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1

Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.

1998-09-04

2

Children's Expectancy of Criticism for Classroom Achievement Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An expectancy of criticism scale was devised in order to measure children's expectations of giving criticism to and receiving criticism from different agents for public achievement efforts in class. Scores on the Children's Social Desirability Scale (CSD) and teacher ratings of amount of criticism the children received and of their participation…

Potter, Ellen F.

3

Testing Expectancy Theory Predictions Using Behaviorally Based Measures of Motivational Effort for Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectancy theory predictions were tested using a sample of engineers who had been rated on dimensions of work motivation or effort (in contrast to performance) using the behaviorally based rating scales designed by Landy and Guion (1970). (Author)

Arvey, Richard D.; Neel, C. Warren

1974-01-01

4

Student Effort and Performance over the Semester  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors extend the standard education production function and student time allocation analysis to focus on the interactions between student effort and performance over the semester. The purged instrumental variable technique is used to obtain consistent estimators of the structural parameters of the model using data from intermediate…

Krohn, Gregory A.; O'Connor, Catherine M.

2005-01-01

5

Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.  

PubMed

Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success. PMID:19743655

Shutts, Joe

2009-09-01

6

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS SETTING EXPECTATIONS, FEEDBACK & APPRAISAL  

E-print Network

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS SETTING EXPECTATIONS, FEEDBACK & APPRAISAL PMP EMPLOYEE FORM Name (PLEASE TYPE OR PRINT): Reviewer's Signature: Please check one: The employee and supervisor improvement plan should be in effect, or will be as a result of this review. Unsatisfactory Performance falls

Adali, Tulay

7

Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

2010-01-01

8

5 CFR 9901.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.406 Setting and communicating performance expectations. (a) Performance...sole and exclusive discretion of management. (h) Performance expectations are subject...

2010-01-01

9

Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

2011-01-01

10

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and communicating performance expectations. (a) Performance expectations must align with and...

2010-01-01

11

VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien

2014-07-01

12

Landsat Data Continuity Mission Expected Instrument Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is scheduled for a December 2012 launch date. LDCM is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In order to provide the necessary spectral coverage of the visible through shortwave-infrared (SWIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR), the satellite will carry two sensors. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine visible to shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will collect coincident image data for two TIR bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it's manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space F!ight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite instrument systems, present pre-launch performance data for OLI and TIRS, and present simulated images to highlight notable features and expected imaging performance.

Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.; Markham, Brian L.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Storey, James C.

2012-01-01

13

Performance expectations of small firms considering radical product innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance expectations influence business decisions such as investment decisions and demand for supplies, particularly in small firms with limited strategic planning. Despite widespread use of performance expectations by firms and governments when making sales forecasts and economic outlooks, surprisingly little research exists about how small firms form performance expectations. This paper contributes to reduce this knowledge gap by analyzing performance

Frans J. H. M. Verhees; Matthew T. G. Meulenberg; Joost M. E. Pennings

2010-01-01

14

Status Valued Goal Objects and Performance Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I designed an experiment to test predictions, derived from expectation states theories, that the unequal allocation of social rewards among collective task-focused actors will affect the actors' rates of power and prestige behavior. Past research shows that allocations of exchangeable resources can have these effects. The prediction, however, is…

Hysom, Stuart J.

2009-01-01

15

An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance  

PubMed Central

Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternate explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost – that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternate explanations both for the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across subdisciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternate models might be empirically distinguished. PMID:24304775

Kurzban, Robert; Duckworth, Angela; Kable, Joseph W.; Myers, Justus

2013-01-01

16

Formation of Teachers' Expectations of First Grade Student's Academic Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to explore the formation of teachers' expectations of students' academic performance. First-grade teachers were interviewed or asked to respond to questionnaires concerning their pupils, and ranked their students on expected academic performance at three periods in the school year. Teachers rankings of expected

Willis, Sherry L.

17

The importance of race and social class information in the formation of expectancies about academic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the perceived locus of control, expected academic performance, and relative importance of 5 causal factors (ability, effort, luck, task difficulty, and quality of instruction) in the academic performance of a stimulus student. Both the race (Black vs White) and social class (middle vs lower) of the stimulus student were varied. Ss were enrolled in elementary education (n = 64)

Harris M. Cooper; Reuben M. Baron; Charles A. Lowe

1975-01-01

18

Mating system, feeding type and ex situ conservation effort determine life expectancy in captive ruminants.  

PubMed

Zoo animal husbandry aims at constantly improving husbandry, reproductive success and ultimately animal welfare. Nevertheless, analyses to determine factors influencing husbandry of different species are rare. The relative life expectancy (rLE; life expectancy (LE) as proportion of longevity) describes husbandry success of captive populations. Correlating rLE with biological characteristics of different species, reasons for variation in rLE can be detected. We analysed data of 166 901 animals representing 78 ruminant species kept in 850 facilities. The rLE of females correlated with the percentage of grass in a species' natural diet, suggesting that needs of species adapted to grass can be more easily accommodated than the needs of those adapted to browse. Males of monogamous species demonstrate higher rLE than polygamous males, which matches observed differences of sexual bias in LE in free-living populations and thus supports the ecological theory that the mating system influences LE. The third interesting finding was that rLE was higher in species managed by international studbooks when compared with species not managed in this way. Our method facilitates the identification of biological characteristics of species that are relevant for their husbandry success, and they also support ecological theory. Translating these findings into feeding recommendations, our approach can help to improve animal husbandry. PMID:21147792

Müller, Dennis W H; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W Jürgen; Fickel, Jörns; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

2011-07-01

19

Mating system, feeding type and ex situ conservation effort determine life expectancy in captive ruminants  

PubMed Central

Zoo animal husbandry aims at constantly improving husbandry, reproductive success and ultimately animal welfare. Nevertheless, analyses to determine factors influencing husbandry of different species are rare. The relative life expectancy (rLE; life expectancy (LE) as proportion of longevity) describes husbandry success of captive populations. Correlating rLE with biological characteristics of different species, reasons for variation in rLE can be detected. We analysed data of 166 901 animals representing 78 ruminant species kept in 850 facilities. The rLE of females correlated with the percentage of grass in a species' natural diet, suggesting that needs of species adapted to grass can be more easily accommodated than the needs of those adapted to browse. Males of monogamous species demonstrate higher rLE than polygamous males, which matches observed differences of sexual bias in LE in free-living populations and thus supports the ecological theory that the mating system influences LE. The third interesting finding was that rLE was higher in species managed by international studbooks when compared with species not managed in this way. Our method facilitates the identification of biological characteristics of species that are relevant for their husbandry success, and they also support ecological theory. Translating these findings into feeding recommendations, our approach can help to improve animal husbandry. PMID:21147792

Müller, Dennis W. H.; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W. Jürgen; Fickel, Jörns; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

2011-01-01

20

Parental Expectations and Children's Academic Performance in Sociocultural Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we review research on parental expectations and their effects on student achievement within and across diverse racial and ethnic groups. Our review suggests that the level of parental expectations varies by racial/ethnic group, and that students' previous academic performance is a less influential determinant of parental…

Yamamoto, Yoko; Holloway, Susan D.

2010-01-01

21

Evaluation of research on expectancy theory predictions of employee performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarizes formulations of expectancy theory proposed by L. W. Porter and E. E. Lawler in 1968 and by V. H. Vroom in 1964. 9 field studies testing expectancy theory hypotheses using various measures of employee performance as the dependent variable are reviewed. Finally, the studies are evaluated in terms of the number of independent variables used, the measurement of these

Herbert G. Heneman; Donald P. Schwab

1972-01-01

22

Parental Expectations and Children's Academic Performance in Sociocultural Context  

E-print Network

parents, low parental expectations appeared to trigger parental involvement in schoolParents' variable self-efficacy regarding involvement in children's schooling A third reason why prior performance may be a less potent predictor of school

Yamamoto, Yoko; Holloway, Susan D.

2010-01-01

23

Maintenance personnel performance simulation (MAPPS) model: overview and evaluation efforts  

SciTech Connect

The development of the MAPPS model has been completed and the model is currently undergoing evaluation. These efforts are addressing a number of identified issues concerning practicality, acceptability, usefulness, and validity. Preliminary analysis of the evaluation data that has been collected indicates that MAPPS will provide comprehensive and reliable data for PRA purposes and for a number of other applications. The MAPPS computer simulation model provides the user with a sophisticated tool for gaining insights into tasks performed by NPP maintenance personnel. Its wide variety of input parameters and output data makes it extremely flexible for application to a number of diverse applications. With the demonstration of favorable model evaluation results, the MAPPS model will represent a valuable source of NPP maintainer reliability data and provide PRA studies with a source of data on maintainers that has previously not existed.

Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.; Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Ryan, T.G.

1984-01-01

24

Self Esteem, Expectation and Attribution of Responsibility for Academic Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since student ratings of teacher effectiveness are instrumental in faculty promotion and tenure decisions, the assets and limitations of such ratings must be understood. To investigate the impact of three personality factors (ability, locus of control, and self-esteem) and academic performance on expectation and attributions of performance, 212…

Fagan, Nancy Magnusson; And Others

25

Expectations, Performance, and Citizen Satisfaction with Urban Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expectancy disconfirmation model has dominated private-sector research on customer satisfaction for several decades, yet it has not been applied to citizen satisfaction with urban services. The model views satisfaction judgments as determined--not just by product or service performance--but by a process in which consumers compare performance

Van Ryzin, Gregg G.

2004-01-01

26

Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study is presented of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector. The reconstruction of tracks, leptons, photons, missing energy and jets is investigated, together with the performance of b-tagging and the trigger. The physics potential for a variety of interesting physics processes, within the Standard Model and beyond, is examined. The study comprises a series of notes based

G. Aad; E. Abat; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; M. Aharrouche; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad; H. Ahmed; G. Aielli; T. Akdogan; T. P. A. Akesson; G. Akimoto; M. S. Alam; M. A. Alam; J. Albert; S. Albrand; M. Aleksa; I. N. Aleksandrov; F. Alessandria; C. Alexa; G. Alexander; G. Alexandre; T. Alexopoulos; M. Alhroob; G. Alimonti; J. Alison; M. Aliyev; P. P. Allport; S. E. Allwood-Spiers; A. Aloisio; R. Alon; A. Alonso; J. Alonso; M. G. Alviggi; K. Amako; P. Amaral; C. Amelung; V. V. Ammosov; A. Amorim; G. Amoros; N. Amram; C. Anastopoulos; C. F. Anders; K. J. Anderson; A. Andreazza; V. Andrei; M-L. Andrieux; X. S. Anduaga; F. Anghinolfi; A. Antonaki; M. Antonelli; S. Antonelli; B. Antunovic; F. A. Anulli; G. Arabidze; I. Aracena; Y. Arai; A. T. H. Arce; J. P. Archambault; S. Arfaoui; J-F. Arguin; T. Argyropoulos; E. Arik; M. Arik; A. J. Armbruster; O. Arnaez; C. Arnault; A. Artamonov; D. Arutinov; M. Asai; S. Asai; S. Ask; B. Asman; D. Asner; L. Asquith; K. Assamagan; A. Astbury; A. Astvatsatourov; T. Atkinson; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; E. Auge; K. Augsten; M. A. Aurousseau; N. Austin; G. Avolio; R. Avramidou; A. Axen; C. Ay; G. Azuelos; Y. Azuma; M. A. Baak; G. Baccaglioni; C. Bacci; H. Bachacou; K. Bachas; M. Backes; E. Badescu; P. Bagnaia; Y. Bai; D. C. Bailey; J. T. Baines; O. K. Baker; F. Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa; E. Banas; S. Banerjee; D. Banfi; A. Bangert; V. Bansal; S. P. Baranov; A. Barashkou; T. B. Barber; E. L. Barberio; D. Barberis; M. B. Barbero; D. Y. Bardin; T. Barillari; M. Barisonzi; T. Barklow; N. B. Barlow; N. B. Barlow; R. M. Barnett; S. Baron; A. Baroncelli; A. Baroncelli; F. Barreiro; J. Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa; P. Barrillon; R. Bartoldus; D. Bartsch; J. Bastos; R. L. Bates; J. R. Batley; A. Battaglia; M. Battistin; F. Bauer; M. Bazalova; B. Beare; P. H. Beauchemin; R. B. Beccherle; N. Becerici; P. Bechtle; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; M. Beckingham; K. H. Becks; I. Bedajanek; A. J. Beddall; P. Bednar; V. A. Bednyakov; C. Bee; S. Behar Harpaz; P. K. Behera; M. Beimforde; C. Belanger-Champagne; P. J. Bell; W. H. Bell; G. Bella; L. Bellagamba; F. Bellina; M. Bellomo; A. Belloni; K. Belotskiy; O. Beltramello; S. Ben Ami; O. Beltramello; D. Benchekroun; M. Bendel; B. H. Benedict; N. Benekos; Y. Benhammou; G. P. Benincasa; D. P. Benjamin; M. Benoit; J. R. Bensinger; K. Benslama; S. Bentvelsen; M. Beretta; D. Berge; E. Bergeaas Kuutmann; N. Berger; F. Berghaus; E. Berglund; J. Beringer; K. Bernardet; P. Bernat; R. Bernhard; C. Bernius; T. Berry; A. Bertin; N. Besson; S. Bethke; R. M. Bianchi; M. Bianco; O. Biebel; J. Biesiada; M. Biglietti; H. Bilokon; S. Binet; A. Bingul; C. Bini; C. Biscarat; M. Bischofberger; U. Bitenc; K. M. Black; R. E. Blair; G. Blanchot; C. Blocker; J. Blocki; A. Blondel; W. Blum; U. Blumenschein; C. Boaretto; G. J. Bobbink; A. Bocci; B. Bodine; J. Boek; N. Boelaert; S. Boeser; J. A. Bogaerts; A. Bogouch; C. Bohm; J. Bohm; V. Boisvert; T. Bold; V. Boldea; V. G. Bondarenko; M. Bondioli; M. Boonekamp; C. N. Booth; P. S. L. Booth; J. R. A. Booth; A. Borisov; G. Borissov; I. Borjanovic; S. Borroni; K. Bos; D. Boscherini; M. Bosman; M. Bosteels; H. Boterenbrood; J. Bouchami; J. Boudreau; E. V. Bouhova-Thacker; C. Boulahouache; C. Bourdarios; J. Boyd; I. R. Boyko; A. Braem; P. Branchini; G. W. Brandenburg; A. Brandt; O. Brandt; U. Bratzler; J. E. Brau; H. M. Braun; B. Brelier; J. Bremer; R. Brenner; S. Bressler; D. Breton; N. D. Brett; D. Breton; F. M. Brochu; I. Brock; R. Brock; E. Brodet; F. Broggi; G. Brooijmans; W. K. Brooks; E. Brubaker; P. A. Bruckman de Renstrom; D. Bruncko; R. Bruneliere; S. Brunet; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; M. Bruschi; T. Buanes; F. B. Bucci; P. Buchholz; A. G. Buckley; I. A. Budagov; V. Buescher; L. Bugge; F. Bujor; O. Bulekov; M. Bunse; T. Buran; H. Burckhart; S. Burdin; S. Burke; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; F. Butin; B. Butler; J. M. Butler; C. M. Buttar; J. M. Butterworth; T. Byatt; S. Cabrera Urban; D. Caforio; O. Cakir; P. Calafiura; G. Calderini; R. Calkins; L. P. Caloba; R. Calkins; D. Calvet; P. Camarri; M. Cambiaghi; D. Cameron; F. Campabadal Segura; S. Campana; M. Campanelli; V. Canale; J. Cantero; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; I. Caprini; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; M. Capua; R. Caputo; C. Caramarcu; R. Cardarelli; T. Carli; G. Carlino; L. Carminati; B. Caron; S. Caron; S. Carron Montero; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; J. Carvalho; D. Casadei; M. P. Casado; M. Cascella; C. Caso; A. M. Castaneda Hernadez; E. Castaneda Miranda; V. Castillo Gimenez; N. F. Castro; G. Cataldi; A. Catinaccio; J. R. Catmore; A. Catinaccio; G. Cattani; S. Caughron; D. Cauz; P. Cavalleri; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza; V. Cavasinni; A. Cazzato

2008-01-01

27

Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics  

E-print Network

A detailed study is presented of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector. The reconstruction of tracks, leptons, photons, missing energy and jets is investigated, together with the performance of b-tagging and the trigger. The physics potential for a variety of interesting physics processes, within the Standard Model and beyond, is examined. The study comprises a series of notes based on simulations of the detector and physics processes, with particular emphasis given to the data expected from the first years of operation of the LHC at CERN.

