0 years) were divided into 3 training groups (ET n=9, ST n=11, SET n=11) and a control group (C, n=9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were measured before and after a 21-week training program using a graded TM and maximal incremental bicycle ergometer (BE) tests. Isometric forces, vertical jump, and electromyographic activity of leg extensor and/or forearm flexor (F) muscles were measured before and after training and the TM tests. Increases of 20-21% in strength and of 7-12% in cycling BE VO2peak occurred in the training groups, whereas the changes of C remained minor. VO2peak was associated, both before and after training, with TM exercise time in all groups (from r=0.65, p=0.030 to r=0.93, p<0.001). Only SET showed a significant training-induced increase (p=0.011) in exercise time of the TM walking with no significant increase in TM VO2peak. The present data suggest that in older men ET and SET induced specific increases in BE VO2peak and ST and SET in strength. However, only SET increased walking exercise time indicating improved load carrying walking performance because of large individual differences in the magnitude of the development of either strength or endurance capacities. PMID:20508463

Holviala, Jarkko; Häkkinen, Arja; Karavirta, Laura; Nyman, Kai; Izquierdo, Mikel; Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Avela, Janne; Korhonen, Janne; Knuutila, Veli-Pekka; Kraemer, William J; Häkkinen, Keijo

2010-06-01

375

Voluntary dehydration and cognitive performance in trained college athletes.  

PubMed

Cognitive and mood decrements resulting from mild dehydration and glucose consumption were studied. Men and women (total N = 54; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.2) were recruited from college athletic teams. Euhydration or dehydration was achieved by athletes completing team practices with or without water replacement. Dehydration was associated with higher thirst and negative mood ratings as well as better Digit Span performance. Participants showed better Vigilance Attention with euhydration. Hydration status and athlete's sex interacted with performance on Choice Reaction Time and Vigilance Attention. In a second study, half of the athletes received glucose prior to cognitive testing. Results for negative mood and thirst ratings were similar, but for cognitive performance the results were mixed. Effects of glucose on cognition were independent of dehydration. PMID:19831106

D'anci, Kristen E; Vibhakar, Arjun; Kanter, Jordan H; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

2009-08-01

376

KNOW THYSELF: REAL WORLD BEHAVIORAL CORRELATES OF SELF-APPRAISAL ACCURACY  

PubMed Central

Accurate appraisal of one’s own abilities is one metacognitive skill considered to be an important factor affecting learning and behavior in childhood. The present study measured self-appraisal accuracy in children using tasks of executive function, and investigated relations between self-appraisal and informant ratings of real world behaviors measured by the BRIEF. We examined self-appraisal accuracy on fluency tasks in 91 children ages 10-17. More accurate self-appraisal was correlated with fewer informant ratings of real world behavior problems in inhibition and shifting, independent of actual performance. Findings suggest that self-appraisal represents cognitive processes that are at least partially independent of other functions putatively dependent on the frontal lobes, and these self-appraisal-specific processes have unique implications for optimal daily function.

Krueger, Casey E.; Rosen, Howard J.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly A.; Schatz, Jeffrey; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Kramer, Joel H.

2013-01-01

377

Training improves multitasking performance by increasing the speed of information processing in human prefrontal cortex.  

PubMed

Our ability to multitask is severely limited: task performance deteriorates when we attempt to undertake two or more tasks simultaneously. Remarkably, extensive training can greatly reduce such multitasking costs. While it is not known how training alters the brain to solve the multitasking problem, it likely involves the prefrontal cortex given this brain region's purported role in limiting multitasking performance. Here, we show that the reduction of multitasking interference with training is not achieved by diverting the flow of information processing away from the prefrontal cortex or by segregating prefrontal cells into independent task-specific neuronal ensembles, but rather by increasing the speed of information processing in this brain region, thereby allowing multiple tasks to be processed in rapid succession. These results not only reveal how training leads to efficient multitasking, they also provide a mechanistic account of multitasking limitations, namely the poor speed of information processing in human prefrontal cortex. PMID:19607798

Dux, Paul E; Tombu, Michael N; Harrison, Stephenie; Rogers, Baxter P; Tong, Frank; Marois, René

2009-07-16

378

Effectiveness of Behavioral Skills Training on Staff Performance in a Job Training Setting for High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few studies have focused on improving staff performance in naturalistic training settings for high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Behavioral skills training, consisting of group instruction and supervisory feedback, was used to improve staff performance on (a) providing positive reinforcement, (b) providing error…

Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

2010-01-01

379

Effectiveness of Behavioral Skills Training on Staff Performance in a Job Training Setting for High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have focused on improving staff performance in naturalistic training settings for high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Behavioral skills training, consisting of group instruction and supervisory feedback, was used to improve staff performance on (a) providing positive reinforcement, (b) providing error…

Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

2010-01-01

380

Effects of 8-weeks Circuit Training Programme on Physiological and Performance Characteristics of University Racket Game Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attainment and sustenance of excellent performance in any sporting engagement via the adoptions of specific training method alone may be in doubt without special emphasizes on general fitness training methods. This study was carried out to examine the responses exhibited by University of Ibadan racket game athletes concerning their physiological and performance characteristics following an 8-week circuit training programme.

J. F BABALOLA

2011-01-01

381

Interaction Among Self-Efficacy, Goal Orientation, and Unrealistic Goal-Setting on Videogame-Based Training Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to investigate what happens to trainee performance when an individual sets an unrealistically difficult performance goal early in training, which results in a large goal-performance discrepancy. Data from 185 trainees participating in a videogame-based training environment demonstrated that a single large discrepancy negatively impacts immediate subsequent training performance. Moreover, performance avoid goal orientation and self-efficacy were found

Robert C. Brusso; Karin A. Orvis; Kristina N. Bauer; Amanuel G. Tekleab

2012-01-01

382

Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

Elder, Stephen D.

2010-01-01

383

Training Americans: Ideology, Performance, and Social Studies Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through an analysis of activities called for in social studies texts at three grade levels, the author critically examines the links between children's improvisational performance and social studies curricula. He asks: What is unique about the process of embodying a historical or contemporary character as part of the learning process (such as a…

Chappell, Drew

2010-01-01

384

Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

Elder, Stephen D.

2010-01-01

385

Exploring an industry-based jazz education performance training programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Queensland Conservatorium of Music (CQCM) has maintained a partnership with Hamilton Island Enterprises (HIE) since 2002. As a part of this partnership, the Bachelor of Music (jazz & popular) students visit Hamilton Island (HI), an island resort located off the Australian east coast, four to six times annually to engage in 3 to 10 days of performance and

Derrin Kerr; Bruce Allen Knight

2010-01-01

386

IDET: a critical appraisal of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith and Nephew (Endoscopy division, Andover, MA, USA) have estimated that 60,000 Intra-Discal Electrothermal Therapy (IDET)\\u000a procedures have been performed world wide up to June 2005. Despite the large number of procedures performed, a critical appraisal\\u000a of the evidence of efficacy of IDET has not appeared in the literature. This paper reviews the current evidence of clinical\\u000a efficacy for IDET

Brian J. C. Freeman

2006-01-01

387

Human capital and sustainable competitive advantage: an analysis of the relationship between training and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the importance of training as a creator of human capital, which enables a company to obtain competitive\\u000a advantages that are sustainable in the long-term that result in greater profitability. The study is based on the general theoretical\\u000a framework of resource and capacity theory. The study not only analyses the impact of the influence of training on performance;

Ignacio Danvila del Valle; Miguel Angel Sastre Castillo

2009-01-01

388

Strength training effects on physical performance and serum hormones in young soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effects of simultaneous explosive strength and soccer training in young men, 8 experimental (S) and 11 control (C) players, aged 17.2 (0.6) years, were tested before and after an 11-week training period with respect to the load-vertical jumping curve [loads of 0–70 kg (counter-movement jump CMJ0–70)], 5- and 15-m sprint performances, submaximal running endurance and basal serum concentrations of

E. M. Gorostiaga; M. Izquierdo; M. Ruesta; J. Iribarren; J. J. González-Badillo; J. Ibáñez

2004-01-01

389

The Effects of Performance Enhancement Training on Hypertension, Human Attention, Stress, and Brain Wave Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of alpha-increase neurofeedback training (Performance Enhancement Training) on blood pressure, stress reduction, attention, and observe changes in brainwave patterns. A forty-nine-year-old male college student diagnosed with essential hypertension controlled by medication had undergone twenty-six sessions of alpha-increase biofeed-back (8-13 Hz) at PZ electrode site for a period of 15

S. Louise Norris; Ching-Tse Lee; Dmitry Burshteyn; Juan Cea-Aravena

2000-01-01

390

Performance and physiological responses to a 5-week synchronized swimming technical training programme in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synchronized swimming team routine (TR) is composed of figures of varying degrees of difficulty. Swimmers able to perform\\u000a these figures separately underwent a 5-week technical training programme (TTP) to assemble a TR. Little is known about the\\u000a physiological responses to this kind of TTP. A group of 13 trained synchronized swimmers [mean age 14 (SD 1) years] were tested

J. C. Chatard; I. Mujika; M. C. Chantegraille; J. Kostucha

1999-01-01

391

Incorporating industry specific training into school education: enrolment and performance trends in a senior secondary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporating industry?specific training into senior secondary education has not always succeeded in attaining status alongside general education courses. This paper reports enrolment and student performance trends from 2001–2008 in industry?specific training courses developed in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) where around one in five students take such a course as part of their Year 12 Senior Secondary

Gordon Stanley; Robert G. MacCann

2009-01-01

392

Electrostimulation Training Effects on the Physical Performance of Ice Hockey Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

BROCHERIE, F., N. BABAULT, G. COMETTI, N. MAFFIULETTI, and J.-C. CHATARD. Electrostimulation Training Effects on the Physical Performance of Ice Hockey Players. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 455-460, 2005. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a short-term electromyostimulation (EMS) training program on the strength of knee extensors, skating, and vertical

