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1

Training the Raters: A Key to Effective Performance Appraisal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although appropriate rater behaviors are critical to the success of any performance appraisal system, raters frequently receive little or no training regarding how to carry out their role successfully. This article outlines the major elements that should be included in an effective rater training program. Suggested training approaches and the need…

Martin, David C.; Bartol, Kathryn M.

1986-01-01

2

Experimental Study Comparing a Traditional Approach to Performance Appraisal Training to a Whole-Brain Training Method at C.B. Fleet Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a new approach to performance appraisal training. Motivated by split-brain theory and existing studies of cognitive information processing and performance appraisals, this exploratory study examined the effects of a whole-brain approach to training managers for implementing performance

Selden, Sally; Sherrier, Tom; Wooters, Robert

2012-01-01

3

Performance Appraisal Applied to Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisal is a measurement process of how well an individual is doing her or his job. In most organisations, this appraisal is an annual event. Generally, it is done to encourage job performance, to flag areas that need attention, to inform both parties as to expectations. Much of the literature speaks to this process in terms of the…

Jefferson, Anne L.

2010-01-01

4

A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural…

Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

2012-01-01

5

4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appraisal systems which provide for periodic appraisals of job performance of employees; encourages employee participation in...extent feasible, permit the accurate evaluation of job performance on the basis of job-related criteria (which...

2010-01-01

6

Registered nurse participation in performance appraisal interviews.  

PubMed

Performance appraisal interviews have, over the past two decades, become a common phenomenon in nursing. Yet evidence--both anecdotal and those reported in the literature--suggest that these interviews provide minimal satisfaction and are thus not always effective. This article presents the findings of an interpretive study that explored and documented the meaning and impact of participating in performance appraisal interviews. Data gleaned from nine New Zealand registered nurses employed by a single district health board provide evidence that nurses are often disappointed by the process of performance appraisal. Although they believe in the potential value of performance appraisal interviews, they seldom experience the feedback, direction, and encouragement necessary for an effective appraisal process. Changes to the current professional development program and its accompanying performance appraisal will require skilled commitment on the part of nurses, managers, and the employing organization to improve and develop the assessment and promotion of nursing practice. PMID:17292134

Spence, Deborah Gail; Wood, Elizabeth E

2007-01-01

7

Performance Appraisal Development in a Volunteer Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project conducted in the volunteer program of a county library system in a midwestern city assisted the volunteer coordinator in assessing the library's performance appraisal process for volunteers and in identifying ways to make the process more effective. Factors in performance appraisal which were most applicable and effective to the context…

Benoit, Carol; Jensen, Ana E.

8

Performance Appraisal Is Based on Five Major Assumptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the performance appraisal process discusses the major assumptions on which performance appraisal is based, the general goals of performance appraisal, and the characteristics of effective performance appraisal programs. The author stresses the dependence of the process on the assumption that human behavior can be changed; he…

Silver, Harvey A.

9

Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

Bagnell, Rhea

2012-01-01

10

Persistent Ratee Contaminants in Performance Appraisal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that conventional approaches to evaluating contaminants in performance appraisal overlook important individual ratee effects was examined. A rating form was developed that consisted of the following dimensions and behaviors: warmth; guided discourse or indirect teaching methods; control of subject matter; enthusiasm and reinforcing;…

Van Fleet, David D.; Chamberlain, Howard

11

Appraising Teaching Performance: One Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a diagnostic teaching performance instrument (TAI) that gives the teacher, the teacher educator, or the supervisor concrete evidence of what the teacher has learned, or needs to learn, and what he is able to apply correctly in the classroom. (Author/MF)

Hunter, Madeline C.

1973-01-01

12

Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

VOLIANITIS, S., A. K. MCCONNELL, Y. KOUTEDAKIS, L. MCNAUGHTON, K. BACKX, and D. A. JONES. Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 5, 2001, pp. 803- 809. Purpose: To investigate the effects of a period of resistive inspiratory muscle training (IMT) upon rowing performance. Methods: Performance was appraised in 14 female competitive rowers at

STEFANOS VOLIANITIS; ALISON K. MCCONNELL; YIANNIS KOUTEDAKIS; LARS MCNAUGHTON; KARRIANNE BACKX; DAVID A. JONES

2001-01-01

13

Tennessee Extension Agents' Perceptions of Performance Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisal is necessary for summative decisions about employees, such as merit pay and promotion. The research reported here describes Extension agent perceptions of their performance appraisal system. The population studied consisted of all Tennessee Extension agents (N = 312). Surveys were completed by 218 respondents, for a completed…

Donaldson, Joseph L.; French, Russell L.

2013-01-01

14

Administrators' and Faculty Members' Perceptions of the Performance Appraisal Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study examined how administrators (department heads/chairs) perceive faculty members, as well as themselves, in the performance appraisal interview. Subjects, 450 faculty members and 200 administrators at a midwestern university, answered an Appraisal Interview Questionnaire in which they rated administrator performance, content and…

McDowell, Earl E.

15

Employees' perceptions of justice in performance appraisals.  

PubMed

Of all the tasks undertaken by human resource managers, performance appraisals (PAs) are one of the most unpopular among employees (Meyer 1991, Murphy and Cleveland 1995, Holbrook 2002, Jackman and Strober 2003). As PA guides and plans show (Fletcher 2004, CatalystOne 2010), PAs can be implemented in similar ways in organisations throughout Europe and developed countries elsewhere. But, if employees perceive PA processes as unfair, they may reject the usefulness and validity of the information they receive and so may not be motivated to change behaviour. This article concerns perceptions of organisational justice and explains the results of a study of perceived fairness in PAs among nurses and auxiliary nurses in Norway's municipal health service. PMID:20491213

Vasset, Frøydis; Marnburg, Einar; Furunes, Trude

2010-05-01

16

Performance Appraisal: An Evaluation of Cambridgeshire Libraries' System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design, implementation, and practice of a personnel evaluation method (performance appraisal) at the Cambridgeshire Libraries. Findings reported include staff attitudes and perceptions of the method, and the overall effectiveness of the evaluation scheme. Various theoretical models of appraisal and practical applications in…

Hemmings, Richard

1989-01-01

17

Administrators' Views on Teacher Evaluation: Examining Ontario's Teacher Performance Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the views of administrators (i.e., principals and vice-principals) in Ontario, Canada, with regard to the province's Teacher Performance Appraisal process. A total of 178 responses were collected from a survey that examined five areas: 1) preparation and training; 2) classroom observations; 3) preparing the formal…

Maharaj, Sachin

2014-01-01

18

42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to a...

2011-10-01

19

42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to a...

2010-10-01

20

Managerial Competencies and the Managerial Performance Appraisal Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human resource managers (n=277) identified six management competencies as critical: leadership, customer focus, results orientation, problem solving, communication skills, and teamwork. However, many companies do not assess these competencies in the management performance appraisal process. (Contains 22 references.) (SK)

Abraham, Steven E.; Karns, Lanny A.; Shaw, Kenneth; Mena, Manuel A.

2001-01-01

21

Employee Acceptance of BOS and BES Performance Appraisals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on performance evaluation systems has failed to take into account user acceptance. Employee acceptance of a behaviorally-based performance appraisal system was assessed in a field experiment contrasting user preference for Behavioral Expectations Scales (BES) versus Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS). Non-union sales associates…

Dossett, Dennis L.; Gier, Joseph A.

22

Performance Appraisal in an Academic Library: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Well-designed performance appraisals should provide employees with feedback concerning their performance, serve as a basis for modifying behavior toward more effective work habits, and provide managers with data which they can use to judge future job assignments and compensation. Poorly-designed ones, used as short-term control systems, can create…

George, Verna E.

23

Outcome Expectancies of People Who Conduct Performance Appraisals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined outcome expectancies of people who conduct appraisals. Interviews with 32 appraisers in the newsprint industry showed that appraisers perceived no consequences to them of conducting appraisals. Questionnaires completed by 39 appraisers in the banking industry provided moderate support for alternate hypothesis that appraisers perceive…

Napier, Nancy K.; Latham, Gary P.

1986-01-01

24

Competency-Based Performance Appraisals: Improving Performance Evaluations of School Nutrition Managers and Assistants/Technicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the research was to develop a competency-based performance appraisal resource for evaluating school nutrition (SN) managers and assistants/technicians. Methods: A two-phased process was used to develop the competency-based performance appraisal resource for SN managers and assistants/technicians. In Phase I, draft…

Cross, Evelina W.; Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Nettles, Mary Frances

2009-01-01

25

Characteristics of Performance Appraisals and Their Impact on Sales Force Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 15 automobile salespeople indicated that job satisfaction increased when performance appraisals provided clear criteria that met workers' approval and when appraisals were fair and used to determine rewards. (Contains 61 references.) (SK)

Pettijohn, Charles E.; Pettijohn, Linda S.; d'Amico, Michael

2001-01-01

26

5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Results achieved in accordance with the goals of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993; (ii) Customer satisfaction; (iii) Employee perspectives; (iv) The effectiveness, productivity, and performance quality of...

2012-01-01

27

5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Results achieved in accordance with the goals of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993; (ii) Customer satisfaction; (iii) Employee perspectives; (iv) The effectiveness, productivity, and performance quality of...

2010-01-01

28

5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Results achieved in accordance with the goals of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993; (ii) Customer satisfaction; (iii) Employee perspectives; (iv) The effectiveness, productivity, and performance quality of...

2013-01-01

29

5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Results achieved in accordance with the goals of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993; (ii) Customer satisfaction; (iii) Employee perspectives; (iv) The effectiveness, productivity, and performance quality of...

2014-01-01

30

5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Results achieved in accordance with the goals of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993; (ii) Customer satisfaction; (iii) Employee perspectives; (iv) The effectiveness, productivity, and performance quality of...

2011-01-01

31

Performance-Based Teacher Appraisal Program for the Penn-Harris-Madison School Corporation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of the program, the Self-Appraisal Plan, provides an opportunity for all teachers, guidance counselors, and media specialists to evaluate all areas of their professional performance on an annual basis. The Self-Appraisal Schedule and time guidelines are furnished. The second part of the program is the General Appraisal Plan which is…

Penn-Harris-Madison School Corp., Mishawaka, IN.

32

Psychometric Properties of Self-Appraisals of Job Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparisons with appraisals by supervisors, peers, and subordinates suggest that self-appraisals show more leniency, less variability, and less discriminant validity. Self-appraisals show less halo. Self-appraisals significantly correlate with other sources in some studies and fail to correlate in many others. (Author)

Thornton, George C., III

1980-01-01

33

Performance Appraisals: Evaluation & Goal-Setting  

E-print Network

Setting Components · S.M.A.R.T Goals · Tips for Interactive Goal Setting · Supporting Goal Achievement · Goal: statement of results to be achieved within a specific timeframe · Standard: ongoing performance 10 #12;"Need to Knows" for Supporting Goal Achievement · What skills are needed? · What information

Firestone, Jeremy

34

Lessons from a Comprehensive Performance Appraisal Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes lessons learned from a five-year comprehensive model evaluation program developed by school systems in Minnesota and Iowa. The learner's experience was planned through instructional and curriculum strategies. Performance criteria were established for teachers, and principals and students evaluated classrooms. Pre- and post-testing…

Manatt, Richard P.

1987-01-01

35

Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Operations Area. DOE Training Coordination Program  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen Tiger Team Assessment and eight Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) final reports have been received and reviewed by the DOE Training Coordination Program during Fiscal Year 1992. These assessments and appraisals included both reactor and non-reactor nuclear facilities in their reports. The Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports both used TSA performance objectives, and list ``concerns`` as a result of their findings. However, the TSA reports categorized concerns into the following functional areas: (1) Organization and Administration, (2) Radiation Protection, (3) Nuclear Criticality Safety, (4) Occupational Safety, (5) Engineering/Technical Support, (6) Emergency Preparedness, (7) Safety Assessments, (8) Quality Verification, (9) Fire Protection, (10) Environmental Protection, and (11) Energetic Materials Safety. Although these functional areas match most of the TSA performance objectives, not all of the TSA performance objectives are addressed. For example, the TSA reports did not include Training, Maintenance, and Operations as functional areas. Rather, they included concerns that related to these topics throughout the 11 functional areas identified above. For consistency, the Operations concerns that were identified in each of the TSA report functional areas have been included in this summary with the corresponding TSA performance objective.

Not Available

1993-01-01

36

Online training course on critical appraisal for nurses: adaptation and assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Research is an essential activity for improving quality and efficiency in healthcare. The objective of this study was to train nurses from the public Basque Health Service (Osakidetza) in critical appraisal, promoting continuous training and the use of research in clinical practice. Methods This was a prospective pre-post test study. The InfoCritique course on critical appraisal was translated and adapted. A sample of 50 nurses and 3 tutors was recruited. Educational strategies and assessment instruments were established for the course. A course website was created that contained contact details of the teaching team and coordinator, as well as a course handbook and videos introducing the course. Assessment comprised the administration of questionnaires before and after the course, in order to explore the main intervention outcomes: knowledge acquired and self-learning readiness. Satisfaction was also measured at the end of the course. Results Of the 50 health professionals recruited, 3 did not complete the course for personal or work-related reasons. The mean score on the pre-course knowledge questionnaire was 70.5 out of 100, with a standard deviation of 11.96. In general, participants’ performance on the knowledge questionnaire improved after the course, as reflected in the notable increase of the mean score, to 86.6, with a standard deviation of 10.00. Further, analyses confirmed statistically significant differences between pre- and post-course results (p?

2014-01-01

37

Perceived Purposes of Performance Appraisal: Correlates of Individual- and Position-Focused Purposes on Attitudinal Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisals have traditionally been directed at individuals, serving either an administrative or developmental purpose. They may serve a role definition purpose as well. This study sought to identify and more broadly define the purposes of performance appraisals to include this role definition purpose. Furthermore, this study examined…

Youngcourt, Satoris S.; Leiva, Pedro I.; Jones, Robert G.

2007-01-01

38

The Perceived Utility of Performance Appraisals: A Structural Model and Organizational Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on performance appraisals has often overlooked the importance of attitudinal and organizational variables. To test a model of the influence of organizational contextual variables on the perceived utility of performance appraisals, 239 Virginia mental health workers completed a questionnaire. The 21 items were designed to measure the four…

Dickinson, Terry L.; Davis, Donald D.

39

German Training Revisited: An Appraisal of Corporatist Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to re-examine the unique political economy of Germany's dual apprenticeship training model and its underlying philosophy of corporatist governance. It responds to recent arguments suggesting that Germany's collectivist skill regime is under threat, increasingly giving way to the introduction of "segmentalism".…

Lange, Thomas

2012-01-01

40

A Synthesis of Research on the Performance Appraisal Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by managers, consultants, and teachers of courses in organization behavior, organizational communication, and interviewing, this literature review brings together a great deal of what has been written concerning appraisal interviews. Based on the review, the paper offers 13 guidelines for preparing and conducting appraisal

Stano, Michael

41

Determining the Root Causes of Concerns Associated with the Performance Appraisal Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many organizations use formal appraisals to measure employee performance. Augustana College's Office of Admissions introduced an appraisal process in 2006. Subsequently, staff expressed a number of concerns, ranging from confusion about the process to its link to compensation. Action research proved essential for understanding the problems; it…

Barnds, W. Kent

2011-01-01

42

Current Practices in Appraising Employee Performance as Performed by the Business Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major ppurpose of this study was to determine from human resource administrators in the business community the techniques now used in appraising exempt and nonexempt employee performance. Of the 1,000 administrators surveyed, 125 returned usable questionnaires for a response rate of 12.5 percent. The administrators reported that even though…

Allen, Thomas R., Jr., Comp.; Lyne, George E., Jr., Comp.

43

Does training facilitate SME's performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores relationships between small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) foreign direct investment (FDI), FDI-related training programs and organizational performance. To determine if the implementation of training programs mediate the relationship between FDI and SME performance, and if the alignment between training needs and training implementation leads to higher SME performance, we collected large-scale company-level data (N = 816) from within Taiwan.Research

Nai-Wen Chi; Chih-Yun Wu; Carol Yeh-Yun Lin

2008-01-01

44

An investigation of the performance feedback process using a self-appraisal  

E-print Network

August 1985 Major Subject: Psychology AN INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK PROCESS USING A SELF-APPRAISAL A Thesis MARYBETH DEGREGORIO Approved as to style and content by: James B. Shaw (Cha' person) Mstchell W. Fields (Member) Stephen... Worchel (Depart ent Head) C thia D. Fisher (Member) August 1985 ABSTRACT An Investigation of the Performance Feedback Process Using a Self-Appraisal. (August 1985) NaryBeth DeGregorio, B. S. , University of Illinois Chairman of Advisory Committee...

DeGregorio, Marybeth

1985-01-01

45

Accuracy in performance appraisals: a comparison of two rater cognitive process models  

E-print Network

ACCURACY IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS: A COMPARISON OF TWO RATER COGNITIVE PROCESS MODELS A Thesis by SUSAN LEE FRANK MAJOR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Psychology ACCURACY IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS: A COMPARISON OF TWO RATER COGNITIVE PROCESS MODELS A Thesis by SUSAN LEE FRANK MAJOR Approved as to style and content by: Rosean J. Foti (Chai r...

Major, Susan Lee Frank

2012-06-07

46

Guidelines for the Interviewee in the Performance Appraisal Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To describe those behaviors leading to productive appraisal interviews of sales representatives, questionnaires were administered to 27 branch sales managers who supervised 160 sales representatives. Eleven managers received a preliminary questionnaire asking them to cite behaviors of the sales representatives that caused productive or…

Stano, Michael

47

The Relationship between Self-Appraisal, Professional Training, and Diversity Awareness among Forensic Psychology Students: A Pilot Formative Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, there is a growing need for formal training in forensic psychology. This pilot study examines the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction, perceived academic competence, and program competency among a sample of forensic psychology students. In theory, the RBM suggests that self-appraisal,…

Chandler, Donald S., Jr.; Chandler, Michele D.; Clark, Quelanda C.

2009-01-01

48

Management behavior, group climate and performance appraisal at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationships among manager behavior, group climate and managerial effectiveness are examined. Survey data were collected from 435 GM14-15 managers and their subordinates at NASA concerning management practices and perceptions of the group environment. Performance ratings of managers were obtained from their superiors. The results strongly supported a causal model in which subordinates' climate perceptions mediate the effects of manager behavior on performance. That is, the development of group climate provides the process through which the effects of manager practices may be understood. Analyses also revealed that the function performed by a manager and his group (e.g., research) influenced the specific nature of the causal dynamics. Some implications of the results for management training and development are discussed.

Manderlink, G.; Clark, L. P.; Bernstein, W. M.; Burke, W. W.

1985-01-01

49

Performance appraisals: more than just a feedback tool. Legal documentation for employment decisions.  

PubMed

Unjust discharge suits filed on behalf of disgruntled employees are becoming frequent occurrences. The employment-at-will doctrine, which has protected an employer's right to discharge employees for any reason or no reason at all, is continually being challenged. This stream of litigation has caused organizations to take a new look at how employment decisions are made. The result has been a renewed interest in the performance appraisal process--a key method in providing feedback and documenting worker performance. Aside from providing organizations with legal documentation, effective performance appraisals provide organizations with several benefits. First, feedback fosters positive actions and eliminates inappropriate behaviors. Second, the supervisor-employee relationship is improved. Third, effective performance appraisals increase motivation, morale, and job satisfaction--ultimately resulting in increased productivity. PMID:10105861

Singer, M G

1990-01-01

50

Performance Appraisal System Impact on University Academic Staff Job Satisfaction and Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Zimbabwe (UZ) introduced a performance appraisal system (PAS) designed to improve performance indicators across the board in Public Service including academic/faculty staff at the University of Zimbabwe as part of a nation wide strategy. The Public service is a body responsible for all civil workers including academic staff,…

Ndambakuwa, Yustina; Mufunda, Jacob

2006-01-01

51

The Characteristics of an Effective Performance Appraisal Interview: A Rules Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to answer the following research questions: (1) to what extent is there consensus in the organizational culture on basic rules for an effective performance; (2) to what extent are there variations in rule consensus for an effective performance appraisal interview among groups within the organization; and (3) to what extent do…

Williams, Sheryl L.

52

Software for Performance Training Carrel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A prototype system was developed to evaluate a computer-assisted performance training carrel which was used to present the troubleshooting fundamentals lesson of the Lowry Technical Training Center's Electronic Principles Course. This manual provides a description of the PDP-11 and PLATO programs used to implement this system, and an operators…

Wasmundt, Kenneth C.; Steffen, Dale A.

53

Performance Appraisal of Community College Department/Division Chairpersons: National Survey of Community College, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national survey of community college department chairpersons was conducted in 1978 to determine: (1) the purposes, procedures, criteria, and standards used to evaluate their administrative performance; (2) their opinions about the present and the desirable components of chairperson appraisal systems; and (3) how chairpersons from various…

Thomas, Wanda E.

54

The linear programming alternative to policy capturing for eliciting criteria weights in the performance appraisal process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of management is the periodic performance appraisal (PA) of subordinates. This paper focuses on inferring the criteria employed and weights attached to them by an assessor in any PA process. Linear programming (LP) is proposed as an alternative to policy capturing (PC) as the inference mechanism. The LP approach is illustrated and contrasted with regression-based PC approaches.

C. Zappe

1995-01-01

55

Superior and Subordinate Perceptions of Management Communication Style and Communication Satisfaction during Performance Appraisal Interviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the relationship between management communication style and communication satisfaction during performance appraisal interviews. Generating a 50% response rate, 83 staff employees (47 supervisors and 36 subordinates) at a large midwestern university returned a questionnaire survey assessing communication during…

Downs, Timothy M.

56

Cultural values and performance appraisal: assessing the effects of rater self-construal on performance ratings.  

PubMed

Much of the prior research investigating the influence of cultural values on performance ratings has focused either on conducting cross-national comparisons among raters or using cultural level individualism/collectivism scales to measure the effects of cultural values on performance ratings. Recent research has shown that there is considerable within country variation in cultural values, i.e. people in one country can be more individualistic or collectivistic in nature. Taking the latter perspective, the present study used Markus and Kitayama's (1991) conceptualization of independent and interdependent self-construals as measures of individual variations in cultural values to investigate within culture variations in performance ratings. Results suggest that rater self-construal has a significant influence on overall performance evaluations; specifically, raters with a highly interdependent self-construal tend to show a preference for interdependent ratees, whereas raters high on independent self-construal do not show a preference for specific type of ratees when making overall performance evaluations. Although rater self-construal significantly influenced overall performance evaluations, no such effects were observed for specific dimension ratings. Implications of these results for performance appraisal research and practice are discussed. PMID:23885636

Mishra, Vipanchi; Roch, Sylvia G

2013-01-01

57

Assessing What Professors Do: An Introduction to Academic Performance Appraisal in Higher Education. Contributions to the Study of Education, Number 61.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines faculty performance appraisal especially in light of ethical and legal issues involved in the appraisal process. Part 1 contains three chapters concerned with the structure and ethics of evaluation. These chapters provide a frame of reference for the next two chapters that deal with criteria used in performance appraisals and…

Dilts, David A.; And Others

58

Lecturing Performance Appraisal Criteria: Staff and Student Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty ratings by academic staff and students in a new Australian higher education institution were compared on 21 criteria of lecturing performance. Faculty placed more emphasis on a range of performance criteria, while students stressed pace of presentation. Analysis revealed differences in the two groups' schematic models. Both agree that the…

Fisher, Adrian T.; Alder, John G.; Avasalu, Mark W.

1998-01-01

59

Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

ElShenawy, Eman

2010-01-01

60

Faculty Training in Evidence-Based Medicine: Improving Evidence Acquisition and Critical Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) integrates published clinical evidence with patient values and clinical expertise, the output of which is informed medical decision making. Key skills for evidence-based practice include acquisition and appraisal of clinical information. Faculty clinicians often lack expertise in these skills and are…

Nicholson, Laura J.; Warde, Carole M.; Boker, John R.

2007-01-01

61

Mindfulness Training Targets Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Addiction at the Attention-Appraisal-Emotion Interface  

PubMed Central

Prominent neuroscience models suggest that addictive behavior occurs when environmental stressors and drug-relevant cues activate a cycle of cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological mechanisms, including dysregulated interactions between bottom-up and top-down neural processes, that compel the user to seek out and use drugs. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) target pathogenic mechanisms of the risk chain linking stress and addiction. This review describes how MBIs may target neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs ameliorate addiction by enhancing cognitive regulation of a number of key processes, including: clarifying cognitive appraisal and modulating negative emotions to reduce perseverative cognition and emotional arousal; enhancing metacognitive awareness to regulate drug-use action schema and decrease addiction attentional bias; promoting extinction learning to uncouple drug-use triggers from conditioned appetitive responses; reducing cue-reactivity and increasing cognitive control over craving; attenuating physiological stress reactivity through parasympathetic activation; and increasing savoring to restore natural reward processing. Treatment and research implications of our neurocognitive framework are presented. We conclude by offering a temporally sequenced description of neurocognitive processes targeted by MBIs through a hypothetical case study. Our neurocognitive framework has implications for the optimization of addiction treatment with MBIs. PMID:24454293

Garland, Eric L.; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O.

2014-01-01

62

Mindfulness training targets neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface.  

PubMed

Prominent neuroscience models suggest that addictive behavior occurs when environmental stressors and drug-relevant cues activate a cycle of cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological mechanisms, including dysregulated interactions between bottom-up and top-down neural processes, that compel the user to seek out and use drugs. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) target pathogenic mechanisms of the risk chain linking stress and addiction. This review describes how MBIs may target neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs ameliorate addiction by enhancing cognitive regulation of a number of key processes, including: clarifying cognitive appraisal and modulating negative emotions to reduce perseverative cognition and emotional arousal; enhancing metacognitive awareness to regulate drug-use action schema and decrease addiction attentional bias; promoting extinction learning to uncouple drug-use triggers from conditioned appetitive responses; reducing cue-reactivity and increasing cognitive control over craving; attenuating physiological stress reactivity through parasympathetic activation; and increasing savoring to restore natural reward processing. Treatment and research implications of our neurocognitive framework are presented. We conclude by offering a temporally sequenced description of neurocognitive processes targeted by MBIs through a hypothetical case study. Our neurocognitive framework has implications for the optimization of addiction treatment with MBIs. PMID:24454293

Garland, Eric L; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O

2014-01-10

63

Psychological capital and performance of Portuguese civil servants: exploring neutralizers in the context of an appraisal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature suggests that psychological capital (PsyCap: self-efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience) predicts work performance. Our case study, carried out in the context of a performance appraisal system (SIADAP) recently implemented in the Portuguese Public Administration, does not corroborate this prediction. In the research 278 civil servants self-reported their performance and PsyCap and their supervisor-rated performance scores according to the SIADAP

Arménio Rego; Carla Marques; Susana Leal; Filipa Sousa; Miguel Pina e Cunha

2010-01-01

64

Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be…

Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

2010-01-01

65

A Comparison of Results-Oriented and Trait-Based Performance Appraisals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from questionnaires administered to 163 company middle managers and from their personnel files revealed that the 87 managers from a division using the management-by-objectives appraisal system are more satisfied with this system and its feedback than are the 76 respondents from a division using a subjective appraisal system. (MLF)

Murray, Stuart

1983-01-01

66

Development and Use of Performance Appraisal of Certificated Education Staff in Ontario School Boards. Volume I: Technical Report. Professionalism in Schools Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses four questions: (1) What types of performance appraisal policy for educational staff have been adopted by Ontario school boards? (2) To what extent have these policies been implemented in practice? (3) What types of appraisal policies are most effective? and (4) What processes have school boards used to develop and implement…

Lawton, S. B.; And Others

67

Parametrization and performance appraisal of the analytic and variational X? method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linear combination of atomic orbitals, analytic and variational implementation of Slater's X? method that allows arbitrary scaling of the exchange-correlation potential around each atom has been formulated. The method is numerical integration free, and thus delivers machine-precision energies that are stationary in all respects. One choice of scaling uses the ?s that give exact atomic energies. We present the results of a performance assessment of this method by calculating the atomization energies and total energies of the G2 and extended G2 sets of molecules. Similar calculations for uniform ? are also appraised. Minimizing the mean absolute error in both the X? energies and the Hartree-Fock energies shows that Slater's exchange functional with ? = 0.7091 performs significantly better than the G'asp'ar-Kohn-Sham exchange functional for these molecules and for equally weighted atoms H-Kr. The Office of Naval Research, directly and through the Naval Research Laboratory, and the DoD's High Performance Computing Modernization Program, through the Common High Performance Computing Software Support Initiative, Project MBD-5, supported this work. The calculations were performed at the Army Research Laboratory Major Shared Resource Center (ARL MSRC).

Zope, Rajendra; Dunlap, Brett

2005-03-01

68

Improving Wordspotting Performance with Limited Training Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses the problem of limited training data in pattern detection problems where a small number of target classes must be detected in a varied background. There is typically limited training data and limited knowledge about class distributions in this type of spotting problem and in this case a statistical pattern classifier can not accurately model class distributions. The domain of wordspotting is used to explore new approaches that improve spotting system performance with limited training data. First, a high performance, state-of-the-art whole-word based wordspotter is developed. Two complementary approaches are then introduced to help compensate for the lack of data. Figure of Merit training, a new type of discriminative training algorithm, modifies the spotting system parameters according to the metric used to evaluate wordspotting systems. The effectiveness of discriminative training approaches may be limited due to overtraining a classifier on insufficient training data. While the classifier's performance on the training data improves, the classifier's performance on unseen test data degrades. To alleviate this problem, voice transformation techniques are used to generate more training examples that improve the robustness of the spotting system. The wordspotter is trained and tested on the Switchboard credit-card database, a database of spontaneous conversations recorded over the telephone. The baseline wordspotter achieves a Figure of Merit of 62.5% on a testing set. With Figure of Merit training, the Figure of Merit improves to 65.8%. When Figure of Merit training and voice transformations are used together, the Figure of Merit improves to 71.9%. The final wordspotter system achieves a Figure of Merit of 64.2% on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) September 1992 official benchmark, surpassing the 1992 results from other whole-word based wordspotting systems. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

Chang, Eric I.-Chao

1995-01-01

69

TAP 2, Performance-Based Training Manual  

SciTech Connect

Training programs at DOE nuclear facilities should provide well- trained, qualified personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. A need has been identified for guidance regarding analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of consistent and reliable performance-based training programs. Accreditation of training programs at Category A reactors and high-hazard and selected moderate-hazard nonreactor facilities will assure consistent, appropriate, and cost-effective training of personnel responsible for the operation, maintenance, and technical support of these facilities. Training programs that are designed and based on systematically job requirements, instead of subjective estimation of trainee needs, yield training activities that are consistent and develop or improve knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be directly related to the work setting. Because the training is job-related, the content of these programs more efficiently and effectively meets the needs of the employee. Besides a better trained work force, a greater level of operational reactor safety can be realized. This manual is intended to provide an overview of the accreditation process and a brief description of the elements necessary to construct and maintain training programs that are based on the requirements of the job. Two comparison manuals provide additional information to assist contractors in their efforts to accredit training programs.

Not Available

1991-07-01

70

VISUAL TRAINING AND READING PERFORMANCE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

VISUAL TRAINING IS DEFINED AS THE FIELD OF OCULAR REEDUCATION AND REHABILITATION OF THE VARIOUS VISUAL SKILLS THAT ARE OF PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE TO SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT, AUTOMOBILE DRIVING, OUTDOOR SPORTS ACTIVITIES, AND OCCUPATIONAL PURSUITS. A HISTORY OF ORTHOPTICS, THE SUGGESTED NAME FOR THE ENTIRE FIELD OF OCULAR REEDUCATION, IS GIVEN. READING AS…

ANAPOLLE, LOUIS

71

Simulation and Aircrew Training and Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines some major areas of use of simulation in Army Aviation and comments on current research. Equipment development, crew performance studies, concept development and training are discussed. Only in the training area has the Army made substantial progress. A broad program of simulation research with emphasis on engineering and…

Prophet, Wallace W.; Caro, Paul W.

72

Performance Training Carrel for Electronics Principles Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides documentation for the design, construction, and operation of an interactive electronics training panel developed for a computer assisted performance training carrel. The panel is a plug-in module designed to simulate electronic circuitry and a PMS-6 multimeter as required for a troubleshooting fundamentals lesson in an Air…

Kargo, Donald W.; Steffen, Dale A.

73

Diagnostic Performance 1 H after Simulation Training Predicts Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although simulation training improves post-training performance, it is unclear how well performance soon after simulation training predicts longer term outcomes (i.e., learning). Here our objective was to assess the predictive value of performance 1 h post-training of performance 6 weeks later. We trained 84 first year medical students a simulated…

Consoli, Anna; Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene; Sobczak, Matthew; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

2013-01-01

74

Prior mathematics achievement, cognitive appraisals and anxiety as predictors of Finnish students’ later mathematics performance and career orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this two?year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics?specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control?value theory, assumed to be culturally universal, and previous controversial results regarding the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics

Minna Kyttälä; Piia Maria Björn

2010-01-01

75

Improving Performance in Technical and Apprentice Training. A Pilot Study of Performance Based Apprentice Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major objective of this study was to demonstrate that an effective first-year apprentice training program (in the metal trades) could be developed in which performance was the primary criterion of success. The Performance Based Apprentice Training (PBAT) experimental group completed a full year of related instruction in an average of 61 hours…

Oriel, Arthur E.

76

Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. p<0.001) in male athletes. The endomorphy component was the most substantial predictor. Reductions in endomorphy by one standard deviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively). An ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes. PMID:23834510

Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter

2014-01-01

77

Collaborative Peer Coaching That Improves Instruction: The 2 + 2 Performance Appraisal Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behind a simple equation, 2 + 2, lies a rich yet realistic approach to enhancing teaching and learning. As this book demonstrates, the current method of job appraisal consists of sporadic classroom visits from school administrators that frequently serve to reinforce teacher isolation rather than promote professional development. In contrast, the 2…

Allen Dwight W.; LeBlanc, Alyce C.

2004-01-01

78

The Appraisal of Teachers' Performance and Its Impact on the Mutuality of Principal-Teacher Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examines the mutual discrete emotions among superiors and their above- and below-average workers within a hierarchical organisation (school). Using a survey method within a random sample of 40 elementary schools in Northern Israel, each principal and four of his or her teachers (two who had been appraised as excellent and two who…

Yariv, Eliezer

2009-01-01

79

Throwing performance after resistance training and detraining.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of short-term resistance training and detraining on shot put throwing performance. Eleven young healthy subjects with basic shot put skills participated in 14 weeks of resistance training, which was followed by 4 weeks of detraining. Shot put performance in four field tests was measured before (T1) and after (T2) resistance training and after detraining (T3). At the same time points, one repetition maximum (1RM) was measured in squat, bench press, and leg press. Fat-free mass (FFM) was determined with dual x-ray absorptiometry and muscle biopsies obtained from vastus lateralis for the determination of fiber type composition and cross-sectional area (CSA). 1RM strength increased 22-34% (p < 0.01) at T2 and decreased 4-5% (not significantly different) at T3. Shot put performance increased 6-12% (p < 0.05) after training and remained unaltered after detraining. FFM increased at T2 (p < 0.05) but remained unchanged between T2 and T3. Muscle fiber CSA increased 12-18% (p < 0.05) at T2. Type I muscle fiber CSA was not altered after detraining, but type IIa and IIx fiber CSA was reduced 10-12% (p < 0.05). The percentage of type IIx muscle fibers was reduced after training (T1 = 18.7 +/- 4, T2 = 10.4 +/- 1; p < 0.05), and it was increased at T3 compared with T2 (T3 = 13.7 +/- 1; p < 0.05). These results suggest that shot put performance remains unaltered after 4 weeks of complete detraining in moderately resistance-trained subjects. This might be linked to the concomitant reduction of muscle fiber CSA and increase in the percentage of type IIx muscle fibers. PMID:18545188

Terzis, Gerasimos; Stratakos, Grigoris; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

2008-07-01

80

Workplace Training Module: Enhancing Ecotourism Business Performance  

E-print Network

of university course) Prescriptor This training module forms part of a broader qualification focused of environmental issues, human resource management, marketing, the development of visitor experience into how to enhance the environmental, social and economic performance of any tourism related business

81

Development of High Performance AC Drive Train  

Microsoft Academic Search

In its efforts to give best to the consumers, REVA Electric Car Company (RECC) has developed the REVAi - a new model with a high performance AC drive train. The REVAi offers benefits to user in terms of increased power resulting in a higher top speed, 35% better acceleration and grade ability. A new optimized algorithm and higher efficiency motor

S. Pathak; R. Prakash

2006-01-01

82

Measuring Student Performances and Performance Appraisals with the College Life Task Assessment Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College Life Task Assessment Instrument (CLT), a 35-item questionnaire, assesses college student performance in 7 life-task domains important to college life. Reliability and Validity results demonstrate the CLT's ability to predict freshman and cumulative GPA, freshman and cumulative credits earned, academic, social, and personal-emotional…

Brower, Aaron M.

1994-01-01

83

Improved Building Performance Through Effective Communication & Training  

E-print Network

IMPROVED BUILDING PERFORMANCE THROUGH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION & TRAINING Rick Bates Project Manager Environmental Education Foundation Gilbert, AZ ABSTRACT This paper describes the procedures involved in the development of a... new, multi-level indoor air quality management program that utilizes human behavior science, economics, and conceptual learning techniques. This unique approach has allowed for a clear, concise, and consistent message to be delivered to a broad...

Bates, R.

2005-01-01

84

Reduced training maintains performance in distance runners.  

PubMed

This investigation examined endurance runners during a 3-week reduction in training volume and frequency. Ten well-conditioned runners were monitored for 4 weeks while training at their normal weekly training distance (mean +/- SE) (81 +/- 5 km/week, 6 days/week). This period was designated as baseline training (BT). Sixty km/week were run at approximately 75% VO2max, and the remainder (21 km/week) at approximately 95% VO2max in the form of intervals and races. The runners then reduced weekly training volume (RT) by 70% of BT to 24 +/- 2 km/week and frequency by 17% to 5 days/week for 3 weeks. During RT 17 km/week was performed at approximately 75% VO2max and the remainder (7 km/week) at approximately 95% VO2max (intervals and races). The runners were tested weekly and performed 5-km races on a 200-m indoor track during Bt and after 2 and 3 weeks of RT. Maximal heart rate (HR) increased (P less than 0.05) by approximately 4 beats/min at RT week 3, which may have been associated with a decrease in estimated plasma volume (P less than 0.01) of 5.62 +/- 0.43%. Time to exhaustion during the VO2max tests increased (P less than 0.05) by 9.5% at RT week 3. No significant (P greater than 0.05) changes occurred with RT in body weight, % body fat, overall 5 km race times, VO2max, muscular power (vertical leap and Margaria power test), and citrate synthase activity (at 2 weeks of RT). No alterations in venous lactate, energy expenditure, and HR were observed during submaximal running at two speeds (approximately 65% and 85% VO2max) with RT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2318562

Houmard, J A; Costill, D L; Mitchell, J B; Park, S H; Hickner, R C; Roemmich, J N

1990-02-01

85

Tractor Trailer Driver's Training Programs. Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes a project to develop a 320-hour tractor trailer driver training program and a 20-hour commercial driver licensing upgrade training program. Of 34 graduates from the training program, 28 secured employment in the trucking industry. From August 1989 to June 1990, 725 students were trained in the upgrade training program with…

New Hampshire Vocational Technical Coll., Nashua.

