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Sample records for performance appraisal training

  1. Training Supervisors in Employee Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Ronald R.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a training program for supervisors designed to improve an organization's performance appraisal system. Legal issues surrounding performance appraisal are discussed. Course topics include (1) definition and purpose of performance appraisal, (2) how appraisals can improve performance, (3) negative reactions and how to overcome

  2. Training Appraisers: An Orientation Program for Improving Supervisory Performance Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Ronald R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The authors address management's need to train supervisors to use employee performance appraisals. Topics covered include (1) application and usefulness of the appraisal system, (2) various approaches to employee evaluation, and (3) training of supervisory personnel. (Author/CH)

  3. Performance Appraisal: An Obstacle to Training and Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John P.; Western, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Surveys and interviews of 39 hospital staff uncovered mixed attitudes about preparation for performance appraisal and the process for formulating and implementing training and development plans, reflecting varying degrees of motivation, involvement, and commitment. Recommendations for improving appraisal and the training associated with it were

  4. Training the Raters: A Key to Effective Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David C.; Bartol, Kathryn M.

    1986-01-01

    Although appropriate rater behaviors are critical to the success of any performance appraisal system, raters frequently receive little or no training regarding how to carry out their role successfully. This article outlines the major elements that should be included in an effective rater training program. Suggested training approaches and the need

  5. Training: Key to Realistic Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, Richard

    1970-01-01

    Supervisors in the Forest Service are given brief training in how to use performance standards with employees at various salary levels. Step-by-step feedback helps them correct poor rating habits. (EB)

  6. Development of a Performance Appraisal Training Program for the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Deborah Kilgore

    2004-01-01

    "Nobody wants to get one. Nobody wants to give one." The problem was that the supervisors and managers of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (RIC) did not know how to use the Institute's new performance management system and had not been trained on how to prepare and deliver effective performance appraisals. The problem further included the

  7. Development of a Performance Appraisal Training Program for the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Deborah Kilgore

    2004-01-01

    "Nobody wants to get one. Nobody wants to give one." The problem was that the supervisors and managers of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (RIC) did not know how to use the Institute's new performance management system and had not been trained on how to prepare and deliver effective performance appraisals. The problem further included the…

  8. Experimental Study Comparing a Traditional Approach to Performance Appraisal Training to a Whole-Brain Training Method at C.B. Fleet Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Sally; Sherrier, Tom; Wooters, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a new approach to performance appraisal training. Motivated by split-brain theory and existing studies of cognitive information processing and performance appraisals, this exploratory study examined the effects of a whole-brain approach to training managers for implementing performance

  9. Whither Performance Appraisal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroul, Neil A.

    1987-01-01

    Few companies are comfortable with their performance appraisal system. The author suggests trying (1) systems that recognize competing priorities and attempt to alleviate conflicts through intelligent design and (2) management training that emphasizes the importance of providing staff with ongoing feedback. (CH)

  10. Experimental Study Comparing a Traditional Approach to Performance Appraisal Training to a Whole-Brain Training Method at C.B. Fleet Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Sally; Sherrier, Tom; Wooters, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a new approach to performance appraisal training. Motivated by split-brain theory and existing studies of cognitive information processing and performance appraisals, this exploratory study examined the effects of a whole-brain approach to training managers for implementing performance…

  11. Improving Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mark Graham

    1989-01-01

    Describes strategies for improving performance appraisal systems and examines common features of appraisal systems in large companies. Highlights include rating scales; ranking; forced distributions; tying performance appraisal to strategic business goals; frequency of reviews; development plans versus evaluation only; and group review meetings.

  12. Performance Appraisal: A Win/Win Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Beverly; Krantz, Shelley

    1983-01-01

    Training managers fully for the performance appraisal process can transform an appraisal discussion from an administrative exercise to a worthwhile experience that contributes to the organization as a whole. (Author/SSH)

  13. Improving Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Robert E.

    1975-01-01

    A positive and creative results-oriented management appraisal system is needed. This article reviews the benefits and requirements of such a system, lists the common pitfalls of shoddy evaluation attempts, describes the four basic kinds of performance appraisal systems, and offers suggestions for creating a successful system. (DC)

  14. Effective Performance Appraisals for Quality Student Service. Staff Training and Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Robert B.

    This manual, in workbook format, introduces the principles of how to conduct an effective employee performance appraisal in the higher education setting. It uses several case studies to illustrate these principles. It is designed to be used for individual study or group workshops and seminars. The topics discussed include establishing a positive

  15. Performance Appraisal. SPEC Kit 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) collection of library documents illustrates approaches to and techniques of performance appraisal used in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. Included are (1) performance appraisal forms, policies, and procedures from Stanford University, University Library Council, Louisiana State

  16. Performance Appraisal Applied to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2010-01-01

    Performance appraisal is a measurement process of how well an individual is doing her or his job. In most organisations, this appraisal is an annual event. Generally, it is done to encourage job performance, to flag areas that need attention, to inform both parties as to expectations. Much of the literature speaks to this process in terms of the…

  17. Performance Appraisal Applied to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2010-01-01

    Performance appraisal is a measurement process of how well an individual is doing her or his job. In most organisations, this appraisal is an annual event. Generally, it is done to encourage job performance, to flag areas that need attention, to inform both parties as to expectations. Much of the literature speaks to this process in terms of the

  18. Rising to the challenge: acute stress appraisals and selection centre performance in applicants to postgraduate specialty training in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Martin J; Gale, Thomas C E; McGrath, John S; Wilson, Mark R

    2016-05-01

    The ability to work under pressure is a vital non-technical skill for doctors working in acute medical specialties. Individuals who evaluate potentially stressful situations as challenging rather than threatening may perform better under pressure and be more resilient to stress and burnout. Training programme recruitment processes provide an important opportunity to examine applicants' reactions to acute stress. In the context of multi-station selection centres for recruitment to anaesthesia training programmes, we investigated the factors influencing candidates' pre-station challenge/threat evaluations and the extent to which their evaluations predicted subsequent station performance. Candidates evaluated the perceived stress of upcoming stations using a measure of challenge/threat evaluation-the cognitive appraisal ratio (CAR)-and consented to release their demographic details and station scores. Using regression analyses we determined which candidate and station factors predicted variation in the CAR and whether, after accounting for these factors, the CAR predicted candidate performance in the station. The CAR was affected by the nature of the station and candidate gender, but not age, ethnicity, country of training or clinical experience. Candidates perceived stations involving work related tasks as more threatening. After controlling for candidates' demographic and professional profiles, the CAR significantly predicted station performance: 'challenge' evaluations were associated with better performance, though the effect was weak. Our selection centre model can help recruit prospective anaesthetists who are able to rise to the challenge of performing in stressful situations but results do not support the direct use of challenge/threat data for recruitment decisions. PMID:26271681

  19. Donn Coffee on Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffee, Donn

    1978-01-01

    Reports a management consultant's system of employee appraisal, as outlined in a seminar he conducted for business executives. In addition to improving productivity, performance appraisal is needed to insure nondiscriminatory personnel practices and to provide employee recognition without a compensation link. Most companies can't afford money as

  20. Donn Coffee on Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffee, Donn

    1978-01-01

    Reports a management consultant's system of employee appraisal, as outlined in a seminar he conducted for business executives. In addition to improving productivity, performance appraisal is needed to insure nondiscriminatory personnel practices and to provide employee recognition without a compensation link. Most companies can't afford money as…

  1. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION 4.2 Performance appraisal. (a) The GAO shall develop one or more performance appraisal systems which provide for periodic appraisals...

  2. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts... appraisal. (a) The GAO shall develop one or more performance appraisal systems which provide for periodic appraisals of job performance of employees; encourages employee participation in establishing...

  3. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts... appraisal. (a) The GAO shall develop one or more performance appraisal systems which provide for periodic appraisals of job performance of employees; encourages employee participation in establishing...

  4. Assessing the legality of performance appraisals.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J R

    1991-01-01

    Performance appraisals have recently become the focus of legal scrutiny. Because the appraisal process may lead to salary adjustments, promotions, opportunities for development, discipline, or even termination, issues such as fairness and discrimination are raised. This paper discusses specific constitutional and statutory laws that prohibit discrimination in performance appraisals. In addition, specific rulings from select court cases illuminate key legal defense factors in performance appraisal. Questions are posed to help identify weaknesses in a laboratory's performance appraisal system. PMID:10116382

  5. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance... appraisals of job performance of employees; encourages employee participation in establishing performance..., promoting, reducing in grade, retaining, and removing employees. (b) Each performance appraisal system...

  6. A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural

  7. A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural…

  8. Strategic issues in performance appraisal: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Fombrun, C J; Laud, R L

    1983-01-01

    Performance appraisal systems have tremendous strategic potential for governing employee behavior and thus corporate direction through their links to selection, training and career planning, and reward systems. Authors Charles J. Fombrun, assistant professor of management at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School, and Robert P. Laud, senior vice-president of Drake Beam Morin, Inc., surveyed appraisal systems of Fortune 1300 corporations to find out how well companies are realizing this potential. Among their conclusions: (1) In most organizations, the typical performance appraisal system is focused on short-term goals. Strengthening the linkage between the appraisal system and the long-term implications of strategic planning could improve organizational effectiveness in the future. (2) The performance appraisal system's most prevalent use is as a feedback mechanism rather than as a management tool. Thus, the authors conclude, the role of the performance appraisal system as a strategic organizational tool is largely unappreciated by U.S. organizations. PMID:10264837

  9. Multiple rater performance appraisals: solutions for hospital personnel.

    PubMed

    Boissoneau, R A; Edwards, M R

    1985-01-01

    Widely used single rater personnel appraisal systems are not as effective as they should be. Moreover, rater training does not improve ratings based on one person's judgment about an employee. Multiple rater appraisal systems improve accuracy by using the judgments of several knowledgeable people in arriving at a decision. Multiple rater performance appraisals are better than single rater systems because they increase participation; improve accuracy and perceived fairness; provide higher quality management information for selection decisions; supply better Equal Employee Opportunity documentation; give quantitative feedback for employees, appraisers and management; take less management time to complete the performance measurement process and, consequently, improve cost effectiveness. PMID:10270712

  10. Performance Appraisals: Managing Nonacademic Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnette, Melvin E.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of and necessary procedures for evaluating noninstructional personnel are outlined. A performance appraisal system developed and implemented at Clemson University to help decentralize management of state personnel is described that uses communication and direction to establish personnel goals and expectations. (MSE)

  11. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section....303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable, but beginning not later than January 1, 1984... in 315.608(a), of this chapter in accordance with the agency's performance appraisal...

  12. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section....303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable, but beginning not later than January 1, 1984... in 315.608(a), of this chapter in accordance with the agency's performance appraisal...

  13. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section....303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable, but beginning not later than January 1, 1984... in 315.608(a), of this chapter in accordance with the agency's performance appraisal...

  14. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

  15. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section....303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable, but beginning not later than January 1, 1984, overseas agencies are required to evaluate the performance of employees who serve under overseas local...

  16. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... affirmative action, equal employment opportunity, and diversity goals and complying with the merit system... organization must set performance goals and requirements for the detail or temporary assignment. The gaining organization must appraise the senior executive's performance in writing, and this appraisal must be...

  17. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... affirmative action, equal employment opportunity, and diversity goals and complying with the merit system... organization must set performance goals and requirements for the detail or temporary assignment. The gaining organization must appraise the senior executive's performance in writing, and this appraisal must be...

  18. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... affirmative action, equal employment opportunity, and diversity goals and complying with the merit system... organization must set performance goals and requirements for the detail or temporary assignment. The gaining organization must appraise the senior executive's performance in writing, and this appraisal must be...

  19. Task appraisals, emotions, and performance goal orientation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Cynthia D; Minbashian, Amirali; Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    We predict real-time fluctuations in employees' positive and negative emotions from concurrent appraisals of the immediate task situation and individual differences in performance goal orientation. Task confidence, task importance, positive emotions, and negative emotions were assessed 5 times per day for 3 weeks in an experience sampling study of 135 managers. At the within-person level, appraisals of task confidence, task importance, and their interaction predicted momentary positive and negative emotions as hypothesized. Dispositional performance goal orientation was expected to moderate emotional reactivity to appraisals of task confidence and task importance. The hypothesized relationships were significant in the case of appraisals of task importance. Those high on performance goal orientation reacted to appraisals of task importance with stronger negative and weaker positive emotions than those low on performance goal orientation. PMID:23276116

  20. A Systems Look at Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusher, E. Allen

    1975-01-01

    Results or goal achievement measurements of a manager's performance can be achieved for management with the use of the performance appraisal process which gives a broader perspective in the management of human resources. (Author)

  1. Instructional Aides: Employment, Payroll Procedures, Supervision, Performance Appraisal, Legal Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Earl T.

    Designed to assist school administrators in their efforts to secure, train, and retain the most qualified instructional aides available, the monograph discusses procedures for employment, payroll processing, aide supervision, performance appraisal, and legal aspects involved in the hiring of instructional aides. Specific topics include

  2. Performance Appraisal: What Does the Future Hold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazer, Robert I.

    1980-01-01

    Included in this examination of performance appraisal practices is an outline of the characteristics of a good system--one that is cheap to install and only requires a manager to do his/her job. (Author/IRT)

  3. Performance Appraisal Is Based on Five Major Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harvey A.

    This review of the performance appraisal process discusses the major assumptions on which performance appraisal is based, the general goals of performance appraisal, and the characteristics of effective performance appraisal programs. The author stresses the dependence of the process on the assumption that human behavior can be changed; he

  4. Physician compensation based on performance appraisal.

    PubMed

    Permut, R

    1990-01-01

    Physician compensation in a group practice setting has long been a subject of discussion and time investment, both on the part of managers and physicians. With a changing external environment, including Medicare fee freeze, capitation, and other forms of discounted, contractual medicine, former income distribution plans may not serve group practices well anymore. The ability of group practices to attract, retain, and develop physicians is at least partially dependent upon physician compensation structure. Taking into consideration marketplace characteristics for different specialties and offering equity in the compensation process are important features of any income distribution plan. This paper emphasizes a longstanding business tool, performance appraisal, which may be a key future determinant of physician compensation. The utilization of performance appraisal in establishing physician compensation is discussed and a sample performance appraisal instrument is included as a model. PMID:10105259

  5. Persistent Ratee Contaminants in Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Fleet, David D.; Chamberlain, Howard

    The hypothesis that conventional approaches to evaluating contaminants in performance appraisal overlook important individual ratee effects was examined. A rating form was developed that consisted of the following dimensions and behaviors: warmth; guided discourse or indirect teaching methods; control of subject matter; enthusiasm and reinforcing;…

  6. Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnell, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was

  7. Performance Appraisal of Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahadir, Ziya

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to determine views of school principals on how performance appraisal of physical education teachers who worked at primary schools should be done. The research was designed in a screening model. The research group composed of 152 school principals and deputy principals who worked at state primary schools located in

  8. Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnell, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

  9. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7... RESEARCH SERVICE 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to a performance appraisal system which shall be designed to encourage excellence in performance and shall...

  10. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7... RESEARCH SERVICE 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to a performance appraisal system which shall be designed to encourage excellence in performance and shall...

  11. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7... RESEARCH SERVICE 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to a performance appraisal system which shall be designed to encourage excellence in performance and shall...

  12. Performance Appraisal for Librarians: A Guided Self-Study Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Sally

    Intended for use by library managers, this self-study guide provides an introduction to performance appraisal as an effective tool in human resource management, and a review of the extensive management literature on performance appraisal. Topics discussed include: (1) the functions of performance appraisal, which include the provision of

  13. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance appraisal for inmate workers... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a...

  14. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance appraisal for inmate workers... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a...

  15. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance appraisal for inmate workers... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a...

  16. Appraising and Improving the Performance of School Administrative Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castetter, William B.; Heisler, Richard S.

    This monograph deals with the appraisal and improvement of school administrative personnel performance. It attempts to help the reader understand what performance appraisal is, why it is essential in school organization administration, how an appraisal system functions, and how it can be made to work more effectively. In order to achieve these

  17. Teacher Performance Appraisal in Thailand: Poison or Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpa, Nattavud

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the examination of problems related to the national teacher performance appraisal system by the Thai Ministry of Education. It highlights major problems of the current performance appraisal system by delineating the weaknesses and pitfalls of the current appraisal system. The findings indicate problems to three major

  18. Experiential Approach to Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Carol M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a student performance evaluation system designed to help students gain needed skill in self-evaluation techniques. Identifies the current research in human resource management supporting the methodology of this evaluation process. (JOW)

  19. The effects of performance appraisal in the Norwegian municipal health services: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous research in performance appraisal (PA) indicates that variation exists in learning and job motivation from performance appraisal between occupational groups. This research evaluates the potential effect of job motivation, learning and self-assessment through performance appraisals for health personnel. Case description This article focuses on goal-setting, feedback, participation and training in performance appraisals in municipal health services in Norway; and job motivation, learning and self-assessment of performance are the dependent factors. Questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample of 600 health personnel from the Norwegian municipal health service, with a response rate of 62%. Factor analysis and regression analysis were run in SPSS 12. Discussion and evaluation The study suggests that respondents learn from performance appraisal. Nurses experienced some higher job motivation from performance appraisal than auxiliary nurses. All subordinates perceived higher job motivation after performance appraisal than managers. Conclusion Useful feedback, active participation and higher education are fundamental elements of discussion in performance appraisal, as well as the role of increasing employees' job motivation. In this study, nurses' job motivation seems to be more effected by PA, than for auxiliary nurses. Both nurses and auxiliary nurses indicate that there is a learning effect from PA. This study may be of interest to health researchers and managers in municipal health services. PMID:21974831

  20. An examination of raters' and ratees' preferences in process and feedback in performance appraisal.

    PubMed

    Manshor, A T; Kamalanabhan, T J

    2000-02-01

    This paper examined the raters' and the ratees' preferences in Malaysia regarding the performance appraisal process and feedback. A total of 52 managers (raters) and 122 subordinates (ratees) participated. Analysis by t test and correlation showed significant differences between raters and the ratees on most factors. Ratees preferred to have more frequent appraisals than once a year and preferred to have more frequent feedback from the managers about their performance. Ratees' preference for the purpose of information on performance was towards salary increase, promotion, training, and career development whereas the raters gave more importance to training and career development. PMID:10778271

  1. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from the industrial work assignment. Copies shall be sent to the unit team. Inmate workers should... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a...

  2. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from the industrial work assignment. Copies shall be sent to the unit team. Inmate workers should... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a...

  3. New Perspectives Concerning Performance Appraisals of Intercollegiate Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, George B.; Dixon, Marlene A.

    2003-01-01

    Despite advances in the study of performance appraisals within the intercollegiate athletic context, there are several limitations to the extant research. Specifically, this literature does not take into account the multi-level nature of organizations and performance appraisals or the reciprocal interdependence of coaching staffs. In considering

  4. Administrators' and Faculty Members' Perceptions of the Performance Appraisal Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Earl E.

    An exploratory study examined how administrators (department heads/chairs) perceive faculty members, as well as themselves, in the performance appraisal interview. Subjects, 450 faculty members and 200 administrators at a midwestern university, answered an Appraisal Interview Questionnaire in which they rated administrator performance, content and

  5. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  6. Tennessee Extension Agents' Perceptions of Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Joseph L.; French, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Performance appraisal is necessary for summative decisions about employees, such as merit pay and promotion. The research reported here describes Extension agent perceptions of their performance appraisal system. The population studied consisted of all Tennessee Extension agents (N = 312). Surveys were completed by 218 respondents, for a completed

  7. Tennessee Extension Agents' Perceptions of Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Joseph L.; French, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Performance appraisal is necessary for summative decisions about employees, such as merit pay and promotion. The research reported here describes Extension agent perceptions of their performance appraisal system. The population studied consisted of all Tennessee Extension agents (N = 312). Surveys were completed by 218 respondents, for a completed…

  8. The Performance-Appraisal Interview: An Alternative to Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michal-Johnson, Paula

    Offering instruction in performance appraisal (PA) skills as well as in selection interviewing contributes to business communication students' potential for finding the most appropriate job and keeping it. Students and faculty can benefit from the recognition that in appraisals of performance effective communication behavior is a key indicator of

  9. Principals' Informal Methods for Appraising Poor-Performing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yariv, Eliezer

    2009-01-01

    Teacher appraisal is never an easy task, especially of teachers experiencing difficulties and failures. Nevertheless it is a requirement for good management, in our schools no less than our corporations. Forty elementary school principals in Israel described the informal methods they use to appraise teachers who are performing poorly. Most

  10. Administrators' Views on Teacher Evaluation: Examining Ontario's Teacher Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maharaj, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the views of administrators (i.e., principals and vice-principals) in Ontario, Canada, with regard to the province's Teacher Performance Appraisal process. A total of 178 responses were collected from a survey that examined five areas: 1) preparation and training; 2) classroom observations; 3) preparing the formal…

  11. Standing Out and Moving Up: Performance Appraisal of Cultural Minority Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyerzapf, Hannah; Abma, Tineke A.; Steenwijk, Reina R.; Croiset, Gerda; Verdonk, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing diversity within society and health care, there seems to be a discrepancy between the number of cultural minority physicians graduating and those in training for specialization (residents) or working as a specialist in Dutch academic hospitals. The purpose of this article is to explore how performance appraisal in daily medical…

  12. Standing Out and Moving Up: Performance Appraisal of Cultural Minority Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyerzapf, Hannah; Abma, Tineke A.; Steenwijk, Reina R.; Croiset, Gerda; Verdonk, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing diversity within society and health care, there seems to be a discrepancy between the number of cultural minority physicians graduating and those in training for specialization (residents) or working as a specialist in Dutch academic hospitals. The purpose of this article is to explore how performance appraisal in daily medical

  13. Performance Appraisals: Alverno College's Self-Assessment Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, William N.; Skebba, Patricia L.

    1985-01-01

    The performance appraisal system for noninstructional personnel at Alverno College uses the self-assessment learning process used in the college's instructional programs and emphasizes accountability, employee development, and communication. (MSE)

  14. Managerial Competencies and the Managerial Performance Appraisal Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Steven E.; Karns, Lanny A.; Shaw, Kenneth; Mena, Manuel A.

    2001-01-01

    Human resource managers (n=277) identified six management competencies as critical: leadership, customer focus, results orientation, problem solving, communication skills, and teamwork. However, many companies do not assess these competencies in the management performance appraisal process. (Contains 22 references.) (SK)

  15. The Performance Appraisal: A Crucial Business Process and Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Helen Rothschild; McCallum, Virginia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the process of work performance self-assessment, noting the importance of understanding performance appraisal as a rhetorical situation. Describes the process of setting goals, establishing criteria, assessing performance, and adapting to an organizational format. Provides examples of performance evaluation charts. (MM)

  16. Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Training Area. DOE Training Coordination Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen Tiger Team Assessment and eight Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) final reports have been received and reviewed by the DOE Training Coordination Program during Fiscal Year 1992. These assessments and appraisals included both reactor and non-reactor nuclear facilities in their reports. The Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports both used TSA performance objectives, and list ``concerns`` as a result of their findings. However, the TSA reports categorized concerns into the following functional areas: (1) Organization and Administration, (2) Radiation Protection, (3) Nuclear Criticality Safety, (4) Occupational Safety, (5) Engineering/Technical Support, (6) Emergency Preparedness, (7) Safety Assessments, (8) Quality Verification, (9) Fire Protection, (10) Environmental Protection, and I (1) Energetic Materials Safety. Although these functional areas match most of the TSA performance objectives, not all of the TSA performance objectives are addressed. For example, the TSA reports did not include Training, Maintenance, and Operations as functional areas. Rather, they included concerns that related to these topics throughout the 11 functional areas identified above. For consistency, the Training concerns that were identified in each of the TSA report functional areas have been included in this summary with the corresponding TSA performance objective.

  17. A Review and Analysis of Performance Appraisal Processes, Volume III. Performance Appraisal for Professional Service Employees: Non-Technical Report. Professionalism in Schools Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ondrack, D. A.; Oliver, C.

    The third of three volumes, this report summarizes the findings of, first, a review and analysis of published literature on performance appraisal in general and particularly on the use of appraisals in public education systems, and, second, a series of field-site investigations of performance appraisal systems in action. The field site studies of

  18. Performance Appraisal in an Academic Library: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Verna E.

    Well-designed performance appraisals should provide employees with feedback concerning their performance, serve as a basis for modifying behavior toward more effective work habits, and provide managers with data which they can use to judge future job assignments and compensation. Poorly-designed ones, used as short-term control systems, can create

  19. Employee Acceptance of BOS and BES Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Gier, Joseph A.

    Previous research on performance evaluation systems has failed to take into account user acceptance. Employee acceptance of a behaviorally-based performance appraisal system was assessed in a field experiment contrasting user preference for Behavioral Expectations Scales (BES) versus Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS). Non-union sales associates

  20. Development of a Behaviorally Based Performance Appraisal System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinger, George; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development of a behaviorally based performance appraisal system for assessing the performance of highway patrol personnel. The items in the present scale were developed to describe proficiency levels of specific job tasks. This characteristic is expected to enhance the objectivity of the evaluation system. (Author)

  1. Performance Appraisal and Organizational Issues in a Mental Health Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodenhauser, Paul; Segal, Morley

    1983-01-01

    Reports on the use of applied behavioral science techniques to develop a performance appraisal instrument and system in a mental health organization. The system integrates individual, professional, and institutional values into an overall framework including parts of the organization in conflict. (Author/WAS)

  2. Teacher Performance Appraisal System. The Standards and Processes for Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Teaching practices that have been correlated by research with positive student achievement are grouped under five major teaching functions in the Teacher Performance Appraisal Instrument (TPAI). These include: (1) management of instructional time; (2) management of student behavior; (3) instructional presentation; (4) instructional monitoring of

  3. Organizational Justice and Employee Satisfaction in Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiologos, Anastasios; Papazekos, Panagiotis; Panayotopoulou, Leda

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the performance appraisal (PA) aspects that are connected with organizational justice, and more specifically three kinds of justice, namely distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a sample of 170 respondents who answered a questionnaire giving

  4. Question/Answer Adjacency Pairs in a Performance Appraisal Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Katherine L.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the conversational structure of questions and answers in a performance appraisal interview between a manager and an employee. Results demonstrated that both the manager and employee used question-and-answer pairs to demonstrate their understanding of the expectancy to ask and answer questions and to provide sequential implicativeness and

  5. 5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal program(s... REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees 430.205 Agency performance appraisal program(s). (a) Each agency shall establish...

  6. 5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal program(s... REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees 430.205 Agency performance appraisal program(s). (a) Each agency shall establish...

  7. 5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal program(s... REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees 430.205 Agency performance appraisal program(s). (a) Each agency shall establish...

  8. Competency-Based Performance Appraisals: Improving Performance Evaluations of School Nutrition Managers and Assistants/Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Evelina W.; Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the research was to develop a competency-based performance appraisal resource for evaluating school nutrition (SN) managers and assistants/technicians. Methods: A two-phased process was used to develop the competency-based performance appraisal resource for SN managers and assistants/technicians. In Phase I, draft

  9. Performance appraisal: the legal implications of Title VII.

    PubMed

    Lubben, G L; Thompson, D E; Klasson, C R

    1980-01-01

    Since the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and specifically Title VII of the Act, the federal government has increasingly involved itself with personnel policies and practices of employers in both the public and the private sector. While Title VII was initially directed toward discriminatory employee selection practices, the development of case law in this area suggests that the courts are now interpreting the Act much more broadly. In light of this, human resources managers would be wise to reevaluate the adequacy of existing performance appraisal systems to make them defensible against charges of discriminatory employment practices. After examining significant cases brought before the courts involving performance appraisal systems, authors Gary L. Lubben, Duane E. Thompson, and Charles R. Klasson draw conclusions as to what would constitute a defensible appraisal system. Chief among these is to make the overall appraisal process as formal, standard, and objective as possible and to consider subjective supervisory ratings as only one component of the overall evaluation process. PMID:10247390

  10. Performance Linked Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanry, Charles

    1988-01-01

    The Performance Assessment Review system links training to employee performance and development. The system forces supervisors to specify training to remedy individual employee needs. Through the aggregation of data, the system also provides a tool for the assessment of broad training needs across agencies and job classes. (Author/CH)

  11. Square Pegs and Round Holes: Ruminations on the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravina, Nicole E.; Siers, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Models of comprehensive Performance Management systems include both employee development and evaluative components. The Organizational Behavior Management discipline focuses almost exclusively on the developmental component, while the Industrial and Organizational Psychology discipline is focused on use of performance appraisals. Performance

  12. Characteristics of Performance Appraisals and Their Impact on Sales Force Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettijohn, Charles E.; Pettijohn, Linda S.; d'Amico, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 15 automobile salespeople indicated that job satisfaction increased when performance appraisals provided clear criteria that met workers' approval and when appraisals were fair and used to determine rewards. (Contains 61 references.) (SK)

  13. Performance Appraisal: Promise and Peril. Key Issues Series--No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenfeld, Elaine F.

    To reveal evolving strategies for and existing problems in performance appraisal, this report summarizes recently published research findings and expert opinions. The first section examines the purposes of performance appraisal in organizations, discusses the relationship of appraisal to the job description, and presents an overview of the basic

  14. Performance Appraisal Systems in Higher Education: An Exploration of Christian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaniken, Forrest W.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is substantial literature on the use of performance appraisal in the for-profit world, there is little literature available concerning the appraisal of staff positions in higher education. More knowledge is needed in this area since there is considerable research indicating that performance appraisal creates benefits to an

  15. Performance Appraisal Systems in Higher Education: An Exploration of Christian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaniken, Forrest W.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is substantial literature on the use of performance appraisal in the for-profit world, there is little literature available concerning the appraisal of staff positions in higher education. More knowledge is needed in this area since there is considerable research indicating that performance appraisal creates benefits to an…

  16. Square Pegs and Round Holes: Ruminations on the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravina, Nicole E.; Siers, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Models of comprehensive Performance Management systems include both employee development and evaluative components. The Organizational Behavior Management discipline focuses almost exclusively on the developmental component, while the Industrial and Organizational Psychology discipline is focused on use of performance appraisals. Performance…

  17. Staff Appraisal in Further and Higher Education: A Study in Performance Review and Development. Management in College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribbins, Keith; Walton, Frank

    The many forms of performance appraisal for faculty in Great Britain are examined. Advice and suggestions about appropriate training are offered, and conclusions are drawn about the kind of system that is most beneficial to the education service and to people employed in higher and further education institutions. Five chapters focus on:

  18. Summary of the Development and Four-Year Operation of an Administrative Salary System Which Includes Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubuque Community School District, IA.

    The Dubuque, Iowa Community School District uses a point system to pay administrators. The evaluation of contract length, professional training, administrative experience, administrative responsibilities, and performance generate point totals that correspond to dollar values. The appraisal procedure uses management-by-objective concepts and

  19. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 301.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT Overseas Employees Eligible for Noncompetitive Appointment Upon Return to the United States 301..., overseas agencies are required to evaluate the performance of employees who serve under overseas local...

  20. Standing out and moving up: performance appraisal of cultural minority physicians.

    PubMed

    Leyerzapf, Hannah; Abma, Tineke A; Steenwijk, Reina R; Croiset, Gerda; Verdonk, Petra

    2015-10-01

    Despite a growing diversity within society and health care, there seems to be a discrepancy between the number of cultural minority physicians graduating and those in training for specialization (residents) or working as a specialist in Dutch academic hospitals. The purpose of this article is to explore how performance appraisal in daily medical practice is experienced and might affect the influx of cultural minority physicians into specialty training. A critical diversity study was completed in one academic hospital using interviews (N = 27) and focus groups (15 participants) with cultural minority physicians and residents, instructing specialists and executives of medical wards. Data were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic and integral content analysis was performed. In addition to explicit norms on high motivation and excellent performance, implicit norms on professionalism are considered crucial in qualifying for specialty training. Stereotyped imaging on the culture and identity of cultural minority physicians and categorical thinking on diversity seem to underlie daily processes of evaluation and performance appraisal. These are experienced as inhibiting the possibilities to successfully profile for selection into residency and specialist positions. Implicit criteria appear to affect selection processes on medical wards and possibly hinder the influx of cultural minority physicians into residency and making academic hospitals more diverse. Minority and majority physicians, together with the hospital management and medical education should target inclusive norms and practices within clinical practice. PMID:25549932

  1. Evaluation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Jillian; Bridge, Pete; Brown, Elizabeth; Lusk, Ryan; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet

    2015-06-15

    Constantly evolving technology and techniques within radiation therapy require practitioners to maintain a continuous approach to professional development and training. Systems of performance appraisal and adoption of regular feedback mechanisms are vital to support this development yet frequently lack structure and rely on informal peer support. A Radiation Therapy Performance Appraisal Framework (RT-PAF) for radiation therapists in planning and simulation was developed to define expectations of practice and promote a supportive and objective culture of performance and skills appraisal. Evaluation of the framework was conducted via an anonymous online survey tool. Nine peer reviewers and fourteen recipients provided feedback on its effectiveness and the challenges and limitations of the approach. Findings from the evaluation were positive and suggested that both groups gained benefit from and expressed a strong interest in embedding the approach more routinely. Respondents identified common challenges related to the limited ability to implement suggested development strategies; this was strongly associated with time and rostering issues. This framework successfully defined expectations for practice and provided a fair and objective feedback process that focussed on skills development. It empowered staff to maintain their skills and reach their professional potential. Management support, particularly in regard to provision of protected time was highlighted as critical to the framework's ongoing success. The demonstrated benefits arising in terms of staff satisfaction and development highlight the importance of this commitment to the modern radiation therapy workforce.