FRANCK BROCHERIE; NICOLAS BABAULT; GILLES COMETTI; NICOLA MAFFIULETTI; JEAN-CLAUDE CHATARD

2005-01-01

393

Strength training for 1h in humans: effect on the motor performance of normal upper extremities  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been found that one session of intense muscle strength training decreases muscle strength temporarily and causes neuromuscular\\u000a fatigue in the trained muscles, but little attention has been given to the effects of neuromuscular fatigue on the other components\\u000a of motor performance. The purpose of this study was to examine in normal healthy volunteers the effects of a 1-h

Kari Kauranen; Pertti Siira; Heikki Vanharanta

1999-01-01

394

Effect of high-intensity hypoxic training on sea-level swimming performances.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high-intensity hypoxic training improves sea-level performances more than equivalent training in normoxia. Sixteen well-trained collegiate and Masters swimmers (10 women, 6 men) completed a 5-wk training program, consisting of three high-intensity training sessions in a flume and supplemental low- or moderate-intensity sessions in a pool each week. Subjects were matched for gender, performance level, and training history, and they were assigned to either hypoxic [Hypo; inspired O2 fraction (Fi(O(2))) = 15.3%, equivalent to a simulated altitude of 2,500 m] or normoxic (Norm; Fi(O(2)) = 20.9%) interval training in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. All pool training occurred under Norm conditions. The primary performance measures were 100- and 400-m freestyle time trials. Laboratory outcomes included maximal O(2) uptake (Vo(2 max)), anaerobic capacity (accumulated O(2) deficit), and swimming economy. Significant (P = 0.02 and <0.001 for 100- and 400-m trials, respectively) improvements were found in performance on both the 100- [Norm: -0.7 s (95% confidence limits: +0.2 to -1.7 s), -1.2%; Hypo: -0.8 s (95% confidence limits: -0.1 to -1.5 s), -1.1%] and 400-m freestyle [Norm: -3.6 s (-1.8 to -5.5 s), -1.2%; Hypo: -5.3 s (-2.3 to -8.3 s), -1.7%]. There was no significant difference between groups for either distance (ANOVA interaction, P = 0.91 and 0.36 for 100- and 400-m trials, respectively). Vo(2 max) was improved significantly (Norm: 0.16 +/- 0.23 l/min, 6.4 +/-8.1%; Hypo: 0.11 +/- 0.18 l/min, 4.2 +/- 7.0%). There was no significant difference between groups (P = 0.58). We conclude that 5 wk of high-intensity training in a flume improves sea-level swimming performances and Vo(2 max) in well-trained swimmers, with no additive effect of hypoxic training. PMID:12391107

Truijens, M J; Toussaint, H M; Dow, J; Levine, B D

2002-10-11

395

Effects of Ramadan fasting on 60 min of endurance running performance in moderately trained men  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study examines the effects of Ramadan fasting on endurance performance.MethodUsing a crossover design, 10 moderately trained, active Muslim men performed 60 min runs on a treadmill in the fasted (Ramadan, RAM) and non-fasted (Control, CON) state on two separate counterbalanced occasions. After familiarisation, four subjects performed their CON trial 1 week before Ramadan, while the other six subjects performed

Abdul Rashid Aziz; Mohamed Faizul Wahid; Weileen Png; Carolyn V Jesuvadian

2010-01-01

396

Changes in Fitness and Shipboard Task Performance Following Circuit Weight Training Programs Featuring Continuous or Interval Running.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This investigation compared fitness and work performance changes following participating in circuit weight training regimes featuring either interval or continuous running programs. Results indicated that participation in the circuit weight training/run r...

E. J. Marcinik J. A. Hodgdon C. E. Englund J. J. O'Brien

1987-01-01

397

Learning Unplugged: Using Mobile Technologies for Organizational Training and Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book, which is written by a training consultant, is intended to help organizations determine whether specific readily available mobile technologies make sense for their particular learning and performance needs. Chapter 1 discusses the mobile revolution in learning and performance, with special attention to the new work and learning…

Gayeski, Diane

398

The Use of Simulation to Improve the Effectiveness of Training in Performance Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance management is an important managerial tool that directs employees' goals and behavior toward the organization's strategic goals. This article focuses on simulation-based training in performance management systems. The simulation developed at the School of Business Administration of the College of Management in Israel is based on a…

Rachman-Moore, Dalia; Kenett, Ron S.

2006-01-01

399

Trends of tactical performance analysis in team sports: bridging the gap between research, training and competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance in Team Sports is carried out through a long term and methodical training process planned to improve skills and competence required to deal with competitive demands. Despite that tactical constraint play a major role in Team Sports performance the history of its scientific analysis has been driven by physiological and biomechanical approach, pay - ing little attention to the

Júlio Garganta

400

Communication in Performance-Based Training and Instruction: From Design to Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communication is inextricably important to instructional design and performance-based training. Promoting effective communication as an integral part of the performance support system improves professional instructional design functions and offers greater avenues for meaningful discourse among end users of the instruction. In this article, we…

Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

2009-01-01

401

Accuracy of cricothyroidotomy performed in canine and human cadaver models during surgical skills training  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSurgical skills training is an integral component of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) Course. Teaching techniques are continuously reevaluated and updated. Recognition of recurring technical errors in the performance of cricothyroidotomy in canine models prompted this comparison to the performance of the procedure in human cadavers.

Mary C McCarthy; Mark R Ranzinger; Daniel J Nolan; Carie S Lambert; Manuel H Castillo

2002-01-01

402

Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement

V. G. Laties; B. Weiss

1980-01-01

403

The Use of Simulation to Improve the Effectiveness of Training in Performance Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Performance management is an important managerial tool that directs employees' goals and behavior toward the organization's strategic goals. This article focuses on simulation-based training in performance management systems. The simulation developed at the School of Business Administration of the College of Management in Israel is based on a…

Rachman-Moore, Dalia; Kenett, Ron S.

2006-01-01

404

Performance test results for the Eaton dc development power train in an electric test bed vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of the tests performed on a direct current (dc) power train in a test bed vehicle developed by the Eaton Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The tests were performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the INEL testing was to provide test

R. L. Crumley; M. R. Donaldson

1987-01-01

405

Performance test results for the Eaton dc developmental power train in an electric test bed vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of the tests performed on a direct current (dc) power train in a test bed vehicle developed by the Eaton Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests were performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the INEL testing was to provide test

R. L. Crumley; M. R. Donaldson

1987-01-01

406

Effects of training with a dynamic moment of inertia bat on swing performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the 8-week dynamic moment of inertia (DMOI) bat training on swing velocity, batted-ball speed, hitting distance, muscle power, and grip force. The DMOI bat is characterized in that the bat could be swung more easily by reducing the moment of inertia at the initial stage of swing without decreasing the bat weight and has a faster swing velocity and lower muscle activity. Seventeen varsity baseball players were randomly assigned to the DMOI bat training group (n = 9) and the normal bat training group (n = 8). The training protocol was 7 swings each set, 5-8 sets each time, 3 times each week, and 8 weeks' training period. The results showed that the swing training with the DMOI bat for 8 weeks significantly increased swing velocity by about 6.20% (96.86 ± 8.48 vs. 102.82 ± 9.93 km·h(-1)), hitting distance by about 6.69% (80.06 ± 9.16 vs. 84.99 ± 7.26 m), muscle power of the right arm by about 12.04% (3.34 ± 0.41 vs. 3.74 ± 0.61 m), and muscle power of the left arm by about 8.23% (3.36 ± 0.46 vs. 3.61 ± 0.39 m) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the DMOI bat training group had a significantly better change percentage in swing velocity, hitting distance, and grip force of the left hand than did the normal bat training group (p < 0.05). The findings suggested that the swing training with the DMOI bat has a positive benefit on swing performance and that the DMOI bat could be used as a new training tool in baseball. PMID:21993041

Liu, Chiang; Liu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Ying-Chieh; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

2011-11-01

407

The influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence and performance in marathon runners.  

PubMed

Hamstra-Wright, KL, Coumbe-Lilley, JE, Kim, H, McFarland, JA, and Huxel Bliven, KC. The influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence and performance in marathon runners. J Strength Cond Res 27(10): 2828-2835, 2013-There has been a considerable increase in the number of participants running marathons over the past several years. The 26.2-mile race requires physical and mental stamina to successfully complete it. However, studies have not investigated how running and mental skills preparation influence injury and performance. The purpose of our study was to describe the training and mental skills preparation of a typical group of runners as they began a marathon training program, assess the influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence, and examine how training and mental skills preparation influence marathon performance. Healthy adults (N = 1,957) participating in an 18-week training program for a fall 2011 marathon were recruited for the study. One hundred twenty-five runners enrolled and received 4 surveys: pretraining, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, posttraining. The pretraining survey asked training and mental skills preparation questions. The 6- and 12-week surveys asked about injury incidence. The posttraining survey asked about injury incidence and marathon performance. Tempo runs during training preparation had a significant positive relationship to injury incidence in the 6-week survey (?[93] = 0.26, p = 0.01). The runners who reported incorporating tempo and interval runs, running more miles per week, and running more days per week in their training preparation ran significantly faster than did those reporting less tempo and interval runs, miles per week, and days per week (p ? 0.05). Mental skills preparation did not influence injury incidence or marathon performance. To prevent injury, and maximize performance, while marathon training, it is important that coaches and runners ensure that a solid foundation of running fitness and experience exists, followed by gradually building volume, and then strategically incorporating runs of various speeds and distances. PMID:23439344

Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Coumbe-Lilley, John E; Kim, Hajwa; McFarland, Jose A; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

2013-10-01

408

Role of the Primary Motor Cortex in the Early Boost in Performance Following Mental Imagery Training  

PubMed Central

Recently, it has been suggested that the primary motor cortex (M1) plays a critical role in implementing the fast and transient post-training phase of motor skill consolidation, known to yield an early boost in performance. Whether a comparable early boost in performance occurs following motor imagery (MIM) training is still unknown. To address this issue, two groups of subjects learned a finger tapping sequence either by MIM or physical practice (PP). In both groups, performance increased significantly in the post-training phase when compared with the pre-training phase and further increased after a 30 min resting period, indicating that both MIM and PP trainings were equally efficient and induced an early boost in motor performance. This conclusion was corroborated by the results of an additional control group. In a second experiment, we then investigated the causal role of M1 in implementing the early boost process resulting from MIM training. To do so, we inhibited M1 by applying a continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) in healthy volunteers just after they learnt, by MIM, the same finger-tapping task as in Experiment #1. As a control, cTBS was applied over the vertex of subjects who underwent the same experiment. We found that cTBS applied over M1 selectively abolished the early boost process subsequent to MIM training. Altogether, the present study provides evidence that MIM practice induces an early boost in performance and demonstrates that M1 is causally involved in this process. These findings further divulge some degree of behavioral and neuronal similitude between MIM and PP.