86

The Effects of Isolated and Integrated ‘Core Stability’ Training on Athletic Performance Measures  

PubMed Central

Background Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. Objective This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. Data sources A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June2011). Study selection A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Study appraisal and synthesis methods Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. Results In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Limitations Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic development programme, making it difficult to directly isolate its affect on athletic performance. The population biases of some studies of athletic performance also confound the results. Conclusions Targeted core stability training provides marginal benefits to athletic performance. Conflicting findings and the lack of a standardization for measurement of outcomes and training focused to improve core strength and stability pose difficulties. Because of this, further research targeted to determine this relationship is necessary to better understand how core strength and stability affect athletic performance. PMID:22784233

Reed, Casey A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

87

Cognitive strategy training and intellectual performance in the elderly.  

PubMed

Reduced intellectual performance in the elderly was conceptualized as an experientail deficit than can be reversed by training relevant component skills. Sixty female elderly subjects (ages 63 to 95) participated in three phases of the experiment: Training, Immediate Posttest, and Delayed Posttest. Training was geared at strengthening covert self-monitoring strategies in complex reasoning problems, and training effects were evaluated both on the training and a transfer task. Results showed raised performance in the training conditions, transfer effects, and maintenance of training and transfer effects over 2 weeks. Implications for theories of adult intelligence are discussed. PMID:1270769

Labouvie-Vief, G; Gonda, J N

1976-05-01

88

Dancing in pain: pain appraisal and coping in dancers.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between the type of pain experienced (performance pain and injury pain), the cognitive appraisal of pain and pain coping styles in dancers. Fifty-one professional ballet and contemporary dancers (17 males and 34 females), with the mean age of 25.9 years, completed a general pain questionnaire, the Pain Appraisal Inventory, the Survey of Pain Attitudes Control Subscale, and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that both the cognitive appraisal of the pain and pain coping styles did not differ according to the type of pain experienced or the pain severity. However, it was found that dancers with performance pain of either low or high severity were more likely to dance in pain than dancers experiencing injury pain. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the appraisal of pain as threatening was predictive of the use of avoidance and catastrophizing pain coping styles. Overall, results indicated that dancers may not differentiate between performance pain and injury pain, or modify their appraisal and coping strategies according to the characteristics of the pain experienced. The study highlighted an opportunity for increased education for dancers in recognizing the difference between pain considered to be a routine aspect of training and pain which is a signal of serious injury. PMID:19618573

Anderson, Ruth; Hanrahan, Stephanie J

2008-01-01

89

Goal relevance and goal conduciveness appraisals lead to differential autonomic reactivity in emotional responding to performance feedback.  

PubMed

Using an appraisal framework, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that goal relevance and goal conduciveness have an interactive effect on emotional responding. We expected that elicitation of positive or negative emotions in response to events that are conducive or obstructive to attainment of one's goals depends on the level of goal relevance. To test this hypothesis, we presented 119 participants with positive (success) or negative (failure) performance feedback of high or low relevance in an achievement context. Feeling self-report showed effects of conduciveness, but no interaction with relevance. Physiological reactivity showed the predicted interaction effect on cardiac autonomic regulation (CAR), with higher CAR for high-relevance conducive than obstructive conditions. Moreover, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and skin conductance level (SCL) differed between conducive and obstructive conditions, and heart rate (HR) and SCL differed between relevance conditions. Implications for the plausibility and current empirical support of the interaction hypothesis are discussed. PMID:22947258

Kreibig, Sylvia D; Gendolla, Guido H E; Scherer, Klaus R

2012-12-01

90

Making Connections between the Appraisal, Performance Management and Professional Development of Dentists and Teachers: "Right, What Are the Problems We've Got and How Could We Sort This Out?'"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluating the connections between the appraisal, or performance management, of different professional groups, and their subsequent uptake of continuing professional development (CPD), is valuable for both employees and managers. The linking of appraisal systems with professional/personal development plans amongst health professionals is now…

Butt, Graham; Macnab, Natasha

2013-01-01

91

Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

Lyons, Paul R.

2010-01-01

92

Cognitive Strategy Training and Intellectual Performance in the Elderly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reduced intellectual performance in the elderly was conceptualized as an experiential dificit that can be reversed by training relevant component skills. Female elderly subjects (N=60) participated in three phases of the experiment: Training, Immediate Posttest, and Delayed Posttest. Training was geared at strengthening covert self-monitoring…

Labouvie-Vief, Gisela; Gonda, Judith N.

1976-01-01

93

Employee Post-Training Behaviour and Performance: Evaluating the Results of the Training Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the fact that firms invest in training, there is considerable evidence to show that training programmes often fail to achieve the intended result of improving worker and organization performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the medium- to long-term effects of training programmes on firms by means of an integrated research model…

Diamantidis, Anastasios D.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.

2014-01-01

94

Effects of inspiratory muscle training on time-trial performance in trained cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of specific inspiratory muscle training on simulated time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 16 male cyclists (VO 2max = 64 - 2 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; mean - sx ¥ ) were assigned at random to either an experimental (pressure-threshold inspiratory muscle training) or sham-training control (placebo) group. Pulmonary function, maximum

Lee M. Romer; Alison K. McConnell; David A. Jones

2002-01-01

95

Training perceived intensity and performance changes quantification in judo.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to determine the methods of quantification for training and performance which would be the most appropriate for modelling the responses to long-term training in Cadet and Junior judo athletes. For this, 10 young male judo athletes (15.9 ± 1.3 years, 64.9 ± 10.3 kg and 170.8 ± 5.4 cm) competing at a regional/state level volunteered to take part in the study. Data were collected during a two years training period (i.e, 702 days) from January 2011 to December 2012. Their mean training volume was 6.52 ± 0.43 hours per week during the preparatory periods and 4.75 ± 0.49 hours per week during the competitive periods. The followed a training program prescribed by the same coach. The training load was quantified through the session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and expressed in arbitrary unit (a.u.). Performance was quantified from five parameters divided in two categories: performance in competition and performance in training. The evaluation of performance in competition was based upon the number of points per level. Performance in training was assessed through four different tests. A physical test battery consisting in a standing long jump, two judo specific tests that were the maximal number of dynamic chin up holding the judogi and the Special Judo Fitness Test. System modeling for describing training adaptations consisted of mathematically relating the training load of the training sessions (system input) to the change in performance (system output). The quality of the fit between training load and performance was similar whether the training load was computed directly from RPE (R = 0.55 ± 0.18) or from the session-RPE (R = 0.56 ± 0.18) and significant in 8 athletes over 10, excluding the standing jump from the computation of the training load, leading to a simplest method. Thus, this study represents a first attempt to model training load effects on judo-specific performance and has shown that the best relationships between amounts of training and changes in performance were obtained when training amounts were quantified simply from RPE. PMID:25436630

Agostinho, Marcus F; Philippe, Antony G; Marcolino, Gilvan S; Pereira, Ewerton R; Busso, Thierry; Candau, Robin B; Franchini, Emerson

2014-11-26

96

The effects of rhythm training on tennis performance.  

PubMed

Rhythm training is an integral part of sports. The purposes of the study were to analyze the effects of rhythm training on tennis performance and rhytmic competence of tennis players, to compare the improvement levels of tennis specific and general rhythm training and to examine the effects of shorter and longer tempos on rhythmic competence. Thirty university students whose mean score of International Tennis Number (ITN) was 7.3 (±0.9) were divided randomly into three sub-groups: Tennis Group, General Rhythm Training Group and Tennis-Specific Rhythm Training Group. The experimental procedure lasted 8 weeks. During this period, all groups had the same tennis training twice a week. The Tennis Group had regular tennis training sessions. In addition to regular tennis training sessions, the General Rhythm Training Group followed the general rhythm training sessions and the Tennis-Specific Rhythm Training Group had tennis-specific rhythm training. The measurement instruments were ITN, Rhythmic Competence Analysis Test and Untimed Consecutive Rally Test. The results indicated that participation in tennis-specific or general rhythm training resulted in progress in tennis playing levels, forehand consistency performance and rhythmic competence of the participants. On the other hand, attendance to the regular 8-week tennis training was enough to solely increase the tennis playing level but not sufficient to develop forehand consistency performance and rhythmic competence. Although the participants in the TRTG had better improvement scores than the ones in the GRTG, no significant difference was found between the rhythm training groups. The results also revealed that participants exhibited higher rhythmic competence scores on fast tempo compared to slow tempo. PMID:23486093

Sö?üt, Mustafa; Kirazci, Sadettin; Korkusuz, Feza

2012-06-01

97

Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an improvement over last year. In contrast, recognition and teamwork are the two major areas where improvement in supervisory performance seems to be most needed. The initial report card results will serve as a baseline against which future performance ratings will be compared. Once supervisors have been presented with their data and given an opportunity to analyze and discus the results, they will be assisted in developing an action plan for improving their performance and work processes. They will be provided with ongoing support from management in following through with the action plan.

Siegfeldt, Denise V.

1994-01-01

98

Stretch shorten cycle performance enhancement through flexibility training.  

PubMed

Sixteen experienced male powerlifters served as subjects in a training study designed to examine the effect of flexibility training on: (i) the stiffness of the series elastic components (SEC) of the upper body musculature and (ii) rebound and purely concentric bench press performance. Nine of the subjects participated in two sessions of flexibility training twice per week for 8 wk. Prior to and after the training period the subjects' static flexibility, SEC stiffness, rebound bench press (RBP), and purely concentric bench press (PCBP) performance were recorded. The flexibility training induced a significant reduction in the maximal stiffness of the SEC. Furthermore, the experimental subjects produced significantly more work during the initial concentric portion of the RBP lift, enabling a significantly greater load to be lifted in the post-training testing occasion. The benefits to performance achieved by the experimental group consequent to flexibility training were greater during the RBP lift as compared with the PCBP lift. The control subjects exhibited no change in any variable over the training period. These results implied that the RBP performance enhancement observed consequent to flexibility training was directly caused by a reduction in SEC stiffness, increasing the utilization of elastic strain energy during the RBP lift. PMID:1548985

Wilson, G J; Elliott, B C; Wood, G A

1992-01-01

99

ENHANCING PERFORMANCE IN ELITE WATER POLO PLAYERS: DRY-LAND TRAINING, IN-WATER TRAINING, AND COMBINED TRAINING.  

PubMed

We compared the effects of 6 weeks of dry land, in-water specific strength training and plyometric training combined with a water polo (WP) training program on seven sport-specific performance parameters. Thirty professional players were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: combined training (CG), in-water specific strength (WSG), and plyometrics (PG). The program included three weekly strength-training sessions and five days of WP training per week for a total of six weeks during the preseason. The 10m-T-Agility Test, 20-m maximal sprint swim, maximal dynamic strength (1RM, bench press (BP) and full squat (FS)), in-water boost, countermovement jump (CMJ) and throwing speed (ThS) were measured prior to and after the 6 week training period. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the tested variables prior to the initiation of the 6-week training period. After six weeks of training, significant improvements (p?0.001) were found in the PG group for the CMJ (6.1%) and in all groups for the in-water boost (4.4-5.1%) test. The 1RM BP (+7.6-12.6%) and FS (11.5-14.6%) significantly (p<0.05) increased in all groups. Additionally, ThS significantly increased in all groups (11.4-17.5%), while the agility test was significantly decreased (-7.3%) in only the CG group. Combined, in-water specific strength and plyometric training produced medium to large effects on most WP-specific performance parameters. Therefore, we propose preseason WP training should include a combined training program which contains dry land and in water specific strength and plyometric training in order to optimise the WP preparation for competition. PMID:25259469

Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, G Gregory; Ramos Veliz, Rafael

2014-09-25

100

Appraisal of Supervisor's Attitude and Managerial Performance in Health Care Facilities-Mashhad-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an applied, cross-sectional descriptive research which includes all supervisors and Staffs in Mashhad health care facilities. It was used of 2 different questionnaires. Data was gathered and then had been coded and analyzed with SPSS software and t-test. In practice, the maximum notice of administrations was to organization and the minimum one referred to assessment. Between administration attitudes and their performance about planning and assessment was a significant direction positive but there was a significant difference about organization between these groups. The length of services of employee's was the only factor that was effective about the administration performance. The finding depicted that supervisor's performance evaluation as one of the most effective recognition and control methods and has an important role and is effective in promoting productivity of services in health care facilities.

Vafaee, A.; Majdi, M.; Kabazkhoob, M.

101

Appraisal of Memory Functioning and Memory Performance in Healthy Ageing and Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: To compare memory evaluations in healthy older people and people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and present standardised individual and dyadic methods for classifying degree of memory awareness in the participants with dementia. Methods: Cross-sectional study evaluating awareness of memory functioning and performance and providing normative data for healthy individuals and couples, together with comparison data from people with AD.

Linda Clare; Christopher J. Whitaker; Sharon M. Nelis

2010-01-01

102

Cross-Cultural Training and Workplace Performance. Support Document  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was produced by the author(s) based on their research for the report "Cross- Cultural Training and Workplace Performance" (ED503402). It contains the following materials related to the report: (1) Primary approach letters; (2) Tests for statistical significance; (3) Survey of current cross-cultural training practice; (4) Survey of…

Bean, Robert

2008-01-01

103

An innovative appraisal/reward strategy for high-performance teams.  

PubMed

Competitive pressures require today's corporate leaders to maximize productivity. And to achieve long-term bottom line results, they've found that it is necessary to create a culture in which company members want to be their best and work at peak efficiency levels. But what is the formula for success? Perhaps, as suggested by this article, it involves the creation of high-performance teams. PMID:10173990

Joy, L W

1997-11-01

104

Single and repeated dose comparison of three antihistamines and phenylpropanolamine: psychomotor performance and subjective appraisals of sleep.  

PubMed Central

1 In a double-blind cross-over study, nine healthy male students received placebo, brompheniramine 12 mg), carbinoxamine (12 mg), clemastine (1 mg), and phenylpropanolamine (50 mg) orally. Three doses of each drug were given: at 08.30 h and 21.00 h on the first day of treatment and at 08.30 h on the following day. 2 Psychomotor skills and subjective feelings were recorded before and 2, 6 and 12 h after the first dose on day 1 as well as before and 2 and 6 h after the third dose on day 2. Subjective appraisals of sleep were requested on the morning of day 2. 3 All antihistamines tended to cause subjective drowsiness on the first day of treatment. Drowsiness was felt for a maximum of 2 h after carbinoxamine, 6 h after brompheniramine, and 12 h after clemastine. In contrast to antihistamines, phenylpropanolamine made subjects more alert and quick witted. Tolerance to the antihistamine-induced drowsiness developed on the second day. 4 Divided attention, tracking, speed anticipation and sleep were not affected by any drug. Carbinoxamine slowed reactions 2 h after the first dose, but no impairment was measured in objective tests after brompheniramine or clemastine. 5 Phenylpropanolamine improved reaction speed and reaction accuracy and enhanced flicker recognition throughout the study. Phenylpropanolamine plasma levels and improvement in flicker fusion test results correlated with each other on day 2. 6 The results suggest that phenylpropanolamine and the antihistamines studied are comparatively harmless to psychomotor performance and driving skills. PMID:6118170

Seppälä, T; Nuotto, E; Korttila, K

1981-01-01

105

Self-Appraisal of Physical Performance Capacity. Reports from the Institute of Applied Psychology, The University of Stockholm, No. 32.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for self-appraisal of muscular strength and physical working capacity consisting of a simple 13-grade rating scale was applied in a study of the physical fitness of a group of 70 middle-aged men. The method functioned well as shown by the similarities in means and standard deviations between ratings and laboratory measurements of the…

Borg, Gunnar; And Others

106

Empirical Study of Training and Performance in the Marathon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Similar systematic relationships exist between personal characteristics, training, and performance on the marathon, regardless of whether they derive from differences among individuals participating in the same run or from differences within the same person in two separate marathons. (Author)

Slovic, Paul

1977-01-01

107

Importance of eccentric actions in performance adaptations to resistance training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of eccentric (ecc) muscle actions in resistance training for the maintenance of muscle strength and mass in hypogravity was investigated in experiments in which human subjects, divided into three groups, were asked to perform four-five sets of 6 to 12 repetitions (rep) per set of three leg press and leg extension exercises, 2 days each weeks for 19 weeks. One group, labeled 'con', performed each rep with only concentric (con) actions, while group con/ecc with performed each rep with only ecc actions; the third group, con/con, performed twice as many sets with only con actions. Control subjects did not train. It was found that resistance training wih both con and ecc actions induced greater increases in muscle strength than did training with only con actions.

Dudley, Gary A.; Miller, Bruce J.; Buchanan, Paul; Tesch, Per A.

1991-01-01

108

The effect of plyometric training on distance running performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Previous research has reported that plyometric training improves running economy (RE) and ultimately distance-running performance,\\u000a although the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. This study examined whether changes in running performance\\u000a resulting from plyometric training were related to alterations in lower leg musculotendinous stiffness (MTS). Seventeen male\\u000a runners were pre- and post-tested for lower leg MTS, maximum isometric

Robert W. Spurrs; Aron J. Murphy; Mark L. Watsford

2003-01-01

109

Altitude training for elite endurance performance: a 2012 update.  

PubMed

Altitude training is commonly used by endurance athletes and coaches in pursuit of enhancement of performance on return to sea level. The purpose of the current review article was to update and evaluate recent literature relevant to the practical application of altitude training for endurance athletes. Consequently, the literature can be considered in either of two categories: performance-led investigations or mechanistic advancements/insights. Each section discusses the relevant literature and proposes future directions where appropriate. PMID:22580493

Fudge, Barry W; Pringle, Jamie S M; Maxwell, Neil S; Turner, Gareth; Ingham, Stephen A; Jones, Andrew M

2012-01-01

110

Living high–training low: effect on erythropoiesis and aerobic performance in highly-trained swimmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “living high–training low” model (LHTL), i.e., training in normoxia but sleeping\\/living in hypoxia, is designed to improve\\u000a the athletes performance. However, LHTL efficacy still remains controversial and also little is known about the duration of\\u000a its potential benefit. This study tested whether LHTL enhances aerobic performance in athletes, and if any positive effect\\u000a may last for up to 2 weeks

Paul Robach; Laurent Schmitt; Julien V. Brugniaux; Belle Roels; Grégoire Millet; Philippe Hellard; Gérard Nicolet; Alain Duvallet; Jean-Pierre Fouillot; Stéphane Moutereau; Françoise Lasne; Vincent Pialoux; Niels V. Olsen; Jean-Paul Richalet

2006-01-01

111

An appraisal of the performance of the economic and financial crimes commission in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This article examines how an anti-graft body, the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC), has fared in reducing the incidence of corruption in Nigeria, in particular, bank fraud, Internet scam, and bad governance. It first discusses the corruption situation in Nigeria by highlighting public office holders who have been associated with corruption charges. A Likert-type scale is used in designing the questionnaire for data collection. Descriptive and chi-square analyses are used, and results reveal that the performance of the EFCC has been affected by government interference (p < .05). However, although the anti-graft body has not been able to reduce the incidence of bank fraud (p > .05), bad governance and advance fee fraud have recorded appreciable reduction (p < .05). Areas of success as well as challenges that need to be addressed are identified. Specifically, it is recommended that the bill that established EFCC should be amended to reduce government interference and improve its manpower development, especially in the areas of fraud and Internet scam detection. PMID:19679650

Sowunmi, Fatai Abiola; Adesola, Muniru Adekunle; Salako, Mudashiru Abiodun

2010-12-01

112

Training Lessons Learned from Peak Performance Episodes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major challenge confronting the United States Army is to obtain optimal performance from both its human and machine resources. This study examines episodes of peak performance in soldiers and athletes. Three cognitive components were found to enable episodes of peak performance: psychological readiness (activating optimal arousal and emotion…

Fobes, James L.

113

Training Content and Potential Impact on Performance: A Comparison of Young Male and Female Endurance-Trained Runners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training

Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.

2006-01-01

114

Appraising Hospital Performance by Using the JCHAO/CMS Quality Measures in Southern Italy  

PubMed Central

Objectives The main objective of the present study was to estimate the uptake to quality indicators that reflect the current evidence-based recommendations and guidelines. Methods A retrospective review of medical records of patients admitted to two hospitals in the South of Italy was conducted. For the purposes of the analysis, a sets of quality indicators has been used from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospital Organizations and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Four areas of care were selected: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), pneumonia (PN), and surgical care improvement project (SCIP). Frequency or median was calculated, as appropriate, for each indicator. A composite score was calculated to estimate the overall performance for each area of care. Results A total of 1772 medical records were reviewed. The adherence rates showed a wide-ranging variability among the selected indicators. The use of aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) for AMI, the use of ACEI or ARB for HF, the use of appropriate thromboembolism prophylaxis and appropriate hair removal for surgical patients almost approached optimal adherence. At the other extreme, rates regarding adherence to smoking-cessation counseling in AMI and HF patients, discharge instructions in HF patients, and influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in pneumonia patients were noticeably intangible. Overall, the recommended processes of care among eligible patients were provided in 70% for AMI, in 32.4% for HF, in 46.4% for PN, and in 46% for SCIP. Conclusions The results show that there is still substantial work that lies ahead on the way to improve the uptake to evidence-based processes of care. Improvement initiatives should be focused more on domains of healthcare than on specific conditions, especially on the area of preventive care. PMID:23145023

Flotta, Domenico; Rizza, Paolo; Coscarelli, Pierluigi; Pileggi, Claudia; Nobile, Carmelo G. A.; Pavia, Maria

2012-01-01

115

Incorporating Sprint Training With Endurance Training Improves Anaerobic Capacity and 2,000-m Erg Performance in Trained Oarsmen.  

PubMed

Stevens, AWJ, Olver, TT, and Lemon, PWR. Incorporating sprint training with endurance training improves anaerobic capacity and 2,000-m erg performance in trained oarsmen. J Strength Cond Res 29(1): 22-28, 2015-A 2,000-m time-trial performance, aerobic capacity, and anaerobic capacity were assessed in 16 trained oarsmen after sprint interval training (SIT) replaced a portion of an endurance-based training program (EBTSIT) vs. an endurance-based program alone (EBTAlone). The EBTSIT involved 10 SIT sessions over 4 weeks, in addition to 12 continuous exercise sessions, 2 anaerobic threshold exercise sessions, and 4 strength training sessions. The EBTAlone consisted of 20 continuous, 6 anaerobic threshold, 2 interval exercise sessions, and 8 strength training sessions. Time-trial performance (2,000-m erg performance) improved with EBTSIT (baseline = 414.6 ± 18.5, post = 410.6 ± 17.5 seconds; p < 0.001) but only approached significance in EBTAlone (baseline = 413.0 ± 27.7, post = 411.4 ± 27.9 seconds; p = 0.06). In a 60-second "all-out" anaerobic capacity test, peak power output (PPO) increased significantly with EBTSIT (PPO: EBTSIT: baseline = 566 ± 82, post = 623 ± 60 W; p = 0.02) but not with EBTAlone (EBTAlone: baseline = 603 ± 81, post = 591 ± 123 W; p = 0.59). Changes in average power output (APO) also approached significance (p = 0.07) (APO: EBTSIT: baseline = 508 ± 48, post = 530 ± 52 W; EBTAlone: baseline = 532 ± 55, post = 533 ± 68 W). Neither group experienced any change in aerobic capacity ((Equation is included in full-text article.)or ventilatory threshold; p ? 0.16). We conclude that replacing a portion of EBT with SIT can improve both 2,000-m erg performance and anaerobic capacity, while maintaining aerobic fitness in trained oarsmen. Incorporating SIT within endurance training programs may be useful during periods of low-volume training, to improve performance without sacrificing aerobic capacity. PMID:24978833

Stevens, Alexander W J; Olver, Terry T; Lemon, Peter W R

2015-01-01

116

Training at the Optimum Power Zone Produces Similar Performance Improvements to Traditional Strength Training  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to test if substituting a regular maximum strength-oriented training regimen by a power-oriented one at the optimal power load in the first phase of a traditional periodization produces similar performance improvements later on into the training period. Forty five soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG - n = 15, 20.18 ± 0.72 yrs, 1.74 ± 0.06 m, 66.7 ± 9.8 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.14 ± 0.12), a traditional periodization group (TG - n = 15, 20.11 ± 0.7 yrs, 1.72 ± 0.045 m, 63.1 ± 3.6 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.21 ± 0.16); and a maximum-power group (MPG - n = 15, 20.5 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.73 ± 0.049m, 67.3 ± 9.8 kg, 1RM/weight ratio = 1.20 ± 0.14). Maximum strength (26.2% and 24.6%), CMJ height (30.8% and 39.1%) and sprint speed (11.6% and 14.5%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) and similarly for the MPG and TG, respectively, from pre- to post-assessments. Our data suggests that a power training regimen may be used in the initial phase of the training cycle without impairing performance later on into the training period. Key points Training at the optimal power zone during two mesocycles of a traditional periodization did not hamper strength, speed and power performance improvements. Additional research is required in order to find out if longer periods of training at optimal power zone are capable of producing similar performance improvements to traditional strength training regimen. PMID:24149733

Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Roschel, Hamilton; Tricoli, Valmor; González-Badillo, Juan José

2013-01-01

117

Training at the optimum power zone produces similar performance improvements to traditional strength training.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test if substituting a regular maximum strength-oriented training regimen by a power-oriented one at the optimal power load in the first phase of a traditional periodization produces similar performance improvements later on into the training period. Forty five soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG - n = 15, 20.18 ± 0.72 yrs, 1.74 ± 0.06 m, 66.7 ± 9.8 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.14 ± 0.12), a traditional periodization group (TG - n = 15, 20.11 ± 0.7 yrs, 1.72 ± 0.045 m, 63.1 ± 3.6 kg, and 1RM/weight ratio = 1.21 ± 0.16); and a maximum-power group (MPG - n = 15, 20.5 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.73 ± 0.049m, 67.3 ± 9.8 kg, 1RM/weight ratio = 1.20 ± 0.14). Maximum strength (26.2% and 24.6%), CMJ height (30.8% and 39.1%) and sprint speed (11.6% and 14.5%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) and similarly for the MPG and TG, respectively, from pre- to post-assessments. Our data suggests that a power training regimen may be used in the initial phase of the training cycle without impairing performance later on into the training period. Key pointsTraining at the optimal power zone during two mesocycles of a traditional periodization did not hamper strength, speed and power performance improvements.Additional research is required in order to find out if longer periods of training at optimal power zone are capable of producing similar performance improvements to traditional strength training regimen. PMID:24149733

Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Roschel, Hamilton; Tricoli, Valmor; González-Badillo, Juan José

2013-01-01

118

The influence of agility training on physiological and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Agility training (AT) has recently been instituted in several military communities in hopes of improving combat performance and general fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine how substituting AT for traditional military physical training (PT) influences physical and cognitive performance. Forty-one subjects undergoing military technical training were divided randomly into 2 groups for 6 weeks of training. One group participated in standard military PT consisting of calisthenics and running. A second group duplicated the amount of exercise of the first group but used AT as their primary mode of training. Before and after training, subjects completed a physical and cognitive battery of tests including V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, reaction time, Illinois Agility Test, body composition, visual vigilance, dichotic listening, and working memory tests. There were significant improvements within the AT group in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Illinois Agility Test, visual vigilance, and continuous memory. There was a significant increase in time-to-exhaustion for the traditional group. We conclude that AT is as effective or more effective as PT in enhancing physical fitness. Further, it is potentially more effective than PT in enhancing specific measures of physical and cognitive performance, such as physical agility, memory, and vigilance. Consequently, we suggest that AT be incorporated into existing military PT programs as a way to improve war-fighter performance. Further, it seems likely that the benefits of AT observed here occur in various other populations. PMID:23442271

Lennemann, Lynette M; Sidrow, Kathryn M; Johnson, Erica M; Harrison, Catherine R; Vojta, Christopher N; Walker, Thomas B

2013-12-01

119

Effect of heavy strength training on thigh muscle cross-sectional area, performance determinants, and performance in well-trained cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of heavy strength training on thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA),\\u000a determinants of cycling performance, and cycling performance in well-trained cyclists. Twenty well-trained cyclists were assigned\\u000a to either usual endurance training combined with heavy strength training [E + S; n = 11 (? = 11)] or to usual endurance training only [E; n = 9 (? = 7, ? = 2)]. The strength

Bent R. Rønnestad; Ernst Albin Hansen; Truls Raastad

2010-01-01

120

Self-control training leads to enhanced cardiovascular exercise performance.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of two weeks of self-control strength training on maximum cardiovascular exercise performance. Forty-one participants completed a cognitive self-control depletion task (Stroop task) followed by a maximal graded cycling test and were randomized to training (maximal endurance contractions of spring handgrip trainers, twice daily) or no-treatment control groups. At follow-up (2 weeks), half of each group completed either a time-matched or trial-matched Stroop task followed by another maximal graded cycling test. Results showed a significant 2-way (training X time) interaction (P < 0.001), and a trend for the 3-way (training X time X cognitive task) interaction (P = 0.07). Decomposition of the interactions revealed that across sessions cycling performance increased in both training groups, did not change in the trial-matched cognitive task control group, and declined in the time-matched control group. We conclude that isometric handgrip training leads to self-control strength adaptations that enhance maximal cardiovascular exercise performance or tolerance of exercise at maximal levels of effort. PMID:25278342

Bray, Steven R; Graham, Jeffrey D; Saville, Paul D

2015-03-01

121

Vibration or balance training on neuromuscular performance in osteopenic women.  

PubMed

Maintaining neuromuscular function in older age is an important topic for aging societies, especially for older women with low bone density who may be at risk of falls and bone fracture. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of resistive exercise with either whole-body vibration training (VIB) or coordination/balance training (BAL) on neuromuscular function (countermovement jump, multiple 1-leg hopping, sit-to-stand test). 68 postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis were recruited for the study. 57 subjects completed the 9-month, twice weekly, intervention period. All subjects conducted 30?min of resistance exercise each training day. The VIB-group performed additional training on the Galileo vibration exercise device. The BAL-group performed balance training. An "intent-to-treat" analysis showed greater improvement in the VIB-group for peak countermovement power (p=0.004). The mean [95% confidence interval] effect size for this parameter was a ?+?0.9[0.3 to 1.5] W/kg greater change in VIB than BAL after 9 months. In multiple 1-leg hopping, a significantly better performance in the VIB-group after the intervention period was seen on a "per-protocol" analysis only. Both groups improved in the sit-to-stand test. The current study provides evidence that short-duration whole-body vibration exercise can have a greater impact on some aspects of neuromuscular function in post-menopausal women with low bone density than proprioceptive training. PMID:23549694

Stolzenberg, N; Belavý, D L; Rawer, R; Felsenberg, D

2013-11-01

122

Correlating Trainee Attributes to Performance in 3D CAD Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify trainee attributes relevant for development of skills in 3D computer-aided design (CAD). Design/methodology/approach: Participants were trained to perform cognitive tasks of comparable complexity over time. Performance data were collected on the time needed to construct test models, and…

Hamade, Ramsey F.; Artail, Hassan A.; Sikstrom, Sverker

2007-01-01

123

Elements and Principles of Training as a Performance Improvement Solution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Andragogy is the art and science of adult education that focuses on real-life application and problem-solving capacity (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 1998). This approach emphasizes that training effectiveness is enhanced through trainees' actual performance of the task. Workers learn better when they perceive that learning will help them perform

Tek Aik, Chong; Tway, Duane C.

2006-01-01

124

Scapular-Muscle Performance: Two Training Programs in Adolescent Swimmers  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Swimming requires well-balanced scapular-muscle performance. An additional strength-training program for the shoulders is pursued by swimmers, but whether these muscle-training programs need to be generic or specific for endurance or strength is unknown. Objective: To evaluate isokinetic scapular-muscle performance in a population of adolescent swimmers and to compare the results of training programs designed for strength or muscle endurance. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University human research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen adolescent swimmers. Intervention(s): Each participant pursued a 12-week scapular-training program designed to improve either muscle strength or muscle endurance. Main Outcome Measure(s): Bilateral peak force, fatigue index, and protraction/retraction strength ratios before and after the scapular-training program. Results: Scapular protraction/retraction ratios were slightly higher than 1 (dominant side ?=? 1.08, nondominant side ?=? 1.25, P ?=? .006). Side-to-side differences in retraction strength were apparent both before and after the training program (P ?=? .03 and P ?=?.05, respectively). After the training program, maximal protraction (P < .05) and retraction (P < .01) strength improved on the nondominant side. Peak force and fatigue index were not different between the training groups. The fatigue indexes for protraction on both sides (P < .05) and retraction on the nondominant side (P ?=? .009) were higher after the training program. Conclusions: We describe the scapular-muscle characteristics of a group of adolescent swimmers. Both muscle-strength and muscle-endurance programs improved absolute muscle strength. Neither of the strength programs had a positive effect on scapular-muscle endurance. Our results may be valuable for coaches and physiotherapists when they are designing exercise programs for swimmers. PMID:21391801

Van de Velde, Annemie; De Mey, Kristof; Maenhout, Annelies; Calders, Patrick; Cools, Ann M.

2011-01-01

125

Does Musical Training Improve School Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a retrospective study, we compared school performance of 53 children practicing music (group 1) with 67 controls not practicing music (group 2). Overall average marks as well as average marks of all school subjects except sports were significantly higher in children who do (group 1) than in those who do not practice music (group 2). In a…

Wetter, Olive Emil; Koerner, Fritz; Schwaninger, Adrian

2009-01-01

126

Effect of movement velocity during resistance training on neuromuscular performance.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the effect on neuromuscular performance of 2 isoinertial resistance training programs that differed only in actual repetition velocity: maximal intended (MaxV) vs. half-maximal (HalfV) concentric velocity. 21 resistance-trained young men were randomly assigned to a MaxV (n=10) or HalfV (n=11) group and trained for 6 weeks using the full squat exercise. A complementary study (n=8) described the acute metabolic and mechanical response to the protocols used. MaxV training resulted in a likely more beneficial effect than HalfV on squat performance: maximum strength (ES: 0.94 vs. 0.54), velocity developed against all (ES: 1.76 vs. 0.88), light (ES: 1.76 vs. 0.75) and heavy (ES: 2.03 vs. 1.64) loads common to pre- and post-tests, and CMJ height (ES: 0.63 vs. 0.15). The effect on 20-m sprint was unclear, however. Both groups attained the greatest improvements in squat performance at their training velocities. Movement velocity seemed to be of greater importance than time under tension for inducing strength adaptations. Slightly higher metabolic stress (blood lactate and ammonia) and CMJ height loss were found for MaxV vs. HalfV, while metabolite levels were low to moderate for both conditions. MaxV may provide a superior stimulus for inducing adaptations directed towards improving athletic performance. PMID:24886926

Pareja-Blanco, F; Rodríguez-Rosell, D; Sánchez-Medina, L; Gorostiaga, E M; González-Badillo, J J

2014-10-01

127

Effect of training load on simulated team sport match performance.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of training load on running performance and plasma markers of anaerobic metabolism, muscle damage, and inflammation during a simulated team sport match performance. Seven team sport athletes (maximal oxygen uptake, 47.6 ± 4.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed a 60-min simulated team sport match before and after either 4 days of HIGH or LOW training loads. Venous blood samples were taken pre-match, immediately post-match, and 2 h post-match for interlukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, xanthine oxidase (XO), and hypoxanthine. Following HIGH training load, sprint velocity decreased (p < 0.001) and total distance covered was reduced (HIGH 5495 ± 670 m, LOW 5608 ± 674 m, p = 0.02) was observed during the simulated match protocol compared with the LOW match simulation. Decreased performance capacity was accompanied by a significant increase in serum CK concentration (HIGH 290 ± 62 U·L(-1), LOW 199 ± 33 U·L(-1), p = 0.005). The HIGH training also resulted in a decreased post-match hypoxanthine and MCP-1 and an increase in XO concentration 2 h post-match. Four days of increased training load reduced running performance during the match simulation and altered the metabolic and inflammatory response to high-intensity intermittent exercise. PMID:22452610

Slattery, Katie May; Wallace, Lee Kenneth; Bentley, David John; Coutts, Aaron James

2012-04-01

128

Evidence Report: Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. Given that training content, timing, intervals, and delivery methods must support crew task performance, and given that training paradigms will be different for long-duration missions with increased crew autonomy, there is a risk that operators will lack the skills or knowledge necessary to complete critical tasks, resulting in flight and ground crew errors and inefficiencies, failed mission and program objectives, and an increase in crew injuries.

Barshi, Immanuel

2012-01-01

129

Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Muscle Strength and Sprint Performance in Sprint-trained Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Despite the expanding use of Whole Body Vibration training among athletes, it is not known whether adding Whole Body Vibration training to the conventional training of sprint-trained athletes will improve speed-strength performance. Twenty experienced sprint-trained athletes (13 ?, 7 ?, 17-30 years old) were randomly assigned to a Whole Body Vibration group (N=10: 6 ? and 4 ?) or

Christophe Delecluse; Machteld Roelants; Rudi Diels

130

Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 16, Environmental appraisal and surveillance program. Draft revision  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) environmental-appraisal/surveillance program is designed to monitor environmental performance and to ensure that regulatory requirements are met. The appraisal/surveillance program is a two-tiered system which consists of external and internal appraisals and surveillances. External appraisals/surveillances are conducted by organizations not reporting to SRS management. The internal appraisals/surveillances are conducted by site organizations referred to as organizations. External appraisals include Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) regulatory appraisals, DOE-SR and DOE-HQ appraisals, and operating contractor reviews. These appraisals are the result of regulatory requirements, DOE orders, or operating contractor policies. The Environmental Protection Department (EPD) leads the coordination, planning, and scheduling support. The internal appraisal program consists of three types; management appraisals, program appraisals, and facility appraisals. All organizations developed and implemented a formal facility-appraisal program in February 1989. The first facility appraisal was completed during FY 89. To ensure consistency between departments, the SRS environmental appraisal procedure was completed in December 1988. EPD conducts both the management and program appraisals.

Amobi, C. [comp.

1993-11-10

131

Plyometric training performance in elite-oriented prepubertal female gymnasts.  