  2. Evaluation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jillian; Bridge, Pete; Brown, Elizabeth; Lusk, Ryan; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Constantly evolving technology and techniques within radiation therapy require practitioners to maintain a continuous approach to professional development and training. Systems of performance appraisal and adoption of regular feedback mechanisms are vital to support this development yet frequently lack structure and rely on informal peer support. Methods A Radiation Therapy Performance Appraisal Framework (RT-PAF) for radiation therapists in planning and simulation was developed to define expectations of practice and promote a supportive and objective culture of performance and skills appraisal. Evaluation of the framework was conducted via an anonymous online survey tool. Nine peer reviewers and fourteen recipients provided feedback on its effectiveness and the challenges and limitations of the approach. Results Findings from the evaluation were positive and suggested that both groups gained benefit from and expressed a strong interest in embedding the approach more routinely. Respondents identified common challenges related to the limited ability to implement suggested development strategies; this was strongly associated with time and rostering issues. Conclusions This framework successfully defined expectations for practice and provided a fair and objective feedback process that focussed on skills development. It empowered staff to maintain their skills and reach their professional potential. Management support, particularly in regard to provision of protected time was highlighted as critical to the framework's ongoing success. The demonstrated benefits arising in terms of staff satisfaction and development highlight the importance of this commitment to the modern radiation therapy workforce. PMID:26229676

  3. Appraisal and regulation of the ship energy performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, N.; Epureanu, A.; Badea, G. V.; Frumuşanu, G.

    2015-11-01

    The ship may be viewed as a living environment associated with two industrial environments, one corresponding to the transport industry and other one to the processing, services, or other specific type of industry developed aboard. Each environment has its own energy system and changes energy with the other two. Nowadays, the appraisal and regulation of the ship energy performance is based on the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). Its definition covers the three mentioned systems, without distinction between them. This paper addresses the assessment and regulation of the ship energy performance, bearing in mind that, by far, the main purpose is to increase the level of performance by selecting, from the available measures of performance improvement, those that are the most effective. The paper highlights the EEDI shortcomings, explaining that they appear mainly due the fact that this index covers a couple of energy systems that are far too different (though these energy systems are intimately interpenetrated).

  4. Conducting Elite Performance Training.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Elliott; Tucker, Scott A; Imsdahl, Solveig; Charles, Justin A; Stellato, Mallory A; Wagner, Mercy D; Brown, Kimberly M

    2015-08-01

    Training to excellence in the conduct of surgical procedures has many similarities to the acquisition and mastery of technical skills in elite-level music and sports. By using coaching techniques and strategies gleaned from analysis of professional music ensembles and athletic training, surgical educators can set conditions that increase the success rate of training to elite performance. This article describes techniques and strategies used in both music and athletic coaching, and it discusses how they can be applied and integrated into surgical simulation and education. PMID:26210975

  5. 5 CFR 430.205 - Agency performance appraisal program(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal program(s). 430.205 Section 430.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees 430.205 Agency...

  6. 5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal system(s). 430.204 Section 430.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and...

  7. 5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal system(s). 430.204 Section 430.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and...

  8. 5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal system(s). 430.204 Section 430.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and...

  9. 5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal system(s). 430.204 Section 430.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and...

  10. 5 CFR 430.204 - Agency performance appraisal system(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency performance appraisal system(s). 430.204 Section 430.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.204 Agency...

  11. Development of Performance Appraisal System for Local School Teachers in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttaramart, Suphawadee; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sri-am-pai, Anan

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to study current situation and problem in the performance appraisal system of secondary school teachers, under jurisdiction of the Local Administrative Organization (LAO), 2) to develop the performance appraisal system to apply with the LAO school teachers, and 3) to evaluate the application from the

  12. Work Planning and Performance Appraisal: A Reference Handbook for Managers and Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Jerry E.

    Merit system law, state personnel rules, and collective bargaining contracts require that Oregon state agencies appraise the performance of their employees. The heart of the Oregon performance appraisal system is work planning. Based on management by objectives and the concepts of employee involvement and participation, work planning is a process

  13. Perceived Purposes of Performance Appraisal: Correlates of Individual- and Position-Focused Purposes on Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngcourt, Satoris S.; Leiva, Pedro I.; Jones, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Performance appraisals have traditionally been directed at individuals, serving either an administrative or developmental purpose. They may serve a role definition purpose as well. This study sought to identify and more broadly define the purposes of performance appraisals to include this role definition purpose. Furthermore, this study examined

  14. Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Operations Area. DOE Training Coordination Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen Tiger Team Assessment and eight Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) final reports have been received and reviewed by the DOE Training Coordination Program during Fiscal Year 1992. These assessments and appraisals included both reactor and non-reactor nuclear facilities in their reports. The Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports both used TSA performance objectives, and list ``concerns`` as a result of their findings. However, the TSA reports categorized concerns into the following functional areas: (1) Organization and Administration, (2) Radiation Protection, (3) Nuclear Criticality Safety, (4) Occupational Safety, (5) Engineering/Technical Support, (6) Emergency Preparedness, (7) Safety Assessments, (8) Quality Verification, (9) Fire Protection, (10) Environmental Protection, and (11) Energetic Materials Safety. Although these functional areas match most of the TSA performance objectives, not all of the TSA performance objectives are addressed. For example, the TSA reports did not include Training, Maintenance, and Operations as functional areas. Rather, they included concerns that related to these topics throughout the 11 functional areas identified above. For consistency, the Operations concerns that were identified in each of the TSA report functional areas have been included in this summary with the corresponding TSA performance objective.

  15. Evaluating Managerial Performance: Is Your Appraisal System Legal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basnight, Thomas A.; Wolkinson, Benjamin W.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of subjective management appraisal systems is examined with regard to existing legislation and court decisions. Considered are the vagueness of standards, pitfalls of so-called objectivity evaluations, inconsistency among appraisers, and the need to apply merit plans uniformly without discrimination. (LBH)

  16. Online training course on critical appraisal for nurses: adaptation and assessment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research is an essential activity for improving quality and efficiency in healthcare. The objective of this study was to train nurses from the public Basque Health Service (Osakidetza) in critical appraisal, promoting continuous training and the use of research in clinical practice. Methods This was a prospective pre-post test study. The InfoCritique course on critical appraisal was translated and adapted. A sample of 50 nurses and 3 tutors was recruited. Educational strategies and assessment instruments were established for the course. A course website was created that contained contact details of the teaching team and coordinator, as well as a course handbook and videos introducing the course. Assessment comprised the administration of questionnaires before and after the course, in order to explore the main intervention outcomes: knowledge acquired and self-learning readiness. Satisfaction was also measured at the end of the course. Results Of the 50 health professionals recruited, 3 did not complete the course for personal or work-related reasons. The mean score on the pre-course knowledge questionnaire was 70.5 out of 100, with a standard deviation of 11.96. In general, participants performance on the knowledge questionnaire improved after the course, as reflected in the notable increase of the mean score, to 86.6, with a standard deviation of 10.00. Further, analyses confirmed statistically significant differences between pre- and post-course results (p?

  17. German Training Revisited: An Appraisal of Corporatist Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to re-examine the unique political economy of Germany's dual apprenticeship training model and its underlying philosophy of corporatist governance. It responds to recent arguments suggesting that Germany's collectivist skill regime is under threat, increasingly giving way to the introduction of "segmentalism".

  18. German Training Revisited: An Appraisal of Corporatist Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to re-examine the unique political economy of Germany's dual apprenticeship training model and its underlying philosophy of corporatist governance. It responds to recent arguments suggesting that Germany's collectivist skill regime is under threat, increasingly giving way to the introduction of "segmentalism".…

  19. The Effects of Confidentiality on the Distribution of Naval Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Robert D.; And Others

    Confidential performance appraisals were collected from a sample of 504 enlisted personnel and compared to a large sample of official, nonconfidential appraisals. Results indicated that the distribution of confidential ratings showed much less skew and more discrimination than the nonconfidential ratings. (Author)

  20. Determining the Root Causes of Concerns Associated with the Performance Appraisal Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnds, W. Kent

    2011-01-01

    Many organizations use formal appraisals to measure employee performance. Augustana College's Office of Admissions introduced an appraisal process in 2006. Subsequently, staff expressed a number of concerns, ranging from confusion about the process to its link to compensation. Action research proved essential for understanding the problems; it

  1. Current Practices in Appraising Employee Performance as Performed by the Business Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Thomas R., Jr., Comp.; Lyne, George E., Jr., Comp.

    The major ppurpose of this study was to determine from human resource administrators in the business community the techniques now used in appraising exempt and nonexempt employee performance. Of the 1,000 administrators surveyed, 125 returned usable questionnaires for a response rate of 12.5 percent. The administrators reported that even though

  2. Data envelopment analysis model for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses at an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Osman, Ibrahim H; Berbary, Lynn N; Sidani, Yusuf; Al-Ayoubi, Baydaa; Emrouznejad, Ali

    2011-10-01

    The appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses are very important and beneficial for both nurses and employers in an era of clinical governance, increased accountability and high standards of health care services. They enhance and consolidate the knowledge and practical skills of nurses by identification of training and career development plans as well as improvement in health care quality services, increase in job satisfaction and use of cost-effective resources. In this paper, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is proposed for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses. The model is validated on thirty-two nurses working at an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at one of the most recognized hospitals in Lebanon. The DEA was able to classify nurses into efficient and inefficient ones. The set of efficient nurses was used to establish an internal best practice benchmark to project career development plans for improving the performance of other inefficient nurses. The DEA result confirmed the ranking of some nurses and highlighted injustice in other cases that were produced by the currently practiced appraisal system. Further, the DEA model is shown to be an effective talent management and motivational tool as it can provide clear managerial plans related to promoting, training and development activities from the perspective of nurses, hence increasing their satisfaction, motivation and acceptance of appraisal results. Due to such features, the model is currently being considered for implementation at ICU. Finally, the ratio of the number DEA units to the number of input/output measures is revisited with new suggested values on its upper and lower limits depending on the type of DEA models and the desired number of efficient units from a managerial perspective. PMID:20734223

  3. Modifying adolescent interpretation biases through cognitive training: effects on negative affect and stress appraisals.

    PubMed

    Telman, Machteld D; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2013-10-01

    Adolescent anxiety is common, impairing and costly. Given the scale of adolescent anxiety and its impact, fresh innovations for therapy are in demand. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) studies of adults show that by training individuals to endorse benign interpretations of ambiguous situations can improve anxious mood-states particularly in response towards stress. While, these investigations have been partially extended to adolescents with success, inconsistent training effects on anxious mood-states have been found. The present study investigated whether positive versus negative CBM-I training influenced appraisals of stress, in forty-nine adolescents, aged 15-18. Data supported the plasticity of interpretational styles, with positively-trained adolescents selecting more benign resolutions of new ambiguous situations, than negatively-trained adolescents. Positively-trained adolescents also rated recent stressors as having less impact on their lives than negatively-trained adolescents. Thus, while negative styles may increase negative responses towards stress, positive styles may boost resilience. PMID:23722473

  4. Establishing Content Validity for a Literacy Coach Performance Appraisal Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Mae; Robbins, Mary; Price, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to determine whether or not the Literacy Coach Appraisal Instrument developed for use in evaluating literacy coaches had content validity. The study, a fully mixed concurrent equal status design conducted from a pragmatist philosophy, collected qualitative and quantitative data from literacy experts about the elements of

  5. Management behavior, group climate and performance appraisal at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manderlink, G.; Clark, L. P.; Bernstein, W. M.; Burke, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The relationships among manager behavior, group climate and managerial effectiveness are examined. Survey data were collected from 435 GM14-15 managers and their subordinates at NASA concerning management practices and perceptions of the group environment. Performance ratings of managers were obtained from their superiors. The results strongly supported a causal model in which subordinates' climate perceptions mediate the effects of manager behavior on performance. That is, the development of group climate provides the process through which the effects of manager practices may be understood. Analyses also revealed that the function performed by a manager and his group (e.g., research) influenced the specific nature of the causal dynamics. Some implications of the results for management training and development are discussed.

  6. 24 CFR 200.200 - What is the Appraiser Roster?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... insurable mortgage and to also protect the FHA insurance funds, the inclusion of an appraiser on the... appraisal performed by the listed appraiser. The inclusion of an appraiser on the Appraiser Roster means..., for inclusion on the Appraiser Roster....

  7. The Relationship between Self-Appraisal, Professional Training, and Diversity Awareness among Forensic Psychology Students: A Pilot Formative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.; Chandler, Michele D.; Clark, Quelanda C.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing need for formal training in forensic psychology. This pilot study examines the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction, perceived academic competence, and program competency among a sample of forensic psychology students. In theory, the RBM suggests that self-appraisal,…

  8. Performance Appraisal System Impact on University Academic Staff Job Satisfaction and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndambakuwa, Yustina; Mufunda, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The University of Zimbabwe (UZ) introduced a performance appraisal system (PAS) designed to improve performance indicators across the board in Public Service including academic/faculty staff at the University of Zimbabwe as part of a nation wide strategy. The Public service is a body responsible for all civil workers including academic staff,

  9. The Future of Performance Appraisal for Certificated Education Staff in the School Boards of Ontario. Professionalism in Schools Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Brian; Sussman, Susan

    This report assesses the current state of the art of personnel performance appraisal in education to provide guidelines for new initiatives and developments in the use of personnel evaluation systems in Ontario schools. It is organized in such a way that the major issues related to performance appraisal are presented in the order in which an

  10. Combining BARS and MBO: Using an Appraisal System to Diagnose Performance Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneier, Craig Eric; Beatty, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    The last of a three-part series, this article explains how behaviorally anchored rating scales, an appraisal system, can be integrated with management by objectives. A diagnostic technique for identifying performance problems using the integrated approach is explained. Forms required for the integration are provided. (Author/IRT)

  11. Beyond Evaluation: Performance Appraisal as a Planning and Motivational Tool in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, H. Rebecca

    1983-01-01

    Types of performance evaluation for academic librarians are discussed, noting strengths and weaknesses--formats, relative ranking system, dimensionalized ranking system, management by objectives, and degree of participation. Use of appraisal program to aid library administration in monitoring ongoing activity, planning ahead, and motivating

  12. Utilising a Virtual World to Teach Performance Appraisal: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Shona

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to give a critical assessment of a study designed to investigate the potential of a new method for teaching HRD students about performance appraisal. It is argued that this approach is in the vanguard of developments in IT and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the form of an explorative study

  13. A Survey of Academic Officers regarding Performance Appraisal in Estonian and American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Kukemelk, Hasso; Turk, Kilno

    2008-01-01

    Higher education in the Baltic Republic of Estonia is experiencing rapid change as the country adjusts to a market economy in the post-Soviet era and adheres to principles established through the Bologna Process. Research in the area of performance appraisal, and the most effective approaches to motivate academic staff, is a key factor influencing

  14. National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations

  15. Development of a Performance Appraisal Program for Nonacademic Staff at Atlantic Baptist College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Norma Cole

    This paper briefly reviews the higher education literature on nonacademic staff evaluation, followed by a description of the development of process of staff performance appraisal being implemented at Atlantic Baptist College (New Brunswick, Canada). Steps in the development process are outlined starting with the writing of a report on compensation

  16. Teaching in the "Performative" State: Implications for Teacher Appraisal in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Teacher appraisal is viewed by bureaucrats as a means of effecting organisational change in schools. It is for this reason that educational policy leaders have turned to technical competency as a way of accounting for teachers' performance in classrooms. In other words, teachers' work is now subject to minute scrutiny by the observation of…

  17. Real estate market and building energy performance: Data for a mass appraisal approach.

    PubMed

    Bonifaci, Pietro; Copiello, Sergio

    2015-12-01

    Mass appraisal is widely considered an advanced frontier in the real estate valuation field. Performing mass appraisal entails the need to get access to base information conveyed by a large amount of transactions, such as prices and property features. Due to the lack of transparency of many Italian real estate market segments, our survey has been addressed to gather data from residential property advertisements. The dataset specifically focuses on property offer prices and dwelling energy efficiency. The latter refers to the label expressed and exhibited by the energy performance certificate. Moreover, data are georeferenced with the highest possible accuracy: at the neighborhood level for a 76.8% of cases, at street or building number level for the remaining 23.2%. Data are related to the analysis performed in Bonifaci and Copiello [1], about the relationship between house prices and building energy performance, that is to say, the willingness to pay in order to benefit from more efficient dwellings. PMID:26793751

  18. Real estate market and building energy performance: Data for a mass appraisal approach

    PubMed Central

    Bonifaci, Pietro; Copiello, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Mass appraisal is widely considered an advanced frontier in the real estate valuation field. Performing mass appraisal entails the need to get access to base information conveyed by a large amount of transactions, such as prices and property features. Due to the lack of transparency of many Italian real estate market segments, our survey has been addressed to gather data from residential property advertisements. The dataset specifically focuses on property offer prices and dwelling energy efficiency. The latter refers to the label expressed and exhibited by the energy performance certificate. Moreover, data are georeferenced with the highest possible accuracy: at the neighborhood level for a 76.8% of cases, at street or building number level for the remaining 23.2%. Data are related to the analysis performed in Bonifaci and Copiello [1], about the relationship between house prices and building energy performance, that is to say, the willingness to pay in order to benefit from more efficient dwellings. PMID:26793751

  19. Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of performance management and appraisal in New Zealand schools. Outlines a model of principal appraisal that demonstrates an integration of development and accountability elements. Draws on three studies to identify key features of appraisal effectiveness. (SLD)

  20. How to Construct a Successful Performance Appraisal System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneier, Craig Eric; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the design of a performance management system that not only enables managers to solve performance problems, but also enables human resource development specialists and staff to provide a useful tool and a successful program. (CT)

  1. Performance Appraisals: One Step in a Comprehensive Staff Supervision Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbourne, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Performance reviews, while stressful, can prepare employees for the next stages of their career. The best performance reviews are those where the supervisor knows the employee's skills and talents and offers suggestions on how to use those talents to develop other areas of job performance and professional growth. In this article, the author

  2. Effective Communication in the Performance Appraisal Interview: Face-to-Face Communication for Public Managers in the Culturally Diverse Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikoski, John F.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses six microcommunication skills to help managers communicate effectively in performance-appraisal interviews. Reviews models that have conceptualized interpersonal communication and presents a theoretical model that may assist managers and stimulate scholarly research. (JOW)

  3. Doing Performance Appraisal the Right Way: The CAM Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsgard, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the CAM (Clarity, Awareness, Merit Recognition) process for performance reviews in which supervisors declare personal values, expectations, and operational methods; select employee skills for enhancement and define results; provide feedback, recognition and reinforcement; and distribute merit rewards and build deeper mutual commitments to

  4. Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElShenawy, Eman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.

  5. Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElShenawy, Eman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

  6. Negative expectancy appraisals and defeatist performance beliefs and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Couture, Shannon M; Blanchard, Jack J; Bennett, Melanie E

    2011-08-30

    Negative symptoms have clear functional implications in schizophrenia and are typically unresponsive to current treatments. The cognitive model of negative symptoms suggests that dysfunctional beliefs are influential in the development and maintenance of negative symptoms and schizophrenia. The current study reports on a preliminary investigation of a new measure of Negative Expectancy Appraisals (specifically beliefs about limited probability of success and perception of limited cognitive resources), and also evaluates whether dysfunctional beliefs are more closely linked to particular subdomains of negative symptoms. Sixty two individuals with schizophrenia completed measures of dysfunctional beliefs and were rated on negative symptoms. Analyses indicated that the endorsement of beliefs regarding low expectations for success and perception of limited resources (Negative Expectancy Appraisals) are robustly associated with diminished experience negative symptoms (avolition, asociality, and anhedonia), but are not associated with negative symptoms reflecting diminished expressivity (blunted affect, alogia). Similarly, Defeatist Performance Beliefs are modestly related to diminished experience, but not diminished expression, negative symptoms. Negative Expectancy Appraisals were also robustly linked to depressive symptoms. Results from the current study provide evidence that dysfunctional beliefs are clearly relevant to consider in relation to negative symptoms, and may represent a fruitful treatment target. PMID:21704387

  7. Effects of cognitive appraisal and mental workload factors on performance in an arithmetic task.

    PubMed

    Galy, Edith; Mélan, Claudine

    2015-12-01

    We showed in a previous study an additive interaction between intrinsic and extraneous cognitive loads and of participants' alertness in an 1-back working memory task. The interaction between intrinsic and extraneous cognitive loads was only observed when participants' alertness was low (i.e. in the morning). As alertness is known to reflect an individual's general functional state, we suggested that the working memory capacity available for germane cognitive load depends on a participant's functional state, in addition to intrinsic and extraneous loads induced by the task and task conditions. The relationships between the different load types and their assessment by specific load measures gave rise to a modified cognitive load model. The aim of the present study was to complete the model by determining to what extent and at what processing level an individual's characteristics intervene in order to implement efficient strategies in a working memory task. Therefore, the study explored participants' cognitive appraisal of the situation in addition to the load factors considered previously-task difficulty, time pressure and alertness. Each participant performed a mental arithmetic task in four different cognitive load conditions (crossover of two task difficulty conditions and of two time pressure conditions), both while their alertness was low (9 a.m.) and high (4 p.m.). Results confirmed an additive effect of task difficulty and time pressure, previously reported in the 1-back memory task, thereby lending further support to the modified cognitive load model. Further, in the high intrinsic and extraneous load condition, performance was reduced on the morning session (i.e. when alertness was low) on one hand, and in those participants' having a threat appraisal of the situation on the other hand. When these factors were included into the analysis, a performance drop occurred in the morning irrespective of cognitive appraisal, and with threat appraisal in the afternoon (i.e. high alertness). Taken together, these findings indicate that mental overload can be the result of a combination of subject-related characteristics, including alertness and cognitive appraisal, in addition to well-documented task-related components (intrinsic and extraneous load). As the factors investigated in the study are known to be critically involved in a number of real job-activities, the findings suggest that solutions designed to reduce incidents and accidents at work should consider the situation from a global perspective, including individual characteristics, task parameters, and work organization, rather than dealing with each factor separately. PMID:26205469

  8. Safety appraisal guide for use with DOE Order 5482. 1A

    SciTech Connect

    Buys, J.R.; Nertney, R.J.; Bullock, M.G.; Klinestiver, L.K.; Knox, N.W.

    1982-08-01

    The DOE Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) appraisal program consists of internal audits, confirmatory management and functional appraisals, program reviews and assessments, and independent overview reviews and appraisals. The purpose of this guide is to implement the appraisal factors of DOE Order 5482.1A, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Appraisal Program. It thereby provides a basis for appraisal in accordance with the DOE Order 5482.1A, which is free of oversights, and which has a well defined, standardized structure. Finally, this guide is used as a primary text and workbook in the DOE Appraisal Training Workshop, as well as in actual field appraisals which are an integral part of the total DOE Safety Performance Measurement System (SPMS).

  9. Faculty Training in Evidence-Based Medicine: Improving Evidence Acquisition and Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Laura J.; Warde, Carole M.; Boker, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) integrates published clinical evidence with patient values and clinical expertise, the output of which is informed medical decision making. Key skills for evidence-based practice include acquisition and appraisal of clinical information. Faculty clinicians often lack expertise in these skills and are

  10. War outside, ceasefire inside: An analysis of the performance appraisal system of a public hospital in a zone of conflict.

    PubMed

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea; Sebastiano, Antonio; Tamimi, Hadeel Al

    2012-02-01

    Our study examines the use of the performance appraisal system at Hebron Public Hospital (Palestine) during the second intifada, started in 2000. The aim of the article is to shed light on the reasons behind the use of performance appraisal systems in organizations operating in zones of conflicts, an area relatively neglected by HR scholars. To create the theoretical fundament we draw on mainstream literature on performance appraisal, contextualizing it to the Middle-Eastern context. From the literature analysis, we identify five guiding logics for the implementation and use of performance appraisal systems (Appendix A). We use a multi-method approach, qualitative and quantitative, to analyze the longitudinal performance evaluation data over the period 2000-2002 for about 250 individuals. These data are complemented with interviews and observations in the field. Our analysis shows that the trends evidenced in the quantitative analysis are similar to trends evident in Western contexts. However, these trends were not the consequence of the same five Western logics found in the literature. The qualitative study allows us to identify two additional logics for making sense of the performance appraisal system at Hebron Public Hospital: the need to find peace within the organization (organizational peacefulness logic); and the need to maintain order through the acceptance of the status quo (dominance logic). These results allow us to draw conclusions for theory and practice of HR management and to identify useful criteria for doing research in areas of conflicts. PMID:21168215

  11. 12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a... CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS 323.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. (a) Appraisals required. An appraisal performed by...

  12. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Appraisals required; transactions requiring a... SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. (a) Appraisals required. An appraisal performed by a State certified...

  13. Preferences of Training Performance Measurement: A Comparative Study of Training Professionals and Non-Training Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.

    2004-01-01

    This survey-based study addressed a perceived gap between training performance evaluation practice and decision-making criteria required in business. Training professionals and non-training managers in North Carolina were surveyed. The study found that the groups differ in the performance measures that motivate them to act on training issues.…

  14. Preferences of Training Performance Measurement: A Comparative Study of Training Professionals and Non-Training Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.

    2004-01-01

    This survey-based study addressed a perceived gap between training performance evaluation practice and decision-making criteria required in business. Training professionals and non-training managers in North Carolina were surveyed. The study found that the groups differ in the performance measures that motivate them to act on training issues.

  15. TAP 2: Performance-Based Training Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Cornerstone of safe operation of DOE nuclear facilities is personnel performing day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Performance-based training is fundamental to the safe operation. This manual has been developed to support the Training Accreditation Program (TAP) and assist contractors in efforts to develop performance-based training programs. It provides contractors with narrative procedures on performance-based training that can be modified and incorporated for facility-specific application. It is divided into sections dealing with analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.

  16. Training high performance skills using above real-time training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

    1993-01-01

    The Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) concept is a unique approach to training high performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. Such a training paradigm represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. These techniques allow individuals to acquire these critical skills faster and with greater retention. ARTT also allows an individual trained in 'fast time' to operate at what appears to be a more confident state, when the same task is performed in a real-time environment. Two related experiments are discussed. The findings appear to be consistent with previous findings that show positive effects of task variation during training. Moreover, ARTT has merit in improving or maintaining transfer with sharp reductions in training time. There are indications that the effectiveness of ARTT varies as a function of task content and possibly task difficulty. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

  17. Continuing Education and Training Models and Strategies: An Initial Appraisal. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Henderson, Amanda; Choy, Sarojni; Dymock, Darryl; Kelly, Ann; Smith, Ray; James, Ian; Beven, Fred; Lewis, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Continuing education and training is an emerging priority for the nation's tertiary education and training system. Changing work, new work requirements, an ageing workforce and lengthening working lives are some of the factors now influencing this priority. Yet, many of the purposes and processes of the Australian tertiary education and training

  18. Mindfulness Training Targets Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Addiction at the Attention-Appraisal-Emotion Interface

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Prominent neuroscience models suggest that addictive behavior occurs when environmental stressors and drug-relevant cues activate a cycle of cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological mechanisms, including dysregulated interactions between bottom-up and top-down neural processes, that compel the user to seek out and use drugs. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) target pathogenic mechanisms of the risk chain linking stress and addiction. This review describes how MBIs may target neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs ameliorate addiction by enhancing cognitive regulation of a number of key processes, including: clarifying cognitive appraisal and modulating negative emotions to reduce perseverative cognition and emotional arousal; enhancing metacognitive awareness to regulate drug-use action schema and decrease addiction attentional bias; promoting extinction learning to uncouple drug-use triggers from conditioned appetitive responses; reducing cue-reactivity and increasing cognitive control over craving; attenuating physiological stress reactivity through parasympathetic activation; and increasing savoring to restore natural reward processing. Treatment and research implications of our neurocognitive framework are presented. We conclude by offering a temporally sequenced description of neurocognitive processes targeted by MBIs through a hypothetical case study. Our neurocognitive framework has implications for the optimization of addiction treatment with MBIs. PMID:24454293

  19. Mindfulness training targets neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O

    2014-01-10

    Prominent neuroscience models suggest that addictive behavior occurs when environmental stressors and drug-relevant cues activate a cycle of cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological mechanisms, including dysregulated interactions between bottom-up and top-down neural processes, that compel the user to seek out and use drugs. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) target pathogenic mechanisms of the risk chain linking stress and addiction. This review describes how MBIs may target neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs ameliorate addiction by enhancing cognitive regulation of a number of key processes, including: clarifying cognitive appraisal and modulating negative emotions to reduce perseverative cognition and emotional arousal; enhancing metacognitive awareness to regulate drug-use action schema and decrease addiction attentional bias; promoting extinction learning to uncouple drug-use triggers from conditioned appetitive responses; reducing cue-reactivity and increasing cognitive control over craving; attenuating physiological stress reactivity through parasympathetic activation; and increasing savoring to restore natural reward processing. Treatment and research implications of our neurocognitive framework are presented. We conclude by offering a temporally sequenced description of neurocognitive processes targeted by MBIs through a hypothetical case study. Our neurocognitive framework has implications for the optimization of addiction treatment with MBIs. PMID:24454293

  20. National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-03-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings. PMID:22040261

  1. Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be

  2. Reaction of Employees to Performance Appraisal Interviews as a Function of Their Participation in Rating Scale Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Stanley B.; Wexley, Kenneth N.