Debarnot, Ursula; Clerget, Emeline; Olivier, Etienne

2011-01-01

409

Appraisal of Teachers: Who Appraises Whom and Does It Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school teachers in Hong Kong (n=527) responded to survey items about formative outcomes, summative outcomes, perceived purposes of appraisal, overall effectiveness of appraisal, and summative purposes such as promotion and dismissal of staff. Principal components analysis and confirmatory analysis yielded the two a priori outcome…

Chow, Alan Ping-yan; Wong, Edwin King-por; Yeung, Alexander Sheesing; Mo, Kim Wan

410

U.S. Air Force performance-based training as applied to TRIGA reactor operations  

SciTech Connect

In January 1991 the Air Force Safety Agency (AFSA) licensed a nuclear reactor for operation at McClellan Air Force Base in Sacramento, California. McClellan's TRIGA reactor provides a neutron source for the Sacramento Air Logistics Center's nondestructive inspection facilities. The reactor is also used extensively for both Department of Defense and commercial neutron irradiations. The key to safe and reliable reactor operations lies with the operations staff. The reactor operators at the McClellan TRIGA reactor are civil service employees. The initial reactor operators received training from General Atomics in San Diego, California. Once the reactor became fully operational, however, additional candidate operators were added to the staff. Experience showed that the time from hiring a candidate operator to certification was about two years. The McClellan reactor operator training program was vastly improved through the initiation of two significant.changes. First, a new level of reactor operator, the reactor console operator (RCO) was established. Second, a performance based training program was developed and implemented. The new RCO operator level brought several efficiencies to the reactor operator training and certification process. Like an RO, the RCO must have the knowledge and skills to operate the reactor during normal, abnormal and emergency conditions. However, RCOs are not certified to perform reactor related maintenance or fuel handling activities. RCO candidates concentrate on reactor operations, while reactor related maintenance and fuel handling training remains at the RO level. The result is a shorter initial training period, with certification to RCO in about six months. The second significant change was the development and implementation of a performance based training program. This required an in depth analysis of the responsibilities of all three operator levels (RCO, RO, SRO). The performance based training program ensures that the required training is delivered to a candidate at the correct time, and at the correct level in their training process. Overtraining is minimized and undertraining is eliminated, resulting in an efficient and effective reactor operator training program. (author)

Brauer, W.C.; Weeks, A.A. [SM-ALC/TIR, 5335 Price Ave., McClellan Air Force Base Sacramento, CA 95652-2504 (United States)

1994-07-01

411

Effects of an 18-week strength training program on low-handicap golfers' performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 18-week strength training program on variables related to low-handicap golfers' performance. Ten right-handed male golfers, reporting a handicap of 5 or less, were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (CG) (N = 5, age: 23.9 ± 6.7 years) and the treatment group (TG) (N = 5, age: 24.2 ± 5.4 years). CG players followed the standard physical conditioning program for golf, which was partially modified for the TG. The TG participated in an 18-week strength training program divided into three parts: maximal strength training including weightlifting exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks), explosive strength training with combined weights and plyometric exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks), and golf-specific strength training, including swings with a weighted club and accelerated swings with an acceleration tubing system (3 days a week for 6 weeks). Body mass, body fat, muscle mass, jumping ability, isometric grip strength, maximal strength (RM), ball speed, and golf club mean acceleration were measured on five separate occasions. The TG demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in maximal and explosive strength after 6 weeks of training and in driving performance after 12 weeks. These improvements remained unaltered during the 6-week golf-specific training period and even during a 5-week detraining period. It may be concluded that an 18-week strength training program can improve maximal and explosive strength and these increases can be transferred to driving performance; however, golfers need time to transfer the gains. PMID:21881530

Alvarez, María; Sedano, Silvia; Cuadrado, Gonzalo; Redondo, Juan Carlos

2012-04-01

412

The Eindhoven laparoscopic cholecystectomy training course—improving operating room performance using virtual reality training: results from the first E.A.E.S. accredited virtual reality trainings curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study was undertaken to investigate operating room performance of surgical residents, after participating in the Eindhoven virtual reality laparoscopic cholecystectomy training course. This course is the first formal surgical resident trainings course, using a variety of complementary virtual reality (VR) skills training simulation in order to prepare surgical residents for their first laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The course was granted

M. P. Schijven; J. J. Jakimowicz; I. A. M. J. Broeders; L. N. L. Tseng

2005-01-01

413

School based working memory training: Preliminary finding of improvement in children's mathematical performance  

PubMed Central

Working memory is a complex cognitive system responsible for the concurrent storage and processing of information. Ggiven that a complex cognitive task like mental arithmetic clearly places demands on working memory (e.g., in remembering partial results, monitoring progress through a multi-step calculation), there is surprisingly little research exploring the possibility of increasing young children’s working memory capacity through systematic school-based training. Tthis study reports the preliminary results of a working memory training programme, targeting executive processes such as inhibiting unwanted information, monitoring processes, and the concurrent storage and processing of information. Tthe findings suggest that children who received working memory training made significantly greater gains in the trained working memory task, and in a non-trained visual-spatial working memory task, than a matched control group. Moreover, the training group made significant improvements in their mathematical functioning as measured by the number of errors made in an addition task compared to the control group. Tthese findings, although preliminary, suggest that school-based measures to train working memory could have benefits in terms of improved performance in mathematics.

Witt, Marcus

2011-01-01

414

Challenges in understanding the influence of maximal power training on improving athletic performance.  

PubMed

The ability to optimise muscular power output is considered fundamental to successful performance of many athletic and sporting activities. Consequently, a great deal of research has investigated methods to improve power output and its transference to athletic performance. One issue that makes comparisons between studies difficult is the different modes of dynamometry (isometric, isokinetic and isoinertial) used to measure strength and power. However, it is recognised that isokinetic and isometric assessment bear little resemblance to the accelerative/decelerative motion implicit in limb movement during resistance training and sporting performance. Furthermore, most people who train to increase power would have limited or no access to isometric and/or isokinetic dynamometry. It is for these reasons and for the sake of brevity that the findings of isoinertial (constant gravitational load) research will provide the focus of much of the discussion in this review. One variable that is considered important in increasing power and performance in explosive tasks such as running and jumping is the training load that maximises the mechanical power output (Pmax) of muscle. However, there are discrepancies in the research as to which load maximises power output during various resistance exercises and whether training at Pmax improves functional performance is debatable. There is also some evidence suggesting that Pmax is affected by the training status of the individuals; however, other strength variables could quite possibly be of greater importance for improving functional performance. If Pmax is found to be important in improving athletic performance, then each individual's Pmax needs to be determined and they then train at this load. The predilection of research to train all subjects at one load (e.g. 30% one repetition maximum [1RM]) is fundamentally flawed due to inter-individual Pmax differences, which may be ascribed to factors such as training status (strength level) and the exercise (muscle groups) used. Pmax needs to be constantly monitored and adjusted as research suggests that it is transient. In terms of training studies, experienced subjects should be used, volume equated and the outcome measures clearly defined and measured (i.e. mean power and/or peak power). Sport scientists are urged to formulate research designs that result in meaningful and practical information that assists coaches and strength and conditioning practitioners in the development of their athletes. PMID:15730337

Cronin, John; Sleivert, Gord

2005-01-01

415

Effect of 10 Week Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Competition and Training Performance in Elite Swimmers  

PubMed Central

Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD) were supplemented with either beta-alanine (4 weeks loading phase of 4.8 g/day and 3.2 g/day thereafter) or placebo for 10 weeks. Competition performance times were log-transformed, then evaluated before (National Championships) and after (international or national selection meet) supplementation. Swimmers also completed three standardized training sets at baseline, 4 and 10 weeks of supplementation. Capillary blood was analyzed for pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentration in both competition and training. There was an unclear effect (0.4%; ±0.8%, mean, ±90% confidence limits) of beta-alanine on competition performance compared to placebo with no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. While there was a transient improvement on training performance after 4 weeks with beta-alanine (?1.3%; ±1.0%), there was an unclear effect at ten weeks (?0.2%; ±1.5%) and no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. Beta-alanine supplementation appears to have minimal effect on swimming performance in non-laboratory controlled real-world training and competition settings.

Chung, Weiliang; Shaw, Greg; Anderson, Megan E.; Pyne, David B.; Saunders, Philo U.; Bishop, David J.; Burke, Louise M.

2012-01-01

416

Effect of 10 week beta-alanine supplementation on competition and training performance in elite swimmers.  