The ATLAS Collaboration; G. Aad; E. Abat; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; M. Aharrouche; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad; H. Ahmed; G. Aielli; T. Akdogan; T. P. A. Akesson; G. Akimoto; M. S. Alam; M. A. Alam; J. Albert; S. Albrand; M. Aleksa; I. N. Aleksandrov; F. Alessandria; C. Alexa; G. Alexander; G. Alexandre; T. Alexopoulos; M. Alhroob; G. Alimonti; J. Alison; M. Aliyev; P. P. Allport; S. E. Allwood-Spiers; A. Aloisio; R. Alon; A. Alonso; J. Alonso; M. G. Alviggi; K. Amako; P. Amaral; C. Amelung; V. V. Ammosov; A. Amorim; G. Amoros; N. Amram; C. Anastopoulos; C. F. Anders; K. J. Anderson; A. Andreazza; V. Andrei; M-L. Andrieux; X. S. Anduaga; F. Anghinolfi; A. Antonaki; M. Antonelli; S. Antonelli; B. Antunovic; F. A. Anulli; G. Arabidze; I. Aracena; Y. Arai; A. T. H. Arce; J. P. Archambault; S. Arfaoui; J-F. Arguin; T. Argyropoulos; E. Arik; M. Arik; A. J. Armbruster; O. Arnaez; C. Arnault; A. Artamonov; D. Arutinov; M. Asai; S. Asai; S. Ask; B. Asman; D. Asner; L. Asquith; K. Assamagan; A. Astbury; A. Astvatsatourov; T. Atkinson; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; E. Auge; K. Augsten; M. A. Aurousseau; N. Austin; G. Avolio; R. Avramidou; A. Axen; C. Ay; G. Azuelos; Y. Azuma; M. A. Baak; G. Baccaglioni; C. Bacci; H. Bachacou; K. Bachas; M. Backes; E. Badescu; P. Bagnaia; Y. Bai; D. C. Bailey; J. T. Baines; O. K. Baker; F. Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa; E. Banas; S. Banerjee; D. Banfi; A. Bangert; V. Bansal; S. P. Baranov; S. Baranov; A. Barashkou; T. B. Barber; E. L. Barberio; D. Barberis; M. B. Barbero; D. Y. Bardin; T. Barillari; M. Barisonzi; T. Barklow; N. B. Barlow; B. M. Barnett; R. M. Barnett; S. Baron; A. Baroncelli; A. J. Barr; F. Barreiro; J. Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa; P. Barrillon; R. Bartoldus; D. Bartsch; J. Bastos; R. L. Bates; J. R. Batley; A. Battaglia; M. Battistin; F. Bauer; M. Bazalova; B. Beare; P. H. Beauchemin; R. B. Beccherle; N. Becerici; P. Bechtle; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; M. Beckingham; K. H. Becks; I. Bedajanek; A. J. Beddall; A. Beddall; P. Bednar; V. A. Bednyakov; C. Bee; S. Behar Harpaz; P. K. Behera; M. Beimforde; C. Belanger-Champagne; P. J. Bell; W. H. Bell; G. Bella; L. Bellagamba; F. Bellina; M. Bellomo; A. Belloni; K. Belotskiy; O. Beltramello; S. Ben Ami; O. Benary; D. Benchekroun; M. Bendel; B. H. Benedict; N. Benekos; Y. Benhammou; G. P. Benincasa; D. P. Benjamin; M. Benoit; J. R. Bensinger; K. Benslama; S. Bentvelsen; M. Beretta; D. Berge; E. Bergeaas Kuutmann; N. Berger; F. Berghaus; E. Berglund; J. Beringer; K. Bernardet; P. Bernat; R. Bernhard; C. Bernius; T. Berry; A. Bertin; N. Besson; S. Bethke; R. M. Bianchi; M. Bianco; O. Biebel; J. Biesiada; M. Biglietti; H. Bilokon; S. Binet; A. Bingul; C. Bini; C. Biscarat; M. Bischofberger; U. Bitenc; K. M. Black; R. E. Blair; G. Blanchot; C. Blocker; J. Blocki; A. Blondel; W. Blum; U. Blumenschein; C. Boaretto; G. J. Bobbink; A. Bocci; B. Bodine; J. Boek; N. Boelaert; S. Boeser; J. A. Bogaerts; A. Bogouch; C. Bohm; J. Bohm; V. Boisvert; T. Bold; V. Boldea; V. G. Bondarenko; M. Bondioli; M. Boonekamp; C. N. Booth; P. S. L. Booth; J. R. A. Booth; A. Borisov; G. Borissov; I. Borjanovic; S. Borroni; K. Bos; D. Boscherini; M. Bosman; M. Bosteels; H. Boterenbrood; J. Bouchami; J. Boudreau; E. V. Bouhova-Thacker; C. Boulahouache; C. Bourdarios; J. Boyd; I. R. Boyko; A. Braem; P. Branchini; G. W. Brandenburg; A. Brandt; O. Brandt; U. Bratzler; J. E. Brau; H. M. Braun; B. Brelier; J. Bremer; R. Brenner; S. Bressler; D. Breton; N. D. Brett; D. Britton; F. M. Brochu; I. Brock; R. Brock; E. Brodet; F. Broggi; G. Brooijmans; W. K. Brooks; E. Brubaker; P. A. Bruckman de Renstrom; D. Bruncko; R. Bruneliere; S. Brunet; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; M. Bruschi; T. Buanes; F. B. Bucci; P. Buchholz; A. G. Buckley; I. A. Budagov; V. Buescher; L. Bugge; F. Bujor; O. Bulekov; M. Bunse; T. Buran; H. Burckhart; S. Burdin; S. Burke; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; F. Butin; B. Butler; J. M. Butler; C. M. Buttar; J. M. Butterworth; T. Byatt; S. Cabrera Urban; D. Caforio; O. Cakir; P. Calafiura; G. Calderini; R. Calkins; L. P. Caloba; R. Caloi; D. Calvet; P. Camarri; M. Cambiaghi; D. Cameron; F. Campabadal Segura; S. Campana; M. Campanelli; V. Canale; J. Cantero; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; I. Caprini; M. Caprini; M. Capua; R. Caputo; C. Caramarcu; R. Cardarelli; T. Carli; G. Carlino; L. Carminati; B. Caron; S. Caron; S. Carron Montero; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; J. Carvalho; D. Casadei; M. P. Casado; M. Cascella; C. Caso; A. M. Castaneda Hernadez; E. Castaneda Miranda; V. Castillo Gimenez; N. F. Castro; G. Cataldi; A. Catinaccio; J. R. Catmore; A. Cattai; G. Cattani; S. Caughron; D. Cauz; P. Cavalleri; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza

2009-08-14

28

Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mathematics Performance Expectations (MPE) define the content and level of achievement students must reach to be academically prepared for success in entry-level, credit-bearing mathematics courses in college or career training. They were developed through a process that involved faculty from Virginia's two- and four-year colleges and…

Virginia Department of Education, 2011

2011-01-01

29

High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from thirties to fifties, the age category most affected was in the forties range. Incident rate calculations (incidents per 100 training runs) revealed that the 2002, 2003, and 2004 time periods registered the highest reported incident rate levels (3.4, 6.1, and 4.1 respectively) when compared to the following years (all = 1.0). In addition to general hand-arm discomfort being the highest reported result from training, specific types of hand injuries or symptoms included erythema, fingernail delamination, abrasions, muscle soreness/fatigue, paresthesia, bruising, blanching, and edema. Specific body locations most affected by hand injuries included the metacarpophalangeal joints, fingernails, finger crotches, fingers in general, interphalangeal joints, and fingertips. Causes of injuries reported in the LSAH data were primarily attributed to the forces that the gloved hands were exposed to due to hand intensive tasks and/or poor glove sizing. DISCUSSION: Although the age data indicate that most injuries are reported by male crewmembers in their forties, that is also the dominant gender and age range of most EVA crew therefore it is not an unexpected finding. Age and gender analysis will continue as more details on the uninjured population is accrued. While there is a reasonable mechanism to link training quantity to injury, the results were inconsistent and point to the need for a consistent method of suit-related injury screening and documentation. For instance, the high-incident rate levels for the years 2002 to 2004 could be attributed to a comprehensive medical review of crewmembers post-NBL EVA training that occurred from July 19, 2002 to January 16, 2004. Furthermore, there could have been increased awareness from an investigation at the NBL. These investigations may have temporarily increased the fidelity of reported injuries and discomforts during these dates as compared to surrounding years, when injury signs and symptom were no longer actively being investigated but rather voluntarily reported. Data mining for possible mechanistic factors continues and include

Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

2014-01-01

30

VCL Laser Altimeter Surface Return Expected Geolocation Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, expected to launch in the spring of 2002, will carry a unique Multi-Beam Laser Altimeter (MBLA) instrument designed to observe vegetative canopy structure for a nominal mission duration of 2 years. The VCL MBLA is a three-beam instrument where each laser is capable of producing returns with 30-m along-track spacing and 25-m-diameter footprints. Identifying the precise location of the point on the Earth's surface from which the laser energy reflects is a critical issue in the validation and application of the data. The resultant geolocation accuracy is dependent on the performance of many components of the VCL system including: laser pulse round trip travel time observation to surface, navigation tracking data, attitude determination system data, timing, laser pointing and body orientation stability, knowledge of instrument and navigation tracking point positions, media and geophysical corrections. Additionally, it is critical to calibrate on-orbit instrument parameters including pointing and range corrections. The geolocation and calibration methodology and algorithms will be summarized. A detailed geolocation error analysis identifying the contributions from each system component, along with the resultant expected geolocation accuracy, will be presented. A brief discussion of the operational geolocation process will also be presented. Science and data validation implications from geolocation performance will be summarized.

Luthcke, S. B.; Blair, J. B.; Hofton, M. A.; Rowlands, D. D.; Zelensky, N. P.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

31

29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...physical or mental exertion needed for the performance of a job. Job factors which cause mental fatigue and stress, as well as those which alleviate fatigue, are to be considered in determining the effort required by the job. “Effort”...

2010-07-01

32

Effects of performance anxiety on effort and performance in rock climbing: A test of processing efficiency theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies examined the effort and performance of rock climbers in the context of processing efficiency theory. Anxiety was manipulated by different means in the three studies. In each study, the effort due only to the physical exertion of climbing was controlled for. Anxiety, effort, and performance were measured via self-report, an integrated heart rate measure, and belayer observation. Consistent

Lew Hardy; Andrew Hutchinson

2007-01-01

33

The expected performance of stellar parametrization with Gaia spectrophotometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaia will obtain astrometry and spectrophotometry for essentially all sources in the sky down to a broad-band magnitude limit of G = 20, an expected yield of 109 stars. Its main scientific objective is to reveal the formation and evolution of our Galaxy through chemodynamical analysis. In addition to inferring positions, parallaxes and proper motions from the astrometry, we must also infer the astrophysical parameters of the stars from the spectrophotometry, the blue photometer (BP)/red photometer (RP) spectrum. Here we investigate the performance of three different algorithms [Support Vector Machine (SVM), ILIUM and Aeneas] for estimating the effective temperature, line-of-sight interstellar extinction, metallicity and surface gravity of A-M stars over a wide range of these parameters and over the full magnitude range Gaia will observe (G = 6-20 mag). One of the algorithms, Aeneas, infers the posterior probability density function over all parameters, and can optionally take into account the parallax and the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to improve the estimates. For all algorithms the accuracy of estimation depends on G and on the value of the parameters themselves, so a broad summary of performance is only approximate. For stars at G = 15 with less than 2 mag extinction, we expect to be able to estimate Teff to within 1 per cent, log g to 0.1-0.2 dex and [Fe/H] (for FGKM stars) to 0.1-0.2 dex, just using the BP/RP spectrum (mean absolute error statistics are quoted). Performance degrades at larger extinctions, but not always by a large amount. Extinction can be estimated to an accuracy of 0.05-0.2 mag for stars across the full parameter range with a priori unknown extinction between 0 and 10 mag. Performance degrades at fainter magnitudes, but even at G = 19 we can estimate log g to better than 0.2 dex for all spectral types and [ Fe /H] to within 0.35 dex for FGKM stars, for extinctions below 1 mag.

Liu, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Sordo, R.; Vallenari, A.; Borrachero, R.; Luri, X.; Sartoretti, P.

2012-11-01

34

Expectations Lead to Performance: The Transformative Power of High Expectations in Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the preschool program at Missouri State University where deaf and hard of hearing children with all communication modalities and all styles of personal assistive listening devices are served. The job of the early intervention providers is to model for parents what high expectations look like and how to translate those…

Wang, Ye; Engler, Karen S.; Oetting, Tara L.