    1984-01-01

    Examined whether employee involvement (N=65) in the development of behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) used in the feedback interview affected ratees' perceptions of the interview. Results showed that participation in BARS construction led to favorable perceptions regarding the performance appraisal interview process as well as positive

  3. Development, feasibility and performance of a health risk appraisal questionnaire for older persons

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Andreas E; Kharicha, Kalpa; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Meier-Baumgartner, Hans Peter; Harari, Danielle; Swift, Cameron G; Ivanova, Katja; Egger, Matthias; Gillmann, Gerhard; Higa, Jerilyn; Beck, John C; Iliffe, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Background Health risk appraisal is a promising method for health promotion and prevention in older persons. The Health Risk Appraisal for the Elderly (HRA-E) developed in the U.S. has unique features but has not been tested outside the United States. Methods Based on the original HRA-E, we developed a scientifically updated and regionally adapted multilingual Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O) instrument consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and software-generated feed-back reports. We evaluated the practicability and performance of the questionnaire in non-disabled community-dwelling older persons in London (U.K.) (N = 1090), Hamburg (Germany) (N = 804), and Solothurn (Switzerland) (N = 748) in a sub-sample of an international randomised controlled study. Results Over eighty percent of invited older persons returned the self-administered HRA-O questionnaire. Fair or poor self-perceived health status and older age were correlated with higher rates of non-return of the questionnaire. Older participants and those with lower educational levels reported more difficulty in completing the HRA-O questionnaire as compared to younger and higher educated persons. However, even among older participants and those with low educational level, more than 80% rated the questionnaire as easy to complete. Prevalence rates of risks for functional decline or problems were between 2% and 91% for the 19 HRA-O domains. Participants' intention to change health behaviour suggested that for some risk factors participants were in a pre-contemplation phase, having no short- or medium-term plans for change. Many participants perceived their health behaviour or preventative care uptake as optimal, despite indications of deficits according to the HRA-O based evaluation. Conclusion The HRA-O questionnaire was highly accepted by a broad range of community-dwelling non-disabled persons. It identified a high number of risks and problems, and provided information on participants' intention to change health behaviour. PMID:17217545

  4. A Comparison of Results-Oriented and Trait-Based Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Stuart

    1983-01-01

    Data from questionnaires administered to 163 company middle managers and from their personnel files revealed that the 87 managers from a division using the management-by-objectives appraisal system are more satisfied with this system and its feedback than are the 76 respondents from a division using a subjective appraisal system. (MLF)

  5. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations. Performance assessment can identify improvement areas that will help reduce translational delays. Currently, no standard method exists to identify models for use in performance assessment. This study aimed to critically appraise translational research models for suitability in performance assessment of cancer centers. Methods. We conducted a systematic review to identify models and developed a set of criteria based on scientometrics, complex adaptive systems, research and development processes, and strategic evaluation. Models were assessed for linkage between research and care components, new knowledge, systems integration, performance assessment, and review of other models. Results. Twelve models were identified; six described phases/components for translational research in different blocks (T models) and six described the process of translational research (process models). Both models view translational research as an accumulation of new knowledge. However, process models more clearly address systems integration, link research and care components, and were developed for evaluating and improving the performance of translational research. T models are more likely to review other models. Conclusion. Process models seem to be more suitable for performance assessment of cancer centers than T models. The most suitable process models (the Process Marker Model and Lean and Six Sigma applications) must be thoroughly tested in practice. PMID:23263926

  6. VISUAL TRAINING AND READING PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANAPOLLE, LOUIS

    VISUAL TRAINING IS DEFINED AS THE FIELD OF OCULAR REEDUCATION AND REHABILITATION OF THE VARIOUS VISUAL SKILLS THAT ARE OF PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE TO SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT, AUTOMOBILE DRIVING, OUTDOOR SPORTS ACTIVITIES, AND OCCUPATIONAL PURSUITS. A HISTORY OF ORTHOPTICS, THE SUGGESTED NAME FOR THE ENTIRE FIELD OF OCULAR REEDUCATION, IS GIVEN. READING AS

  7. Development and Use of Performance Appraisal of Certificated Education Staff in Ontario School Boards. Volume I: Technical Report. Professionalism in Schools Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, S. B.; And Others

    This study addresses four questions: (1) What types of performance appraisal policy for educational staff have been adopted by Ontario school boards? (2) To what extent have these policies been implemented in practice? (3) What types of appraisal policies are most effective? and (4) What processes have school boards used to develop and implement

  8. Improving Wordspotting Performance with Limited Training Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eric I.-Chao

    1995-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of limited training data in pattern detection problems where a small number of target classes must be detected in a varied background. There is typically limited training data and limited knowledge about class distributions in this type of spotting problem and in this case a statistical pattern classifier can not accurately model class distributions. The domain of wordspotting is used to explore new approaches that improve spotting system performance with limited training data. First, a high performance, state-of-the-art whole-word based wordspotter is developed. Two complementary approaches are then introduced to help compensate for the lack of data. Figure of Merit training, a new type of discriminative training algorithm, modifies the spotting system parameters according to the metric used to evaluate wordspotting systems. The effectiveness of discriminative training approaches may be limited due to overtraining a classifier on insufficient training data. While the classifier's performance on the training data improves, the classifier's performance on unseen test data degrades. To alleviate this problem, voice transformation techniques are used to generate more training examples that improve the robustness of the spotting system. The wordspotter is trained and tested on the Switchboard credit-card database, a database of spontaneous conversations recorded over the telephone. The baseline wordspotter achieves a Figure of Merit of 62.5% on a testing set. With Figure of Merit training, the Figure of Merit improves to 65.8%. When Figure of Merit training and voice transformations are used together, the Figure of Merit improves to 71.9%. The final wordspotter system achieves a Figure of Merit of 64.2% on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) September 1992 official benchmark, surpassing the 1992 results from other whole-word based wordspotting systems. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

  9. TAP 2, Performance-Based Training Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Training programs at DOE nuclear facilities should provide well- trained, qualified personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. A need has been identified for guidance regarding analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of consistent and reliable performance-based training programs. Accreditation of training programs at Category A reactors and high-hazard and selected moderate-hazard nonreactor facilities will assure consistent, appropriate, and cost-effective training of personnel responsible for the operation, maintenance, and technical support of these facilities. Training programs that are designed and based on systematically job requirements, instead of subjective estimation of trainee needs, yield training activities that are consistent and develop or improve knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be directly related to the work setting. Because the training is job-related, the content of these programs more efficiently and effectively meets the needs of the employee. Besides a better trained work force, a greater level of operational reactor safety can be realized. This manual is intended to provide an overview of the accreditation process and a brief description of the elements necessary to construct and maintain training programs that are based on the requirements of the job. Two comparison manuals provide additional information to assist contractors in their efforts to accredit training programs.

  10. Is Transfer of Training Related to Firm Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Alan M.; Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to bridge the gap between micro-training research on the transfer of training and macro-training research on training and firm performance by testing the relationship between transfer of training and firm performance. Training and development professionals completed a survey about the training methods used in their

  11. Is Transfer of Training Related to Firm Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Alan M.; Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to bridge the gap between micro-training research on the transfer of training and macro-training research on training and firm performance by testing the relationship between transfer of training and firm performance. Training and development professionals completed a survey about the training methods used in their…

  12. The Effect of Performance Support and Training as Performance Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Frank; Klein, James D.

    2008-01-01

    For decades, training has been one of the most common interventions used by organizations to improve the performance of their employees and teach them new ideas and skills. But owing to the cost of developing and delivering training, organizations have adopted alternative ways to enable employee performance while reducing the cost and minimizing…

  13. Effective Appraisal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Jerry L.

    An examination of the goals of an effective employee appraisal system of an effective employee evaluation procedure is the focus of this paper.The paper discusses the purposes of the appraisal system and its objectivity (or lack of it), the selection of items to be judged, the standards for judging the performance of an employee, and the person

  14. Investing in Change. An Appraisal of Staff Development Needs for the Delivery of Modernised Occupational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    Regional and national seminars provided an opportunity for some 500 experts from industry and further education (FE) to analyze staff development needs related to modernization of occupational training in England. Eight issues affecting staff development were identified: environmental factors, access, relevance, design, delivery, assessment,

  15. Train Right or Don't Train at All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Nancy K.; Deller, John

    1985-01-01

    A program to train bank operations supervisors to conduct quarterly informal performance appraisals involved three modes: content-only training, content-plus-procedure training, and no training. While content-plus-procedure was predictably the most satisfactory, content-only, because it lacked a practice component, was less effective than no

  16. Diagnostic Performance 1H after Simulation Training Predicts Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consoli, Anna; Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene; Sobczak, Matthew; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Although simulation training improves post-training performance, it is unclear how well performance soon after simulation training predicts longer term outcomes (i.e., learning). Here our objective was to assess the predictive value of performance 1h post-training of performance 6weeks later. We trained 84 first year medical students a simulated

  17. Ideas on Staff Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Outlines guidelines for effective appraisal of day care center staff. Lists 11 questions for employers to ask themselves about their role in their employees' performance. Includes observations about performance evaluations from the management literature. (DR)

  18. The Effect of Performance Support and Training on Performer Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Frank

    2009-01-01

    While training has been a proven and heavily relied on intervention to impart job-enabling information to performers, its ability to have a positive effect on job performance has been demonstrated to diminish over time. One intervention that has been adopted by performance technologists to provide ongoing support is an electronic performance…

  19. Classifying young soccer players by training performances.

    PubMed

    Abade, Eduardo A; Gonalves, Bruno V; Silva, Alexandra M; Leite, Nuno M; Castagna, Carlo; Sampaio, Jaime E

    2014-12-01

    Players within the same age group may present different physical and physiological profiles. This study classified young soccer players according to their physical and physiological profiles obtained during the training sessions and compared classification by age and playing position criteria. 151 male elite Portuguese soccer players (under 15, under 17, and under 19 years old) participated. Time-motion and body acceleration and deceleration data were collected using GPS technology with heart rate monitored continuously across the selected training sessions. The data were grouped using two-step cluster analysis to classify athletes. A repeated-measures factorial ANOVA was performed to identify differences in the variables. Three clusters comprised 15.2%, 37.1%, and 47.7% of the total sample, respectively. Players of the same ages and playing experience had different performance profiles. Grouping players with similar physiological profiles during training sessions may allow coaches to balance oppositions and reduce the variability of the physiological outcomes. PMID:25456252

  20. Measuring Student Performances and Performance Appraisals with the College Life Task Assessment Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Aaron M.

    1994-01-01

    The College Life Task Assessment Instrument (CLT), a 35-item questionnaire, assesses college student performance in 7 life-task domains important to college life. Reliability and Validity results demonstrate the CLT's ability to predict freshman and cumulative GPA, freshman and cumulative credits earned, academic, social, and personal-emotional…

  1. Enhancing performance in professional water polo players: dryland training, in-water training, and combined training.

    PubMed

    Sez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, G Gregory; Ramos Veliz, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    We compared the effects of 6 weeks of dryland, in-water-specific strength training and plyometric training combined with a water polo (WP) training program on 7 sport-specific performance parameters. Thirty professional players were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: combined training (CG), in-water-specific strength (WSG), and plyometrics (PG). The program included 3 weekly strength training sessions and 5 days of WP training per week for a total of 6 weeks during the preseason. The 10-m T-agility test, 20-m maximal sprint swim, maximal dynamic strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM], bench press [BP] and full squat [FS]), in-water boost, countermovement jump (CMJ) and throwing speed (ThS) were measured before and after the 6-week training period. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the tested variables before the initiation of the 6-week training period. After 6 weeks of training, significant improvements (p ? 0.001) were found in the PG group for the CMJ (6.1%) and in all groups for the in-water boost (4.4-5.1%) test. The 1RM BP (7.6-12.6%) and FS (11.5-14.6%) significantly (p ? 0.05) increased in all groups. Additionally, ThS significantly increased in all groups (11.4-17.5%), whereas the agility test was significantly decreased (-7.3%) in only the CG group. Combined, in-water-specific strength and plyometric training produced medium to large effects on most WP-specific performance parameters. Therefore, we propose preseason WP training should include a combined training program that contains dryland and in-water-specific strength and plyometric training to optimize the WP preparation for competition. PMID:25259469

  2. Performance Politics in Military Training Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzler, Hubert H., Jr.; Sansom, Robert G.

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses the phases and components of the IPISD (Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development), reviews three critical points (initial analysis, determining training objectives, criterion referenced test development), and provides recommendations to assist the performance technologist in playing the difficult roles of

  3. Characterizing “fibrofog”: Subjective appraisal, objective performance, and task-related brain activity during a working memory task

    PubMed Central

    Walitt, Brian; Čeko, Marta; Khatiwada, Manish; Gracely, John L.; Rayhan, Rakib; VanMeter, John W.; Gracely, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    The subjective experience of cognitive dysfunction (“fibrofog”) is common in fibromyalgia. This study investigated the relation between subjective appraisal of cognitive function, objective cognitive task performance, and brain activity during a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen fibromyalgia patients and 13 healthy pain-free controls completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ), a measure of self-perceived cognitive difficulties. Participants were evaluated for working memory performance using a modified N-back working memory task while undergoing Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements. Fibromyalgia patients and controls did not differ in working memory performance. Subjective appraisal of cognitive function was associated with better performance (accuracy) on the working memory task in healthy controls but not in fibromyalgia patients. In fibromyalgia patients, increased perceived cognitive difficulty was positively correlated with the severity of their symptoms. BOLD response during the working memory task did not differ between the groups. BOLD response correlated with task accuracy in control subjects but not in fibromyalgia patients. Increased subjective cognitive impairment correlated with decreased BOLD response in both groups but in different anatomic regions. In conclusion, “fibrofog” appears to be better characterized by subjective rather than objective impairment. Neurologic correlates of this subjective experience of impairment might be separate from those involved in the performance of cognitive tasks. PMID:26955513

  4. Graduate Medical Education Training in Clinical Epidemiology, Critical Appraisal, and Evidence-Based Medicine: A Critical Review of Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    A study systematically reviewed published literature on graduate medical-education curricula in clinical epidemiology, critical appraisal, and evidence-based medicine (EBM). The 18 reports found in the search provide useful guidelines for medical educators but many suffer from incomplete descriptions and inadequate curriculum evaluations.

  5. Tractor Trailer Driver's Training Programs. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Vocational Technical Coll., Nashua.

    This document describes a project to develop a 320-hour tractor trailer driver training program and a 20-hour commercial driver licensing upgrade training program. Of 34 graduates from the training program, 28 secured employment in the trucking industry. From August 1989 to June 1990, 725 students were trained in the upgrade training program with…

  6. Technical Safety Appraisal of the T-Building, Mound Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of one in a series of Technical Safety Appraisals of DOE's nuclear operations being conducted by the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health's Office of Nuclear Safety. This Technical Safety Appraisal of the T-Building tritium operations at the Mound Plant was conducted from October 19 to 23, and from November 2 to 13, 1987. The purpose of the Technical Safety Appraisal Program is to evaluate and strengthen DOE's nuclear operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial nuclear operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. The team's evaluation is guided by a set of pre-established Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 13 subject areas. These 13 areas are: organization and administration, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency readiness, technical support, security/safety interface, experimental activities, facility safety review, radiological protection, personnel protection, and fire protection.

  7. An Investigation of the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Career Development and Advancement of Mid-Level Women in Student Affairs Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corral, Christine R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the performance appraisal experience of 14 mid-level women in student affairs administration at four-year colleges and universities in Northern Illinois using a qualitative research approach involving personal interviews. Previous research on career development and advancement of mid-level women in student

  8. Game performance and intermittent hypoxic training

    PubMed Central

    Hinckson, E A; Hamlin, M J; Wood, M R; Hopkins, W G

    2007-01-01

    Live high?train low altitude exposure simulated by hypoxic devices may improve athletic performance. In this study, intermittent normobaric hypoxia was achieved with the GO2altitude hypoxicator to determine its effects on sea level performance in rugby players. Ten players were randomly assigned to two groups. Players in each group received 14 sessions of either hypoxic (1015% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) exposure at rest over 14 consecutive days in a single blind fashion. Various performance measures were obtained consecutively in a single testing session pre? and post?exposure. Effects of hypoxic exposure on maximum speed and sprint times were trivial (<1.0%) but unclear (90% likely range, 5% to 9%). In rugby simulation, hypoxic exposure produced impairments of peak power in two scrums (15%, 8%; 9%, 7%) and impairments of time in offensive sprints (7%, 8%) and tackle sprints (11%, 9%). Pending further research, rugby players would be unwise to use normobaric intermittent hypoxic exposure to prepare for games at sea level. PMID:17311807

  9. 5 CFR 412.202 - Systematic training and development of supervisors, managers, and executives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... employees; (2) Improve employee performance and productivity; (3) Conduct employee performance appraisals in accordance with agency appraisal systems; and (4) Identify and assist employees with unacceptable performance... perspective; (b) Provide training within one year of an employee's initial appointment to a...

  10. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  11. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management

  12. Making Connections between the Appraisal, Performance Management and Professional Development of Dentists and Teachers: "Right, What Are the Problems We've Got and How Could We Sort This Out?'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butt, Graham; Macnab, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the connections between the appraisal, or performance management, of different professional groups, and their subsequent uptake of continuing professional development (CPD), is valuable for both employees and managers. The linking of appraisal systems with professional/personal development plans amongst health professionals is now

  13. A Human Relations Approach to Custodial and Maintenance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Woodrow M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a training program for residence hall custodial and maintenance supervisors and staff which combines human relations and technical skills. The sessions dealt with communication skills, leadership strategies, performance appraisal, self-understanding, advancement, and fringe benefits. (JAC)

  14. Use of Martial Art Exercises in Performance Enhancement Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Tim; Anderson, Warren

    2002-01-01

    Details some of the many martial arts training techniques and their potential applications for inclusion in performance enhancement programs, focusing on the benefits of martial training, the arts continuum, and martial arts training modes. The article concludes that the various martial arts techniques provide a stimulating and intuitively

  15. Using Mental Computation Training to Improve Complex Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Allison S.; Kallai, Arava Y.; Schunn, Christian D.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical fluency is important for academic and mathematical success. Fluency training programs have typically focused on fostering retrieval, which leads to math performance that does not reliably transfer to non-trained problems. More recent studies have focused on training number understanding and representational precision, but few have

  16. Performance Errors in Weight Training and Their Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John H.; Lander, Jeffrey E.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses general performance errors in weight training, also discussing each category of error separately. The paper focuses on frequency and intensity, incorrect training velocities, full range of motion, and symmetrical training. It also examines specific errors related to the bench press, squat, military press, and bent- over and seated row

  17. Performance Errors in Weight Training and Their Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John H.; Lander, Jeffrey E.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses general performance errors in weight training, also discussing each category of error separately. The paper focuses on frequency and intensity, incorrect training velocities, full range of motion, and symmetrical training. It also examines specific errors related to the bench press, squat, military press, and bent- over and seated row…

  18. Using Mental Computation Training to Improve Complex Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Allison S.; Kallai, Arava Y.; Schunn, Christian D.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical fluency is important for academic and mathematical success. Fluency training programs have typically focused on fostering retrieval, which leads to math performance that does not reliably transfer to non-trained problems. More recent studies have focused on training number understanding and representational precision, but few have…

  19. Employee Post-Training Behaviour and Performance: Evaluating the Results of the Training Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantidis, Anastasios D.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that firms invest in training, there is considerable evidence to show that training programmes often fail to achieve the intended result of improving worker and organization performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the medium- to long-term effects of training programmes on firms by means of an integrated research model

  20. Employee Post-Training Behaviour and Performance: Evaluating the Results of the Training Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantidis, Anastasios D.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that firms invest in training, there is considerable evidence to show that training programmes often fail to achieve the intended result of improving worker and organization performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the medium- to long-term effects of training programmes on firms by means of an integrated research model…

  1. Can Visual Arts Training Improve Physician Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel T.; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts a subset of medical humanities into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

  2. Physiological and performance adaptations to high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) refers to exercise that is characterized by relatively short bursts of vigorous activity, interspersed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise for recovery. In untrained and recreationally active individuals, short-term HIIT is a potent stimulus to induce physiological remodeling similar to traditional endurance training despite a markedly lower total exercise volume and training time commitment. As little as six sessions of 'all-out' HIIT over 14 days, totaling ?15 min of intense cycle exercise within total training time commitment of ?2.5 h, is sufficient to enhance exercise capacity and improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. From an athletic standpoint, HIIT is also an effective strategy to improve performance when supplemented into the already high training volumes of well-trained endurance athletes, although the underlying mechanisms are likely different compared to less trained subjects. Most studies in this regard have examined the effect of replacing a portion (typically ?15-25%) of base/normal training with HIIT (usually 2-3 sessions per week for 4-8 weeks). It has been proposed that a polarized approach to training, in which ?75% of total training volume be performed at low intensities, with 10-15% performed at very high intensities may be the optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who compete in intense endurance events. PMID:23899754

  3. [Appraisal of Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steve

    This document consists of four separate handouts all related to the appraisal of audiovisual (AV) materials: "How to Work with an Appraiser of AV Media: A Convenient Check List for Clients and Their Advisors," helps a client prepare for an appraisal, explaining what is necessary before the appraisal, the appraisal process and its costs, the kind

  4. The Effects of Rhythm Training on Tennis Performance

    PubMed Central

    S?t, Mustafa; Kirazci, Sadettin; Korkusuz, Feza

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm training is an integral part of sports. The purposes of the study were to analyze the effects of rhythm training on tennis performance and rhytmic competence of tennis players, to compare the improvement levels of tennis specific and general rhythm training and to examine the effects of shorter and longer tempos on rhythmic competence. Thirty university students whose mean score of International Tennis Number (ITN) was 7.3 (0.9) were divided randomly into three sub-groups: Tennis Group, General Rhythm Training Group and Tennis-Specific Rhythm Training Group. The experimental procedure lasted 8 weeks. During this period, all groups had the same tennis training twice a week. The Tennis Group had regular tennis training sessions. In addition to regular tennis training sessions, the General Rhythm Training Group followed the general rhythm training sessions and the Tennis-Specific Rhythm Training Group had tennis-specific rhythm training. The measurement instruments were ITN, Rhythmic Competence Analysis Test and Untimed Consecutive Rally Test. The results indicated that participation in tennis-specific or general rhythm training resulted in progress in tennis playing levels, forehand consistency performance and rhythmic competence of the participants. On the other hand, attendance to the regular 8-week tennis training was enough to solely increase the tennis playing level but not sufficient to develop forehand consistency performance and rhythmic competence. Although the participants in the TRTG had better improvement scores than the ones in the GRTG, no significant difference was found between the rhythm training groups. The results also revealed that participants exhibited higher rhythmic competence scores on fast tempo compared to slow tempo. PMID:23486093

  5. Analyzing the Interaction of Performance Appraisal Factors Using Interpretive Structural Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    In today's changed environment where the economy and industry are driven by customers, business is open to worldwide competition. Manufacturing firms have looked at employee performance improvement as a means to succeed. These findings advocate setting up priorities for employee performance improvement. This requires a continuous improvement

  6. Using Findings from the Performance Appraisal Literature to Inform the Evaluation of Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Sara L.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research in the management literature have guided managers on how to effectively motivate their employees, increase the performance of their employees, and evaluate the performance of their employees. Many of these findings could be applied to higher education, both in research and in practice. More specifically, the findings on

  7. Analyzing the Interaction of Performance Appraisal Factors Using Interpretive Structural Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    In today's changed environment where the economy and industry are driven by customers, business is open to worldwide competition. Manufacturing firms have looked at employee performance improvement as a means to succeed. These findings advocate setting up priorities for employee performance improvement. This requires a continuous improvement…

  8. Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.

    1994-01-01

    This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an improvement over last year. In contrast, recognition and teamwork are the two major areas where improvement in supervisory performance seems to be most needed. The initial report card results will serve as a baseline against which future performance ratings will be compared. Once supervisors have been presented with their data and given an opportunity to analyze and discus the results, they will be assisted in developing an action plan for improving their performance and work processes. They will be provided with ongoing support from management in following through with the action plan.

  9. An appraisal of the 1992 preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.W.L.; Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.K.; Weiner, R.; Neill, R.H. |

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has reviewed the WIPP 1992 Performance Assessment (Sandia WIPP Performance Assessment Department, 1992). Although this performance assessment was released after the October 1992 passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (PL 102-579), the work preceded the Act. For individual and ground-water protection, calculations have been done for 1000 years post closure, whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191) issued in 1993 require calculations for 10,000 years. The 1992 Performance Assessment continues to assimilate improved understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site, and evolving conceptual models of natural barriers. Progress has been made towards assessing WIPP`s compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191). The 1992 Performance Assessment has addressed several items of major concern to EEG, outlined in the July 1992 review of the 1991 performance assessment (Neill et al., 1992). In particular, the authors are pleased that some key results in this performance assessment deal with sensitivity of the calculated complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) to alterative conceptual models proposed by EEG -- that flow in the Culebra be treated as single-porosity fracture-flow; with no sorption retardation unless substantiated by experimental data.

  10. Quiet eye training facilitates competitive putting performance in elite golfers.

    PubMed

    Vine, Samuel J; Moore, Lee J; Wilson, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief quiet eye (QE) training intervention aimed at optimizing visuomotor control and putting performance of elite golfers under pressure, and in real competition. Twenty-two elite golfers (mean handicap 2.7) recorded putting statistics over 10 rounds of competitive golf before attending training individually. Having been randomly assigned to either a QE training or Control group, participants were fitted with an Applied Science Laboratories Mobile Eye tracker and performed 20 baseline (pre-test) putts from 10?ft. Training consisted of video feedback of their gaze behavior while they completed 20 putts; however the QE-trained group received additional instructions related to maintaining a longer QE period. Participants then recorded their putting statistics over a further 10 competitive rounds and re-visited the laboratory for retention and pressure tests of their visuomotor control and putting performance. Overall, the results were supportive of the efficacy of the QE training intervention. QE duration predicted 43% of the variance in putting performance, underlying its critical role in the visuomotor control of putting. The QE-trained group maintained their optimal QE under pressure conditions, whereas the Control group experienced reductions in QE when anxious, with subsequent effects on performance. Although their performance was similar in the pre-test, the QE-trained group holed more putts and left the ball closer to the hole on missed putts than their Control group counterparts in the pressure test. Importantly, these advantages transferred to the golf course, where QE-trained golfers made 1.9 fewer putts per round, compared to pre-training, whereas the Control group showed no change in their putting statistics. These results reveal that QE training, incorporated into a pre-shot routine, is an effective intervention to help golfers maintain control when anxious. PMID:21713182

  11. Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Improves Motor and Dual-Task Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J.J.; Peters, B.T.; Mulavara, A.P.; Brady, R.; Batson, C.; Cohen, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of our project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The goal of our current study was to determine if SA training using variation in visual flow and support surface motion produces improved performance in a novel sensory environment and demonstrate the retention characteristics of SA training.

  12. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training

    PubMed Central

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments—enhancing their ability to “learn to learn.” We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:26441561

  13. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training.

    PubMed

    Bloomberg, Jacob J; Peters, Brian T; Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments-enhancing their ability to "learn to learn." We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:26441561

  14. Comparison of ISO standards for device performance; 20072 and 27427: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Nerbrink, Ola; Mitchell, Jolyon P

    2012-08-01

    Two separate international standards, ISO 20072:2009 and ISO 27427:2010, have recently been published that relate to the development and performance testing of oral inhaled products (OIPs). The scope of ISO 20072 encompasses all OIP forms except nebulizing systems, whereas ISO 27427 was developed specifically for this class of OIP. Compliance with these standards will likely be necessary for manufacturers seeking approval to market inhaler devices in the European Union (EU). Their adoption in the United States may take a considerable time, but the FDA has expressed support in general terms for the ISO process. Key aspects of both standards that are very different in style and content are identified and discussed from the perspective of a potential user. In the approach adopted by ISO 20072, a formalized risk assessment is undertaken as a key part of design verification, in order to develop the Device Functionality Profile (DFP) of the device. The DFP is subsequently verified by the System Verification Test (SVT), in which pharmacopeial test methods are used to evaluate in vitro performance of the device with a chosen drug product in a statistically robust manner. On the other hand, ISO 27427 adopts a more prescriptive approach that involves performance verification of the finished nebulizing system using 1% w/v salbutamol as the test formulation. Although ISO 27427 is currently undergoing revision, at present it is unclear whether the changes that are made will significantly alter its fundamentally different approach to device performance verification. A strong case can be made for a single OIP-wide ISO standard, based on the principles developed in ISO 20072 and that makes use of the well-understood and validated in vitro test procedures that are available or will shortly be available in the case of nebulizing systems, in the United States and European pharmacopeias. PMID:22857272

  15. Employee Appraisal System: A Supervisor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Personnel, St. Paul.

    The manual provides supervisors with both a reference as they assist employees in writing descriptions and developing performance indicators and with a guide for conducting performance appraisal interviews with employees. It contains the basic guidelines for the operation of the performance appraisal system, discussing such matters as how often

  16. CHANGES IN FLIGHT TRAINEE PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING SYNTHETIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A…

  17. Factors Influencing Preservice Teachers' End-of-Training Teaching Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablonski, Ann M.

    This study investigated components of preservice training likely to influence the development of expertise in teaching. The study examined whether perceived self-efficacy, cognitive skills for teaching, basic teaching skills, beginning training teacher performance, knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of teaching, teacher work environment, and…

  18. CHANGES IN FLIGHT TRAINEE PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING SYNTHETIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A

  19. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    PubMed

    Billaut, Franois; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes. PMID:22845561

  20. Military Applicability of Interval Training for Health and Performance.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J; Gagnon, Patrick J; Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    Militaries from around the globe have predominantly used endurance training as their primary mode of aerobic physical conditioning, with historical emphasis placed on the long distance run. In contrast to this traditional exercise approach to training, interval training is characterized by brief, intermittent bouts of intense exercise, separated by periods of lower intensity exercise or rest for recovery. Although hardly a novel concept, research over the past decade has shed new light on the potency of interval training to elicit physiological adaptations in a time-efficient manner. This work has largely focused on the benefits of low-volume interval training, which involves a relatively small total amount of exercise, as compared with the traditional high-volume approach to training historically favored by militaries. Studies that have directly compared interval and moderate-intensity continuous training have shown similar improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism, despite large differences in total exercise and training time commitment. Interval training can also be applied in a calisthenics manner to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, and this approach could easily be incorporated into a military conditioning environment. Although interval training can elicit physiological changes in men and women, the potential for sex-specific adaptations in the adaptive response to interval training warrants further investigation. Additional work is needed to clarify adaptations occurring over the longer term; however, interval training deserves consideration from a military applicability standpoint as a time-efficient training strategy to enhance soldier health and performance. There is value for military leaders in identifying strategies that reduce the time required for exercise, but nonetheless provide an effective training stimulus. PMID:26506197

  1. Performance appraisal of VAS radiometry for GOES-4, -5 and -6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, D.; Robinson, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The first three VISSR Atmospheric Sounders (VAS) were launched on GOES-4, -5, and -6 in 1980, 1981 and 1983. Postlaunch radiometric performance is assessed for noise, biases, registration and reliability, with special attention to calibration and problems in the data processing chain. The postlaunch performance of the VAS radiometer meets its prelaunch design specifications, particularly those related to image formation and noise reduction. The best instrument is carried on GOES-5, currently operational as GOES-EAST. Single sample noise is lower than expected, especially for the small longwave and large shortwave detectors. Detector to detector offsets are correctable to within the resolution limits of the instrument. Truncation, zero point and droop errors are insignificant. Absolute calibration errors, estimated from HIRS and from radiation transfer calculations, indicate moderate, but stable biases. Relative calibration errors from scanline to scanline are noticeable, but meet sounding requirements for temporarily and spatially averaged sounding fields of view. The VAS instrument is a potentially useful radiometer for mesoscale sounding operations. Image quality is very good. Soundings derived from quality controlled data meet prelaunch requirements when calculated with noise and bias resistant algorithms.

  2. Single and repeated dose comparison of three antihistamines and phenylpropanolamine: psychomotor performance and subjective appraisals of sleep.

    PubMed Central

    Seppl, T; Nuotto, E; Korttila, K

    1981-01-01

    1 In a double-blind cross-over study, nine healthy male students received placebo, brompheniramine 12 mg), carbinoxamine (12 mg), clemastine (1 mg), and phenylpropanolamine (50 mg) orally. Three doses of each drug were given: at 08.30 h and 21.00 h on the first day of treatment and at 08.30 h on the following day. 2 Psychomotor skills and subjective feelings were recorded before and 2, 6 and 12 h after the first dose on day 1 as well as before and 2 and 6 h after the third dose on day 2. Subjective appraisals of sleep were requested on the morning of day 2. 3 All antihistamines tended to cause subjective drowsiness on the first day of treatment. Drowsiness was felt for a maximum of 2 h after carbinoxamine, 6 h after brompheniramine, and 12 h after clemastine. In contrast to antihistamines, phenylpropanolamine made subjects more alert and quick witted. Tolerance to the antihistamine-induced drowsiness developed on the second day. 4 Divided attention, tracking, speed anticipation and sleep were not affected by any drug. Carbinoxamine slowed reactions 2 h after the first dose, but no impairment was measured in objective tests after brompheniramine or clemastine. 5 Phenylpropanolamine improved reaction speed and reaction accuracy and enhanced flicker recognition throughout the study. Phenylpropanolamine plasma levels and improvement in flicker fusion test results correlated with each other on day 2. 6 The results suggest that phenylpropanolamine and the antihistamines studied are comparatively harmless to psychomotor performance and driving skills. PMID:6118170

  3. Single and repeated dose comparison of three antihistamines and phenylpropanolamine: psychomotor performance and subjective appraisals of sleep.

    PubMed

    Seppl, T; Nuotto, E; Korttila, K

    1981-08-01

    1 In a double-blind cross-over study, nine healthy male students received placebo, brompheniramine 12 mg), carbinoxamine (12 mg), clemastine (1 mg), and phenylpropanolamine (50 mg) orally. Three doses of each drug were given: at 08.30 h and 21.00 h on the first day of treatment and at 08.30 h on the following day. 2 Psychomotor skills and subjective feelings were recorded before and 2, 6 and 12 h after the first dose on day 1 as well as before and 2 and 6 h after the third dose on day 2. Subjective appraisals of sleep were requested on the morning of day 2. 3 All antihistamines tended to cause subjective drowsiness on the first day of treatment. Drowsiness was felt for a maximum of 2 h after carbinoxamine, 6 h after brompheniramine, and 12 h after clemastine. In contrast to antihistamines, phenylpropanolamine made subjects more alert and quick witted. Tolerance to the antihistamine-induced drowsiness developed on the second day. 4 Divided attention, tracking, speed anticipation and sleep were not affected by any drug. Carbinoxamine slowed reactions 2 h after the first dose, but no impairment was measured in objective tests after brompheniramine or clemastine. 5 Phenylpropanolamine improved reaction speed and reaction accuracy and enhanced flicker recognition throughout the study. Phenylpropanolamine plasma levels and improvement in flicker fusion test results correlated with each other on day 2. 6 The results suggest that phenylpropanolamine and the antihistamines studied are comparatively harmless to psychomotor performance and driving skills. PMID:6118170

  4. Peformance Appraisal Behaviors: Supervisor Perceptions and Subordinate Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Peter W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined supervisor perceptions and subordinate reactions to formal performance-appraisal reviews. There were three dimensions of formal performance appraisals: two developmental (being supportive; emphasizing performance improvement) and one administrative (discussing pay and advancement). Support in appraisal review was associated with higher

  5. A School Improvement-Accountability Process Kit. PAK No. 4.5--Coaching and Appraising Staff Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. District Planning and Accountability Services.