PubMed

Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD) were supplemented with either beta-alanine (4 weeks loading phase of 4.8 g/day and 3.2 g/day thereafter) or placebo for 10 weeks. Competition performance times were log-transformed, then evaluated before (National Championships) and after (international or national selection meet) supplementation. Swimmers also completed three standardized training sets at baseline, 4 and 10 weeks of supplementation. Capillary blood was analyzed for pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentration in both competition and training. There was an unclear effect (0.4%; ± 0.8%, mean, ± 90% confidence limits) of beta-alanine on competition performance compared to placebo with no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. While there was a transient improvement on training performance after 4 weeks with beta-alanine (-1.3%; ± 1.0%), there was an unclear effect at ten weeks (-0.2%; ± 1.5%) and no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. Beta-alanine supplementation appears to have minimal effect on swimming performance in non-laboratory controlled real-world training and competition settings. PMID:23201763

Chung, Weiliang; Shaw, Greg; Anderson, Megan E; Pyne, David B; Saunders, Philo U; Bishop, David J; Burke, Louise M

2012-10-09

417

A Comparison of Spine-Board Transfer Techniques and the Effect of Training on Performance  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the log-roll (LR) maneuver and the lift-and-slide (LS) technique and to investigate the effect of training on the performance of these transfer techniques. Design and Setting: A repeated-measures design involving certified athletic trainers and athletic training students from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college. Subjects: Certified athletic trainers and athletic training students were required to transfer healthy individuals onto a spine board. Testing was performed on 2 men of average size, whereas training sessions were performed on both men and women of different heights and weights. Results: Differences between transfer techniques were noted. The execution of the LR produced significantly greater lateral-flexion motion and greater axial rotation of the head as compared with the LS. Performance of spine-board transfer techniques did not improve with training. Conclusions: The LS technique was more effective in restricting motion of the head. To truly establish the safety of spine-board transfer techniques, researchers need to assess how individual segments move within the structurally unstable cervical spine.

Horodyski, MaryBeth; Powers, Michael E.

2003-01-01

418

Development of Analytical Algorithm for the Performance Analysis of Power Train System of an Electric Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power train system design is one of the key R&D areas on the development process of new automobile because an optimum size of engine with adaptable power transmission which can accomplish the design requirement of new vehicle can be obtained through the system design. Especially, for the electric vehicle design, very reliable design algorithm of a power train system is required for the energy efficiency. In this study, an analytical simulation algorithm is developed to estimate driving performance of a designed power train system of an electric. The principal theory of the simulation algorithm is conservation of energy with several analytical and experimental data such as rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, mechanical efficiency of power transmission etc. From the analytical calculation results, running resistance of a designed vehicle is obtained with the change of operating condition of the vehicle such as inclined angle of road and vehicle speed. Tractive performance of the model vehicle with a given power train system is also calculated at each gear ratio of transmission. Through analysis of these two calculation results: running resistance and tractive performance, the driving performance of a designed electric vehicle is estimated and it will be used to evaluate the adaptability of the designed power train system on the vehicle.

Kim, Chul-Ho; Lee, Kee-Man; Lee, Sang-Heon

419

The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the impact of speed of processing training on the cognitive and everyday abilities of older adults with initial processing speed or processing difficulty. Participants were randomized to either a speed of processing intervention or a social- and computer-contact control group. Results indicate that speed of processing training not only improves processing speed, as indicated by performance on the Useful Field of View test (UFOV), but also transfers to certain everyday functions, as indicated by improved performance on Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (Timed IADL). Transfer of speed of processing training to other cognitive domains was not evident. This study provides additional evidence that speed of processing training has the potential to enhance everyday functions that maintain independence and quality of life, particularly when the training is targeted toward individuals who most need it. Further study is needed to learn about the long-term effects of such training in relation to everyday abilities. PMID:16019280

Edwards, J D; Wadley, V G; Vance, D E; Wood, K; Roenker, D L; Ball, K K

2005-05-01

420

Cardiovascular and Coordination Training Differentially Improve Cognitive Performance and Neural Processing in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Recent studies revealed a positive influence of physical activity on cognitive functioning in older adults. Studies that investigate the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of type and long term duration of physical training, however, are missing. We performed a 12-month longitudinal study to investigate the effects of cardiovascular and coordination training (control group: relaxation and stretching) on cognitive functions (executive control and perceptual speed) in older adults. We analyzed data of 44 participants aged 62–79 years. Participants were trained three times a week for 12 months. Their physical and cognitive performance was tested prior to training, and after 6 and 12 months. Changes in brain activation patterns were investigated using functional MRI. On the behavioral level, both experimental groups improved in executive functioning and perceptual speed but with differential effects on speed and accuracy. In line with the behavioral findings, neurophysiological results for executive control also revealed changes (increases and reductions) in brain activity for both interventions in frontal, parietal, and sensorimotor cortical areas. In contrast to the behavioral findings, neurophysiological changes were linear without indication of a plateau. In both intervention groups, prefrontal areas showed decreased activation after 6 and 12 months when performing an executive control task, as compared to the control group, indicating more efficient information processing. Furthermore, cardiovascular training was associated with an increased activation of the sensorimotor network, whereas coordination training was associated with increased activation in the visual–spatial network. Our data suggest that besides cardiovascular training also other types of physical activity improve cognition of older adults. The mechanisms, however, that underlie the performance changes seem to differ depending on the intervention.

Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Godde, Ben; Staudinger, Ursula M.

2011-01-01

421

The Resilience of the "Corporate" in Post-Corporate Teacher Appraisal: A Case Study from Mauritius  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article seeks to replace the traditional and authoritative staff appraisal at a case-study school by a concept of performance management depicted as the performance enhancement and peer appraisal of teachers. It is achieved by elaborating an open system of performance management where teachers are empowered within the existing vertical…

Luchoomun, Dharmadeo

2007-01-01

422

Health and fitness benefits of a resistance training intervention performed in the workplace.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of a workplace-based resistance training intervention on different health-, fitness-, and work-related measures in untrained men (bus drivers). The subjects were recruited from a bus company and divided into a training (n = 48) and control (n = 48) groups after initial prescreening. The training group performed a 24-week resistance training program, whereas the control group maintained their normal daily activities. Each group was assessed for body composition, blood pressure (BP), pain incidence, muscular endurance, and flexibility before and after the 24-week period. Work absenteeism was also recorded during this period and after a 12-week follow-up phase. In general, no body composition changes were identified in either group. In the training group, a significant reduction in BP and pain incidence, along with improvements in muscle endurance and flexibility were seen after 24 weeks (p < 0.05). There were no changes in these parameters in the control group, and the between-group differences were all significant (p < 0.05). A reduction in worker absenteeism rate was also noted in the training (vs. control) group during both the interventional and follow-up periods (p < 0.05). In conclusion, it was found that a periodized resistance training intervention performed within the workplace improved different aspects of health and fitness in untrained men, thereby potentially providing other work-related benefits. Thus, both employers and employees may benefit from the setup, promotion, and support of a work-based physical activity program involving resistance training. PMID:22289695

Zavanela, Plinio M; Crewther, Blair T; Lodo, Leandro; Florindo, Alex A; Miyabara, Elen H; Aoki, Marcelo S

2012-03-01

423

High reliability of performance of well-trained rowers on a rowing ergometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

High retest reliability is desirable in tests used to monitor athletic performance, but the reliability of many popular tests has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of performance of a 2000-m time-trial lasting approximately 7 min performed on a Concept II rowing ergometer. Eight well-trained rowers (peak oxygen uptake 61?+\\/- 5 ml.kg-1.min-1; mean

E. J. SCHABORT; J. A. HAWLEY; W. G. HOPKINS; H. BLUM

1999-01-01

424

The effect of dropping height on jumping performance in trained and untrained prepubertal boys and girls.  

PubMed

Plyometric training in children, including different types of jumps, has become common practice during the last few years in different sports, although there is limited information about the adaptability of children with respect to different loads and the differences in performance between various jump types. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gender and training background on the optimal drop jump height of 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty prepubertal (untrained and track and field athletes, boys and girls, equally distributed in each group [n = 15]), performed the following in random order: 3 squat jumps, 3 countermovement jumps (CMJs) and 3 drop jumps from heights of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 cm. The trial with the best performance in jump height of each test was used for further analysis. The jump type significantly affected the jump height. The jump height during the CMJ was the highest among all other jump types, resulting in advanced performance for both trained and untrained prepubertal boys and girls. However, increasing the dropping height did not change the jumping height or contact time during the drop jump. This possibly indicates an inability of prepubertal children to use their stored elastic energy to increase jumping height during drop jumps, irrespective of their gender or training status. This indicates that children, independent of gender and training status, have no performance gain during drop jumps from heights up to 50 cm, and therefore, it is recommended that only low drop jump heights be included in plyometric training to limit the probability of sustaining injuries. PMID:22027856

Bassa, Eleni I; Patikas, Dimitrios A; Panagiotidou, Aikaterini I; Papadopoulou, Sophia D; Pylianidis, Theofilos C; Kotzamanidis, Christos M

2012-08-01

425

Assessing the effect of high school students' training program on peers performance suffering from asthma  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most common disease in childhood which is considered as the forerunner of the acute diseases and simply can cause disability among the children. Since childhood and adolescence are the most important periods of growth and perfection and incidence of asthma can bring about distortion in this process, the present study done aimed to assess the effect of conducting high school training program on peers’ performance with asthma. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study in which the performance rate of the students at the time of artificial attack of asthma was directly observed, assessed and compared through demographic data questionnaire and performance assessment check list. Eighty individuals from the second grade of high school students in 2010 in Isfahan City were randomly selected to participate in the present study, among which, 40 individuals were entered in the test group and 40 of them also were placed in the control group. After conducting the training program for the test group, which had been designed both by direct method (in person and face to face by asking and answering and group discussion) and by indirect method (using pamphlet and other educational materials), the level of the training effectiveness was assessed on the students’ performance. RESULTS: The findings of the present study indicated that the performance of students at the test group increased from 2.2 (0.6) to 91.8 (1.3) which emphasized that the training program for the young adolescent peers had a positive effect on promoting their health. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the results of the present study and regarding to the importance and role of students as the future makers of the country, and also the cost-effectiveness of the training programs and the positive effect of peers on increasing the level of health among the students with asthma and consequently decreasing the school absence, it obviously seems necessary to generalize and expand these training programs.