PubMed

We studied the effectiveness of a combined strength and plyometric training program (experimental period) on jumping performance when compared with a training routine on apparatus (control period) over 2 successive gymnastics training seasons. Nine female elite-orientated gymnasts (around 30-hour training per week) were participated in the study. The study was based on a 20-month longitudinal design covering 2 training seasons separated by a competitive period and transition periods. Each season included 1 control and 1 experimental period (Ctrl?1 + Ex?1 and Ctrl?2 + Ex?2, respectively). Before and after each control and experimental period, we assessed plyometric performance by means of drop jumps (DJs) from 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 cm. The jump performance variables considered were flight time (FT), contact time (CT), flight-contact ratio (FC), and estimated mechanical power (also called Bosco expression [BE]), all of which were expressed as raw data and normalized (expressed as a percentage) with respect to the recordings at the beginning of each period of analysis. Flight time was the only variable to increase not only during both experimental periods but also during both controls. Our results confirmed larger relative increments of all the variables (FT, CT, BE, and FC), except for CT at DJs of 80 and 100 cm, during the experimental periods than during their respective previous control periods. Despite the additive effect of growth, development, and maturation, the gymnasts were not able to maintain the DJ performance accomplished during Ex?1, thereby confirming detraining during the competitive and transition periods. We conclude that a combination of heavy resistance training with high impact plyometric jumps is effective in prepubertal gymnasts, despite their initial high level of physical conditioning. PMID:24088867

Marina, Michel; Jemni, Monem

2014-04-01

132

Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments: A Handbook of Training Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments (TPAI) were designed to determine how well teachers can demonstrate certain minimum teaching skills considered essential to effective teaching. This manual is designed for use by data collectors and others during training on the administration of the TPAI instruments. It may also be used as a…

Capie, William; And Others

133

Training for Template Creation: A Performance Improvement Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There are three purposes to this article: first, to offer a training approach to employee learning and performance improvement that makes use of a step-by-step process of skill/knowledge creation. The process offers follow-up opportunities for skill maintenance and improvement; second, to explain the conceptual bases of the approach; and…

Lyons, Paul

2008-01-01

134

Does plyometric training improve strength performance? A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Majority of the research suggests plyometric training (PT) improves maximal strength performance as measured by 1RM, isometric MVC or slow velocity isokinetic testing. However, the effectiveness of PT depends upon various factors. A meta-analysis of 15 studies with a total of 31 effect sizes (ES) was carried out to analyse the role of various factors on the effects of PT

Eduardo Sáez-Sáez de Villarreal; Bernardo Requena; Robert U. Newton

2010-01-01

135

Business Models for Training and Performance Improvement Departments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although typically applied to entire enterprises, the concept of business models applies to training and performance improvement groups. Business models are "the method by which firm[s] build and use [their] resources to offer.. value." Business models affect the types of projects, services offered, skills required, business processes, and type of…

Carliner, Saul

2004-01-01

136

Training Needs for High Performance in the Automotive Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was conducted in Australia to identify the training needs of the emerging industry required to support the development of the high performance areas of the automotive machining and reconditioning field especially as it pertained to auto racing. Data were gathered through a literature search, interviews with experts in the field, and…

Clyne, Barry; And Others

137

Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine has become a popular nutritional supplement among athletes. Recent research has also suggested that there may be a number of potential therapeutic uses of creatine. This paper reviews the available research that has examined the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and training adaptations. Review of the literature indicates that over 500 research studies have evaluated

Richard B. Kreider

2003-01-01

138

Acquisition of Performance Parameters in Race-Bike Training  

E-print Network

Acquisition of Performance Parameters in Race-Bike Training Thorsten Dahmen, Dietmar Saupe be used in conjunction with our custom-made software and course data to simulate rides on existing tracks the Schiener Berg both on our simulator and outside in order to answer the following questions: · How does

Reiterer, Harald

139

Computer-Aided Performance Training for Diagnostic and Procedural Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two computer programs for computer-assisted performance training were developed to give the students the opportunity for concentrated practice of troubleshooting and procedural tasks in naval electronics. In contrast to the usual approach taken in computer-assisted instruction (CAI), these programs simulate essential aspects of devices and tasks…

Rigney, Joseph W.; And Others

140

Development, Field Test, and Refinement of Performance Training Programs in Armor Advanced Individual Training. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance-oriented instruction was developed, field tested, and refined in two Advanced Individual Training (AIT) programs--Armor Reconnaissance Specialist (MOS 11D) and Armor Crewman (MOS 11E). Tasks for both MOS (Military Occupational Specialty) were inventoried and the inventories were reduced by eliminating those tasks which are not required…

Young, Douglas L.; Taylor, John E.

141

Performance Improvement: Applying a Human Performance Model to Organizational Processes in a Military Training Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a description and the results of a study that utilized the human performance (HP) model and methods to explore and analyze a training organization. The systemic and systematic practices of the HP model are applicable to military training organizations as well as civilian organizations. Implications of the study for future…

Aaberg, Wayne; Thompson, Carla J.; West, Haywood V.; Swiergosz, Matthew J.

2009-01-01

142

Maximizing cochlear implant patients' performance with advanced speech training procedures.  

PubMed

Advances in implant technology and speech processing have provided great benefit to many cochlear implant patients. However, some patients receive little benefit from the latest technology, even after many years' experience with the device. Moreover, even the best cochlear implant performers have great difficulty understanding speech in background noise, and music perception and appreciation remain major challenges. Recent studies have shown that targeted auditory training can significantly improve cochlear implant patients' speech recognition performance. Such benefits are not only observed in poorly performing patients, but also in good performers under difficult listening conditions (e.g., speech noise, telephone speech, music, etc.). Targeted auditory training has also been shown to enhance performance gains provided by new implant devices and/or speech processing strategies. These studies suggest that cochlear implantation alone may not fully meet the needs of many patients, and that additional auditory rehabilitation may be needed to maximize the benefits of the implant device. Continuing research will aid in the development of efficient and effective training protocols and materials, thereby minimizing the costs (in terms of time, effort and resources) associated with auditory rehabilitation while maximizing the benefits of cochlear implantation for all recipients. PMID:18295992

Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J

2008-08-01

143

Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of preclinical studies: why perform them and how to appraise them critically  

PubMed Central

The use of systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical studies has become more common, including those of studies describing the modeling of cerebrovascular diseases. Empirical evidence suggests that too many preclinical experiments lack methodological rigor, and this leads to inflated treatment effects. The aim of this review is to describe the concepts of systematic review and meta-analysis and consider how these tools may be used to provide empirical evidence to spur the field to improve the rigor of the conduct and reporting of preclinical research akin to their use in improving the conduct and reporting of randomized controlled trials in clinical research. As with other research domains, systematic reviews are subject to bias. Therefore, we have also suggested guidance for their conduct, reporting, and critical appraisal. PMID:24549183

Sena, Emily S; Currie, Gillian L; McCann, Sarah K; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W

2014-01-01

144

Anthropometric and training variables related to 10km running performance.  

PubMed Central

Sixty male distance athletes were divided into three equal groups according to their personal best time for the 10km run. The runners were measured anthropometrically and each runner completed a detailed questionnaire on his athletic status, training programme and performance. The runners in this study had similar anthropometric and training profiles to other distance runners of a similar standard. The most able runners were shorter and lighter than those in the other two groups and significantly smaller skinfold values (P less than 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for either bone widths or circumferences but the elite and good runners had significantly higher ponderal indices (P less than 0.05) than the average runners, indicating that they are more linear. Elite and good runners were also less endomorphic but more ectomorphic than the average runners. The elite runners trained more often, ran more miles per week and had been running longer (P less than 0.05) than good or average runners. A multiple regression and discriminant function analysis indicated that linearity, total skinfold, the type and frequency of training and the number of years running were the best predictors of running performance and success at the 10km distance. PMID:3814989

Bale, P; Bradbury, D; Colley, E

1986-01-01

145

Performance comparison of SLFN training algorithms for DNA microarray classification.  

PubMed

The classification of biological samples measured by DNA microarrays has been a major topic of interest in the last decade, and several approaches to this topic have been investigated. However, till now, classifying the high-dimensional data of microarrays still presents a challenge to researchers. In this chapter, we focus on evaluating the performance of the training algorithms of the single hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFNs) to classify DNA microarrays. The training algorithms consist of backpropagation (BP), extreme learning machine (ELM) and regularized least squares ELM (RLS-ELM), and an effective algorithm called neural-SVD has recently been proposed. We also compare the performance of the neural network approaches with popular classifiers such as support vector machine (SVM), principle component analysis (PCA) and fisher discriminant analysis (FDA). PMID:21431554

Huynh, Hieu Trung; Kim, Jung-Ja; Won, Yonggwan

2011-01-01

146

Smithsonian Institution Archives Appraisal Methodology  

E-print Network

Smithsonian Institution Archives Appraisal Methodology 1997 - 1998 #12;Smithsonian Institution Archives Appraisal Methodology Table of Contents Introduction 3 Background 3 Purpose 4 Research Observatory Scientists 42 ! ! "! #12;Smithsonian Institution Archives Appraisal Methodology Introduction

Mathis, Wayne N.

147

Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations.  

PubMed

Creatine has become a popular nutritional supplement among athletes. Recent research has also suggested that there may be a number of potential therapeutic uses of creatine. This paper reviews the available research that has examined the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and training adaptations. Review of the literature indicates that over 500 research studies have evaluated the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle physiology and/or exercise capacity in healthy, trained, and various diseased populations. Short-term creatine supplementation (e.g. 20 g/day for 5-7 days) has typically been reported to increase total creatine content by 10-30% and phosphocreatine stores by 10-40%. Of the approximately 300 studies that have evaluated the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation, about 70% of these studies report statistically significant results while remaining studies generally report non-significant gains in performance. No study reports a statistically significant ergolytic effect. For example, short-term creatine supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power/strength (5-15%), work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (5-15%), single-effort sprint performance (1-5%), and work performed during repetitive sprint performance (5-15%). Moreover, creatine supplementation during training has been reported to promote significantly greater gains in strength, fat free mass, and performance primarily of high intensity exercise tasks. Although not all studies report significant results, the preponderance of scientific evidence indicates that creatine supplementation appears to be a generally effective nutritional ergogenic aid for a variety of exercise tasks in a number of athletic and clinical populations. PMID:12701815

Kreider, Richard B

2003-02-01

148

Argonne National Laboratory Internal Appraisal Program environment, safety, health/quality assurance oversight  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory`s Internal Appraisal Program has developed a quality assurance team member training program. This program has been developed to provide training to non-quality assurance professionals. Upon successful completion of this training and approval of the Internal Appraisal Program Manager, these personnel are considered qualified to assist in the conduct of quality assurance assessments. The training program has been incorporated into a self-paced, computerized, training session.

Winner, G.L.; Siegfried, Y.S.; Forst, S.P.; Meshenberg, M.J.

1995-06-01

149

Information Feedback: Contributions to Learning and Performance in Perceptual Identification Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In training people to perform auditory identification tasks (e.g., training students to identify sound characteristics in a sonar classification task), it is important to know whether or not training procedures are merely sustaining performance during training or whether they enhance learning of the task. Often an incorrect assumption is made that…

Abrams, Alvin J.; Cook, Richard L.

150

Does plyometric training improve strength performance? A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Majority of the research suggests plyometric training (PT) improves maximal strength performance as measured by 1RM, isometric MVC or slow velocity isokinetic testing. However, the effectiveness of PT depends upon various factors. A meta-analysis of 15 studies with a total of 31 effect sizes (ES) was carried out to analyse the role of various factors on the effects of PT on strength performance. The inclusion criteria for the analysis were: (a) studies using PT programs for lower limb muscles; (b) studies employing true experimental design and valid and reliable measurements; (c) studies including sufficient data to calculate ES. When subjects can adequately follow plyometric exercises, the training gains are independent of fitness level. Subjects in either good or poor physical condition, benefit equally from plyometric work, also men obtain similar strength results to women following PT. In relation to the variables of program design, training volume of less than 10 weeks and with more than 15 sessions, as well as the implementation of high-intensity programs, with more than 40 jumps per session, were the strategies that seem to maximize the probability to obtain significantly greater improvements in performance (p<0.05). In order to optimise strength enhancement, the combination of different types of plyometrics with weight-training would be recommended, rather than utilizing only one form (p<0.05). The responses identified in this analysis are essential and should be considered by the strength and conditioning professional with regard to the most appropriate dose-response trends for PT to optimise strength gains. PMID:19897415

Sáez-Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Requena, Bernardo; Newton, Robert U

2010-09-01

151

Unique aspects of competitive weightlifting: performance, training and physiology.  

PubMed

Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure of competitive weightlifters is characterized by the frequent use of high-intensity resistance exercise movements. Varied coaching and training philosophies currently exist around the world and further research is required to substantiate the best type of training programme for male and female weightlifters of various age groups. As competitive weightlifting is contested over eight male and seven female body weight categories, the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes widely ranges. The body compositions of weightlifters are similar to that of athletes of comparable body mass in other strength and power sports. However, the shorter height and limb lengths of weightlifters provide mechanical advantages when lifting heavy loads by reducing the mechanical torque and the vertical distance that the barbell must be displaced. Furthermore, the shorter body dimensions coincide with a greater mean skeletal muscle cross-sectional area that is advantageous to weightlifting performance. Weightlifting training induces a high metabolic cost. Although dietary records demonstrate that weightlifters typically meet their required daily energy intake, weightlifters have been shown to over consume protein and fat at the expense of adequate carbohydrate. The resulting macronutrient imbalance may not yield optimal performance gains. Cross-sectional data suggest that weightlifting training induces type IIX to IIA fibre-type transformation. Furthermore, weightlifters exhibit hypertrophy of type II fibres that is advantageous to weightlifting performance and maximal force production. As such, the isometric peak force and contractile rate of force development of weightlifters is ~15-20% and ~13-16% greater, respectively, than in other strength and power athletes. In addition, weightlifting training has been shown to reduce the typical sex-related difference in the expression of neuromuscular strength and power. However, this apparent sex-related difference appears to be augmented with increasing adult age demonstrating that women undergo a greater age-related decline in muscle shortening velocity and peak power when compared with men. Weightlifting training and competition has been shown to induce significant structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system. The collective evidence shows that these adaptations are physiological as opposed to pathological. Finally, the acute exercise-induced testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone responses of weightlifters have similarities to that of following conventional strength and hypertrophy protocols involving large muscle mass exercises. The routine assessment of the basal testosterone?:?cortisol ratio may be beneficial when attempting to quantify the adaptive responses to weightlifting training. As competitive weightlifting is becoming increasingly popular around the world, further research addressing the physiological responses and adaptations of female weightlifters and younger (i.e. ?17 years of age) and older (i.e. ?35 years of age) weightlifters of both sexes is required. PMID:22873835

Storey, Adam; Smith, Heather K

2012-09-01

152

Perk Station – Percutaneous Surgery Training and Performance Measurement Platform  

PubMed Central

Motivation Image-guided percutaneous (through the skin) needle-based surgery has become part of routine clinical practice in performing procedures such as biopsies, injections and therapeutic implants. A novice physician typically performs needle interventions under the supervision of a senior physician; a slow and inherently subjective training process that lacks objective, quantitative assessment of the surgical skill and performance[S1]. Shortening the learning curve and increasing procedural consistency are important factors in assuring high-quality medical care. Methods This paper describes a laboratory validation system, called Perk Station, for standardized training and performance measurement under different assistance techniques for needle-based surgical guidance systems. The initial goal of the Perk Station is to assess and compare different techniques: 2D image overlay, biplane laser guide, laser protractor and conventional freehand. The main focus of this manuscript is the planning and guidance software system developed on the 3D Slicer platform, a free, open source software package designed for visualization and analysis of medical image data. Results The prototype Perk Station has been successfully developed, the associated needle insertion phantoms were built, and the graphical user interface was fully implemented. The system was inaugurated in undergraduate teaching and a wide array of outreach activities. Initial results, experiences, ongoing activities and future plans are reported. PMID:19539446

Vikal, Siddharth; U-Thainual, Paweena; Carrino, John A.; Iordachita, Iulian; Fischer, Gregory S.; Fichtinger, Gabor

2009-01-01

153

Memory Training in the Community Aged: Effects on Depression, Memory Complaint, and Memory Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of memory and growth training groups on memory complaints, memory performance, and affective status in the community elderly. Results indicated that both training groups significantly reduced concerns about memory and resulted in improved memory performance. (Author)

Zarit, Steven H.; And Others

1981-01-01

154

AN EXPERIMENT IN BASIC AIRBORNE ELECTRONICS TRAINING, PART IV-- EFFECT OF REDUCTION IN TRAINING TIME ON FLEET PERFORMANCE. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THREE PRECEDING REPORTS PRESENTED THE EFFECTS OF SHORTENING TRAINING TIME IN AVIONICS FUNDAMENTALS AND AVIATION ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN (RADAR) TRAINING UPON THE FINAL COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION IN THESE COURSES AND UPON PERFORMANCE IN A SUBSEQUENT EQUIPMENT COURSE. THIS REPORT COMPARES THE ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF GRADUATES FROM FOUR GROUPS…

BALDWIN, ROBERT O.; AND OTHERS

155

Eating for performance: bringing science to the training table.  

PubMed

Despite many advances in nutritional knowledge and dietary practices, sports nutrition-associated issues, such as fatigue, loss of strength and stamina, loss of speed, and problems with weight management and inadequate energy intake, are common. Sound nutritional practices and well-designed patterns of eating are not awarded the same priority as training and many athletes fail to recognize that poor eating habits or suboptimal hydration choices may detract from athletic performance. Those who care for athletes and active individuals must take an active role in their nutritional well-being. This article reviews the present generally accepted principles for nutritional management in sport. PMID:21658554

Bonci, Leslie J

2011-07-01

156

High performance work practices and firm performance: evidence from the pharmaceutical industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study analyzed the relationship of high performance work practices and firm performance in a sample of pharmaceutical companies in China. We found that the human resource management index composed of high performance work practices such as extensive training, participation, detailed job definition, result-oriented performance appraisal, internal career opportunities, and profit sharing as reported by the human resource or

Yi-Chi Zhang; Shu-Ling Li

2009-01-01

157

Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

Sweetser, Wesley

2005-01-01

158

Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults: Effects of Age, Baseline Performance, and Training Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For…

Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S.; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

2014-01-01

159

Hypoxanthine as a predictor of performance in highly trained athletes.  

PubMed

Purine metabolism reflects the exercise-induced muscle adaptations and training status. This study evaluated the utility of plasma hypoxanthine in the prediction of actual sport performance. We studied male athletes: 28 triathletes (21.4±2.9 years), 12 long-distance runners (23.2±1.9 years), 13 middle-distance runners (22.9±1.8 years) and 18 sprinters (22.0±2.7 years). Season-best race times were considered, achieved over standard triathlon, 5?000?m, 1?500?m and 100?m, respectively. Incremental treadmill test was administered to determine maximum and "threshold" oxygen uptake. Resting and post-exercise plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid and lactate were measured as well as resting erythrocyte hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to identify significant contributors to the variance in performance. Hypoxanthine considered alone explained more variance in triathletes, long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and sprinters (r 2=0.81, 0.81, 0.88 and 0.78, respectively) than models based on aerobic capacity and lactate (R 2=0.51, 0.37, 0.59 and 0.31, respectively). Combining purine metabolites and cardiorespiratory variables resulted in the best prediction (R 2=0.86, 0.93, 0.93 and 0.91; r=0.93, 0.96, 0.96 and 0.95, respectively). In summary, hypoxanthine is a strong predictor of performance in highly trained athletes and its prediction ability is very high regardless of sport specialization, spanning the continuum from speed-power to endurance disciplines. PMID:23670363

Zieli?ski, J; Krasi?ska, B; Kusy, K

2013-12-01

160

Effect of heavy strength training on thigh muscle cross-sectional area, performance determinants, and performance in well-trained cyclists.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of heavy strength training on thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), determinants of cycling performance, and cycling performance in well-trained cyclists. Twenty well-trained cyclists were assigned to either usual endurance training combined with heavy strength training [E + S; n = 11 (male symbol = 11)] or to usual endurance training only [E; n = 9 (male symbol = 7, female symbol = 2)]. The strength training performed by E + S consisted of four lower body exercises [3 x 4-10 repetition maximum (RM)], which were performed twice a week for 12 weeks. Thigh muscle CSA, maximal force in isometric half squat, power output in 30 s Wingate test, maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), power output at 2 mmol l(-1) blood lactate concentration ([la(-)]), and performance, as mean power production, in a 40-min all-out trial were measured before and after the intervention. E + S increased thigh muscle CSA, maximal isometric force, and peak power in the Wingate test more than E. Power output at 2 mmol l(-1) [la(-)] and mean power output in the 40-min all-out trial were improved in E + S (P < 0.05). For E, only performance in the 40-min all-out trial tended to improve (P = 0.057). The two groups showed similar increases in VO(2max) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, adding strength training to usual endurance training improved determinants of cycling performance as well as performance in well-trained cyclists. Of particular note is that the added strength training increased thigh muscle CSA without causing an increase in body mass. PMID:19960350

Rønnestad, Bent R; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Raastad, Truls

2010-03-01

161

Low cadence interval training at moderate intensity does not improve cycling performance in highly trained veteran cyclists  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of low cadence training at moderate intensity on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, gross efficiency, freely chosen cadence, and leg strength in veteran cyclists. Method: Twenty-two well trained veteran cyclists [age: 47 ± 6 years, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 57.9 ± 3.7 ml · kg?1 · min?1] were randomized into two groups, a low cadence training group and a freely chose cadence training group. Respiratory variables, power output, cadence and leg strength were tested before and after a 12 weeks training intervention period. The low cadence training group performed 12 weeks of moderate [73–82% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] interval training (5 × 6 min) with a cadence of 40 revolutions per min (rpm) two times a week, in addition to their usual training. The freely chosen cadence group added 90 min of training at freely chosen cadence at moderate intensity. Results: No significant effects of the low cadence training on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, power output, cadence, gross efficiency, or leg strength was found. The freely chosen cadence group significantly improved both VO2max (58.9 ± 2.4 vs. 62.2 ± 3.2 ml · kg?1 · min?1), VO2 consumption at lactate threshold (49.4 ± 3.8 vs. 51.8 ± 3.5 ml · kg?1 · min?1) and during the 30 min performance test (52.8 ± 3.0 vs. 54.7 ± 3.5 ml · kg?1 · min?1), and power output at lactate threshold (284 ± 47 vs. 294 ± 48 W) and during the 30 min performance test (284 ± 42 vs. 297 ± 50 W). Moreover, a significant difference was seen when comparing the change in freely chosen cadence from pre- to post between the groups during the 30 min performance test (2.4 ± 5.0 vs. ?2.7 ± 6.2). Conclusion: Twelve weeks of low cadence (40 rpm) interval training at moderate intensity (73–82% of HRmax) twice a week does not improve aerobic capacity, cycling performance or leg strength in highly trained veteran cyclists. However, adding training at same intensity (% of HRmax) and duration (90 min weekly) at freely chosen cadence seems beneficial for performance and physiological adaptations. PMID:24550843

Kristoffersen, Morten; Gundersen, Hilde; Leirdal, Stig; Iversen, Vegard V.

2014-01-01

162

Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

2009-01-01

163

Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

2010-01-01

164

Transfer effects of fall training on balance performance and spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study examined transfer effects of fall training on fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International [FES-I]), balance performance, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics in older adults. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults (ages 65-85) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group completed 12 training sessions (60 min, 6 weeks). During pre- and posttesting, we measured FES-I, balance performance (double limb, closed eyes; single limb, open eyes; double limb, open eyes with motor-interfered task), and gait parameters (e.g., velocity; cadence; stride time, stride width, and stride length; variability of stride time and stride length) under single- and motor-interfered tasks. Dual tasks were applied to appraise improvements of cognitive processing during balance and gait. FES-I (p = .33) and postural sway did not significantly change (0.36 < p < .79). Trends toward significant interaction effects were found for step width during normal walking and stride length variability during the motor dual task (p = .05, ?p 2 = .22). Fall training did not sufficiently improve fear of falling, balance, or gait performance under single- or dual-task conditions in healthy older adults. PMID:23881433

Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Roth, Ralf; Soltermann, Martin; Kressig, Reto W; Zahner, Lukas

2014-07-01

165

Agent-Customized Training for Human Learning Performance Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training individuals from diverse backgrounds and in changing environments requires customized training approaches that align with the individual learning styles and ever-evolving organizational needs. Scaffolding is a well-established instructional approach that facilitates learning by incrementally removing training aids as the learner…

Blake, M. Brian; Butcher-Green, Jerome D.

2009-01-01

166

Britain's Training Deficit. The Centre for Economic Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 12 papers that were produced as a result of a seminar program on selected issues central to the debate over job training in Great Britain. The first paper, "Why We Need a Training Reform Act" (Richard Layard, Ken Mayhew, Geoffrey Owen), examines existing deficiencies in vocational education and training in Britain and proposes a…

Layard, Richard, Ed.; And Others

167

Source-Monitoring Training Facilitates Preschoolers' Eyewitness Memory Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated whether source-monitoring training would decrease 3- to 4-year-olds' suggestibility. After observing live or video target-events, children received source-monitoring or recognition (control) training. Found that children given source-monitoring training were more accurate than control group children in response to misleading and…

Thierry, Karen L.; Spence, Melanie J.

2002-01-01

168

Relationships Between Design Characteristics of Avionics Subsystems and Training Cost, Training Difficulty, and Job Performance. Final Report, Covering Activity from 1 July 1971 Through 1 September 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the relationship between avionics subsystem design characteristics and training time, training cost, and job performance. A list of design variables believed to affect training and job performance was established and supplemented with personnel variables, including aptitude test scores and the amount of training and…

Lintz, Larry M.; And Others

169

Acute antioxidant supplementation improves endurance performance in trained athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the acute effects of a single dose of an antioxidant (AO; Lactaway® containing pycnogenol) on time to fatigue (TTF). Nine trained cyclists [mean ± SD age 35 ± 10 yrs; body mass 71.6 ± 10.2 kg; VO2 peak 63 ± 11 ml/kg/min] performed on two separate occasions a continuous protocol of 5 min at 50% of peak power output (PPO), 8 min at 70% of PPO, and then cycled to fatigue at 95% PPO. Four hours prior to the exercise protocol, the subjects consumed the supplement or a placebo (counterbalanced, double blind protocol). Cyclists, on average, rode for 80 s more in the Lactaway trial than they did in the placebo trial. There was considerable evidence (chances ?94.5%) for substantial positive treatment effects for TTF and the other performance-related variables (excluding [BLa] at 95% PPO). Other studies are necessary to confirm these results and identify the mechanisms underlying the observed effects. PMID:22242733

Bentley, David J; Dank, Steven; Coupland, Rory; Midgley, Adrian; Spence, Ian

2012-01-01

170

Teacher Performance Follow-up from Large Group Training: A Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher inservice training is critical to the continual development of effective classroom instruction. Professionals who consistently improve their instruction positively impact student performance. Many inservice training sessions use formats that are not conducive to effective adult learning. Good training uses flexible formats, job-applicable…

Askvig, Brent A.; Coonts, Teresa; Haarstad, Cathy

171

PERFORMANCE OF DISCRIMINATIVELY TRAINED AUDITORY FEATURES ON AURORA2 AND AURORA3  

E-print Network

PERFORMANCE OF DISCRIMINATIVELY TRAINED AUDITORY FEATURES ON AURORA2 AND AURORA3 Brian Mak and Yik) by 30.27% over ICSLP2002 Aurora2 baseline on multi-condition training. Similarly, we obtain a relative WER reduction of 38.42% over ICSLP2002 Aurora3 baseline. 1. INTRODUCTION Discriminative training [1

Mak, Brian Kan-Wing

172

Development of Personnel Appraisal Procedures to Measure the Job Performance of County Extension Agents. Summary of Research, 30.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study assessed the applicability of the American Institutes for Research (AIR) procedures' Performance-Against-Standard form for use in personnel evaluation by the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service. The study also compared relevant test construction approaches identified in the literature to those used in the AIR study in attempting to confirm…

Ladewig, Howard; Shiao, Kun Sun

173

A Descriptive Study of the Performance Appraisal of Supervisors of Spicer Higher Secondary School, Using "360 Degree Feedback" Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research was to study the performance of the supervisors in the aspects leadership, communication, and task managing by the "360 degree feedback" method. A qualitative research was used to carry out the research study. The researcher formulated three questions that guided the study. An opinionnaire which included 23 items in…

Hemati, Hamidreza

2011-01-01

174

Performance Management in the French System of Secondary-Teacher Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study focuses on performance analysis and performance management in teacher training in France. After a brief summary of the French system of secondary-teacher training, determinants affecting performance are analyzed. The analysis shows that three determinants--the number of external competitors, the size of a department and the…

Tchibozo, Guy

2005-01-01

175

Peer Ratings versus Peer Nominations during Training as Predictors of Actual Performance Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of peer evaluations, ratings and nominations during training, were compared to examine their unique contribution in explaining actual performance evaluations. A sample of 133 female soldiers who had participated in a platoon leader-training program completed a rating and nomination form on their peers. These forms served as predictors for actual performance as platoon leaders. Performance criteria included a

Joseph Schwarzwald; Meni Koslowsky; Tamar Mager-Bibi

1999-01-01

176

The Wonderlic Scholastic Level Exam as a Predictor of Training Success and Job Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between general cognitive ability and both training and job performance is reviewed. Existing scientific data show that there are large differences in training achievement and in job performance. Consequently, any good predictor of achievement or performance can yield a large gain in workforce productivity. General cognitive…

Hunter, John E.

177

The influence of nontraditional training modalities on physical performance: review of the literature.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this effort was to review several forms of nontraditional (NT) training programs, including heavy lower extremity strength training, CrossFit training, kettlebell training, and agility training, and discuss the effects of these exercise regimens on physical performance. The secondary purpose was to evaluate NT fitness training programs for evidence that they may provide beneficial options to help airmen improve their fitness scores. A search of the literature for 1980-2010 was performed using the Franzello Aeromedical Library, Public Medicine, and Air Force Institute of Technology search engines. There were 50 articles located and the authors selected 29 articles that specifically addressed the primary and secondary purposes of this literature review. This review indicates that an NT training approach is warranted in the general Air Force population. Heavy leg strength training and agility training show promise in enhancing aerobic fitness and improving fitness scores, particularly among members who have difficulty passing a physical fitness test. Most of the nontraditional forms of physical training are not supported in the scientific literature, with the exception of heavy leg strength training and agility training. However, even these NT forms of training require further investigation. PMID:23066621

O'Hara, Reginald B; Serres, Jennifer; Traver, Kyle L; Wright, Bruce; Vojta, Chris; Eveland, Ed

2012-10-01

178

The Effects of Protein and Amino Acid Supplementation on Performance and Training Adaptations During Ten Weeks of Resistance Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kerksick, C.M., C.J. Rasmussen, S.L. Lancaster, B. Magu, P. Smith, C. Melton, M. Greenwood, A.L. Almada, C.P. Earnest, and R.B. Kreider. The effects of protein and amino acid supplementation on performance and training adaptations dur- ing ten weeks of resistance training. J. Strength Cond. Res. 20(3):643-653. 2006.—The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation

Chad M. Kerksick; Christopher J. Rasmussen; Stacy L. Lancaster; Bharat Magu; Penney Smith; Charles Melton; Michael Greenwood; Anthony L. Almada; Conrad P. Earnest; Richard B. Kreider

2006-01-01

179

Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key points Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks. In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance. The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase of the mass of type IIx muscle fibres and no change in their proportion. Thus, this type of training might be used effectively during the last weeks before competition, when the strength training load is usually reduced, in order to increase muscle power and shot put performance in novice shot putters. PMID:24149736

Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

2013-01-01

180

Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal…

Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

181

Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders…

Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

2014-01-01

182

The relationship between academic performanceand pilot performance in a collegiate flight training environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While flight time has commonly been used as a measure of a pilot's skill level, little research has been performed to determine what factors are linked to predicting a pilot's performance, particularly in a training environment. If a dependable link was found, prediction of how well an individual would do in flight training would be possible. Time, money and resources could be focused on individuals who are more likely to succeed in pilot training. Therefore, this study was designed to determine if a relationship between GPA and pilot performance exists, in order to determine if academic performance can serve as a predictor of pilot performance in a training environment. The use of historical records from Middle Tennessee State University's Aerospace Department, which included GPA information and flight training records information, was used evaluate this relationship. Results of the study indicate a statistically significant modest correlation between academic performance and pilot performance between some of the variable pairings.

Jones, Carolyn A.

183

An Appraisal of Naturalism in Contemporary Meta-Ethics David Christopher Lahti  

E-print Network

. For my scientific training I am grateful to Richard Wright of Gordon College, together with the othersAn Appraisal of Naturalism in Contemporary Meta-Ethics David Christopher Lahti B.S., Gordon College and opportunities, I thank my parents Ben and Jean Lahti. iii #12;An Appraisal of Naturalism in Contemporary Meta

Lahti, David C.

184

Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children  

PubMed Central

Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training. PMID:25671082

Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J.; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto

2014-01-01

185

Training distribution, physiological profile, and performance for a male international 1500-m runner.  

PubMed

This case study observed the training delivered by a 1500-m runner and the physiological and performance change during a 2-y period. A male international 1500-m runner (personal best 3:38.9 min:s, age 26 y, height 1.86 m, body mass 76 kg) completed 6 laboratory tests and 14 monitored training sessions, during 2 training years. Training distribution and volume was ascertained from training diary and spot-check monitoring of heart rate and accelerometry measurements. Testing and training information were discussed with coach and athlete from which training changes were made. In the first training year, low-intensity training was found to be performed above the prescribed level, which was adjusted with training and coach support in y 2 (training zone < 80% of vVO2max, y 1 = 20%; y 2 = 55%). "Tempo" training was also performed at an excessively high intensity (? [blood lactate] 5-25 min of tempo run, y 1 = ?6.7 mM, y 2 = ?2.5 mM). From y 1 to 2, there was a concomitant increase in the proportion of training in the high-intensity zone of 100 to 130% vVO2max from 7 to 10%. Values for VO2max increased from 72 to 79 mL · kg-1 · min, economy improved from 210 to 206 mL · kg-1 · min, and 1500-m performance time improved from 3:38.9 to 3:32.4 min:s from the beginning of y 1 to the end of y 2. This case shows a modification in training methodology that was coincident with a greater improvement in physiological capability and furtherance in performance improvement. PMID:22634971

Ingham, Stephen A; Fudge, Barry W; Pringle, Jamie S

2012-06-01

186

Appraisal of Artificial Screening Techniques of Tomato to Accurately Reflect Field Performance of the Late Blight Resistance  

PubMed Central

Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant). In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with thefield experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato. PMID:25279467

Nowakowska, Marzena; Nowicki, Marcin; K?osi?ska, Urszula; Maciorowski, Robert; Kozik, El?bieta U.

2014-01-01

187

Interviewing Skills and Social Values Change Resulting from Short-Term Training of Public Assistance Workers. An Appraisal of the Public Service Careers Training Project Conducted at the University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document evaluates six three-week inservice training sessions provided for Kentucky public assistance workers. The training was conducted with 15 trainees participating in each session. Trainees were state employees who were employed to determine eligibility for food stamps, medical assistance, SSA unemployment insurance, etc. Their formal…

Sturges, Jack; Krislov, Evelyn

188

Kinetic analysis of complex training rest interval effect on vertical jump performance.  

PubMed

Complex training has been recommended as a method of incorporating plyometrics with strength training. Some research suggests that plyometric performance is enhanced when performed 3-4 minutes after the strength training set, whereas other studies have failed to find any complex training advantage when plyometrics are performed immediately after the strength training portion of the complex. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an ergogenic advantage associated with complex training and if there is an optimal time for performing plyometrics after the strength training set. Subjects were 21 NCAA Division I athletes who performed a countermovement vertical jump, a set of 5 repetitions maximum (5 RM) squats, and 5 trials of countermovement vertical jump at intervals of 10 seconds and 1, 2, 3, and 4 minutes after the squat. Jump height and peak ground reaction forces were acquired via a force platform. The pre-squat jump performance was compared with the post-squat jumps. Repeated measures ANOVA determined a difference (p performance immediately following the squat exercise was hindered (0.66 m), but no effect (p > 0.05) was found comparing subsequent jumps (0.72-0.76 m) to the pre-squat condition (0.74 m). When comparing high to low strength individuals, there was no effect on jump performance following the squat (p > 0.05). In conclusion, complex training does not appear to enhance jumping performance significantly and actually decreases it when the jump is performed immediately following the strength training set; however, a nonsignificant trend toward improvement seemed to be present. Therefore to optimize jump performance it appears that athletes should not perform jumps immediately following resistance training. It may be possible that beyond 4 minutes of recovery performance could be enhanced; however, that was not within the scope of the current study. PMID:12741876

Jensen, Randall L; Ebben, William P

2003-05-01

189

TRAINING LOAD, IMMUNE SYSTEM, UPPER RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND PERFORMANCE IN WELL-TRAINED CYCLISTS THROUGHOUT A COMPETITIVE SEASON  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to evaluate the leukocyte subset counts, serum immunoglobulin A, performance and upper respiratory symptoms (URS), as well as their interrelationships, of well-trained cyclists for a 29-week training season using monitored loads. The season was divided into three phases: preparatory (nine weeks), first competitive phase (nine weeks) and second competitive phase (11 weeks). The sample consisted of eight well-trained cyclists, aged 18 ± 2 years. Immunological parameters and performance were evaluated during weeks 1 (baseline), 10 (early first competitive phase), 19 (early second competitive phase) and 29 (end of the second competitive phase). The training loads (volume x rating of perceived exertion) were monitored daily while the monitoring of URS was performed every 15 days using the WURSS-44 questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and a Pearson correlation test with the significance level set at p ? 0.05. No significant differences were found for training load, leukocyte subset counts or serum immunoglobulin A among the three phases. However, serum immunoglobulin A was 50.9% below the control group values. URS were significantly higher during the preparatory period, and there were significant correlations between URS and training load (strain) in the preparatory period (r = 0.72, p = 0.032) and second competitive phase (r = 0.73, p = 0.036). In conclusion, indicators of training load without a significant change throughout the season did not significantly affect immune parameters measured; however, the increase of strain can cause an increase of upper respiratory symptoms throughout the season, but without loss of performance. PMID:24744500

Gobatto, C.A.; Manchado-Gobatto, F.B.

2013-01-01

190

The effects of auditory-visual vowel and consonant training on speechreading performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work examined the effects of a novel approach to speechreading training using vowels, for normal-hearing listeners tested in masking noise [C. Richie and D. Kewley-Port, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2337 (2003)]. That study showed significant improvements in sentence-level speechreading abilities for trained listeners compared to untrained listeners. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of combining vowel training with consonant training on speechreading abilities. Normal-hearing adults were tested in auditory-visual conditions in noise designed to simulate a mild-to-moderate sloping sensorineural hearing loss. One group of listeners received training on consonants in monosyllable context, and another group received training on both consonants and vowels in monosyllable context. A control group was tested but did not receive any training. All listeners performed speechreading pre- and post-tests, on words and sentences. Results are discussed in terms of differences between groups, dependent upon which type of training was administered; vowel training, consonant training, or vowel and consonant training combined. Comparison is made between these and other speechreading training methods. Finally, the potential benefit of these vowel- and consonant-based speechreading training methods for rehabilitation of hearing-impaired listeners is discussed. [Work supported by NIHDCD02229.