    This Personalized Activity Kit presents a new dimension to staff evaluation. Staff appraisal becomes a procedure that promotes the human and professional growth of staff members. An alternative approach to implementing management by objectives in a large school system is also suggested. Finally, there is a summary of the management role, with

  6. Self-Appraisal of Physical Performance Capacity. Reports from the Institute of Applied Psychology, The University of Stockholm, No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Gunnar; And Others

    A method for self-appraisal of muscular strength and physical working capacity consisting of a simple 13-grade rating scale was applied in a study of the physical fitness of a group of 70 middle-aged men. The method functioned well as shown by the similarities in means and standard deviations between ratings and laboratory measurements of the

  7. Perceived training intensity and performance changes quantification in judo.

    PubMed

    Agostinho, Marcus F; Philippe, Antony G; Marcolino, Gilvan S; Pereira, Ewerton R; Busso, Thierry; Candau, Robin B; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the methods of quantification for training and performance, which would be the most appropriate for modeling the responses to long-term training in cadet and junior judo athletes. For this, 10 young male judo athletes (15.9 1.3 years, 64.9 10.3 kg, and 170.8 5.4 cm) competing at a regional/state level volunteered to take part in this study. Data were collected during a 2-year training period (i.e., 702 days) from January 2011 to December 2012. Their mean training volume was 6.52 0.43 hours per week during the preparatory periods and 4.75 0.49 hours per week during the competitive periods. They followed a training program prescribed by the same coach. The training load (TL) was quantified through the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and expressed in arbitrary unit (a.u.). Performance was quantified from 5 parameters and divided into 2 categories: performance in competition and performance in training. The evaluation of performance in competition was based on the number of points per level. Performance in training was assessed through 4 different tests. A physical test battery consisting of a standing long jump, 2 judo-specific tests that were the maximal number of dynamic chin-up holding the judogi, and the Special Judo Fitness Test was used. System modeling for describing training adaptations consisted of mathematically relating the TL of the training sessions (system input) to the change in performance (system output). The quality of the fit between TL and performance was similar, whether the TL was computed directly from RPE (R = 0.55 0.18) or from the session RPE (R = 0.56 0.18) and was significant in 8 athletes over 10, excluding the standing jump from the computation of the TL, leading to a simplest method. Thus, this study represents a first attempt to model TL effects on judo-specific performance and has shown that the best relationships between amounts of training and changes in performance were obtained when training amounts were quantified simply from RPE. PMID:25436630

  8. Performance appraisal of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as controlled low-strength material.

    PubMed

    Razak, Hashim Abdul; Naganathan, Sivakumar; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2009-12-30

    Controlled low-strength material (CLSM) is slurry made by mixing sand, cement, ash, and water. It is primarily used as a replacement for soil and structural fillings. This paper presents the findings of a preliminary investigation carried out on the performance of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as CLSM. CLSM mixes were designed using industrial waste incineration bottom ash, and cement. Tests for density, setting time, bleed, and compressive strength on cubes under various curing conditions, corrosivity, and leaching of heavy metals and salts were carried out on the CLSM mixtures, and the results discussed. Compressive strength for the designed CLSM mixtures ranged from 0.1 to 1.7 MPa. It is shown that the variations in curing conditions have less influence on the compressive strength of CLSM at high values of water to cement ratio (w/c), but low values of w/c influences the strength of CLSM. The CLSM produced does not exhibit corrosive characters as evidenced by pH. Leaching of heavy metals and salts is higher in bleed than in leachate collected from hardened CLSM. Cement reduces the leaching of Boron in bleed. It is concluded that there is good potential for the use of industrial waste incineration bottom ash in CLSM. PMID:19665294

  9. An appraisal of thoracic procedures performed in patients with HIV-positive serology.

    PubMed

    Canver, C C

    1995-08-01

    Patients who have contracted the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often require a diagnostic or therapeutic thoracic procedure. To determine the clinical benefits of a noncardiac pulmonary intervention in the treatment of HIV-positive individuals, 82 patients with HIV-positive serology who underwent a thoracic procedure for illnesses related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) between 1987 and 1990 were reviewed. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was the most common opportunistic infection and was the initial manifestation for establishing the HIV-positive serology in 54 patients (66%). Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 74 patients (90%), closed tube thoracostomy in 9 (11%), thoracentesis in 3 (4%), thoracostomy and lung resection in 2 (2.4%), pericardial window in 1 (1.2%), and tracheostomy in 1 (1.2%). The operation was useful in 46 patients (56%) and improved the clinical short-term outcome of 53 patients (64%). Nonfatal complications occurred in only two patients (2.4%). There were no deaths directly caused by the thoracic procedure within the first 30 days. However, overall 8 patients (10%ZZ) succumbed to infectious complications of AIDS. We conclude that thoracic procedures directed toward pulmonary opportunistic infections and their complications in HIV-positive patients are beneficial and may offer an improved short-term outcome. PMID:7593145

  10. An appraisal of the performance of the economic and financial crimes commission in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sowunmi, Fatai Abiola; Adesola, Muniru Adekunle; Salako, Mudashiru Abiodun

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how an anti-graft body, the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC), has fared in reducing the incidence of corruption in Nigeria, in particular, bank fraud, Internet scam, and bad governance. It first discusses the corruption situation in Nigeria by highlighting public office holders who have been associated with corruption charges. A Likert-type scale is used in designing the questionnaire for data collection. Descriptive and chi-square analyses are used, and results reveal that the performance of the EFCC has been affected by government interference (p < .05). However, although the anti-graft body has not been able to reduce the incidence of bank fraud (p > .05), bad governance and advance fee fraud have recorded appreciable reduction (p < .05). Areas of success as well as challenges that need to be addressed are identified. Specifically, it is recommended that the bill that established EFCC should be amended to reduce government interference and improve its manpower development, especially in the areas of fraud and Internet scam detection. PMID:19679650

  11. Factor Analysis of Aviation Training Measures and Post-Training Performance Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Richard F.; Berkshire, James R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate the factor structure of naval air training measures to the performance of Marine pilots in operational squadrons. Five post-training criteria were developed; four were Commanding Officer (C.O.) nominations of junior officers for hypothetical special assignments, and the fifth was a general

  12. Factor Analysis of Aviation Training Measures and Post-Training Performance Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Richard F.; Berkshire, James R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate the factor structure of naval air training measures to the performance of Marine pilots in operational squadrons. Five post-training criteria were developed; four were Commanding Officer (C.O.) nominations of junior officers for hypothetical special assignments, and the fifth was a general…

  13. Training Lessons Learned from Peak Performance Episodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fobes, James L.

    A major challenge confronting the United States Army is to obtain optimal performance from both its human and machine resources. This study examines episodes of peak performance in soldiers and athletes. Three cognitive components were found to enable episodes of peak performance: psychological readiness (activating optimal arousal and emotion

  14. Empirical Study of Training and Performance in the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Similar systematic relationships exist between personal characteristics, training, and performance on the marathon, regardless of whether they derive from differences among individuals participating in the same run or from differences within the same person in two separate marathons. (Author)

  15. Lessons Learned: 20 Keys to Successful Training and Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Dean R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to training and performance improvement, including practice required for skill learning; knowledge versus skills; core skills; competence; learning to learn; team orientation; enabling business results; interpersonal and conceptual skills; timing; focusing on priorities; organizational learning and management

  16. An Illustration of Evaluating Post-Training Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin E.

    1979-01-01

    This evaluation study illustrates several ways of measuring post-training job performance, a variety of measurement problems, and the impact of evaluation upon administrative decisions. Measurement problems are discussed in terms of six dimensions. (Author)

  17. Importance of eccentric actions in performance adaptations to resistance training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Miller, Bruce J.; Buchanan, Paul; Tesch, Per A.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of eccentric (ecc) muscle actions in resistance training for the maintenance of muscle strength and mass in hypogravity was investigated in experiments in which human subjects, divided into three groups, were asked to perform four-five sets of 6 to 12 repetitions (rep) per set of three leg press and leg extension exercises, 2 days each weeks for 19 weeks. One group, labeled 'con', performed each rep with only concentric (con) actions, while group con/ecc with performed each rep with only ecc actions; the third group, con/con, performed twice as many sets with only con actions. Control subjects did not train. It was found that resistance training wih both con and ecc actions induced greater increases in muscle strength than did training with only con actions.

  18. Appraisal and Performance Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlewood, David

    This document is a chapter in "The Principles and Practice of Educational Management," which aims to provide a systematic and analytical introduction to the study of educational management. The structure of the book reflects the main substantive areas of educational leadership and management, and most of the major themes are covered in the

  19. Teacher Appraisal and Its Outcomes in Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Khim Ong; Ang, Shi Yun Angela; Chong, Wei Ling; Hu, Wei Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the performance appraisal system used for primary school teachers in Singapore, and how those attributes affect satisfaction with the appraisal system, stress experienced with the appraisal system, attitudes towards performance bonus, job satisfaction and motivation, and perceived

  20. Evidence Report: Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Dempsey, Donna L.

    2016-01-01

    Substantial evidence supports the claim that inadequate training leads to performance errors. Barshi and Loukopoulos (2012) demonstrate that even a task as carefully developed and refined over many years as operating an aircraft can be significantly improved by a systematic analysis, followed by improved procedures and improved training (see also Loukopoulos, Dismukes, & Barshi, 2009a). Unfortunately, such a systematic analysis of training needs rarely occurs during the preliminary design phase, when modifications are most feasible. Training is often seen as a way to compensate for deficiencies in task and system design, which in turn increases the training load. As a result, task performance often suffers, and with it, the operators suffer and so does the mission. On the other hand, effective training can indeed compensate for such design deficiencies, and can even go beyond to compensate for failures of our imagination to anticipate all that might be needed when we send our crew members to go where no one else has gone before. Much of the research literature on training is motivated by current training practices aimed at current training needs. Although there is some experience with operations in extreme environments on Earth, there is no experience with long-duration space missions where crews must practice semi-autonomous operations, where ground support must accommodate significant communication delays, and where so little is known about the environment. Thus, we must develop robust methodologies and tools to prepare our crews for the unknown. The research necessary to support such an endeavor does not currently exist, but existing research does reveal general challenges that are relevant to long-duration, high-autonomy missions. The evidence presented here describes issues related to the risk of performance errors due to training deficiencies. Contributing factors regarding training deficiencies may pertain to organizational process and training programs for spaceflight, such as when training programs are inadequate or unavailable. Furthermore, failure to match between tasks on the one hand, and learning and memory abilities on the other hand is a contributing factor, especially when individuals' relative efficiency with which new information is acquired, and adjustments made in behavior or thinking, are inconsistent with mission demands. Thus, if training deficiencies are present, the likelihood of errors or of the inability to successfully complete a task increases. What's more, the overall risk to the crew, the vehicle, and the mission increases.

  1. Training Content and Potential Impact on Performance: A Comparison of Young Male and Female Endurance-Trained Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training

  2. The influence of agility training on physiological and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Lennemann, Lynette M; Sidrow, Kathryn M; Johnson, Erica M; Harrison, Catherine R; Vojta, Christopher N; Walker, Thomas B

    2013-12-01

    Agility training (AT) has recently been instituted in several military communities in hopes of improving combat performance and general fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine how substituting AT for traditional military physical training (PT) influences physical and cognitive performance. Forty-one subjects undergoing military technical training were divided randomly into 2 groups for 6 weeks of training. One group participated in standard military PT consisting of calisthenics and running. A second group duplicated the amount of exercise of the first group but used AT as their primary mode of training. Before and after training, subjects completed a physical and cognitive battery of tests including V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, reaction time, Illinois Agility Test, body composition, visual vigilance, dichotic listening, and working memory tests. There were significant improvements within the AT group in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Illinois Agility Test, visual vigilance, and continuous memory. There was a significant increase in time-to-exhaustion for the traditional group. We conclude that AT is as effective or more effective as PT in enhancing physical fitness. Further, it is potentially more effective than PT in enhancing specific measures of physical and cognitive performance, such as physical agility, memory, and vigilance. Consequently, we suggest that AT be incorporated into existing military PT programs as a way to improve war-fighter performance. Further, it seems likely that the benefits of AT observed here occur in various other populations. PMID:23442271

  3. Diagnostic Performance 1 H after Simulation Training Predicts Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consoli, Anna; Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene; Sobczak, Matthew; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Although simulation training improves post-training performance, it is unclear how well performance soon after simulation training predicts longer term outcomes (i.e., learning). Here our objective was to assess the predictive value of performance 1 h post-training of performance 6 weeks later. We trained 84 first year medical students a simulated…

  4. Performance Measurement in Helicopter Training and Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prophet, Wallace W.

    For almost 15 years, HumRRO Division No. 6 has conducted an active research program on techniques for measuring the flight performance of helicopter trainees and pilots. This program addressed both the elemental aspects of flying (i.e., maneuvers) and the mission- or goal-oriented aspects. A variety of approaches has been investigated, with the…

  5. Does Musical Training Improve School Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetter, Olive Emil; Koerner, Fritz; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    In a retrospective study, we compared school performance of 53 children practicing music (group 1) with 67 controls not practicing music (group 2). Overall average marks as well as average marks of all school subjects except sports were significantly higher in children who do (group 1) than in those who do not practice music (group 2). In a

  6. Does Musical Training Improve School Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetter, Olive Emil; Koerner, Fritz; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    In a retrospective study, we compared school performance of 53 children practicing music (group 1) with 67 controls not practicing music (group 2). Overall average marks as well as average marks of all school subjects except sports were significantly higher in children who do (group 1) than in those who do not practice music (group 2). In a…

  7. Medical student training in the performance of diagnostic laboratory procedures.

    PubMed

    Olesinski, R L; Coulson, L R; Yonke, A M

    1986-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine what diagnostic laboratory procedures medical students recalled being taught during pre-clerkship training, how well they felt they could perform these procedures on entrance to and exit from their clerkship year, and the estimate of frequency of personal performance during the clerkship year. Surveys were mailed to 223 graduating senior students of a medical school. They were asked to supply data regarding 15 pre-selected procedures. In only seven cases did a majority of students recall being taught a procedure. Higher percentages of students who trained at health science centres and a Veterans Administration hospital recalled being taught procedures compared to students who trained at community hospitals. In general, students who performed their pre-clerkship training at the health science centres rated their ability to perform procedures without assistance on entrance to the clerkship year higher than the other two groups. Students who performed at least one half of their clerkships at a health science centre rated their ability to perform procedures without assistance at the termination of their clerkship year higher than those who performed a majority of clerkships at community hospitals. The former group also reported a higher frequency of performance of the procedures than the community hospital group. Most of the procedures for all groups, however, were performed at a rate of less than one/month. PMID:3724577

  8. Reviewing car fleet performance after advanced driver training.

    PubMed

    Boorman, S

    1999-11-01

    Following a review of car fleet performance information, the high cost of accidents in a small fleet was highlighted. Measures were introduced, including advanced driver training and fleet performance followed-up. Significant improvements in accident rates, with reduced costs were recorded. The savings achieved outweighed the expenditure on the measures introduced. PMID:10658311

  9. Performance determined instruction for training in remedial reading1

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Burl B.; Baker, Richard D.; Stancyk, Susan E.

    1969-01-01

    A system called Performance Determined Instruction (PDI) is presented as a methodological tactic for training in remedial reading. The system incorporates aspects of binary logic, instrumental conditioning, and programmed instruction. Results suggest that PDI is a high-precision instructional procedure effective in obtaining desired changes in reading-task performance. PMID:16795229

  10. Using Importance-Performance Analysis to Evaluate Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniscalchi, Jason M.; Beale, Edward K.; Fortuna, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The importance-performance analysis (IPA) is a tool that can provide timely and usable feedback to improve training. IPA measures the gaps between the importance and how good (performance) a class is perceived by a student and is presented on a 2x2 matrix. The quadrant in which data land in this matrix aids in determining potential future action.

  11. Using Importance-Performance Analysis to Evaluate Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniscalchi, Jason M.; Beale, Edward K.; Fortuna, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The importance-performance analysis (IPA) is a tool that can provide timely and usable feedback to improve training. IPA measures the gaps between the importance and how good (performance) a class is perceived by a student and is presented on a 2x2 matrix. The quadrant in which data land in this matrix aids in determining potential future action.…

  12. Correlating Trainee Attributes to Performance in 3D CAD Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamade, Ramsey F.; Artail, Hassan A.; Sikstrom, Sverker

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify trainee attributes relevant for development of skills in 3D computer-aided design (CAD). Design/methodology/approach: Participants were trained to perform cognitive tasks of comparable complexity over time. Performance data were collected on the time needed to construct test models, and

  13. Scapular-Muscle Performance: Two Training Programs in Adolescent Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Van de Velde, Annemie; De Mey, Kristof; Maenhout, Annelies; Calders, Patrick; Cools, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Swimming requires well-balanced scapular-muscle performance. An additional strength-training program for the shoulders is pursued by swimmers, but whether these muscle-training programs need to be generic or specific for endurance or strength is unknown. Objective: To evaluate isokinetic scapular-muscle performance in a population of adolescent swimmers and to compare the results of training programs designed for strength or muscle endurance. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University human research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen adolescent swimmers. Intervention(s): Each participant pursued a 12-week scapular-training program designed to improve either muscle strength or muscle endurance. Main Outcome Measure(s): Bilateral peak force, fatigue index, and protraction/retraction strength ratios before and after the scapular-training program. Results: Scapular protraction/retraction ratios were slightly higher than 1 (dominant side  =  1.08, nondominant side  =  1.25, P  =  .006). Side-to-side differences in retraction strength were apparent both before and after the training program (P  =  .03 and P  = .05, respectively). After the training program, maximal protraction (P < .05) and retraction (P < .01) strength improved on the nondominant side. Peak force and fatigue index were not different between the training groups. The fatigue indexes for protraction on both sides (P < .05) and retraction on the nondominant side (P  =  .009) were higher after the training program. Conclusions: We describe the scapular-muscle characteristics of a group of adolescent swimmers. Both muscle-strength and muscle-endurance programs improved absolute muscle strength. Neither of the strength programs had a positive effect on scapular-muscle endurance. Our results may be valuable for coaches and physiotherapists when they are designing exercise programs for swimmers. PMID:21391801

  14. Effect of movement velocity during resistance training on neuromuscular performance.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Blanco, F; Rodrguez-Rosell, D; Snchez-Medina, L; Gorostiaga, E M; Gonzlez-Badillo, J J

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect on neuromuscular performance of 2 isoinertial resistance training programs that differed only in actual repetition velocity: maximal intended (MaxV) vs. half-maximal (HalfV) concentric velocity. 21 resistance-trained young men were randomly assigned to a MaxV (n=10) or HalfV (n=11) group and trained for 6 weeks using the full squat exercise. A complementary study (n=8) described the acute metabolic and mechanical response to the protocols used. MaxV training resulted in a likely more beneficial effect than HalfV on squat performance: maximum strength (ES: 0.94 vs. 0.54), velocity developed against all (ES: 1.76 vs. 0.88), light (ES: 1.76 vs. 0.75) and heavy (ES: 2.03 vs. 1.64) loads common to pre- and post-tests, and CMJ height (ES: 0.63 vs. 0.15). The effect on 20-m sprint was unclear, however. Both groups attained the greatest improvements in squat performance at their training velocities. Movement velocity seemed to be of greater importance than time under tension for inducing strength adaptations. Slightly higher metabolic stress (blood lactate and ammonia) and CMJ height loss were found for MaxV vs. HalfV, while metabolite levels were low to moderate for both conditions. MaxV may provide a superior stimulus for inducing adaptations directed towards improving athletic performance. PMID:24886926

  15. Anthropometric correlates with strength performance among resistance trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J L; Piper, F C; Ware, J S

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected anthropometric dimensions and strength performance in resistance trained athletes. Fifty-eight college football players were measured following the completion of a 10-week resistance training program for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lifts in the bench press, squat, and dead lift and for 11 anthropometric dimensions. Results indicated that the highest relationships existed between estimates of regional muscle mass (arm circumference, arm muscle cross-sectional area, and thigh circumference) and lifting performance. Multiple regression analysis selected arm size and %fat as variables common to the prediction of all three lifts. The fewer joints and muscle groups involved in a lift, the greater the predictive accuracy from structural dimensions. It was concluded that body structure and conformation make significant contributions to maximum strength performance in highly trained strength athletes. PMID:8412051

  16. Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train features and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, R.; Benitez, P.; Zamora, P.; Miñano, J. C.; Mendes, J.; Cvetkovic, A.; Vilaplana, J.; Hernandez, M.; Chaves, J.; Biot, G.

    2013-09-01

    Most CPV systems are based on Fresnel lenses. Among these, LPI-patented Fresnel-Köhler (FK) concentrator outstands owing to performance and practical reasons. The Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train is the first off-the-shelf commercial product based on the FK and comprises both the primary (POE) lenses (a 36-units 1×1 m2 acrylic panel) and glass (or silica glass) secondary optics (SOE). This high concentration optical train (Cg=1,024×, ˜250mm optical depth) fits with 5×5 mm2 (at least) solar cells. The optical train is the fruit of a 1-year development that has included design, modeling, prototyping and characterization, and through the process we had the opportunity to find out how well the actual performance correlates with models, but also learned practical aspects of a CPV system of this kind, some of which have very positive impact on system performance and reliability.

  17. Evidence Report: Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2012-01-01

    The Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. Given that training content, timing, intervals, and delivery methods must support crew task performance, and given that training paradigms will be different for long-duration missions with increased crew autonomy, there is a risk that operators will lack the skills or knowledge necessary to complete critical tasks, resulting in flight and ground crew errors and inefficiencies, failed mission and program objectives, and an increase in crew injuries.

  18. The effect of periodized resistance training on accelerative sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Moir, Gavin; Sanders, Ross; Button, Chris; Glaister, Mark

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of periodized resistance training on accelerative sprint performance. Sixteen physically active men participated in a randomized controlled study. An experimental group (n = 10) completed an 8-week periodized resistance training intervention, while a control group (n = 6) did not train. Pre- and post-training measures of 20-m straight-line sprint time, including a 10-m split, maximum strength, and explosive strength, were recorded. Flight time, stance time, stride length, and stride frequency were quantified from digitized video recordings of the first three strides of the 20-m sprint. Resistance training resulted in significant increases in maximum strength (parallel back squat: 19%) and explosive strength (6-10%). However, both groups increased 0-10 m sprint times (experimental group = 6%; control group = 3%) while 10-20m times were reduced (experimental group = 7%; control group = 4%), highlighting the mechanical differences between the distinct sprint phases. The change during the 0-10m interval was accompanied by a reduction in stride frequency during the first three strides. Strength coaches should be aware that the potential benefits of increased muscular strength during short sprints are likely to be affected by mechanical specificity and that improvements in sprinting performance may not occur immediately after a period of resistance training. PMID:17933193

  19. Assessing the impact of training on staff performance.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This pretested document was prepared as a management and reference tool for a world-wide audience of family planning (FP) policy-makers, program managers, service managers, and trainers. The report describes a training impact evaluation (TIE) process that helps managers identify and strengthen the links between training and staff performance. Introductory information deals with understanding training evaluation, the various types of training evaluation, and conducting a TIE. The following steps of the TIE process are then described: 1) identifying job performance issues (defining key job-related tasks and choosing indicators/setting standards); 2) collecting data (evaluation techniques and instruments, how to design an effective evaluation instrument, sample definition, and how to plan and organize the data collection process); 3) analyzing the data (tabulation, aggregation, cross-tabulation, and disaggregation); 4) interpreting the data (using a decision-tree); 5) reporting the findings (developing a written report and making an oral presentation); and 6) making changes (responsibilities for acting on recommendations, handling resistance to change, agreeing on a new or revised training course and/or changing organizational procedures or systems, and clarifying expectations for a training event). An example is provided of the process and results of a TIE conducted in the Central Asian Republics. The report ends with a discussion of ways to continue the TIE process, the comments of reviewers about various aspects of the process, and a checklist to use when making a TIE. PMID:12292100

  20. The effects of tapering on strength performance in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Gibala, M J; MacDougall, J D; Sale, D G

    1994-11-01

    The optimum pre-competition taper procedure for "strength athletes" is not known. We examined voluntary strength and evoked contractile properties of the elbow flexors over a 10 day rest only (ROT) and a 10 day reduced volume taper (RVT) in 8 resistance trained males (23 +/- 2.1 years). Following 3 wks of standardized training of the elbow flexors, subjects were randomly assigned to one of the tapers. Upon completion, they resumed training for 3 wks and completed the other taper. No arm training was performed during the ROT, while high intensity, low volume training was done every second day during the RVT. Maximum isometric (MVC), low (0.52 rad.s-1; LV) and high velocity (3.14 rad.s-1; HV) concentric peak torque, and evoked isometric twitch contractile properties were measured before and after each training phase and every 48 h during each taper. ANOVA comparison of the tapers revealed that MVC increased (p < or = 0.05) over pre-taper values throughout the RVT (measurement days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10), as did LV at 2, 4, 6, and 8 d. MVC did not change over the ROT but LV was significantly higher on day 2 and lower on days 8 and 10. LV was also greater on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 during the RVT compared to the ROT. The evoked contractile properties remained largely unchanged. The data indicate that resistance-trained athletes can improve low velocity concentric strength for at least 8 days by greatly reducing training volume, but maintaining training intensity. PMID:7890463

  1. The 10-20-30 training concept improves performance and health profile in moderately trained runners.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, T P; Bangsbo, J

    2012-07-01

    The effect of an alteration from regular endurance to interval (10-20-30) training on the health profile, muscular adaptations, maximum oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), and performance of runners was examined. Eighteen moderately trained individuals (6 females and 12 males; Vo(2max): 52.2 1.5 mlkg(-1)min(-1)) (means SE) were divided into a high-intensity training (10-20-30; 3 women and 7 men) and a control (CON; 3 women and 5 men) group. For a 7-wk intervention period the 10-20-30 replaced all training sessions with 10-20-30 training consisting of low-, moderate-, and high-speed running (<30%, <60%, and >90% of maximal intensity) for 30, 20, and 10 s, respectively, in three or four 5-min intervals interspersed by 2 min of recovery, reducing training volume by 54% (14.0 0.9 vs. 30.4 2.3 km/wk) while CON continued the normal training. After the intervention period Vo(2max) in 10-20-30 was 4% higher, and performance in a 1,500-m and a 5-km run improved (P < 0.05) by 21 and 48 s, respectively. In 10-20-30, systolic blood pressure was reduced (P < 0.05) by 5 2 mmHg, and total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was lowered (P < 0.05) by 0.5 0.2 and 0.4 0.1 mmol/l, respectively. No alterations were observed in CON. Muscle membrane proteins and enzyme activity did not change in either of the groups. The present study shows that interval training with short 10-s near-maximal bouts can improve performance and Vo(2max) despite a ?50% reduction in training volume. In addition, the 10-20-30 training regime lowers resting systolic blood pressure and blood cholesterol, suggesting a beneficial effect on the health profile of already trained individuals. PMID:22556401

  2. Training and cockpit design to promote expert performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.

    1991-01-01

    The behavior of expert pilots in familiar situations is explored and the implications for better training programs and cockpit designs are stated. Experts in familiar operational situations performing highly practiced tasks are said to recognize and respond to complex situations using pattern recognition or intuition. For some tasks this class of behaviors is desirable; performance can be improved by reducing cognitive load and increasing speed and accuracy. Part-task training, training for monitoring and techniques for the transfer of knowledge can facilitate the development of these skills. Methods for promoting pattern recognition through pilot-aircraft interface design include the use of spatial presentations of information and providing triggering events. In some instances, the familiar, well-practiced behavior is not appropriate and it is desirable to prevent the response. When prevention is necessary, barriers can be constructed in the interface to remind the pilot of the inappropriateness of the response.

  3. Training Needs for High Performance in the Automotive Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyne, Barry; And Others

    A project was conducted in Australia to identify the training needs of the emerging industry required to support the development of the high performance areas of the automotive machining and reconditioning field especially as it pertained to auto racing. Data were gathered through a literature search, interviews with experts in the field, and

  4. Using Performance Indicators to Evaluate Training Effectiveness: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wreathall, John; Connelly, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes several approaches to the development of performance indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of safety training in the nuclear power industry. A rationale is presented for a method of generating measures of effectiveness that uses criteria developed by several experts with different viewpoints, and the benefits of this method are

  5. Computer-Aided Performance Training for Diagnostic and Procedural Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigney, Joseph W.; And Others

    Two computer programs for computer-assisted performance training were developed to give the students the opportunity for concentrated practice of troubleshooting and procedural tasks in naval electronics. In contrast to the usual approach taken in computer-assisted instruction (CAI), these programs simulate essential aspects of devices and tasks

  6. Visuospatial Ability Factors and Performance Variables in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus complexity, in their emphasis on identifying

  7. Training for Template Creation: A Performance Improvement Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There are three purposes to this article: first, to offer a training approach to employee learning and performance improvement that makes use of a step-by-step process of skill/knowledge creation. The process offers follow-up opportunities for skill maintenance and improvement; second, to explain the conceptual bases of the approach; and

  8. Business Models for Training and Performance Improvement Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul

    2004-01-01

    Although typically applied to entire enterprises, the concept of business models applies to training and performance improvement groups. Business models are "the method by which firm[s] build and use [their] resources to offer.. value." Business models affect the types of projects, services offered, skills required, business processes, and type of

  9. Individual Training, Performance Improvement, and the Future for Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Human competence is a vital element for any organization that expects to survive and then thrive. Developing individual performance ability is necessary but not sufficient because trained people alone will not make an organization successful. We must determine what people should deliver and why it should be delivered in order to add measurable

  10. Task Analysis for Job Performance Aids and Related Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John P., Jr.

    This paper presents several aspects of task analyses for maintenance jobs when these analyses are used as bases for the development of Job Performance Aids (JPAs) and job oriented training. It starts with a brief history of the development of task analysis technology and the part that Air Force research has played in this development. The fact

  11. Individual Training, Performance Improvement, and the Future for Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Human competence is a vital element for any organization that expects to survive and then thrive. Developing individual performance ability is necessary but not sufficient because trained people alone will not make an organization successful. We must determine what people should deliver and why it should be delivered in order to add measurable…

  12. Business Models for Training and Performance Improvement Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul

    2004-01-01

    Although typically applied to entire enterprises, the concept of business models applies to training and performance improvement groups. Business models are "the method by which firm[s] build and use [their] resources to offer.. value." Business models affect the types of projects, services offered, skills required, business processes, and type of…

  13. Training for Template Creation: A Performance Improvement Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There are three purposes to this article: first, to offer a training approach to employee learning and performance improvement that makes use of a step-by-step process of skill/knowledge creation. The process offers follow-up opportunities for skill maintenance and improvement; second, to explain the conceptual bases of the approach; and…

  14. The Effects of Training on Resident Assistant Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joseph L.; Snider, Brian R.; Midkiff, Robert M., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the relationship between resident assistant (R.A.) training and improvement of job performance. Results indicate that while even short-term interventions can bring about favorable outcomes in R.A.s' behavior on the job, these benefits may be limited to the promotion of sound work practices, as opposed to the elimination of problematic…

  15. Performance Improvement: Applying a Human Performance Model to Organizational Processes in a Military Training Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaberg, Wayne; Thompson, Carla J.; West, Haywood V.; Swiergosz, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a description and the results of a study that utilized the human performance (HP) model and methods to explore and analyze a training organization. The systemic and systematic practices of the HP model are applicable to military training organizations as well as civilian organizations. Implications of the study for future

  16. Performance Improvement: Applying a Human Performance Model to Organizational Processes in a Military Training Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaberg, Wayne; Thompson, Carla J.; West, Haywood V.; Swiergosz, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a description and the results of a study that utilized the human performance (HP) model and methods to explore and analyze a training organization. The systemic and systematic practices of the HP model are applicable to military training organizations as well as civilian organizations. Implications of the study for future…

  17. Vibration or balance training on neuromuscular performance in osteopenic women.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, N; Belavý, D L; Rawer, R; Felsenberg, D

    2013-11-01

    Maintaining neuromuscular function in older age is an important topic for aging societies, especially for older women with low bone density who may be at risk of falls and bone fracture. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of resistive exercise with either whole-body vibration training (VIB) or coordination/balance training (BAL) on neuromuscular function (countermovement jump, multiple 1-leg hopping, sit-to-stand test). 68 postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis were recruited for the study. 57 subjects completed the 9-month, twice weekly, intervention period. All subjects conducted 30 min of resistance exercise each training day. The VIB-group performed additional training on the Galileo vibration exercise device. The BAL-group performed balance training. An "intent-to-treat" analysis showed greater improvement in the VIB-group for peak countermovement power (p=0.004). The mean [95% confidence interval] effect size for this parameter was a  + 0.9[0.3 to 1.5] W/kg greater change in VIB than BAL after 9 months. In multiple 1-leg hopping, a significantly better performance in the VIB-group after the intervention period was seen on a "per-protocol" analysis only. Both groups improved in the sit-to-stand test. The current study provides evidence that short-duration whole-body vibration exercise can have a greater impact on some aspects of neuromuscular function in post-menopausal women with low bone density than proprioceptive training. PMID:23549694

  18. Training Content and Potential Impact on Performance: A Comparison of Young Male and Female Endurance-Trained Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training…

  19. Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

  20. Development, Field Test, and Refinement of Performance Training Programs in Armor Advanced Individual Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Douglas L.; Taylor, John E.