Ghazavi, Zohreh; Hemmati, Zeinab; Hasanpour, Marziyeh; Iranpour, Ramin

2010-01-01

426

The effects of training and competition on achievement goals, motivational responses, and performance in a golf-putting task.  

PubMed

This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals' achievement motivation. PMID:23204359

van de Pol P, K C; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

2012-12-01

427

Enhancing visuospatial performance through video game training to increase learning in visuospatial science domains.  

PubMed

Although previous research has demonstrated that performance on visuospatial assessments can be enhanced through relevant experience, an unaddressed question is whether such experience also produces a similar increase in target domains (such as science learning) where visuospatial abilities are directly relevant for performance. In the present study, participants completed either spatial or nonspatial training via interaction with video games and were then asked to read and learn about the geologic topic of plate tectonics. Results replicate the benefit of playing appropriate video games in enhancing visuospatial performance and demonstrate that this facilitation also manifests itself in learning science topics that are visuospatial in nature. This novel result suggests that visuospatial training not only can impact performance on measures of spatial functioning, but also can affect performance in content areas in which these abilities are utilized. PMID:22037919

Sanchez, Christopher A

2012-02-01

428

Effects of kettlebell training on postural coordination and jump performance: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a worksite intervention using kettlebell training to improve postural reactions to perturbation and jump performance. This single-blind randomized controlled trial involved 40 adults (n = 40) from occupations with a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort (mean age 44 years, body mass index 23 kg·m, 85% women). A blinded examiner took measures at baseline and follow-up. Participants were randomly assigned to a training group-doing kettlebell swings 3 times a week for 8 weeks-or to a control group. The outcome measures were postural reactions to sudden perturbation and maximal countermovement jump height. Compared with the control group, the training group had a significant decreased stopping time after perturbation (-109 ms, 95% confidence interval [-196 to -21]). Jump height increased significantly in the training group (1.5 cm, 95% confidence interval [0.5 to 2.5]), but this was nonsignificantly different from control. Kettlebell training improves postural reactions to sudden perturbation. Future studies should investigate whether kettlebell training can reduce the risk of low back injury in occupations with manual material handling or patient handling where sudden perturbations often occur. PMID:22843044

Jay, Kenneth; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jørgensen, Marie B; Andersen, Christoffer H; Pedersen, Mogens T; Andersen, Lars L

2013-05-01

429

Parasympathetic nervous activity mirrors recovery status in weightlifting performance after training.  

PubMed

Heart rate variability (HRV) and parasympathetic power are closely related to the well-being and health status in humans. The main goal of the study was to determine whether these measures can reflect recovery status after weight training. After a 10-day detraining period, 7 weightlifters were challenged with a 2-hour weight training which elicited approximately fourfold increases in circulating muscle creatine kinase level and protracted pain feeling (p < 0.05). Weightlifting performance was then evaluated 3, 24, 48, and 72 hours after training to determine the degree of recovery from fatigue. Heart rate variability, circulating dehydroepiandrostendione sulfate (DHEA-S), and muscle damage markers were measured before each performance test. An electrocardiogram was recorded for 5 minutes continuously at rest in seated positions. After training, weightlifting performance of the subjects decreased below baseline in paralleled with suppressed parasympathetic power (high-frequency [HF] HRV), whereas sympathetic power (normalized low-frequency HRV) was slightly elevated at 3 hours of recovery (p < 0.05). Both weightlifting performances and parasympathetic power returned to baseline values in 24 hours and further increased above baseline during 48-72 hours of recovery in a similar fashion (p < 0.05). Circulating DHEA-S level dropped at 24 hours (p < 0.05) and returned to normal values by 48 hours. Muscle pain increased at 3 hours after training and remained higher than baseline values for the 72-hour recovery period (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that parasympathetic power, indicated by HF HRV, is able to reflect the recovery status of weightlifters after training. PMID:21273908

Chen, Jui-Lien; Yeh, Ding-Peng; Lee, Jo-Ping; Chen, Chung-Yu; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Shin-Da; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Kuo, Terry B J; Kao, Chung-Lan; Kuo, Chia-Hua

2011-06-01

430

Effects of stabilization training on trunk muscularity and physical performances in youth soccer players.  

PubMed

Hoshikawa, Y, Iida T, Muramatsu, M, Ii, N, Nakajima, Y, Chumank, K, and Kanehisa, H. Effects of stabilization training on trunk muscularity and physical performances in youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 27(11): 3142-3149, 2013-The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of stabilization training on trunk muscularity and physical performances in youth male soccer players aged 12-13 yrs (n = 28). The subjects allocated to training (TG, n = 16) performed a stabilization exercise program consisting of 5 exercises (elbow-toe, elbow-heel, side bridge, modified 1-legged squat, and bent-knee push-up) 4 times per week and a training program specific to soccer 6 times per week, whereas the others (control, n = 12) conducted the soccer training only for 6 months. Before and after the intervention, the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of 5 muscles (rectus abdominus, oblique, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, and erector spinae) were determined using magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, peak torques during hip extension and flexion at 1.05 rad/second, heights of squat and countermovement jumps, and time taken to sprint 15 m were also measured. After 6 months, both groups significantly increased the CSAs of the 5 muscle groups (TG: 4.4-13.4%, control: 5.5-10.9%) and improved sprint time (TG: -1.4%, control: -1.6%), without significant effect of group, but only TG significantly increased the heights of squat (5.0%) and countermovement (6.8%) jumps. In addition, a greater increase in hip extension torque was found in TG (40.8%) than in control (17.4%). The current results indicate that, at least in early adolescent soccer players, adding stabilization exercise to soccer training cannot increase the trunk muscularity, but it will improve hip extensor strength and vertical jump performance. PMID:23442276

Hoshikawa, Yoshihiro; Iida, Tomomi; Muramatsu, Masataka; Ii, Nozomi; Nakajima, Yoshiharu; Chumank, Kentaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

2013-11-01

431

Training of Healthcare Personnel to Improve Performance of Community-Based Antenatal Care Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The present study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a training course designed to improve the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of healthcare personnel to allow them to provide a comprehensive community-based antenatal care (ANC) program in rural Paraguay. Methods: Sixty-eight of 110 healthcare personnel in the Caazapa…

Ohnishi, Mayumi; Nakamura, Keiko; Takano, Takehito

2007-01-01

432

Relationship Between System Design, Technician Training and Maintenance Job Performance on Two Autopilot Subsystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between system design and training variables and performance of technicians. Over a five month period technicians at two SAC bases were observed in troubleshooting the MF-1 and A42G autopilots. ...

D. Meister D. L. Finley E. A. Thompson

1971-01-01

433

Training and Performance Support Systems (TPSS): A Case Study from Needs Assessment to Return on Investment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines how the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) selected, funded, developed, and implemented a distributed technical training system which achieves return on investment documented via performance measurement and follow-on evaluation. VBA proposed using the instructional systems development process, integrated with other advances in…

Griffin, Steven L.; Beagles, Charles A.

2000-01-01

434

“A deficient performance”: The regulation of the train operating companies in Britain's privatised railway system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the performance and regulation of the train operating companies in Britain's privatised railway system. It places regulation in context by examining rail privatisation, with particular scrutiny given to the theory and practice of the franchising process which established these companies. The record of the regulatory authority is assessed up to the announcement in 2004 of its

Robert Jupe; Gerald Crompton

2006-01-01

435

A Challenged Employment System: Hiring, Training, Performance Evaluation, and Retention of Bus Operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency professionals and the consultants who work with them in dealing with bus operator employment processes. It offers a snapshot of public agencies' practices in bus operator hiring, training, performance evaluation, and retention. Each of these areas is uniquely different, but also highly interrelated; therefore, it is necessary to consider all areas

G. K. Moffat; A. H. Ashton; D. R. Blackburn

2001-01-01

436

Relationship between Past Academic Performance and Results of Specialty In-Training Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Records of 63 medical school graduates were examined for predictors of achievement on in-training examinations in anesthesia and orthopedic surgery. The previous academic records were found to contain little to predict examination results, and the correlation between college nonscience subjects and exam performance was negative. (Author/MSE)|

Ronai, Ann K.; And Others

1984-01-01

437

Performing Analyses for Waterborne Bacteria. Module 13. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on performing analyses for waterborne bacteria. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming, sterilizing and…

Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

438

Performance-based training and education: theory, practice, and future implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance-based instruction, with its strong record of achievement in a variety of military and industrial settings, is already an important emphasis of the industrial settings, is already an important emphasis of the US Department of Energy (DOE) with respect to criticality safety. Additionally, stringent US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) training requirements for reactor licenses may ultimately extend to fuel facilities.

Knief

1986-01-01

439

Anxiety Management Training as a Strategy for Enhancing Computer User Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of computer anxiety focuses on a study of undergraduates in an introductory psychology course that assessed the effects of relaxation and coping skills training on their anxiety and performance as they learned to use a spreadsheet program. The influence of the computer's user friendliness was examined, and treatments for the…

Bloom, Arvid J.; Hautaluoma, Jacob E.

1990-01-01

440

Does training in performing a fit check enhance N95 respirator efficacy?  