Richie, Carolyn; Kewley-Port, Diane

2001-05-01

191

Resistance Training on Physical Performance in Disabled Older Female Cardiac Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADES, P. A., P. D. SAVAGE, M. E. CRESS, M. BROCHU, N. M. LEE, and E. T. POEHLMAN. Resistance Training on Physical Performance in Disabled Older Female Cardiac Patients. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 35, No. 8, pp. 1265-1270, 2003. Purpose: We evaluated the value of resistance training on measures of physical performance in disabled older women with coronary heart

PHILIP A. ADES; PATRICK D. SAVAGE; M. ELAINE CRESS; MARTIN BROCHU; N. MELINDA LEE; ERIC T. POEHLMAN

2003-01-01

192

Effects of training and feedback on Discrete Trial Teaching skills and student performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of training and feedback on instructor performance of Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) and support skills. This included an examination of the generalization and maintenance of instructor skills, and the impact of instructor skills on student performance. Six undergraduate research assistants received an 8-h training in DTT and taught a variety of skills and behaviors to

Andrew Downs; Robyn Conley Downs; Kathryn Rau

2008-01-01

193

Effects of Creatine Supplementation and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Weightlifting Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine monohydrate has become the supplement of choice for many athletes striving to improve sports performance. Recent data indicate that athletes may not be using creatine as a sports performance booster per se but instead use cre- atine chronically as a training aid to augment intense resis- tance training workouts. Although several studies have eval- uated the combined effects of

Eric S. Rawson; Jeff S. Volek

2003-01-01

194

Olympic weightlifting and plyometric training with children provides similar or greater performance improvements than traditional resistance training.  

PubMed

A number of organizations recommend that advanced resistance training (RT) techniques can be implemented with children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), plyometrics, and traditional RT programs with children. Sixty-three children (10-12 years) were randomly allocated to a 12-week control OWL, plyometric, or traditional RT program. Pre- and post-training tests included body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds, countermovement jump (CMJ), horizontal jump, balance, 5- and 20-m sprint times, isokinetic force and power at 60 and 300° · s(-1). Magnitude-based inferences were used to analyze the likelihood of an effect having a standardized (Cohen's) effect size exceeding 0.20. All interventions were generally superior to the control group. Olympic weightlifting was >80% likely to provide substantially better improvements than plyometric training for CMJ, horizontal jump, and 5- and 20-m sprint times, whereas >75% likely to substantially exceed traditional RT for balance and isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1). Plyometric training was >78% likely to elicit substantially better training adaptations than traditional RT for balance, isokinetic force at 60 and 300° · s(-1), isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1), and 5- and 20-m sprints. Traditional RT only exceeded plyometric training for BMI and isokinetic power at 60° · s(-1). Hence, OWL and plyometrics can provide similar or greater performance adaptations for children. It is recommended that any of the 3 training modalities can be implemented under professional supervision with proper training progressions to enhance training adaptations in children. PMID:24172724

Chaouachi, Anis; Hammami, Raouf; Kaabi, Sofiene; Chamari, Karim; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

2014-06-01

195

Selection and prediction of performance of entrants to GP training.  

PubMed

There are currently more applicants than available positions in The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners Vocational Training Program. This already entails a process to select entrants into the Program. Furthermore, any vocational program should be interested in attracting entrants who will complete their training and be successful practitioners. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on methods of selection and prediction in vocational programs for general practice. PMID:7677619

Kamien, M; Rotem, A

1995-08-01

196

EXPEDITIONARY ART: AN APPRAISAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

When drawing and painting were the only ways to create visual documentation of new discoveries, artists played a central role in geographical exploration. The legacy of expeditionary art offers opportunities for building stronger linkages between art and geog- raphy. A framework is laid out for classifying expeditionary art, describing how it can be appraised as pictorial information. The work of

ROGER BALM

2001-01-01

197

MONITORING TRAINING LOADS, STRESS, IMMUNE-ENDOCRINE RESPONSES AND PERFORMANCE IN TENNIS PLAYERS  

PubMed Central

The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10) were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress) were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A. One repetition maximum strength, running endurance, jump height and agility were assessed before and after training. The periodised training plan led to significant weekly changes in training loads (i.e. increasing in weeks 3 and 4, decreasing in week 5) and post-training improvements in strength, endurance and agility (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentration and the symptoms of stress also increased in weeks 3 and/or 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). Conversely, the testosterone to cortisol ratio decreased in weeks 3 and 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the training plan evoked adaptive changes in stress tolerance and hormonal responses, which may have mediated the improvements in physical performance. PMID:24744485

Moreira, A.; Lodo, L.; Nosaka, K.; Coutts, A.J.; Aoki, M.S.

2013-01-01

198

Performance Appraisal for Matrix Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A matrix management system designed for use by a highly technical nuclear weapons research and development facility to improve productivity and flexibility by the use of multiple authority, responsibility, and accountability relationships is described. (MSE)

Edwards, M. R.; Sproull, J. Ruth

1985-01-01

199

Self-attitude awareness training: An aid to effective performance in microgravity and virtual environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes ongoing development of training procedures to enhance self-attitude awareness in astronaut trainees. The procedures are based on observations regarding self-attitude (perceived self-orientation and self-motion) reported by astronauts. Self-attitude awareness training is implemented on a personal computer system and consists of lesson stacks programmed using Hypertalk with Macromind Director movie imports. Training evaluation will be accomplished by an active search task using the virtual Spacelab environment produced by the Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME-PAT) as well as by assessment of astronauts' performance and sense of well-being during orbital flight. The general purpose of self-attitude awareness training is to use as efficiently as possible the limited DOME-PAT training time available to astronauts prior to a space mission. We suggest that similar training procedures may enhance the performance of virtual environment operators.

Parker, Donald E.; Harm, D. L.; Florer, Faith L.

1993-01-01

200

Strongman vs. Traditional Resistance Training Effects on Muscular Function and Performance.  

PubMed

Winwood, PW, Cronin, JB, Posthumus, LR, Finlayson, SJ, Gill, ND, and Keogh, JWL. Strongman vs. traditional resistance training effects on muscular function and performance. J Strength Cond Res 29(2): 429-439, 2015-Currently, no evidence exists as to the effectiveness of strongman training programs for performance enhancement. This study compared the effects of 7 weeks of strongman resistance training vs. traditional resistance training on body composition, strength, power, and speed measures. Thirty experienced resistance-trained rugby players were randomly assigned to one of the 2 groups; strongman (n = 15; mean ± SD: age, 23.4 ± 5.6 years; body mass, 91.2 ± 14.8 kg; height, 180.1 ± 6.8 cm) or traditional (n = 15; mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 3.4 years; body mass, 93.7 ± 12.3 kg; height, 181.3 ± 5.9 cm). The strongman and traditional training programs required the participants to train twice a week and contained exercises that were matched for biomechanical similarity with equal loading. Participants were assessed for body composition, strength, power, speed, and change of direction (COD) performance. Within-group analyses indicated that all performance measures improved with training (0.2-7%) in both the strongman and traditional training groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in functional performance measures after 7 weeks of resistance training. Between-group differences indicated small positive effects in muscle mass and acceleration performance and large improvements in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bent over row strength associated with strongman compared with traditional training. Small to moderate positive changes in 1RM squat and deadlift strength, horizontal jump, COD turning ability, and sled push performance were associated with traditional compared with strongman training. Practitioners now have the first evidence on the efficacy of a strongman training program, and it would seem that short-term strongman training programs are as effective as traditional resistance training programs in improving aspects of body composition, muscular function, and performance. PMID:25627449

Winwood, Paul W; Cronin, John B; Posthumus, Logan R; Finlayson, Steven J; Gill, Nicholas D; Keogh, Justin W L

2015-02-01

201

Effects of resistance training in humans on neck muscle performance, and electromyogram power spectrum changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The purpose of this study was to quantify the neuromuscular cervical adaptations to an 8 week strength training programme.\\u000a Seven healthy men, with no pathological conditions of the neck, performed a lateral flexion isometric resistance-training\\u000a programme three times a week. The training sessions consisted of one set of ten contractions, each of 6 s duration, at 60%\\u000a of the predetermined maximal

Pierre Portero; André-Xavier Bigard; Didier Gamet; Jean-René Flageat; Charles-Yannick Guézennec

2001-01-01

202

DETERMINING VARIABLES OF PLYOMETRIC TRAINING FOR IMPROVING VERTICAL JUMP HEIGHT PERFORMANCE: AM ETA-ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saez Saez de Villarreal, E, Kellis, E, Kraemer, WJ, and Izquierdo, M. Determining variables of plyometric training for improving vertical jump height performance: a meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 23(2): xxx-xxx, 2009—Plyometric training improves vertical jump height (VJH). However, the effectiveness of plyometric training depends on various factors. A meta-analysis of 56 studies with a total of 225 effect sizes

EDUARDO SAEZ-SAEZ DE VILLARREAL; ELEFTHERIOS KELLIS; WILLIAM J. KRAEMER; MIKEL IZQUIERDO

203

Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

Helmreich, Robert L.

1987-01-01

204

A New Behavior Oriented Evaluation Scale to Assess Teaching and Training Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of several on-going tests was conducted of the Behavior Descriptor Index (BDI) which is a new behaviorally oriented job performance appraisal and training evaluation instrument developed for five large Canadian chartered banks. The new instrument was shown to be valid across organizations. Twenty-five assistant bank managers in these…

Schwind, Hermann F.

205

Blood and Black Bile: Four-Style Behavior Models in Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A four-style behavior questionnaire is used as an assessment instrument to help in predicting trainees' behavior. It is argued that the four-style behavior theory has been a helpful training tool and it can be used with measurable success in a number of subject areas: interpersonal communication, performance appraisal, and conflict resolution.…

O'Brien, Roger T.

1983-01-01

206

Development of a Human Behavior and Performance Training Curriculum for ISS Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper will describe the DACUM process and summarize the core competencies that were agreed upon, internationally, as important for ISS astronauts. The paper will further discuss the ongoing work being completed by the subgroup, Human Behaviour and Performance Training Working Group, including defining the competencies and behavioural markers. Finally, an overview of remaining work will be provided, including determining which competencies require formal training and which require no formal training, developing training objectives, sequencing the training, and establishing how to assess training effectiveness. DISCUSSION: Designing a common set of goals for behavioural training has been the desire of the SHBP WG since its inception in 1998. This group, along with training specialists and astronauts, are making great strides toward defining these competencies. The road ahead will be exceedingly challenging as training objectives are defined and a training flow is proposed to the MCOP; with proposed ISS crews increasing to six people in the near future, such enhanced behavioural training may be all the more essential for mission success.

VanderArk, Steve; Tomi, Leena; Vassin, Alexander; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Bessone, Lorendana; OConnor, Sharon; Mukai, Chiaki; Coffee, Emily; Sipes, Walter; Salnitskiy, Vyecheslav; Ren, Victor; Spychalski, Annette

2007-01-01

207

Cooperative Demonstration Program for High Technology Training. Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model project at Indian Hills Community College, Ottumwa, Iowa, provided a degree-bearing second-year course of vocational study to a nontraditional audience seeking high-technology training. The flexible, competency-based program offered three paths of study: a course in personal computing resulting in a diploma or an associate degree, an…

Indian Hills Community Coll., Ottumwa, IA.

208

The effect of phonological analysis training on naming performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children who are poor readers have difficulty naming pictured objects. Previous research has shown that while poor readers have the same amount of tacit phonological knowledge about words they cannot retrieve as good readers, they cannot use this initial phoneme and rhyme information to produce these words. In this study, thirdgrade good and poor readers participated in a training session

Hyla Rubin; Terry Rotella; Lisa Schwartz; Susan Bernstein

1991-01-01

209

Training Basic Writing Teachers through Collaboration: Exploring Pedagogies through Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collaborative teaching model that replaces the hierarchical graduate teaching assistant (TA)/tutor structure can be used to train basic writing TAs with a pedagogy that stresses reflection and dialogue. Usually, new graduate students tutor for a semester in Basic Writing classrooms and then later move on to teach their own classes; in this case,…

Salvo, Michael J.; Lane, Daniel

210

Student Cooperative Training Units. Business Partnerships Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The North Clackamas School District (Oregon) conducted the Student Cooperative Training Units (CTU) program. The CTU program addressed two key issues that disrupted the development and maintenance of local high technology businesses: (1) The aerospace parts casting, health care, and graphic reproduction industries have experienced a shortage of…

Wheeles, Rebecca

211

The Effect of Simulation Training on the Performance of Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In December, 2005, the Air Force Auditing Agency conducted an interview of 282 nurses and physicians stationed in Iraq. The majority of the nurses from the interview reported they were not prepared to care for critically injured soldiers. This study investigated whether a new training technology, using scenario-based simulations, could improve…

Taylor, Lynne

2011-01-01

212

The Effectiveness of Teacher Training as Measured by Pupil Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports research conducted with materials from the Anthropology Curriculum Project, which follows a substantive model, to answer the question: was pupil achievement in anthropology primarily a functon of the trained teacher, or a function of the materials used by any teacher in anthropology. A quasi-experimental design involving intact…

Rice, Marion J.

213

Effect of a Small Dose of Alcohol on the Endurance Performance of Trained Cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute small ethanol (EtOH) dose (0.5 ml EtOH\\/kg fat-free mass, combined with carbohydrate) in a drink on endurance performance of trained cyclists. Methods: Thirteen well-trained male cyclists took part in this study. A 60-min cycling endurance performance test (time trial) was performed in a calorimetric chamber after

Virgile Lecoultre; Yves Schutz

214

Situation Awareness and Dynamic Performance Training Systems: Some Reflections on the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Situation awareness is defined as an evaluative product based on expert performance criteria. This article examines the importance of training simulation systems in developing situation awareness, focusing on high fidelity procedural training, expert knowledge and experience, and attitude and emotional state. Discusses other related issues. (68…

Gerson, Charles W.

1997-01-01

215

Peer Assessment Training in Teacher Education: Effects on Performance and Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a teacher education class, compared student teachers trained in peer assessment (including defining performance criteria, giving feedback, and writing assessment reports) with a control group. Found that trained students surpassed controls in the quality of assessment skill; they also received higher class grades and were more satisfied. (EV)

Sluijsmans, Dominique M. A.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2002-01-01

216

Should Athletic Training Educators Utilize Grades When Evaluating Student Clinical Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore and address some of the challenges for assessing, interpreting, and grading athletic training students' clinical performance and to suggest athletic training educators consider using a more universal assessment method for professional consistency. Background: In years past students learned from teachers or mentors on an…

Scriber, Kent; Gray, Courtney; Millspaugh, Rose

2010-01-01

217

Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

2013-01-01

218

Effects of Medicine Ball Training on Fitness Performance of High-School Physical Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of medicine ball training on the fitness performance of high-school physical education students. Sixty-nine high-school students participated in a 6-week medicine training program during the first 10 to 15 minutes of each physical education class. A group of 49 students who participated in…

Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Mediate, Patrick

2006-01-01

219

The Dread Factor: How Hazards and Safety Training Influence Learning and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous…

Burke, Michael J.; Salvador, Rommel O.; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

2011-01-01

220

The effects of shoulder plyometric training on proprioception and selected muscle performance characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of plyometric training of the shoulder internal rotators on proprioception, kinesthesia, and selected muscle performance characteristics in female swimmers. Twenty-four female division I swimmers were evaluated before and after a 6-week plyometric training program. Proprioception and kinesthesia were assessed for internal and external rotation at 0°, 75°, and 90% of

Kathleen A Swanik; Scott M Lephart; C. Buz Swanik; Susan P Lephart; David A Stone; Freddie H Fu

2002-01-01

221

Can 2- and 3-Year-Old Children Be Trained to Perform Visual Perception Tasks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children aged 2 and 3 years were exposed to a novel paradigm designed to train visual perception skills. The results indicate that children of this age could be trained to perform both percept deprivation and percept diagnosis tasks. Results are discussed with reference to engagement, a precursor to an adult-like understanding of perception.

McGuigan, Nicola

2007-01-01

222

Can Young Preschool Children Be Trained to Perform Percept Deprivation Tasks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young preschool children aged 2 and 3 years were exposed to a novel paradigm designed to train visual perception skills. The results indicate that children of this age can be trained to perform a percept deprivation task that requires a sophisticated understanding of attention not normally mastered until 3.5-4 years. Results are discussed with…

McGuigan, Nicola

2007-01-01

223

Effects of Tactile Training on Visual Speechreading: Performance Changes Related to Individual Differences in Cognitive Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A follow-up study examined the effects of different tactile aids on tasks of visual speech reading in 14 adults with severe hearing impairments. Compared with speech reading alone, tactile aids impaired sentence-based speech reading at first, although performance improved with training. No effects of vibrotactile aids or training were obtained for…

Andersson, Ulf; Lyxell, Bjorn; Ronnberg, Jerker; Spens, Karl-Erik

2001-01-01

224

The Impact of Diagnosing Skill Deficiencies and Assessment-Based Communication Training on Managerial Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates an organizational diagnosis program that assesses managerial communication skills and provides the frame for follow-up training programs. Finds that managers participating in follow-up communication skills training performed significantly higher on interpersonal skills, problem-solving ability, and productivity over three long-term…

Papa, Michael J.; Graham, Elizabeth E.

1991-01-01

225

Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical…

Perez, Jose A., Jr.; Greer, Sharon

2009-01-01

226

Does Training Influence Organisational Performance?: Analysis of the Spanish Hotel Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify which variables of training policy have a significant and positive impact on organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: A targeted literature review was conducted to identify and collate a comprehensive range of human resource management and training conceptualisations/investigations. This…

Ubeda-Garcia, Mercedes; Marco-Lajara, Bartolome; Sabater-Sempere, Vicente; Garcia-Lillo, Francisco

2013-01-01

227

SUSTAINING AND ADVANCING PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS ACHIEVED BY CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TRAINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of experience in applying team coordination training reflect the differences in areas of emphasis between organizations. For example, the US Army's Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT) program emphasized mission performance measures and changes in behaviors while the US Air Force Air Combat Command\\/US Air Forces Europe (ACC\\/USAFE) Crew Resource Management (CRM) program relied heavily on attitudinal measures and student

Gary Grubb; John C. Morey; Robert Simon

228

7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Chattel appraisals. A current appraisal (not more...purposes that are secured by crops is only required when...requested late in the current production year and actual yields...estate appraisals. A current real estate...

2010-01-01

229

Performance appraisal of rapid on-site malaria diagnosis (ICT malaria Pf/Pv test) in relation to human resources at village level in Myanmar.  

PubMed

Logistic, economic and technical factors limit rapid access to microscopic confirmation of symptomatic diagnosis of malaria in many rural areas in endemic countries such as Myanmar. A study was conducted to evaluate a rapid on-site immunochromatographic test (ICT Malaria Pf/Pv) for detection of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in two villages in the Taikkyi region of Myanmar. The ICT Malaria tests were performed by a volunteer health worker (VHW) in Yae-Aye-San village and by a professionally trained midwife (MW) in Kankone village. A total of 1000 symptomatic patients participated in the study by providing blood samples for an ICT test and for microscopy. The ICT performance indices, relative to microscopy, were better for the trained MW compared with the less experienced VHW. For P. falciparum and/or P. vivax infections, the sensitivities were 82.7% for the VHW compared with 93.7% for the MW. For P. falciparum infections, the sensitivities were 82.2% for the VHW and 91.3% for the MW, while the corresponding values for P. vivax infections were 66.7 and 79%, respectively. Although the test kit appeared to perform better in more experienced hands, this study questions whether this difference is related to the use of the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit, or related to other factors such as differences in the quality of blood slides prepared by the VHW and MW for microscopic examination. Overall, the results suggest that a rapid diagnostic assay such as the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit can be used in rural settings by relatively inexperienced persons, such as VHWs, with a reasonable degree of sensitivity, thus providing on-site confirmation of symptomatic diagnosis of malaria. PMID:11755428

Cho-Min-Naing; Gatton, M L

2002-01-01

230

Barbell deadlift training increases the rate of torque development and vertical jump performance in novices.  

PubMed

Thompson, BJ, Stock, MS, Shields, JE, Luera, MJ, Munayer, IK, Mota, JA, Carrillo, EC, and Olinghouse, KD. Barbell deadlift training increases the rate of torque development and vertical jump performance in novices. J Strength Cond Res 29(1): 1-10, 2015-The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of barbell deadlift training on rapid torque characteristics of the knee extensors and flexors. A secondary aim was to analyze the relationships between training-induced changes in rapid torque and vertical jump performance. Fifty-four subjects (age, mean ± SD = 23 ± 3 years) were randomly assigned to a control (n = 20) or training group (n = 34). Subjects in the training group performed supervised deadlift training twice per week for 10 weeks. All subjects performed isometric strength testing of the knee extensors and flexors and vertical jumps before and after the intervention. Torque-time curves were used to calculate rate of torque development (RTD) values at peak and at 50 and 200 milliseconds from torque onset. Barbell deadlift training induced significant pre- to post-increases of 18.8-49.0% for all rapid torque variables (p < 0.01). Vertical jump height increased from 46.0 ± 11.3 to 49.4 ± 11.3 cm (7.4%; p < 0.01), and these changes were positively correlated with improvements in RTD for the knee flexors (r = 0.30-0.37, p < 0.01-0.03). These findings showed that a 10-week barbell deadlift training program was effective at enhancing rapid torque capacities in both the knee extensors and flexors. Changes in rapid torque were associated with improvements in vertical jump height, suggesting a transfer of adaptations from deadlift training to an explosive, performance-based task. Professionals may use these findings when attempting to design effective, time-efficient resistance training programs to improve explosive strength capacities in novices. PMID:25226322

Thompson, Brennan J; Stock, Matt S; Shields, JoCarol E; Luera, Micheal J; Munayer, Ibrahim K; Mota, Jacob A; Carrillo, Elias C; Olinghouse, Kendra D

2015-01-01

231

Performance theory based outcome measurement in engineering education and training  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach is presented to improve engineering education that is based on new concepts of systems performance and classic feedback theory. An important aspect is the use of general systems performance theory (GSPT) to provide a performance model of the educational system and as a basis for the key outcome metrics: the volumes of performance capacity envelopes of individual students.

William E. Dillon; George V. Kondraske; Louis J. Everett; Richard A. Volz

2000-01-01

232

Effects of intermittent training on anaerobic performance and MCT transporters in athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT) expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n?=?8; 150 mmHg PIO2) or hypoxic (H; n?=?10; ?3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2) over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30 x week(-1)) period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT) was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT). Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO) increased (p<0.05) after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively), but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively). No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective. PMID:24797797

Millet, Grégoire; Bentley, David J; Roels, Belle; Mc Naughton, Lars R; Mercier, Jacques; Cameron-Smith, David

2014-01-01

233

Ventilatory Threshold, Running Economy and Distance Running Performance of Trained Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to identify physiological factors that account for success in distance running, researchers evaluated relationships among ventilatory threshold, running economy, and distance running performance. Subjects were trained male runners with similar maximal aerobic power. (Authors/PP)

Powers, Scott K.; And Others

1983-01-01

234

Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses factors leading to the formation of the British Gas Corporation (BGC) in 1973 and how the main functions of BGC (sales and purchasing, engineering, service, and finance and personnel) plus management training and training technology across these functions blend together to provide an effective service throughout BGC. (SH)

Bostock, Geoffrey

1977-01-01

235

Performance-based comparison of neonatal intubation training outcomes: simulator and live animal.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article was to establish psychometric validity evidence for competency assessment instruments and to evaluate the impact of 2 forms of training on the abilities of clinicians to perform neonatal intubation. To inform the development of assessment instruments, we conducted comprehensive task analyses including each performance domain associated with neonatal intubation. Expert review confirmed content validity. Construct validity was established using the instruments to differentiate between the intubation performance abilities of practitioners (N = 294) with variable experience (novice through expert). Training outcomes were evaluated using a quasi-experimental design to evaluate performance differences between 294 subjects randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups. The training intervention followed American Heart Association Pediatric Advanced Life Support and Neonatal Resuscitation Program protocols with hands-on practice using either (1) live feline or (2) simulated feline models. Performance assessment data were captured before and directly following the training. All data were analyzed using analysis of variance with repeated measures and statistical significance set at P < .05. Content validity, reliability, and consistency evidence were established for each assessment instrument. Construct validity for each assessment instrument was supported by significantly higher scores for subjects with greater levels of experience, as compared with those with less experience (P = .000). Overall, subjects performed significantly better in each assessment domain, following the training intervention (P = .000). After controlling for experience level, there were no significant differences among the cognitive, performance, and self-efficacy outcomes between clinicians trained with live animal model or simulator model. Analysis of retention scores showed that simulator trained subjects had significantly higher performance scores after 18 weeks (P = .01) and 52 weeks (P = .001) and cognitive scores after 52 weeks (P = .001). The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of using valid, reliable assessment instruments to assess clinician competency and self-efficacy in the performance of neonatal intubation. We demonstrated the relative equivalency of live animal and simulation-based models as tools to support acquisition of neonatal intubation skills. Retention of performance abilities was greater for subjects trained using the simulator, likely because it afforded greater opportunity for repeated practice. Outcomes in each assessment area were influenced by the previous intubation experience of participants. This suggests that neonatal intubation training programs could be tailored to the level of provider experience to make efficient use of time and educational resources. Future research focusing on the uses of assessment in the applied clinical environment, as well as identification of optimal training cycles for performance retention, is merited. PMID:25626982

Andreatta, Pamela B; Klotz, Jessica J; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne L; Hauptman, Joe G; Biddinger, Bea; House, Joseph B

2015-02-01

236

The Resilience of the "Corporate" in Post-Corporate Teacher Appraisal: A Case Study from Mauritius  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to replace the traditional and authoritative staff appraisal at a case-study school by a concept of performance management depicted as the performance enhancement and peer appraisal of teachers. It is achieved by elaborating an open system of performance management where teachers are empowered within the existing vertical…

Luchoomun, Dharmadeo

2007-01-01

237

49 CFR 232.405 - Design and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Design and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices. 232.405 Section 232...FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES End-of-Train Devices § 232.405 Design and...

2010-10-01

238

49 CFR 232.405 - Design and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Design and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices. 232.405 Section 232...FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES End-of-Train Devices § 232.405 Design and...

2011-10-01

239

49 CFR 232.405 - Design and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices. 232.405 Section 232.405 Transportation...STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES End-of-Train Devices §...

2013-10-01

240

49 CFR 232.405 - Design and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices. 232.405 Section 232.405 Transportation...STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES End-of-Train Devices §...

2012-10-01

241

Education and Training Report. Performance Report, FY 1997  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During FY 97, 152 MUREP education and training projects were conducted at OMU institutions. The institutions conducted precollege and bridge programs, education partnerships with other universities and industry, NRTS, teacher training, and graduate and/or PI undergraduate programs. These programs reached a total of 23,748 participants, with the predominant number at the precollege level and achieved major goals of heightening students' interest and awareness of career opportunities in MSET fields, and exposing students to the NASA mission, research and advanced technology through role models, mentors, and participation in research and other educational activities. Also in FY 1997, NASA continued a very meaningful relationship with the Hispanic Association of Colleges students and Universities (HACU) through Proyecto Access, a consortium through which HACU links seven HSI's together to conduct 8-week summer programs. OMU Institutions reported 4,334 high school student in NASA programs and 3,404 of those students selected college preparatory MSET courses. Three hundred and forty-nine (349) graduated from high school, 343 enrolled in college, and 199 selected MSET majors. There were 130 high school graduates (bridge students) in NASA programs, 57 of whom successfully completed their freshman year. There were 307 teachers in teacher programs and 48 teachers received certificates. Of the 389 undergraduate students, 75 received under graduate degrees, and eight students are employed in a NASA-related field.

1997-01-01

242

Using balance training to improve the performance of youth basketball players.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 12 weeks of balance training to improve the balance and vertical jump abilities of young basketball players. Twenty-three players from two teams in the Under Fifteen Basketball Excellence category participated in the study. Participants were divided into two training groups: balance training (BAL, n = 11) and isotonic training (ISO, n = 12). Both groups were tested for balance and vertical jumps at the beginning of the competitive season and at the end of 12 weeks of specific training programme. All of the tests were performed in sustained bipodalic and monopodalic (both right and left) positions. The results showed that players who participated in balance training for 12 weeks, compared to players who trained with isotonic machines, exhibited a significantly increase in balance (bipodalic 28.3 %; right 41.4 %; left 45.8 %; p < 0.01) and muscular power (bipodalic 8.1 %; right 13.5 %; left 12.5 %; p < 0.01) as measured through a vertical jump. In conclusion, balance training using unstable boards was an effective training method for improving balance and the vertical jump, which is a basketball-specific action that frequently occurs in this sport. PMID:23956797

Boccolini, Gabriele; Brazzit, Alessandro; Bonfanti, Luca; Alberti, Giampietro

2013-08-01

243

Initial Performance Level on a Speechreading Task as Related to Subsequent Improvement after Shortterm Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of initial speechreading performance scores to final performance scores following shortterm training was determined for 30 normal-hearing, sighted adults. Results indicated a highly significant linear relationship between pre- and posttest scores. Ss with higher pretest scores tended to have a greater increase in performance than…

Crawford, Jody; And Others

1986-01-01

244

Effects of training at simulated altitude on performance and muscle metabolic capacity in competitive road cyclists.  

PubMed

Differences between the effects of training at sea level and at simulated altitude on performance and muscle structural and biochemical properties were investigated in 8 competitive cyclists who trained for 3-4 weeks, 4-5 sessions/week, each session consisting of cycling for 60-90 min continuously and 45-60 min intermittently. Four subjects, the altitude group (AG), trained in a hypobaric chamber (574 torr = 2300 m above sea level), and the other four at sea level (SLG). Before and after training work capacity was tested both at simulated altitude (574 torr) and at sea level, by an incremental cycle ergometer test until exhaustion. Work capacity was expressed as total amount of work performed. Venous blood samples were taken during the tests. Leg muscle biopsies were taken at rest before and after the training period. AG exhibited an increase of 33% in both sea level and altitude performance, while SLG increased 22% at sea level and 14% at altitude. Blood lactate concentration at a given submaximal load at altitude was significantly more reduced by training in AG than SLG. Muscle phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity decreased with training in AG but increased in SLG. All AG subjects showed increases in capillary density. In conclusion, work capacity at altitude was increased more by training at altitude than at sea level. Work capacity at sea level was at least as much improved by altitude as by sea level training. The improved work capacity by training at altitude was paralleled by decreased exercise blood lactate concentration, increased capillarization and decreased glycolytic capacity in leg muscle. PMID:3349988

Terrados, N; Melichna, J; Sylvén, C; Jansson, E; Kaijser, L

1988-01-01

245

Effect of an 8-week combined weights and plyometrics training program on golf drive performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a combined weights and plyometrics program on golf drive performance. Eleven male golfers' full golf swing was analyzed for club head speed (CS) and driving distance (DD) before and after an 8-week training program. The control group (n = 5) continued their normal training, while the experimental group (n = 6) performed 2 sessions per week of weight training and plyometrics. Controls showed no significant (p > or = 0.05) changes, while experimental subjects showed a significant increase (p < or = 0.05) in CS and DD. The changes in golf drive performance were attributed to an increase in muscular force and an improvement in the sequential acceleration of body parts contributing to a greater final velocity being applied to the ball. It was concluded that specific combined weights and plyometrics training can help increase CS and DD in club golfers. PMID:14971982

Fletcher, Iain M; Hartwell, Matthew

2004-02-01

246

Appraisal of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the experience of three general surgeons performing 304 laparoscopic cholecystectomies in three private hospitals between October 1989 and November 1990. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy boasts two major advantages over the conventional procedure: the remarkable reduction in postoperative pain and economic benefit, largely due to the patient's early return to work. Revealing a complication rate of 2% and no deaths, this study has shown that this procedure can offer patients these advantages with a medical risk no greater than that accompanying conventional cholecystectomy. Patient safety must be paramount, and it is the responsibility of the surgical community to ensure that all surgeons receive the highest quality training and that the technique is applied appropriately. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1828140

Graves, H A; Ballinger, J F; Anderson, W J

1991-01-01

247

Primary flight training performance of student naval aviators with vision waivers.  

PubMed

Performance was studied for student naval aviators with waivers for defective uncorrected distance visual acuity who underwent primary flight training at NAS Whiting Field, FL, for fiscal year 1987 (cases = 45). Outcome variables were completion rate, primary flight training grades and flight hours. Controls for completion rate were all other students during that period (N = 1443). For training grades and hours, controls were selected who completed the same training squadron within 1 month of the case. Two controls were selected who progressed to the jet pipeline, with two additional controls selected who progressed to the same pipeline as the cases, either maritime/patrol or helicopter (controls = 180). Results demonstrated the cases were significantly more likely to complete training (p = 0.029), but not significantly different in primary flight grades or hours. These results suggest student naval aviators on vision waivers were competitive with their contemporaries. PMID:2001214

Bohnker, B; Anzalone, F; Mittelman, M; Markovitis, A

1991-02-01

248

A Performance Support Tool for Cisco Training Program Managers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance support systems can play an important role in corporations by managing and allowing distribution of information more easily. These systems run the gamut from simple paper job aids to sophisticated computer- and web-based software applications that support the entire corporate supply chain. According to Gery (1991), a performance

Benson, Angela D.; Bothra, Jashoda; Sharma, Priya

2004-01-01

249

Transference of traditional versus complex strength and power training to sprint performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two different strength-power training models on sprint performance. Forty-eight soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG: n = 15, age: 20.2 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.74 ± 0.06 m, and body mass: 66.7 ± 9.8 kg), a traditional training group (TT: n = 18, age: 20.1 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.05 m, and body mass: 64.2 ± 4.7 kg), and a complex training group (CT: n = 15, age: 20.3 ± 0.8 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.07 m; and body mass: 64.0 ± 8.8 kg). Maximum strength (25% and 26%), CMJ height (36% and 39%), mean power (30% and 35%) and mean propulsive power (22% and 28%) in the loaded jump squat exercise, and 20-m sprint speed (16% and 14%) increased significantly (p?0.05) following the TT and CT, respectively. However, the transfer effect coefficients (TEC) of strength and power performances to 20-m sprint performance following the TT were greater than the CT throughout the 9-week training period. Our data suggest that TT is more effective than CT to improve sprint performance in moderately trained subjects. PMID:25114753

Loturco, Irineu; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo; Cal Abad, Cesar Cavinato; Kobal, Ronaldo; Gil, Saulo; González-Badillo, Juan José

2014-06-28

250

Temporal specificity of training: intra-day effects on biochemical responses and Olympic-Weightlifting performances.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Olympic-Weightlifting session training at three times of the day on the performance related to biochemical responses. Nine weightlifters (21 ± 0.5 years) performed, in randomised order, on three Olympic-Weightlifting training (snatch, clean and jerk) sessions (08:00 a.m., 02:00 p. m., 06:00 p. m.). Blood samples were collected: before, 3 min and 48 h after each training session. Haematological parameters and markers of muscle injury were assessed. Resting oral temperature and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also assessed during each session. ANOVA showed that the performance was better (P < 0.001) at 02:00 p. m. with a less RPE (P < 0.01) compared to the morning and the evening sessions while there was higher (P < 0.05) oral temperature at 06:00 p. m. versus 08:00 a.m. and 02:00 p. m. Muscle damage changed immediately (without significant effect after 48 h) after the training sessions with lower values ??in the evening compared to the morning. In conclusion, the afternoon training is more effective than morning or evening sessions for weightlifters. Therefore, coaches and weightlifters should be advised to schedule their training session in the afternoon hour. PMID:25117722

Ammar, Achraf; Chtourou, Hamdi; Trabelsi, Khaled; Padulo, Johnny; Turki, Mouna; El Abed, Kais; Hoekelmann, Anitta; Hakim, Ahmed

2015-02-01

251

'Functional' inspiratory and core muscle training enhances running performance and economy.  

PubMed

We compared the effects of two 6-week high-intensity interval training interventions. Under the control condition (CON), only interval training was undertaken, whilst under the intervention condition (ICT), interval training sessions were followed immediately by core training, which was combined with simultaneous inspiratory muscle training - 'functional' IMT. Sixteen recreational runners were allocated to either ICT or CON groups. Prior to the intervention phase, both groups undertook a 4-week programme of 'foundation' IMT to control for the known ergogenic effect of IMT [30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure (P0) per set, 2 sets.d, 6 d.wk]. The subsequent 6-week interval running training phase, consisted of 3-4 sessions.wk. In addition, the ICT group undertook four inspiratory-loaded core exercises [10 repetitions.set, 2 sets.d, inspiratory load set at 50% post-IMT P0] immediately after each interval training session. The CON group received neither core training nor functional IMT. Following the intervention phase, global inspiratory and core muscle functions increased in both groups (P<0.05), as evidenced by P0 and a sport-specific endurance plank test performance (SEPT), respectively. Compared to CON, the ICT group showed larger improvements in SEPT, running economy at the speed of the OBLA, and 1-hr running performance (3.04% vs 1.57%, P<0.05). The changes in these variables were inter-individually correlated (r?0.57, n=16, P<0.05). Such findings suggest that the addition of inspiratory-loaded core conditioning into a high-intensity interval training program augments the influence of the interval program upon endurance running performance, and that this may be underpinned by an improvement in running economy. PMID:25162653

Tong, Tomas K; McConnell, Alison K; Lin, Hua; Nie, Jinlei; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Jiayuan

2014-08-26

252

Methods of training set construction: Towards improving performance for automated mesozooplankton image classification systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correspondence between variation in the physico-chemical properties of the water column and the taxonomic composition of zooplankton communities represents an important indicator of long-term and broad-scale change in marine systems. Evaluating and relating compositional change to various forms of perturbation demand routine taxonomic identification methods that can be applied rapidly and accurately. Traditional identification by human experts is accurate but very time-consuming. The application of automated image classification systems for plankton communities has emerged as a potential resolution to this limitation. The objective of this study is to evaluate how specific aspects of training set construction for the ZooScan system influenced our ability to relate variation in zooplankton taxonomic composition to variation of hydrographic properties in the East China Sea. Specifically, we compared the relative utility of zooplankton classifiers trained with the following: (i) water mass-specific and global training sets; (ii) balanced versus imbalanced training sets. The classification performance (accuracy and precision) of water-mass specific classifiers tended to decline with environmental dissimilarity, suggesting water-mass specificity However, similar classification performance was also achieved by training our system with samples representing all hydrographic sub-regions (i.e. a global classifier). After examining category-specific accuracy, we found that equal performance arises because the accuracy was mainly determined by dominant taxa. This apparently high classification accuracy was at the expense of accurate classification of rare taxa. To explore the basis for such biased classification, we trained our global classifier with an equal amount of training data for each category (balanced training). We found that balanced training had higher accuracy at recognizing rare taxa but low accuracy at abundant taxa. The errors introduced in recognition still pose a major challenge for automatic classification systems. In order to fully automate analyses of zooplankton communities and relate variation in composition to hydrographic properties, the recognition power of the system requires further improvements.