2014-01-01

35

High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend interventions where possible that could be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigation focused on the discomforts and injuries of U.S. crewmembers who had worn the pressurized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit and experienced 4000 Series or Phase VI glove related incidents during 1981 to 2010 for either EVA ground training or in-orbit flight. We conducted an observational retrospective case-control investigation using 1) a literature review of known injuries, 2) data mining of crew injury, glove sizing, and hand anthropometry databases, 3) descriptive statistical analyses, and finally 4) statistical risk correlation and predictor analyses to better understand injury prevalence and potential causation. Specific predictor statistical analyses included use of principal component analyses (PCA), multiple logistic regression, and survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards regression). Results of these analyses were computed risk variables in the forms of odds ratios (likelihood of an injury occurring given the magnitude of a risk variable) and hazard ratios (likelihood of time to injury occurrence). Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, we selected predictor variables significant at p=0.15. RESULTS: Through 2010, there have been a total of 330 NASA crewmembers, from which 96 crewmembers performed 322 EVAs during 1981-2010, resulting in 50 crewmembers being injured inflight and 44 injured during 11,704 ground EVA training events. Of the 196 glove related injury incidents, 106 related to EVA and 90 to EVA training. Over these 196 incidents, 277 total injuries (126 flight; 151 training) were reported and were then grouped into 23 types of injuries. Of EVA flight injuries, 65% were commonly reported to the hand (in general), metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, and finger (not including thumb) with fatigue, abrasion, and paresthesia being the most common injury types (44% of total flight injuries). Training injuries totaled to more than 70% being distributed to the fingernail, MCP joint, and finger crotch with 88% of the specific injuries listed as pain, erythema, and onycholysis. Of these training injuries, when reporting pain or erythema, the most common location was the index finger, but when reporting onycholysis, it was the middle finger. Predictor variables specific to increased risk of onycholysis included: female sex (OR=2.622), older age (OR=1.065), increased duration in hours of the flight or training event (OR=1.570), middle finger length differences in inches between the finger and the EVA glove (OR=7.709), and use of the Phase VI glove (OR=8.535). Differentiation between training and flight and injury reporting during 2002-2004 were significant control variables. For likelihood of time to first onycholysis injury, there was a 24% reduction in rate of reporting for each year increase in age. Also, more experienced crewmembers, based on number of EVA flight or training events completed, were less likely to report an onycholysis injury (3% less for every event). Longer duration events also found reporting rates to occur 2.37 times faster for every hour of length. Crewmembers with larger hand size reported onycholysis 23% faster than those with smaller hand size. Finally, for every 1/10th of an inch increase in difference between the middle finger length and the glove, the rate of reporting increased by 60%. DISCUSSION: One key finding was that the Series 4000 glove had a lower injury risk than the Phase VI, which provides a platform for

Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

2015-01-01

36

The Relation Between Macroeconomic Uncertainty And The Expected Performance Of the Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using data from surveys of expectations, it is shown that macroeconomic uncertainty, measured by the standard deviation of the expected output growth, the expected unemployment rate, and the expected inflation rate, is negatively related to the expected performance of the economy, proxied by the expected growth rate of output. That is, forward-looking agents are more uncertain about the future

Jean Sepulveda-Umanzor

2004-01-01

37

29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2011-07-01

38

29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2012-07-01

39

29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2013-07-01

40

29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2014-07-01

41

Expected EDL navigation performance with spacecraft to spacecraft data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pinpoint landing (defined for the purpose of this discussion as landing within 1km of a preselected target) is a key Advanced Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology for future Mars landers. Key scientific goals for Mars exploration, such as the search for water and characterization of aqueous process on Mars, the study of mineralogy and weathering of the Martian surface and the search for preserved biosignatures in Martian rocks, requires placing landers at pre-defined locations of greatest scientific interest. The capability to land within 1 km of a pre-defined landing site will improve safety and enable landing within roving range of sites of scientific interest while avoiding hazardous areas. A critical component of the closed-loop guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) system required for pinpoint landing is position and velocity estimation in real time. Spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will take advantage of the UHF link between two spacecraft (i.e. to an orbiter from an approaching lander for EDL telemetry relay) to build radiometric data, specifically the velocity between the two spacecraft along the radio beam, that are processed to determine position and velocity in real time. The improved onboard state knowledge provided by spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will reduce the landed position error and improve the performance of entry guidance. Results from the first of two years planned for this effort are documented here, including selection and documentation of prototype algorithms that will go forward into flight code along with analysis results used to define the algorithm set.

Burkhart, P. Daniel; Ely, Todd; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, Glenn; Campbell, Todd; Mogensen, Andy

2005-01-01

42

Principal Leadership and Teacher Expectancy in Low-Performing Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the relationship between principal leadership and teacher expectancy within Chicago's accountability context. Current school accountability policies assume that the threat of sanctions will motivate teachers to improve. The study uses expectancy theory, which suggests that any impact on motivation will be constrained by…

Finnigan, Kara S.

2005-01-01

43

5 CFR 9901.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...expectations. 9901.406 Section 9901.406 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

2011-01-01

44

Effects of performance anxiety on effort and performance in rock climbing: a test of processing efficiency theory.  

PubMed

Three studies examined the effort and performance of rock climbers in the context of processing efficiency theory. Anxiety was manipulated by different means in the three studies. In each study, the effort due only to the physical exertion of climbing was controlled for. Anxiety, effort, and performance were measured via self-report, an integrated heart rate measure, and belayer observation. Consistent with processing efficiency theory, the results showed that higher levels of anxiety were usually associated with higher levels of effort and commensurately higher levels of performance. However, the results also suggested that cognitive anxiety may not be the prime determinant of the effort and performance changes observed. Finally, the results suggested that other individual difference variables may play an important part in determining the extent to which individuals may be able to make use of anxiety-induced effort. PMID:17999221

Hardy, Lew; Hutchinson, Andrew

2007-06-01

45

The Effects of Response Effort on Safe Performance by Therapists at an Autism Treatment Facility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of response effort on safe behaviors (i.e., glove wearing, hand sanitizing, and electrical outlet replacement) exhibited by therapists at an autism treatment center were examined. Participants were exposed to 2 or 3 levels of effort (i.e., high, medium, low) for each dependent variable. Results showed increased safe performance during…

Casella, Sarah E.; Wilder, David A.; Neidert, Pamela; Rey, Catalina; Compton, Megan; Chong, Ivy

2010-01-01

46

Parental Expectations versus Child Performance: A Picture Graph Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes useful method for assessing child's perception of how well parental expectations are being met. Offers suggestions for processing the information from such an assessment with the child and the parents. Sees picture graph as promising way to help children discuss thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to perceptions of falling short of…

Buck, Doris

1991-01-01

47

Outcome Expectancies of People Who Conduct Performance Appraisals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined outcome expectancies of people who conduct appraisals. Interviews with 32 appraisers in the newsprint industry showed that appraisers perceived no consequences to them of conducting appraisals. Questionnaires completed by 39 appraisers in the banking industry provided moderate support for alternate hypothesis that appraisers perceive…

Napier, Nancy K.; Latham, Gary P.

1986-01-01

48

Stereotype Threat in Middle School: The Effects of Prior Performance on Expectancy and Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotype threat research has demonstrated how presenting situational cues in a testing environment, such as raising the salience of negative stereotypes, can adversely affect test performance (Perry, Steele, & Hilliard, 2003; Steele & Aronson, 1995) and expectancy (Cadinu, Maass, Frigerio, Impagliazzo, & Latinotti, 2003; Stangor, Carr, & Kiang,…

Howard, Keith E.; Anderson, Kenneth A.

2010-01-01

49

A Pilot Study to Evaluate Development Effort for High Performance Computing  

E-print Network

1 A Pilot Study to Evaluate Development Effort for High Performance Computing Victor Basili1 the development time for programs written for high performance computers (HPC). To attack this relatively novel students in a graduate level High Performance Computing class at the University of Maryland. We collected

Basili, Victor R.

50

5 CFR 9901.410 - Addressing performance that does not meet expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.410 Addressing performance that does not meet expectations....

2010-01-01

51

Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student…

Sorhagen, Nicole S.

2013-01-01

52

Locus of Control and Achievement Motivation as Moderators of the Expectancy-Academic Performance Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectancy theory predictions of course performance were tested for a sample of 195 undergraduates; significant prediction was attained for the total sample using a log linear expectancy model. (Author)

Batlis, Nick C.; Waters, L. K.

1973-01-01

53

Need for Cognition, Task Difficulty, and the Formation of Performance Expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article, the authors analyze how performance expectancies are generated and how they affect actual performance. The authors predicted that task difficulty would affect performance expectancies only when cognitive motivation (i.e., need for cognition [NFC]) and cognitive capacity are high. This should be the case because analyzing task difficulty is a process requiring cognitive capacity as well as

Marc-André Reinhard; Oliver Dickhäuser

2009-01-01

54

The Influence of Effort on Neuropsychological Performance in Children: Is Performance on the TOMM Indicative of Neuropsychological Ability?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but is being increasingly used with children, though it is not yet entirely clear what suboptimal TOMM performance means in terms of neuropsychological test scores. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether performance on the TOMM can be used as

Robert Perna; Ashlee R. Loughan

2012-01-01

55

Effortful Control in "Hot" and "Cool" Tasks Differentially Predicts Children's Behavior Problems and Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children's adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer…

Kim, Sanghag; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

2013-01-01

56

MAINTAINING DATA QUALITY IN THE PERFORMANCE OF A LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED MONITORING EFFORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Macauley, John M. and Linda C. Harwell. In press. Maintaining Data Quality in the Performance of a Large Scale Integrated Monitoring Effort (Abstract). To be presented at EMAP Symposium 2004: Integrated Monitoring and Assessment for Effective Water Quality Management, 3-7 May 200...

57

Attributional Gender Bias: Teachers' Ability and Effort Explanations for Students' Math Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students' performance in math. Whereas boys' successes in math are attributed to ability, girls' successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys' failures in math are attributed to a…

Espinoza, Penelope; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.

2014-01-01

58

The roles of practice systems and individual effort in quality performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionIndividual effort and practice systems contribute to quality performance, but the nature of their contributions remains unclear.MethodsThis study assessed the roles of individual attributes and behaviours versus practice attributes in quality performance by assessing general internists' perceptions of factors that drive their engagement in quality improvement (QI). The authors interviewed 20 physicians in two distinct categories from diverse practice settings

Hoangmai H Pham; Elizabeth C Bernabeo; Benjamin J Chesluk; Eric S Holmboe

2011-01-01

59

The influence of effort on neuropsychological performance in children: is performance on the TOMM indicative of neuropsychological ability?  

PubMed

The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but is being increasingly used with children, though it is not yet entirely clear what suboptimal TOMM performance means in terms of neuropsychological test scores. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether performance on the TOMM can be used as a predictive marker for neuropsychological performance in children. Participants (N = 75) completed the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), Children's Memory Test, and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trails. Results revealed significant correlations between age, education level, IQ, and many of the neuropsychological measures administered, indicating that as children's TOMM scores increase, so do their cognitive performances. Children were subsequently divided into two groups: optimal effort and suboptimal effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Results suggest significant differences in IQ performance and WCST Failure to Maintain Set; however, there were no differences in regard to any other neuropsychological measures administered. It was also found that a larger proportion of the younger children (aged 6 to 10 years old) scored below the TOMM cutoff compared with older children. This study illustrates that although correlations exist, suboptimal effort on the TOMM may not predict poorer performance on a neuropsychological evaluation in children as has been reported in other studies. PMID:24236939

Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R

2014-01-01

60

41 CFR 102-117.275 - What performance must I expect from a TSP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01...2010-07-01 false What performance must I expect from...Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION...117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance §...

2010-07-01

61

The Prediction of College Student Academic Performance and Retention: Application of Expectancy and Goal Setting Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educators, students, and the nation facing critical professional labor shortages. Expectancy and goal setting theories were used to predict academic performance and college student retention. Students' academic expectancy motivation at the start of the college…

Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.

2010-01-01

62

The influence of subordinate age, work experience, and performance level on supervisor expectations and actions  

E-print Network

Dependent Measures RESULTS 13 Causal Attributions Bonus Allocation 13 16 Expectation of Future Performance. Recommended Action DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES APPENDIX A JOB PERFORMANCE QUESTIONNAIRE APPENDIX B TABLES OF MEANS 16 18 25... 4 ANOVA of Subgroup Analysis for Old Employees 16 23 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Interaction of Age and Performance on Bonus Allocation 17 2 Interaction of Age and Experience on Expectation of Future Performance 19 3 Interaction of Age...

Wu, Beverly Hui-Jun

1987-01-01

63

Additive benefits of external focus and enhanced performance expectancy for motor learning.  

PubMed

The authors examined the individual and combined influences of 2 factors that have been shown to benefit motor learning: an external focus of attention and enhanced performance expectancies. Another purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying these variables. In a factorial design, participants learning a novel motor skill (i.e., throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not given external focus instructions, and were or were not provided bogus positive social-comparative feedback to enhance their expectancies. This resulted in 4 groups: external focus, enhanced expectancy, external focus/enhanced expectancy and control. External focus instructions and enhanced expectancies had additive benefits for learning: the external focus/enhanced expectancy group demonstrated the greatest throwing accuracy on both retention and transfer tests, while the accuracy scores of the external focus and enhanced expectancy groups were lower, but higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, self-efficacy was increased by both external focus and enhanced expectancy, and predicted retention and transfer performance. Positive affect was heightened in the enhanced expectancy and external focus/enhanced expectancy groups after practice and predicted transfer performance. The findings suggest that the learning benefits of an external focus and enhanced expectancies mediate learning through partially different mechanisms. PMID:24875153

Pascua, Luigi A M; Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

2015-01-01

64

Predicting Pilot Error in Nextgen: Pilot Performance Modeling and Validation Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We review 25 articles presenting 5 general classes of computational models to predict pilot error. This more targeted review is placed within the context of the broader review of computational models of pilot cognition and performance, including such aspects as models of situation awareness or pilot-automation interaction. Particular emphasis is placed on the degree of validation of such models against empirical pilot data, and the relevance of the modeling and validation efforts to Next Gen technology and procedures.

Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Gore, Brian; Hooey, Becky

2012-01-01

65

Expectancy-value motivation in the context of a music performance examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectancy-value theory is a well-established cognitive approach to motivational re.search that focuses on belief systems. specifically. learners' expectations and valuing of activities in which they are engaged. Investigating this area in music we sampled 723 instrumental music learners aged 9 to 19 to determine their expectations for succeeding on a graded music performance examination. The students completed a questionnaire on

J. McCormick; G. E. McPherson

2007-01-01

66

Factors Complicating Expectancy Theory Predictions of Work Motivation and Job Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conventional paradigm for testing expectancy theory predictions of work behavior has been to correlate expectancy-value reports with concurrent measures of motivation and performance. Although this static, two-variable approach has typically yielded statistically significant results, correlations have not been sizable. This study, using a…

Kopelman, Richard E.