PubMed

Fit testing of respirators has been recommended, legislated, and implemented in many countries. In the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health advocates a fit check, or seal check, before donning a respirator for each fit test. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between respirator fitness and performance of the fit check upon donning a respirator. Eighty-four first-year undergraduate nursing students were selected for this study; they were divided randomly into four groups. None had performed a fit test or fit check before being recruited for this study. The real-time self-developed fit test method was used to measure the ambient air particle concentration outside and inside the respirator. Results showed significant differences between groups trained to perform the fit check and those untrained. The overall fit factors were higher in the two groups trained to perform the fit check. The overall fit factors were lower in the two groups not trained to do the fit check. N95 respirators are designed to form a tight seal against wearers' faces. Each time workers don respirators, they should evaluate proper fit. Training wearers in how to fit check increases the likelihood that they will adjust respirators to proper fit. PMID:23210700

Or, Peggy; Chung, Joanne; Wong, Thomas

2012-12-01

441

Computer-Assisted Performance Evaluation for Navy Anti-Air Warfare Training: Concepts, Methods, and Constraints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An improved general methodological approach for the development of computer-assisted evaluation of trainee performance in the computer-based simulation environment is formulated in this report. The report focuses on the Tactical Advanced Combat Direction and Electronic Warfare system (TACDEW) at the Fleet Anti-Air Warfare Training Center at San…

Chesler, David J.

442

Influences of Training and Strategical Information Processing Style on Spatial Performance in Apparel Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study investigated how performance on a spatial task in apparel design was influenced by training and strategical information processing style. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate apparel design students from six universities in the U.S. Instruments used to collect data were the Apparel Spatial Visualization Test (ASVT) and the…

Gitimu, Priscilla N.; Workman, Jane E.; Anderson, Marcia A.

2005-01-01

443

ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE OF ADOLESCENTS VERSUS ADULTS: EFFECT OF AGE AND SOCCER TRAINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic performance, whether expressed in absolute or relative to body mass, was shown to be lower in children and adolescents as compared to adults. This study examined the interaction of age and soccer training on indices of anaerobic power. Subjects consisted of 36 boys (18 soccer players; age = 13.9 + 1.2 yr., and 18 untrained boys; age = 19.3

Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa; S. A. Al-Refaee; K. S. Almuzaini; M. A. Sulaiman; M. Y. Dafterdar

444

MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE AFTER HANDBALL TRAINING VERSUS PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.- The purpose of the study was to compare a 6-month specific handball training program and a typical physical education program on various strength and jumping skills. The participants (M age = 13.7 years, SD = 1.5) were divided into the Handball Group (n = 51) and the Physical Education Group (n = 70). The Handball Group performed 3 sessions\\/week

NIKOLAOS OXYZOGLOU; Kanioglou Aggelos; Rizos Stelios; Mavridis George; Kabitsis Christos; Amiridis G. Ioannis

2007-01-01

445

The Effect of Alternative Training Methods on the Trouble-Shooting Performances of Maintenance Technicians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study to determine the effects of conceptual versus specific (traditional) training techniques on the trouble-shooting performance of maintenance technicians are presented. The research subjects were students at Bowling Green State University and citizens in Northwest Ohio with no post high school technical coursework. Those that…

Schorgmayer, Helmut; Swanson, Richard A.

446

Crew resource management training for improving team performance of operators in Korean advanced nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear power plant (NPP) industries in Korea have been making efforts to reduce the human errors which largely contributed to 120 nuclear reactor trips from the year of 2001 to 2006. This study aims to develop a Crew Resource Management (CRM) training program that helps to improve plant performance by reducing the number of the reactor trips caused by

Sa Kil Kim; Je Yun Park; Seong Nam Byun

2009-01-01

447

Training in Mental Rotation and Spatial Visualization and Its Impact on Orthographic Drawing Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports the findings from an experimental study based on the pretest posttest research design that studied mental rotation (MR) and spatial visualization (SV) training outcomes and their impact on orthographic drawing performance. The sample of the study comprised 98 secondary school students (36 girls, 62 boys, Mage = 15.5 years, age…

Samsudin, Khairulanuar; Rafi, Ahmad; Hanif, Abd Samad

2011-01-01

448

Identification of Predictors of Coding Performance: Selecting Subjects to be Trained to Use Observation Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two predictors of coding performance were validated when 26 trained subjects used the Flanders System of Interaction Analysis to code 11 half-hour videotapes of fifth grade classrooms. The Teacher Evaluation Scale, a high-inference rating system based on the Global Rating Scales, was also used. The predictors were scores on a shortened form of…

Malitz, David

449

Offsetting racial disadvantage in employment: enhancing performance on personnel selection tests through access training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an account of the use of access training in order to enhance the performance of ethnic minority candidates in the process of selection for the West Midlands Police Force. Following the location of the initiative in an equal opportunities framework, the new Police Initial Recruitment (PIR) Test is described. This test was introduced in 1991 to replace

Ken Thomas; Harry Tolley

1995-01-01

450

Effects of Memory Training on Anxiety and Performance in Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Courses on memory improvement were taught to 46 older adults. Their most frequent complaint was inability to remember names. Almost all reported reduction in anxiety following training. Immediate and four-week follow-ups showed significantly better memory performance than on the pretest. (SK)

Foos, Paul W.

1997-01-01

451

The controller design and performance index analysis of Maglev train's suspension system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mathematic model considering magnetic flux loss of Maglev train and the design of PID controller are studied. During the process of analysis and design of PID controller, some new performance indexes, which were firstly put forward by Wang Guangxiong and are used to judge sufficient stable degree for controlling unstable system, are studied. Bode plot is used to validate

Huixing Chen; Aming Hao; Zhiqiang Long

2004-01-01

452

Training set optimization and classifier performance in a top-down diabetic retinopathy screening system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects more than 4.4 million Americans age 40 and over. Automatic screening for DR has shown to be an efficient and cost-effective way to lower the burden on the healthcare system, by triaging diabetic patients and ensuring timely care for those presenting with DR. Several supervised algorithms have been developed to detect pathologies related to DR, but little work has been done in determining the size of the training set that optimizes an algorithm's performance. In this paper we analyze the effect of the training sample size on the performance of a top-down DR screening algorithm for different types of statistical classifiers. Results are based on partial least squares (PLS), support vector machines (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (kNN), and Naïve Bayes classifiers. Our dataset consisted of digital retinal images collected from a total of 745 cases (595 controls, 150 with DR). We varied the number of normal controls in the training set, while keeping the number of DR samples constant, and repeated the procedure 10 times using randomized training sets to avoid bias. Results show increasing performance in terms of area under the ROC curve (AUC) when the number of DR subjects in the training set increased, with similar trends for each of the classifiers. Of these, PLS and k-NN had the highest average AUC. Lower standard deviation and a flattening of the AUC curve gives evidence that there is a limit to the learning ability of the classifiers and an optimal number of cases to train on.

Wigdahl, J.; Agurto, C.; Murray, V.; Barriga, S.; Soliz, P.

2013-03-01

453

Broadening Perspectives on Clinical Performance Assessment: Rethinking the Nature of In-training Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context  In-training assessment (ITA), defined as multiple assessments of performance in the setting of day-to-day practice, is an\\u000a invaluable tool in assessment programmes which aim to assess professional competence in a comprehensive and valid way. Research\\u000a on clinical performance ratings, however, consistently shows weaknesses concerning accuracy, reliability and validity. Attempts\\u000a to improve the psychometric characteristics of ITA focusing on standardisation and

Marjan J. B. Govaerts; Cees P. M. van der Vleuten; Lambert W. T. Schuwirth; Arno M. M. Muijtjens

2007-01-01

454

Electromyography (EMG) Biofeedback Training in Music Performance: Preventing and Reducing Musculoskeletal Pain in Musicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musicians are a high-risk occupational group for musculoskeletal disorders. Often manifesting in muscle tension, pain and paresthesia, musculoskeletal disorders can drastically affect comfort, mentality and endurance while performing. This study sought to examine the effects of electromyography (EMG) biofeedback training in reducing musculoskeletal symptoms in music performance. The subjects were university-level violinists and cellists. Over a period of 2-4 weeks,

Carolyn Yarbrough

2012-01-01

455

Can firefighter instructors perform a simulated rescue after a live fire training exercise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were undertaken to determine whether firefighter instructors are capable of performing a simulated rescue task\\u000a after undertaking a live fire training exercise (LFTE) lasting approximately 40 min. In the first study, ten instructors performed\\u000a two simulated rescue tasks in air at 19°C, involving dragging an 81-kg dummy for 15 m along a corridor and down two flights\\u000a of stairs. The

Clare M. Eglin; Michael J. Tipton

2005-01-01

456

The Effects of Imagery Training on Swimming Performance: An Applied Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple-baseline design was used to examine the influence of an imagery intervention on the performance of swimmers’ times on a 1000-yard practice set. Performance times for four swimmers were collected over a 15-week period during preseason training. The intervention took place over a three-week period and was introduced after the fourth week of the study. The results revealed that

Phillip Post; Sean Muncie; Duncan Simpson

2012-01-01

457

Preparing for your annual staff appraisal: part 2.  

PubMed

Annual appraisals are part of performance management and are designed to motivate, develop and support employees in performing their roles to the highest possible standard. They provide an opportunity for constructive discussion of performance, identification of areas for development and agreement of approaches by which employees needs could be met. Part 1 of this article was concerned with preparation of the employee and manager for annual staff appraisal. This article provides advice for managers who perform annual appraisal interviews. Guidance is offered on how to ensure the strategic objectives of the team and healthcare organisation are met, a balanced understanding of nurse performance is achieved, and future objectives are identified and agreed PMID:23427685

Price, B

458

Training for the e-Business Competition: An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between Competence, Training and Performance in European SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationship between e-business competence, training, and the performance of e-business in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). E-business competencies and e-business performance were investigated based on survey data from a sample of 339 SMEs in three European countries. In addition, data of the training supply related to e-business was collected from a sample of 116 providers of

Dag H. Olsen; Tom R. Eikebrokk

2006-01-01

459

Critically appraised topics.  