Chang, Chun-Yi; Ho, Pei-Chi; Sastri, Akash R.; Lee, Yu-Ching; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Hsieh, Chih-hao

2012-03-01

253

Social Appraisal Influences Recognition of Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of social appraisal emphasizes the importance of a social dimension in appraisal theories of emotion by proposing that the way an individual appraises an event is influenced by the way other individuals appraise and feel about the same event. This study directly tested this proposal by asking participants to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear, happiness, or

Christian Mumenthaler; David Sander

2012-01-01

254

Training improves multitasking performance by increasing the speed of information processing in human prefrontal cortex  

PubMed Central

Summary Our ability to multitask is severely limited: Task performance deteriorates when we attempt to undertake two or more tasks simultaneously. Remarkably, extensive training can greatly reduce such multitasking costs. While it is not known how training alters the brain to solve the multitasking problem, it likely involves the prefrontal cortex given this brain region’s purported role in limiting multitasking performance. Here we show that the reduction of multitasking interference with training is not achieved by diverting the flow of information processing away from the prefrontal cortex, or by segregating prefrontal cells into independent task-specific neuronal ensembles, but rather by increasing the speed of information processing in this brain region, thereby allowing multiple tasks to be processed in rapid succession. These results not only reveal how training leads to efficient multitasking, they also provide a mechanistic account of multitasking limitations, namely the poor speed of information processing in human prefrontal cortex. PMID:19607798

Dux, Paul E.; Tombu, Michael N.; Harrison, Stephenie; Rogers, Baxter P.; Tong, Frank; Marois, René

2009-01-01

255

The effects of COREPOWER machine training versus home-based core training on golfers' physical fitness and sport performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 36 session COREPOWER machine training intervention and those of a 36 session home-based core training intervention programme on golfers' physical fitness and sport specific performance. It was hypothesised that both modalities will improve on golf related fitness aspects. Subjects comprised of experienced golfers and were randomly divided into a machine group (M: n = 51) and a home group (H: n = 50). The following variables were measured both pre- and post-intervention: lower back flexibility (sit & reach), muscle endurance (sit-ups and push-ups), muscle strength (wall-squats and back dynamometer), cardio-respiratory fitness (3 minute step-test), balance (Biodex Balance System), club head speed and carry distance (Flightscope). The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney signed-rank test was used to compare pre and post-intervention measurements within each group with significance set at p < 0.05. An ANCOVA analyses was also run as well as Pearson Product Moment correlations. Results portrayed that with the exception of cardiorespiratory fitness, all variables in both groups showed significant (p<0.05) improvement post intervention. Push-ups (p = 0.000; ?17.03%; d = 0.92) and driver carry distance (p = 0.000; ?30.30%; d = 0.40) showed the greatest percentage improvement post intervention within group M, while sit-ups (p = 0.000; ?14.41%; d = 0.77) and push-ups (p = 0.000; ?12.52%; d = 0.90) showed the greatest percentage improvement within group H. Lower back strength holds significant correlation to golf performance. Thus both modalities, the COREPOWER machine training and the home-based manual core training were equally effective in improving selected fitness components; however the machine was more effective in improving golf performance parameters. These observations can be applied to golfers in addition to their usual golfing activities as well as to other sport populations as this study formed an evidence base for core training. PMID:24149767

Loock, Henriëtte V; Grace, Jeanne M; Semple, Stuart J

2013-10-21

256

Effect of Plyometric Training on Running Performance and Vertical Jumping in Prepubertal Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kotzamanidis, C. Effect of plyometric training on running performance and vertical jumping in prepubertal boys. J. Strength Cond. Res. 20(2):441^45. 2006.—The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of plyometric training on run- ning velocity (RV) and squat jump (SJ) in prepubescent boys. Fifteen boys (11.1 ± 0.5 years) followed a 10-week plyometric program (JUMP group). Another group

Christos Kotzamanidis

2006-01-01

257

Real-time MEG neurofeedback training of posterior alpha activity modulates subsequent visual detection performance.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that alpha activity is lateralized when attention is directed to the left or right visual hemifield. We investigated whether real-time neurofeedback training of the alpha lateralization enhances participants' ability to modulate posterior alpha lateralization and causes subsequent short-term changes in visual detection performance. The experiment consisted of three phases: (i) pre-training assessment, (ii) neurofeedback phase and (iii) post-training assessment. In the pre- and post-training phases we measured the threshold to covertly detect a cued faint Gabor stimulus presented in the left or right hemifield. During magnetoencephalography (MEG) neurofeedback, two face stimuli superimposed with noise were presented bilaterally. Participants were cued to attend to one of the hemifields. The transparency of the superimposed noise and thus the visibility of the stimuli were varied according to the momentary degree of hemispheric alpha lateralization. In a double-blind procedure half of the participants were provided with sham feedback. We found that hemispheric alpha lateralization increased with the neurofeedback training; this was mainly driven by an ipsilateral alpha increase. Surprisingly, comparing pre- to post-training, detection performance decreased for a Gabor stimulus presented in the hemifield that was un-attended during neurofeedback. This effect was not observed in the sham group. Thus, neurofeedback training alters alpha lateralization, which in turn decreases performances in the untrained hemifield. Our findings suggest that alpha oscillations play a causal role for the allocation of attention. Furthermore, our neurofeedback protocol serves to reduce the detection of unattended visual information and could therefore be of potential use for training to reduce distractibility in attention deficit patients, but also highlights that neurofeedback paradigms can have negative impact on behavioral performance and should be applied with caution. PMID:25514519

Okazaki, Yuka O; Horschig, Jörn M; Luther, Lisa; Oostenveld, Robert; Murakami, Ikuya; Jensen, Ole

2015-02-15

258

Competitive Performance, Training Load and Physiological Responses During Tapering in Young Swimmers  

PubMed Central

The study examined the changes of training load and physiological parameters in relation to competitive performance during a period leading to a national championship. The training content of twelve swimmers (age: 14.2±1.3 yrs) was recorded four weeks before the national championship (two weeks of normal training and two weeks of the taper). The training load was calculated: i) by the swimmer’s session-RPE score (RPE-Load), ii) by the training intensity levels adjusted after a 7×200-m progressively increasing intensity test (LA-Load). Swimmers completed a 400-m submaximal intensity test, a 15 s tethered swimming and hand-grip strength measurements 34–35 (baseline: Test 1), 20–21 (before taper: Test 2) and 6–7 (Test 3) days before the national championship. Performance during the national championship was not significantly changed compared to season best (0.1±1.6%; 95% confidence limits: ?0.9, 1.1%; Effect Size: 0.02, p=0.72) and compared to performance before the start of the two-week taper period (0.9±1.7%; 95% confidence limits: 0.3, 2.1%; Effect size: 0.12, p=0.09). No significant changes were observed in all measured physiological and performance related variables between Test 1, Test 2, and Test 3. Changes in RPE-Load (week-4 vs. week-1) were correlated with changes in performance (r=0.63, p=0.03) and the RPE-Load was correlated with the LA-Load (r=0.80, p=0.01). The estimation of the session-RPE training load may be helpful for taper planning of young swimmers. Increasing the difference between the normal and last week of taper training load may facilitate performance improvements. PMID:24233022

Toubekis, Argyris G.; Drosou, Evgenia; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Thomaidis, Savvas; Douda, Helen; Tokmakidis, Savvas P.

2013-01-01

259

Physiological and performance changes from the addition of a sprint interval program to wrestling training.  

PubMed

Increasing the level of physical fitness for competition is the primary goal of any conditioning program for wrestlers. Wrestlers often need to peak for competitions several times over an annual training cycle. Additionally, the scheduling of these competitions does not always match an ideal periodization plan and may require a modified training program to achieve a high level of competitive fitness in a short-time frame. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 4 weeks of sprint-interval training (SIT) program, on selected aerobic and anaerobic performance indices, and hormonal and hematological adaptations, when added to the traditional Iranian training of wrestlers in their preseason phase. Fifteen trained wrestlers were assigned to either an experimental (EXP) or a control (CON) group. Both groups followed a traditional preparation phase consisting of learning and drilling technique, live wrestling and weight training for 4 weeks. In addition, the EXP group performed a running-based SIT protocol. The SIT consisted of 6 35-m sprints at maximum effort with a 10-second recovery between each sprint. The SIT protocol was performed in 2 sessions per week, for the 4 weeks of the study. Before and after the 4-week training program, pre and posttesting was performed on each subject on the following: a graded exercise test (GXT) to determine VO(2)max, the velocity associated with V(2)max (?VO(2)max), maximal ventilation, and peak oxygen pulse; a time to exhaustion test (T(max)) at their ?VO(2)max; and 4 successive Wingate tests with a 4-minute recovery between each trial for the determination of peak and mean power output (PPO, MPO). Resting blood samples were also collected at the beginning of each pre and posttesting period, before and after the 4-week training program. The EXP group showed significant improvements in VO(2)max (+5.4%), peak oxygen pulse (+7.7%) and T(max) (+32.2%) compared with pretesting. The EXP group produced significant increases in PPO and MPO during the Wingate testing compared with pretesting (p < 0.05). After the 4-week training program, total testosterone and the total testosterone/cortisol ratio increased significantly in the EXP group, whereas cortisol tended to decrease (p = 0.06). The current findings indicate that the addition of an SIT program with short recovery can improve both aerobic and anaerobic performances in trained wrestlers during the preseason phase. The hormonal changes seen suggest training-induced anabolic adaptations. PMID:21849912

Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Curby, David G; Bayati, Mahdi; Bahraminejad, Morteza; Mäestu, Jarek

2011-09-01

260

Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

2012-01-01

261

Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.  

PubMed

Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

2013-12-01

262

The Use of Simulation to Improve the Effectiveness of Training in Performance Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance management is an important managerial tool that directs employees' goals and behavior toward the organization's strategic goals. This article focuses on simulation-based training in performance management systems. The simulation developed at the School of Business Administration of the College of Management in Israel is based on a…

Rachman-Moore, Dalia; Kenett, Ron S.

2006-01-01

263

Learning Unplugged: Using Mobile Technologies for Organizational Training and Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, which is written by a training consultant, is intended to help organizations determine whether specific readily available mobile technologies make sense for their particular learning and performance needs. Chapter 1 discusses the mobile revolution in learning and performance, with special attention to the new work and learning…

Gayeski, Diane

264

Effects of whole-body vibration training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV) training on sprint running kine- matics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volun- teers (12 women and 12 men) participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12) into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30

Giorgos Paradisis; Elias Zacharogiannis

2007-01-01

265

The Folk Dance as Theatrical Performance and the Training of Dance Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to examine whether the education of dance teachers at the Departments of Physical Education and Sport Sciences (DPESS), and their background of knowledge, meets the requirements of traditional Greek dance performance by dancing groups. The study was based mainly on bibliographical research about the stage performance of folk dancing and the training of dance

Filippos Filippou; Vasilis Serbezis; Yvonne Harahousou; Christos Kabitsis; Maria Koleta; Dimitra Varsami; Helene Varsami; Demos Davoras

2006-01-01

266

Can a glass cockpit display help (or hinder) performance of novices in simulated flight training?  

PubMed

The analog dials in traditional GA aircraft cockpits are being replaced by integrated electronic displays, commonly referred to as glass cockpits. Pilots may be trained on glass cockpit aircraft or encounter them after training on traditional displays. The effects of glass cockpit displays on initial performance and potential transfer effects between cockpit display configurations have yet to be adequately investigated. Flight-naïve participants were trained on either a simulated traditional display cockpit or a simulated glass display cockpit. Flight performance was measured in a test flight using either the same or different cockpit display. Loss of control events and accuracy in controlling altitude, airspeed and heading, workload, and situational awareness were assessed. Preferences for cockpit display configurations and opinions on ease of use were also measured. The results revealed consistently poorer performance on the test flight for participants using the glass cockpit compared to the traditional cockpit. In contrast the post-flight questionnaire data revealed a strong subjective preference for the glass cockpit over the traditional cockpit displays. There was only a weak effect of prior training. The specific glass cockpit display used in this study was subjectively appealing but yielded poorer flight performance in participants with no previous flight experience than a traditional display. Performance data can contradict opinion data. The design of glass cockpit displays may present some difficulties for pilots in the very early stages of training. PMID:25480000

Wright, Stephen; O'Hare, David

2015-03-01

267

Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

Elder, Stephen D.

2010-01-01

268

Training Americans: Ideology, Performance, and Social Studies Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through an analysis of activities called for in social studies texts at three grade levels, the author critically examines the links between children's improvisational performance and social studies curricula. He asks: What is unique about the process of embodying a historical or contemporary character as part of the learning process (such as a…

Chappell, Drew

2010-01-01

269

[Comprehensive quality appraisal of "maidong"].  

PubMed

According to the contents of 14 kinds of constituents, 6 samples of Maidong from various habitats were comprehensively appraised by the weighted method with factor analysis and fuzzy mathematic method. The results showed that certified Maidong (Ophiopogon japonicus) was superior to its substitute Shanmaidong(Liriope spp.), and the sample from Xiaoshan county was the best in 3 samples of certified goods. Being consistent with the result of the traditional appraisal, the method used in this paper may provide a new means for appraising traditional medicinal materials. PMID:12587201

Sun, H; Zeng, X; Zhuang, J

2001-05-01

270

Home-Based Treadmill Training to Improve Gait Performance in Persons With a Chronic Transfemoral Amputation  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effectiveness of a home-based multiple-speed treadmill training program to improve gait performance in persons with a transfemoral amputation (TFA). Design Repeated measures. Setting Research laboratory. Participants Individuals with a TFA (N=8) who had undergone a unilateral amputation at least 3 years prior as a result of limb trauma or cancer. Intervention Home-based treadmill walking for a total of 30 minutes a day, 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Each 30-minute training session involved 5 cycles of walking for 2 minutes at 3 speeds. Main Outcome Measures Participants were tested pretraining and after 4 and 8 weeks of training. The primary measures were temporal-spatial gait performance (symmetry ratios for stance phase duration and step length), physiological gait performance (energy expenditure and energy cost), and functional gait performance (self-selected walking speed [SSWS], maximum walking speed [MWS], and 2-minute walk test [2MWT]). Results Eight weeks of home-based training improved temporal-spatial gait symmetry at SSWS but not at MWS. A relative interlimb increase in stance duration for the prosthetic limb and proportionally greater increases in step length for the limb taking shorter steps produced the improved symmetry. The training effect was significant for the step length symmetry ratio within the first 4 weeks of the program. Energy expenditure decreased progressively during the training with nearly 10% improvement observed across the range of walking speeds. SSWS, MWS, and 2MWT all increased by 16% to 20%. Conclusions Home-based treadmill walking is an effective method to improve gait performance in persons with TFA. The results support the application of training interventions beyond the initial rehabilitation phase, even in individuals considered highly functional. PMID:23954560

Darter, Benjamin J.; Nielsen, David H.; Yack, H. John; Janz, Kathleen F.

2014-01-01

271

High-Performance Vision Training Improves Batting Statistics for University of Cincinnati Baseball Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose Baseball requires an incredible amount of visual acuity and eye-hand coordination, especially for the batters. The learning objective of this work is to observe that traditional vision training as part of injury prevention or conditioning can be added to a team's training schedule to improve some performance parameters such as batting and hitting. Methods All players for the 2010 to 2011 season underwent normal preseason physicals and baseline testing that is standard for the University of Cincinnati Athletics Department. Standard vision training exercises were implemented 6 weeks before the start of the season. Results are reported as compared to the 2009 to 2010 season. Pre season conditioning was followed by a maintenance program during the season of vision training. Results The University of Cincinnati team batting average increased from 0.251 in 2010 to 0.285 in 2011 and the slugging percentage increased by 0.033. The rest of the Big East's slugging percentage fell over that same time frame 0.082. This produces a difference of 0.115 with 95% confidence interval (0.024, 0.206). As with the batting average, the change for University of Cincinnati is significantly different from the rest of the Big East (p?=?0.02). Essentially all batting parameters improved by 10% or more. Similar differences were seen when restricting the analysis to games within the Big East conference. Conclusion Vision training can combine traditional and technological methodologies to train the athletes' eyes and improve batting. Vision training as part of conditioning or injury prevention can be applied and may improve batting performance in college baseball players. High performance vision training can be instituted in the pre-season and maintained throughout the season to improve batting parameters. PMID:22276103

Clark, Joseph F.; Ellis, James K.; Bench, Johnny; Khoury, Jane; Graman, Pat

2012-01-01

272

Four weeks of training with different aerobic workload distributions--effect on aerobic performance.  

PubMed

Although numerous authors have studied the effect of different training procedures on athlete's resistance performance, there are no studies on how the improvement of aerobic resistance is affected by the distribution of training loads. This research sets out to analyse the effectiveness on aerobic activity of distributions with a constant load (CON) and with increments in intensity (INC) over a 4-week period. A total of 30 athletes took part in the analysis (38.7 ± 9.8 years; 174.7 ± 6.5 cm; 72.0 ± 9.8 kg). They were divided into 3 groups of 10 each. One group followed a training plan with a CON distribution and another with an INC distribution. Both groups performed at the same volume and intensity, the only difference between them being the distribution of load over the 4 weeks. The third group trained with a free load distribution during this time. Improvement in VO2max and ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) was analysed before and after the 4-week training period. There was no modification of the VO2max in any of the training programmes. The FRE and INC groups showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in their VO2 in VT1, and in the CON group there was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in heart rate in VT2. These results show how training periodisation produces different improvement on performance and demonstrate the effectiveness of periodisated programmes, because periodisated programmes obtain equal or higher adaptations with lower training volumes than non-periodisated programmes. PMID:24444193

Clemente Suárez, Vicente Javier; González-Ravé, Jose M

2014-01-01

273

Self-instructional training to increase independent work performance in preschoolers.  

PubMed Central

The generalized effects of self-instructional training on the classroom performance of three "impulsive" preschool children were investigated using a multiple-baseline design across subjects. Measures of child and teacher behavior in the classroom were obtained through direct observations during a daily independent work period. Self-instructional training followed Meichenbaum and Goodman's (1971) approach, except that training materials consisted of naturalistic task worksheets rather than psychometric test items and training sessions were of shorter duration. For all three children, self-instructional training resulted in increased levels of accuracy on worksheets in the classroom that were similar to those used in training. Results related to several supplementary measures were less clear; however, they suggested that rates of on-task behavior may also have improved, and that a mild classroom intervention further strengthened on-task rates and effect consistent work completion for all three children. The findings suggested that generalized increases in accuracy on classroom worksheets were related to the naturalistic format of the self-instructional training sessions. The level of teacher attention was controlled to rule out its effect on changes in child behavior. PMID:7118757

Bryant, L E; Budd, K S

1982-01-01

274

Effect of 10 Week Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Competition and Training Performance in Elite Swimmers  

PubMed Central

Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD) were supplemented with either beta-alanine (4 weeks loading phase of 4.8 g/day and 3.2 g/day thereafter) or placebo for 10 weeks. Competition performance times were log-transformed, then evaluated before (National Championships) and after (international or national selection meet) supplementation. Swimmers also completed three standardized training sets at baseline, 4 and 10 weeks of supplementation. Capillary blood was analyzed for pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentration in both competition and training. There was an unclear effect (0.4%; ±0.8%, mean, ±90% confidence limits) of beta-alanine on competition performance compared to placebo with no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. While there was a transient improvement on training performance after 4 weeks with beta-alanine (?1.3%; ±1.0%), there was an unclear effect at ten weeks (?0.2%; ±1.5%) and no meaningful changes in blood chemistry. Beta-alanine supplementation appears to have minimal effect on swimming performance in non-laboratory controlled real-world training and competition settings. PMID:23201763

Chung, Weiliang; Shaw, Greg; Anderson, Megan E.; Pyne, David B.; Saunders, Philo U.; Bishop, David J.; Burke, Louise M.

2012-01-01

275

High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.  

PubMed

Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ?7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance. PMID:24206175

Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

2014-01-01

276

Automated tools for the generation of performance-based training  

SciTech Connect

The field of educational technology is not a new one, but the emphasis in the past has been on the use of technologies for the delivery of instruction and tests. This paper explores the application of technology to the development of performance-based instruction and to the analyses leading up to the development of the instruction. Several technologies are discussed, with specific software packages described. The purpose of these technologies is to streamline the instructional analysis and design process, using the computer for its strengths to aid the human-in-the-loop. Currently, the process is all accomplished manually. Applying automated tools to the process frees the humans from some of the tedium involved so that they can be dedicated to the more complex aspects of the process. 12 refs.

Trainor, M.S.; Fries, J.

1990-01-01

277

Effect of acute fatigue and training adaptation on countermovement jump performance in elite snowboard cross athletes.  

PubMed

Gathercole, RJ, Stellingwerff, T, and Sporer, BC. Effect of acute fatigue and training adaptation on countermovement jump performance in elite snowboard cross athletes. J Strength Cond Res 29(1): 37-46, 2015-Countermovement jump performance was examined in response to acute neuromuscular (NM) fatigue (study I) and chronic training (study II) in elite snowboard cross (SBX) athletes, through both typical (countermovement jump [CMJ]-TYP) and alternative (CMJ-ALT) CMJ variables. Seven (4 men and 3 women) elite (Olympic-level) SBX athletes participated in study I, and 5 of the same athletes (2 men and 3 women) participated in study II. Countermovement jump variables relating to force, velocity, power, and time were measured during both eccentric and concentric jump phases, with CMJ-TYP variables reflecting CMJ output and CMJ-ALT variables reflecting CMJ mechanics. In study I, CMJ performance was assessed before and after a fatiguing lower-body exercise protocol, and in study II, CMJ performance was examined before and after a 19-week structured training block. Meaningful differences in CMJ performance were examined using the magnitude of change (effect sizes [ES]) for group and individual changes. Acute fatigue decreased peak force and eccentric function, while the duration of the jump increased. The structured training block increased peak force and eccentric function, while jump duration markedly decreased. In both study I and study II, the largest ES were associated with CMJ-ALT variables. The CMJ test seems a suitable monitoring tool in elite SBX athletes for the detection of both acute fatigue and training-adaptation. Compared with CMJ output, CMJ mechanics exhibits more marked and divergent changes after both acute NM fatigue and a structured training block. CMJ-ALT variables should therefore be incorporated into CMJ analysis. PMID:25029001

Gathercole, Rob J; Stellingwerff, Trent; Sporer, Ben C

2015-01-01

278

Using after-action review based on automated performance assessment to enhance training effectiveness.  

SciTech Connect

Training simulators have become increasingly popular tools for instructing humans on performance in complex environments. However, the question of how to provide individualized and scenario-specific assessment and feedback to students remains largely an open question. In this work, we follow-up on previous evaluations of the Automated Expert Modeling and Automated Student Evaluation (AEMASE) system, which automatically assesses student performance based on observed examples of good and bad performance in a given domain. The current study provides a rigorous empirical evaluation of the enhanced training effectiveness achievable with this technology. In particular, we found that students given feedback via the AEMASE-based debrief tool performed significantly better than students given only instructor feedback on two out of three domain-specific performance metrics.

Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Gieseler, Charles J.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris

2010-09-01

279

Enhancing visuospatial performance through video game training to increase learning in visuospatial science domains.  

PubMed

Although previous research has demonstrated that performance on visuospatial assessments can be enhanced through relevant experience, an unaddressed question is whether such experience also produces a similar increase in target domains (such as science learning) where visuospatial abilities are directly relevant for performance. In the present study, participants completed either spatial or nonspatial training via interaction with video games and were then asked to read and learn about the geologic topic of plate tectonics. Results replicate the benefit of playing appropriate video games in enhancing visuospatial performance and demonstrate that this facilitation also manifests itself in learning science topics that are visuospatial in nature. This novel result suggests that visuospatial training not only can impact performance on measures of spatial functioning, but also can affect performance in content areas in which these abilities are utilized. PMID:22037919

Sanchez, Christopher A

2012-02-01

280

USING COGNITIVE MODELING TO STUDY BEHAVIOR MODERATORS: PRE-TASK APPRAISAL AND ANXIETY  

E-print Network

USING COGNITIVE MODELING TO STUDY BEHAVIOR MODERATORS: PRE-TASK APPRAISAL AND ANXIETY Frank E created to include the effects of cognitive appraisal and math anxiety on task performance correct for example data on a serial-subtraction task with and without stress (Tomaka, Blascovich, Kelsey

Ritter, Frank

281

Personality, Training Performance, and Withdrawal: A Test of the Person-Group Fit Hypothesis for Organizational Newcomers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined person-group fit relative to training performance, absenteeism, and turnover of airline flight attendants. The main effect influence of person-group fit on performance, attendance, and turnover was not supported. Person-group fit, however, did moderate the training performance-withdrawal relationships. (Author/BL)

Ferris, Gerald R.; And Others

1985-01-01

282

Train  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides instructions for a game that develops number sense, basic addition and subtraction skills, and strategic thinking. Beginning with 10 Cuisenaire rods, one of each length from 1 (white) and 10 (orange), two players take turns adding one rod at a time to a train until it reaches a previously agreed-on length between 11 and 55. The player who puts down the last rod to complete the goal length is the winner. The game can be played with real rods, with the Flash applet provided, or with numbers on paper.

2005-10-01

283

A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces performance and metabolic adaptations that resemble 'all-out' sprint interval training.  

PubMed

Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts ? 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts ? 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery) and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax) and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p < 0.05) following training were found in VO2max (9.6%), power at VO2max (12.8%), Tmax (48.4%), peak power output (10.3%) and mean power output (17.1%). In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%), power at VO2max (16.1%), Tmax (54.2%), peak power output (7.4%; p < 0.05), but mean power output did not change significantly. Blood lactate recovery (20(th) min) significantly decreased in G1 and G2 when compared with pre-testing and the CON group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study agree with earlier work demonstrating the effectiveness of 30-s all-out training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions. Key pointsGiven the markedly lower training volume in the training groups, our results suggest that intense interval training is indeed a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid metabolic and performance adaptations.The results demonstrate that a practical low-volume HIT program is effective for improving metabolic and performance adaptations that resemble many of the same performance gains occurred in all-out SIT protocol. PMID:24150635

Bayati, Mahdi; Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid

2011-01-01

284

A Practical Model of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training Induces Performance and Metabolic Adaptations That Resemble ‘All-Out’ Sprint Interval Training  

PubMed Central

Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts ? 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts ? 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery) and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax) and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p < 0.05) following training were found in VO2max (9.6%), power at VO2max (12.8%), Tmax (48.4%), peak power output (10.3%) and mean power output (17.1%). In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%), power at VO2max (16.1%), Tmax (54.2%), peak power output (7.4%; p < 0.05), but mean power output did not change significantly. Blood lactate recovery (20th min) significantly decreased in G1 and G2 when compared with pre-testing and the CON group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study agree with earlier work demonstrating the effectiveness of 30-s all-out training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions. Key points Given the markedly lower training volume in the training groups, our results suggest that intense interval training is indeed a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid metabolic and performance adaptations. The results demonstrate that a practical low-volume HIT program is effective for improving metabolic and performance adaptations that resemble many of the same performance gains occurred in all-out SIT protocol. PMID:24150635

Bayati, Mahdi; Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid

2011-01-01

285

Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.  

PubMed

This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries. PMID:24911866

Tong, Eddie M W

2015-04-01

286

Time-Frequency Training OFDM with High Spectral Efficiency and Reliable Performance in High Speed Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is widely recognized as the key technology for the next generation broadband wireless communication (BWC) systems. Besides high spectral efficiency, reliable performance over fast fading channels is becoming more and more important for OFDM-based BWC systems, especially when high speed cars, trains and subways are playing an increasingly indispensable role in our daily life. The

Linglong Dai; Zhaocheng Wang; Zhixing Yang

2012-01-01

287

The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

288

Using Performance Assessments to Determine Competence in Clinical Athletic Training Education: How Valid Are Our Assessments?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Validity arguments can be used to provide evidence that instructors are drawing accurate conclusions from the results of students' clinical performance assessments (PAs). Little research has been conducted in athletic training education to determine if the evidence supports the use of current PAs. Measurement theories designed to…

Thompson, Gayle A.; Moss, Robert; Applegate, Brooks

2014-01-01

289

Amygdala norepinephrine levels after training predict inhibitory avoidance retention performance in rats  

E-print Network

and enhancing effects of drugs affecting GABA, opiate and glucocorticoid receptors (McGaugh et al., 1995., 1998). Additionally, systemic injections of epinephrine or drugs that enhance memory consolida- tionAmygdala norepinephrine levels after training predict inhibitory avoidance retention performance

O'Toole, Alice J.

290

Computer-Assisted Performance Evaluation for Navy Anti-Air Warfare Training: Concepts, Methods, and Constraints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An improved general methodological approach for the development of computer-assisted evaluation of trainee performance in the computer-based simulation environment is formulated in this report. The report focuses on the Tactical Advanced Combat Direction and Electronic Warfare system (TACDEW) at the Fleet Anti-Air Warfare Training Center at San…

Chesler, David J.

291

Teachers' perceptions of substitute teacher performance and training in Maury County, Tennessee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined opinions and perceptions of permanent teachers in Maury County, Tennessee, regarding performance and training of substitute teachers. In addition to demographic information and comparisons among group means, the relationships between variables were studied. The results of the study were used to determine if a substitute teacher training program would be beneficial to Maury County Schools. The study sample (N = 165) included full time K-12 teachers. Respondents were divided into three groups: elementary, middle, and high school teachers. Data was gathered using a survey created by the Substitute Teaching Institute at Utah State University in Logan, Utah. Permanent teachers responded to ten items on a Likert scale and three opinion questions. Statistically significant differences between the three responding groups were indicated. Findings were as follows: (1) There was a statistically significant difference in the way teachers rated substitute teacher performance based on grade level. Although none of the three groups had a high mean response, elementary teachers rated substitute teacher performance higher than did middle and high school teachers. (2) There was a statistically significant difference in the degree to which teachers agreed that training would improve the quality and performance of substitute teachers. All three groups agreed that substitute training would be beneficial; however, the highest ranking came from middle school teachers.

Smith, Tina Thornton

292

Influences of Training and Strategical Information Processing Style on Spatial Performance in Apparel Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated how performance on a spatial task in apparel design was influenced by training and strategical information processing style. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate apparel design students from six universities in the U.S. Instruments used to collect data were the Apparel Spatial Visualization Test (ASVT) and the…

Gitimu, Priscilla N.; Workman, Jane E.; Anderson, Marcia A.

2005-01-01

293

Training in Mental Rotation and Spatial Visualization and Its Impact on Orthographic Drawing Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings from an experimental study based on the pretest posttest research design that studied mental rotation (MR) and spatial visualization (SV) training outcomes and their impact on orthographic drawing performance. The sample of the study comprised 98 secondary school students (36 girls, 62 boys, Mage = 15.5 years, age…

Samsudin, Khairulanuar; Rafi, Ahmad; Hanif, Abd Samad

2011-01-01

294

Impact of Investment in Education and Training on Performance in Production, Quality and Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study that sought to determine the relationships between investment in education and training and performance in production, quality, and safety in manufacturing companies in northeast Alabama and northwest Georgia. The study also examined whether company size was a factor in predicting the ratio of the investment. One…

Williams, J. Fred; Robinson-Horne, Jacquelyn P.

295

Influences of Training and Strategical Information Processing Style on Spatial Performance in Apparel Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated how performance on a spatial task in apparel design was influenced by training and strategical information processing style. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate apparel design students from six universities in the U.S. Instruments used to collect data were the Apparel Spatial Visualization Test (ASVT) and the Strategical Information Processing Style (SIPS). ANOVA results showed a significant

Priscilla N. Gitimu; Jane E. Workman; Marcia A. Anderson

2005-01-01

296

Performing Analyses for Waterborne Bacteria. Module 13. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on performing analyses for waterborne bacteria. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming, sterilizing and…

Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

297

The Effect of Alternative Training Methods on the Trouble-Shooting Performances of Maintenance Technicians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study to determine the effects of conceptual versus specific (traditional) training techniques on the trouble-shooting performance of maintenance technicians are presented. The research subjects were students at Bowling Green State University and citizens in Northwest Ohio with no post high school technical coursework. Those that…

Schorgmayer, Helmut; Swanson, Richard A.

298

Training and Performance Improvement Professionals' Perspectives on Ethical Challenges during Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical concerns are rising in the business world. With this in mind, training and performance improvement practitioners, especially during evaluation projects, should be aware of principles and codes of ethics, and their behaviors and decisions should reflect the standards recognized by members of the professional society. A study was conducted…

Chyung, Seung Youn; Winiecki, Donald J.; Downing, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

299

Different training programs for improving muscular performance in healthy inactive elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a general conditioning (callisthenic exercise) versus a machine based resistance-training protocol or an isokinetic exercise program would be similarly effective in improving knee extension muscular performance in healthy inactive elderly. Fifty two individuals, 26 men and 26 women, were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control group (C, n

P. Malliou; I. Fatouros; A Beneka; A. Gioftsidou; V. Zissi; G. Godolias; P. Fotinakis

300

Write Measurable Performance Objectives. Self-Instructional Competency-Based Professional Teacher Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is part of a series of self-instructional teacher training manuals designed to assist vocational-technical educators or industrial trainers to develop and implement competency-based vocational education (CBVE) programs. The purpose stated for this manual is for the instructor to learn to develop measurable performance objectives.…

Oen, Urban T.

301

Training of Healthcare Personnel to Improve Performance of Community-Based Antenatal Care Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The present study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a training course designed to improve the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of healthcare personnel to allow them to provide a comprehensive community-based antenatal care (ANC) program in rural Paraguay. Methods: Sixty-eight of 110 healthcare personnel in the Caazapa…

Ohnishi, Mayumi; Nakamura, Keiko; Takano, Takehito

2007-01-01

302

Rites of Passage in Initial Teacher Training: Ritual, Performance, Ordeal, and Numeracy Skills Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains transition was identified by early 20th century anthropologists as the liminal stage of a rite of passage. Identifies transition, applying a contemporary anthropological lens to initial teacher training, not as a linear progression but as a complex process of extended and ambiguous in betweenness that involves play, performance, and…

McNamara, Olwen; Roberts, Lorna; Basit, Tehmina N.; Brown, Tony

2002-01-01

303

Training and Performance Support Systems (TPSS): A Case Study from Needs Assessment to Return on Investment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) selected, funded, developed, and implemented a distributed technical training system which achieves return on investment documented via performance measurement and follow-on evaluation. VBA proposed using the instructional systems development process, integrated with other advances in…

Griffin, Steven L.; Beagles, Charles A.

2000-01-01

304

Relationship between Past Academic Performance and Results of Specialty In-Training Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Records of 63 medical school graduates were examined for predictors of achievement on in-training examinations in anesthesia and orthopedic surgery. The previous academic records were found to contain little to predict examination results, and the correlation between college nonscience subjects and exam performance was negative. (Author/MSE)

Ronai, Ann K.; And Others

1984-01-01

305

Effect of different warm-up procedures on the performance of resistance training exercises.  

PubMed

Warm-up has been shown to mediate numerous acute physiological alterations that have been purported to confer beneficial effects on performance. This study investigated the acute effects of different warm-up procedures on resistance training performance. Employing a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design, 15 men performed 3 exercises (4 sets of bench press, squat, and arm curl at 80% of 1RM) to failure in 4 conditions (control, specific, aerobic, and combined). Outcome measures included the sum of repetitions and a fatigue index measuring the decline between sets. There was no significant difference for the sum of repetitions or for fatigue index among conditions for the 3 exercises. Performance in the resistance training exercises was not influenced by warm-up. PMID:25153744

Ribeiro, Alex S; Romanzini, Marcelo; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Souza, Mariana F; Avelar, Ademar; Cyrino, Edilson S

2014-08-01

306

A 3D DYNAMIC TRAIN-TRACK INTERACTION MODEL TO STUDY TRACK PERFORMANCE UNDER TRAINS RUNNING AT CRITICAL SPEED.  

E-print Network

??In this thesis, the ground-borne vibrations generated by high-speed trains are investigated, by implementing a three-dimensional dynamic train-track interaction model. Previous research has shown that… (more)

Gao, Yin

2013-01-01

307

The effect of experimental pain on motor training performance and sensorimotor integration.  

PubMed

Experimental pain is known to affect neuroplasticity of the motor cortex as well as motor performance, but less is known about neuroplasticity of somatosensory processing in the presence of pain. Early somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) provide a mechanism for investigating alterations in sensory processing and sensorimotor integration (SMI). The overall aim of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of acute pain, motor training, and sensorimotor processing. Two groups of twelve participants (N = 24) were randomly assigned to either an intervention (capsaicin cream) or placebo (inert lotion) group. SEP amplitudes were collected by stimulation of the median nerve at baseline, post-application and post-motor training. Participants performed a motor sequence task while reaction time and accuracy data were recorded. The amplitude of the P22-N24 complex was significantly increased following motor training for both groups F(2,23) = 3.533, p < 0.05, while Friedman's test for the P22-N30 complex showed a significant increase in the intervention group [?(2) (df = 2, p = 0.016) = 8.2], with no significant change in the placebo group. Following motor training, reaction time was significantly decreased for both groups F(1,23) = 59.575, p < 0.01 and overall accuracy differed by group [?(2) (df = 3, p < 0.001) = 19.86], with post hoc testing indicating that the intervention group improved in accuracy following motor training [?(2) (df = 1, p = 0.001) = 11.77] while the placebo group had worse accuracy [?(2) (df = 1, p = 0.006) = 7.67]. The improved performance in the presence of capsaicin provides support for the enhancement of knowledge acquisition with the presence of nontarget stimuli. In addition, the increase in SEP peak amplitudes suggests that early SEP changes are markers of SMI changes accompanying motor training and acute pain. PMID:24820288

Dancey, Erin; Murphy, Bernadette; Srbely, John; Yielder, Paul

2014-09-01

308

Training set optimization and classifier performance in a top-down diabetic retinopathy screening system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects more than 4.4 million Americans age 40 and over. Automatic screening for DR has shown to be an efficient and cost-effective way to lower the burden on the healthcare system, by triaging diabetic patients and ensuring timely care for those presenting with DR. Several supervised algorithms have been developed to detect pathologies related to DR, but little work has been done in determining the size of the training set that optimizes an algorithm's performance. In this paper we analyze the effect of the training sample size on the performance of a top-down DR screening algorithm for different types of statistical classifiers. Results are based on partial least squares (PLS), support vector machines (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (kNN), and Naïve Bayes classifiers. Our dataset consisted of digital retinal images collected from a total of 745 cases (595 controls, 150 with DR). We varied the number of normal controls in the training set, while keeping the number of DR samples constant, and repeated the procedure 10 times using randomized training sets to avoid bias. Results show increasing performance in terms of area under the ROC curve (AUC) when the number of DR subjects in the training set increased, with similar trends for each of the classifiers. Of these, PLS and k-NN had the highest average AUC. Lower standard deviation and a flattening of the AUC curve gives evidence that there is a limit to the learning ability of the classifiers and an optimal number of cases to train on.