67

Caffeine Consumption, Expectancies of Caffeine-Enhanced Performance, and Caffeinism Symptoms among University Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gathered self-report data on college students' (n=797) expectations of caffeine-enhanced performance, level of beverage caffeine consumed daily, and caffeinism signs experienced after consumption of caffeinated beverages. Results supported extending the expectancies model of substance use motivation from alcohol to caffeine. (Author/ABL)

Bradley, John R.; Petree, Allen

1990-01-01

68

Motivated or Paralyzed? Individuals' Beliefs about Intelligence Influence Performance Outcome of Expecting Rapid Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current research examines whether and how beliefs about intelligence moderate the effects of expecting rapid feedback on exam performance. Thirty-six undergraduates participated in a field experiment with two between-subjects independent variables: anticipated feedback proximity and beliefs about intelligence. The results show that expecting

Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Jie; Vance, Kaleigh

2013-01-01

69

Aleksandar KOSTADINOV: Expected performance of Orbit Determination of the GALILEO Satellites  

E-print Network

Aleksandar KOSTADINOV: Expected performance of Orbit Determination of the GALILEO Satellites (completed Jänner 2003) In March 2002 the European Union decided to finance the GALILEO orbits (MEOs) at 23600 km altitude. The launch of the first GALILEO satellites can be expected

Schuh, Harald

70

Evaluating faculty work: expectations and standards of faculty performance in research universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectations and the way they are communicated can influence employees’ motivation and performance. Previous research has demonstrated individual effects of workplace climate and individual differences on faculty productivity. The present study focused on the characteristics of institutional performance standards, evaluation processes and performance?responsive measures of academic departments in research universities, as articulated in institutional and departmental annual evaluation and promotion?tenure

Patricia Hardré; Michelle Cox

2009-01-01

71

Expected Performance Functions for Life-Cycle Analysis of Masonry-Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is presented about the influence of infill masonry panels on the life-cycle expected performance functions of multi-story reinforced concrete frames exposed to severe seismic hazard conditions. Quantitative information is presented about present values of expected performance functions of a group of five-story systems located at a firm ground site. The group includes a bare frame system, designed in

Roberto Pérez-Martínez; Luis Esteva

2012-01-01

72

Evaluating Faculty Work: Expectations and Standards of Faculty Performance in Research Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectations and the way they are communicated can influence employees' motivation and performance. Previous research has demonstrated individual effects of workplace climate and individual differences on faculty productivity. The present study focused on the characteristics of institutional performance standards, evaluation processes and…

Hardre, Patricia; Cox, Michelle

2009-01-01

73

March 2011 v3 PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS for an EXAMINER'S INDEPENDENT REVIEW (IR)  

E-print Network

March 2011 v3 PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS for an EXAMINER'S INDEPENDENT REVIEW (IR) Examiner's Performance Level Entry With guidance Competent Independently Expert Independently Job Aids Uses the award evaluation tools and Step-by-Step for Independent Review. Knows the resources available on the Baldrige Web

Magee, Joseph W.

74

Teacher expectancy effects on the achievement test performance of elementary school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carried out a longitudinal study of teacher expectancy effects, using 16 Ss each in 2 2nd-grade and 2 4th-grade classes. At the start of the school year Stanford Achievement Tests (SAT), disguised as tests to measure academic potential, were administered while each teacher ranked the students in her room in terms of her expectations regarding their year-end performance in language

Jerome B. Dusek; Edward J. OConnell

1973-01-01

75

Achievement-Related Expectancies, Academic Self-Concept, and Mathematics Performance of Academically Underprepared Adolescent Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between achievement-related expectancies, academic self-concept, and mathematics performance of 191 academically underprepared adolescent students was examined. After the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, a significant main effect for academic self-concept was found; as expected, students with higher academic self-concept earned significantly higher mathematics grades. In addition, after the effects of prior achievement were controlled for,

J. Daniel House

1993-01-01

76

Effort, performance, and motivation: insights from robot-assisted training of human golf putting and rat grip strength.  

PubMed

Robotic devices can modulate success rates and required effort levels during motor training, but it is unclear how this affects performance gains and motivation. Here we present results from training unimpaired humans in a virtual golf-putting task, and training spinal cord injured (SCI) rats in a grip strength task using robotically modulated success rates and effort levels. Robotic assistance in golf practice increased trainees feelings of competence, and, paradoxically, increased their sense effort, even though it had mixed effects on learning. Reducing effort during a grip strength training task led rats with SCI to practice the task more frequently. However, the more frequent practice of these rats did not cause them to exceed the strength gains achieved by rats that exercised less often at higher required effort levels. These results show that increasing success and decreasing effort with robots increases motivation, but has mixed effects on performance gains. PMID:24187278

Duarte, Jaime E; Gebrekristos, Berkenesh; Perez, Sergi; Rowe, Justin B; Sharp, Kelli; Reinkensmeyer, David J

2013-06-01

77

Unfinished tasks foster rumination and impair sleeping - particularly if leaders have high performance expectations.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationship between time pressure and unfinished tasks as work stressors on employee well-being. Relatively little is known about the effect of unfinished tasks on well-being. Specifically, excluding the impact of time pressure, we examined whether the feeling of not having finished the week's tasks fosters perseverative cognitions and impairs sleep. Additionally, we proposed that leader performance expectations moderate these relationships. In more detail, we expected the detrimental effect of unfinished tasks on both rumination and sleep would be enhanced if leader expectations were perceived to be high. In total, 89 employees filled out online diary surveys both before and after the weekend over a 5-week period. Multilevel growth modeling revealed that time pressure and unfinished tasks impacted rumination and sleep on the weekend. Further, our results supported our hypothesis that unfinished tasks explain unique variance in the dependent variables above and beyond the influence of time pressure. Moreover, we found the relationship between unfinished tasks and both rumination and sleep was moderated by leader performance expectations. Our results emphasize the importance of unfinished tasks as a stressor and highlight that leadership, specifically in the form of performance expectations, contributes significantly to the strength of this relationship. PMID:24933596

Syrek, Christine J; Antoni, Conny H

2014-10-01

78

Laboratory assessment of the effect of heavy rubber glove thickness and sizing on effort, performance and comfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powerline maintainers often work hands-on with live electrical circuits wearing rubber gloves of considerable thickness. The gloves interfere with touch, object manipulation and extra effort is required during manual work. A laboratory study was performed with twenty naïve participants to document the effort required to use gloves of different sizes and thicknesses. The electrical activity (EMG) of seven forearm muscles

R. Wells; S. Hunt; K. Hurley; P. Rosati

2010-01-01

79

"Of Course I Will ...": The Combined Effect of Certainty and Level of Expectancies on Persistence and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of performance expectancies for the prediction of regulation of behavior and actual performance has long been established. Building on theories from the field of social cognition, we suggest that the level of performance expectancies, as well as the certainty of the expectancy, have a joint influence on an individual's beliefs and…

Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Englert, Chris

2011-01-01

80

How Students Build Their Performance Expectancies: The Importance of Need for Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in need for cognition (NFC) have been found to correspond with differences in information processing. Individuals with lower NFC process information using a peripheral route compared to individuals higher in NFC. These differences may effect the formation of performance expectancies. Based on previous work demonstrating that…

Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre

2010-01-01

81

Virginia's College and Career Ready Initiative Grade 12 English Capstone Course Content and Performance Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virginia's "College and Career Ready English Performance Expectations" grade 12 capstone course contains high-interest contextualized content designed to give certain students an additional boost for competent and successful entry into college and careers. The course will add to students' preparation for critical reading, college and workplace…

Virginia Department of Education, 2011

2011-01-01

82

An Investigation of Student Expectation, Perceived Performance and Satisfaction of E-textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the use of e-textbooks in a college level introductory information systems course using an empirical study that gave students the option to buy electronic or print versions of the same textbook. The study measured and analyzed student expectations prior to purchase, perceived performance and satisfaction after use, intention to…

Philip, George C.; Moon, Soo-Young

2013-01-01

83

Students' Perceived Parental School Behavior Expectations and Their Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-report data from 2,088 sixth-grade students in 11 middle schools in North Carolina were combined with administrative data on their eighth-grade end-of-the-year achievement scores in math and reading to examine the influence of students' perceived parental school behavior expectations on their academic performance. Through use of multilevel…

Bowen, Gary L.; Hopson, Laura M.; Rose, Roderick A.; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

2012-01-01

84

Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. [Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)  

SciTech Connect

The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This multilateral'' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250{degree}C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

1992-05-31

85

An expanded perspective on the role of effort phenomenology in motivation and performance.  

PubMed

Kurzban and colleagues propose that experiences of effort alter motivations to persist during goal pursuit by highlighting costs of persistence. I expand this proposal by discussing how effort experiences (a) not only influence, but can be influenced by motivations to persist on a goal; and (b) not only highlight costs that undermine persistence, but can also signal progress and increase persistence. PMID:24304797

Molden, Daniel C

2013-12-01

86

Performance Evaluation of General and Company Specific Models in Software Development Effort Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of our effort estimation analysis of a European Space Agency database consisting of 108 software development projects. We develop and evaluate simple empirical effort estimation models that include only those productivity factors found to be significant for these projects and determine if models based on a multicompany database can be successfully used to

Katrina Maxwell; Luk Van Wassenhove; Soumitra Dutta

1999-01-01

87

Promoting professional nursing practice: linking a professional practice model to performance expectations.  

PubMed

Professional practice models (PPMs) provide the conceptual framework for establishing professional nursing practice. Integrating a PPM requires complex organizational change. One strategy for integrating a PPM is to directly link the PPM with performance expectations to ensure that underlying beliefs are integrated into everyday practice. This article describes the development, implementation, and successful outcomes of a clinical advancement system that was aligned with a PPM. PMID:21320662

Murphy, Marcia; Hinch, Barbara; Llewellyn, Jane; Dillon, Paula J; Carlson, Elizabeth

2011-03-01

88

Marketing and performance evaluations in non-profit services : “Missed” targeting in communicating stakeholders' expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to examine how not communicating stakeholders' expectations through marketing results in mis-targeting. It also aims to suggest that, when non-profit managers do not succeed in capturing stakeholders' definitions of performance, marketing is ineffective and may even result in decreased support for organisational goals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Surveys were administered to managers from a sample of 135

Rita S. Mano

2010-01-01

89

Expectancy of Stress-Reducing Aromatherapy Effect and Performance on a Stress-Sensitive Cognitive Task  

PubMed Central

Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG) task performance and event related potentials (ERP) components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma groups (active experimental, detectable, and undetectable placebo) and 2 prime subgroups (prime suggesting stress-reducing aroma effects or no-prime). GNG performance, ERPs, subjective expected aroma effects, and stress ratings were assessed at baseline and poststress. Results. No specific aroma effects on stress or cognition were observed. However, regardless of experienced aroma, people receiving a prime displayed faster poststress median reaction times than those receiving no prime. A significant interaction for N200 amplitude indicated divergent ERP patterns between baseline and poststress for go and no-go stimuli depending on the prime subgroup. Furthermore, trends for beneficial prime effects were shown on poststress no-go N200/P300 latencies and N200 amplitude. Conclusion. While there were no aroma-specific effects on stress or cognition, these results highlight the role of expectancy for poststress response inhibition and attention.

Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S.

2015-01-01

90

Using Utility Bills and Average Daily Energy Consumption to Target Commissioning Efforts and Track Building Performance  

E-print Network

This paper discusses using basic utility data that is readily available from utility bills to focus targeted retrocommissioning efforts. It also discusses how to use this information to spot emerging problems related to how the building is using...

Sellers, D.

2001-01-01

91

When sad groups expect to meet again: interactive affective sharing and future interaction expectation as determinants of work groups' analytical and creative task performance.  

PubMed

The present study examines the moderating role of future interaction expectation in the relationship between affective sharing and work groups' task performance. We argue that group affect, a group defining characteristic, becomes more salient to its members when it is interactively shared, and that the anticipation of future interaction may strengthen the effects of group defining characteristics on subsequent group member behaviour. As a consequence, interactive sharing (vs. non-interactive sharing) of negative affect is more likely to influence work group outcomes when group members expect to meet again. Results from a laboratory experiment with 66 three-person work groups indeed show that interactively shared (vs. non-interactively shared) negative affect facilitated work groups' analytical task performance, whereas it inhibited performance on a creative fluency task when groups have expectations of future interaction and not when they do not have such expectations. The discussion focuses on how these results add to theory on group affect and contribute to insights in the effects of future interaction expectation. PMID:23046393

Klep, Annefloor H M; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

2013-12-01

92

Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions  

E-print Network

Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the lunar environment.

T. E Girish; S Aranya

2010-12-03

93

Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance  

PubMed Central

The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

2014-01-01

94

Examination of the Role of Expectancies on Task Performance in College Students Concerned about ADHD.  

PubMed

Prior research has shown that performance on cognitive tasks can be influenced by expectations (Smith & Sullivan, 2003 ; Suhr & Gunstad, 2002 , 2005 ). The current study examined whether cuing a belief about the diagnostic saliency of a cognitive task among young adults who expressed concern about having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) influenced task performance. Participants were randomly assigned to either receive neutral directions or be cued to a belief that the task had diagnostic saliency prior to completing a working-memory task. Supporting our hypothesis, college students with higher prestudy report of ADHD symptoms who were cued with a belief about the diagnostic saliency of the task performed worse compared with students who received neutral instructions. As many researchers and clinicians currently rely exclusively on self-reported symptoms and neuropsychological tests to diagnose ADHD, our findings highlight the importance of comprehensive assessment for provision of appropriate clinical services to adults presenting with ADHD concerns. PMID:25255846

Wei, Christina; Suhr, Julie A

2015-01-01

95

The dorsomedial striatum encodes net expected return, critical for energizing performance vigor.  

PubMed

Decision making requires an actor to not only steer behavior toward specific goals but also determine the optimal vigor of performance. Current research and models have largely focused on the former problem of how actions are directed while overlooking the latter problem of how they are energized. Here we designed a self-paced decision-making paradigm, which showed that rats' performance vigor globally fluctuates with the net value of their options, suggesting that they maintain long-term estimates of the value of their current state. Lesions of the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and, to a lesser degree, in the ventral striatum impaired such state-dependent modulation of vigor, rendering vigor to depend more exclusively on the outcomes of immediately preceding trials. The lesions, however, spared choice biases. Neuronal recordings showed that the DMS is enriched in net value-coding neurons. In sum, the DMS encodes one's net expected return, which drives the general motivation to perform. PMID:23584742

Wang, Alice Y; Miura, Keiji; Uchida, Naoshige

2013-05-01

96

Use of Groundwater Lifetime Expectancy for the Performance Assessment of Deep Geologic Radioactive Waste Repositories.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term solutions for the disposal of toxic wastes usually involve isolation of the wastes in a deep subsurface geologic environment. In the case of spent nuclear fuel, the safety of the host repository depends on two main barriers: the engineered barrier and the natural geological barrier. If radionuclide leakage occurs from the engineered barrier, the geological medium represents the ultimate barrier that is relied upon to ensure safety. Consequently, an evaluation of radionuclide travel times from the repository to the biosphere is critically important in a performance assessment analysis. In this study, we develop a travel time framework based on the concept of groundwater lifetime expectancy as a safety indicator. Lifetime expectancy characterizes the time radionuclides will spend in the subsurface after their release from the repository and prior to discharging into the biosphere. The probability density function of lifetime expectancy is computed throughout the host rock by solving the backward-in-time solute transport equation subject to a properly posed set of boundary conditions. It can then be used to define optimal repository locations. In a second step, the risk associated with selected sites can be evaluated by simulating an appropriate contaminant release history. The proposed methodology is applied in the context of a typical Canadian Shield environment. Based on a statistically-generated three-dimension network of fracture zones embedded in the granitic host rock, the sensitivity and the uncertainty of lifetime expectancy to the hydraulic and dispersive properties of the fracture network, including the impact of conditioning via their surface expressions, is computed in order to demonstrate the utility of the methodology.

Cornaton, F.; Park, Y.; Normani, S.; Sudicky, E.; Sykes, J.

2005-12-01

97

Novel methods and expected run II performance of ATLAS track reconstruction in dense environments  

E-print Network

Detailed understanding and optimal track reconstruction performance of ATLAS in the core of high pT objects is paramount for a number of techniques such as jet energy and mass calibration, jet flavour tagging, and hadronic tau identification as well as measurements of physics quantities like jet fragmentation functions. These dense environments are characterized by charged particle separations on the order of the granularity of ATLAS’s inner detector. With the insertion of a new innermost layer in this tracking detector, which allows measurements closer to the interaction point, and an increase in the centre of mass energy, these difficult environments will become even more relevant in Run II, such as in searches for heavy resonances. Novel algorithmic developments to the ATLAS track reconstruction software targeting these topologies as well as the expected improved performance will be presented.