PubMed

This article describes the critically appraised topic (CAT) as a means to disseminate evidence from research literature to rehabilitation professionals. A CAT is a standardized, one-page summary of research evidence organized around a clinical question. A CAT includes a clinical bottom line that reflects synthesis of a research article and clinical application of the results. The synthesis includes a critique of the internal, external, and statistical validity of the research. The process of writing CATs has been used in the preparation of evidence-based practitioners. Commonly used websites for preparation and posting of CATs are included as well as an example of a CAT on the topic of cerebral palsy. PMID:17057467

Fetters, Linda; Figueiredo, Elyonara M; Keane-Miller, Devon; McSweeney, Debra J; Tsao, Cheng-Chi

2004-01-01

460

Instructor Training on British Railways  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The value of instructor training was recognized by British Railways as early as 1950 with the setting up of a training center at Darlington. This article shows the results of this continuous training experience in the benefits to be obtained from re-appraisal techniques and practical work. (Author/EB)|

Gibson, J. D.

1970-01-01

461

A survey of German centres performing invasive electrophysiology: structure, procedures, and training positions.  

PubMed

AIMS: To provide a nationwide survey (and reference for the future) on cardiac electrophysiologists, types and numbers of invasive electrophysiological procedures, and training opportunities in 2010.METHODS AND RESULTS: German cardiology centres performing invasive electrophysiology were identified from quality reports and contacted to fill a questionnaire. A majority of 122 centres (65%) responded. Electrophysiology (ablation procedures and device therapy) was mainly part of a cardiology department (82%), and only in 9% independent (own budget). In only 58% of the centres, (at least) two physicians were present during catheter ablations. Although in 2010, women represented 59.4% of physicians <35 years old, only 26% of physicians in electrophysiology training were female. In total, 33 420 catheter ablations were performed with a median number of 180 per centre. Atrial fibrillation (AF) was the most common arrhythmia invasively treated (35%). At least 50 AF ablations were performed in 53% of the centres. Of the centres performing AF ablations, consecutive left atrial arrhythmias were treated by catheter ablation only in 75%, and only 44% had in-house surgical backup. Only one-fourth of the 122 centres fulfilled all requirements for training centre accreditation according to the European Heart Rhythm Association and the German Cardiac Society.CONCLUSION: The results indicate a high number of electrophysiology centres and procedures in Germany. Atrial fibrillation was the most common arrhythmia invasively treated. An increasing demand for catheter ablation is likely, but training opportunities are limited. Women are clearly underrepresented. A co-operation of higher and lower volume electrophysiology centres may be necessary for training purposes. PMID:23736806

Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Tilz, Roland Richard; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Deneke, Thomas; Estner, Heidi L; Kriatselis, Charalampos; Kuniss, Malte; Luik, Armin; Sommer, Philipp; Steven, Daniel; von Bary, Christian; Voss, Frederik; Eckardt, Lars

2013-06-01

462

Blood lactate recovery measurements, training, and performance during a 23-week period of competitive swimming.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to relate measurements of blood lactate concentration, performance during a maximal anaerobic lactic test (MANLT) and training loads during a 23-week swimming season. Six elite 200-m freestyle male swimmers [mean age 19.5 (SD 1.6) years, height 184 (SD 5) cm and body mass 77.7 (SD 9.0) kg], participated in the study. The MANLT consisted of four all-out 50-m swims interspersed with 10-s recovery periods. Blood lactate concentrations were determined at 3 and 12-min post-exercise and were performed on weeks 2,6,10,14,18 and 21. Swimmers participated in 200-m freestyle competitions on weeks 1,7,13 and 23 (national championships). During weeks 1-10, training mostly involved aerobic exercise, while during weeks, 11-23, it involved anaerobic exercise. At 3-min and 12-min post-MANLT lactate concentrations varied throughout the season [range from 14.9 (SD 1.2) to 18.7 (SD 1.0) mmol.l-1] but demonstrated non-systematic variations. In contrast, the percentage of mean blood lactate decrease (% [La-]recovery) between min 3 and min 12 of the passive recovery post-MANLT increased from week 2 to 10 with aerobic training and decreased from week 10 to 21 with anaerobic training. The MANLT performance improved continuously throughout the season, while competition performance improved during the first three competitions but declined in the final championships, coinciding with the lowest % [La-]recovery and signs of overtraining, such as bad temper and increased sleeping heart rate. The results of this study indicated that % [La-]recovery could be an efficient marker for monitoring the impact of aerobic and anaerobic training and avoiding overtraining in elite 200-m swimmers. PMID:8891508

Pelayo, P; Mujika, I; Sidney, M; Chatard, J C

1996-01-01

463

Mitochondrial and performance adaptations to exercise training in mice lacking skeletal muscle LKB1.  

PubMed

LKB1 and its downstream targets of the AMP-activated protein kinase family are important regulators of many aspects of skeletal muscle cell function, including control of mitochondrial content and capillarity. LKB1 deficiency in skeletal and cardiac muscle (mLKB1-KO) greatly impairs exercise capacity. However, cardiac dysfunction in that genetic model prevents a clear assessment of the role of skeletal muscle LKB1 in the observed effects. Our purposes here were to determine whether skeletal muscle-specific knockout of LKB1 (skmLKB1-KO) decreases exercise capacity and mitochondrial protein content, impairs accretion of mitochondrial proteins after exercise training, and attenuates improvement in running performance after exercise training. We found that treadmill and voluntary wheel running capacity was reduced in skmLKB1-KO vs. control (CON) mice. Citrate synthase activity, succinate dehydrogenase activity, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase content were lower in KO vs. CON muscles. Three weeks of treadmill training resulted in significantly increased treadmill running performance in both CON and skmLKB1-KO mice. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly with training in both genotypes, but protein content and activity for components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain increased only in CON mice. Capillarity and VEGF protein was lower in skmLKB1-KO vs. CON muscles, but VEGF increased with training only in skmLKB1-KO. Three hours after an acute bout of muscle contractions, PGC-1?, cytochrome c, and VEGF gene expression all increased in CON but not skmLKB1-KO muscles. Our findings indicate that skeletal muscle LKB1 is required for accretion of some mitochondrial proteins but not for early exercise capacity improvements with exercise training. PMID:23982155

Tanner, Colby B; Madsen, Steven R; Hallowell, David M; Goring, Darren M J; Moore, Timothy M; Hardman, Shalene E; Heninger, Megan R; Atwood, Daniel R; Thomson, David M

2013-08-27

464

Real-life motor training modifies spatial performance: the advantage of being drummers.  

PubMed

We compared the performance of skilled drummers with that of nondrummers and nonmusicians in the Simon and spatial stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) tasks to investigate whether and to what extent spatial performance can be modified by motor behaviors acquired in real life. Drummers were chosen because, compared with other musicians and the general population, their efficient performance depends mainly on the processing of spatial information. Although the Simon effect was equivalent for the three groups, the spatial SRC effect was less pronounced in drummers. The advantage was present even when feet were used as responding effectors, suggesting a central locus of the effect. These results suggest that spatial stimulus-response translations are influenced by real-life motor training, with drummers' training speeding up the intentional stimulus-response translations when stimulus and response locations are on opposite sides. PMID:20518433

Pellicano, Antonello; Iani, Cristina; Rubichi, Sandro; Ricciardelli, Paola; Borghi, Anna M; Nicoletti, Roberto

2010-01-01

465

Comparison of integrated and isolated training on performance measures and neuromuscular control.  

PubMed

Traditional weight training programs use an exercise prescription strategy that emphasizes improving muscle strength through resistance exercises. Other factors, such as stability, endurance, movement quality, power, flexibility, speed, and agility are also essential elements to improving overall functional performance. Therefore, exercises that incorporate these additional elements may be beneficial additions to traditional resistance training programs. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of an isolated resistance training program (ISO) and an integrated training program (INT) on movement quality, vertical jump height, agility, muscle strength and endurance, and flexibility. The ISO program consisted of primarily upper and lower extremity progressive resistance exercises. The INT program involved progressive resistance exercises, and core stability, power, and agility exercises. Thirty subjects were cluster randomized to either the ISO (n = 15) or INT (n = 15) training program. Each training group performed their respective programs 2 times per week for 8 weeks. The subjects were assessed before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period using the following assessments: a jump-landing task graded using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), vertical jump height, T-test time, push-up and sit-up performance, and the sit-and-reach test. The INT group performed better on the LESS test (pretest: 3.90 ± 1.02, posttest: 3.03 ± 1.02; p = 0.02), faster on the T-test (pretest: 10.35 ± 1.20 seconds, posttest: 9.58 ± 1.02 seconds; p = 0.01), and completed more sit-ups (pretest: 40.20 ± 15.01, posttest: 46.73 ± 14.03; p = 0.045) and push-ups (pretest: 40.67 ± 13.85, posttest: 48.93 ± 15.17; p = 0.05) at posttest compared with pretest, and compared with the ISO group at posttest. Both groups performed more push-ups (p = 0.002), jumped higher (p < 0.001), and reached further (p = 0.008) at posttest compared with that at pretest. Performance enhancement programs should use an integrated approach to exercise selection to optimize performance and movement technique benefits. PMID:23364296

Distefano, Lindsay J; Distefano, Michael J; Frank, Barnett S; Clark, Micheal A; Padua, Darin A

2013-04-01

466

Recruitment, Training Outcomes, Retention, and Performance of Community Health Advisors in Two Tobacco Control Interventions for Latinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community Health Advisors (CHAs) are indigenous lay health advisors who, with training, can create health awareness, disseminate\\u000a health information and support behavior change in their communities. Little data are available that describe the characteristics,\\u000a recruitment, training, retention, and performance of CHAs. The present study described the characteristics, recruitment process,\\u000a training outcomes, retention activities, and performance of two sets of CHAs

Susan I. WoodruffJeanette; Jeanette I. Candelaria; John P. Elder

2010-01-01

467

Active recovery strategies and handgrip performance in trained vs. untrained climbers.  