Wigdahl, J.; Agurto, C.; Murray, V.; Barriga, S.; Soliz, P.

2013-03-01

309

Training and standards for performance, interpretation, and structured reporting for supplemental breast cancer screening.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. To compensate for the reduction of mammography's sensitivity in women with dense breasts, supplemental screening can increase the cancer detection rate. The modalities suggested are MRI, which is the most sensitive and is indicated for women with the highest risk of breast cancer, and ultrasound, which is suggested for dense-breasted average-risk women. CONCLUSION. For decades, ultrasound has been a focused examination. Extending a handheld ultrasound examination to depict the entire breast requires formal didactic training and hands-on scanning to learn suitable, efficient methods. Automated options also require intensive training in performance and interpretation. PMID:25615748

Mendelson, Ellen B; Berg, Wendie A

2015-02-01

310

Effect of Forward and Backward Locomotion Training on Anaerobic Performance and Anthropometrical Composition  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Forward walking (FW) and backward walking (BW) on a treadmill is a common tool for lower extremity rehabilitation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on anaerobic performance and anthropometrical adaptations during FW and BW on a treadmill. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of thirty healthy male subjects with a mean age of 20.93 ± 2.54?years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Forward Walking Group (FWG) (n=15) and a Backward Walking Group (BWG) (n=15), which performed FW and BW on a treadmill at 10° inclination, respectively. The training consisted of three sessions per week for 6 weeks. Study outcomes such as anaerobic performance and anthropometrical body composition were measured at pre- and post-intervention. [Results] Both FW and BW improved anaerobic performance significantly, and the BW group showed better performance than FW. However, changes in anthropometrical body composition were found to be not significant after six weeks of intervention in both the FW and BW groups. [Conclusions] BW training in rehabilitation can be considered more effective than FW at improving anaerobic performance. We also conclude that six weeks of FW and BW training is insufficient for eliciting changes in the body composition.

Kachanathu, Shaji John; Alenazi, Aqeel M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Hameed, Unaise A; Nuhmani, Shibili; Melam, Ganeshwerarao

2014-01-01

311

The effects of plyometric training on sprint performance: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this meta-analysis was to attempt to gain a clear picture of the magnitude of sprint performance improvements expected after chronic plyometric training (PT) and to identify specific factors that influence the treatment effects. Studies employing a PT intervention and containing data necessary to calculate effect size (ES) were included in the analysis. A total of 26 studies with a total of 56 ES met the inclusion criterion. Analysis of ES demonstrated that the strategies that seem to maximize the probability of obtaining significantly (p < 0.05) greater improvement in sprint performance included training volume for <10 weeks; a minimum of 15 sessions; and high-intensity programs with >80 combined jumps per session. To optimize sprint enhancement, the combination of different types of plyometrics and the use of training programs that incorporate greater horizontal acceleration (i.e., sprint-specific plyometric exercises, jumps with horizontal displacement) would be recommended, rather than using only one form of jump training (p < 0.05). No extra benefits were found to be gained from doing plyometrics with added weight. The loading parameters identified in this analysis should be considered by the professional sprinters and specialized trainers with regard to the most appropriate dose-response trends PT to optimized sprint performance gains. PMID:22240550

Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Requena, Bernardo; Cronin, John B

2012-02-01

312

Performance enhancement in swimming: the effect of mental training with biofeedback.  

PubMed

In this study, the relationship between mental training with biofeedback and swimmers' performance was investigated. The Wingate five-step approach was used as a mental preparation technique for enhancing the performance among 16-18 year-old pre-elite swimmers. Participants (n = 40) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) experimental--regular training plus the Wingate 5-step mental training program (adapted for swimming), and (b) control--regular training plus relaxing activities. After a baseline measurement, participants were tested on running and swimming five times during a 10-week period. Results indicated that the experimental group improved its performance over time on both running and swimming, with improvement being most substantial during transformation and realisation (steps 4 and 5). In contrast, the control group remained relatively stable on both dependent measures. Results are discussed in reference to previous work on the 5-step approach, including several methodological and theoretical aspects that are particularly relevant to the use of such interventions with other athletic tasks and populations. PMID:15712502

Bar-Eli, M; Blumenstein, B

2004-12-01

313

High-intensity Interval Training Has Positive Effects on Performance In Ice Hockey Players.  

PubMed

In spite of the well-known benefits that have been shown, few studies have looked at the practical applications of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of a HIIT program compared to traditional continuous endurance exercise training. 24 hockey players were randomly assigned to either a continuous or high-intensity interval group during a 4-week training program. The interval group (IG) was involved in a periodized HIIT program. The continuous group (CG) performed moderate intensity cycling for 45-60?min at an intensity that was 65% of their calculated heart rate reserve. Body composition, muscle thickness, anaerobic power, and on-ice measures were assessed pre- and post-training. Muscle thickness was significantly greater in IG (p=0.01) when compared to CG. The IG had greater values for both ? peak power (p<0.003) and ? mean power (p<0.02). Additionally, IG demonstrated a faster ? sprint (p<0.02) and a trend (p=0.08) for faster ? endurance test time to completion for IG. These results indicate that hockey players may utilize short-term HIIT to elicit positive effects in muscle thickness, power and on-ice performance. PMID:25329432

Naimo, M A; de Souza, E O; Wilson, J M; Carpenter, A L; Gilchrist, P; Lowery, R P; Averbuch, B; White, T M; Joy, J

2015-01-01

314

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2014-01-01

315

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2012-01-01

316

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2010-01-01

317

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2011-01-01

318

9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals...Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within...after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

2013-01-01

319

36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...9 Section 254.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...activities of appraisers, the Forest Service may establish appraiser...information: (1) A summary of facts and conclusions; (2)...

2010-07-01

320

36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...9 Section 254.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...activities of appraisers, the Forest Service may establish appraiser...information: (1) A summary of facts and conclusions; (2)...

2012-07-01

321

36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...9 Section 254.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...activities of appraisers, the Forest Service may establish appraiser...information: (1) A summary of facts and conclusions; (2)...

2014-07-01

322

36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...9 Section 254.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...activities of appraisers, the Forest Service may establish appraiser...information: (1) A summary of facts and conclusions; (2)...

2013-07-01

323

36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...9 Section 254.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...activities of appraisers, the Forest Service may establish appraiser...information: (1) A summary of facts and conclusions; (2)...

2011-07-01

324

Defining the "dose" of altitude training: how high to live for optimal sea level performance enhancement.  

PubMed

Chronic living at altitudes of ?2,500 m causes consistent hematological acclimatization in most, but not all, groups of athletes; however, responses of erythropoietin (EPO) and red cell mass to a given altitude show substantial individual variability. We hypothesized that athletes living at higher altitudes would experience greater improvements in sea level performance, secondary to greater hematological acclimatization, compared with athletes living at lower altitudes. After 4 wk of group sea level training and testing, 48 collegiate distance runners (32 men, 16 women) were randomly assigned to one of four living altitudes (1,780, 2,085, 2,454, or 2,800 m). All athletes trained together daily at a common altitude from 1,250-3,000 m following a modified live high-train low model. Subjects completed hematological, metabolic, and performance measures at sea level, before and after altitude training; EPO was assessed at various time points while at altitude. On return from altitude, 3,000-m time trial performance was significantly improved in groups living at the middle two altitudes (2,085 and 2,454 m), but not in groups living at 1,780 and 2,800 m. EPO was significantly higher in all groups at 24 and 48 h, but returned to sea level baseline after 72 h in the 1,780-m group. Erythrocyte volume was significantly higher within all groups after return from altitude and was not different between groups. These data suggest that, when completing a 4-wk altitude camp following the live high-train low model, there is a target altitude between 2,000 and 2,500 m that produces an optimal acclimatization response for sea level performance. PMID:24157530

Chapman, Robert F; Karlsen, Trine; Resaland, Geir K; Ge, R-L; Harber, Matthew P; Witkowski, Sarah; Stray-Gundersen, James; Levine, Benjamin D

2014-03-15

325

Change in performance in response to training load adjustment based on autonomic activity.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to assess performance (Perf) changes in response to a new training strategy. Specifically, based on spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV) to determine autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, training doses were adjusted to maintain vagal activity at a high and relatively stable level during training preparation. Trained athletes (5 male and 5 female) aged 23.2±4.2 years voluntarily participated in the study. ANS activity was assessed during an orthoclinostatic test, and was represented by calculating HRV variables and a total score index. Over 17 weeks, improvement (1.4-8.5%) and deterioration (0.1-8.8%) in Perf were detected in 7 and 3 athletes, respectively. A relationship (rs=0.684; P<0.05) between the change in Perf (?Perf) and supine PHF during season was found. Supine HRV indices (PHF, PT, and MSSD) for the last 3 weeks of the HRV-adjusting period correlated (rs=0.636; 0.648; 0.648, P<0.05) with ?Perf. Based on the results, a high and relative stable vagal activity during preparation may indicate a readiness to train or appropriate recovery that positively affects Perf. In conclusion, daily quantification of ANS activity by SA HRV seems to be a promising tool for the enhancement of Perf. PMID:24129989

Botek, M; McKune, A J; Krejci, J; Stejskal, P; Gaba, A

2014-06-01

326

The Road to Gold: Training and Peaking Characteristics in the Year Prior to a Gold Medal Endurance Performance  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe training variations across the annual cycle in Olympic and World Champion endurance athletes, and determine whether these athletes used tapering strategies in line with recommendations in the literature. Methods Eleven elite XC skiers and biathletes (4 male; 28±1 yr, 85±5 mL. min?1. kg?1 , 7 female, 25±4 yr, 73±3 mL. min?1. kg?1 ) reported one year of day-to-day training leading up to the most successful competition of their career. Training data were divided into periodization and peaking phases and distributed into training forms, intensity zones and endurance activity forms. Results Athletes trained ?800 h/500 sessions.year?1, including ?500 h. year?1 of sport-specific training. Ninety-four percent of all training was executed as aerobic endurance training. Of this, ?90% was low intensity training (LIT, below the first lactate threshold) and 10% high intensity training (HIT, above the first lactate threshold) by time. Categorically, 23% of training sessions were characterized as HIT with primary portions executed at or above the first lactate turn point. Training volume and specificity distribution conformed to a traditional periodization model, but absolute volume of HIT remained stable across phases. However, HIT training patterns tended to become more polarized in the competition phase. Training volume, frequency and intensity remained unchanged from pre-peaking to peaking period, but there was a 32±15% (P<.01) volume reduction from the preparation period to peaking phase. Conclusions The annual training data for these Olympic and World champion XC skiers and biathletes conforms to previously reported training patterns of elite endurance athletes. During the competition phase, training became more sport-specific, with 92% performed as XC skiing. However, they did not follow suggested tapering practice derived from short-term experimental studies. Only three out of 11 athletes took a rest day during the final 5 days prior to their most successful competition. PMID:25019608

Tønnessen, Espen; Sylta, Øystein; Haugen, Thomas A.; Hem, Erlend; Svendsen, Ida S.; Seiler, Stephen

2014-01-01

327

Teacher Appraisal: Back to the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the government's progress in introducing a formal, systematic, and compulsory system of teacher appraisal across England and Wales, using comparisons with civil service, business, and commerce appraisal techniques. Describes national government-initiated pilot appraisal schemes, concluding with a discussion of implications for developing a…

Mortimore, Peter; Mortimore, Jo

1991-01-01

328

EMA: A process model of appraisal dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational model of emotion must explain both the rapid dynamics of some emotional reactions as well as the slower responses that follow deliberation. This is often addressed by positing multiple levels of appraisal processes such as fast pattern directed vs. slower deliberative appraisals. In our view, this confuses appraisal with inference. Rather, we argue for a single and automatic

Stacy C. Marsella; Jonathan Gratch

2009-01-01

329

Effects of stabilization training on trunk muscularity and physical performances in youth soccer players.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of stabilization training on trunk muscularity and physical performances in youth male soccer players aged 12-13 yrs (n = 28). The subjects allocated to training (TG, n = 16) performed a stabilization exercise program consisting of 5 exercises (elbow-toe, elbow-heel, side bridge, modified 1-legged squat, and bent-knee push-up) 4 times per week and a training program specific to soccer 6 times per week, whereas the others (control, n = 12) conducted the soccer training only for 6 months. Before and after the intervention, the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of 5 muscles (rectus abdominus, oblique, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, and erector spinae) were determined using magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, peak torques during hip extension and flexion at 1.05 rad/second, heights of squat and countermovement jumps, and time taken to sprint 15 m were also measured. After 6 months, both groups significantly increased the CSAs of the 5 muscle groups (TG: 4.4-13.4%, control: 5.5-10.9%) and improved sprint time (TG: -1.4%, control: -1.6%), without significant effect of group, but only TG significantly increased the heights of squat (5.0%) and countermovement (6.8%) jumps. In addition, a greater increase in hip extension torque was found in TG (40.8%) than in control (17.4%). The current results indicate that, at least in early adolescent soccer players, adding stabilization exercise to soccer training cannot increase the trunk muscularity, but it will improve hip extensor strength and vertical jump performance. PMID:23442276

Hoshikawa, Yoshihiro; Iida, Tomomi; Muramatsu, Masataka; Ii, Nozomi; Nakajima, Yoshiharu; Chumank, Kentaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

2013-11-01

330

Effects of two training protocols on the forehand drive performance in tennis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 2 training modalities on the tennis forehand drive performance. Forty-four tennis players (mean ± SD: age = 26.9 ± 7.5 years; height = 178.6 ± 6.7 cm; mass = 72.5 ± 8.0 kg; International Tennis Number = 3) were randomly assigned into 3 groups. During 6 weeks, the first group performed handled medicine ball (HMB) throws included in the regular tennis practice, the second group (overweight racket-OWR) played tennis forehand drives with an overweighed racket during the regular tennis practice, and the third group (regular tennis training-RTT) practiced only tennis training as usual. Before and after the 6-week program, velocity and accuracy of tennis crosscourt forehand drives were evaluated in the 3 groups. The main results showed that after 6-week training, the maximal ball velocity was significantly increased in HMB and OWR groups in comparison with RTT (p < 0.001 and p = 0. 001, respectively). The estimated averaged increase in ball velocity was greater in HMB than in OWR (11 vs. 5%, respectively; p = 0.017), but shot accuracy tended to be deteriorated in HMB when compared with OWR and RTT (p = 0.043 and p = 0.027, respectively). The findings of this study highlighted the efficiency of both training modalities to improve tennis forehand drive performance but also suggested that the HMB throws may be incorporated into the preseason program preferably, whereas the OWR forehand drives may be included in the on-season program. PMID:22592176

Genevois, Cyril; Frican, Baptiste; Creveaux, Thomas; Hautier, Christophe; Rogowski, Isabelle

2013-03-01

331

The Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource improves performance of practical skills: a controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background E-learning is a common and popular mode of educational delivery, but little is known about its effectiveness in teaching practical skills. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource in addition to usual teaching improved the performance of practical skills in physiotherapy students. Method This study was a non-randomised controlled trial. The participants were graduate entry physiotherapy students enrolled in consecutive semesters of a neurological physiotherapy unit of study. The experimental group received the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource as well as usual teaching. The Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource is an online resource incorporating (i) video-clips of patient-therapist simulations; (ii) supportive text describing the aim, rationale, equipment, key points, common errors and methods of progression; and (iii) a downloadable PDF document incorporating the online text information and a still image of the video-clip for each practical skill. The control group received usual teaching only. The primary outcomes were the overall performance of practical skills as well as their individual components, measured using a practical examination. Results The implementation of the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource resulted in an increase of 1.6 out of 25 (95% CI ?0.1 to 3.3) in the experimental group compared with the control group. In addition, the experimental group scored 0.5 points out of 4 (95% CI 0 to 1.1) higher than the control group for ‘effectiveness of the practical skill’ and 0.6 points out of 4 (95% CI 0.1 to 1.1) higher for ‘rationale for the practical skill’. Conclusion There was improvement in performance of practical skills in students who had access to the Physiotherapy eSkills Training Online resource in addition to usual teaching. Students considered the resource to be very useful for learning. PMID:23176318

2012-01-01

332

Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise and pilot performance: enhanced functioning under search-and-rescue flying conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group contained 4 pilots from HC-130 Hercules aircraft and 4 HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group contained 3 pilots of HC-130s and 6 helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded on each crewmember and an instructor pilot rated individual crew performance. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE). The remaining participants received no training. During a second flight, treatment participants showed significant improvement in performance (rated by the same instructor pilot as in pretests) while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFTE management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

Cowings, P. S.; Kellar, M. A.; Folen, R. A.; Toscano, W. B.; Burge, J. D.

2001-01-01

333

Autogenic-feedback training improves pilot performance during emergency flying conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group comprised three pilots of HC-130 Hercules aircraft and four HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group comprised three pilots of HC-130's and six Dolphin helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded for each crew member and individual crew performance was rated by an instructor pilot. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT). The remaining subjects received no training. During a second flight, treatment subjects showed significant improvement in performance, while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFT management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

Kellar, Michael A.; Folen, Raymond A.; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Hisert, Glen L.

1994-01-01

334

Autogenic-feedback training improves pilot performance during emergency flying conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. The effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance was examined. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group comprised four pilots of HC-130 Hercules aircraft and four HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group comprised three pilots of HC-130's and six Dolphin helicopter pilots. During an initial flight physiological data were recorded for each crewmember and individual crew performance and rated by an instructor pilot. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT). The remaining subjects received no training. During a second flight, treatment subjects showed significant improvement in performance, while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFT management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

Kellar, Michael A.; Folen, Raymond A.; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Hisert, Glen L.

1993-01-01

335

The relationship between the age of onset of musical training and rhythm synchronization performance: validation of sensitive period effects  

PubMed Central

A sensitive period associated with musical training has been proposed, suggesting the influence of musical training on the brain and behavior is strongest during the early years of childhood. Experiments from our laboratory have directly tested the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by comparing musicians who began their training prior to age seven with those who began their training after age seven, while matching the two groups in terms of musical experience (Watanabe et al., 2007; Bailey and Penhune, 2010, 2012). Using this matching paradigm, the early-trained groups have demonstrated enhanced sensorimotor synchronization skills and associated differences in brain structure (Bailey et al., 2013; Steele et al., 2013). The current study takes a different approach to investigating the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by examining a single large group of unmatched musicians (N = 77) and exploring the relationship between age of onset of musical training as a continuous variable and performance on the Rhythm Synchronization Task (RST), a previously used auditory-motor RST. Interestingly, age of onset was correlated with task performance for those who began training earlier, however, no such relationship was observed among those who began training in their later childhood years. In addition, years of formal training showed a similar pattern. However, individual working memory scores were predictive of task performance, regardless of age of onset of musical training. Overall, these results support the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training and suggest a non-linear relationship between age of onset of musical training and auditory-motor rhythm synchronization abilities, such that a relationship exists early in childhood but then plateaus later on in development, similar to maturational growth trajectories of brain regions implicated in playing music. PMID:24348323

Bailey, Jennifer A.; Penhune, Virginia B.

2013-01-01

336

Selection, Training, and Performance Evaluation of Sales Managers: An Empirical Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the important role sales managers play in an organization, little empirical work has explored various facets of their jobs. The state of knowledge regarding this issue is woefully inadequate. To partially address this gap in the sales management literature, this paper reports the results of a study that investigated recruitment\\/selection, training, and performance evaluation practices vis-à-vis sales managers. Findings

Alan J. Dubinsky; Rolph E. Anderson; Rajiv Mehta

1999-01-01

337

The Effects of Basic Gymnastics Training Integrated with Physical Education Courses on Selected Motor Performance Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of gymnastics training integrated with physical education courses on selected motor performance variables in seven year old girls. Subjects were divided into two groups: (1) control group (N=15, X=7.56 plus or minus 0.46 year old); (2) gymnastics group (N=16, X=7.60 plus or minus 0.50 year…

Alpkaya, Ufuk

2013-01-01

338

Effect of an 8Week Combined Weights and Plyometrics Training Program on Golf Drive Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fletcher, I.M., and M. Hartwell. Effect of an 8-week combined weights and plyometrics training program on golf drive performance. J. Strength Cond. Res. 18(1):59-62. 2004.— The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a com- bined weights and plyometrics program on golf drive perfor- mance. Eleven male golfers' full golf swing was analyzed for club head speed

Iain M. Fletcher; Matthew Hartwell

2004-01-01

339

Determining variables of plyometric training for improving vertical jump height performance: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Plyometric training improves vertical jump height (VJH). However, the effectiveness of plyometric training depends on various factors. A meta-analysis of 56 studies with a total of 225 effect sizes (ESs) was carried out to analyze the role of various factors on the effects of plyometrics on VJH performance. The inclusion criteria for the analysis were a) studies using plyometric programs for lower-limb muscles, b) studies employing true experimental designs and valid and reliable measurements, and c) studies including enough data to calculate ESs. Subjects with more experience in sport obtained greater enhancements in VJH performance (p < 0.01). Subjects in either good or bad physical condition benefit equally from plyometric work (p < 0.05), although men tend to obtain better power results than women after plyometric training (p < 0.05). With relation to the variables of performance, training volumes of more than 10 weeks and more than 20 sessions, using high-intensity programs (with more than 50 jumps per session), were the strategies that seemed to maximize the probability of obtaining significantly greater improvements in performance (p < 0.05). To optimize jumping enhancement, the combination of different types of plyometrics (squat jump + countermovement jump + drop jump) is recommended rather than using only 1 form (p < 0.05). However, no extra benefits were found to be gained from doing plyometrics with added weight. The responses identified in this analysis are essential and should be considered by strength and conditioning professionals with regard to the most appropriate dose-response trends for optimizing plyometric-induced gains. PMID:19197203

de Villarreal, Eduardo Saéz-Saez; Kellis, Eleftherios; Kraemer, William J; Izquierdo, Mikel

2009-03-01

340

Effects of Microhydrin® Supplementation on Endurance Performance and Metabolism in Well-Trained Cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

(MH) contains silica hydride bonds (Si-H) and if Microhydrin supplementation increased performance or altered metabolism compared to placebo (PL) during prolonged endurance cycling. Seven endurance-trained male cyclists consumed 9.6 g of MH or PL over 48 h in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. Subjects cycled at ~ 70% of their VO2peak, coupled with 5 2-min bursts at 85% VO2peak to

Lee R. Glazier; Trent Stellingwerff; Lawrence L. Spriet

341

Blue-Collar Workers. Appraisal Systems Are in Place, but Basic Refinements Are Needed. Report to Agency Officials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Government Accounting Office (GAO) evaluated how well divisions in the Departments of the Air Force, Army, and Navy and the Veterans Administration have implemented performance appraisal systems for blue-collar employees. The study found that in the four agencies visited, performance appraisal systems were in place; however, problems…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

342

Sprinting Performance and Resistance-Based Training Interventions: A Systematic Review.  

PubMed

The purpose of this systematic review was to search the scientific literature for original research, addressing the effects different forms of resistance-based training have on sprinting performance in competitive sprinters. Specific key words (Sprinters OR Sprint) NOT (Rugby, Soccer, Cycling, Swimming, Paralympic, Nutrition) were used to search relevant databases through November 2013 for related literature. Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Five studies met the inclusion criteria: actively competitive adult male sprinters who participated in a resistance-based intervention (>4 weeks), with outcome measures in the form of 10-100 m sprint times. Exclusion criteria included acute studies (<4 weeks), non-sprinting populations and studies with no performance outcome measures (10-100 m sprint times). Three of the five studies employed both locomotor resistance and fixed plane resistance, whereas the remaining two studies used more fixed plane resistance e.g. squat and leg extension. Three of the studies showed a statistical improvement in sprinting performance measures e.g. a decrease in 30 m sprint time (p = 0.044), whereas one study showed a decrease in sprinting performance. The analysis concluded that resistance-based training has a positive effect on sprinting performance. Varied input of locomotor resistance and fixed plane resistance has resulted in similar percentage change for sprinting performance. This review adds to the body of knowledge by strongly highlighting the dearth of literature exploring the effects of resistance-based training on sprinting performance in competitive sprinters. The short duration and wide range of exercises implemented in studies to date are of concern, but coaches should not hesitate to implement well-planned resistance programs for their sprint athletes. PMID:25268287

Bolger, R; Kenny, Ic; Lyons, M; Harrison, Aj

2014-09-29

343

Effects of a short-term plyometric and resistance training program on fitness performance in boys age 12 to 15 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a six week training period of combined plyometric and resistance training (PRT, n = 13) or resistance training alone (RT, n = 14) on fitness performance in boys (12-15 yr). The RT group per- formed static stretching exercises followed by resistance training whereas the PRT group performed plyometric exercises

Avery D. Faigenbaum; James E. McFarland; Fred B. Keiper; William Tevlin; Nicholas A. Ratamess; Jie Kang; Jay R. Hoffman

344

How to appraise a diagnostic test.  

PubMed

Urologists frequently encounter problems in making a clinical diagnosis whose resolution requires the use of diagnostic tests. With an ever increasing choice of investigations being available, the urologist often has to decide which diagnostic test(s) will best resolve the patient's diagnostic problem. In this article, we aim to help the urologist understand how to critically appraise studies on diagnostic tests and make a rational choice. This article presents the guiding principles in scientifically assessing studies on diagnostic tests by proposing a clinical scenario. The authors describe a standardized protocol to assess the validity of the test and its relevance to the clinical problem that can help the urologist in decision making. The three important issues to be considered when evaluating the validity of the study are to identify how the study population was chosen, how the test was performed and whether there is a comparison to the gold standard test so as to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Then, the urologist would need to know the probability of the test in providing the correct diagnosis in an individual patient in order to decide about its utility in solving the diagnostic dilemma. By performing the steps described in this article, the urologist would be able to critically appraise diagnostic studies and draw meaningful conclusions about the investigations in terms of validity, results and its applicability to the patient's problem. This would provide a scientific basis for using diagnostic tests for improving patient care. PMID:22279321

Manikandan, Ramanitharan; Dorairajan, Lalgudi N

2011-10-01

345

Effects of vitamin D supplementation and exercise training on physical performance in Chilean vitamin D deficient elderly subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to assess the effects of resistance training and vitamin D supplementation on physical performance of healthy elderly subjects. Ninety-six subjects, aged 70 years or more with 25 OH vitamin D levels of 16ng\\/ml or less, were randomized to a resistance training or control group. Trained and control groups were further randomized to receive in a double blind

Daniel Bunout; Gladys Barrera; Laura Leiva; Vivien Gattas; María Pía de la Maza; Marcelo Avendaño; Sandra Hirsch

2006-01-01

346

Visual attention analyzer: technology to evaluate and train drivers' visual performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is consensus that attention is needed to perform many daily activities, such as driving, there has not been widespread agreement on how to measure it. The UFOVTM Visual Attention Analyzer is a new instrument developed to assess the functional attentional skills required for driving and attentionally demanding occupations, and to train those skills when they are diminished or for exceptional performance. The focus of this paper is to describe the uses for this technology and discuss its validation regarding crash risk among older drivers.

Ball, Karlene K.; Roenker, Daniel; Cissell, Gayla; Graves, Mark; Edwards, Jerry; Whorley, Kim

1994-03-01

347

Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes  

SciTech Connect

The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

1980-01-01

348

Position-specific behaviors and their impact on crew performance: Implications for training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present study was motivated by results from a preliminary report documenting the impact of specific crewmembers on overall crew performance (Wilhelm & Law, 1992), and a cross-airline cross-fleet project investigating human factors behaviors of commercial aviation flightcrews (Helmreich, Butler, Whilhelm, & Lofaro, 1992). The purpose of the current investigation is to study how position-specific behaviors impact flightcrew performance, and how these position-specific behaviors differ between two airlines and two flying environments. Implications for training will also be addressed.

Law, J. Randolph

1993-01-01

349

Effect of cold water immersion on 100-m sprint performance in well-trained swimmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of cold water immersion (CWI) on sprint swimming performance in simulated\\u000a competition conditions. Ten well-trained swimmers (5 males, 5 females; 19.0 ± 3.9 years) performed two 100-m swimming sprints\\u000a (S1 and S2) interspersed with a 30-min passive recovery period, during which athletes were randomly assigned to 5 min of CWI\\u000a (14°C) or an

Jonathan Parouty; Hani Al Haddad; Marc Quod; Pierre Marie Leprêtre; Said Ahmaidi; Martin Buchheit

2010-01-01

350

Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p < 0.001) and 24 (-13% ± 5%, p < 0.001 and -9% ± 5%, p = 0.001). Strength performance decreased in E at week 24 (-5% ± 5%, p = 0.014) but was maintained in E+S (between-groups at week 12 and 24, p = 0.014 and 0.011, respectively). Basal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations remained unaltered in E and E+S but testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin ratio decreased in E+S at week 12 (-19% ± 26%, p = 0.006). At week 0 and 24, endurance loading-induced acute force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p < 0.001) were similar between E and E+S. This study showed no endurance performance benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S. PMID:25494869

Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

2015-01-01

351

Tonic Pain Experienced during Locomotor Training Impairs Retention Despite Normal Performance during Acquisition  

PubMed Central

Many patients are in pain when they receive gait training during rehabilitation. Based on animal studies, it has been proposed that central sensitization associated to nociception (maladaptive plasticity) and plasticity related to the sensorimotor learning (adaptive plasticity) share similar neural mechanisms and compete with each other. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental tonic pain influences motor learning (acquisition and next-day retention) of a new locomotor task. Thirty healthy human subjects performed a locomotor adaptation task (perturbing force field applied to the ankle during swing using a robotized orthosis) on 2 consecutive days. Learning was assessed using kinematic measures (peak and mean absolute plantarflexion errors) and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Half of the participants performed the locomotor adaptation task with pain on Day 1 (capsaicin cream around the ankle), while the task was performed pain-free for all subjects on Day 2 to assess retention. Pain had no significant effect on baseline gait parameters nor on performance during the locomotor adaptation task (for either kinematic or EMG measures) on Day 1. Despite this apparently normal motor acquisition, pain-free Day 2 performance was markedly and significantly impaired in the Pain group, indicating that pain during training had an impact on the retention of motor memories (interfering with consolidation and/or retrieval). These results suggest that the same motor rehabilitation intervention could be less effective if administered in the presence of pain. PMID:25009252

Bouffard, Jason; Bouyer, Laurent J.; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

2014-01-01

352

Tonic pain experienced during locomotor training impairs retention despite normal performance during acquisition.  

PubMed

Many patients are in pain when they receive gait training during rehabilitation. Based on animal studies, it has been proposed that central sensitization associated to nociception (maladaptive plasticity) and plasticity related to the sensorimotor learning (adaptive plasticity) share similar neural mechanisms and compete with each other. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental tonic pain influences motor learning (acquisition and next-day retention) of a new locomotor task. Thirty healthy human subjects performed a locomotor adaptation task (perturbing force field applied to the ankle during swing using a robotized orthosis) on 2 consecutive days. Learning was assessed using kinematic measures (peak and mean absolute plantarflexion errors) and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Half of the participants performed the locomotor adaptation task with pain on Day 1 (capsaicin cream around the ankle), while the task was performed pain-free for all subjects on Day 2 to assess retention. Pain had no significant effect on baseline gait parameters nor on performance during the locomotor adaptation task (for either kinematic or EMG measures) on Day 1. Despite this apparently normal motor acquisition, pain-free Day 2 performance was markedly and significantly impaired in the Pain group, indicating that pain during training had an impact on the retention of motor memories (interfering with consolidation and/or retrieval). These results suggest that the same motor rehabilitation intervention could be less effective if administered in the presence of pain. PMID:25009252

Bouffard, Jason; Bouyer, Laurent J; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Mercier, Catherine

2014-07-01

353

Evaluation of the ASVAB 8/9/10 Clerical Composite for Predicting Training School Performance. Technical Report 594.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The composite of Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) subtests used to select applicants for entry-level training in Army clerical schools was evaluated by correlating composite scores with training performance scores. Comparisons were made between the multiple R for this optimal set of predictors and that for the composite of…

Weltin, Mary M.; Popelka, Beverly A.

354

General and Specific Self-Efficacy in the Context of a Training Intervention to Enhance Performance Expectancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pretest-posttest field study investigated self-efficacy, both general and specific, in an intensive training experience to prepare new recruits for their work assignments. Specific issues addressed include (1) the effects of the training experience on general self-efficacy (GSE), work-specific selfefficacy (SSE), and performance expectancy; (2)…

Schwoerer, Catherine E.; May, Douglas R.; Hollensbe, Elaine C.; Mencl, Jennifer

2005-01-01

355

Brain training in older adults: Evidence of transfer to memory span performance and pseudo-Matthew effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the effects of ‘brain training’ using the Nintendo DS Brain Training program were examined in two groups of older adults; the cognitive performance of an experimental group (n?=?21) who were asked to use the Nintendo DS regularly over a 6-week period was compared with the control group (n?=?20). Groups were matched on age (mean age = 74

Siné McDougall; Becky House

2012-01-01

356

The Impact of Collegiate Aviation Student Learning Styles on Flight Performance: A Scenario-Based Training Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The introduction of the glass cockpit, as well as a whole new generation of high performance general aviation aircraft, highlights the need for a comprehensive overhaul of the traditional approach to training pilots. Collegiate aviation institutions that are interested in upgrading their training aircraft fleets will need to design new curricula…

Harriman, Stanley L.

2011-01-01

357

Assessment Training Effects on Student Assessment Skills and Task Performance in a Technology-Facilitated Peer Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the impact of an assessment training module on student assessment skills and task performance in a technology-facilitated peer assessment. Seventy-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants completed an assessment training exercise, prior to engaging in peer-assessment activities. During the…

Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan

2014-01-01

358

Linking Rhetorical Sensitivity with the Ability of an Athletic Training Student to Successfully Perform a Patient Medical Interview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the self-reported rhetorical sensitivity of a sample of athletic training students is positively related to successfully performing a patient medical interview. Particularly, the study focused on if athletic training students' reported communication behaviors is related to their…

Bertoncino, Thomas K.

2010-01-01

359

Separate training of hemispheres to perform visual discrimination in conditions of blocking of interhemisphere transmission by masking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects were trained to discriminate three figures presented in the left field of vision and three other figures presented in the right field of vision. In these conditions, the two hemispheres usually show identical learning to discriminate the sets of stimuli because the hemispheres in healthy humans can exchange information. In the present study, training was performed in conditions in

V. D. Glezer; A. A. Nevskaya; N. D. Chernova; V. E. Gauzel’man

2005-01-01

360

Using VE for training and augmenting human performance in forestry telemanipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processing harvesters are forestry telemanipulators that can fell, delimb, cut and pile trees in only one sequence of operations. They are complex machines and operators need between 4 and 6 months of practice to become productive. This paper describes work in progress concerning the development of a computerized environment that uses 3D graphics, audio feedback and real-time interactivity to create a virtual environment (VE) similar to one of a processing harvester. This virtual environment will be used both to train operators and to test new user interfaces that could enhance performance and/or reduce operation's learning time, as well as improve the overall productivity by allowing operators to train without taking machines out of service.

Lapointe, Jean-Francois; Freedman, Paul; Mackenzie, Paul; Robert, Jean-Marc

1996-12-01

361

The benefits of Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) training on simulated arthroscopy performance.  

PubMed

Current theories of skill learning suggest that novices learn optimally in a simplified environment. This information can be incorporated in simulator designs. Our purpose was to assess whether basic visuospatial training is beneficial for performance on an arthroscopy model. One group of trainees practiced three visuomotor tasks while the other group was not given this opportunity. Both groups then performed three different surgical tasks on a simulated arthroscopy model. Practice with the visuomotor tasks enhanced performance on two of the tasks on the arthroscopy model. The basic navigational skills learned through practice transferred to the performance of arthroscopic surgery tasks and these skills should be included in the design of a comprehensive arthroscopy simulator. PMID:22357027

Safir, Oleg; Dubrowski, Adam; Williams, Camille; Hui, Yvonne; Backstein, David; Carnahan, Heather

2012-01-01

362

Unfamiliar face matching: Pairs out-perform individuals and provide a route to training.  

PubMed

Matching unfamiliar faces is known to be difficult. Here, we ask whether performance can be improved by asking viewers to work in pairs, a manipulation known to increase accuracy for low-level visual discrimination tasks. Across four experiments we consistently find that face matching accuracy is higher for pairs of viewers than for individuals. This 'pairs advantage' is generally driven by adopting the response of the higher scoring partner. However, when the task becomes difficult, both partners' performance is improved by working in a pair. In two experiments, we find evidence that working in a pair can lead to subsequent improvements in individual performance, specifically for viewers whose accuracy is initially low. The pairs' technique therefore offers the opportunity for substantial improvements in face matching performance, along with an added training benefit. PMID:25393594

Dowsett, Andrew J; Burton, A Mike

2014-11-13

363

Success in orthopaedic training: resident selection and predictors of quality performance.  

PubMed

Multiple studies have attempted to determine which attributes are predictive of success during residency as well as the optimal method of selecting residents who possess these attributes. Factors that are consistently ranked as being important in the selection of candidates into orthopaedic residency programs include performance during orthopaedic rotation, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 score, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, medical school class rank, interview performance, and letters of recommendation. No consensus exists regarding the best predictors of resident success, but trends do exist. High USMLE Step 1 scores have been shown to correlate with high Orthopaedic In-Training Examination scores and improved surgical skill ratings during residency, whereas higher numbers of medical school clinical honors grades have been correlated to higher overall resident performance, higher residency interpersonal skills grading, higher resident knowledge grading, and higher surgical skills evaluations. Successful resident performance can be measured by evaluating psychomotor abilities, cognitive skills, and affective domain. PMID:21292930

Egol, Kenneth A; Collins, Jason; Zuckerman, Joseph D

2011-02-01

364

Cramer-rao bounds and coherence performance analysis for next generation radar with pulse trains.  