Jansky, Roland Wolfgang; The ATLAS collaboration

2015-01-01

98

Performance analysis of cell discarding techniques for best effort video communications over ATM networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing interest in the transmission of audio–visual applications over ATM best effort services, efficient video-oriented control mechanisms for improving the video quality in the presence of loss have to be designed. In this paper, we propose and evaluate two new slice-based discard schemes for use with available bit rate and guaranteed frame rate services (e.g. formerly UBR+). The schemes

Ahmed Mehaoua; Raouf Boutaba

1998-01-01

99

Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing…

Perdian, David C.

2013-01-01

100

Multistage selection strategies: simulating the effects on adverse impact and expected performance for various predictor combinations.  

PubMed

Examination of the trade-off between mean performance and adverse impact has received empirical attention for single-stage selection strategies; however, research for multistage selection strategies is almost nonexistent. The authors used Monte Carlo simulation to explore the trade-off between expected mean performance and minority hiring in multistage selection strategies and to identify those strategies most effective in balancing the trade-off. In total, 43 different multistage selection strategies were modeled; they reflected combinations of predictors with a wide range of validity, subgroup differences, and predictor intercorrelations. These selection models were examined across a variety of net and stage-specific selection ratios. Though it was still the case that an increase in minority hiring was associated with a decrease in predicted performance for many scenarios, the current results revealed that certain multistage strategies are much more effective than others for managing the performance and adverse impact trade-offs. The current study identified several multistage strategies that are clearly more desirable than those strategies previously suggested in the literature for practitioners who seek a practical selection system that will yield a high-performing and highly representative workforce. PMID:19271793

Finch, David M; Edwards, Bryan D; Wallace, J Craig

2009-03-01

101

Effects of Imagery Training on Cognitive Performance and Use of Physiological Measures as an Assessment Tool of Mental Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of motor imagery training on cognitive performance was examined and the physiological mechanisms involved in the contribution of mental practice to motor learning were considered. The subject's mental effort during motor imagery was assessed by using psychophysiological measures and particularly eye blink activity as an…

Papadelis, Christos; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Albani, Maria

2007-01-01

102

Expected performance of a hard X-ray polarimeter (POLAR) by Monte Carlo simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarization measurements of the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can provide diagnostic information for understanding the nature of the central engine. POLAR is a compact polarimeter dedicated to the polarization measurement of GRBs between 50 and 300 keV and is scheduled to be launched aboard the Chinese Space Laboratory around the year 2012. A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation has been accomplished to model the expected performance of POLAR while a prototype of POLAR is being constructed. The modulation factor, efficiency and effective area, background rates and minimum detectable polarization (MDP) were calculated for different detector configurations and trigger strategies. With the optimized detector configuration and trigger strategy and the total weight constraint of less than 30 kg, the primary science goal to determine whether most GRBs are strongly polarized can be achieved, and about 9 GRBs/yr can be detected with an MDP<10% for the conservative detector configuration.

Xiong, Shaolin; Produit, Nicolas; Wu, Bobing

2009-07-01

103

The performance of individuals with mental retardation on cognitive tests assessing effort and motivation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine which tests of effort and motivation would be appropriate for use with patients with mental retardation when feigning of cognitive deficits is suspected. The seven measures evaluated included the WMS-III Rarely Missed Index Test, forced-choice recognition portion of the California Verbal Learning Test-II, Reliable Digit Span test, Rey 15-Item Test, Rey Dot Counting Test, the Rey 15-Item Test with Recognition Trial, and the Vocabulary (V)-Digit Span (DS) difference score. Results indicated that the forced-choice portion of the CVLT-II, the V-DS difference score, and the Rarely Missed Index Test from the WMS-III might be appropriate for use with this population with passing rates of 89%, 98%, and 91% respectively. PMID:17676547

Marshall, Paul; Happe, Maggie

2007-09-01

104

The Interactive Effects of Conscientiousness, Work Effort, and Psychological Climate on Job Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, conscientiousness-performance relationships have been modest, suggesting the need to examine theoretically-relevant moderating variables. Based on theory and empirical research suggesting that performance variance is maximally predicted in the presence of person and situation variables, we examined the moderating potential of work…

Byrne, Zinta S.; Stoner, Jason; Thompson, Kenneth R.; Hochwarter, Wayne

2005-01-01

105

Building a performance-based environmental management system: EPA's reinvention efforts revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report recommends the Agency do more to help well-meaning companies comply with the law and encourage those that are willing and able to do even more. Since 1996, major stakeholders have achieved consensus on the need and desire to create a ‘performance-base’ environmental managemeny system. Whereas most agree that a performance-based system is

David Monsma; Janice Mazurek

1999-01-01

106

A Memory Game to Demonstrate the Power of Collaborative Efforts to Improve Team Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaboration is an important aspect of information systems (IS) education since work is typically performed in teams. However, IS students often do not fully appreciate the value of group work in their business courses. This teaching tip describes an activity that will objectively demonstrate the value of collaboration and diversity of…

Buche, Mari W.

2013-01-01

107

Federal Efforts to Improve the Lowest-Performing Schools: District Views on School Improvement Grant Requirements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Congress considers legislation to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965, one topic of debate is the program of school improvement grants (SIGs) authorized by section 1003(g) of Title I. SIGs are intended to help to turn around low-performing schools and are part of the larger ESEA Title I program to improve…

Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

2011-01-01

108

Effects of Information Reliability in Predicting Task Performance Using Ability and Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The examination of credibility effects in predicting achievement, an important step in the study of source credibility effects on attributions, substantiates Birnbaum's findings that variation in the credibility of information can be represented by changes in the weight of the information. Undergraduate subjects (N=65) predicted the performance of…

Surber, Colleen F.

109

Effort Allocation in Tournaments: The Effect of Gender on Academic Performance in Italian Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We consider the academic performance of Italian university graduates and their labor market position 3 years after graduation. Our data confirm the common finding that female students outperform male students in academia but are overcome in the labor market. Assuming that academic competition is fair and that individual talent is equally…

Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa

2009-01-01

110

Comparison of Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a comparison of Virginia's mathematics performance expectations with the common core state standards for mathematics. The comparison focuses on number and quantity, algebra, functions, geometry, and statistics and probability. (Contains 1 footnote.)

Virginia Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

111

Caffeine and Placebo Expectation: Effects on Vigilance, Cognitive Performance, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure During 28 Hours of Sleep Deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine placebo expectation seems to improve vigilance and cognitive performance. This study investigated the effect of caffeine and placebo expectation on vigilance and cognitive performance during 28 h sleep deprivation. Ten healthy males volunteered to take part in the double-blind, cross-over study, which required participants to complete five treatment periods of 28 h separated by 1-week wash-out intervals. The treatments

Yunfeng Sun; Yinling Zhang; Ning He; Xufeng Liu; Danmin Miao

2007-01-01

112

Expected performance of the stereo camera on board the BepiColombo mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stereo camera (STC) is one of the channels of SIMBIOSYS, the remote sensing instrument that will be on board the BepiColombo, and it will provide the global mapping of Mercury and Digital Terrain Model of the entire surface. The maximum spatial resolution will be of 50 m per pixel at the periherm (400 km from the surface) and the vertical accuracy will be about 84 m. The grid size of the DTM is depending even from the stereo reconstruction software will apply, and according to our new algorithm we may achieve 1-2 pixels. In this work we will show the expected performance of STC, the observing strategy and the simulations of what the camera will provide for the geological analysis. Some stereo pairs obtained by space missions, on other Solar System bodies, will be used for the simulations after having applied our new algorithm for the stereo reconstruction. On all the images we will evaluate the impact of the compression software in terms of DTM accuracy.

Cremonese, Gabriele; Capria, Maria Teresa; da Deppo, Vania; Forlani, Gianfranco; Forni, Olivier; Langevin, Yves; Massironi, Matteo; Naletto, Giampiero; Simioni, Emanuele; Debei, Stefano; Flamini, Enrico; Sgavetti, Maria; Giacomini, Lorenza; Martellato, Elena

113

FY13 High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort - Training Data Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the time hand-intensive tasks were first created for EVAs, discomforts and injuries have been noted.. There have been numerous versions of EVA gloves for US crew over the past 50 years, yet pain and injuries persist. The investigation team was tasked with assisting in a glove injury assessment for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project.center dot To aid in this assessment, the team was asked to complete the following objectives: - First, to develop the best current understanding of what glove-related injuries have occurred to date, and when possible, identify the specific mechanisms that caused those injuries - Second, to create a standardized method for comparison of glove injury potential from one glove to another. center dot The overall goal of the gloved hand injury assessment is to utilize ergonomics in understanding how these glove injuries are occurring, and to propose mitigations to current designs or design changes in the next generation of EVA gloves.

Reid, Christopher; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Charvat, Jacqueline; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

114

Expectation to receive methylphenidate enhances subjective arousal but not cognitive performance  

PubMed Central

Nonmedical use of prescription stimulant medication such as methylphenidate (MPH) has increased among college students over the past several years. Common motivations for use include enhancements in cognition and subjective arousal. As it is unclear whether stimulant medication exerts the same effect on healthy individuals as for those with ADHD, it is possible that many reported effects of prescription stimulants by healthy individuals may stem from placebo effects, which may be an important mechanism underlying initiation and maintenance of nonmedical use. This study examined whether placebo effects influence reports of subjective mood and cognitive performance among college students who endorsed several risk factors for prescription stimulant misuse (i.e., low GPA, fraternity/sorority involvement, binge drinking, cannabis use). Ninety-six subjects (60% male) completed a battery of cognitive tests and questionnaires assessing present mood state on two occasions. Forty-seven participants were randomized to an experimental condition and orally ingested what they believed to be MPH, though actually placebo, on one visit and received no medication on the other visit. The control group received no medication on either visit. During the administration visit, experimental participants reported feeling significantly more high and stimulated compared to the non-administration visit and to the control subjects. However, cognitive enhancement differences were not generally seen between visits or groups. This research demonstrates that placebo effects for prescription stimulants do influence subjective mood and may be implicated in nonmedical stimulant use. This knowledge may be useful in challenging prescription stimulant-related expectancies to decrease the prevalence of use among college students. PMID:21875224

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2013-01-01

115

Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported. Detailed consideration of the effects of both the natural and induced ionizing radiation environment during ISS design, development, and flight operations has produced a safe, efficient manned space platform that is largely immune to deleterious effects of the LEO ionizing radiation environment. The assumption of a small shielding mass for purposes of design and verification has been shown to be a valid worst-case approximation approach to design for reliability, though predicted dependences of single event effect (SEE) effects on latitude, longitude, SEP events, and spacecraft structural shielding mass are not observed. The Figure of Merit (FOM) method over predicts the rate for median shielding masses of about 10g/cm(exp 2) by only a factor of 3, while the Scott Effective Flux Approach (SEFA) method overestimated by about one order of magnitude as expected. The Integral Rectangular Parallelepiped (IRPP), SEFA, and FOM methods for estimating on-orbit (Single Event Upsets) SEU rates all utilize some version of the CREME-96 treatment of energetic particle interaction with structural shielding, which has been shown to underestimate the production of secondary particles in heavily shielded manned spacecraft. The need for more work directed to development of a practical understanding of secondary particle production in massive structural shielding for SEE design and verification is indicated. In contrast, total dose estimates using CAD based shielding mass distributions functions and the Shieldose Code provided a reasonable accurate estimate of accumulated dose in Grays internal to the ISS pressurized elements, albeit as a result of using worst-on-worst case assumptions (500 km altitude x 2) that compensate for ignoring both GCR and secondary particle production in massive structural shielding.

Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

2005-01-01

116

Expectations and Outcomes of Reserve Network Performance following Re-zoning of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.  

PubMed

Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are widely advocated for preserving exploited fish stocks and for conserving biodiversity. We used underwater visual surveys of coral reef fish and benthic communities to quantify the short- to medium-term (5 to 30 years) ecological effects of the establishment of NTMRs within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). The density, mean length, and biomass of principal fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp., Variola spp.), were consistently greater in NTMRs than on fished reefs over both the short and medium term. However, there were no clear or consistent differences in the structure of fish or benthic assemblages, non-target fish density, fish species richness, or coral cover between NTMR and fished reefs. There was no indication that the displacement and concentration of fishing effort reduced coral trout populations on fished reefs. A severe tropical cyclone impacted many survey reefs during the study, causing similar declines in coral cover and fish density on both NTMR and fished reefs. However, coral trout biomass declined only on fished reefs after the cyclone. The GBRMP is performing as expected in terms of the protection of fished stocks and biodiversity for a developed country in which fishing is not excessive and targets a narrow range of species. NTMRs cannot protect coral reefs directly from acute regional-scale disturbance but, after a strong tropical cyclone, impacted NTMR reefs supported higher biomass of key fishery-targeted species and so should provide valuable sources of larvae to enhance population recovery and long-term persistence. PMID:25819564

Emslie, Michael J; Logan, Murray; Williamson, David H; Ayling, Anthony M; MacNeil, M Aaron; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Cheal, Alistair J; Evans, Richard D; Johns, Kerryn A; Jonker, Michelle J; Miller, Ian R; Osborne, Kate; Russ, Garry R; Sweatman, Hugh P A

2015-04-20

117

The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first…

Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

2013-01-01

118

The Imaging and Slitless Spectroscopy Instrument for Surveys (ISSIS): expected radiometric performance, operation modes and data handling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISSIS is the instrument for imaging and slitless spectroscopy on-board WSO-UV. In this article, a detailed comparison between ISSIS expected radiometric performance and other ultraviolet instruments is shown. In addition, we present preliminary information on the performance verification tests and on the foreseen procedures for in-flight operation and data handling.

Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Belén Perea, G.; Sánchez, Néstor; Santiago, Javier López; Chirivella, Jóse; Seijas, Juan

2014-11-01

119

Description and expected performance of flight-model, 12-gigahertz, output stage tube for the communications technology satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight model output stage tube for the Communications Technology Satellite is described. The output stage tube is a 12-GHz, 200-W, coupled cavity traveling wave tube. The tube has a multistage depressed collector for efficiency enhancement. Collector cooling is accomplished by direct radiation to space. Expected rf performance and factors affecting on orbit performance and life are discussed.

Chomos, G. J.; Curren, A. N.

1976-01-01

120

Performance Expectations of the Associate Degree Nurse Graduate within the First Six Months.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey responses from 174 health care employers identified their expectations of entry-level associate degree nursing graduates. Verbal/written communication, accountability, flexibility, and open mindedness ranked highest. Fiscal management competence ranked lowest. (SK)

Diede, Nancy; McNish, Gayle; Coose, Carol

2000-01-01

121

5 CFR 9901.410 - Addressing performance that does not meet expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...expectations. 9901.410 Section 9901.410 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

2011-01-01

122

Beam dynamics and expected RHIC performance with 56MHz RF upgrade  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade of the RHIC storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was recently proposed. This upgrade will provide a significant increase in the acceptance of the RHIC 197 MHz storage RF bucket. This paper summarizes simulations of beam evolution due to intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvements are shown for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and protons at 250 GeV.