PubMed

Isometric contractions, such as occurring during rock climbing, occlude blood flow to the active musculature. The ability to maximize forearm blood flow between such contractions is a likely determinant of intermittent handgrip performance. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that intermittent isometric handgrip performance is improved by 2 common active recovery strategies suggested to increase muscle blood flow. On 6 separate occasions, 9 trained indoor rock climbers and 9 untrained participants undertook a fatiguing, intermittent, isometric handgrip exercise bout consisting of sets of 6 contractions (approximately 33% of maximal voluntary contraction [MVC] force), each 3-second long separated by a 1-second rest. Between sets, participants were allowed 9-second recovery performing passive rest, "shaking out" (vigorously shaking the hand), or grasping a handgrip vibration machine, each with or without forearm occlusion. Performance was assessed by pre- and post-exercise MVC trials and a 20-contraction post-exercise handgrip time trial (TT20). Trained climbers exhibited significantly greater handgrip MVC force and intermittent exercise capacity than untrained (p < 0.01). There was no effect of recovery strategy on any measure (p > 0.05). Trained climbers were more affected by occlusion than untrained in MVC (p < 0.05) and TT20 (p < 0.01). Shaking out and low-frequency vibration are unlikely to affect rock climbing performance. It is recommended that rock climbers and their coaches focus on optimizing body position rather than compromising body position to allow for shaking out. PMID:20072048

Green, Jackson G; Stannard, Stephen R

2010-02-01

468

Morning based strength training improves afternoon physical performance in rugby union players.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: To determine if a morning training session could alter afternoon physical performance. Moreover, as testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations are significant predictors of physical performance, and both show circadian declines across the day, we examined the effects of morning training on diurnal T and C responses. DESIGN: Eighteen semi-professional rugby union players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study. METHODS: Following morning saliva collection (0900h), players completed a control (rested), Sprint (5×40m) or Weights (3 repetition-maximum [RM] bench press and squat) trial. In the afternoon (15:00h) of each trial, a further saliva sample was collected before players completed a performance test (3RM back squat and bench press, 40m sprint, countermovement jump [CMJ]). RESULTS: Salivary T concentrations declined from am to pm under Control and Sprint, but not under Weights. Delta T, from am to pm, was greater under Control (-10.9±2.4pgml(-1)) compared to Sprints (-6.2±7.1pgml(-1)) and Weights (-1.2±5.5pgml(-1)) (p?0.001). Delta C, from am to pm, was greater under Control compared to both Sprint and Weights (p<0.05). Players elicited better CMJ peak power, 40-m time, 3RM bench and squat performance under Weights compared with Control and Sprint (p<0.05). Faster 40-m times were seen under Sprint, when compared to Control (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Performing morning strength training is associated with improved physical performance in the afternoon. Additionally, the circadian decline in T concentrations appeared offset by morning training. However, it is unclear if T concentrations are, in part, causal of these improved responses or simply a reflective marker. PMID:23707139

Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P; Crewther, Blair T; Beaven, Martyn; West, Daniel J

2013-05-22

469

Project Appraisal in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, the author evaluates alternative methods of project appraisal in developing countries with a view to their practical application. In particular, comparisons are made between methods involving (a) the use of the rate of return to capital and...

B. Balassa

1971-01-01

470

From Fixed Capacities to Performance-Enhancement: The Paradigm Shift in the Science of ‘Training’ and the Use of Performance-Enhancing Substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of performance-enhancing substances fundamentally rests on a particular, historically situated, ontology of human performance. By analysing ‘training’ in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, we examine the powerfully influential ontology that frames substance use today. Rooted in the first law of thermodynamics, an ontology of fixed human capacities dominated until the mid-twentieth century. Training entailed ‘drill’ to refine technique,

Rob Beamish; Ian Ritchie

2005-01-01

471

Influence of aquatic training on the motor performance of patients with haemophilic arthropathy.  

PubMed

Thirteen patients with haemophilia A took part in this study voluntarily. They underwent an aquatic training programme over a 9-week period (27 sessions; three sessions per week; 1 h per session). Their motor performance was assessed by the following cardio-respiratory and mechanical variables before and after the training programme: oxygen uptake (VO(2), mL min(-1)), relative oxygen uptake (rel VO(2), mL min(-1).kg(-1)), carbon dioxide (CO(2), mL min(-1)), respiratory quotient (R), heart rate (bpm) and the distance covered in 12 min (the Cooper test, m). Nine patients successfully completed the intervention and measurement protocols without bleeding or other adverse events. After the proposed training programme, significant differences between the pre-test and post-test were observed. Patients' aerobic capacity increased considerably, and their oxygen uptake improved by 51.51% (P < 0.05), while their relative oxygen uptake went up by 37.73% (P < 0.05). Their mechanical capacity also increased considerably (14.68%, P < 0.01). Our results suggest that 27 specially designed aquatic training sessions for our patients with haemophilia A had a positive effect on their motor performance and considerably improved their aerobic and mechanical capacity without causing adverse effects. PMID:19804384

Vallejo, L; Pardo, A; Gomis, M; Gallach, J E; Pérez, S; Querol, F

2009-10-05

472

The Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource improves performance of practical skills: a controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background E-learning is a common and popular mode of educational delivery, but little is known about its effectiveness in teaching practical skills. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource in addition to usual teaching improved the performance of practical skills in physiotherapy students. Method This study was a non-randomised controlled trial. The participants were graduate entry physiotherapy students enrolled in consecutive semesters of a neurological physiotherapy unit of study. The experimental group received the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource as well as usual teaching. The Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource is an online resource incorporating (i) video-clips of patient-therapist simulations; (ii) supportive text describing the aim, rationale, equipment, key points, common errors and methods of progression; and (iii) a downloadable PDF document incorporating the online text information and a still image of the video-clip for each practical skill. The control group received usual teaching only. The primary outcomes were the overall performance of practical skills as well as their individual components, measured using a practical examination. Results The implementation of the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource resulted in an increase of 1.6 out of 25 (95% CI ?0.1 to 3.3) in the experimental group compared with the control group. In addition, the experimental group scored 0.5 points out of 4 (95% CI 0 to 1.1) higher than the control group for ‘effectiveness of the practical skill’ and 0.6 points out of 4 (95% CI 0.1 to 1.1) higher for ‘rationale for the practical skill’. Conclusion There was improvement in performance of practical skills in students who had access to the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource in addition to usual teaching. Students considered the resource to be very useful for learning.

2012-01-01

473

Driver Performance Measurement Research. Volume 2. Guide for Training Observer/Raters in the Driver Performance Measurements Procedure. (Including Course and Content).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Final Report, Volume 1, covers research results of the Michigan State University Driver Performance Measurement project. This volume (Final Report, Volume 2) constitutes a guide for training observer/raters in the driver performance measurement proced...

D. L. Smith F. E. Vanosdall R. O. Nolan

1973-01-01

474

Sex differences in performance in the Morris water maze and the effects of initial nonstationary hidden platform training.  

PubMed

Sex differences in rats' performance on a stationary hidden-platform task (spatial task) in the Morris water maze and the effects of initial nonstationary hidden platform training (NSP training) were examined. The NSP training was designed to familiarize rats with the general requirements of the water-maze task without providing spatial information. NSP training led to faster acquisition and improved retention of the subsequent spatial task in both males and females. There was a sex difference favoring males on acquisition and retention of the spatial task only in rats that had not received previous NSP training. Moreover, there was an apparent reversed sex difference favoring females on some measures of spatial performance in NSP-trained rats. These results suggest that performance on the water-maze task, including the expression of sex differences, can be altered by previous familiarization with nonspatial aspects of the task. PMID:8986334

Perrot-Sinal, T S; Kostenuik, M A; Ossenkopp, K P; Kavaliers, M

1996-12-01

475

Effects of selection and training on unit-level performance over time: a latent growth modeling approach.  

PubMed

Surprisingly few data exist concerning whether and how utilization of job-related selection and training procedures affects different aspects of unit or organizational performance over time. The authors used longitudinal data from a large fast-food organization (N = 861 units) to examine how change in use of selection and training relates to change in unit performance. Latent growth modeling analyses revealed significant variation in both the use and the change in use of selection and training across units. Change in selection and training was related to change in 2 proximal unit outcomes: customer service performance and retention. Change in service performance, in turn, was related to change in the more distal outcome of unit financial performance (i.e., profits). Selection and training also affected financial performance, both directly and indirectly (e.g., through service performance). Finally, results of a cross-lagged panel analysis suggested the existence of a reciprocal causal relationship between the utilization of the human resources practices and unit performance. However, there was some evidence to suggest that selection and training may be associated with different causal sequences, such that use of the training procedure appeared to lead to unit performance, whereas unit performance appeared to lead to use of the selection procedure. PMID:19594228

Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Ferris, Gerald R; Perrewé, Pamela L; Blass, Fred R; Heetderks, Thomas D; Perryman, Alexa A

2009-07-01

476

The relationship between human resource management practices, business strategy and firm performance: evidence from steel industry in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices, business strategy and firm performance. We examined the following HRM practices: training and development; teamwork; compensation\\/incentives; HR planning; performance appraisal; and employment security. We surveyed 236 managers working at steel firms in Taiwan to explore their perceptions on the impact of HRM practices

Feng-Hui Lee; Tzai-Zang Lee; Wann-Yih Wu

2010-01-01

477

The Effectiveness of Verbal Self-Guidance as a Transfer of Training Intervention: Its Impact on Presentation Performance, Self Efficacy and Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed a verbal self-guidance (VSG) training program as a transfer of training intervention (i.e., an intervention designed to enhance the application and usage of skills learned in a training session post-training). We then assessed the impact of this training on presentation performance, self-efficacy (i.e., task-specific confidence) and…

Brown, Travor; Morrissey, Lynn

2004-01-01