    Performance-oriented instruction was developed, field tested, and refined in two Advanced Individual Training (AIT) programs--Armor Reconnaissance Specialist (MOS 11D) and Armor Crewman (MOS 11E). Tasks for both MOS (Military Occupational Specialty) were inventoried and the inventories were reduced by eliminating those tasks which are not required

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of training strategies: performance goals and testing.

    PubMed

    Foshay, Wellesley R; Tinkey, Peggy T

    2007-01-01

    The Public Health Service policy, Animal Welfare Act regulations, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals all require that institutions provide training for personnel engaged in animal research. Most research facilities have developed training programs to meet these requirements but may not have developed ways of assessing the effectiveness of these programs. Omission of this critical activity often leads to training that is ineffective, inefficient, or unnecessary. Evaluating the effectiveness of biomedical research and animal care training should involve a combination of assessments of performance, competence and knowledge, and appropriate tests for each type of knowledge, used at appropriate time intervals. In this article, the hierarchical relationship between performance, competence, and knowledge is described. The discussion of cognitive and psychomotor knowledge includes the important distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge. Measurement of performance is described and can include a variety of indirect and direct measurement techniques. Each measurement option has its own profile of strengths and weaknesses in terms of measurement validity, reliability, and costs of development and delivery. It is important to understand the tradeoffs associated with each measurement option, and to make appropriate choices of measurement strategy based on these tradeoffs arrayed against considerations of frequency, criticality, difficulty of learning, logistics, and budget. The article concludes with an example of how these measurement strategies can be combined into a cost-effective assessment plan for a biomedical research facility. PMID:17420536

  2. Increasing mathematical problem-solving performance through relaxation training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, Amykay

    2000-04-01

    Two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in the same general education mathematics course were each administered the IPSP Mathematics Problem Solving Test and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. Both groups experienced the same syllabus, lectures, course requirements, and assessment techniques; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5 to 7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which had received relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher mathematics performance at the end of the course. The results suggest that relaxation training may be a useful tool for treating anxiety in undergraduate general education mathematics students.

  3. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of preclinical studies: why perform them and how to appraise them critically

    PubMed Central

    Sena, Emily S; Currie, Gillian L; McCann, Sarah K; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W

    2014-01-01

    The use of systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical studies has become more common, including those of studies describing the modeling of cerebrovascular diseases. Empirical evidence suggests that too many preclinical experiments lack methodological rigor, and this leads to inflated treatment effects. The aim of this review is to describe the concepts of systematic review and meta-analysis and consider how these tools may be used to provide empirical evidence to spur the field to improve the rigor of the conduct and reporting of preclinical research akin to their use in improving the conduct and reporting of randomized controlled trials in clinical research. As with other research domains, systematic reviews are subject to bias. Therefore, we have also suggested guidance for their conduct, reporting, and critical appraisal. PMID:24549183

  4. Board & Supt. Share Appraisal Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaub, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    Although some board members and superintendents may consider superintendent evaluation as potentially disturbing for their working relationships, such evaluations may become more appealing when considered as part of a broader system of school governance and management. What is needed is a performance appraisal system developed jointly by

  5. Maximizing Cochlear Implant Patients’ Performance with Advanced Speech Training Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in implant technology and speech processing have provided great benefit to many cochlear implant patients. However, some patients receive little benefit from the latest technology, even after many years’ experience with the device. Moreover, even the best cochlear implant performers have great difficulty understanding speech in background noise, and music perception and appreciation remain major challenges. Recent studies have shown that targeted auditory training can significantly improve cochlear implant patients’ speech recognition performance. Such benefits are not only observed in poorly performing patients, but also in good performers under difficult listening conditions (e.g., speech noise, telephone speech, music, etc.). Targeted auditory training has also been shown to enhance performance gains provided by new implant devices and/or speech processing strategies. These studies suggest that cochlear implantation alone may not fully meet the needs of many patients, and that additional auditory rehabilitation may be needed to maximize the benefits of the implant device. Continuing research will aid in the development of efficient and effective training protocols and materials, thereby minimizing the costs (in terms of time, effort and resources) associated with auditory rehabilitation while maximizing the benefits of cochlear implantation for all recipients. PMID:18295992

  6. Guidelines for evaluation of nuclear facility training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document establishes a single set of objectives and criteria for the evaluation of training programs developed to meet requirements of DOE Orders 5480.18A and 5480.20, and other directives that address training and qualification. The evaluation includes appraisals, surveillances, audits, reviews, assessments, and other activities intended to evaluate training. The standard is intended to assist personnel in performing evaluations of training and qualification programs.

  7. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 16, Environmental appraisal and surveillance program. Draft revision

    SciTech Connect

    Amobi, C.

    1993-11-10

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) environmental-appraisal/surveillance program is designed to monitor environmental performance and to ensure that regulatory requirements are met. The appraisal/surveillance program is a two-tiered system which consists of external and internal appraisals and surveillances. External appraisals/surveillances are conducted by organizations not reporting to SRS management. The internal appraisals/surveillances are conducted by site organizations referred to as organizations. External appraisals include Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) regulatory appraisals, DOE-SR and DOE-HQ appraisals, and operating contractor reviews. These appraisals are the result of regulatory requirements, DOE orders, or operating contractor policies. The Environmental Protection Department (EPD) leads the coordination, planning, and scheduling support. The internal appraisal program consists of three types; management appraisals, program appraisals, and facility appraisals. All organizations developed and implemented a formal facility-appraisal program in February 1989. The first facility appraisal was completed during FY 89. To ensure consistency between departments, the SRS environmental appraisal procedure was completed in December 1988. EPD conducts both the management and program appraisals.

  8. Motor imagery training improves upper extremity performance in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate whether motor imagery training has a positive influence on upper extremity performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: motor imagery (n = 12) or control (n = 12). Over the course of 4 weeks, the motor imagery group participated in 30 minutes of motor imagery training on each of the 18 tasks (9 hours total) related to their daily living activities. After the 4-week intervention period, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity outcomes and Wolf Motor Function Test outcomes were compared. [Results] The post-test score of the motor imagery group on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity outcomes was significantly higher than that of the control group. In particular, the shoulder and wrist sub-items demonstrated improvement in the motor imagery group. [Conclusion] Motor imagery training has a positive influence on upper extremity performance by improving functional mobility during stroke rehabilitation. These results suggest that motor imagery training is feasible and beneficial for improving upper extremity function in stroke patients. PMID:26311968

  9. Technical safety appraisal of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    On June 27, 1989, Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, US Navy (Retired), announced a 10-point initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES&H) programs and waste management operations in the Department of Energy (DOE). One of the initiatives involved conducting independent Tiger Team Assessments (TTA) at DOE operating facilities. A TTA of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was performed during June and July 1991. Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were conducted in conjunction with the TTA as its Safety and Health portion. However, because of operational constraints the the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), operated for the DOE by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), was not included in the Safety and Health Subteam assessment at that time. This TSA, conducted April 12 - May 8, 1992, was performed by the DOE Office of Performance Assessment to complete the normal scope of the Safety and Health portion of the Tiger Team Assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of TSAs is to evaluate and strengthen DOE operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. A total of 139 Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 19 subject areas. These 19 areas are: organization and administration, quality verification, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency preparedness, technical support, packaging and transportation, nuclear criticality safety, safety/security interface, experimental activities, site/facility safety review, radiological protection, worker safety and health compliance, personnel protection, fire protection, medical services and natural phenomena.

  10. Repeated training with augmentative vibrotactile feedback increases object manipulation performance.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Cara E; An, Qi; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2012-01-01

    Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies. PMID:22384283

  11. Performance comparison of SLFN training algorithms for DNA microarray classification.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hieu Trung; Kim, Jung-Ja; Won, Yonggwan

    2011-01-01

    The classification of biological samples measured by DNA microarrays has been a major topic of interest in the last decade, and several approaches to this topic have been investigated. However, till now, classifying the high-dimensional data of microarrays still presents a challenge to researchers. In this chapter, we focus on evaluating the performance of the training algorithms of the single hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFNs) to classify DNA microarrays. The training algorithms consist of backpropagation (BP), extreme learning machine (ELM) and regularized least squares ELM (RLS-ELM), and an effective algorithm called neural-SVD has recently been proposed. We also compare the performance of the neural network approaches with popular classifiers such as support vector machine (SVM), principle component analysis (PCA) and fisher discriminant analysis (FDA). PMID:21431554

  12. Repeated Training with Augmentative Vibrotactile Feedback Increases Object Manipulation Performance

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Cara E.; An, Qi; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2012-01-01

    Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies. PMID:22384283

  13. The Acute Effect of Concurrent Training on Running Performance over 6 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of strength training on alternating days and endurance training on consecutive days on running performance for 6 days. Methods: Sixteen male and 8 female moderately trained individuals were evenly assigned into concurrent-training (CCT) and strength-training (ST) groups. The CCT group undertook strength

  14. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... required training. This paragraph does not prohibit the performance of screening functions during on-the-job training as provided in § 1544.409 (b). (b) Use of training programs. Training for screeners must.... Before beginning on-the-job training, a screener trainee must pass the screener readiness test...

  15. The Acute Effect of Concurrent Training on Running Performance over 6 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of strength training on alternating days and endurance training on consecutive days on running performance for 6 days. Methods: Sixteen male and 8 female moderately trained individuals were evenly assigned into concurrent-training (CCT) and strength-training (ST) groups. The CCT group undertook strength…

  16. Effects of specific versus cross-training on running performance.

    PubMed

    Foster, C; Hector, L L; Welsh, R; Schrager, M; Green, M A; Snyder, A C

    1995-01-01

    The cross-training (XT) hypothesis suggests that despite the principle of specificity of training, athletes may improve performance in one mode of exercise by training using another mode. To test this hypothesis we studied 30 well-trained individuals (10 men, 20 women) in a randomized longitudinal trail. Subjects were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of enhanced training (+10%/week), accomplished by adding either running (R) or swimming (XT) to baseline running, versus continued baseline running (C). Both R (-26.4s) and XT (-13.2s) improved time trial (3.2 km) performance, whereas C did not (-5.4s). There were no significant changes during treadmill running in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2peak; -0.2, -6.0, and +2.7%), steady state submaximal VO2 at 2.68 m.s-1 (-1.2, -3.3 and +0.2 ml.kg-1.min-1), velocity at VO2peak (+0.05, +0.25 and +0.09 m.s-1) or accumulated O2 deficit (+11.2, -6.1 and +9.4%) in the R, XT or C groups, respectively. There was a significant increase in velocity associated with a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol.l-1 in R but not in XT or C (+0.32, +0.07 and +0.08 m.s-1). There were significant changes in arm crank VO2peak (+5%) and arm crank VO2 at 4 mmol.l-1 (+6.4%) in XT. There was no significant changes in arm crank VO2peak (+1.3 and -7.7%) or arm crank VO2 at 4 mmol.l-1 (+0.8 and +0.4%) in R or C, respectively. The data suggest that muscularly non-similar XT may contribute to improved running performance but not to the same degree as increased specific training. PMID:7649149

  17. 75 FR 36270 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL 12 CFR Part 1102 Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination...

  18. Unique aspects of competitive weightlifting: performance, training and physiology.

    PubMed

    Storey, Adam; Smith, Heather K

    2012-09-01

    Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure of competitive weightlifters is characterized by the frequent use of high-intensity resistance exercise movements. Varied coaching and training philosophies currently exist around the world and further research is required to substantiate the best type of training programme for male and female weightlifters of various age groups. As competitive weightlifting is contested over eight male and seven female body weight categories, the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes widely ranges. The body compositions of weightlifters are similar to that of athletes of comparable body mass in other strength and power sports. However, the shorter height and limb lengths of weightlifters provide mechanical advantages when lifting heavy loads by reducing the mechanical torque and the vertical distance that the barbell must be displaced. Furthermore, the shorter body dimensions coincide with a greater mean skeletal muscle cross-sectional area that is advantageous to weightlifting performance. Weightlifting training induces a high metabolic cost. Although dietary records demonstrate that weightlifters typically meet their required daily energy intake, weightlifters have been shown to over consume protein and fat at the expense of adequate carbohydrate. The resulting macronutrient imbalance may not yield optimal performance gains. Cross-sectional data suggest that weightlifting training induces type IIX to IIA fibre-type transformation. Furthermore, weightlifters exhibit hypertrophy of type II fibres that is advantageous to weightlifting performance and maximal force production. As such, the isometric peak force and contractile rate of force development of weightlifters is ~15-20% and ~13-16% greater, respectively, than in other strength and power athletes. In addition, weightlifting training has been shown to reduce the typical sex-related difference in the expression of neuromuscular strength and power. However, this apparent sex-related difference appears to be augmented with increasing adult age demonstrating that women undergo a greater age-related decline in muscle shortening velocity and peak power when compared with men. Weightlifting training and competition has been shown to induce significant structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system. The collective evidence shows that these adaptations are physiological as opposed to pathological. Finally, the acute exercise-induced testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone responses of weightlifters have similarities to that of following conventional strength and hypertrophy protocols involving large muscle mass exercises. The routine assessment of the basal testosterone : cortisol ratio may be beneficial when attempting to quantify the adaptive responses to weightlifting training. As competitive weightlifting is becoming increasingly popular around the world, further research addressing the physiological responses and adaptations of female weightlifters and younger (i.e. ≤17 years of age) and older (i.e. ≥35 years of age) weightlifters of both sexes is required. PMID:22873835

  19. Perk Station – Percutaneous Surgery Training and Performance Measurement Platform

    PubMed Central

    Vikal, Siddharth; U-Thainual, Paweena; Carrino, John A.; Iordachita, Iulian; Fischer, Gregory S.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2009-01-01

    Motivation Image-guided percutaneous (through the skin) needle-based surgery has become part of routine clinical practice in performing procedures such as biopsies, injections and therapeutic implants. A novice physician typically performs needle interventions under the supervision of a senior physician; a slow and inherently subjective training process that lacks objective, quantitative assessment of the surgical skill and performance[S1]. Shortening the learning curve and increasing procedural consistency are important factors in assuring high-quality medical care. Methods This paper describes a laboratory validation system, called Perk Station, for standardized training and performance measurement under different assistance techniques for needle-based surgical guidance systems. The initial goal of the Perk Station is to assess and compare different techniques: 2D image overlay, biplane laser guide, laser protractor and conventional freehand. The main focus of this manuscript is the planning and guidance software system developed on the 3D Slicer platform, a free, open source software package designed for visualization and analysis of medical image data. Results The prototype Perk Station has been successfully developed, the associated needle insertion phantoms were built, and the graphical user interface was fully implemented. The system was inaugurated in undergraduate teaching and a wide array of outreach activities. Initial results, experiences, ongoing activities and future plans are reported. PMID:19539446

  20. Information Feedback: Contributions to Learning and Performance in Perceptual Identification Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Alvin J.; Cook, Richard L.

    In training people to perform auditory identification tasks (e.g., training students to identify sound characteristics in a sonar classification task), it is important to know whether or not training procedures are merely sustaining performance during training or whether they enhance learning of the task. Often an incorrect assumption is made that

  1. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).`` The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, ``Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,`` requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  2. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).'' The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,'' requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  3. Performances of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongying; Luo, Changjie; Wang, Huimin

    2012-07-01

    The current research of a balanced hydraulic motor focuses on the characteristics of the motor with three planet gears. References of a balanced hydraulic motor with more than three planet gears are hardly found. In order to study the characteristics of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train that includes more than three planet gears, on the basis of analysis of the structure and working principle of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train, formulas are deduced for calculating the hydraulic motor's primary performance indexes such as displacement, unit volume displacement, flowrate fluctuation ratio, etc. Influences of the gears' tooth number on displacement and flowrate characteristics are analyzed. In order to guarantee the reliability of sealing capability, the necessary conditions that tooth number of the sun gear and the planet gears should satisfy are discussed. Selecting large unit volume displacement and small displacement fluctuation ratio as designing objectives, a balanced hydraulic motor with three planet gears and a common gear motor are designed under the conditions of same displacement, tooth addendum coefficien and clearance coefficient. By comparing the unit volume displacement and fluctuation ratio of the two motors, it can be seen that the balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train has the advantages of smaller fluctuation ratio and larger unit volume displacement. The results provide theoretical basis for choosing gear tooth-number of this kind of hydraulic motor.

  4. Metabolic and performance adaptations to interval training in endurance-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Westgarth-Taylor, C; Hawley, J A; Rickard, S; Myburgh, K H; Noakes, T D; Dennis, S C

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the effects of sustained high-intensity interval training (HIT) on the athletic performances and fuel utilisation of eight male endurance-trained cyclists. Before HIT, each subject undertook three baseline peak power output Wpeak tests and two simulated 40-km time-trial cycling performance (TT40) tests, of which the variabilities were 1.5 (1.3)% and 1.0 (0.5)%, respectively [mean (SD)]. Over 6 weeks, the cyclists then replaced 15 (2)% of their 300 (66) km.week-1 endurance training with 12 HIT sessions, each consisting of six to nine 5-min rides at 80% of Wpeak, separated by a l-min recovery. HIT increased Wpeak from 404 (40) to 424 (53) W (P < 0.01) and improved TT40 speeds from 42.0 (3.6) to 43.0 (4.2) km.h-1 (P < 0.05). Faster TT40 performances were due to increases in both the absolute work rates from 291 (43) to 327 (51) W (P < 0.05) and the relative work rates from 72.6 (5.3)% of pre-HIT Wpeak to 78.1 (2.8)% of post-HIT Wpeak (P < 0.05). HIT decreased carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation, plasma lactate concentration and ventilation when the cyclists rode at the same absolute work rates of 60, 70 and 80% of pre-HIT Wpeak (P < 0.05), but not when they exercised at the same relative (% post-HIT Wpeak) work rates. Thus, the ability of the cyclists to sustain higher percentages of Wpeak in TT40 performances after HIT was not due to lower rates of CHO oxidation. Higher relative work rates in the TT40 rides following HIT increased the estimated rates of CHO oxidation from approximately 4.3 to approximately 5.1 g.min-1. PMID:9134360

  5. Argonne National Laboratory Internal Appraisal Program environment, safety, health/quality assurance oversight

    SciTech Connect

    Winner, G.L.; Siegfried, Y.S.; Forst, S.P.; Meshenberg, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Internal Appraisal Program has developed a quality assurance team member training program. This program has been developed to provide training to non-quality assurance professionals. Upon successful completion of this training and approval of the Internal Appraisal Program Manager, these personnel are considered qualified to assist in the conduct of quality assurance assessments. The training program has been incorporated into a self-paced, computerized, training session.

  6. AN EXPERIMENT IN BASIC AIRBORNE ELECTRONICS TRAINING, PART IV-- EFFECT OF REDUCTION IN TRAINING TIME ON FLEET PERFORMANCE. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BALDWIN, ROBERT O.; AND OTHERS

    THREE PRECEDING REPORTS PRESENTED THE EFFECTS OF SHORTENING TRAINING TIME IN AVIONICS FUNDAMENTALS AND AVIATION ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN (RADAR) TRAINING UPON THE FINAL COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION IN THESE COURSES AND UPON PERFORMANCE IN A SUBSEQUENT EQUIPMENT COURSE. THIS REPORT COMPARES THE ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF GRADUATES FROM FOUR GROUPS…

  7. AN EXPERIMENT IN BASIC AIRBORNE ELECTRONICS TRAINING, PART IV-- EFFECT OF REDUCTION IN TRAINING TIME ON FLEET PERFORMANCE. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BALDWIN, ROBERT O.; AND OTHERS

    THREE PRECEDING REPORTS PRESENTED THE EFFECTS OF SHORTENING TRAINING TIME IN AVIONICS FUNDAMENTALS AND AVIATION ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN (RADAR) TRAINING UPON THE FINAL COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION IN THESE COURSES AND UPON PERFORMANCE IN A SUBSEQUENT EQUIPMENT COURSE. THIS REPORT COMPARES THE ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF GRADUATES FROM FOUR GROUPS

  8. Performance of First-Tour WAC Enlisted Women: Data Base for the Performance Orientation of Women's Basic Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, H. Alton; And Others

    The introduction of performance-oriented instructional procedures into Women's Basic Training (BT) at Fort McClellan and the revision of Army Training Program 21-121 to incorporate the philosophy and principles of performance-oriented training are described in the document. Results from a questionnaire regarding duties, activities, and attitudes

  9. Concurrent training in elite male runners: the influence of strength versus muscular endurance training on performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Marín, Pedro J; Cuadrado, Gonzalo; Redondo, Juan C

    2013-09-01

    Much recent attention has been given to the compatibility of combined aerobic and anaerobic training modalities. However, few of these studies have reported data related to well-trained runners, which is a potential limitation. Therefore, because of the limited evidence available for this population, the main aim was to determine which mode of concurrent strength-endurance training might be the most effective at improving running performance in highly trained runners. Eighteen well-trained male runners (age 23.7 ± 1.2 years) with a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) more than 65 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) were randomly assigned into 1 of the 3 groups: Endurance-only Group (n = 6), who continued their usual training, which included general strength training with Thera-band latex-free exercise bands and endurance training; Strength Group (SG; n = 6) who performed combined resistance and plyometric exercises and endurance training; Endurance-SG (ESG; n = 6) who performed endurance-strength training with loads of 40% and endurance training. The study comprised 12 weeks of training in which runners trained 8 times a week (6 endurance and 2 strength sessions) and 5 weeks of detraining. The subjects were tested on 3 different occasions (countermovement jump height, hopping test average height, 1 repetition maximum, running economy (RE), VO2max, maximal heart rate [HRmax], peak velocity (PV), rating of perceived exertion, and 3-km time trial were measured). Findings revealed significant time × group interaction effects for almost all tests (p < 0.05). We can conclude that concurrent training for both SG and ESG groups led to improved maximal strength, RE, and PV with no significant effects on the VO2 kinetics pattern. The SG group also seems to show improvements in 3-km time trial tests. PMID:23287831

  10. Gift Books and Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Don; Anderson, Glenn

    1979-01-01

    Properly used, the body of literature on the value of books can help the inexperienced librarian or bookdealer recognize donations that require a professional's appraisal or can provide appraisal information when a specialist's fee would outweigh the value of the books in question. (Author)

  11. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... training. This paragraph does not prohibit the performance of screening functions during on-the-job...-job training, a screener trainee must pass the screener readiness test prescribed by TSA. (e) On-the-job training and testing. Each screener must complete at least 60 hours of on-the-job training...

  12. Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults: Effects of Age, Baseline Performance, and Training Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S.; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For…

  13. Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults: Effects of Age, Baseline Performance, and Training Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S.; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For

  14. Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

  15. Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

  16. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  17. Appraising Support Staff: Not Just a Silly Paper Ritual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Anne M.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses aspects of a good system for library employee performance appraisal, stressing the importance of treating workers as adults and making the appraisal process a two-way exchange. The role of the line supervisor and how to deal with poor performance are also addressed. (MES)

  18. Standards of Work Performance. A Functional Assessment and Training Manual for Training People with Disabilities for Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riches, Vivienne C.

    This manual is designed to assist trainers in using the Australian Standards of Work Performance in ongoing functional assessment and databased training of disabled persons for employment. It is divided into three sections. Section 1 begins with an overview of the functional assessment component of a databased training system and details the

  19. Agent-Customized Training for Human Learning Performance Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, M. Brian; Butcher-Green, Jerome D.

    2009-01-01

    Training individuals from diverse backgrounds and in changing environments requires customized training approaches that align with the individual learning styles and ever-evolving organizational needs. Scaffolding is a well-established instructional approach that facilitates learning by incrementally removing training aids as the learner…

  20. Perceptual Training and Figure-Ground Performance in Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-five older adults with age-related macular degeneration were separated into one of three groups: in-clinic training, take-home-training, or no-training. After testing, results showed that the ability to distinguish figure from ground is an improvable skill with the take-home group improving the most. (Author/DB)

  1. Britain's Training Deficit. The Centre for Economic Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layard, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 12 papers that were produced as a result of a seminar program on selected issues central to the debate over job training in Great Britain. The first paper, "Why We Need a Training Reform Act" (Richard Layard, Ken Mayhew, Geoffrey Owen), examines existing deficiencies in vocational education and training in Britain and proposes a

  2. Agent-Customized Training for Human Learning Performance Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, M. Brian; Butcher-Green, Jerome D.

    2009-01-01

    Training individuals from diverse backgrounds and in changing environments requires customized training approaches that align with the individual learning styles and ever-evolving organizational needs. Scaffolding is a well-established instructional approach that facilitates learning by incrementally removing training aids as the learner

  3. Australian National Training Authority Annual Performance Report 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    The Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) achieved the following objectives in 1996-97: (1) sought and obtained the agreement of the Ministerial Council to make the National Training Framework more flexible and usable by training providers and their major clients (businesses and individual learners); (2) obtained in principle agreement to

  4. Ten Exercises Toward Planning a Superintendent Appraisal System. A Companion Workbook to Planned Appraisal of the Superintendent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Ronald R.; Glaub, Gerald R.

    This workbook is intended to help the school board and superintendent tailor a performance appraisal system to suit their own needs. It consists of ten separate exercises that guide the board and superintendent through the planning and decision-making that must precede successful performance appraisal. The workbook contains exercises through which

  5. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabled shifting of weight to the right and left sides, for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The patients in the task-oriented training group practiced additional task-oriented programs for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. Patients in both groups also underwent conventional physical therapy for 60 min/day, 5 times/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Balance and functional reach test outcomes were examined in both groups. The results showed that the static balance and functional reach test outcomes were significantly higher in the virtual reality-based training group than in the task-oriented training group. [Conclusion] This study suggested that virtual reality-based training might be a more feasible and suitable therapeutic intervention for dynamic balance in stroke patients compared to task-oriented training. PMID:26180341

  6. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabled shifting of weight to the right and left sides, for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The patients in the task-oriented training group practiced additional task-oriented programs for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. Patients in both groups also underwent conventional physical therapy for 60 min/day, 5 times/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Balance and functional reach test outcomes were examined in both groups. The results showed that the static balance and functional reach test outcomes were significantly higher in the virtual reality-based training group than in the task-oriented training group. [Conclusion] This study suggested that virtual reality-based training might be a more feasible and suitable therapeutic intervention for dynamic balance in stroke patients compared to task-oriented training. PMID:26180341

  7. Low cadence interval training at moderate intensity does not improve cycling performance in highly trained veteran cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Morten; Gundersen, Hilde; Leirdal, Stig; Iversen, Vegard V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of low cadence training at moderate intensity on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, gross efficiency, freely chosen cadence, and leg strength in veteran cyclists. Method: Twenty-two well trained veteran cyclists [age: 47 ± 6 years, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 57.9 ± 3.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1] were randomized into two groups, a low cadence training group and a freely chose cadence training group. Respiratory variables, power output, cadence and leg strength were tested before and after a 12 weeks training intervention period. The low cadence training group performed 12 weeks of moderate [73–82% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] interval training (5 × 6 min) with a cadence of 40 revolutions per min (rpm) two times a week, in addition to their usual training. The freely chosen cadence group added 90 min of training at freely chosen cadence at moderate intensity. Results: No significant effects of the low cadence training on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, power output, cadence, gross efficiency, or leg strength was found. The freely chosen cadence group significantly improved both VO2max (58.9 ± 2.4 vs. 62.2 ± 3.2 ml · kg−1 · min−1), VO2 consumption at lactate threshold (49.4 ± 3.8 vs. 51.8 ± 3.5 ml · kg−1 · min−1) and during the 30 min performance test (52.8 ± 3.0 vs. 54.7 ± 3.5 ml · kg−1 · min−1), and power output at lactate threshold (284 ± 47 vs. 294 ± 48 W) and during the 30 min performance test (284 ± 42 vs. 297 ± 50 W). Moreover, a significant difference was seen when comparing the change in freely chosen cadence from pre- to post between the groups during the 30 min performance test (2.4 ± 5.0 vs. −2.7 ± 6.2). Conclusion: Twelve weeks of low cadence (40 rpm) interval training at moderate intensity (73–82% of HRmax) twice a week does not improve aerobic capacity, cycling performance or leg strength in highly trained veteran cyclists. However, adding training at same intensity (% of HRmax) and duration (90 min weekly) at freely chosen cadence seems beneficial for performance and physiological adaptations. PMID:24550843

  8. Plutonium Uranium Extraction plant (PUREX) annual integrated appraisal, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Wedlick, H.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual safety appraisal of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility fulfills contractor internal audit requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE). Fifteen subject areas, and their relevant criteria, were selected for this appraisal. The criteria, findings or observations and the individual appraiser's recommendations make up the body of this report. This is the first annual appraisal performed for PUREX by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. Some new methods and practices were implemented; for example, this is the first time a seriousness category classification system was used to rate the importance of each item.