Fedotov,A.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.

2009-05-04

123

Expected effect of caffeine on motor performance predicts the type of response to placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments (N=56) investigated the relationship between subjects’ expectancies concerning the effect of caffeine on a motor skill, and\\u000a the type of placebo response. Male subjects were assigned to four groups. Three groups expected to receive caffeine but received\\u000a a placebo. Prior to the placebo, two of the groups received information about the effect of caffeine on a motor skill

M. Fillmore; M. Vogel-Sprott

1992-01-01

124

Effects of differential reinforcement expectancies on successful matching-to-sample performance in pigeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employed a symbolic variant of J. A. Konorski's (1959) delayed successive matching-to-sample task to determine whether differential reinforcement expectancies affect discriminative responding. One of 2 sample stimuli was followed, after a delay (0, 5, or 10 sec), by 1 of 2 test stimuli. Ss' keypecking during test periods could produce food only on positive trials; nonreinforcement invariably occurred on negative

Robert E. DeLong; Edward A. Wasserman

1981-01-01

125

Expectancy effect: Impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectancy or placebo effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. To determine the effect of taking pills on cognitive function, 40 participants were randomly assigned to a pill or no-pill condition. Healthy seniors who took a 2-week supply of methylcellulose pills, which they were told was an experimental cognitive enhancer, were compared to seniors not taking any pills.

Barry S. Oken; Kristin Flegal; Daniel Zajdel; Shirley Kishiyama; Mitchell Haas; Dawn Peters

2008-01-01

126

Effects of imagery training on cognitive performance and use of physiological measures as an assessment tool of mental effort.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of motor imagery training on cognitive performance was examined and the physiological mechanisms involved in the contribution of mental practice to motor learning were considered. The subject's mental effort during motor imagery was assessed by using psychophysiological measures and particularly eye blink activity as an 'indirect' measurement of subjects' attention. An electronic flight simulation program (Multiple Attribute Task Battery--MATB) was used to assess performance. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the study divided in two groups: the control group and the imagery-training group. The subjects of the imagery group were asked for additional imagery training. The subjects of the actual performing group were asked additionally to passively observe the task in order to have equal time of exposure to the task. Performance scores and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, eye blinking activity and muscular activity were recorded during all sessions. The results revealed significantly higher performance level of the imagery-training group than the control group. Heart rate and respiratory rate significantly increased during imagery sessions compared to rest. A slight electromyographic activity was observed during the imagination of movement. Our findings support the notion that mental practice improves motor performance in a task where spatiotemporal or dynamic control of the action is highly required. The effects of mental practice on motor performance could be explained by the existence of a top-down mechanism based on the activation of a central representation of the movements, since the vegetative activation during motor imagery seems to be centrally controlled. PMID:17335950

Papadelis, Christos; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Albani, Maria

2007-06-01

127

Effect of Test-Expectancy and Word Bank Availability on Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined test-expectancy as it applies to fill-in-the-blank tests. We randomly assigned 60 college students to take a fill-in-the-blank vocabulary test in one of three conditions. Two groups took the test with a word bank available; we told one group but not the other that they would have a word bank. The third group took the test with no word…

Glass, Laura A.; Clause, Christopher B.; Kreiner, David S.

2007-01-01

128

General and Specific Self-Efficacy in the Context of a Training Intervention to Enhance Performance Expectancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pretest-posttest field study investigated self-efficacy, both general and specific, in an intensive training experience to prepare new recruits for their work assignments. Specific issues addressed include (1) the effects of the training experience on general self-efficacy (GSE), work-specific selfefficacy (SSE), and performance expectancy; (2)…

Schwoerer, Catherine E.; May, Douglas R.; Hollensbe, Elaine C.; Mencl, Jennifer

2005-01-01

129

To What Degree Does the Desire for Promotion Motivate Faculty to Perform Research? Testing the Expectancy Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the rationale of expectancy theory, this article examines to what degree the desire for promotion motivates faculty to do research. Using Taiwanese faculty survey data, it is found that faculty members who show higher motivation for promotion display better research performance than their colleagues who show lower motivation for promotion. This article also indicates that different kinds of

Flora F. Tien

2000-01-01

130

Children's Achievement Expectations and Performance as a Function of Two Consecutive Reinforcement Experiences, Sex of Subject, and Sex of Experimenter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research patterned on two earlier studies by the Crandalls 1963, 1964 on the effects of praise, criticism, and nonreaction on 10-year-old children involved in a marble-dropping task. The subjects tended to increase in performance and decrease in achievement expectancy when criticized. Table, graphs, and bibliography. (RW)

Montanelli, Dale Soderman; Hill, Kennedy T.

1969-01-01

131

Expectation-driven changes in cortical functional connectivity influence working memory and long-term memory performance.  

PubMed

Expectations generated by predictive cues increase the efficiency of perceptual processing for complex stimuli (e.g., faces, scenes); however, the impact this has on working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) has not yet been investigated. Here, healthy young adults performed delayed-recognition tasks that differed only in stimulus category expectations, while behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected. Univariate and functional-connectivity analyses were used to examine expectation-driven, prestimulus neural modulation, networks that regulate this modulation, and subsequent memory performance. Results revealed that predictive category cueing was associated with both enhanced WM and LTM for faces, as well as baseline activity shifts in a face-selective region of the visual association cortex [i.e., fusiform face area (FFA)]. In addition, the degree of functional connectivity between FFA and right inferior frontal junction (IFJ), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), inferior frontal gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus correlated with the magnitude of prestimulus activity modulation in the FFA. In an opposing manner, prestimulus connectivity between FFA and posterior cingulate cortex, a region of the default network, negatively correlated with FFA activity modulation. Moreover, whereas FFA connectivity with IFJ and the precuneus predicted enhanced expectation-related WM performance, FFA connectivity with MFG predicted LTM improvements. These findings suggest a model of expectancy-mediated neural biasing, in which a single node (e.g., FFA) can be dynamically linked or disconnected from different brain regions depending on prestimulus expectations, and the strength of distinct connections is associated with WM or LTM benefits. PMID:20980597

Bollinger, Jacob; Rubens, Michael T; Zanto, Theodore P; Gazzaley, Adam

2010-10-27

132

An Investigation of Adult Expectations as They Affect Children's Learning and Performance. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments were conducted in order to investigate teacher- and experimenter-bias effects on children's learning and performance. Teacher-bias effects on children's Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) performance were assessed in a one and a half year longitudinal study in two second- and two fourth-grade classrooms. The teacher-bias…

Dusek, Jerome B.

133

Performance Expectations for Future Moderate Resolution Visible and Infrared Space Instruments Based on AIRS and MODIS In-Flight Experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lessons learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) projects highlight areas where further technology development is needed to address future land, ocean and atmospheric measurement needs. Although not established as requirements at this time, it is anticipated that scientists will expect improvements in the areas of spatial, spectral, radiometric, polarimetric, temporal and calibration performance for future sensors. This paper addresses each of these performance areas and provides lessons learned from MODIS and AIRS. We also present expectations in performance of the system based on information from NASA Instrument Incubator Program and industry reports. Tradeoffs are presented vs orbit altitude (LEO, ME0 and GEO) and provide a 'systems' perspective to future measurement concepts.

Pagano, Thomas S.; Broberg, Steven E.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Baron, Richard L.

2004-01-01

134

Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. Final report, July 1, 1986--May 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This ``multilateral`` project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250{degree}C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

Winston, R.; O`Gallagher, J.J.

1992-05-31

135

A liquid xenon imaging telescope for gamma ray astrophysics: Design and expected performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high resolution telescope for imaging cosmic x ray sources in the MeV region, with an angular resolution better than 0.5 deg is being developed as balloon-borne payload. The instrument consists of a 3-D liquid xenon TPC as x ray detector, coupled with a coded aperture at a distance of 1 meter. A study of the actual source distribution of the 1.809 MeV line from the decay of Al-26 and the 511 keV positron-electron annihilation line is among the scientific objectives, along with a search for new x ray sources. The telescope design parameters and expected minimum flux sensitivity to line and continuum radiation are presented. The unique capablity of the LXe-TPC as a Compton Polarimeter is also discussed.

Aprile, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Chen, D.; Bolotnikov, A.

1992-01-01

136

IBS and expected luminosity performance for RHIC beams at top energy with 56 MHz SRF cavity  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of RF system in RHIC is to capture injected bunches, accelerate them to the top energy, and store bunches at the top energy for many hours. The accelerating RF system operates at harmonic number h=360 of the particle revolution frequency f=78.196 kHz, which corresponds to 28.15MHz. The storage RF system accepts the shortened bunches at top energy and provides longitudinal focusing to keep these bunches short during the store time (collision mode). The storage system operates at harmonic number h=7x360=2520, which corresponds to an RF frequency of 197.05 MHz [1]. Recently, an upgrade of storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was proposed [2]. This upgrade will provide significant increase in the acceptance of storage RF bucket. Presently, the short bunch length for collisions is obtained via RF gymnastics with bunch rotation (called re-bucketing), because the length of 197MHz bucket of 5 nsec is too short to accommodate long bunches otherwise. However, due to bucket non-linearity and hardware complications some increase in the longitudinal emittance occurs during re-bucketing. The 56MHz cavity will produce sufficiently short bunches which would allow one to operate without re-bucketing procedure. This Note summarizes simulation of beam evolution due to Intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvement is shown both for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and for protons at 250 GeV.

Fedotov,A.

2008-10-01

137

The Threat of Living up to Expectations: Analyzing the Performance of Hispanic Students on Standardized Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines whether the recognition of stereotypes undermines the academic performance of Hispanic students, a phenomenon known as "stereotype threat." With regard to race, stereotype threat has been examined predominately between African American and White students, yet limited research has investigated how Hispanic…

Rodríguez, Bryan A.

2014-01-01

138

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of current data and understanding of site characteristics at Yucca Mountain, the likely performance range of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel can be calculated. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1987-01-01

139

a comparative analysis of expected spatial performance as stated in briefs and laid out in plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses coherence between design schemes and designed performance by applying space syntax analytical techniques to building proposals, in order to verify whether some spatial qualities and patterns of use sought by the designer, as described in the brief, correspond to spatial properties that tend to enable those qualities and encourage those uses. Accessibility and visibility properties of integration

Edja Trigueiro; Fernanda de Paula; Carlos Onofre

140

The Arecibo upgrading: electrical design and expected performance of the dual-reflector feed system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the electrical design and predicted performance of a dual-reflector feed for the fixed spherical reflector of the Arecibo radio telescope. This dual-reflector feed, dubbed the Gregorian has much larger bandwidth, lower losses, and provides better aperture illumination than the old line feeds. The paper begins with a historical review of the line feeds and the first conceptual

PER-SIMON KILDAL; LYNN A. BAKER; TOR HAGFORS

1994-01-01

141

Federated or cached searches: providing expected performance from multiple invasive species databases  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive species are a universal global problem, but the information to identify them, manage them, and prevent invasions is stored around the globe in a variety of formats. The Global Invasive Species Information Network is a consortium of organizations working toward providing seamless access to these disparate databases via the Internet. A distributed network of databases can be created using the Internet and a standard web service protocol. There are two options to provide this integration. First, federated searches are being proposed to allow users to search “deep” web documents such as databases for invasive species. A second method is to create a cache of data from the databases for searching. We compare these two methods, and show that federated searches will not provide the performance and flexibility required from users and a central cache of the datum are required to improve performance.

Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Newman, Gregory J.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

142

Site Effect and Expected Seismic Performance of Buildings in Palestine- Case Study: Nablus City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of local geology on ground-motion amplification and building damage were studied in Palestine-West Bank. Nakamura's method of microtremor analysis was applied in this study. The measurements showed significantly higher amplification in the frequency range of building vulnerability in different parts of Nablus city. This finding is consistent with the distribution of the earthquake damage grades in the urban areas struck by the 11 February 2004 earthquake (ML = 5.2) with a focal depth of 17 km beneath the northeastern part of the Dead Sea Basin. Quite large differences in amplification between around 1 and 9 were computed between the eastern and western rims of the city. The downtown built in the central part of the city on soft clay, marl and valley deposits, whereas the northern and southern parts of urban areas in Nablus city lying on mountains consist of consolidated carbonates bedrock. In the central part of the city and at the rims, where the thickness of fluvial deposits and soft formations is about 15 m, amplifications between 6.74 and 8.67 for dominant natural period range of 0.8-1.1 sec were obtained. On the southern and northern mountains, which are located on limestone rocks covered with a thin layer of soil, the amplification in the same frequency range was low. Calculating the natural period of the existing common buildings (Tb) in the studied area (buildings with 10-12 stories), by using the dynamic analysis method. The values of Tb obtained were much closed to the site dominant natural period (Ts). The findings of this study indicate that the expected differences in damage grades for urban areas in Nablus city could be attributed to variations in the thickness and physical properties of Tertiary-Quaternary sediments, which appear to be rather heterogeneous.

Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

2008-07-01

143

Site Effect and Expected Seismic Performance of Buildings in Palestine- Case Study: Nablus City  

SciTech Connect

The effects of local geology on ground-motion amplification and building damage were studied in Palestine-West Bank. Nakamura's method of microtremor analysis was applied in this study. The measurements showed significantly higher amplification in the frequency range of building vulnerability in different parts of Nablus city. This finding is consistent with the distribution of the earthquake damage grades in the urban areas struck by the 11 February 2004 earthquake (ML = 5.2) with a focal depth of 17 km beneath the northeastern part of the Dead Sea Basin. Quite large differences in amplification between around 1 and 9 were computed between the eastern and western rims of the city. The downtown built in the central part of the city on soft clay, marl and valley deposits, whereas the northern and southern parts of urban areas in Nablus city lying on mountains consist of consolidated carbonates bedrock. In the central part of the city and at the rims, where the thickness of fluvial deposits and soft formations is about 15 m, amplifications between 6.74 and 8.67 for dominant natural period range of 0.8-1.1 sec were obtained. On the southern and northern mountains, which are located on limestone rocks covered with a thin layer of soil, the amplification in the same frequency range was low. Calculating the natural period of the existing common buildings (T{sub b}) in the studied area (buildings with 10-12 stories), by using the dynamic analysis method. The values of T{sub b} obtained were much closed to the site dominant natural period (Ts). The findings of this study indicate that the expected differences in damage grades for urban areas in Nablus city could be attributed to variations in the thickness and physical properties of Tertiary-Quaternary sediments, which appear to be rather heterogeneous.

Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J. [Earth Sciences and Seismic Engineering Center (ESSEC) An-Najah National University, P.O. Box 7, Nablus, Palestine (Country Unknown)

2008-07-08

144

Case Study of Expected Seismic Performance of an Instrumented Steel Moment Frame Building  

SciTech Connect

A relevant number of modern welded steel structures suffered unexpected damage during the January 1994 Northridge earthquake. The damage of welded special moment resisting frames (W-SMRJF) typically involved the brittle fracture in the welded girder to column connection areas. In the aftermath of the Northridge earthquake the research and structural engineering communities addressed the issue of the seismic safety of damaged and undamaged W-SMRF's. However, even though seismic design codes in the United States were significantly revised after the Northridge quake, still there are hundreds of existing W-Serf's in the US and in other countries, designed and detailed according to pre-Northridge criteria. This work is a case study on seismic response of a W-SMRF instrumented by the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) which was shaken during the 1987 Whittier, 1991 Sierra Madre and 1994 Northridge earthquakes. A detailed finite element model of the structure is developed to analyze the building dynamic response during recorded strong motions. Model accuracy was assessed by comparing prediction of the analytical model with actual CSMIP response records. In order to assess its vulnerability in response to future and possibly stronger earthquakes, nonlinear analyses were conducted subjecting the model to the Newhall and Sylmar records of the 1994 Northridge and to the 1995 Kobe earthquakes. Analysis results show that the structure behaved linearly during these earthquakes. The predicted response to larger and more severe ground motions show that plastic deformation occur at many column ends and inelastic deformation demands exceed the expected capacity of the welded pre-Northridge beam-to-column connections.

Amore, Enzo D' [University 'Mediterranea' of Reggio Calabria, loc. Feo di Vito, 89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan [University of California, Berkeley, 781 Davis Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-1710 (United States)

2008-07-08

145

Case Study of Expected Seismic Performance of an Instrumented Steel Moment Frame Building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relevant number of modern welded steel structures suffered unexpected damage during the January 1994 Northridge earthquake. The damage of welded special moment resisting frames (W-SMRJF) typically involved the brittle fracture in the welded girder to column connection areas. In the aftermath of the Northridge earthquake the research and structural engineering communities addressed the issue of the seismic safety of damaged and undamaged W-SMRF's. However, even though seismic design codes in the United States were significantly revised after the Northridge quake, still there are hundreds of existing W-Serf's in the US and in other countries, designed and detailed according to pre-Northridge criteria. This work is a case study on seismic response of a W-SMRF instrumented by the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) which was shaken during the 1987 Whittier, 1991 Sierra Madre and 1994 Northridge earthquakes. A detailed finite element model of the structure is developed to analyze the building dynamic response during recorded strong motions. Model accuracy was assessed by comparing prediction of the analytical model with actual CSMIP response records. In order to assess its vulnerability in response to future and possibly stronger earthquakes, nonlinear analyses were conducted subjecting the model to the Newhall and Sylmar records of the 1994 Northridge and to the 1995 Kobe earthquakes. Analysis results show that the structure behaved linearly during these earthquakes. The predicted response to larger and more severe ground motions show that plastic deformation occur at many column ends and inelastic deformation demands exceed the expected capacity of the welded pre-Northridge beam-to-column connections.

Amore, Enzo D'; Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

2008-07-01

146

Special Report on the "Department of Energy's Efforts to Meet Accountability and Performance Reporting Objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act"  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in health and science, and invest in the Nation's energy future. The Department of Energy will receive an unprecedented $38 billion in Recovery Act funding to support a variety of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. The Recovery Act requires transparency and accountability over these funds. To this end, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued guidance requiring the Department to compile and report a wide variety of funding, accounting, and performance information. The Department plans to leverage existing information systems to develop accounting and performance information that will be used by program managers and ultimately reported to Recovery.gov, the government-wide source of Recovery Act information, and to OMB. The Department's iManage iPortal, a system that aggregates information from a number of corporate systems, will serve as the main reporting gateway for accounting information. In addition, the Department plans to implement a methodology or system that will permit it to monitor information reported directly to OMB by prime funding recipients. Furthermore, performance measures or metrics that outline expected outcomes are being developed, with results ultimately to be reported in a recently developed Department-wide system. Because of the significance of funds provided and their importance to strengthening the Nation's economy, we initiated this review to determine whether the Department had taken the steps necessary to ensure that Recovery Act funds can be appropriately tracked and are transparent to the public, and whether the benefits of the expenditures can be properly measured and reported clearly, accurately, and in a timely manner. Although not yet fully mature, we found that the Department's efforts to develop, refine, and apply the control structure needed to ensure accurate, timely, and reliable reporting to be both proactive and positive. We did, however, identify certain issues relating to Recovery Act performance management, accounting and reporting accuracy, and timeliness that should be addressed and resolved. In particular, at the time of our review: (1) Program officials had not yet determined whether existing information systems will be able to process anticipated transaction increases associated with the Recovery Act; (2) System modifications made to the Department's performance management system to accommodate Recovery Act performance measures had not yet been fully tested and verified; (3) The ability of prime and sub-recipients to properly segregate and report both accounting and performance information had not been determined; (4) There was a lack of coordination between Headquarters organizations related to aspects of Recovery Act reporting. For example, we observed that the Offices of Fossil Energy and Program, Analysis and Evaluation were both involved in developing job creation estimates that could yield significantly different results; and, (5) A significant portion (91 of 142, or 64 percent) of the performance measures developed for the Recovery Act activities were not quantifiable. In some instances, Project Operating Plans had not been finalized and we were not able to verify that all needed performance measures had been developed. Furthermore, the Department had not developed specific metrics to measure federal and contractor jobs creation and retention, an essential Recovery Act objective. The Department had devoted a great deal of time and resources to identifying and mitigating Recovery Act-related risks. For example, the Department developed a risk assessment tool that is intended to assist programs in identifying risks that can prevent its Recovery Act projects from meeting their intended goals. We also found that program staff and management officials at multiple levels were actively engaged in designing Recovery Act-related control and accountability programs. These efforts ra

None

2009-09-01

147

Capacitor-less A-RAM SOI memory: Principles, scaling and expected performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on numerical TCAD simulations, the novel capacitor-less A-RAM memory cell is detailed in terms of electrostatic effects, transient operation and retention time. The particular double-body device architecture on SOI is beneficial for better scalability than conventional 1T-DRAMs. Its dual body partitioning suppresses the supercoupling effect in SOI; the two types of carriers can coexist inside ultrathin fully depleted transistors. Electrons and holes are accommodated in different bodies, separated by an insulator layer, but remain electrostatically coupled. A-RAM features easy discrimination of '0' and '1' states, simple control waveforms and very promising performance.

Rodriguez, Noel; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Gamiz, Francisco

2011-05-01

148

Performance Appraisal Use this form two, three or four times per year to clarify performance expectations, set challenging goals, rate how well the employee  

E-print Network

expectations, set challenging goals, rate how well the employee performed, and develop an action plan for job or department head for review and signature before discussing the rating with the employee. Appraisals has had an opportunity to review and comment on this appraisal. Employee's Comments: Employee

Amin, S. Massoud

149

Thermal Performance Expectations of the Advanced Stirling Convertor Over a Range of Operating Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) will enable various missions such as small body sample return, atmospheric missions around Venus, as well as long - duration deep space missions. Analysis of the temperature distributions are performed on an Advanced Stirling Convertor, and the results are compared with available experimental measurements. This analysis includes applied environmental conditions that are similar to those that will be experienced while the convertor is in operation. The applied conditions represent a potential mission profile including pre-takeoff sterilization, launch, transit, and return. The results focus on the anticipated peak temperatures of the magnets in the linear alternator. These results confirm that the ASC can support future missions to deep space targets, extreme environment landers, as well as more conventional goals.

Reid, Terry V.; Dyson, Rodger W.

2010-01-01

150

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the random integer command on their graphing calculators to simulate rolling a die. They will then use operations on lists to analyze the probability of rolling the first 1 on the 1st roll, 2nd roll, and so on and finally find the expected value. Teacher notes explain in detail how to perform these actions on the graphing calculator.

2012-08-30

151

Expected performance of an ideal liquid argon neutrino detector with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillation light is used in liquid argon (LAr) neutrino detectors to provide a trigger signal, veto information against cosmic rays, and absolute event timing. In this work, we discuss additional opportunities offered by detectors with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light, that is with light collection efficiencies of about 10-3. We focus on two key detector performance indicators for neutrino oscillation physics: calorimetric neutrino energy reconstruction and neutrino/antineutrino separation in a non-magnetized detector. Our results are based on detailed simulations, with neutrino interactions modelled according to the GENIE event generator, while the charge and light responses of a large LAr ideal detector are described by the Geant4 and NEST simulation tools. A neutrino energy resolution as good as 3.3% RMS for 4 GeV electron neutrino charged-current interactions can in principle be obtained in a large detector of this type, by using both charge and light information. By exploiting muon capture in argon and scintillation light information to veto muon decay electrons, we also obtain muon neutrino identification efficiencies of about 50%, and muon antineutrino misidentification rates at the few percent level, for few-GeV neutrino interactions that are fully contained. We argue that the construction of large LAr detectors with sufficiently high light collection efficiencies is in principle possible.

Sorel, M.

2014-10-01

152

Expected performance of an ideal liquid argon neutrino detector with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light  

E-print Network

Scintillation light is used in liquid argon (LAr) neutrino detectors to provide a trigger signal, veto information against cosmic rays, and absolute event timing. In this work, we discuss additional opportunities offered by detectors with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light, that is with light collection efficiencies of about $10^{-3}$. We focus on two key detector performance indicators for neutrino oscillation physics: calorimetric neutrino energy reconstruction and neutrino/antineutrino separation in a non-magnetized detector. Our results are based on detailed simulations, with neutrino interactions modelled according to the GENIE event generator, while the charge and light responses of a large LAr ideal detector are described by the Geant4 and NEST simulation tools. A neutrino energy resolution as good as 3.3\\% RMS for 4 GeV electron neutrino charged-current interactions can in principle be obtained in a large detector of this type, by using both charge and light information. By exploiting muon capture in argon and scintillation light information to veto muon decay electrons, we also obtain muon neutrino identification efficiencies of about 50\\%, and muon antineutrino misidentification rates at the few percent level, for few-GeV neutrino interactions that are fully contained. We argue that the construction of large LAr detectors with sufficiently high light collection efficiencies is in principle possible.

M. Sorel

2014-09-05

153

Performance of the ITER ICRF Antenna plug as expected from TOPICA matrices  

SciTech Connect

The performances of the present ICRF antenna plug design is evaluated by means of the TOPICA 24x24 matrix for plasma loading supplemented by 4-port junction (4PJ) matrices. For their interpretation these results are compared with a cruder modeling by the semi-analytical code ANTITER II. From this analysis we conclude: (1) The broadbanding effect of the service stub on the response of the 4PJ made for one triplet is maintained for the complete array for all the heating and current drive phasings. (2) For a given maximum voltage of the 8 feeding lines the radiated power capability is roughly constant in the entire frequency band. (3) The power capability of the array is significantly dependent on the distance of the antenna to the Last Closed Flux Surface, the density profile in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and on the toroidal and poloidal phasings. The dependence on phasing is stronger for wider SOL (4) For a not too optimistic plasma density profile (Sc2 shortl7) a power capability exceeding 20 MW is only obtained for the 00 {pi}{pi} heating toroidal phasing and for the co-current drive phasing in the upper part of the frequency band for a maximum voltage in the complete system of 45 kV. (5), On account of the plasma gyrotropy the quadrature poloidal phasing introduced by hybrid feeding must excite waves propagating upwards in the ITER configuration to obtain the best coupling, (6) The large power capability difference between opposite current drive phasings is attributed to the coupling between the toroidal and poloidal phasings induced by the poloidal steady magnetic field.

Messiaen, A.; Koch, R.; Dumortier, P.; Louche, F.; Weynants, R. [LPP-ERM/KMS, EURATOM-Belgian State Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Brussels (Belgium); Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino,, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Torino (Italy)

2009-11-26

154

Performance of the ITER ICRF Antenna plug as expected from TOPICA matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performances of the present ICRF antenna plug design is evaluated by means of the TOPICA 24×24 matrix for plasma loading supplemented by 4-port junction (4PJ) matrices. For their interpretation these results are compared with a cruder modeling by the semi-analytical code ANTITER II. From this analysis we conclude: (1) The broadbanding effect of the service stub on the response of the 4PJ made for one triplet is maintained for the complete array for all the heating and current drive phasings. (2) For a given maximum voltage of the 8 feeding lines the radiated power capability is roughly constant in the entire frequency band. (3) The power capability of the array is significantly dependent on the distance of the antenna to the Last Closed Flux Surface, the density profile in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and on the toroidal and poloidal phasings. The dependence on phasing is stronger for wider SOL (4) For a not too optimistic plasma density profile (Sc2 shortl7) a power capability exceeding 20 MW is only obtained for the 00 ?? heating toroidal phasing and for the co-current drive phasing in the upper part of the frequency band for a maximum voltage in the complete system of 45 kV. (5), On account of the plasma gyrotropy the quadrature poloidal phasing introduced by hybrid feeding must excite waves propagating upwards in the ITER configuration to obtain the best coupling, (6) The large power capability difference between opposite current drive phasings is attributed to the coupling between the toroidal and poloidal phasings induced by the poloidal steady magnetic field.

Messiaen, A.; Koch, R.; Dumortier, P.; Louche, F.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.; Weynants, R.

2009-11-01

155

Modeling and Evaluating Pilot Performance in NextGen: Review of and Recommendations Regarding Pilot Modeling Efforts, Architectures, and Validation Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NextGen operations are associated with a variety of changes to the national airspace system (NAS) including changes to the allocation of roles and responsibilities among operators and automation, the use of new technologies and automation, additional information presented on the flight deck, and the entire concept of operations (ConOps). In the transition to NextGen airspace, aviation and air operations designers need to consider the implications of design or system changes on human performance and the potential for error. To ensure continued safety of the NAS, it will be necessary for researchers to evaluate design concepts and potential NextGen scenarios well before implementation. One approach for such evaluations is through human performance modeling. Human performance models (HPMs) provide effective tools for predicting and evaluating operator performance in systems. HPMs offer significant advantages over empirical, human-in-the-loop testing in that (1) they allow detailed analyses of systems that have not yet been built, (2) they offer great flexibility for extensive data collection, (3) they do not require experimental participants, and thus can offer cost and time savings. HPMs differ in their ability to predict performance and safety with NextGen procedures, equipment and ConOps. Models also vary in terms of how they approach human performance (e.g., some focus on cognitive processing, others focus on discrete tasks performed by a human, while others consider perceptual processes), and in terms of their associated validation efforts. The objectives of this research effort were to support the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in identifying HPMs that are appropriate for predicting pilot performance in NextGen operations, to provide guidance on how to evaluate the quality of different models, and to identify gaps in pilot performance modeling research, that could guide future research opportunities. This research effort is intended to help the FAA evaluate pilot modeling efforts and select the appropriate tools for future modeling efforts to predict pilot performance in NextGen operations.

Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Keller, John; Peters, Steve; Small, Ronald; Hutchins, Shaun; Algarin, Liana; Gore, Brian Francis; Hooey, Becky Lee; Foyle, David C.

2013-01-01

156

Influence of poor effort on self-reported symptoms and neurocognitive test performance following mild traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

When considering a diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome, clinicians must systematically evaluate and eliminate the possible contribution of many differential diagnoses, comorbidities, and factors that may cause or maintain self-reported symptoms long after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). One potentially significant contributing factor is symptom exaggeration. The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of poor effort on self-reported

Rael T. Lange; Grant L. Iverson; Brian L. Brooks; V. Lynn Ashton Rennison

2010-01-01

157

Performance in a Computerized Self-Control Task by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca Mulatta"): The Combined Influence of Effort and Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The variables of delay and effort have been found to influence self-control predictably and in similar fashion when tested independently, but it is unclear how they influence self-control interactively. In the present study, I tested these two variables simultaneously to gain better understanding of their combined influence on self-control. A…

Evans, Theodore A.