PubMed

We study the Cramer-Rao bounds of parameter estimation and coherence performance for the next generation radar (NGR). In order to enhance the performance of NGR, the signal model of NGR with master-slave architecture based on a single pulse is extended to the case of pulse trains, in which multiple pulses are emitted from all sensors and then integrated spatially and temporally in a unique master sensor. For the MIMO mode of NGR where orthogonal waveforms are emitted, we derive the closed-form Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for the estimates of generalized coherence parameters (GCPs), including the time delay differences, total phase differences and Doppler frequencies with respect to different sensors. For the coherent mode of NGR where the coherent waveforms are emitted after pre-compensation using the estimates of GCPs, we develop a performance bound of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain for NGR based on the aforementioned CRBs, taking all the estimation errors into consideration. It is shown that greatly improved estimation accuracy and coherence performance can be obtained with pulse trains employed in NGR. Numerical examples demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results. PMID:23612588

Tang, Xiaowei; Tang, Jun; He, Qian; Wan, Shuang; Tang, Bo; Sun, Peilin; Zhang, Ning

2013-01-01

365

The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes  

PubMed Central

Background Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. Methods A 10-week crossover, placebo controlled study was conducted. Eight trained male cyclists and two triathletes were randomly assigned to consume 75 g/d whole almonds (ALM) or isocaloric cookies (COK) with equal subject number. They consumed the assigned food for 4 wks and then the alternate food for another 4 wks. They underwent 3 performance tests including 125-min steady status exercise (SS) and 20-min time trial (TT) on an indoor stationary trainer at the start of the study (BL) and at the end of each intervention phase. Venous blood was collected in the morning prior to the performance test for biochemical measurements and finger blood during the test for glucose determination. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and oxygen use were calculated using respiratory gas analysis. Results ALM increased cycling distance during TT by 1.7 km as compared BL (21.9 vs. 20.2 km, P?=?0.053) and COK increased 0.6 km (20.8 vs. 20.2 km, P?>?0.05). ALM, but not COK, led to higher CHO and lower fat oxidation and less oxygen consumption during TT than BL (P??0.05) than BL, and a higher total antioxidant capacity than COK (P?performance more than isocaloric cookies in trained athletes as some nutrients in almonds may contribute to CHO reservation and utilization and effective oxygen utilization. The results suggest that almonds can be incorporated into diets of those who undertake exercise training for performance improvement. PMID:24860277

2014-01-01

366

Sensitivity of Monthly Heart Rate and Psychometric Measures for Monitoring Physical Performance in Highly Trained Young Handball Players.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine whether monthly resting heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and psychometric measures can be used to monitor changes in physical performance in highly-trained adolescent handball players. Data were collected in 37 adolescent players (training 10±2.1?h.wk(-1)) on 11 occasions from September to May during the in-season period, and included an estimation of training status (resting HR and HRV, the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire), and 3 physical performance tests (a 10-m sprint, a counter movement jump and a graded aerobic intermittent test, 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test). The sensitivity of HR and psychometric measures to changes in physical performance was poor (training status markers and the performance measures. The specificity was however strong (>?75%), irrespective of the markers and the performance measures. Finally, the difference in physical performance between players with better vs. worse estimated training status were all almost certainly trivial. The present results highlight the limitation of monthly measures of resting HR, HRV and perceived mood and fatigue for predicting in-season changes in physical performance in highly-trained adolescent handball players. This suggests that more frequent monitoring might be required, and/or that other markers might need to be considered. PMID:25429552

Buchheit, M

2014-11-27

367

Effects of plyometric training and recovery on vertical jump performance and anaerobic power.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of 2 plyometric training programs, equalized for training volume, followed by a 4-week recovery period of no plyometric training on anaerobic power and vertical jump performance. Physically active, college-aged men were randomly assigned to either a 4-week (n = 19, weight = 73.4 +/- 7.5 kg) or a 7-week (n = 19, weight = 80.1 +/- 12.5 kg) program. Vertical jump height, vertical jump power, and anaerobic power via the Margaria staircase test were measured pretraining (PRE), immediately posttraining (POST), and 4 weeks posttraining (POST-4). Vertical jump height decreased in the 4-week group PRE (67.8 +/- 7.9 cm) to POST (65.4 +/- 7.8 cm). Vertical jump height increased from PRE to POST-4 in 4-week (67.8 +/- 7.9 to 69.7 +/- 7.6 cm) and 7-week (64.6 +/- 6.2 to 67.2 +/- 7.6 cm) training programs. Vertical jump power decreased in the 4-week group from PRE (8,660.0 +/- 546.5 W) to POST (8,541.6 +/- 557.4 W) with no change in the 7-week group. Vertical jump power increased PRE to POST-4 in 4-week (8,660.0 +/- 546.5 W to 8,793.6 +/- 541.4 W) and 7-week (8,702.8 +/- 527.4 W to 8,931.5 +/- 537.6 W) training programs. Anaerobic power improved in the 7-week group from PRE (1,121.9 +/- 174.7 W) to POST (1,192.2 +/- 189.1 W) but not the 4-week group. Anaerobic power significantly improved PRE to POST-4 in both groups. There were no significant differences between the 2 training groups. Four-week and 7-week plyometric programs are equally effective for improving vertical jump height, vertical jump power, and anaerobic power when followed by a 4-week recovery period. However, a 4-week program may not be as effective as a 7-week program if the recovery period is not employed. PMID:14636088

Luebbers, Paul E; Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Hulver, Mathew W; Thyfault, John P; Carper, Michael J; Lockwood, Robert H

2003-11-01

368

Upper limb aerobic training improves aerobic fitness and all-out performance of America's Cup grinders.  

PubMed

This research on "America's Cup" grinders investigated the effects of a specific eight-week long-arm cranking ergometer (ACE) training on upper body (UB) aerobic fitness (ventilatory threshold - Tvent, respiratory compensation point- RCP, -oxygen uptake peak - [Formula: see text]O2peak) and high intensity working capacity. The training consisted of sessions carried out for 20-30 mins, three times per week, at an intensity between the UB-Tvent and UB-RCP, and replaced part of a typical lower limb aerobic training whilst maintaining the usual weekly schedule of callisthenics, resistance training and sailing. Seven sailors, including four grinders and three mastmen (age 30 ± 5.5 years, height 1.9 ± 0.04 m, body mass 102 ± 3.6 kg), were evaluated through both an ACE cardiopulmonary maximal exercise test (CPET) and an ACE all-out up to exhaustion exercise test, before and after the ACE training. UB aerobic fitness improved significantly: UB-[Formula: see text]O2peak increased from 4.29 ± 0.442 to 4.52 ± 0.522 l·min(-1) (6.4 ± 3.66%), [Formula: see text]O2 at UB-Tvent from 2.42 ± 0.282 to 2.97 ± 0.328 l·min(-1) (22.8 ± 5.09%) and [Formula: see text]O2 at UB-RCP from 3.25 ± 0.402 to 3.75 ± 0.352 l·min(-1) (16.1 ± 10.83%). Peak power at the ACE CPET increased from 351 ± 27.5 to 387 ± 33.5 W (10.5 ± 6.93%). The all-out test total mechanical work increased from 28.9 ± 2.35 to 40.1 ± 3.76 kJ (72.1 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, a high intensity aerobic ACE training can be effective in improving grinding performance by increasing UB aerobic fitness and all-out working capacity. PMID:25357134

Adami, Paolo Emilio; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Rodio, Angelo; Squeo, Maria Rosaria; Corsi, Loretta; Quattrini, Filippo Maria; Fattorini, Luigi; Bernardi, Marco

2014-10-30

369

Effects of high-speed power training on muscle performance and braking speed in older adults.  

PubMed

We examined whether high-speed power training (HSPT) improved muscle performance and braking speed using a driving simulator. 72 older adults (22?m, 50?f; age = 70.6 ± 7.3?yrs) were randomized to HSPT at 40% one-repetition maximum (1RM) (HSPT: n = 25; 3 sets of 12-14 repetitions), slow-speed strength training at 80%1RM (SSST: n = 25; 3 sets of 8-10 repetitions), or control (CON: n = 22; stretching) 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Leg press and knee extension peak power, peak power velocity, peak power force/torque, and braking speed were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks. HSPT increased peak power and peak power velocity across a range of external resistances (40-90%?1RM; P < 0.05) and improved braking speed (P < 0.05). Work was similar between groups, but perceived exertion was lower in HSPT (P < 0.05). Thus, the less strenuous HSPT exerted a broader training effect and improved braking speed compared to SSST. PMID:22500229

Sayers, Stephen P; Gibson, Kyle

2012-01-01

370

Extending role by Japanese pharmacists after training for performing vital signs monitoring  

PubMed Central

Background In Japan, the circumstances in which pharmacists work are changing. Pharmacists are expected to assess conditions of patients subject to medication to ensure proper use of pharmaceutical products. To ensure fulfilment of these roles, there have already been pharmacists’ efforts in performing vital signs monitoring. Objective To clarify the necessity and related issues, by investigating the state of vital sign monitoring in clinical field by pharmacists who have been trained in vital sign monitoring. Method A web survey was conducted from 4th October to 3rd December 2012, subjecting 1,026 pharmacists who completed the vital signs training hosted by The Japanese Association of Home Care Pharmacies (JAHCP). Survey items were 1) basic information of a respondent, 2) situation of homecare conducted by pharmacists, 3) seminar attendance status, and 4) vital signs monitoring status after the seminar. Results The number of valid respondents was 430 and the response rate was 41.9%. As a result of the present research, it was revealed that 168 pharmacists (41.4%), had the opportunity to perform vital signs monitoring. By conducting vital sign monitoring, effects such as 1) improved motivation of pharmacists and better communication with patients, 2) proper use of medication, and 3) cost reduction were confirmed. Conclusion Judging from the results of the survey, pharmacists can improve medication therapy for patients by attaining vital sign skills and conduct vital sign monitoring. Pharmacists who perform vital sign monitoring should share cases where they experienced positive patient outcomes. PMID:25243033

Hasegawa, Fujiko; Hazama, Kenji; Ikeda, Shunya; Takeda, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

371

Annual National Report of the Australian Vocational Education and Training System, 2001. Volume 3: Report on the Key Performance Measures for the Australian Vocational Education and Training System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outcomes achieved by Australia's national vocational education and training (VET) system in 2001 were analyzed in terms of the following performance indicators: (1) recognized VET skill outputs; (2) stocks of skills versus desired levels; (3) employer satisfaction with VET; (4) student outcomes from VET; (5) participation, outputs, and…

Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

372

The Effects of Ten Weeks of Resistance and Combined Plyometric\\/Sprint Training With the Meridian Elyte Athletic Shoe on Muscular Performance in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the combined effects of resistance and sprint\\/plyometric training with or without the Meridian Elyte athletic shoe on muscular performance in women. Fourteen resistance-trained women were randomly assigned to one of 2 training groups: (a) an athletic shoe (N - 6) IAS) group or (b) the Meridian Elyte (N 81 (MS) group. Training

Nicholas A. Ratamess; William J. Kraemer; Jeff S. Volek; Duncan N. French; Martyn R. Rubin; Ana L. Gómez; Robert U. Newton; Carl M. Maresh

2007-01-01

373

38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...VA on demand. While the quality control personnel need not be appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to prescribe appropriate corrective action(s) in the appraisal review process when...

2012-07-01

374

38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VA on demand. While the quality control personnel need not be appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to prescribe appropriate corrective action(s) in the appraisal review process when...

2013-07-01

375

Assessing what generates precompetitive emotions: development of the precompetitive appraisal measure.  

PubMed

Abstract Athletes' precompetitive appraisal determines which emotion they experience with regard to an upcoming competition. Such precompetitive emotions have powerful and potentially destructive consequences for performance. To control and optimise these consequences, it is important to examine precompetitive appraisal. Currently, such efforts are hampered by the lack of a valid measurement tool. The present study aimed to develop a novel measure of precompetitive appraisal. Specifically, the Precompetitive Appraisal Measure (PAM) was constructed by adapting an existing self-report scale. Female and male intercollegiate team sport athletes (N = 384) completed the PAM, along with a measure of intensity and interpretation of precompetitive anxiety symptoms (CSAI-2D) prior to competition. On these responses, (a) a Principal Component Analysis and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the PAM's suggested two-factor structure (Primary and Secondary Appraisal), (b) cluster analyses indicated the measure's ability to distinguish theoretically congruent appraisal profiles (Threat and Challenge) and (c) a MANOVA and multiple regression analyses demonstrated that PAM-responses predicted precompetitive symptom intensity and interpretation. Further, analyses revealed that the majority of athletes appraised the upcoming competition as a challenge. PMID:25142783

Wolf, Svenja A; Evans, M Blair; Laborde, Sylvain; Kleinert, Jens

2014-08-21

376

Effects of a short-term plyometric and resistance training program on fitness performance in boys age 12 to 15 years.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a six week training period of combined plyometric and resistance training (PRT, n = 13) or resistance training alone (RT, n = 14) on fitness performance in boys (12-15 yr). The RT group performed static stretching exercises followed by resistance training whereas the PRT group performed plyometric exercises followed by the same resistance training program. The training duration per session for both groups was 90 min. At baseline and after training all participants were tested on the vertical jump, long jump, medicine ball toss, 9.1 m sprint, pro agility shuttle run and flexibility. The PRT group made significantly (p < 0.05) greater improvements than RT in long jump (10.8 cm vs. 2.2 cm), medicine ball toss (39.1 cm vs. 17.7 cm) and pro agility shuttle run time (-0.23 sec vs. -0.02 sec) following training. These findings suggest that the addition of plyometric training to a resistance training program may be more beneficial than resistance training and static stretching for enhancing selected measures of upper and lower body power in boys. Key pointsYouth conditioning programs which include different types of training and different loading schemes (e.g., high velocity plyometrics and resistance training) may be most effective for enhancing power performance.The effects of resistance training and plyometric training may be synergistic in children, with their combined effects being greater that each program performed alone. PMID:24149486

Faigenbaum, Avery D; McFarland, James E; Keiper, Fred B; Tevlin, William; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kang, Jie; Hoffman, Jay R

2007-01-01

377

Performance evaluation of Automatic Extraction System. Volume IV. Recommended operating, maintenance, and training plans. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Since the AES is a different and more sochisticated machine, it became apparent during the in-mine trial that more than on-the-job training (OJT) is desirable for the operators. The AES is unique in that it should remain in the face for long periods rather than be moved often from the face to face. In addition, the operator should learn to trust the ACS in order to be more aware of the hazards in the face area. More training is one way to help increase operator and machine efficiency and safety consciousness. The lack of formal, organized, scheduled, non-productive-mode training of the AES operators appeared to affect the performance of the AES during mining, tramming, maneuvering, and bolting. Therefore, before the operator and bolters do their jobs and the mechanics maintain the AES on a regular basis in a production-mode, they should attend classes, including: (1) formal above ground classroom training, (2) non-productive-mode underground training, and (3) productive-mode OJT. The training department should have the authority and resources to train workers beforehand, and also whenever subsequent instruction is needed. This plan includes only those areas peculiar to the AES. It is assumed that mature, competent individuals (operators and bolters) have already been trained to use similar machines. If this is not the case, the training will require significantly more time.

Frantz, R.L.; King, R.H.; Bartsch, D.L.

1980-07-01

378

Effects of vitamin D supplementation and exercise training on physical performance in Chilean vitamin D deficient elderly subjects.  

PubMed

The aim was to assess the effects of resistance training and vitamin D supplementation on physical performance of healthy elderly subjects. Ninety-six subjects, aged 70 years or more with 25 OH vitamin D levels of 16 ng/ml or less, were randomized to a resistance training or control group. Trained and control groups were further randomized to receive in a double blind fashion, vitamin D 400 IU plus 800 mg of calcium per day or calcium alone. Subjects were followed for nine months. Serum 25 OH vitamin D increased from 12.4+/-2.2 to 25.8+/-6.5 ng/ml among subjects supplemented with vitamin D. Trained subjects had significant improvements in quadriceps muscle strength, the short physical performance test and timed up and go. The latter improved more in trained subjects supplemented with vitamin D. At the end of the follow up, gait speed was higher among subjects supplemented with vitamin (whether trained or not) than in non-supplemented subjects (838+/-147 and 768+/-127 m/12 min, respectively, p=0.02). Romberg ratio was lower among supplemented controls than non-supplemented trained subjects (128+/-40% and 144+/-37%, respectively, p=0.05). In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation improved gait speed and body sway, and training improved muscle strength. PMID:16797903

Bunout, Daniel; Barrera, Gladys; Leiva, Laura; Gattas, Vivien; de la Maza, María Pía; Avendaño, Marcelo; Hirsch, Sandra

2006-08-01

379

Technical Safety Appraisal of the Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) was to assess the effectiveness of representative safety and health programs at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) through the evaluation of activities at selected facilities and in selected safety disciplines. The TSA was conducted in accordance with established procedures. The following BNL safety and health program elements were reviewed as a part of this TSA: Organization and Administration, Operations, Maintenance, Training and Certification, Nuclear Criticality Safety, Auxiliary Systems, Technical Support, Site/Facility Safety Review, Emergency Preparedness, Radiological Protection, Industrial Hygiene, Occupational Safety, Fire Protection, Quality Verification, and Medical Services. The TSA was conducted from March 26--April 12, 1990. The evaluation was conducted by a team of experts assembled by EH, Office of Safety Appraisals (OSA). TSAs are operationally focused. As such, in terms of safety, health, and quality verification, the site and selected facilities were appraised relative to operations, and the condition of equipment and facilities. The evaluation thus addresses whether current operations are being conducted within the operational safety procedures established for specific facilities and activities.

Not Available

1990-12-01

380

Does a bout of strength training affect 2,000 m rowing ergometer performance and rowing-specific maximal power 24 h later?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rowers regularly undertake rowing training within 24 h of performing bouts of strength training; however, the effect of this\\u000a practice has not been investigated. This study evaluated the impact of a bout of high-intensity strength training on 2,000 m\\u000a rowing ergometer performance and rowing-specific maximal power. Eight highly trained male club rowers performed baseline measures\\u000a of five separate, static squat jumps (SSJ)

Thomas I. Gee; Duncan N. French; Glyn Howatson; Stephen J. Payton; Nicolas J. Berger; Kevin G. Thompson

381

The Effect of Online Systems Analysis Training on Aerospace Industry Business Performance: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aerospace companies needed additional research on technology-based training to verify expectations when enhancing human capital through online systems analysis training. The research for online systems analysis training provided aerospace companies a means to verify expectations for systems analysis technology-based training on business…

Burk, Erlan

2012-01-01

382

Appraisal of four pre-column derivatization methods for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of free amino acids in biological materials.  

PubMed

Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) is a powerful method for assaying physiological amino acid concentrations in biological fluids. Four pre-column derivatization methods, with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA), 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl), phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) and 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulphonyl chloride (dansyl-Cl), were assessed with respect to their applicability in biological research. The methods permit the measurement of 21-26 major amino acids in 13-40 min. The superior sensitivity favours the use of OPA, FMOC-Cl and dansyl-Cl techniques. Because of instability of the OPA adducts, automated on-line derivatization is required when using this method in general practice. Application of the PITC method, although less sensitive, is useful in clinical chemistry, where sample availability is rarely a problem. Cystine determination is not feasible when using OPA or FMOC-Cl and with PITC the reproducibility and linearity are poor, whereas the dansyl-Cl method allows reliable quantitation. The four methods are currently used to perform ca. 8000 OPA and 5000-6000 FMOC-Cl, PITC and dansyl-Cl analyses of biological samples per year. The results obtained with the RP-HPLC methods compare favourably with those derived from conventional ion-exchange amino acid analyses. When the guard column is regularly changed after 120 analyses, the separation remains satisfactory for at least 700 OPA, 800 FMOC-Cl, 150 PITC and 500 dansyl-Cl analyses. Careful control of factors and limitations inherent in the various methodologies is a prerequesite for proper identification and appropriate quantitation. PMID:2324214

Fürst, P; Pollack, L; Graser, T A; Godel, H; Stehle, P

1990-01-19

383

An Assessment of Naval ROTC Graduate Performance in Post-Accession Training. Focus on the Trained Person.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC), offered through host colleges and universities, requires enrolled midshipmen to complete all institutional requirements for the baccalaureate degree in a technical or scientific field or an academic major of interest to the Navy, and to complete specific naval science courses. This study…

Heidt, Edward A.; Zajkowski, M. Michael

384

Leucine-protein supplemented recovery feeding enhances subsequent cycling performance in well-trained men.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a practical leucine-protein, high-carbohydrate postexercise feeding regimen could improve recovery, as measured by subsequent cycling performance and mechanistic markers, relative to control feeding. In a crossover, 10 male cyclists performed 2- to 2.5-h interval training bouts on 3 consecutive evenings, ingesting either leucine-protein, high-carbohydrate nutrition (0.1/0.4/1.2/0.2 g·kg(-1)·h(-1); leucine, protein, carbohydrate, fat, respectively) or isocaloric control (0.06/1.6/0.2 g·kg(-1)·h(-1); protein, carbohydrate, fat, respectively) nutrition for 1.5 h postexercise. Throughout the experimental period diet was controlled, energy and macronutrient intake balanced, and protein intake clamped at 1.6 g·kg(-1)·day(-1). The alternate supplement was provided the next morning, thereby isolating the postexercise nutrition effect. Following 39 h of recovery, cyclists performed a repeat-sprint performance test. Postexercise leucine-protein ingestion improved mean sprint power by 2.5% (99% confidence limit, ±2.6%; p = 0.013) and reduced perceived overall tiredness during the sprints by 13% (90% confidence limit, ±9.2%), but perceptions of leg tiredness and soreness were unaffected. Before exercise, creatine-kinase concentration was lowered by 19% (90% confidence limits, ±18%), but lactate dehydrogenase and pressure-pain threshold were unaltered. There was a small reduction in anger (25% ± 18%), but other moods were unchanged. Plasma leucine (3-fold) and essential amino acid (47%) concentrations were elevated postexercise. Net nitrogen balance trended mildly negative in both conditions (mean ± SD: leucine-protein, -20 ± 46 mg·kg(-1) per 24 h; control, -25 ± 36 mg·kg(-1) per 24 h). The ingestion of a leucine-protein supplement along with other high-carbohydrate food following intense training on consecutive days enhances subsequent high-intensity endurance performance and may attenuate muscle membrane disruption in well-trained male cyclists. PMID:21609286

Thomson, Jasmine S; Ali, Ajmol; Rowlands, David S

2011-04-01

385

Performance and mood-state parameters during 30-day 6 deg head-down bed rest with exercise training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study aimed at determining if the performance and mood impairments occur in bed-rested subjects, and if different exercise-training regimens modify or prevent them is presented. Eighteen healthy men were divided into three groups performing no exercise, isotonic exercise, and isokinetic exercise. Few deleterious changes occurred in performance and mood of the three groups which did not exceed baseline ambulatory levels. It is concluded that mood and performance did not deteriorate in response to prolonged bedrest and were not altered by exercise training.

Deroshia, Charles W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

1993-01-01

386

Effect of strength and high-intensity training on jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance performance in prepubertal soccer players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 26-week on-field combined strength and high-intensity training on the physical performance capacity among prepubertal soccer players who were undertaking a competitive phase of training. Twenty-four prepubertal soccer players between the age of 8 and 9 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a control (C; n = 13) and an experimental group (S; n = 11). Both groups performed an identical soccer-training program, whereas the S group also performed combined strength and high-intensity training before the soccer-specific training. The 15-m sprint time (seconds), countermovement jump (CMJ) displacement, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IE), and Sit and Reach flexibility were each measured before (baseline) and after 9 (T2), 18 (T3), and 26 weeks (posttest) of training. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested at baseline. After 26 weeks, significant improvements were found in the CMJ (6.72%; effect size [ES] = 0.37), Yo-Yo IE (49.57%, ES = 1.39), and Flexibility (7.26%; ES = 0.37) variables for the S group. Conversely, significant decreases were noted for the CMJ (-10.82%; ES = 0.61) and flexibility (-13.09%; ES = 0.94) variables in the C group. A significant negative correlation was found between 15-m sprint time and CMJ (r = -0.77) and Yo-Yo IE (r = -0.77) in the S group. Specific combined strength and high-intensity training in prepubertal soccer players for 26 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to soccer. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for prepubertal soccer players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport. PMID:24473467

Ferrete, Carlos; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luís; de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez

2014-02-01

387

EFFECT OF STRENGTH AND HIGH-INTENSITY TRAINING ON JUMPING, SPRINTING AND INTERMITENT ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN PREPUBERTAL SOCCER PLAYERS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 26-week on-field combined strength and high-intensity training on physical performance capacity among prepubertal soccer players who were undetraking a competitive phase of training. Twenty-four prepubertal soccer players between the age of 8-9 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a control (C) (n=13) and an experimental group (S) (n=11). Both groups performed an identical soccer training program, while the S group also performed combined strength and high-intensity training before the soccer specific training. The 15-m sprint time (sec), countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) displacement, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (Yo-YoIE), and Sit & Reach flexibility were each measured before (baseline) and after 9 (T2), 18 (T3) and 26 weeks (post-test) of training. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested at baseline. After 26 weeks significant improvements were found in CMJ (6.72%; ES = 0.37), Yo-YoIE (49.57%, ES = 1.39), and Flexibility (7.26%; ES = 0.37) variables for the S group. Conversely, significant decreases were noted for the CMJ (-10.82%; ES = 0.61) and flexibility (-13.09%; ES = 0.94) variables in C group. A significant negative correlation was found between 15m sprint time and CMJ (r=-0.77) and Yo-YoIE (r=-0.77) in S group. Specific combined strength and high-intensity training in prepubertal soccer players for 26 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to soccer. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for prepubertal soccer players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport. PMID:23698082

Ferrete, Carlos; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luís; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

2013-05-21

388

Relationship between improvements in motor performance and changes in anticipatory postural adjustments during whole-body reaching training.  

PubMed

Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) provide postural stability and play an important role in ensuring appropriate motor performance. APAs also change in various situations. However, it is unknown whether changes in APAs during repetitive movement training contribute to improvement in motor performance. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between improvement in motor performance and changes in APAs during repeated reaching training, as well as the learning effects on APA changes. Sixteen healthy subjects (23 ± 2 years of age) stood barefoot on a force platform and reached as quickly and accurately as possible to a target placed at their maximum reach distance immediately following a beep signal in a reaction time condition. Whole-body reaching training with the right arm was repeated 100 times for three consecutive days. Motor performance and APAs were evaluated on the first day, after discontinuation of training for one day, and again at three months. In addition, reaching with the left arm (untrained limb) was tested on the first and the fifth training day. Body position segments were measured using three-dimensional motion analysis. Surface electromyography of eight postural muscles in both lower limbs was recorded. Kinetics data were recorded using the force platform. Whole-body reaching training induced not only improvements in motor performance (e.g., increased peak hand velocity), but also changes in APAs (e.g., earlier APA onset and increased amplitude). These changes were strongly correlated with and occurred earlier than improvements in motor performance. The learning effects on APAs were retained after the discontinuation of training and were generalized to the untrained limb. These results suggest that change in APAs contributes to improvement in motor performance; that is, the central nervous system may be able to adapt APAs for improvement in motor performance. PMID:25108269

Saito, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Masanori; Kasahara, Satoshi; Fukushima, Junko

2014-10-01

389

The perception of "training availability" among certified nurse aides: relationship to CNA performance, turnover, attitudes, burnout, and empowerment.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the certified nurse aides' (CNAs) perception that "training is always available when needed" and the CNAs' performance, turnover, attitudes, burnout, and empowerment. The data came from a larger study where a self-administered survey instrument was completed by 359 CNAs working in 11 nursing homes in the North Texas region. The data analyses largely support previous research. Perceived training availability was most highly associated with participation in decision making, information exchange, the procedures used, and satisfaction/commitment. The data suggest that the CNAs surveyed may not have received substantial training related to the depersonalization of residents, self-esteem, and direct decision making. Further, the findings suggest an opportunity to improve training by including a component to help CNAs transfer the skills and knowledge learned during the training to the actual provision of resident care. PMID:20509059

Yeatts, Dale E; Cready, Cynthia; Swan, James; Shen, Yuying

2010-01-01

390

A psychometric appraisal of the DREEM  

PubMed Central

Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM). Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89), subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming's indices) shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the device in future published reports. PMID:22240254

2012-01-01

391

Effects of pre-training using serious game technology on CPR performance – an exploratory quasi-experimental transfer study  

PubMed Central

Background Multiplayer virtual world (MVW) technology creates opportunities to practice medical procedures and team interactions using serious game software. This study aims to explore medical students’ retention of knowledge and skills as well as their proficiency gain after pre-training using a MVW with avatars for cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) team training. Methods Three groups of pre-clinical medical students, n?=?30, were assessed and further trained using a high fidelity full-scale medical simulator: Two groups were pre-trained 6 and 18 months before assessment. A reference control group consisting of matched peers had no MVW pre-training. The groups consisted of 8, 12 and 10 subjects, respectively. The session started and ended with assessment scenarios, with 3 training scenarios in between. All scenarios were video-recorded for analysis of CPR performance. Results The 6 months group displayed greater CPR-related knowledge than the control group, 93 (±11)% compared to 65 (±28)% (p?trained groups adhered better to guidelines than the control group; mean violations 0.2 (±0.5), 1.5 (±1.0) and 4.5 (±1.0) for the 6 months, 18 months and control group respectively. Likewise, in the 6 months group no chest compression cycles were delivered at incorrect frequencies whereas 54 (±44)% in the control group (p?training. Conclusions This study supports the beneficial effects of MVW-CPR team training with avatars as a method for pre-training, or repetitive training, on CPR-skills among medical students. PMID:23217084

2012-01-01

392

Effects of rest interval on isokinetic strength and functional performance after short-term high intensity training.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The ability to maximally generate active muscle tension during resistance training has been established to be a primary determinant for strength development. The influence of intrasession rest intervals may have a profound effect on strength gains subsequent to short-term high intensity training. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of rest interval on strength and functional performance after four weeks of isokinetic training. METHODS: Fifteen healthy college aged individuals were randomly assigned to either a short rest interval group (group 1, n = 8) or a long rest interval group (group 2, n = 7). Subjects were evaluated for quadriceps and hamstring isokinetic strength at 60 (five repetitions) and 180 (30 repetitions) degrees/second and functional performance with the single leg hop for distance test. One leg of each subject was randomly assigned to a four week, three days/week isokinetic strength training programme for concentric knee extension and flexion performed at 90 degrees/second. Subjects in group 1 received a 40 second rest interval in between exercise sets, whereas subjects in group 2 received a 160 second rest period. RESULTS: A two factor analysis of variance for the pre-test--post-test gain scores (%) showed significantly greater improvements for isokinetic hamstring total work and average power at 180 degrees/second for the trained limb of subjects in group 2 than their contralateral non-trained limb and the subjects in group 1. Significantly greater improvements for the single leg hop for distance were also found for the trained limbs of subjects in both groups as compared with the non-trained limbs. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that a relatively longer intrasession rest period resulted in a greater improvement in hamstring muscle strength during short term high intensity training. PMID:9298559

Pincivero, D M; Lephart, S M; Karunakara, R G

1997-01-01

393

Cardiac performance, biomarkers and gene expression studies in previously sedentary men participating in half-marathon training  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanisms through which exercise reduces cardiovascular disease are not fully understood. We used echocardiograms, cardiac biomarkers and gene expression to investigate cardiovascular effects associated with exercise training. Methods Nineteen sedentary men (22–37 years) completed a 17-week half-marathon training program. Serial measurements of resting heart rate, blood pressure, maximum oxygen consumption, lipids, C-reactive protein, cardiac troponin T, echocardiograms and blood for gene expression were obtained from baseline to peak training. Controls included 22 sedentary men who did not exercise. Results Among the training group, VO2 max increased from 37.1 to 42.0 ml/kg/min (p?training group identified 10 significantly over-expressed and 53 significantly under-expressed loci involved in inflammatory pathways. Dividing the training group into high and low responders based on percent change in VO2 max identified loci that differentiated these two groups at baseline and after training. Conclusion Intensive exercise training leads to significant increase in cardiac and hemodynamic performance, and significant changes in expression of genes involved in immune and inflammatory response. PMID:24552436

2014-01-01

394

Effects of resistance training on jumping performance in pre-adolescent rhythmic gymnasts: a randomized controlled study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of two different resistance training programs on lower limb explosive and reactive strength in young female athletes. Fifty seven rhythmic gymnasts were randomly assigned to unspecific resistance training with dumbbells (12 repetition maximum squats) (n = 19; age = 12.0 +/- 1.8 years) or to specific resistance training with weighted belts (6% of body mass; n = 18; age = 11.9 +/- 1.0 years). Squat jump test, counter movement jump test, hopping test, flexibility of the hip, and anthropometric measures were assessed before and after six weeks training. The main result was that both unspecific resistance training and specific resistance training protocols positively affected the jumping performance, with an increase of the lower limb explosive strength of 6-7%, with no side effects. Counter movement jump flight time increased significantly (p < 0.01) while hopping test ground contact time significantly decreased (p < 0.01). No significant differences were detected among groups for flexibility, body mass, calf and thigh circumferences. Therefore, six weeks of resistance training that integrates different elements of rhythmic gymnastics training enhance jumping ability in young female athletes. PMID:25345071

Piazza, Marina; Battaglia, Claudia; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Innocenti, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Aquino, Giovanna; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Giombini, Arrigo; Di Cagno, Alessandra

2014-01-01

395

Effects of microhydrin supplementation on endurance performance and metabolism in well-trained cyclists.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether the supplement Microhydrin (MH) contains silica hydride bonds (Si-H) and if Microhydrin supplementation increased performance or altered metabolism compared to placebo (PL) during prolonged endurance cycling. Seven endurance-trained male cyclists consumed 9.6 g of MH or PL over 48 h in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. Subjects cycled at approximately 70% of their VO2peak, coupled with five 2-min bursts at 85% VO2peak to simulate hill climbs over 2 h. Subjects then completed a time trial, which required them to complete 7 kJ/kg body mass as quickly as possible. Infrared spectrometry analysis showed a complete absence of Si-H bonds in MH. There was no difference in time trial performance between the 2 trials (PL: 2257+/-120 s vs. MH: 2345+/-152 s). Measured oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, carbohydrate (MH: 2.99+/-0.13 g/min; PL: 2.83+/-0.17 g/min avg. over 2 h) and fat (MH: 0.341+/-0.06 g/min; PL: 0.361+/-0.07 g/min) oxidation rates and all blood parameters (lactate, glucose, and free fatty acids) were all unaffected by MH supplementation. The volume of expired CO2 and ventilation were significantly greater with MH supplementation (P < or = 0.05). The results indicate that oral Microhydrin supplementation does not enhance cycling time trial performance or alter metabolism during prolonged submaximal exercise in endurance-trained cyclists. PMID:15673102

Glazier, Lee R; Stellingwerff, Trent; Spriet, Lawrence L

2004-10-01

396

Validation of an Evidence-Based Medicine Critically Appraised Topic Presentation Evaluation Tool (EBM C-PET)  

PubMed Central

Background Competence in evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an important clinical skill. Pediatrics residents are expected to acquire competence in EBM during their education, yet few validated tools exist to assess residents' EBM skills. Objective We sought to develop a reliable tool to evaluate residents' EBM skills in the critical appraisal of a research article, the development of a written EBM critically appraised topic (CAT) synopsis, and a presentation of the findings to colleagues. Methods Instrument development used a modified Delphi technique. We defined the skills to be assessed while reviewing (1) a written CAT synopsis and (2) a resident's EBM presentation. We defined skill levels for each item using the Dreyfus and Dreyfus model of skill development and created behavioral anchors using a frame-of-reference training technique to describe performance for each skill level. We evaluated the assessment instrument's psychometric properties, including internal consistency and interrater reliability. Results The EBM Critically Appraised Topic Presentation Evaluation Tool (EBM C-PET) is composed of 14 items that assess residents' EBM and global presentation skills. Resident presentations (N ?=? 27) and the corresponding written CAT synopses were evaluated using the EBM C-PET. The EBM C-PET had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach ? ?=? 0.94). Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess interrater reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficients for individual items ranged from 0.31 to 0.74; the average intraclass correlation coefficients for the 14 items was 0.67. Conclusions We identified essential components of an assessment tool for an EBM CAT synopsis and presentation with excellent internal consistency and a good level of interrater reliability across 3 different institutions. The EBM C-PET is a reliable tool to document resident competence in higher-level EBM skills. PMID:24404268

Kersten, Hans B.; Frohna, John G.; Giudice, Erin L.

2013-01-01

397

Nonlinear model appraisal in gravity gradiometry  

E-print Network

error analysis, or model appraisal, this research uses the framework of imaging fissile materials within then develop the centerpiece of the thesis which is a set of tools used in nonlinear model appraisal for extending this work to other physics such as diffusion electromagnetics. Within this two-dimensional space

398

Health impact assessment, integration and critical appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little existing debate about what constitutes either a good quality health impact assessment (IA) or a good quality integration of health with environmental and social assessment (EIA, SIA). A critical appraisal process is required to assure the quality of each. The appraisal considers procedural and methodological components. It includes a comparison of the completed report with the terms

Martin Birley

2003-01-01

399

Children's Appraisal of Moderately Stressful Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated 2 questions: (1) do children show consistent styles of appraisal across a range of moderately stressful events?, and (2) what are the adjustment and parenting correlates of individual differences in children's appraisal style? Ninety-nine 3rd though 5th grade children and their mothers participated. For each of 6 vignettes…

Hood, Brianne; Power, Thomas; Hill, Laura

2009-01-01

400

Philadelphia's Teacher Appraisal System Needs Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to inform the community about teacher appraisal methods in the School District of Philadelphia, outline the difficulties of the current system, and suggest approaches that would strengthen the teacher appraisal process. The authors gathered their information over three months in mid-2009 from multiple sources:…

Royal, Camika; Tossman, Matthew

2009-01-01

401

Block training periodization in alpine skiing: effects of 11-day HIT on V O 2max and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempting to achieve the high diversity of training goals in modern competitive alpine skiing simultaneously can be difficult\\u000a and may lead to compromised overall adaptation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of block training periodization on maximal\\u000a oxygen consumption (VO2max) and parameters of exercise performance in elite junior alpine skiers. Six female and 15 male athletes were assigned to high-intensity\\u000a interval

Fabio A. Breil; Simone N. Weber; Stefan Koller; Hans Hoppeler; Michael Vogt

2010-01-01

402

Effects of acute and 14-day coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise performance in both trained and untrained individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To determine whether acute (single dose) and\\/or chronic (14-days) supplementation of CoQ10 will improve anaerobic and\\/or aerobic exercise performance by increasing plasma and muscle CoQ10 concentrations within trained and untrained individuals. METHODS: Twenty-two aerobically trained and nineteen untrained male and female subjects (26.1 ± 7.6 yrs, 172 ± 8.7 cm, 73.5 ± 17 kg, and 21.2 ± 7.0%) were

Matthew Cooke; Mike Iosia; Thomas Buford; Brian Shelmadine; Geoffrey Hudson; Chad Kerksick; Christopher Rasmussen; Mike Greenwood; Brian Leutholtz; Darryn Willoughby; Richard Kreider

2008-01-01

403

Training effect on performance, substrate balance and blood lactate concentration at maximal lactate steady state in master endurance-runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training effects on time-to-exhaustion, substrate and blood lactate balances at the maximal lactate steady state velocity (MLSSv) were examined. Eleven male, veteran, long-distance runners performed three tests before and after 6 weeks of training at MLSSv: an incremental test to determine maximum O 2 uptake ( V?O 2,max) and the velocity at the lactate threshold (vLT), a sub-maximal test of two

Veronique Billat; Pascal Sirvent; Pierre-Marie Lepretre; JeanPierre Koralsztein

2004-01-01

404

Antioxidant effect of lemon verbena extracts in lymphocytes of university students performing aerobic training program.  