  9. Barriers and attitudes influencing non-engagement in a peer feedback model to inform evidence for GP appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The UK general practitioner (GP) appraisal system is deemed to be an inadequate source of performance evidence to inform a future medical revalidation process. A long-running voluntary model of external peer review in the west of Scotland provides feedback by trained peers on the standard of GP colleagues' core appraisal activities and may 'add value' in strengthening the robustness of the current system in support of revalidation. A significant minority of GPs has participated in the peer feedback model, but a clear majority has yet to engage with it. We aimed to explore the views of non-participants to identify barriers to engagement and attitudes to external peer review as a means to inform the current appraisal system. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with a sample of west of Scotland GPs who had yet to participate in the peer review model. A thematic analysis of the interview transcriptions was conducted using a constant comparative approach. Results 13 GPs were interviewed of whom nine were males. Four core themes were identified in relation to the perceived and experienced 'value' placed on the topics discussed and their relevance to routine clinical practice and professional appraisal: 1. Value of the appraisal improvement activity. 2. Value of external peer review. 3. Value of the external peer review model and host organisation and 4. Attitudes to external peer review. Conclusions GPs in this study questioned the 'value' of participation in the external peer review model and the national appraisal system over the standard of internal feedback received from immediate work colleagues. There was a limited understanding of the concept, context and purpose of external peer review and some distrust of the host educational provider. Future engagement with the model by these GPs is likely to be influenced by policy to improve the standard of appraisal and contractual related activities, rather than a self-directed recognition of learning needs. PMID:22443714

  10. Performance in sports - With specific emphasis on the effect of intensified training.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, J

    2015-12-01

    Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance. Specifically how intensified training, i.e., increasing the amount of aerobic high-intensity and speed endurance training, affects physiological adaptations and performance of trained subjects. Periods of speed endurance training do improve performance in events lasting 30s-4min, and when combined with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase expression of muscle Na(+) , K(+) pump ? subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect of other types of training. It is not, however, clear how various training modalities are affecting each other, and this issue should be addressed in future studies. PMID:26589122

  11. The NHS breast screening programme (pathology) EQA: experience in recent years relating to issues involved in individual performance appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Parham, D M; Coleman, D; Kodikara, S; Moss, S; Ellis, I O; Al-sam, S; Anderson, N; Bobrow, L; Buley, I; Connolly, C E; Dallimore, N S; Hales, S; Hanby, A; Humphreys, S; Knox, F; Lowe, J; Macartney, J; Nash, R; Patnick, J; Pinder, S E; Quinn, C M; Robertson, A J; Shrimankar, J; Walker, R A; Wells, C; Winder, R; Patel, N

    2006-01-01

    Background The original role of the National Health Service breast screening programme (pathology) external quality assessment (EQA) scheme was educational; it aimed to raise standards, reinforce use of common terminology, and assess the consistency of pathology reporting of breast disease in the UK. Aims/Methods To examine the performance (scores) of pathologists participating in the scheme in recent years. The scheme has evolved to help identify poor performers, reliant upon setting an acceptable cutpoint. Therefore, the effects of different cutpoint strategies were evaluated and implications discussed. Results/Conclusions Pathologists who joined the scheme improved over time, particularly those who did less well initially. There was no obvious association between performance and the number of breast cancer cases reported each year. This is not unexpected because the EQA does not measure expertise, but was established to demonstrate a common level of performance (conformity to consensus) for routine cases, rather than the ability to diagnose unusual/difficult cases. A new method of establishing cutpoints using interquartile ranges is proposed. The findings also suggest that EQA can alter a pathologist's practice: those who leave the scheme (for whatever reason) have, on average, marginally lower scores. Consequently, with the cutpoint methodology currently used (which is common to several EQA schemes) there is the potential for the cutpoint to drift upwards. In future, individuals previously deemed competent could subsequently be erroneously labelled as poor performers. Due consideration should be given to this issue with future development of schemes. PMID:16443726

  12. The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    PubMed Central

    Casutt, Gianclaudio; Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Keller, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training. Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62–87 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention), or (3) a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85%) completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned orthogonal comparisons. Results: The driving simulator-training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention-training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers' safety on the road. PMID:24860497

  13. A Descriptive Study of the Performance Appraisal of Supervisors of Spicer Higher Secondary School, Using "360 Degree Feedback" Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemati, Hamidreza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study the performance of the supervisors in the aspects leadership, communication, and task managing by the "360 degree feedback" method. A qualitative research was used to carry out the research study. The researcher formulated three questions that guided the study. An opinionnaire which included 23 items in…

  14. Relationships Between Design Characteristics of Avionics Subsystems and Training Cost, Training Difficulty, and Job Performance. Final Report, Covering Activity from 1 July 1971 Through 1 September 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Larry M.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship between avionics subsystem design characteristics and training time, training cost, and job performance. A list of design variables believed to affect training and job performance was established and supplemented with personnel variables, including aptitude test scores and the amount of training and

  15. Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health workers motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers attesting to the importance of the salary for motivation. Lessons learned from OPRAS can be utilized in the implementation of P4P and can enhance our knowledge on motivation and performance in the health services in low-income contexts such as Tanzania. PMID:22963317

  16. Preliminary performance appraisal of Navy V/STOL transport and search-type airplanes using hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    First-cut estimates are given of the performance advantages of liquid-hydrogen-fueled, ejector wing, V/STOL aircraft designed for shipboard delivery and search-type missions. Results indicate that the use of LH2 could reduce gross weights 30 percent, empty weights 15 percent, and energy consumption 10 percent for a fixed payload and mission. If gross weight is fixed, the delivery range could be increased about 60 percent or the hover time during a search mission doubled. No analysis or discussion of the economic and operational disadvantages is presented.

  17. Self-appraisal in behavioural variant frontotemporal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Massimo, Lauren; Libon, David J; Chandrasekaran, Keerthi; Dreyfuss, Michael; McMillan, Corey T; Rascovsky, Katya; Boller, Ashley; Grossman, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous work investigating deficits in self-appraisal in behavioural-variant frontotemporal degeneration (bvFTD) has focused on a single domain: social/behavioural processes. We examined whether a domain-specific versus multi-domain model best explains degraded self-appraisal in bvFTD. Methods 49 patients with bvFTD and 73 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) were administered quantitative assessments of episodic memory, naming and grammatical comprehension. Self-appraisal of cognitive test performance was assessed by asking patients to rate their performance immediately after completing each neuropsychological test. A discrepancy score was created to reflect the difference between patient performance on neuropsychological tests and self-appraisal of their test performance. Self-appraisal for each neuropsychological measure was related to grey matter (GM) density in each group using voxel-based morphometry. Results bvFTD patients were poor at evaluating their own performance on all cognitive tests, with no significant correlations between self-appraisal and actual performance. By contrast, poor self-appraisal in AD was restricted to episodic memory performance. Poor self-appraisal on each task in bvFTD and AD was related to reduced GM density in several ventral and rostral medial prefrontal regions. Crucially, poor self-appraisal for all domains in bvFTD was related to a specific area of reduced GM density in the subgenual cingulate (BA 25). Conclusion Poor self-appraisal in bvFTD affects multiple domains, and this multi-domain impairment pattern is associated with frontal disease in the subgenual cingulate. PMID:22952324

  18. Effects of Short-Term Isokinetic Training on Standing Long-Jump Performance in Untrained Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morriss, Calvin J.; Tolfrey, Keith; Coppack, Russell J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the effects of a brief isokinetic training program on quadriceps and hamstring peak torque (PT) and standing long-jump performance. Tests on 12 untrained men indicated that the brief training program was at least as effective in improving quadriceps isokinetic (but not hamstring) PT. PT gains subsequent to isokinetic resistance training

  19. Replacement Air Group Performance as a Criterion for Naval Aviation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Ronald M.; And Others

    The current criterion for prediction of performance of student naval aviators is the dichotomy of success versus failure in undergraduate flight training. This criterion has enabled the naval air training command to make reasonable estimates of the probability of an applicant or student completing flight training. However, a costly attrition…

  20. Training for the Healthcare Manufacturing Industries. Tools and Techniques To Improve Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesper, James L.

    This book describes a systematic method for producing instructional programs, courses, and materials that focus on human performance and how to improve it, not merely on training itself. It addresses such diverse topics as the following: how adults learn best, analyzing the training need, developing evaluation tools, delivering training courses,…

  1. OTTO Revisited: Management Training and Management Performance. Some Perceptions of Headteachers and Key Subordinates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellawell, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a follow-up study to the 1984 One Term Training Opportunity (OTTO) for headteachers and senior teachers conducted by the City of Birmingham Polytechnic. Discusses the effects of the management training course and attempts to determine whether the performance of managers was significantly affected by management training. (GEA)

  2. Performance and Endocrine Responses to Differing Ratios of Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2016-03-01

    Jones, TW, Howatson, G, Russell, M, and French, DN. Performance and endocrine responses to differing ratios of concurrent strength and endurance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 693-702, 2016-The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen. Thirty resistance trained men completed 6 weeks of 3 dwk of (a) strength training (ST), (b) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), (c) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1), or (d) no training (CON). Strength training was conducted using whole-body multijoint exercises, whereas endurance training consisted of treadmill running. Assessments of maximal strength, lower-body power, and endocrine factors were conducted pretraining and after 3 and 6 weeks. After the intervention, ST and CT3 elicited similar increases in lower-body strength; furthermore, ST resulted in greater increases than CT1 and CON (all p ? 0.05). All training conditions resulted in similar increases in upper-body strength after training. The ST group observed greater increases in lower-body power than all other conditions (all p ? 0.05). After the final training session, CT1 elicited greater increases in cortisol than ST (p = 0.008). When implemented as part of a concurrent training regimen, higher volumes of endurance training result in the inhibition of lower-body strength, whereas low volumes do not. Lower-body power was attenuated by high and low frequencies of endurance training. Higher frequencies of endurance training resulted in increased cortisol responses to training. These data suggest that if strength development is the primary focus of a training intervention, frequency of endurance training should remain low. PMID:26907840

  3. Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders

  4. Eastern Stream Center on Resources and Training: Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The Eastern Stream Center on Resources and Training (ESCORT) was established in May, 1988 as one of three Program Development Centers funded to (1) provide technical assistance and training upon request to state (SEA) and local (LEA) education agencies, parent advisory committees, and other migrant projects and agencies of 21 states, Puerto Rico,

  5. Education, Training and Economic Performance 1944 to 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldcroft, Derek H.

    A study examined the relationship between economic growth and compulsory education, vocational education and training, higher education, and the education and training of managers in Great Britain in the period between 1944 and 1988. Deficiencies in language and mathematical skills were found among completers of compulsory education, participants…

  6. Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

    A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal

  7. Influence of a 2-year strength training programme on power performance in elite youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Sander, Andr; Keiner, Michael; Wirth, Klaus; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    In soccer, strength, power and speed are very important because of the large number of power actions performed during the game. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of periodised strength training for power performance more than 2 years. In this study, 134 elite youth soccer players were recruited from two youth training centres. The cohorts were arranged as follows: A (under 19 years), B (under 17 years) and C (under 15 years). The participants in each cohort were divided into two groups. One group (Strength training group [STG]) was subjected to regular soccer training in addition to strength training twice a week for 2 years. The other group (Control group [CG]) completed only the regular soccer training. The strength training was periodised with hypertrophy and intramuscular coordination blocks. For strength training, both the front squat and the back squat were performed once a week. The subjects were tested on the one-repetition maximum (1RM) of the front and back squat and a linear sprint over 30 m. There was significantly better performance from the STG on 1RM (p <0.001). In the sprint, the STG displayed significantly better improvements (p <0.05 to p <0.001) of up to 6%. The effects of strength training are reflected in the sprint performance. Therefore, it seems beneficial for youth to perform strength training to exploit the reserve capacity in sprint performances. PMID:24050460

  8. Performance Management in the French System of Secondary-Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchibozo, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The present study focuses on performance analysis and performance management in teacher training in France. After a brief summary of the French system of secondary-teacher training, determinants affecting performance are analyzed. The analysis shows that three determinants--the number of external competitors, the size of a department and the

  9. Concurrent speed endurance and resistance training improves performance, running economy, and muscle NHE1 in moderately trained runners.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christensen, Peter M; Larsen, Sonni; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether speed endurance training (SET, repeated 30-s sprints) and heavy resistance training (HRT, 80-90% of 1 repetition maximum) performed in succession are compatible and lead to performance improvements in moderately trained endurance runners. For an 8-wk intervention period (INT) 23 male runners [maximum oxygen uptake (V?O(2max)) 59 1 mlmin(-1)kg(-1); values are means SE] either maintained their training (CON, n = 11) or performed high-intensity concurrent training (HICT, n = 12) consisting of two weekly sessions of SET followed by HRT and two weekly sessions of aerobic training with an average reduction in running distance of 42%. After 4 wk of HICT, performance was improved (P < 0.05) in a 10-km run (42:30 1:07 vs. 44:11 1:08 min:s) with no further improvement during the last 4 wk. Performance in a 1,500-m run (5:10 0:05 vs. 5:27 0:08 min:s) and in the Yo-Yo IR2 test (706 97 vs. 491 65 m) improved (P < 0.001) only following 8 wk of INT. In HICT, running economy (189 4 vs. 195 4 mlkg(-1)km(-1)), muscle content of NHE1 (35%) and dynamic muscle strength was augmented (P < 0.01) after compared with before INT, whereas V?O(2max), muscle morphology, capillarization, content of muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump subunits, and MCT4 were unaltered. No changes were observed in CON. The present study demonstrates that SET and HRT, when performed in succession, lead to improvements in both short- and long-term running performance together with improved running economy as well as increased dynamic muscle strength and capacity for muscular H(+) transport in moderately trained endurance runners. PMID:25190744

  10. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the...

  11. Modeling the training-performance relationship using a mixed model in elite swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Marta; Hellard, Philippe; Chatard, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to model the relationship between training and performance in 13 competitive swimmers, over 3 seasons, and to identify individual and group responses to training. Methods A linear mixed model was used as an alternative to the Banister model. Training effect on performance was studied over 3 training periods: short-term, the average of training load accomplished during the 2 weeks preceding each performance of the studied period; mid-term, the average of training load accomplished during weeks 3, 4 and 5 before each performance; and long-term, weeks 6, 7 and 8. Results Cluster analysis identified 4 groups of subjects according to their reactions to training. The first group corresponded to the subjects who responded well to the long-term training period, the second group to the long- and mid-term period, the third to the short- and mid-term period, and the fourth to the combined periods. In the model, the inter-subject differences and the evolution over the 3 seasons were statistically significant for the identified groups of swimmers. Influence of short-term training was negative on performance in the 4 groups while mid- and long-term training had, on the average, a positive effect in 3 groups out of 4. Between seasons 1 and 3, the effect of mid-term training declined, while the effect of long-term training increased. The fit between real and modeled performances was significant for all swimmers (0.15 ? r2 ? 0.65; P ? 0.01). Conclusion The mixed model described a significant relationship between training and performance both for individuals and for groups of swimmers. This relationship was different over the 3 years. Personalized training schedules could be prescribed on the basis of the model results. PMID:12750595

  12. Appraisal of Artificial Screening Techniques of Tomato to Accurately Reflect Field Performance of the Late Blight Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska, Marzena; Nowicki, Marcin; K?osi?ska, Urszula; Maciorowski, Robert; Kozik, El?bieta U.

    2014-01-01

    Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant). In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with thefield experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato. PMID:25279467

  13. The influence of nontraditional training modalities on physical performance: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Reginald B; Serres, Jennifer; Traver, Kyle L; Wright, Bruce; Vojta, Chris; Eveland, Ed

    2012-10-01

    The primary purpose of this effort was to review several forms of nontraditional (NT) training programs, including heavy lower extremity strength training, CrossFit training, kettlebell training, and agility training, and discuss the effects of these exercise regimens on physical performance. The secondary purpose was to evaluate NT fitness training programs for evidence that they may provide beneficial options to help airmen improve their fitness scores. A search of the literature for 1980-2010 was performed using the Franzello Aeromedical Library, Public Medicine, and Air Force Institute of Technology search engines. There were 50 articles located and the authors selected 29 articles that specifically addressed the primary and secondary purposes of this literature review. This review indicates that an NT training approach is warranted in the general Air Force population. Heavy leg strength training and agility training show promise in enhancing aerobic fitness and improving fitness scores, particularly among members who have difficulty passing a physical fitness test. Most of the nontraditional forms of physical training are not supported in the scientific literature, with the exception of heavy leg strength training and agility training. However, even these NT forms of training require further investigation. PMID:23066621

  14. 24 CFR 4001.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Appraisal. 4001.114 Section 4001... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures 4001.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to be security for a Program...

  15. 24 CFR 4001.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appraisal. 4001.114 Section 4001... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures 4001.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to be security for a Program...

  16. 24 CFR 257.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Appraisal. 257.114 Section 257.114... PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures 257.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to...

  17. 24 CFR 257.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appraisal. 257.114 Section 257.114... PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures 257.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to...

  18. 24 CFR 4001.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Appraisal. 4001.114 Section 4001... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures 4001.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to be security for a Program...

  19. 24 CFR 257.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Appraisal. 257.114 Section 257.114... PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures 257.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to...

  20. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Background Marathon (42 km) and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat), the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. PMID:25995653

  1. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key points Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks. In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance. The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase of the mass of type IIx muscle fibres and no change in their proportion. Thus, this type of training might be used effectively during the last weeks before competition, when the strength training load is usually reduced, in order to increase muscle power and shot put performance in novice shot putters. PMID:24149736

  2. The relationship between academic performanceand pilot performance in a collegiate flight training environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Carolyn A.

    While flight time has commonly been used as a measure of a pilot's skill level, little research has been performed to determine what factors are linked to predicting a pilot's performance, particularly in a training environment. If a dependable link was found, prediction of how well an individual would do in flight training would be possible. Time, money and resources could be focused on individuals who are more likely to succeed in pilot training. Therefore, this study was designed to determine if a relationship between GPA and pilot performance exists, in order to determine if academic performance can serve as a predictor of pilot performance in a training environment. The use of historical records from Middle Tennessee State University's Aerospace Department, which included GPA information and flight training records information, was used evaluate this relationship. Results of the study indicate a statistically significant modest correlation between academic performance and pilot performance between some of the variable pairings.

  3. The Effects of Predictive Solutions on Training Time and Post-Training Performance for Control Systems with Human Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David Lee

    The effect of predictive solutions on training time (speed) and subsequent performance in a complex manual control system was investigated. A control system with a slow and complex response to the input signals was formulated. Fifty control operators, 25 with the aid of predictive solutions and 25 without, were tested; the mean performances of the…

  4. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children

    PubMed Central

    Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J.; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training. PMID:25671082

  5. Kinetic analysis of complex training rest interval effect on vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Randall L; Ebben, William P

    2003-05-01

    Complex training has been recommended as a method of incorporating plyometrics with strength training. Some research suggests that plyometric performance is enhanced when performed 3-4 minutes after the strength training set, whereas other studies have failed to find any complex training advantage when plyometrics are performed immediately after the strength training portion of the complex. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an ergogenic advantage associated with complex training and if there is an optimal time for performing plyometrics after the strength training set. Subjects were 21 NCAA Division I athletes who performed a countermovement vertical jump, a set of 5 repetitions maximum (5 RM) squats, and 5 trials of countermovement vertical jump at intervals of 10 seconds and 1, 2, 3, and 4 minutes after the squat. Jump height and peak ground reaction forces were acquired via a force platform. The pre-squat jump performance was compared with the post-squat jumps. Repeated measures ANOVA determined a difference (p performance immediately following the squat exercise was hindered (0.66 m), but no effect (p > 0.05) was found comparing subsequent jumps (0.72-0.76 m) to the pre-squat condition (0.74 m). When comparing high to low strength individuals, there was no effect on jump performance following the squat (p > 0.05). In conclusion, complex training does not appear to enhance jumping performance significantly and actually decreases it when the jump is performed immediately following the strength training set; however, a nonsignificant trend toward improvement seemed to be present. Therefore to optimize jump performance it appears that athletes should not perform jumps immediately following resistance training. It may be possible that beyond 4 minutes of recovery performance could be enhanced; however, that was not within the scope of the current study. PMID:12741876

  6. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  7. Relations among heavy training stress, mood state, and performance for male junior rowers.

    PubMed

    Jrime, Jaak; Mestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Jrime, Toivo; St, Terje

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of rapidly increased training volume on performance and recovery-stress state perceived by 10 male junior rowers. The training during the 6-day period amounted to 21.5 +/- 2.2 hr., which was equivalent to an average increase in training load by approximately 100% compared to their average training volume during the previous 4 wk. The time to row 2,000 m on a rowing ergometer and resting cortisol level were significantly increased after the 6-day training period. Scores on subscales of the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes significantly increased for somatic component of stress (Fatigue) and decreased factor indicating recovery (Social Relaxation) after the heavy training period. A correlation of .63 was found between increased training volume and scores on the Conflicts/Pressure subscale at the end of the heavy training period. Correlations were also found between changes in training volume with changes on subscales of Sleep Quality (r=-.64) and Burnout/Personal Accomplishment (r=-.66). Changes in resting cortisol levels as a result of heavy training stress were related to the changes in the following stress subscales: Social Stress (r=.76), Fatigue (r=.64), Disturbed Breaks (r=.65), and Fitness/Injury (r=.67). Changes in performance, perceived recovery-stress state and resting plasma cortisol level reflect increased stress due to high training. These results suggest that the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes could be used to evaluate the effects of rapidly increased training volume for male junior rowers. PMID:12434845

  8. [Effect of hypoxia on muscular performance capacity: "living low--training high"].

    PubMed

    Vogt, M; Billeter, R; Hoppeler, H

    2003-07-01

    Altitude training is very popular among endurance athletes. But athletes respond very different on acute altitude exposure and altitude training. There are individual differences in the decrement of maximal oxygen consumption making general advices on the effect of altitude training very difficult. During the last few years different altitude training regimes have been developed. Beside "living high--training low," the concept of "living low--training high" becomes more and more popular. By this regime, athletes train under simulated or natural hypoxic conditions, while recovery time is spent at sea-level. Several studies show that with "living low--training high" maximal oxygen consumption as well as aerobic and anaerobic endurance performance can be improved. Molecular analysis reveal that a transcription factor called Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) acts as a master gene in the regulation of hypoxia-dependent gene expression. In human skeletal muscle "living low-training high" induces the expression of glycolytic enzymes, the angiogenic factor VEGF, myoglobin as well as the increase of capillarity and mitochondrial content in parallel to the induction of the HIF-1 system. In trained human skeletal muscle, these adaptations cause a shift of substrate selection to an increased oxidation of carbohydrates as well as to an improvement of the conditions for transport and utilization of oxygen. Depending on the kind of sports, "living low--training high" can be used to train these muscular adaptations and to increase exercise performance. PMID:12956036

  9. TRAINING LOAD, IMMUNE SYSTEM, UPPER RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND PERFORMANCE IN WELL-TRAINED CYCLISTS THROUGHOUT A COMPETITIVE SEASON

    PubMed Central

    Gobatto, C.A.; Manchado-Gobatto, F.B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the leukocyte subset counts, serum immunoglobulin A, performance and upper respiratory symptoms (URS), as well as their interrelationships, of well-trained cyclists for a 29-week training season using monitored loads. The season was divided into three phases: preparatory (nine weeks), first competitive phase (nine weeks) and second competitive phase (11 weeks). The sample consisted of eight well-trained cyclists, aged 18 2 years. Immunological parameters and performance were evaluated during weeks 1 (baseline), 10 (early first competitive phase), 19 (early second competitive phase) and 29 (end of the second competitive phase). The training loads (volume x rating of perceived exertion) were monitored daily while the monitoring of URS was performed every 15 days using the WURSS-44 questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and a Pearson correlation test with the significance level set at p ? 0.05. No significant differences were found for training load, leukocyte subset counts or serum immunoglobulin A among the three phases. However, serum immunoglobulin A was 50.9% below the control group values. URS were significantly higher during the preparatory period, and there were significant correlations between URS and training load (strain) in the preparatory period (r = 0.72, p = 0.032) and second competitive phase (r = 0.73, p = 0.036). In conclusion, indicators of training load without a significant change throughout the season did not significantly affect immune parameters measured; however, the increase of strain can cause an increase of upper respiratory symptoms throughout the season, but without loss of performance. PMID:24744500

  10. Performance Appraisal for Matrix Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. R.; Sproull, J. Ruth

    1985-01-01

    A matrix management system designed for use by a highly technical nuclear weapons research and development facility to improve productivity and flexibility by the use of multiple authority, responsibility, and accountability relationships is described. (MSE)

  11. 77 FR 43084 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act...-Performance Green Buildings, Office of Governmentwide Policy, GSA. ACTION: Notice of release of core... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. John Simpson, Program Manager, Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act, Office...

  12. Examination of Rater Training Effect and Rater Eligibility in L2 Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of rater training in an L2 performance assessment and to examine the eligibility of L2 users of English as raters in L2 performance assessment. Rater training was conducted in order for raters to clearly understand the criteria, the evaluation items, and the evaluation procedure. In this

  13. U.S. Army Primary Helicopter School Training Program Performance Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, John A.; Statham, Flavous D.

    The Helicopter Pilot Training Program of the Army differs from those of the other services in concept. It takes nonpilot servicemen and trains them to fly helicopters. The study provides normative performance data for a pilot trainee in an army light-observation helicopter as a first step toward establishing normative data for pilot performance in

  14. U.S. Army Primary Helicopter School Training Program Performance Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, John A.; Statham, Flavous D.

    The Helicopter Pilot Training Program of the Army differs from those of the other services in concept. It takes nonpilot servicemen and trains them to fly helicopters. The study provides normative performance data for a pilot trainee in an army light-observation helicopter as a first step toward establishing normative data for pilot performance in…

  15. Olympic weightlifting and plyometric training with children provides similar or greater performance improvements than traditional resistance training.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Hammami, Raouf; Kaabi, Sofiene; Chamari, Karim; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2014-06-01

    A number of organizations recommend that advanced resistance training (RT) techniques can be implemented with children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), plyometrics, and traditional RT programs with children. Sixty-three children (10-12 years) were randomly allocated to a 12-week control OWL, plyometric, or traditional RT program. Pre- and post-training tests included body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds, countermovement jump (CMJ), horizontal jump, balance, 5- and 20-m sprint times, isokinetic force and power at 60 and 300 s(-1). Magnitude-based inferences were used to analyze the likelihood of an effect having a standardized (Cohen's) effect size exceeding 0.20. All interventions were generally superior to the control group. Olympic weightlifting was >80% likely to provide substantially better improvements than plyometric training for CMJ, horizontal jump, and 5- and 20-m sprint times, whereas >75% likely to substantially exceed traditional RT for balance and isokinetic power at 300 s(-1). Plyometric training was >78% likely to elicit substantially better training adaptations than traditional RT for balance, isokinetic force at 60 and 300 s(-1), isokinetic power at 300 s(-1), and 5- and 20-m sprints. Traditional RT only exceeded plyometric training for BMI and isokinetic power at 60 s(-1). Hence, OWL and plyometrics can provide similar or greater performance adaptations for children. It is recommended that any of the 3 training modalities can be implemented under professional supervision with proper training progressions to enhance training adaptations in children. PMID:24172724

  16. Validating machine vision MRT performance against trained observer performance for linear shift invariant sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, Stephen D.; Doe, Joshua M.; Teaney, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    Researchers at the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate have added the functionality of Machine Vision MRT (MV-MRT) to the NVLabCap software package. While the original calculations of MV-MRT were compared to human observers performance using digital imagery in a previous effort,1 the technical approach was not tested on 8-bit imagery using a variety of sensors in a variety of gain and level settings. Now that it is more simple to determine the MV-MRT for a sensor in multiple gain settings, it is prudent to compare the results of MV-MRT in multiple gain settings to the performance of human observers for thermal imaging systems that are linear and shift invariant. Here, a comparison of the results for a LWIR system to trained human observers is presented.

  17. Relationships between Training Load, Salivary Cortisol Responses and Performance during Season Training in Middle and Long Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Mª; del Campo-Vecino, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Monitoring training from a multifactorial point of view is of great importance in elite endurance athletes. This study aims to analyze the relationships between indicators of training load, hormonal status and neuromuscular performance, and to compare these values with competition performance, in elite middle and long-distance runners. Method Fifteen elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age = 26.3±5.1 yrs) were measured for training volume, training zone and session rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (daily), countermovement jump (CMJ) and salivary free cortisol (weekly) for 39 weeks (i.e., the whole season). Competition performance was also observed throughout the study, registering the season best and worst competitions. Results Season average salivary free cortisol concentrations correlate significantly with CMJ (r = −0.777) and RPE (r = 0.551). Also, weekly averages of CMJ significantly correlates with RPE (r = −0.426), distance run (r = −0.593, p<0.001) and training zone (r = 0.437, p<0.05). Finally, it was found that the CMJ (+8.5%, g = 0.65) and the RPE (−17.6%, g = 0.94) measured the week before the best competition performance of the season were significantly different compared with the measurement conducted the week before the season’s worst competition performance. Conclusions Monitoring weekly measurements of CMJ and RPE could be recommended to control training process of such athletes in a non-invasive, field-based, systematic way. PMID:25153137

  18. Maladaptive Self-Appraisals before Trauma Exposure Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Guthrie, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the proposal that negative appraisals represent a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma. Trainee firefighters (N = 68) were assessed during training (before trauma exposure) for PTSD, history of traumatic events, and tendency to engage in negative appraisals. Firefighters were reassessed 4

  19. Administrative Appraisal: A Step to Improved Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Robert E.

    This report encourages goal and standard setting for administrators and administrator participation in the appraisal process. The first section outlines the weaknesses of present evaluation systems. The second section, which deals with a goal-oriented system, discusses the philosophy behind the system, the standards of performance, and the

  20. Evaluating the relationship between change in performance on training tasks and on untrained outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Peters, Kelly D.; Hindin, Shoshana; Petway, Kevin T.; Kennison, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Training interventions for older adults are designed to remediate performance on trained tasks and to generalize, or transfer, to untrained tasks. Evidence for transfer is typically based on the trained group showing greater improvement than controls on untrained tasks, or on a correlation between gains in training and in transfer tasks. However, this ignores potential correlational relationships between trained and untrained tasks that exist before training. By accounting for crossed (trained and untrained) and lagged (pre-training and post-training) and cross-lagged relationships between trained and untrained scores in structural equation models, the training-transfer gain relationship can be independently estimated. Transfer is confirmed if only the trained but not control participants' gain correlation is significant. Modeling data from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) study (Smith et al., 2009), transfer from speeded auditory discrimination and syllable span to list and text memory and to working memory was demonstrated in 487 adults aged 6593. Evaluation of age, sex, and education on pretest scores and on change did not alter this. The overlap of the training with transfer measures was also investigated to evaluate the hypothesis that performance gains in a non-verbal speeded auditory discrimination task may be associated with gains on fewer tasks than gains in a verbal working memory task. Gains in speeded processing were associated with gains on one list memory measure. Syllable span gains were associated with improvement in difficult list recall, story recall, and working memory factor scores. Findings confirmed that more overlap with task demands was associated with gains to more of the tasks assessed, suggesting that transfer effects are related to task overlap in multimodal training. PMID:25165440

  1. MONITORING TRAINING LOADS, STRESS, IMMUNE-ENDOCRINE RESPONSES AND PERFORMANCE IN TENNIS PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, A.; Lodo, L.; Nosaka, K.; Coutts, A.J.; Aoki, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10) were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress) were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A. One repetition maximum strength, running endurance, jump height and agility were assessed before and after training. The periodised training plan led to significant weekly changes in training loads (i.e. increasing in weeks 3 and 4, decreasing in week 5) and post-training improvements in strength, endurance and agility (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentration and the symptoms of stress also increased in weeks 3 and/or 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). Conversely, the testosterone to cortisol ratio decreased in weeks 3 and 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the training plan evoked adaptive changes in stress tolerance and hormonal responses, which may have mediated the improvements in physical performance. PMID:24744485

  2. Student Cooperative Training Units. Business Partnerships Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeles, Rebecca

    The North Clackamas School District (Oregon) conducted the Student Cooperative Training Units (CTU) program. The CTU program addressed two key issues that disrupted the development and maintenance of local high technology businesses: (1) The aerospace parts casting, health care, and graphic reproduction industries have experienced a shortage of…

  3. The Effect of Simulation Training on the Performance of Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    In December, 2005, the Air Force Auditing Agency conducted an interview of 282 nurses and physicians stationed in Iraq. The majority of the nurses from the interview reported they were not prepared to care for critically injured soldiers. This study investigated whether a new training technology, using scenario-based simulations, could improve

  4. EFSUMB minimum training requirements for rheumatologists performing musculoskeletal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Terslev, L; Hammer, H B; Torp-Pedersen, S; Szkudlarek, M; Iagnocco, A; D'Agostino, M A; Schmidt, W A; Uson, J; Bruyn, G A; Filippucci, E; Mller, I; Balint, P; Wakefield, R; Naredo, E

    2013-10-01

    In order to optimize and standardize musculoskeletal ultrasonography education for rheumatologists, there is a need for competency assessments addressing the required training and practical and theoretical skills. This paper describes how these competency assessments for rheumatologists were developed and what they contain. PMID:23696065

  5. The Effect of Simulation Training on the Performance of Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    In December, 2005, the Air Force Auditing Agency conducted an interview of 282 nurses and physicians stationed in Iraq. The majority of the nurses from the interview reported they were not prepared to care for critically injured soldiers. This study investigated whether a new training technology, using scenario-based simulations, could improve…

  6. Flight Crew Training: Multi-Crew Pilot License Training versus Traditional Training and Its Relationship with Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the International Civil Aviation Organization promulgated requirements for a Multi-Crew Pilot License for First Officers, in which the candidate attends approximately two years of ground school and trains as part of a two-person crew in a simulator of a Boeing 737 or an Airbus 320 airliner. In the traditional method, a candidate qualifies…

  7. Flight Crew Training: Multi-Crew Pilot License Training versus Traditional Training and Its Relationship with Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the International Civil Aviation Organization promulgated requirements for a Multi-Crew Pilot License for First Officers, in which the candidate attends approximately two years of ground school and trains as part of a two-person crew in a simulator of a Boeing 737 or an Airbus 320 airliner. In the traditional method, a candidate qualifies

  8. Does Combined Dry Land Strength and Aerobic Training Inhibit Performance of Young Competitive Swimmers?

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A.; Reis, Victor M.; van den Tillaar, Roland; Costa, Aldo M.; Silva, Antnio J.; Marques, Mrio C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was twofold: (i) to examine the effects of eight weeks of combined dry land strength and aerobic swimming training for increasing upper and lower body strength, power and swimming performance in young competitive swimmers and, (ii) to assess the effects of a detraining period (strength training cessation) on strength and swimming performance. The participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (eight boys and four girls) and a control group (six boys and five girls). Apart from normal practice sessions (six training units per week of 1 h and 30 min per day), the experimental group underwent eight weeks (two sessions per week) of strength training. The principal strength exercises were the bench press, the leg extension, and two power exercises such as countermovement jump and medicine ball throwing. Immediately following this strength training program, all the swimmers undertook a 6 week detraining period, maintaining the normal swimming program, without any strength training. Swimming (25 m and 50 m performances, and hydrodynamic drag values), and strength (bench press and leg extension) and power (throwing medicine ball and countermovement jump) performances were tested in three moments: (i) before the experimental period, (ii) after eight weeks of combined strength and swimming training, and (iii) after the six weeks of detraining period. Both experimental and control groups were evaluated. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved. Key points This study investigated the effect of dry land strength training on sprint performance in young competitive swimmers. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved. PMID:24149700

  9. Plyometric Training Effects on Athletic Performance in Youth Soccer Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Abigail A; Miltenberger, Matthew R; Lopez, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to critically analyze the literature to determine the effectiveness of plyometric training on athletic performance in youth soccer athletes. A total of 7 studies were included in this review after meeting the following criteria: (a) used plyometric training programs to assess athletic performance, (b) subjects were soccer athletes aged preadolescent up to 17 years, and (c) were published from 2000 to January 2014. Study methods were assessed using the PEDro scale with scores ranging from 4 to 6. Results showed similarities and differences in methodologies and procedures among the included studies. Athletic performance consisting of kicking distance, speed, jumping ability, and agility significantly improved because of plyometric training interventions. The current evidence suggests that plyometric training should be completed 2 days per week for 8-10 weeks during soccer practice with a 72-hour rest period between plyometric training days. The initial number of foot contacts should be 50-60 per session and increase to no more than 80-120 foot contacts per session for this age group to prevent overuse injuries. A total of 3-4 plyometric training exercises should be performed 2-4 sets for 6-15 repetitions per training session. The evidence and the literature suggest that plyometric training for this age group should only be implemented using recommended safety guidelines such as those published by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and the National Strength and Conditioning Association and under appropriate supervision by trained personnel. PMID:25756326

  10. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F M; Bangsbo, J

    2010-10-01

    The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain the oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle substrate levels, glycolytic and oxidative enzymes activity, and membrane transport proteins involved in pH regulation. Instead they appear to be related to a reduced energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and a higher expression of muscle Na(+) ,K(+) pump ?-subunits, which via a higher Na(+) ,K(+) pump activity during exercise may delay fatigue development during intense exercise. In conclusion, athletes from disciplines involving periods of intense exercise can benefit from the inclusion of speed endurance sessions in their training programs. PMID:20840558

  11. Training distress and performance readiness: laboratory and field validation of a brief self-report measure.

    PubMed

    Grove, J R; Main, L C; Partridge, K; Bishop, D J; Russell, S; Shepherdson, A; Ferguson, L

    2014-12-01

    Three studies were conducted to validate the Training Distress Scale (TDS), a 19-item measure of training-related distress and performance readiness. Study 1 was a randomized, controlled laboratory experiment in which a treatment group undertook daily interval training until a 25% decrement occurred in time-to-fatigue performance. Comparisons with a control group showed that TDS scores increased over time within the treatment group but not in the control group. Study 2 was a randomized, controlled field investigation in which performance capabilities and TDS responses were compared across a high-intensity interval training group and a control group that continued normal training. Running performance decreased significantly in the training group but not in the control group, and scores on the TDS mirrored those changes in performance capabilities. Study 3 examined the relationship between TDS scores obtained over a 2-week period before major swimming competitions and subsequent performance in those competitions. Significantly, better performance was observed for swimmers with low TDS scores compared with those with moderate or high TDS scores. These findings provide both laboratory and field evidence for the validity of the TDS as a measure of short-term training distress and performance readiness. PMID:24646366

  12. Self-attitude awareness training: An aid to effective performance in microgravity and virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald E.; Harm, D. L.; Florer, Faith L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing development of training procedures to enhance self-attitude awareness in astronaut trainees. The procedures are based on observations regarding self-attitude (perceived self-orientation and self-motion) reported by astronauts. Self-attitude awareness training is implemented on a personal computer system and consists of lesson stacks programmed using Hypertalk with Macromind Director movie imports. Training evaluation will be accomplished by an active search task using the virtual Spacelab environment produced by the Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME-PAT) as well as by assessment of astronauts' performance and sense of well-being during orbital flight. The general purpose of self-attitude awareness training is to use as efficiently as possible the limited DOME-PAT training time available to astronauts prior to a space mission. We suggest that similar training procedures may enhance the performance of virtual environment operators.

  13. Sustained effect of simulation-based ultrasound training on clinical performance: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Tolsgaard, M G; Ringsted, C; Dreisler, E; Nrgaard, L N; Petersen, J H; Madsen, M E; Freiesleben, N L C; Srensen, J L; Tabor, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of initial simulation-based transvaginal sonography (TVS) training compared with clinical training only, on the clinical performance of residents in obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn), assessed 2 months into their residency. Methods In a randomized study, new Ob-Gyn residents (n = 33) with no prior ultrasound experience were recruited from three teaching hospitals. Participants were allocated to either simulation-based training followed by clinical training (intervention group; n = 18) or clinical training only (control group; n = 15). The simulation-based training was performed using a virtual-reality TVS simulator until an expert performance level was attained, and was followed by training on a pelvic mannequin. After 2 months of clinical training, one TVS examination was recorded for assessment of each resident's clinical performance (n = 26). Two ultrasound experts blinded to group allocation rated the scans using the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS) scale. Results During the 2 months of clinical training, participants in the intervention and control groups completed an average SD of 58 41 and 63 47 scans, respectively (P = 0.67). In the subsequent clinical performance test, the intervention group achieved higher OSAUS scores than did the control group (mean score, 59.1% vs 37.6%, respectively; P < 0.001). A greater proportion of the intervention group passed a pre-established pass/fail level than did controls (85.7% vs 8.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusion Simulation-based ultrasound training leads to substantial improvement in clinical performance that is sustained after 2 months of clinical training. 2015 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. PMID:25580809

  14. US Department of Energy technical safety appraisal reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) of DOE Category A reactors, high hazard nuclear facilities, and selected moderate hazard facilities are conducted. A TSA is a documented multi-disciplinary facility appraisal conducted by a team of specialists. The appraisals are conducted using a hands-on'' approach by observing both the facility configuration and the performance of routine operations. DOE 5482.1A requires that written guidance and criteria be employed to assure relevance, depth, and consistency among the TSAs. The procedures in Section 3.0 of this manual provide a portion of that guidance. The criteria against which each facility is reviewed are called Performance Objectives and Criteria and are contained in Appendix A to this manual. They include criteria representing minimum requirements to satisfy DOE policies and contractual requirements and additional criteria that provide a framework for achieving excellence in the development and implementation of safety programs at DOE facilities. The manual is organized to describe first the administrative and managerial framework within which the appraisal activities are carried out. This is followed by a description of the preparation for the appraisal, the conduct of the appraisal and the followup activities. Finally, the functional areas examined during technical safety appraisals, and the associated performance objectives and criteria, are described. 5 figs.

  15. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  16. Gait Training Improves Performance in Healthy Adults Exposed to Novel Discordant Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Crystal D.; Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    After they return to Earth, astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances that disrupt their ability to walk. We have previously shown that training with a variety of sensorimotor adaptive challenges enhances the capability of adapting to novel sensorimotor conditions. We are currently developing a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of function after gravitational transitions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether trained subjects could transfer learned skills from one discordant visuo-proprioceptive environment to another. During three sessions, subjects walked at 2.5 km/h on a treadmill mounted on a motion base platform. Ten subjects trained with a combination of lateral treadmill translation and superimposed sinusoidal lateral optic flow that was presented on a large screen positioned in front of them. Ten controls completed the same training schedule while viewing only the forward optic flow with no visual or physical oscillation. Twenty minutes after the final training session, all subjects completed a 2-minute trial with a novel combination of visual and treadmill roll perturbations not previously experienced during the training (Transfer Test). Compared to the untrained group, participants who received SA training showed faster reaction times and, based on a composite score derived from stride frequency, heart rate, and reaction time, an overall enhanced performance. Our results showed that an SA training program can improve overall walking performance when subjects are exposed to novel incongruent sensory environments. This training has application for both enhancing adaptive responses in astronauts and reducing fall and injury risk in the elderly.

  17. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise. PMID:25713678

  18. Development of a Human Behavior and Performance Training Curriculum for ISS Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderArk, Steve; Tomi, Leena; Vassin, Alexander; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Bessone, Lorendana; OConnor, Sharon; Mukai, Chiaki; Coffee, Emily; Sipes, Walter; Salnitskiy, Vyecheslav; Ren, Victor; Spychalski, Annette

    2007-01-01

    The paper will describe the DACUM process and summarize the core competencies that were agreed upon, internationally, as important for ISS astronauts. The paper will further discuss the ongoing work being completed by the subgroup, Human Behaviour and Performance Training Working Group, including defining the competencies and behavioural markers. Finally, an overview of remaining work will be provided, including determining which competencies require formal training and which require no formal training, developing training objectives, sequencing the training, and establishing how to assess training effectiveness. DISCUSSION: Designing a common set of goals for behavioural training has been the desire of the SHBP WG since its inception in 1998. This group, along with training specialists and astronauts, are making great strides toward defining these competencies. The road ahead will be exceedingly challenging as training objectives are defined and a training flow is proposed to the MCOP; with proposed ISS crews increasing to six people in the near future, such enhanced behavioural training may be all the more essential for mission success.

  19. Clinical simulation training improves the clinical performance of Chinese medical students

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-ya; Cheng, Xin; Xu, An-ding; Luo, Liang-ping; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    Background Modern medical education promotes medical students’ clinical operating capacity rather than the mastery of theoretical knowledge. To accomplish this objective, clinical skill training using various simulations was introduced into medical education to cultivate creativity and develop the practical ability of students. However, quantitative analysis of the efficiency of clinical skill training with simulations is lacking. Methods In the present study, we compared the mean scores of medical students (Jinan University) who graduated in 2013 and 2014 on 16 stations between traditional training (control) and simulative training groups. In addition, in a clinical skill competition, the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) scores of participating medical students trained using traditional and simulative training were compared. The data were statistically analyzed and qualitatively described. Results The results revealed that simulative training could significantly enhance the graduate score of medical students compared with the control. The OSCE scores of participating medical students in the clinical skill competition, trained using simulations, were dramatically higher than those of students trained through traditional methods, and we also observed that the OSCE marks were significantly increased for the same participant after simulative training for the clinical skill competition. Conclusions Taken together, these data indicate that clinical skill training with a variety of simulations could substantially promote the clinical performance of medical students and optimize the resources used for medical education, although a precise analysis of each specialization is needed in the future. PMID:26478142

  20. Training and performance assessment of land mine detector operator using motion tracking and virtual mine lane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Herman; McMahill, Jeffrey D.; Kantor, George

    2000-08-01

    Landmine detection is a complex and highly dangerous task. Most demining operations are done using hand-held detectors, which means that the operator is always at risk of serious injury or death. One of the most important factor that determines the probability of detecting is the operator performance. Therefore, it is very important that we train the operator well and are able to assess their performance accurately. To achieve these objectives, we have been developing two training tools, the 3D tracker for real-time feedback during training, and the virtual mien lane for interactive training. We have been using the 3D tracker successfully to assess the performance of an operator as a prat of a successful training program.

  1. 32 CFR 644.42 - Appraisal report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.42 Appraisal report. (a) Preface. The appraisal report is an important document... appraiser's conclusions as to significant trends. 10. PROPERTY DATA: a. Site. Describe the soil, topography... in the appraisal report, either in the body or as an exhibit. (3) Photographs of important...

  2. 32 CFR 644.42 - Appraisal report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.42 Appraisal report. (a) Preface. The appraisal report is an important document... appraiser's conclusions as to significant trends. 10. PROPERTY DATA: a. Site. Describe the soil, topography... in the appraisal report, either in the body or as an exhibit. (3) Photographs of important...

  3. 32 CFR 644.43 - Gross appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gross appraisals. 644.43 Section 644.43 National... HANDBOOK Appraisal 644.43 Gross appraisals. (a) Preparation. (1) The gross appraisal sections of real... reflect actual market conditions and unit prices. (2) Each gross appraisal will be supported by...

  4. 32 CFR 644.43 - Gross appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Gross appraisals. 644.43 Section 644.43 National... HANDBOOK Appraisal 644.43 Gross appraisals. (a) Preparation. (1) The gross appraisal sections of real... reflect actual market conditions and unit prices. (2) Each gross appraisal will be supported by...

  5. 30 CFR 882.12 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appraisals. 882.12 Section 882.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION RECLAMATION ON PRIVATE LAND 882.12 Appraisals. (a) A notarized appraisal of private... independent appraiser. The appraisal shall state (1) The estimated market value of the property in...

  6. 7 CFR 4279.244 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.244 Section 4279.244 Agriculture... Appraisals. All appraisals must be in accordance with 4279.144 and each appraisal must be a complete, self-contained appraisal. Lenders must complete at least a Transaction Screen Questionnaire for any...

  7. 7 CFR 4279.244 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.244 Section 4279.244 Agriculture... Appraisals. All appraisals must be in accordance with 4279.144 and each appraisal must be a complete, self-contained appraisal. Lenders must complete at least a Transaction Screen Questionnaire for any...

  8. 30 CFR 882.12 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appraisals. 882.12 Section 882.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION RECLAMATION ON PRIVATE LAND 882.12 Appraisals. (a) A notarized appraisal of private... independent appraiser. The appraisal shall state (1) The estimated market value of the property in...

  9. 32 CFR 644.43 - Gross appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Gross appraisals. 644.43 Section 644.43 National... HANDBOOK Appraisal 644.43 Gross appraisals. (a) Preparation. (1) The gross appraisal sections of real... reflect actual market conditions and unit prices. (2) Each gross appraisal will be supported by...

  10. 30 CFR 882.12 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisals. 882.12 Section 882.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION RECLAMATION ON PRIVATE LAND 882.12 Appraisals. (a) A notarized appraisal of private... independent appraiser. The appraisal shall state (1) The estimated market value of the property in...

  11. 7 CFR 4279.244 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.244 Section 4279.244 Agriculture... Appraisals. All appraisals must be in accordance with 4279.144 and each appraisal must be a complete, self-contained appraisal. Lenders must complete at least a Transaction Screen Questionnaire for any...

  12. Measures of Reaction to Threat of Physical Harm as Predictors of Performance in Military Aviation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Wiley R.

    Data from subjective reports, objective performance measures, and physiological studies indicate that flight training per se places a great deal of stress on the trainee. In military flight training additional stresses are involved that may markedly increase the importance of reaction to threat of physical harm. This paper reports efforts to…

  13. The Dread Factor: How Hazards and Safety Training Influence Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Michael J.; Salvador, Rommel O.; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous

  14. Can 2- and 3-Year-Old Children Be Trained to Perform Visual Perception Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Children aged 2 and 3 years were exposed to a novel paradigm designed to train visual perception skills. The results indicate that children of this age could be trained to perform both percept deprivation and percept diagnosis tasks. Results are discussed with reference to engagement, a precursor to an adult-like understanding of perception.

  15. Can Young Preschool Children Be Trained to Perform Percept Deprivation Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Young preschool children aged 2 and 3 years were exposed to a novel paradigm designed to train visual perception skills. The results indicate that children of this age can be trained to perform a percept deprivation task that requires a sophisticated understanding of attention not normally mastered until 3.5-4 years. Results are discussed with

  16. Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

  17. The Impact of Diagnosing Skill Deficiencies and Assessment-Based Communication Training on Managerial Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papa, Michael J.; Graham, Elizabeth E.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluates an organizational diagnosis program that assesses managerial communication skills and provides the frame for follow-up training programs. Finds that managers participating in follow-up communication skills training performed significantly higher on interpersonal skills, problem-solving ability, and productivity over three long-term

  18. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices D Appendix D to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60,...

  19. Effects of Short-Term Isokinetic Training on Standing Long-Jump Performance in Untrained Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morriss, Calvin J.; Tolfrey, Keith; Coppack, Russell J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the effects of a brief isokinetic training program on quadriceps and hamstring peak torque (PT) and standing long-jump performance. Tests on 12 untrained men indicated that the brief training program was at least as effective in improving quadriceps isokinetic (but not hamstring) PT. PT gains subsequent to isokinetic resistance training…

  20. Bilingual Vocational Dental Assistant Training. Program Performance Report, Final, August 15, 1979-August 14, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

    In addition to a 20-page program narrative, this report provides materials from a bilingual vocational dental assistant training project (1979-80). These program accomplishments are discussed: curriculum, English as a Second Language (ESL), student performance, in-service training, and languages and cultures represented. Major activities and…

  1. Training, Innovation and Business Performance: An Analysis of the Business Longitudinal Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, A. Michael

    This paper uses the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Business Longitudinal Survey to explore relationships between training, innovation, and firm performance for Australian businesses with less than 200 employees. The longitudinal nature of the data is used to test various hypotheses about the nature of the link between training, business changes,

  2. Does On-the-Job Training Improve an Employee's Job Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Juanita

    A study examined the link between on-the-job training (OJT) and job performance in a randomly selected sample of 50 skilled maintenance craftpersons employed by the city of Chicago. The sample was identified from the training sheets signed by 160 employees who participated in OJT in a 1-month period. The majority of the employees agreed with

  3. Evaluating the Impact of Electronic Training on Organizational Performance in an SME Food Manufacturing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Many small to medium sized manufacturing organizations do not have adequate resources to conduct formalized workplace training or properly evaluate its results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of electronic training on workplace behavior and small business organizational performance in the manufacturing environment using…

  4. Effects of Medicine Ball Training on Fitness Performance of High-School Physical Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Mediate, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of medicine ball training on the fitness performance of high-school physical education students. Sixty-nine high-school students participated in a 6-week medicine training program during the first 10 to 15 minutes of each physical education class. A group of 49 students who participated in

  5. Should Athletic Training Educators Utilize Grades When Evaluating Student Clinical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriber, Kent; Gray, Courtney; Millspaugh, Rose

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore and address some of the challenges for assessing, interpreting, and grading athletic training students' clinical performance and to suggest athletic training educators consider using a more universal assessment method for professional consistency. Background: In years past students learned from teachers or mentors on an

  6. Effects of Medicine Ball Training on Fitness Performance of High-School Physical Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Mediate, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of medicine ball training on the fitness performance of high-school physical education students. Sixty-nine high-school students participated in a 6-week medicine training program during the first 10 to 15 minutes of each physical education class. A group of 49 students who participated in…

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Electronic Training on Organizational Performance in an SME Food Manufacturing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Many small to medium sized manufacturing organizations do not have adequate resources to conduct formalized workplace training or properly evaluate its results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of electronic training on workplace behavior and small business organizational performance in the manufacturing environment using

  8. Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Jose A., Jr.; Greer, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical

  9. Training Transfer: A Suggested Course of Action for Local Authorities to Leverage Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Maximization of training influence on individual performance through changes in employee knowledge, skills, and abilities is a paramount concern of organizations. However, training without implementation in a work setting cannot achieve its goals. In this article, the author maps the primary factors that influence transfer of what is learned in

  10. Does Training Influence Organisational Performance?: Analysis of the Spanish Hotel Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubeda-Garcia, Mercedes; Marco-Lajara, Bartolome; Sabater-Sempere, Vicente; Garcia-Lillo, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify which variables of training policy have a significant and positive impact on organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: A targeted literature review was conducted to identify and collate a comprehensive range of human resource management and training conceptualisations/investigations. This…

  11. Maintenance Training and Performance: A Computer-Based Management Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobko, Douglas J.; Hayes, John F.

    1983-01-01

    The Army Research Institute developed and made operational a computer-based maintenance performance management information system that monitors technical activities of maintenance personnel. The implications of data from eight months of system operation for training programs, training material development, estimating manning requirements,

  12. Training Transfer: A Suggested Course of Action for Local Authorities to Leverage Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Maximization of training influence on individual performance through changes in employee knowledge, skills, and abilities is a paramount concern of organizations. However, training without implementation in a work setting cannot achieve its goals. In this article, the author maps the primary factors that influence transfer of what is learned in…

  13. The Effects of Trainee Characteristics on Training Effectiveness in Improving Organizational Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Eul-Kyoo

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of assessing training effects on corporate outcomes focuses on a study that examined the effects of trainee characteristics on training effectiveness in terms of job performance improvement. Investigates reasons for leaving and high turnover of company personnel. (Author/LRW)

  14. The Dread Factor: How Hazards and Safety Training Influence Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Michael J.; Salvador, Rommel O.; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous…

  15. Does Training Influence Organisational Performance?: Analysis of the Spanish Hotel Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubeda-Garcia, Mercedes; Marco-Lajara, Bartolome; Sabater-Sempere, Vicente; Garcia-Lillo, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify which variables of training policy have a significant and positive impact on organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: A targeted literature review was conducted to identify and collate a comprehensive range of human resource management and training conceptualisations/investigations. This

  16. Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of

  17. Does training frequency and supervision affect compliance, performance and muscular health? A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dalager, Tina; Bredahl, Thomas G V; Pedersen, Mogens T; Boyle, Eleanor; Andersen, Lars L; Sjgaard, Gisela

    2015-10-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of one weekly hour of specific strength training within working hours, performed with the same total training volume but with different training frequencies and durations, or with different levels of supervision, on compliance, muscle health and performance, behavior and work performance. In total, 573 office workers were cluster-randomized to: 1 WS: one 60-min supervised session/week, 3 WS: three 20-min supervised sessions/week, 9 WS: nine 7-min supervised sessions/week, 3 MS: three 20-min sessions/week with minimal supervision, or REF: a reference group without training. Outcomes were diary-based compliance, total training volume, muscle performance and questionnaire-based health, behavior and work performance. Comparisons were made among the WS training groups and between 3 WS and 3 MS. If no difference, training groups were collapsed (TG) and compared with REF. Results demonstrated similar degrees of compliance, mean(range) of 39(33-44)%, and total training volume, 13.266(11.977-15.096)kg. Musculoskeletal pain in neck and shoulders were reduced with approx. 50% in TG, which was significant compared with REF. Only the training groups improved significantly their muscle strength 8(4-13)% and endurance 27(12-37)%, both being significant compared with REF. No change in workability, productivity or self-rated health was demonstrated. Secondary analysis showed exercise self-efficacy to be a significant predictor of compliance. Regardless of training schedule and supervision, similar degrees of compliance were shown together with reduced musculoskeletal pain and improved muscle performance. These findings provide evidence that a great degree of flexibility is legitimate for companies in planning future implementation of physical exercise programs at the workplace. ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01027390. PMID:25816746

  18. The effects of intermittent hypoxia training on hematological and aerobic performance in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Campo, D J; Martínez-Sánchez, F; Esteban-García, P; Rubio-Arias, J A; Clemente-Suarez, V J; Jiménez-Díaz, J F

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present research was to analyze modifications on hematological and aerobic performance parameters after a 7-week intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) program. Eighteen male trained triathletes were divided in two groups: an intermittent hypoxia training group (IHTG: n: 9; 26.0 ± 6.7 years; 173.3 ± 5.9 cm; 66.4 ± 5.9 kg; VO₂max: 59.5 ± 5.0 ml/kg/min) that conducted a normoxic training plus an IHT and a control group (CG: n: 9; 29.3 ± 6.8 years; 174.9 ± 4.6 cm; 59.7 ± 6.8 kg; VO₂max: 58.9 ± 4.5 ml/kg/min) that performed only a normoxic training. Training process was standardized across the two groups. The IHT program consisted of two 60-min sessions per week at intensities over the anaerobic threshold and atmospheric conditions between 14.5 and 15% FiO₂. Before and after the 7-week training, aerobic performance in an incremental running test and hematological parameters were analyzed. After this training program, the IHTG showed higher hemoglobin and erythrocytes (p < 0.05) values than in the CG. In terms of physiological and performance variables, between the two groups no changes were found. The addition of an IHT program to normoxic training caused an improvement in hematological parameters but aerobic performance and physiological variables compared to similar training under normoxic conditions did not increase. PMID:26690033

  19. Effects of 12 weeks of block periodization on performance and performance indices in well-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Rnnestad, B R; Ellefsen, S; Nygaard, H; Zacharoff, E E; Vikmoen, O; Hansen, J; Halln, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists during a 12-week preparation period. One group of cyclists performed block periodization (BP; n = 8), wherein every fourth week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one HIT session. Another group performed a more traditional organization (TRAD; n = 7), with 12 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions. The HIT was interspersed with low-intensity training (LIT) so that similar total volumes of both HIT and LIT were performed in the two groups. BP achieved a larger relative improvement in VO2max than TRAD (8.8 5.9% vs 3.7 2.9%, respectively, < 0.05) and a tendency toward larger increase in power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)] (22 14% vs 10 7%, respectively, P = 0.054). Mean effect size (ES) of the relative improvement in VO2max , power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)], hemoglobin mass, and mean power output during 40-min all-out trial revealed moderate superior effects of BP compared with TRAD training (ES range was 0.62-1.12). The present study suggests that BP of endurance training has superior effects on several endurance and performance indices compared with TRAD. PMID:23134196

  20. Education and Training Report. Performance Report, FY 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    During FY 97, 152 MUREP education and training projects were conducted at OMU institutions. The institutions conducted precollege and bridge programs, education partnerships with other universities and industry, NRTS, teacher training, and graduate and/or PI undergraduate programs. These programs reached a total of 23,748 participants, with the predominant number at the precollege level and achieved major goals of heightening students' interest and awareness of career opportunities in MSET fields, and exposing students to the NASA mission, research and advanced technology through role models, mentors, and participation in research and other educational activities. Also in FY 1997, NASA continued a very meaningful relationship with the Hispanic Association of Colleges students and Universities (HACU) through Proyecto Access, a consortium through which HACU links seven HSI's together to conduct 8-week summer programs. OMU Institutions reported 4,334 high school student in NASA programs and 3,404 of those students selected college preparatory MSET courses. Three hundred and forty-nine (349) graduated from high school, 343 enrolled in college, and 199 selected MSET majors. There were 130 high school graduates (bridge students) in NASA programs, 57 of whom successfully completed their freshman year. There were 307 teachers in teacher programs and 48 teachers received certificates. Of the 389 undergraduate students, 75 received under graduate degrees, and eight students are employed in a NASA-related field.

  1. Effects of Intermittent Training on Anaerobic Performance and MCT Transporters in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Grgoire; Bentley, David J.; Roels, Belle; Mc Naughton, Lars R.; Mercier, Jacques; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT) expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n?=?8; 150 mmHg PIO2) or hypoxic (H; n?=?10; ?3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2) over a three week training (51 h-1h30.week?1) period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT) was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT). Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO) increased (p<0.05) after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively), but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively). No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective. PMID:24797797

  2. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2013-11-20

    This study evaluated how five weeks of inertial training using two different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The two training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training three times per week for five weeks using the new Inertial Training Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included three exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), while the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2% and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2% and 27%), CMJ (3.8% and 6.7%), SJ (2.2% and 6.1%), PVT (8% and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8% and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass. PMID:24263657

  3. 7 CFR 1955.128 - Appraisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... least one of the following qualifications: (1) Certification by a National or State appraisal society... that the appraiser meets the criteria for a certification in a National or State appraisal society....

  4. Re-appraisal of negative emotions in cocaine dependence: dysfunctional corticolimbic activation and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Romn, Juan; Asensio, Samuel; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Martnez-Gonzlez, Jos M; Verdejo-Garca, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Cocaine dependence is associated with pronounced elevations of negative affect and deficient regulation of negative emotions. We aimed to investigate the neural substrates of negative emotion regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI), as compared to non-drug-using controls, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a re-appraisal task. Seventeen CDI abstinent for at least 15 days and without other psychiatric co-morbidities and 18 intelligence quotient-matched non-drug-using controls participated in the study. Participants performed the re-appraisal task during fMRI scanning: they were exposed to 24 blocks of negative affective or neutral pictures that they should Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Suppress (regulate the emotion elicited by negative pictures through previously trained re-appraisal techniques). Task-related activations during two conditions of interest (Maintain>Observe and Suppress>Maintain) were analyzed using the general linear model in SPM8 software. We also performed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) seed-based analyses based on one region from each condition: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC-Maintain>Observe) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG-Suppress>Maintain). Results showed that cocaine users had increased right dlPFC and bilateral temporoparietal junction activations during Maintain>Observe, whereas they showed decreased right IFG, posterior cingulate cortex, insula and fusiform gyrus activations during Suppress>Maintain. PPI analyses showed that cocaine users had increased functional coupling between the dlPFC and emotion-related regions during Maintain>Observe, whereas they showed decreased functional coupling between the right IFG and the amygdala during Suppress>Maintain. These findings indicate that CDI have dysfunctional corticolimbic activation and connectivity during negative emotion experience and re-appraisal. PMID:22978709

  5. The effect of ''living high-training low'' on physical performance in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, S.; Sakai, A.

    In this research, we hypothesized that, in rats, adaptation to high altitude (2500 m) plus training at low altitude (610 m), ''living high-training low'', improves physical performance at low altitude more than living and training at low altitude (610 m). Rats were divided into four groups: (1) living at low altitude (LL, n=12), (2) living and training at low altitude (LLTL, n=13), (3) living at high altitude (LH, n=12), (4) living at high altitude and training at low altitude (LHTL, n=13). The program for living at high altitude involved raising rats under hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 2500 m), and the training program consisted of running on a tread-mill at low altitude. All groups were raised at each altitude and trained to run at 35 m/min for 40 min/day, 6 days/week for 6 weeks. During this program, we measured heart rates both at rest and during exercise, and performed running-time trials. The mean heart rate during exercise was lower in groups with training than in groups without training, and the groups receiving training could run longer than the untrained groups. The LHTL group especially showed the lowest mean heart rate during exercise and the longest running time among all groups. After 6 weeks of the training program, all rats had a catheter implanted into the carotid artery, and the mean systemic arterial pressure was continuously measured during treadmill running. The rate of increase of this pressure as the running intensity increased was lower in groups with training than in groups without training, especially in the LHTL group. Finally, we anesthetized all the rats and extracted both the right and left ventricles, and the triceps surae and liver. Training increased the weight of the left ventricle, triceps surae, and liver. The increase in weight of the left ventricle and triceps surae was higher in the LHTL group than in the LLTL group in particular. It appeared that living high- training low may be an effective strategy to improve performance ability at low altitude.

  6. A Performance Support Tool for Cisco Training Program Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Angela D.; Bothra, Jashoda; Sharma, Priya

    2004-01-01

    Performance support systems can play an important role in corporations by managing and allowing distribution of information more easily. These systems run the gamut from simple paper job aids to sophisticated computer- and web-based software applications that support the entire corporate supply chain. According to Gery (1991), a performance

  7. Use of Peers to Train and Monitor the Performance of Adolescents with Severe Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.

    1985-01-01

    Two peer trainers, one moderately and one severely mentally retarded, each taught three severely disabled peers to perform separate steps of a complex assembly line task. Peer trainers were taught to demonstrate correct performance and to praise or correct trainees' performance contingently. Trainers were successful in training and monitoring the…

  8. "Living high-training low" altitude training improves sea level performance in male and female elite runners.

    PubMed

    Stray-Gundersen, J; Chapman, R F; Levine, B D

    2001-09-01

    Acclimatization to moderate high altitude accompanied by training at low altitude (living high-training low) has been shown to improve sea level endurance performance in accomplished, but not elite, runners. Whether elite athletes, who may be closer to the maximal structural and functional adaptive capacity of the respiratory (i.e., oxygen transport from environment to mitochondria) system, may achieve similar performance gains is unclear. To answer this question, we studied 14 elite men and 8 elite women before and after 27 days of living at 2,500 m while performing high-intensity training at 1,250 m. The altitude sojourn began 1 wk after the USA Track and Field National Championships, when the athletes were close to their season's fitness peak. Sea level 3,000-m time trial performance was significantly improved by 1.1% (95% confidence limits 0.3-1.9%). One-third of the athletes achieved personal best times for the distance after the altitude training camp. The improvement in running performance was accompanied by a 3% improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (72.1 +/- 1.5 to 74.4 +/- 1.5 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Circulating erythropoietin levels were near double initial sea level values 20 h after ascent (8.5 +/- 0.5 to 16.2 +/- 1.0 IU/ml). Soluble transferrin receptor levels were significantly elevated on the 19th day at altitude, confirming a stimulation of erythropoiesis (2.1 +/- 0.7 to 2.5 +/- 0.6 microg/ml). Hb concentration measured at sea level increased 1 g/dl over the course of the camp (13.3 +/- 0.2 to 14.3 +/- 0.2 g/dl). We conclude that 4 wk of acclimatization to moderate altitude, accompanied by high-intensity training at low altitude, improves sea level endurance performance even in elite runners. Both the mechanism and magnitude of the effect appear similar to that observed in less accomplished runners, even for athletes who may have achieved near maximal oxygen transport capacity for humans. PMID:11509506

  9. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an

  10. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  11. Specialty Training and the Performance of First-Term Enlisted Personnel. A Report. Rand Publications Series, R-2191-ARPA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Robert M.; Albrecht, Mark J.