PubMed

Aerobic training is related to an increase in blood oxidation markers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of Lippia citriodora extracts (PLX(®) ) on plasma and blood cell oxidative status of university students beginning a 21 days aerobic training routine (3 days/week). Using a double-blind design, 15 male athletes (21 ± 2.1 years) were assigned to a group consuming 1.8 g/day of the plant extract (PLX(®) -group) or a placebo (PLB-group). Two blood extractions were performed at day 0 and 21, from which lymphocytes, erythrocytes and plasma were isolated. Several circulating parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stress markers were measured. The PLX(®) -group displayed an increased HDL-cholesterol, a modest decrease in erythrocyte number and an increased circulating urea. Activation of glutathione (GSH)-reductase was observed in erythrocytes and lymphocytes of PLX(®) -group, accompanied by lower levels of oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in plasma. The antioxidant action exerted by PLX(®) on GSH-reductase seems to be post-translational and mainly due to verbascoside, a phenylpropanoid that represents 10% (w/w) of extract content. In conclusion, PLX(®) shows antioxidant properties that could play an important role in modulating GSH-reductase activity in lymphocytes and erythrocytes and protecting plasma from exercise oxidative damage. PMID:21083769

Carrera-Quintanar, L; Funes, L; Viudes, E; Tur, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; Pons, A

2012-08-01

405

Looking at Training in a Business Context. The Role of Organizational Performance Assessments. Business Assistance Note #5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizations that provide training to small- and mid-sized companies must take a broad look at companies' performance needs and offer a package of services that will address their performance problems. Providers must also help the company to see the connection between investments in human capital and increased productivity. Organizational…

Snyder, Phyllis; Bergman, Terri

406

Knowledge modeling and the creation of El-Tech: a performance support and training system for electronic technicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a unique approach to the creation of a system to provide electronic performance support and training for electronics technicians. This work starts with a survey of relevant approaches to knowledge elicitation and modeling for performance support, and a review of other systems that have been created to assist with electronics troubleshooting. We then describe a

John W. Coffey; Alberto J. Cañas; Greg Hill; Roger Carff; Thomas Reichherzer; Niranjan Suri

2003-01-01

407

Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations.  

PubMed

This study examined the extent of improvement of food safety knowledge and practices of employee through food safety training. Employee knowledge and practice for food safety were evaluated before and after the food safety training program. The training program and questionnaires for evaluating employee knowledge and practices concerning food safety, and a checklist for determining food safety performance of restaurants were developed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Twelve restaurants participated in this study. We split them into two groups: the intervention group with training, and the control group without food safety training. Employee knowledge of the intervention group also showed a significant improvement in their score, increasing from 49.3 before the training to 66.6 after training. But in terms of employee practices and the sanitation performance, there were no significant increases after the training. From these results, we recommended that the more job-specific and hand-on training materials for restaurant employees should be developed and more continuous implementation of the food safety training and integration of employee appraisal program with the outcome of safety training were needed. PMID:20198210

Park, Sung-Hee; Kwak, Tong-Kyung; Chang, Hye-Ja

2010-02-01

408

Training-induced compensation versus magnification of individual differences in memory performance  

PubMed Central

Do individuals with higher levels of task-relevant cognitive resources gain more from training, or do they gain less? For episodic memory, empirical evidence is mixed. Here, we revisit this issue by applying structural equation models for capturing individual differences in change to data from 108 participants aged 9–12, 20–25, and 65–78 years. Participants learned and practiced an imagery-based mnemonic to encode and retrieve words by location cues. Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences. We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able. In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity. PMID:22615692

Lövdén, Martin; Brehmer, Yvonne; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman

2012-01-01

409

Detraining Produces Minimal Changes in Physical Performance and Hormonal Variables in Recreationally Strength-Trained Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this study was to examine changes in muscular strength, power, and resting hormonal concentrations during 6 weeks of detraining (DTR) in recreationally strength- trained men. Each subject was randomly assigned to either a DTR (n 5 9) or resistance training (RT; n 5 7) group after being matched for strength, body size, and training experi- ence. Muscular

WILLIAM J. KRAEMER; L. PERRY KOZIRIS; NICHOLAS A. RATAMESS; KEIJO HÄKKINEN; N. TRAVIS TRIPLETT-McBRIDE; ANDREW C. FRY; SCOTT E. GORDON; JEFF S. VOLEK; DUNCAN N. FRENCH; MARTYN R. RUBIN; ANA L. GÓMEZ; MATTHEW J. SHARMAN; J. MICHAEL LYNCH; MIKEL IZQUIERDO; ROBERT U. NEWTON; STEVEN J. FLECK

2002-01-01

410

Application and Utilization of Training Aids and Devices: Simulated Exercises and Trainee Performance Evaluation. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report summarizes accomplishments and implications of the project for the development and implementation of Navy training devices that utilize computer-based simulation. The emphasis is on Navy anti-air warfare in the shore-based training environment, but the results are applicable to other training environments. The report also…

Chesler, David J.

411

Narrative Balance Management in an Intelligent Biosafety Training Application for Improving User Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of three-dimensional virtual environments in training applications supports the simulation of complex scenarios and realistic object behaviour. While these environments have the potential to provide an advanced training experience to students, it is difficult to design and manage a training session in real time due to the number of…

Alvarez, Nahum; Sanchez-Ruiz, Antonio; Cavazza, Marc; Shigematsu, Mika; Prendinger, Helmut

2015-01-01

412

Medical Student Appraisal  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Pre-rounding is essential to preparing for morning rounds. Despite its importance, pre-rounding is rarely formally taught within the medical school curriculum and more often informally learned by modeling residents. The evolution of mobile applications provides opportunities to optimize this process. Objectives To evaluate three options available to medical students while pre-rounding and promote adoption of mobile resources in clinical care. Methods Six medical students formed the evaluation cohort. Students were surveyed to assess pre-rounding practices. Participants utilized paper-based pre-rounding templates for two weeks followed by two weeks of the electronic note-taking service EvernoteTM. A review of mobile applications on the iTunesTM and Google PlayTM stores was performed, with each application informally reviewed by a single student. The application ScutsheetTM was selected for formal review by all students. Data was collected from narrative responses supplied by students throughout the evaluation periods and aggregated to assess strengths and limitations of each application. Results Pre-study responses demonstrated two consistent processes: verbal sign-out of overnight events and template use to organize patient information. The paper-based template was praised for its organization and familiarity amongst residents, but perceived as limited by the requirement of re-copying data into the hospital’s electronic medical record (EMR). EvernoteTM excelled due to compatibility across multiple operating systems, including accessibility from clinical workstations and ability to copy notes into the hospital’s EMR. ScutsheetTM allowed for retention of data across multiple hospital days, but was limited by inability to export data or modify the electronic template. Aggregated user feedback identified the abilities to customize templates and copy information into the EMR as two prevailing characteristics that enhanced the efficiency of pre-rounding. Discussion Mobile devices offer the potential to enhance pre-rounding efficiency for medical students and residents. A customizable EvernoteTM-based system is described in sufficient detail for reproduction by interested students. PMID:24155792

Sampognaro, P.J.; Mitchell, S.L.; Weeks, S.R.; Khalifian, S.; Markman, T.M.; Uebel, L.W.; Dattilo, J.R.

2013-01-01

413

Training to Enhance Design Team Performance: A Cure for Tunnel Vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design Team performance is a function of the quality and degree of academic training and the cumulative, learned experience of the individual members of the team. Teamwork, leadership, and communications certainly are factors that affect the measure of the performance of the team, but they are not addressed here. This paper focuses on accelerating the learned experience of team members and describes an organizational approach that can significantly increase the effective experience level for any engineering design team. The performance measure of the whole team can be increased by increasing the engineering disciplines' cross awareness of each other and by familiarizing them with their affect at the system level. Discipline engineers know their own discipline well, but typically are not intimately familiar with their technical interaction with and dependencies on all the other disciplines of engineering. These dependencies are design integration functions and are worked out well by the discipline engineers as long as they are involved in the design of types of systems that they have experience with.

Parker, James W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

414

Design of a Fuzzy Based Outer Loop Controller for Improving the Training Performance of LMS Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the fact that mobile communication channel changes by time, it is necessary to employ adaptive channel equalizers in order to combat the distorting effects of the channel. Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm is one of the most popular channel equalization algorithms and is preferred over other algorithms such as the Recursive Least Squares (RLS) and Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation (MLSE) when simplicity is the dominant decision factor. However, LMS algorithm suffers from poor performance and convergence speed within the training period specified by most of the standards. The aim of this study is to improve the convergence speed and performance of the LMS algorithm by adjusting the step size using fuzzy logic. The proposed method is compared with the Channel Matched Filter-Decision Feedback Equalizer (CMF-DFE) [1] which provides multi path propagation diversity by collecting the energy in the channel, Minimum Mean Square Error-Decision Feedback Equalizer (MMSE-DFE) [2] which is one of the most successful equalizers for the data packet transmission, normalized LMS-DFE (N-LMS-DFE) [3], variable step size (VSS) LMS-DFE [4], fuzzy LMS-DFE [5], [6] and RLS-DFE [7]. The obtained simulation results using HIPERLAN/1 standards have demonstrated that the proposed LMS-DFE algorithm based on fuzzy logic has considerably better performance than others.

Özen, Ali; Kaya, Ismail; Soysal, Birol

415

Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician) were matched on age and socioeconomic status and administered task switching and dual-task paradigms. Results demonstrated reduced global and local switch costs in musicians compared with non-musicians, suggesting that musical training can contribute to increased efficiency in the ability to shift flexibly between mental sets. On dual-task performance, musicians also outperformed non-musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest additive effects of both types of experience. These findings demonstrate that long-term musical training is associated with improvements in task switching and dual-task performance. PMID:25289704

Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

2014-10-01

416

Training-overtraining: performance, and hormone levels, after a defined increase in training volume versus intensity in experienced middle- and long-distance runners.  

PubMed Central

Performance and hormones were determined in eight middle- and nine long-distance runners after an increase in training volume (ITV, February 1989) or intensity (ITI, February 1990). Seven runners participated in both studies. The objective was to cause an overtraining syndrome. The mean training volume of 85.9 km week-1 increased within 3 weeks to 176.6 km week-1 during ITV and 96-98% of training volume was performed as long-distance runs at mean(s.d.) 67(8)% of maximum capacity. Speed endurance, high-speed and interval runs averaging 9 km week-1 increased within 3 weeks to 22.7 km during ITI, and the total volume increased from 61.6 to 84.7 km. A plateau in endurance performance and decrease in maximum performance occurred during ITV, probably due to overtraining, with performance incompetence over months. Nocturnal catecholamine excretion decreased markedly (47-53%), contrary to exercise-related plasma catecholamine responses, which increased. Resting and exercise-related cortisol and aldosterone levels decreased. Improvement in endurance and maximum performance occurred during ITI indicating a failure to cause an overtraining syndrome in ITI. Decrease in noctural catecholamine excretion was clearly lower (9-26%), exercise-related catecholamine responses showed a significant decrease, cortisol and aldosterone levels remained almost constant, exercise-related prolactin levels decreased slightly. There were no differences in insulin, C-peptide, free testosterone, somatotropic hormone (STH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The decrease in nocturnal catecholamine excretion during ITV might indicate a decrease in intrinsic sympathetic activity in exhausted sportsmen. But it remains open whether this reflected a central nervous system incompetence. PMID:1490214

Lehmann, M; Gastmann, U; Petersen, K G; Bachl, N; Seidel, A; Khalaf, A N; Fischer, S; Keul, J

1992-01-01

417

Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

2011-01-01

418

Heliox breathing equally influences respiratory mechanics and cycling performance in trained males and females.  

PubMed

In this study we tested the hypothesis that inspiring a low-density gas mixture (helium-oxygen; HeO2) would minimize mechanical ventilatory constraints and preferentially increase exercise performance in females relative to males. Trained male (n = 11, 31 yr) and female (n = 10, 26 yr) cyclists performed an incremental cycle test to exhaustion to determine maximal aerobic capacity (V?o2max; male = 61, female = 56 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). A randomized, single-blinded crossover design was used for two experimental days where subjects completed a 5-km cycling time trial breathing humidified compressed room air or HeO2 (21% O2:balance He). Subjects were instrumented with an esophageal balloon for the assessment of respiratory mechanics. During the time trial, we assessed the ability of HeO2 to alleviate mechanical ventilatory constraints in three ways: 1) expiratory flow limitation, 2) utilization of ventilatory capacity, and 3) the work of breathing. We found that HeO2 significantly reduced the work of breathing, increased the size of the maximal flow-volume envelope, and reduced the fractional utilization of the maximal ventilatory capacity equally between men and women. The primary finding of this study was that inspiring HeO2 was associated with a statistically significant performance improvement of 0.7% (3.2 s) for males and 1.5% (8.1 s) for females (P < 0.05); however, there were no sex differences with respect to improvement in time trial performance (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that the extent of sex-based differences in airway anatomy, work of breathing, and expiratory flow limitation is not great enough to differentially affect whole body exercise performance. PMID:25429095

Wilkie, Sabrina S; Dominelli, Paolo B; Sporer, Benjamin C; Koehle, Michael S; Sheel, A William

2015-02-01

419

Mindfulness training improves attentional task performance in incarcerated youth: a group randomized controlled intervention trial  

PubMed Central

We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT) on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a quasi-experimental, group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16–18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147) or an active control intervention (youth n = 117). Both arms received approximately 750 min of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3–5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. PMID:24265621

Leonard, Noelle R.; Jha, Amishi P.; Casarjian, Bethany; Goolsarran, Merissa; Garcia, Cristina; Cleland, Charles M.; Gwadz, Marya V.; Massey, Zohar

2013-01-01

420

Effects of the Training Dataset Characteristics on the Performance of Nine Species Distribution Models: Application to Diabrotica virgifera virgifera  

PubMed Central

Many distribution models developed to predict the presence/absence of invasive alien species need to be fitted to a training dataset before practical use. The training dataset is characterized by the number of recorded presences/absences and by their geographical locations. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the training dataset characteristics on model performance and to compare the relative importance of three factors influencing model predictive capability; size of training dataset, stage of the biological invasion, and choice of input variables. Nine models were assessed for their ability to predict the distribution of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a major pest of corn in North America that has recently invaded Europe. Twenty-six training datasets of various sizes (from 10 to 428 presence records) corresponding to two different stages of invasion (1955 and 1980) and three sets of input bioclimatic variables (19 variables, six variables selected using information on insect biology, and three linear combinations of 19 variables derived from Principal Component Analysis) were considered. The models were fitted to each training dataset in turn and their performance was assessed using independent data from North America and Europe. The models were ranked according to the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve and the likelihood ratio. Model performance was highly sensitive to the geographical area used for calibration; most of the models performed poorly when fitted to a restricted area corresponding to an early stage of the invasion. Our results also showed that Principal Component Analysis was useful in reducing the number of model input variables for the models that performed poorly with 19 input variables. DOMAIN, Environmental Distance, MAXENT, and Envelope Score were the most accurate models but all the models tested in this study led to a substantial rate of mis-classification. PMID:21701579

Dupin, Maxime; Reynaud, Philippe; Jarošík, Vojt?ch; Baker, Richard; Brunel, Sarah; Eyre, Dominic; Pergl, Jan; Makowski, David

2011-01-01

421

Effects of the training dataset characteristics on the performance of nine species distribution models: application to Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.  

PubMed

Many distribution models developed to predict the presence/absence of invasive alien species need to be fitted to a training dataset before practical use. The training dataset is characterized by the number of recorded presences/absences and by their geographical locations. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the training dataset characteristics on model performance and to compare the relative importance of three factors influencing model predictive capability; size of training dataset, stage of the biological invasion, and choice of input variables. Nine models were assessed for their ability to predict the distribution of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a major pest of corn in North America that has recently invaded Europe. Twenty-six training datasets of various sizes (from 10 to 428 presence records) corresponding to two different stages of invasion (1955 and 1980) and three sets of input bioclimatic variables (19 variables, six variables selected using information on insect biology, and three linear combinations of 19 variables derived from Principal Component Analysis) were considered. The models were fitted to each training dataset in turn and their performance was assessed using independent data from North America and Europe. The models were ranked according to the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve and the likelihood ratio. Model performance was highly sensitive to the geographical area used for calibration; most of the models performed poorly when fitted to a restricted area corresponding to an early stage of the invasion. Our results also showed that Principal Component Analysis was useful in reducing the number of model input variables for the models that performed poorly with 19 input variables. DOMAIN, Environmental Distance, MAXENT, and Envelope Score were the most accurate models but all the models tested in this study led to a substantial rate of mis-classification. PMID:21701579

Dupin, Maxime; Reynaud, Philippe; Jarošík, Vojt?ch; Baker, Richard; Brunel, Sarah; Eyre, Dominic; Pergl, Jan; Makowski, David

2011-01-01

422

Hypotensive effects and performance responses between different resistance training intensities and exercise orders in apparently health women.  

PubMed

To compare the hypotensive effect and performance responses between different resistance training intensities and different exercise orders in apparently healthy women, thirteen apparently healthy women performed four resistance training sessions in randomized order. One group performed the resistance training exercises with 60% of 1RM (SeqA60%): leg press (LG), chest press (CP), leg extension (LE), lat pull down (PD), leg curl (LC) and biceps curl (BC). Another group performed the resistance training exercises with 80% of 1RM (SeqA80%) with the same exercise order. Two other groups performed the resistance training exercises with 60% (SeqB60%) and 80% of 1RM (SeqB80%), however, in another sequence of exercises: CP, PD, BC or LG, LE, LC. The blood pressure was measured before, and at every 15 min until 60 min postexercise. The different intensities and different exercise orders resulted in a significant hypotensive effect in systolic and diastolic blood pressures that remained until 15 min. In addition, significant reductions in systolic blood pressure were observed at 30 min for SeqA in both intensities and for SeqB with intensities of 80% of 1RM. However, there was no significant difference between intensities and different prescription orders (P>0·05). Although the current study showed significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures after different resistance training sessions, the manipulation of intensity and exercise sequence, such as those used in the present study, was not able to generate significant changes in the duration and magnitude of hypotensive effect. PMID:24690383

Bentes, Claudio M; Costa, Pablo B; Neto, Gabriel R; Costa E Silva, Gabriel V; de Salles, Belmiro F; Miranda, Humberto L; Novaes, Jefferson S

2014-04-01

423

Assessing the implementation process and outcomes of newly introduced assistant roles: a qualitative study to examine the utility of the Calderdale Framework as an appraisal tool  

PubMed Central

Internationally, the health workforce has undergone rapid transformation to help meet growing staffing demands and population requirements. Several tools have been developed to support workforce change processes. The Calderdale Framework (CF) is one such tool designed to facilitate competency-based training by engaging team members in a seven step process involving awareness raising, service and task analysis, competency identification, establishing support systems, training, and sustaining. This paper explores the utility of the CF as an appraisal tool to assess whether adherence to the tool influences outcomes. The CF was applied retrospectively to three complete evaluations of allied health assistant role introduction: a new podiatry assistant role (Australia), speech pathology assistant (Australia), and occupational therapy assistant practitioner role (UK). Adherence to the CF was associated with more effective and efficient use of the role, role flexibility and career development opportunities for assistants, and role sustainability. Services are less likely to succeed in their workforce change process if they fail to plan for and use a structured approach to change, assign targeted leadership, undertake staff engagement and consultation, and perform an initial service analysis. The CF provides a clear template for appraising the implementation of new roles and highlights the potential consequences of not adhering to particular steps in the implementation process. PMID:23271913

Nancarrow, Susan; Moran, Anna; Wiseman, Leah; Pighills, Alison C; Murphy, Karen

2012-01-01

424

Assessing the implementation process and outcomes of newly introduced assistant roles: a qualitative study to examine the utility of the Calderdale Framework as an appraisal tool.  

PubMed

Internationally, the health workforce has undergone rapid transformation to help meet growing staffing demands and population requirements. Several tools have been developed to support workforce change processes. The Calderdale Framework (CF) is one such tool designed to facilitate competency-based training by engaging team members in a seven step process involving awareness raising, service and task analysis, competency identification, establishing support systems, training, and sustaining. This paper explores the utility of the CF as an appraisal tool to assess whether adherence to the tool influences outcomes. The CF was applied retrospectively to three complete evaluations of allied health assistant role introduction: a new podiatry assistant role (Australia), speech pathology assistant (Australia), and occupational therapy assistant practitioner role (UK). Adherence to the CF was associated with more effective and efficient use of the role, role flexibility and career development opportunities for assistants, and role sustainability. Services are less likely to succeed in their workforce change process if they fail to plan for and use a structured approach to change, assign targeted leadership, undertake staff engagement and consultation, and perform an initial service analysis. The CF provides a clear template for appraising the implementation of new roles and highlights the potential consequences of not adhering to particular steps in the implementation process. PMID:23271913

Nancarrow, Susan; Moran, Anna; Wiseman, Leah; Pighills, Alison C; Murphy, Karen

2012-01-01

425

Effects of physical training on end-diastolic volume and myocardial performance of isolated rat hearts.  

PubMed

We studied the performance of ventricular muscle and cardiac function of hearts from rats conditioned by swimming (CH) and from sedentary rats (SH) in an isolated working heart apparatus modified to measure end-diastolic volume by dye dilution. Instantaneous aortic flow, left ventricular (LV) pressure and oxygen consumption were measured. Heart rate and mean aortic pressure were kept constant, and atrial filling pressure was varied from 5 to 20 cm H2O. Heart weights of SH and CH were equal and end-diastolic pressures and volumes were similar at all atrial pressures. However, ejection fraction, calculated circumferential fiber velocity, peak systolic pressure, peak aortic flow, cardiac output, and stroke work were all greater in CH than in SH, and the differences increased as atrial pressure was increased. Maximal negative dP/dt was greater in CH than SH at all preloads (P less than 0.001). Oxygen consumption of CH was increased in proportion to the increase in work. These results indicate that the improved pumping performance of CH is due to a change in ventricular muscle function. Faster relaxation is a prominent effect of physical training on the rat heart and may foster more complete filling at high heart rates. PMID:140027

Bersohn, M M; Scheuer, J

1977-05-01

426

Whole-Body Vibration Training Effect on Physical Performance and Obesity in Mice  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25317067

Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

2014-01-01

427

Effects of yoga training and detraining on physical performance measures in prepubertal children--a randomized trial.  

PubMed

Purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of yoga training and detraining on physical performance measures in pre-pubertal (7-9 year old) school going children. Subjects were randomized to two groups - yoga group and Physical exercise (PE) group after the baseline assessment. All the subjects were assessed for strength, endurance, whole body endurance through 20 meter shuttle and physical fitness, at 3 time points - Baseline, 3 months Post intervention and 3 months after detraining. The results suggest that the improvement in the physical performance is largely by the increase in the respiratory muscle strength in the yoga group. In conclusion, the study presents the efficacy of yoga to improve strength, endurance, whole body endurance and aerobic capacity with 3 months of training in the pediatric group. However, the effect of the training does not last after 3 months detraining. PMID:25464679

D'souza, Crystal; Avadhany, Sandhya T

2014-01-01

428

Effects of yoga training and detraining on physical performance measures in prepubertal children--a randomized trial.  

PubMed

Purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of yoga training and detraining on physical performance measures in pre-pubertal (7-9 year old) school going children. Subjects were randomized to two groups - yoga group and Physical exercise (PE) group after the baseline assessment. All the subjects were assessed for strength, endurance, whole body endurance through 20 meter shuttle and physical fitness, at 3 time points - Baseline, 3 months Post intervention and 3 months after detraining. The results suggest that the improvement in the physical performance is largely by the increase in the respiratory muscle strength in the yoga group. In conclusion, the study presents the efficacy of yoga to improve strength, endurance, whole body endurance and aerobic capacity with 3 months of training in the pediatric group. However, the effect of the training does not last after 3 months detraining. PMID:25508310

D'souza, Crystal; Avadhany, Sandhya T

2014-01-01

429

76 FR 64429 - Senior Executive Service; Public Debt Performance Review Board (PRB)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...members of the Public Debt Performance Review Board (PRB) for...The PRB reviews the performance appraisals of career senior...recommendations regarding proposed performance appraisals, ratings, bonuses, pay adjustments, and...

2011-10-18

430

78 FR 63310 - Senior Executive Service; Fiscal Service Performance Review Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...members of the Fiscal Service Performance Review Board (PRB) for...The PRB reviews the performance appraisals of career senior...recommendations regarding proposed performance appraisals, ratings, bonuses, pay adjustments, and...

2013-10-23

431

77 FR 65248 - Senior Executive Service; Public Debt Performance Review Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...members of the Public Debt Performance Review Board (PRB) for...The PRB reviews the performance appraisals of career senior...recommendations regarding proposed performance appraisals, ratings, bonuses, pay adjustments, and...

2012-10-25

432

75 FR 59800 - Senior Executive Service; Public Debt Performance Review Board (PRB)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...members of the Public Debt Performance Review Board (PRB) for...The PRB reviews the performance appraisals of career senior...recommendations regarding proposed performance appraisals, ratings, bonuses, pay adjustments, and...

2010-09-28

433

Haemoglobin Mass and Running Time Trial Performance after Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Administration in Trained Men  

PubMed Central

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) increases haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) and maximal oxygen uptake ( O2 max). Purpose This study defined the time course of changes in Hbmass, O2 max as well as running time trial performance following 4 weeks of rHuEpo administration to determine whether the laboratory observations would translate into actual improvements in running performance in the field. Methods 19 trained men received rHuEpo injections of 50 IU•kg?1 body mass every two days for 4 weeks. Hbmass was determined weekly using the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method until 4 weeks after administration. O2 max and 3,000 m time trial performance were measured pre, post administration and at the end of the study. Results Relative to baseline, running performance significantly improved by ?6% after administration (10?30±1?07 min:sec vs. 11?08±1?15 min:sec, p<0.001) and remained significantly enhanced by ?3% 4 weeks after administration (10?46±1?13 min:sec, p<0.001), while O2 max was also significantly increased post administration (60.7±5.8 mL•min?1•kg?1 vs. 56.0±6.2 mL•min?1•kg?1, p<0.001) and remained significantly increased 4 weeks after rHuEpo (58.0±5.6 mL•min?1•kg?1, p?=?0.021). Hbmass was significantly increased at the end of administration compared to baseline (15.2±1.5 g•kg?1 vs. 12.7±1.2 g•kg?1, p<0.001). The rate of decrease in Hbmass toward baseline values post rHuEpo was similar to that of the increase during administration (?0.53 g•kg?1•wk?1, 95% confidence interval (CI) (?0.68, ?0.38) vs. 0.54 g•kg?1•wk?1, CI (0.46, 0.63)) but Hbmass was still significantly elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline (13.7±1.1 g•kg?1, p<0.001). Conclusion Running performance was improved following 4 weeks of rHuEpo and remained elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline. These field performance effects coincided with rHuEpo-induced elevated O2 max and Hbmass. PMID:23418527

Durussel, Jérôme; Daskalaki, Evangelia; Anderson, Martin; Chatterji, Tushar; Wondimu, Diresibachew H.; Padmanabhan, Neal; Patel, Rajan K.; McClure, John D.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.

2013-01-01

434

Non-physical practice improves task performance in an unstable, perturbed environment: motor imagery and observational balance training  

PubMed Central

For consciously performed motor tasks executed in a defined and constant way, both motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have been shown to promote motor learning. It is not known whether these forms of non-physical training also improve motor actions when these actions have to be variably applied in an unstable and unpredictable environment. The present study therefore investigated the influence of MI balance training (MI_BT) and a balance training combining AO and MI (AO+MI_BT) on postural control of undisturbed and disturbed upright stance on unstable ground. As spinal reflex excitability after classical (i.e., physical) balance training (BT) is generally decreased, we tested whether non-physical BT also has an impact on spinal reflex circuits. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated into an MI_BT group, in which participants imagined postural exercises, an AO+MI_BT group, in which participants observed videos of other people performing balance exercises and imagined being the person in the video, and a non-active control group (CON). Before and after 4 weeks of non-physical training, balance performance was assessed on a free-moving platform during stance without perturbation and during perturbed stance. Soleus H-reflexes were recorded during stable and unstable stance. The post-measurement revealed significantly decreased postural sway during undisturbed and disturbed stance after both MI_BT and AO+MI_BT. Spinal reflex excitability remained unchanged. This is the first study showing that non-physical training (MI_BT and AO+MI_BT) not only promotes motor learning of “rigid” postural tasks but also improves performance of highly variable and unpredictable balance actions. These findings may be relevant to improve postural control and thus reduce the risk of falls in temporarily immobilized patients. PMID:25538598

Taube, Wolfgang; Lorch, Michael; Zeiter, Sibylle; Keller, Martin

2014-01-01

435

Changes in cerebellar activity and inter-hemispheric coherence accompany improved reading performance following Quadrato Motor Training  

PubMed Central

Dyslexia is a multifactorial reading deficit that involves multiple brain systems. Among other theories, it has been suggested that cerebellar dysfunction may be involved in dyslexia. This theory has been supported by findings from anatomical and functional imaging. A possible rationale for cerebellar involvement in dyslexia could lie in the cerebellum’s role as an oscillator, producing synchronized activity within neuronal networks including sensorimotor networks critical for reading. If these findings are causally related to dyslexia, a training regimen that enhances cerebellar oscillatory activity should improve reading performance. We examined the cognitive and neural effects of Quadrato Motor Training (QMT), a structured sensorimotor training program that involves sequencing of motor responses based on verbal commands. Twenty-two adult Hebrew readers (12 dyslexics and 10 controls) were recruited for the study. Using Magnetoencephalography (MEG), we measured changes in alpha power and coherence following QMT in a within-subject design. Reading performance was assessed pre- and post-training using a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. Our results demonstrate improved performance on a speeded reading task following one month of intensive QMT in both the dyslexic and control groups. Dyslexic participants, but not controls, showed significant increase in cerebellar oscillatory alpha power following training. In addition, across both time points, inter-hemispheric alpha coherence was higher in the dyslexic group compared to the control group. In conclusion, the current findings suggest that the combination of motor and language training embedded in QMT increases cerebellar oscillatory activity in dyslexics and improves reading performance. These results support the hypothesis that the cerebellum plays a role in skilled reading, and begin to unravel the underlying mechanisms that mediate cerebellar contribution in cognitive and neuronal augmentation. PMID:24847224

Ben-Soussan, Tal Dotan; Avirame, Keren; Glicksohn, Joseph; Goldstein, Abraham; Harpaz, Yuval; Ben-Shachar, Michal

2014-01-01

436

Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men.  

PubMed

Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 supplements is more beneficial on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of combining creatine monohydrate and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance. Thirteen healthy, trained men (21.1 ± 0.6 years, 23.5 ± 0.5 kg·m(-2), 66.7 ± 5.7 ml·(kg·m)(-1) completed 3 conditions in a double-blinded, crossover fashion: (a) Placebo (Pl; 20 g maltodextrin + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), (b) Creatine (Cr; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), and (c) Creatine plus sodium bicarbonate (Cr + Sb; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate). Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint. Compared with Pl, relative peak power was significantly higher in Cr (4%) and Cr + Sb (7%). Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both Pl and Cr. However, in Cr + Sb, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with in Pl and Cr, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6, although not significantly. Combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased peak and mean power and had the greatest attenuation of decline in relative peak power over the 6 repeated sprints. These data suggest that combining these 2 supplements may be advantageous for athletes participating in high-intensity, intermittent exercise. PMID:23254493

Barber, James J; McDermott, Ann Y; McGaughey, Karen J; Olmstead, Jennifer D; Hagobian, Todd A

2013-01-01

437

Balance Performance in Irradiated Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer with and without Tai Chi Qigong Training  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to compare the one-leg-stance time and the six-minute walk distance among TC Qigong-trained NPC survivors, untrained NPC survivors, and healthy individuals. Twenty-five survivors of NPC with TC Qigong experience, 27 survivors of NPC without TC Qigong experience, and 68 healthy individuals formed the NPC-TC Qigong group, NPC-control group, and healthy-control group, respectively. The one-leg-stance (OLS) timed test was conducted to assess the single-leg standing balance performance of the participants in four conditions: (1) standing on a stable surface with eyes open, (2) standing on a compliant surface with eyes open, (3) standing on a stable surface with eyes closed, and (4) standing on a compliant surface with eyes closed. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) was used to determine the functional balance performance of the participants. Results showed that the NPC-control group had a shorter OLS time in all of the visual and supporting surface conditions than the healthy control group (P < 0.05). The OLS time of the TC Qigong-NPC group was comparable to that of the healthy control group in the somatosensory-challenging condition (condition 3) (P = 0.168) only. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the 6MWT distance among the three groups (P > 0.05). TC Qigong may be a rehabilitation exercise that improves somatosensory function and OLS balance performance among survivors of NPC. PMID:25295068

Fong, Shirley S. M.; Chung, Louisa M. Y.; Tsang, William W. N.; Leung, Joyce C. Y.; Charm, Caroline Y. C.; Luk, W. S.; Chow, Lina P. Y.; Ng, Shamay S. M.

2014-01-01

438

Balance Performance in Irradiated Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer with and without Tai Chi Qigong Training.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to compare the one-leg-stance time and the six-minute walk distance among TC Qigong-trained NPC survivors, untrained NPC survivors, and healthy individuals. Twenty-five survivors of NPC with TC Qigong experience, 27 survivors of NPC without TC Qigong experience, and 68 healthy individuals formed the NPC-TC Qigong group, NPC-control group, and healthy-control group, respectively. The one-leg-stance (OLS) timed test was conducted to assess the single-leg standing balance performance of the participants in four conditions: (1) standing on a stable surface with eyes open, (2) standing on a compliant surface with eyes open, (3) standing on a stable surface with eyes closed, and (4) standing on a compliant surface with eyes closed. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) was used to determine the functional balance performance of the participants. Results showed that the NPC-control group had a shorter OLS time in all of the visual and supporting surface conditions than the healthy control group (P < 0.05). The OLS time of the TC Qigong-NPC group was comparable to that of the healthy control group in the somatosensory-challenging condition (condition 3) (P = 0.168) only. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the 6MWT distance among the three groups (P > 0.05). TC Qigong may be a rehabilitation exercise that improves somatosensory function and OLS balance performance among survivors of NPC. PMID:25295068

Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Louisa M Y; Tsang, William W N; Leung, Joyce C Y; Charm, Caroline Y C; Luk, W S; Chow, Lina P Y; Ng, Shamay S M

2014-01-01

439

The Perception of "Training Availability" among Certified Nurse Aides: Relationship to CNA Performance, Turnover, Attitudes, Burnout, and Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the certified nurse aides' (CNAs) perception that "training is always available when needed" and the CNAs' performance, turnover, attitudes, burnout, and empowerment. The data came from a larger study where a self-administered survey instrument was completed by 359 CNAs working in…

Yeatts, Dale E.; Cready, Cynthia; Swan, James; Shen, Yuying

2010-01-01

440

The Relationship between Employer Endorsement of Continuing Education and Training and Work and Study Performance: A Hong Kong Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on psychological contract theory and expectancy disconfirmation theory, we posit that if employers support their staff by endorsing their continuing education and training, these employees will in turn be more satisfied and will perform better not only in their studies but also in their jobs. We also propose that such an endorsement will…

Hung, Humphry; Wong, Yiu Hing

2007-01-01

441

Effects of Group Parent-Training with Online Parent-Teacher Communication on the Homework Performance of Elementary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Homework Improvement Program, a 5-week group-formatted parent training program, in enhancing the homework performance of children experiencing homework difficulties. The study was conducted in an elementary school with a sample consisting of the parents of seven students (N = 7)…

Beck, Richard J.

2012-01-01

442

The Effects of Training in Peer Assessment on University Students' Writing Performance and Peer Assessment Quality in an Online Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effects of peer-assessment skill training on students' writing performance, the quality of students' feedback, the quality (validity and reliability) of student-generated scores, and the students' satisfaction with the peer assessment method in an online environment. A quasi-experimental design was employed…

Xiao, Yun

2010-01-01

443

The Effect of the Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program on Increasing Enrollment and Performance on Advanced Placement Science Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the National Math and Science Initiative's Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program (APTIP) on the number of students taking AP science courses and their performance. The study evaluated 39 schools over a six-year period in six states that participate in the APTIP. The…

Ramsey, Susan Brady

2012-01-01

444

The Effect of LEGO Training on Pupils' School Performance in Mathematics, Problem Solving Ability and Attitude: Swedish Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of one year of regular "LEGO" training on pupils' performances in schools. The underlying pedagogical perspective is the constructivist theory, where the main idea is that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the pupil by active learning. The investigation has been made in two steps. The…

Hussain, Shakir; Lindh, Jorgen; Shukur, Ghazi

2006-01-01

445

The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

2013-01-01

446

Surgical Crisis Management Skills Training and Assessment A Stimulation-Based Approach to Enhancing Operating Room Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intraoperative surgical crisis management is learned in an unstructured manner. In aviation, simulation training allows aircrews to coordinate and standardize recovery strategies. Our aim was to develop a surgical crisis simulation and evaluate its feasibil- ity, realism, and validity of the measures used to assess performance. Methods: Surgical trainees were exposed to a bleeding crisis in a simulated operating

Krishna Moorthy; Yaron Mun; Damien Forrest

447

32 CFR 644.42 - Appraisal report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...discussion or description which the photographs concern. All graphic material shall include captions. 5. STATEMENT OF LIMITING...of sources of rates and factors. 16. INTERPRETATION AND CORRELATION OF ESTIMATES. The appraiser shall interpret the...

2010-07-01

448

Health Risk Appraisal Use at Headquarters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specific topics which relate to the NASA Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) include: (1) What is a HRA?; (2) Risk factors; (3) Program use at NASA Headquarters; (4) An alternative approach; (5) Group HRA reports; and (6) Future considerations and conclusion.

Borcherding, Donald

1997-01-01

449

7 CFR 4279.244 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...complete at least a Transaction Screen Questionnaire for any undeveloped sites and a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment on existing business sites in accordance with ASTM International Standards, which should be provided to the appraiser for...

2014-01-01

450

7 CFR 4279.244 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...complete at least a Transaction Screen Questionnaire for any undeveloped sites and a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment on existing business sites in accordance with ASTM International Standards, which should be provided to the appraiser for...

2013-01-01

451

7 CFR 4279.244 - Appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...complete at least a Transaction Screen Questionnaire for any undeveloped sites and a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment on existing business sites in accordance with ASTM International Standards, which should be provided to the appraiser for...

2012-01-01

452

45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

2010-10-01

453

45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

2011-10-01

454

45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

2012-10-01

455

45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.12 Appraisal...

2014-10-01