    To examine the economic efficiency of initial military specialty training, procedures were tested for estimating the effects of that training on posttraining job performance. The approach chosen was an application of human capital theory in which the costs of on-the-job training and the returns to training are measured by comparing the trainee's

  12. Effects of Plyometric and Sprint Training on Physical and Technical Skill Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Sez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, Gregory G; Ferrete, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    To determine the influence of a short-term combined plyometric and sprint training (9 weeks) within regular soccer practice on explosive and technical actions of pubertal soccer players during the in-season. Twenty-six players were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control group (CG) (soccer training only) and combined group (CombG) (plyometric + acceleration + dribbling + shooting). All players trained soccer 4 times per week and the experimental groups supplemented the soccer training with a proposed plyometric-sprint training program for 40 minutes (2 days per weeks). Ten-meter sprint, 10-m agility with and without ball, CMJ and Abalakov vertical jump, ball-shooting speed, and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test were measured before and after training. The experimental group followed a 9-week plyometric and sprint program (i.e., jumping, hurdling, bouncing, skipping, and footwork) implemented before the soccer training. Baseline-training results showed no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested. No improvement was found in the CG; however, meaningful improvement was found in all variables in the experimental group: CMJ (effect size [ES] = 0.9), Abalakov vertical jump (ES = 1.3), 10-m sprint (ES = 0.7-0.9), 10-m agility (ES = 0.8-1.2), and ball-shooting speed (ES = 0.7-0.8). A specific combined plyometric and sprint training within regular soccer practice improved explosive actions compared with conventional soccer training only. Therefore, the short-term combined program had a beneficial impact on explosive actions, such as sprinting, change of direction, jumping, and ball-shooting speed which are important determinants of match-winning actions in soccer performance. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for pubertal soccer players to include combined plyometric and speed training for athlete preparation in this sport. PMID:25635606

  13. Appraisal of and Coping with a Real-Life Stressful Situation: The Contribution of Attachment Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulincer, Mario; Florian, Victor

    1995-01-01

    Assessed ways attachment styles affect young adults' reactions to stressors associated with four-month combat training. Results show that, compared with secure trainees, ambivalent trainees reported more emotion-focused coping, appraised the training in more threatening terms, and considered themselves less capable of coping with the training.…

  14. Effect of high-intensity resistance training on performance of competitive distance runners.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Ryan J; Paton, Carl D; Hopkins, William G

    2006-03-01

    In a recent study competitive road cyclists experienced substantial gains in sprint and endurance performance when sessions of high-intensity interval training were added to their usual training in the competitive phase of a season. The current study reports the effect of this type of training on performance of 20 distance runners randomized to an experimental or control group for 5 to 7 weeks of training. The experimental group replaced part of their usual competitive-phase training with 10 x ?30-minute sessions consisting of 3 sets of explosive single-leg jumps (20 for each leg) alternating with 3 sets of resisted treadmill sprints (5 x ?30-second efforts alternating with 30-second recovery). Before and after the training period all runners completed an incremental treadmill test for assessment of lactate threshold and maximum running speed, 2 treadmill runs to exhaustion for prediction of 800- and 1500-m times, and a 5-km outdoor time trial. Relative to the control group, the mean changes (+/-90% confidence limits) in the experimental group were: maximum running speed, 1.8% (+/- 1.1%); lactate-threshold speed, 3.5% (+/-3.4%); predicted 800-m speed, 3.6% (+/- 1.8%); predicted 1500-m speed, 3.7% (+/- 3.0%); and 5-km time-trial speed, 1.2% (+/- 1.1%). We conclude that high-intensity resistance training in the competitive phase is likely to produce beneficial gains in performance for most distance runners. PMID:19114736

  15. Relationship of anthropometric and training characteristics with race performance in endurance and ultra-endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat

    2014-06-01

    A variety of anthropometric and training characteristics have been identified as predictor variables for race performance in endurance and ultra-endurance athletes. Anthropometric characteristics such as skin-fold thicknesses, body fat, circumferences and length of limbs, body mass, body height, and body mass index were bi-variately related to race performance in endurance athletes such as swimmers in pools and in open water, in road and mountain bike cyclists, and in runners and triathletes over different distances. Additionally, training variables such as volume and speed were also bi-variately associated with race performance. Multi-variate regression analyses including anthropometric and training characteristics reduced the predictor variables mainly to body fat and speed during training units. Further multi-variate regression analyses including additionally the aspects of previous experience such as personal best times showed that mainly previous best time in shorter races were the most important predictors for ultra-endurance race times. Ultra-endurance athletes seemed to prepare differently for their races compared to endurance athletes where ultra-endurance athletes invested more time in training and completed more training kilometers at lower speed compared to endurance athletes. In conclusion, the most important predictor variables for ultra-endurance athletes were a fast personal best time in shorter races, a low body fat and a high speed during training units. PMID:25834701

  16. Creating a Performance Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneier, Craig Eric; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the comprehensiveness of a performance management system and why it isn't just performance appraisal anymore. They discuss choosing performance appraisal measures and standards, communicating performance expectations, planning for performance, monitoring and controlling performance, appraising performance, providing

  17. The Resilience of the "Corporate" in Post-Corporate Teacher Appraisal: A Case Study from Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchoomun, Dharmadeo

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to replace the traditional and authoritative staff appraisal at a case-study school by a concept of performance management depicted as the performance enhancement and peer appraisal of teachers. It is achieved by elaborating an open system of performance management where teachers are empowered within the existing vertical

  18. Training

    Cancer.gov

    NCI offers training at laboratories and clinics in Maryland and at universities and institutions nationwide. These cancer training and career development opportunities cover a broad spectrum of disciplines for individuals at career stages ranging from high school and graduate students to scientists, clinicians, and health care professionals.

  19. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  20. The Efficiency of a Visual Skills Training Program on Visual Search Performance

    PubMed Central

    Krzepota, Justyna; Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Florkiewicz, Beata; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we conducted an experiment in which we analyzed the possibilities to develop visual skills by specifically targeted training of visual search. The aim of our study was to investigate whether, for how long and to what extent a training program for visual functions could improve visual search. The study involved 24 healthy students from the Szczecin University who were divided into two groups: experimental (12) and control (12). In addition to regular sports and recreational activities of the curriculum, the subjects of the experimental group also participated in 8-week long training with visual functions, 3 times a week for 45 min. The Signal Test of the Vienna Test System was performed four times: before entering the study, after first 4 weeks of the experiment, immediately after its completion and 4 weeks after the study terminated. The results of this experiment proved that an 8-week long perceptual training program significantly differentiated the plot of visual detecting time. For the visual detecting time changes, the first factor, Group, was significant as a main effect (F(1,22)=6.49, p<0.05) as well as the second factor, Training (F(3,66)=5.06, p<0.01). The interaction between the two factors (Group vs. Training) of perceptual training was F(3,66)=6.82 (p<0.001). Similarly, for the number of correct reactions, there was a main effect of a Group factor (F(1,22)=23.40, p<0.001), a main effect of a Training factor (F(3,66)=11.60, p<0.001) and a significant interaction between factors (Group vs. Training) (F(3,66)=10.33, p<0.001). Our study suggests that 8-week training of visual functions can improve visual search performance. PMID:26240666

  1. The Efficiency of a Visual Skills Training Program on Visual Search Performance.

    PubMed

    Krzepota, Justyna; Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedba?, Lidia; Markiewicz, Miko?aj; Florkiewicz, Beata; Lubi?ski, Wojciech

    2015-06-27

    In this study, we conducted an experiment in which we analyzed the possibilities to develop visual skills by specifically targeted training of visual search. The aim of our study was to investigate whether, for how long and to what extent a training program for visual functions could improve visual search. The study involved 24 healthy students from the Szczecin University who were divided into two groups: experimental (12) and control (12). In addition to regular sports and recreational activities of the curriculum, the subjects of the experimental group also participated in 8-week long training with visual functions, 3 times a week for 45 min. The Signal Test of the Vienna Test System was performed four times: before entering the study, after first 4 weeks of the experiment, immediately after its completion and 4 weeks after the study terminated. The results of this experiment proved that an 8-week long perceptual training program significantly differentiated the plot of visual detecting time. For the visual detecting time changes, the first factor, Group, was significant as a main effect (F(1,22)=6.49, p<0.05) as well as the second factor, Training (F(3,66)=5.06, p<0.01). The interaction between the two factors (Group vs. Training) of perceptual training was F(3,66)=6.82 (p<0.001). Similarly, for the number of correct reactions, there was a main effect of a Group factor (F(1,22)=23.40, p<0.001), a main effect of a Training factor (F(3,66)=11.60, p<0.001) and a significant interaction between factors (Group vs. Training) (F(3,66)=10.33, p<0.001). Our study suggests that 8-week training of visual functions can improve visual search performance. PMID:26240666

  2. Temporal specificity of training: intra-day effects on biochemical responses and Olympic-Weightlifting performances.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Achraf; Chtourou, Hamdi; Trabelsi, Khaled; Padulo, Johnny; Turki, Mouna; El Abed, Kais; Hoekelmann, Anitta; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Olympic-Weightlifting session training at three times of the day on the performance related to biochemical responses. Nine weightlifters (21 ± 0.5 years) performed, in randomised order, on three Olympic-Weightlifting training (snatch, clean and jerk) sessions (08:00 a.m., 02:00 p. m., 06:00 p. m.). Blood samples were collected: before, 3 min and 48 h after each training session. Haematological parameters and markers of muscle injury were assessed. Resting oral temperature and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also assessed during each session. ANOVA showed that the performance was better (P < 0.001) at 02:00 p. m. with a less RPE (P < 0.01) compared to the morning and the evening sessions while there was higher (P < 0.05) oral temperature at 06:00 p. m. versus 08:00 a.m. and 02:00 p. m. Muscle damage changed immediately (without significant effect after 48 h) after the training sessions with lower values ​​in the evening compared to the morning. In conclusion, the afternoon training is more effective than morning or evening sessions for weightlifters. Therefore, coaches and weightlifters should be advised to schedule their training session in the afternoon hour. PMID:25117722

  3. Transference of Traditional Versus Complex Strength and Power Training to Sprint Performance

    PubMed Central

    Loturco, Irineu; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo; Cal Abad, Cesar Cavinato; Kobal, Ronaldo; Gil, Saulo; Gonzlez-Badillo, Juan Jos

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two different strength-power training models on sprint performance. Forty-eight soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG: n = 15, age: 20.2 0.7 years, body height: 1.74 0.06 m, and body mass: 66.7 9.8 kg), a traditional training group (TT: n = 18, age: 20.1 0.7 years, body height: 1.71 0.05 m, and body mass: 64.2 4.7 kg), and a complex training group (CT: n = 15, age: 20.3 0.8 years, body height: 1.71 0.07 m; and body mass: 64.0 8.8 kg). Maximum strength (25% and 26%), CMJ height (36% and 39%), mean power (30% and 35%) and mean propulsive power (22% and 28%) in the loaded jump squat exercise, and 20-m sprint speed (16% and 14%) increased significantly (p?0.05) following the TT and CT, respectively. However, the transfer effect coefficients (TEC) of strength and power performances to 20-m sprint performance following the TT were greater than the CT throughout the 9-week training period. Our data suggest that TT is more effective than CT to improve sprint performance in moderately trained subjects. PMID:25114753

  4. A Performance Support Tool for Cisco Training Program Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Angela D.; Bothra, Jashoda; Sharma, Priya

    2004-01-01

    Performance support systems can play an important role in corporations by managing and allowing distribution of information more easily. These systems run the gamut from simple paper job aids to sophisticated computer- and web-based software applications that support the entire corporate supply chain. According to Gery (1991), a performance…

  5. Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

  6. Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear

  7. 'Functional' inspiratory and core muscle training enhances running performance and economy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; McConnell, Alison K; Lin, Hua; Nie, Jinlei; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Jiayuan

    2014-08-26

    We compared the effects of two 6-week high-intensity interval training interventions. Under the control condition (CON), only interval training was undertaken, whilst under the intervention condition (ICT), interval training sessions were followed immediately by core training, which was combined with simultaneous inspiratory muscle training - 'functional' IMT. Sixteen recreational runners were allocated to either ICT or CON groups. Prior to the intervention phase, both groups undertook a 4-week programme of 'foundation' IMT to control for the known ergogenic effect of IMT [30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure (P0) per set, 2 sets.d, 6 d.wk]. The subsequent 6-week interval running training phase, consisted of 3-4 sessions.wk. In addition, the ICT group undertook four inspiratory-loaded core exercises [10 repetitions.set, 2 sets.d, inspiratory load set at 50% post-IMT P0] immediately after each interval training session. The CON group received neither core training nor functional IMT. Following the intervention phase, global inspiratory and core muscle functions increased in both groups (P<0.05), as evidenced by P0 and a sport-specific endurance plank test performance (SEPT), respectively. Compared to CON, the ICT group showed larger improvements in SEPT, running economy at the speed of the OBLA, and 1-hr running performance (3.04% vs 1.57%, P<0.05). The changes in these variables were inter-individually correlated (r?0.57, n=16, P<0.05). Such findings suggest that the addition of inspiratory-loaded core conditioning into a high-intensity interval training program augments the influence of the interval program upon endurance running performance, and that this may be underpinned by an improvement in running economy. PMID:25162653

  8. An Appraisal of Coupled Climate Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K; Gleckler, P; Covey, C; Taylor, K; Bader, D; Phillips, T; Fiorino, M; Achutarao, K

    2004-02-24

    In 2002, the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) proposed the concept for a state-of-the-science appraisal of climate models to be performed approximately every two years. Motivation for this idea arose from the perceived needs of the international modeling groups and the broader climate research community to document progress more frequently than provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Reports. A committee of external reviewers, which included senior researchers from four leading international modeling centers, supported the concept by stating in its review: ''The panel enthusiastically endorses the suggestion that PCMDI develop an independent appraisal of coupled model performance every 2-3 years. This would provide a useful 'mid-course' evaluation of modeling progress in the context of larger IPCC and national assessment activities, and should include both coupled and single-component model evaluations.''

  9. Changes in Endurance Performance in Young Athletes During Two Training Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Tota, Łukasz; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Pokora, Ilona; Cempla, Jerzy; Pilch, Wanda; Pałka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in endurance performance in young runners (females and males) during two training seasons. It involved 19 male and 16 female athletes aged 15–17 specializing in track-and-field middle and long distances runs. The following parameters were measured three times during the training season: maximal oxygen uptake, running economy, and the level of the second ventilatory threshold. Training volume and intensity during each season were analyzed within an 8-week period prior to the exercise tests. The volume and intensity of training at various stages of preparation in both seasons were similar. During the first year of observation, significant improvements in relative volume of maximal oxygen uptake were reported both in female and male athletes. During the second training season, it was found that running economy improved both in women and men, with no changes in maximal oxygen uptake. The same (in terms of volume and intensity) endurance training carried out with young runners during two consecutive training seasons can result in different training effects. PMID:26839615

  10. Changes in Endurance Performance in Young Athletes During Two Training Seasons.

    PubMed

    Tota, Łukasz; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Pokora, Ilona; Cempla, Jerzy; Pilch, Wanda; Pałka, Tomasz

    2015-12-22

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in endurance performance in young runners (females and males) during two training seasons. It involved 19 male and 16 female athletes aged 15-17 specializing in track-and-field middle and long distances runs. The following parameters were measured three times during the training season: maximal oxygen uptake, running economy, and the level of the second ventilatory threshold. Training volume and intensity during each season were analyzed within an 8-week period prior to the exercise tests. The volume and intensity of training at various stages of preparation in both seasons were similar. During the first year of observation, significant improvements in relative volume of maximal oxygen uptake were reported both in female and male athletes. During the second training season, it was found that running economy improved both in women and men, with no changes in maximal oxygen uptake. The same (in terms of volume and intensity) endurance training carried out with young runners during two consecutive training seasons can result in different training effects. PMID:26839615

  11. The Effect of Two Speed Endurance Training Regimes on Performance of Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Perri, Enrico; Alberti, Giampietro; Millet, Grgoire P; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players (age 18.51 yr, height 179.56.5 cm, body mass 74.36.5 kg) reduced the training volume by ~20% and replaced their habitual fitness conditioning work with either speed endurance production (SEP; n = 6) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM; n = 7) training, three times per wk. SEP training consisted of 6-8 reps of 20-s all-out running bouts followed by 2 min of passive recovery, whereas SEM training was characterized by 6-8 x 20-s all-out efforts interspersed with 40 s of passive recovery. SEP training reduced (p<0.01) the total time in a repeated sprint ability test (RSAt) by 2.5%. SEM training improved the 200-m sprint performance (from 26.590.70 to 26.020.62 s, p<0.01) and had a likely beneficial impact on the percentage decrement score of the RSA test (from 4.071.28 to 3.551.01%) but induced a very likely impairment in RSAt (from 83.812.37 to 84.652.27 s). The distance covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 was 10.1% (p<0.001) and 3.8% (p<0.05) higher after SEP and SEM training, respectively, with possibly greater improvements following SEP compared to SEM. No differences were observed in the 20- and 40-m sprint performances. In conclusion, these two training strategies target different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles' ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in trained young soccer players. PMID:26394225

  12. The Effect of Two Speed Endurance Training Regimes on Performance of Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Perri, Enrico; Alberti, Giampietro; Millet, Grégoire P.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players (age 18.5±1 yr, height 179.5±6.5 cm, body mass 74.3±6.5 kg) reduced the training volume by ~20% and replaced their habitual fitness conditioning work with either speed endurance production (SEP; n = 6) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM; n = 7) training, three times per wk. SEP training consisted of 6–8 reps of 20-s all-out running bouts followed by 2 min of passive recovery, whereas SEM training was characterized by 6–8 x 20-s all-out efforts interspersed with 40 s of passive recovery. SEP training reduced (p<0.01) the total time in a repeated sprint ability test (RSAt) by 2.5%. SEM training improved the 200-m sprint performance (from 26.59±0.70 to 26.02±0.62 s, p<0.01) and had a likely beneficial impact on the percentage decrement score of the RSA test (from 4.07±1.28 to 3.55±1.01%) but induced a very likely impairment in RSAt (from 83.81±2.37 to 84.65±2.27 s). The distance covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 was 10.1% (p<0.001) and 3.8% (p<0.05) higher after SEP and SEM training, respectively, with possibly greater improvements following SEP compared to SEM. No differences were observed in the 20- and 40-m sprint performances. In conclusion, these two training strategies target different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles’ ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in trained young soccer players. PMID:26394225

  13. Appraisal of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, H A; Ballinger, J F; Anderson, W J

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the experience of three general surgeons performing 304 laparoscopic cholecystectomies in three private hospitals between October 1989 and November 1990. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy boasts two major advantages over the conventional procedure: the remarkable reduction in postoperative pain and economic benefit, largely due to the patient's early return to work. Revealing a complication rate of 2% and no deaths, this study has shown that this procedure can offer patients these advantages with a medical risk no greater than that accompanying conventional cholecystectomy. Patient safety must be paramount, and it is the responsibility of the surgical community to ensure that all surgeons receive the highest quality training and that the technique is applied appropriately. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1828140

  14. Research on the Countermeasures Based on TTPM Theory for the Improvement of the Basic Education Teachers Training Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huabai, Bu; Dengyu, Zhang; Xiuying, Shen; Hao, Tu

    2012-01-01

    Many elements of the basic education teachers' training performance are embedded in the training interaction and sharing, so the enhancement of the training performance needs a whole process management and control. Based on TTPM theory, this paper has put forward four measures that must be pay attention to during the management of the basic…

  15. Training to improve manual control in 7-8 and 10-12 year old children: Training eliminates performance differences between ages.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2015-10-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7-8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7-8 and 10-12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7-8 year olds was worse than that of the 10-12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7-8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10-12 year olds. PMID:26241334

  16. Effectiveness of Behavioral Skills Training on Staff Performance in a Job Training Setting for High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on improving staff performance in naturalistic training settings for high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Behavioral skills training, consisting of group instruction and supervisory feedback, was used to improve staff performance on (a) providing positive reinforcement, (b) providing error

  17. Career advice--the role of appraisal.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, I

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the benefits of and to illustrate a framework for appraisal. The place of career advice in this process is mentioned, as is a brief discussion on assessment. From the point of view of the individual doctor, information to help him/her choose an appropriate career path should be readily available. It is more likely that a doctor will perform well throughout their career if in a career or occupation that suits them. PMID:11523713

  18. Performance changes in world-class kayakers following two different training periodization models.

    PubMed

    Garca-Pallars, Jess; Garca-Fernndez, Miguel; Snchez-Medina, Luis; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2010-09-01

    This study was undertaken to compare training-induced changes in selected physiological, body composition and performance variables following two training periodization models: traditional (TP) versus block periodization (BP). Ten world-class kayakers were assessed four times during a training cycle over two consecutive seasons. On each occasion, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion on the kayak ergometer to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), VO(2) at second ventilatory threshold (VO(2) VT2), peak blood lactate, paddling speed at VO(2peak) (PS(peak)) and VT2 (PS( VT2)), power output at VO(2peak) (Pw(peak)) and VT2 (Pw( VT2)), stroke rate at VO(2peak) (SR(peak)) and VT2 (SR( VT2)) as well as heart rate at VO(2peak) and VT2. Volume and exercise intensity were quantified for each endurance training session. Both TP and BP cycles resulted in similar gains in VO(2peak) (11 and 8.1%) and VO(2) VT2 (9.8 and 9.4%), even though the TP cycle was 10 weeks and 120 training hours longer than the BP cycle. Following BP paddlers experienced larger gains in PS(peak), Pw(peak) and SR(peak) than those observed with TP. These findings suggest that BP may be more effective than TP for improving the performance of highly trained top-level kayakers. Although both models allowed significant improvements of selected physiological and kayaking performance variables, the BP program achieved similar results with half the endurance training volume used in the TP model. A BP design could be a more useful strategy than TP to maintain the residual training effects as well as to achieve greater improvements in certain variables related to kayaking performance. PMID:20414669

  19. The effects of COREPOWER machine training versus home-based core training on golfers' physical fitness and sport performance.

    PubMed

    Loock, Henritte V; Grace, Jeanne M; Semple, Stuart J

    2013-10-21

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 36 session COREPOWER machine training intervention and those of a 36 session home-based core training intervention programme on golfers' physical fitness and sport specific performance. It was hypothesised that both modalities will improve on golf related fitness aspects. Subjects comprised of experienced golfers and were randomly divided into a machine group (M: n = 51) and a home group (H: n = 50). The following variables were measured both pre- and post-intervention: lower back flexibility (sit & reach), muscle endurance (sit-ups and push-ups), muscle strength (wall-squats and back dynamometer), cardio-respiratory fitness (3 minute step-test), balance (Biodex Balance System), club head speed and carry distance (Flightscope). The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney signed-rank test was used to compare pre and post-intervention measurements within each group with significance set at p < 0.05. An ANCOVA analyses was also run as well as Pearson Product Moment correlations. Results portrayed that with the exception of cardiorespiratory fitness, all variables in both groups showed significant (p<0.05) improvement post intervention. Push-ups (p = 0.000; ?17.03%; d = 0.92) and driver carry distance (p = 0.000; ?30.30%; d = 0.40) showed the greatest percentage improvement post intervention within group M, while sit-ups (p = 0.000; ?14.41%; d = 0.77) and push-ups (p = 0.000; ?12.52%; d = 0.90) showed the greatest percentage improvement within group H. Lower back strength holds significant correlation to golf performance. Thus both modalities, the COREPOWER machine training and the home-based manual core training were equally effective in improving selected fitness components; however the machine was more effective in improving golf performance parameters. These observations can be applied to golfers in addition to their usual golfing activities as well as to other sport populations as this study formed an evidence base for core training. PMID:24149767

  20. Blood flow restricted and traditional resistance training performed to fatigue produce equal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Farup, J; de Paoli, F; Bjerg, K; Riis, S; Ringgard, S; Vissing, K

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the hypertrophic potential of load-matched blood-flow restricted resistance training (BFR) vs free-flow traditional resistance training (low-load TRT) performed to fatigue. Ten healthy young subjects performed unilateral BFR and contralateral low-load TRT elbow flexor dumbbell curl with 40% of one repetition maximum until volitional concentric failure 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Prior to and at 3 (post-3) and 10 (post-10) days post-training, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to estimate elbow flexor muscle volume and muscle water content accumulation through training. Acute changes in muscle thickness following an early vs a late exercise bout were measured with ultrasound to determine muscle swelling during the immediate 0-48?h post-exercise. Total work was threefold lower for BFR compared with low-load TRT (P?Training increased muscle thickness during the immediate 48?h post-exercise (P?training phase. In conclusion, BFR and low-load TRT, when performed to fatigue, produce equal muscle hypertrophy, which may partly rely on transient exercise-induced increases in muscle water content. PMID:25603897

  1. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  2. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  3. Effects of Training and Feedback on Discrete Trial Teaching Skills and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Andrew; Downs, Robyn Conley; Rau, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of training and feedback on instructor performance of Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) and support skills. This included an examination of the generalization and maintenance of instructor skills, and the impact of instructor skills on student performance. Six undergraduate research assistants received an 8-hour

  4. The Use of Simulation to Improve the Effectiveness of Training in Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachman-Moore, Dalia; Kenett, Ron S.

    2006-01-01

    Performance management is an important managerial tool that directs employees' goals and behavior toward the organization's strategic goals. This article focuses on simulation-based training in performance management systems. The simulation developed at the School of Business Administration of the College of Management in Israel is based on a

  5. Learning Unplugged: Using Mobile Technologies for Organizational Training and Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayeski, Diane

    This book, which is written by a training consultant, is intended to help organizations determine whether specific readily available mobile technologies make sense for their particular learning and performance needs. Chapter 1 discusses the mobile revolution in learning and performance, with special attention to the new work and learning…

  6. Learning Unplugged: Using Mobile Technologies for Organizational Training and Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayeski, Diane

    This book, which is written by a training consultant, is intended to help organizations determine whether specific readily available mobile technologies make sense for their particular learning and performance needs. Chapter 1 discusses the mobile revolution in learning and performance, with special attention to the new work and learning

  7. Communication in Performance-Based Training and Instruction: From Design to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Communication is inextricably important to instructional design and performance-based training. Promoting effective communication as an integral part of the performance support system improves professional instructional design functions and offers greater avenues for meaningful discourse among end users of the instruction. In this article, we

  8. Broadening Perspectives on Clinical Performance Assessment: Rethinking the Nature of In-Training Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govaerts, Marjan J. B.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schuwirth, Lambert W. T.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: In-training assessment (ITA), defined as multiple assessments of performance in the setting of day-to-day practice, is an invaluable tool in assessment programmes which aim to assess professional competence in a comprehensive and valid way. Research on clinical performance ratings, however, consistently shows weaknesses concerning

  9. Can a glass cockpit display help (or hinder) performance of novices in simulated flight training?

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen; O'Hare, David

    2015-03-01

    The analog dials in traditional GA aircraft cockpits are being replaced by integrated electronic displays, commonly referred to as glass cockpits. Pilots may be trained on glass cockpit aircraft or encounter them after training on traditional displays. The effects of glass cockpit displays on initial performance and potential transfer effects between cockpit display configurations have yet to be adequately investigated. Flight-nave participants were trained on either a simulated traditional display cockpit or a simulated glass display cockpit. Flight performance was measured in a test flight using either the same or different cockpit display. Loss of control events and accuracy in controlling altitude, airspeed and heading, workload, and situational awareness were assessed. Preferences for cockpit display configurations and opinions on ease of use were also measured. The results revealed consistently poorer performance on the test flight for participants using the glass cockpit compared to the traditional cockpit. In contrast the post-flight questionnaire data revealed a strong subjective preference for the glass cockpit over the traditional cockpit displays. There was only a weak effect of prior training. The specific glass cockpit display used in this study was subjectively appealing but yielded poorer flight performance in participants with no previous flight experience than a traditional display. Performance data can contradict opinion data. The design of glass cockpit displays may present some difficulties for pilots in the very early stages of training. PMID:25480000

  10. Effects of training with a dynamic moment of inertia bat on swing performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiang; Liu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Ying-Chieh; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the 8-week dynamic moment of inertia (DMOI) bat training on swing velocity, batted-ball speed, hitting distance, muscle power, and grip force. The DMOI bat is characterized in that the bat could be swung more easily by reducing the moment of inertia at the initial stage of swing without decreasing the bat weight and has a faster swing velocity and lower muscle activity. Seventeen varsity baseball players were randomly assigned to the DMOI bat training group (n = 9) and the normal bat training group (n = 8). The training protocol was 7 swings each set, 5-8 sets each time, 3 times each week, and 8 weeks' training period. The results showed that the swing training with the DMOI bat for 8 weeks significantly increased swing velocity by about 6.20% (96.86 ± 8.48 vs. 102.82 ± 9.93 km·h(-1)), hitting distance by about 6.69% (80.06 ± 9.16 vs. 84.99 ± 7.26 m), muscle power of the right arm by about 12.04% (3.34 ± 0.41 vs. 3.74 ± 0.61 m), and muscle power of the left arm by about 8.23% (3.36 ± 0.46 vs. 3.61 ± 0.39 m) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the DMOI bat training group had a significantly better change percentage in swing velocity, hitting distance, and grip force of the left hand than did the normal bat training group (p < 0.05). The findings suggested that the swing training with the DMOI bat has a positive benefit on swing performance and that the DMOI bat could be used as a new training tool in baseball. PMID:21993041

  11. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a... BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions 225.63 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. (a) Appraisals...

  12. High-Performance Vision Training Improves Batting Statistics for University of Cincinnati Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Joseph F.; Ellis, James K.; Bench, Johnny; Khoury, Jane; Graman, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Baseball requires an incredible amount of visual acuity and eye-hand coordination, especially for the batters. The learning objective of this work is to observe that traditional vision training as part of injury prevention or conditioning can be added to a team's training schedule to improve some performance parameters such as batting and hitting. Methods All players for the 2010 to 2011 season underwent normal preseason physicals and baseline testing that is standard for the University of Cincinnati Athletics Department. Standard vision training exercises were implemented 6 weeks before the start of the season. Results are reported as compared to the 2009 to 2010 season. Pre season conditioning was followed by a maintenance program during the season of vision training. Results The University of Cincinnati team batting average increased from 0.251 in 2010 to 0.285 in 2011 and the slugging percentage increased by 0.033. The rest of the Big East's slugging percentage fell over that same time frame 0.082. This produces a difference of 0.115 with 95% confidence interval (0.024, 0.206). As with the batting average, the change for University of Cincinnati is significantly different from the rest of the Big East (p?=?0.02). Essentially all batting parameters improved by 10% or more. Similar differences were seen when restricting the analysis to games within the Big East conference. Conclusion Vision training can combine traditional and technological methodologies to train the athletes' eyes and improve batting. Vision training as part of conditioning or injury prevention can be applied and may improve batting performance in college baseball players. High performance vision training can be instituted in the pre-season and maintained throughout the season to improve batting parameters. PMID:22276103

  13. 48 CFR 1437.7002 - Appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appraisal standards. 1437... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Appraisal Services (Real Property) 1437.7002 Appraisal standards. (a) All real property appraisals for condemnation purposes shall be consistent with...

  14. 7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144 Agriculture... Appraisals. Lenders will be responsible for ensuring that appraisal values adequately reflect the actual value of the collateral. All real property appraisals associated with Agency guaranteed loanmaking...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals. 4280.141 Section 4280.141 Agriculture... Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans 4280.141 Appraisals. (a) Conduct of appraisals. All appraisals must be in accordance with 4279.144 of this chapter. (1) For...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal requirements. 34.85 Section 34.85... APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned 34.85 Appraisal requirements. (a) General. (1) Upon transfer to OREO, a national bank shall substantiate the parcel's market value by obtaining either: (i) An appraisal...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals. 770.9 Section 770.9 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS 770.9 Appraisals. (a) The applicant or the borrower, as appropriate, will pay the cost of any appraisal required under this part. (b) Appraisals...

  18. 7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144 Agriculture... Appraisals. Lenders will be responsible for ensuring that appraisal values adequately reflect the actual value of the collateral. All real property appraisals associated with Agency guaranteed loanmaking...

  19. 7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144 Agriculture... Appraisals. Lenders will be responsible for ensuring that appraisal values adequately reflect the actual value of the collateral. All real property appraisals associated with Agency guaranteed loanmaking...

  20. 7 CFR 770.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals. 770.9 Section 770.9 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS 770.9 Appraisals. (a) The applicant or the borrower, as appropriate, will pay the cost of any appraisal required under this part. (b) Appraisals...