2007-01-01

158

Probationary Progress Review/Extension/Completion Form Planning: All employees will use the Lead@UVa system to document performance expectations within 30 days of their start date.  

E-print Network

;Overall Results of Review Exceptional significantly and consistently exceeds expected performance levelProbationary Progress Review/Extension/Completion Form Planning: All employees will use the Lead@UVa system to document performance expectations within 30 days of their start date. 6-Month Probationary

Acton, Scott

159

Performance Expectations of Closed-Brayton-Cycle Heat Exchangers in 100-kWe Nuclear Space Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance expectations of closed-Brayton-cycle heat exchangers to be used in 100-kWe nuclear space power systems were forecast. Proposed cycle state points for a system supporting a mission to three of Jupiter s moons required effectiveness values for the heat-source exchanger, recuperator and rejection exchanger (gas cooler) of 0.98,0.95 and 0.97, respectively. Performance parameters such as number of thermal units (Nm), equivalent thermal conductance (UA), and entropy generation numbers (Ns) varied from 11 to 19,23 to 39 kWK, and 0.019 to 0.023 for some standard heat exchanger configurations. Pressure-loss contributions to entropy generation were significant; the largest frictional contribution was 114% of the heat-transfer irreversibility. Using conventional recuperator designs, the 0.95 effectiveness proved difficult to achieve without exceeding other performance targets; a metallic, plate-fin counterflow solution called for 15% more mass and 33% higher pressure-loss than the target values. Two types of gas-coolers showed promise. Single-pass counterflow and multipass cross-counterflow arrangements both met the 0.97 effectiveness requirement. Potential reliability-related advantages of the cross-countefflow design were noted. Cycle modifications, enhanced heat transfer techniques and incorporation of advanced materials were suggested options to reduce system development risk. Carbon-carbon sheeting or foam proved an attractive option to improve overall performance.

Barrett, Michael J.

2003-01-01

160

Performance Expectations of Closed-Brayton-Cycle Heat Exchangers in 100-kWe Nuclear Space Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance expectations of closed-Brayton-cycle heat exchangers to be used in 100-k We nuclear space power systems were forecast. Proposed cycle state points for a system supporting a mission to three of Jupiter's moons required effectiveness values for the heat-source exchanger, recuperator and rejection exchanger (gas cooler) of 0.98, 0.95, and 0.97, respectively. Performance parameters such as number of thermal units (Ntu), equivalent thermal conductance (UA), and entropy generation numbers (Ns) varied from 11 to 19, 23 to 39 kW/K, and 0.019 to 0.023 for some standard heat exchanger configurations. Pressure-loss contributions to entropy generation were significant; the largest frictional contribution was 114% of the heat transfer irreversibility. Using conventional recuperator designs, the 0.95 effectiveness proved difficult to achieve without exceeding other performance targets; a metallic, plate-fin counterflow solution called for 15% more mass and 33% higher pressure-loss than the target values. Two types of gas-coolers showed promise. Single-pass counterflow and multipass cross-counterflow arrangements both met the 0.97 effectiveness requirement. Potential reliability-related advantages of the cross-counterflow design were noted. Cycle modifications, enhanced heat transfer techniques and incorporation of advanced materials were suggested options to reduce system development risk. Carbon-carbon sheeting or foam proved an attractive option to improve overall performance.

Barrett, Michael J.

2003-01-01

161

Fully Achieves Expectations Sometimes Achieves Expectations  

E-print Network

.) Employee Name: Appropriate corrective action has been discussed with employee? Performance Review Summary Expectations Accomplishments - the extent to which the employee meets expectations in performing the job functions of his/her position as defined in the PDQ. Review Period: The University of Tennessee Employee

Tennessee, University of

162

Management Practices. U.S. Companies Improve Performance through Quality Efforts. Report to the Honorable Donald Ritter, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined the impact of formal total quality management (TQM) practices on the performance of 20 selected U.S. companies that were among the highest-scoring applicants in 1988 and 1989 for the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. Several key indicators used by companies to measure performance were analyzed.…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. National Security and International Affairs Div.

163

Seasonal progression and variability of repeat-effort line-drill performance in elite junior basketball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine gender differences, positional differences, and patterns of change in the performance of the basketball line-drill test, 93 male (mean age 16.8 years, s = 1.1) and 95 female (mean age 16.5 years, s = 1.0) basketball players undertook 516 line-drill tests over a 5-year period. Log-transformed performance times were analysed using a mixed model that included quadratic within-participant fixed effects for time

Paul G. Montgomery; David B. Pyne; Will G. Hopkins; Clare L. Minahan

2008-01-01

164

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.

Siegrist, Kyle

165

Structured self-reflection as a tool to enhance perceived performance and maintain effort in adult recreational salsa dancers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of structured self-reflection in community dance classes would influence achievement goal orientations, levels of intrinsic motivation, or perceived dance performance. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic...

166

Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (-3.0% ± 1.3% and -2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

2014-07-01

167

Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg?1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (?3.9% ± 1.6% and ?4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (?3.0% ± 1.3% and ?2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

2014-01-01

168

Buoyancy under Control: Underwater Locomotor Performance in a Deep Diving Seabird Suggests Respiratory Strategies for Reducing Foraging Effort  

PubMed Central

Background Because they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag) and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth. Methodology/Principal Findings Using accelerometers, we show that during both the descent and ascent phases of dives, shags modelled their acceleration and stroking activity on the natural variation of buoyancy with depth. For example, during the descent phase, birds increased swim speed with depth. But in parallel, and with a decay constant similar to the one in the equation explaining the decrease of buoyancy with depth, they decreased foot-stroke frequency exponentially, a behaviour that enables birds to reduce oxygen consumption. During ascent, birds also reduced locomotor cost by ascending passively. We considered the depth at which they started gliding as a proxy to their depth of neutral buoyancy. This depth increased with maximum dive depth. As an explanation for this, we propose that shags adjust their buoyancy to depth by varying the amount of respiratory air they dive with. Conclusions/Significance Calculations based on known values of stored body oxygen volumes and on deep-diving metabolic rates in avian divers suggest that the variations of volume of respiratory oxygen associated with a respiration mediated buoyancy control only influence aerobic dive duration moderately. Therefore, we propose that an advantage in cormorants - as in other families of diving seabirds - of respiratory air volume adjustment upon diving could be related less to increasing time of submergence, through an increased volume of body oxygen stores, than to reducing the locomotor costs of buoyancy control. PMID:20352122

Cook, Timothée R.; Kato, Akiko; Tanaka, Hideji; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Bost, Charles-André

2010-01-01

169

The Role of Teachers' Expectations in the Association between Children's SES and Performance in Kindergarten: A Moderated Mediation Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study examines the role of teachers' expectations in the association between children's socio-economic background and achievement outcomes. Furthermore, the role of children's ethnicity in moderating this mediated relation is investigated. In the present study, 3,948 children from kindergarten are examined. Data are analysed by means of structural equation modeling. First, results show that teachers' expectations mediate the relation between children's SES and their later language and math achievement, after controlling for children's ethnicity, prior achievement and gender. This result indicates that teachers may exacerbate individual differences between children. Second, children's ethnicity moderates the mediation effect of teachers' expectations with respect to math outcomes. The role of teachers' expectations in mediating the relation between SES and math outcomes is stronger for majority children than for minority children. PMID:22506023

Speybroeck, Sara; Kuppens, Sofie; Van Damme, Jan; Van Petegem, Peter; Lamote, Carl; Boonen, Tinneke; de Bilde, Jerissa

2012-01-01

170

Exceeding Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Awareness of expectations is so important in the facilities business. The author's experiences has taught him that it is essential to understand how expectations impact people's lives as well as those for whom they provide services for every day. This article presents examples and ideas that will provide insight and ideas to help educators…

Cannon, John

2011-01-01

171

Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach  

PubMed Central

Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception–action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication. PMID:25400601

Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

2014-01-01

172

A Comprehensive Expectancy Motivation Model: Implications for Adult Education and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive Expectancy Motivation Model is based on valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory. It describes expectancy motivation as part of a larger process that includes past experience, motivation, effort, performance, reward, and need satisfaction. The model has significant implications for the design, marketing, and delivery of adult…

Howard, Kenneth W.

1989-01-01

173

The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the model. Motivation variables did account for a portion of the variance in performance, but not in the ways predicted. Increasing the number of subjects in each group and adding the following variables to the model would clarify the role that motivation plays in performance: realistic self-appraisal; perceived competition; and elaboration, organization, and rehearsal strategies. Based on results, the following interventions were recommended to increase undergraduate science performance: assessment in realistic self-appraisal of science skills; instruction in elaboration and organization strategies; and encouragement of intrinsic interest in science.

Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

174

Rational Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rational Expectations was set up by Ralph Lazar, former strategist and economist for Goldman Sachs, Barings & Credit Suisse First Boston, as a "resource for anyone interested in [emerging markets] economics -- students, teachers, lecturers, journalists, professionals, or just the curious." A fully comprehensive guide to the people, places, and events of the economics world, Rational Expectations includes an searchable database of over 1,000 organizations and institutions in OECD countries and emerging markets, a conference calendar, and job listings. The site also links to academic, professional, and government organizations, as well as a huge suggested publication list and macroeconomic and financial market data. Rational Expectations will be a welcome resource for anyone interested in emerging markets economics.

Lazar, Ralph.

175

The Analysis of the Relation between Eight-Grade Students' Estimation Performance in Triangles with Their Teaching Style Expectations and Sources of Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, eight-grade students' estimation achievements in triangles were analysed according to motivation types and knowledge type expectations. Three hundred and thirty-seven students from three different elementary schools attended in this study. In order to determine the students' estimation performances, an estimation test in…

Altunkaya, Bülent; Aytekin, Cahit; Doruk, Bekir Kürsat; Özçakir, Bilal

2014-01-01

176

Partisan politics and stock market performance: The effect of expected government partisanship on stock returns in the 2002 German federal election  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational partisan theory suggests that firms perform better under right- than left-leaning governments. In the pre-election\\u000a time, investors should anticipate these effects of government partisanship. This is the first study to investigate such anticipated\\u000a partisan effects in Germany. Applying conditional volatility models we analyze the impact of expected government partisanship\\u000a on stock market performance in the 2002 German federal election.

Roland Füss; Michael M. Bechtel

2008-01-01

177

Great Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inside one Washington, DC, elementary school, Principal John Pannell has high hopes for his students and an expansive school vision. Malcolm X School compensates for disorder outside by clearly inculcating rules and behavior expectations. Children in school uniforms daily repeat a motto promoting Malcolm X as a school of love allowing no hitting,…

Natale, Jo Anna

1993-01-01

178

An Application of the Expectancy-Value Model to Understand Adolescents' Performance and Engagement in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the role of motivation in students' performance and engagement in elementary and middle school physical education. Cross-lagged relationships between performance and engagement were investigated across Grades 6-9. A total of 763 (365 girls, 398 boys) Finnish school students (11- to 12-year old) were followed across three…

Yli-Piipari, Sami; Kokkonen, Juha

2014-01-01

179

Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions and ways to…

Ridley, Cheryl

180

Performance of p-bulk microstrip sensors under 60Co ? irradiation at rates expected at the HL-LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing p-bulk microstrip sensors for the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC accelerator, HL-LHC. The stability of FZ (float zone) wafers available to Hamamatsu Photonics was examined by irradiating them at rates expected at the HL-LHC. They show degradation in the operational voltage at low dose but recover after the dose is accumulated. The instability is dependent on the bias voltage and dose rate, and also on the irradiation history. We have characterized the instability and attributed the cause to the charge concentration at the electrode edge. The strip isolation, which is degraded while in irradiation, is shown not to induce any practical problem for the operation.

Takahashi, Y.; Hara, K.; Kim, S.; Ikegami, Y.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.; Mitsui, S.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.

2013-01-01

181

Predicting Student Achievement for Low Stakes Tests with Effort and Task Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated motivation for taking low stakes tests. Based on expectancy-value theory, we expected that the effect of student perceptions of three task values (interest, usefulness, and importance) on low stakes test performance would be mediated by the student's reported effort. We hypothesized that all three task value components would play a…

Cole, James S.; Bergin, David A.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.

2008-01-01

182

Teacher Reactions to the Performance-Based Bonus Program: How the Expectancy Theory Works in the South Korean School Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted in order to examine how and to what extent the implementation of the performance-based bonus program in South Korean schools has motivated teachers to improve their behavior, as well as to identify any other positive or negative effects of the program. Interviews with teachers indicated that a large percentage of teachers…

Ha, Bong-Woon; Sung, Youl-Kwan

2011-01-01

183

Adaptive optics at short wavelengths. Expected performance and sky coverage of the FLAO system going toward visible wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system has been successfully commissioned at the Large Binocular Telescope. It delivers extreme adaptive optics performance using bright natural guide stars reaching 90 % Strehl Ratios in H-band. Observations with current adaptive optics systems are limited to the near infrared wavelengths, in these bands the diffraction limited resolution of the largest ground-based telescopes (8-10 meter class) is comparable to the one of the much smaller Hubble Space Telescope that observes in the visible bands. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of an adaptive optics system designed to achieve very high order correction at visible wavelengths (0.5 to 0.8 ? m) with significant sky coverage. Upgrading the FLAO design with a low noise CCD relaxes the reference magnitude limit needed to achieve greater performance. In particular, we demonstrate that a gain of 1-2 magnitudes is possible by upgrading the wavefront sensor with a very low read out noise CCD. For future AO systems, in addition to low noise CCDs, deformable (secondary) mirrors with a higher actuator density will be able to move the high order correction capability from the near infrared to the visible wavelengths (Strehl Ratio of 80 % in R (0.7 ? m), 60 % in V (0.5 ? m)). We investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the gain in imaging performance obtained at Near Infrared, Visible, and UV wavelengths. The results of these simulations have been used to derive the empirical relation between Strehl Ratio and magnitude of the reference star and we then use this relationship to perform a detailed sky coverage analysis based on astronomical catalog data. The detailed simulations of the Point Spread Functions allow us to compute Ensquared Energy and Strehl Ratio for the magnitude working range of such an Adaptive Optics system. We present the results of the instrumental isoplanatic angle determination. We then used these values to compute the relationship between correction level and the off-axis angle from the reference star. The Strehl Ratio relationship with the reference magnitude and the angular distance provides the information needed to perform the sky-coverage analysis, which demonstrates that the designed system is able to provide V and R bands correction on a not negligible few percent of the sky.

Agapito, Guido; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, Simone

2014-11-01

184

Effort and valuation in the brain: The effects of anticipation and execution  

PubMed Central

Neural representations of the effort deployed in performing actions, and the valence of the outcomes they yield, form the foundation of action choice. To discover whether brain areas represent effort and outcome valence together, or whether they represent one but not the other, we examined these variables in an explicitly orthogonal way. We did this by asking human subjects to exert one of two levels of effort to improve their chances of either winning, or avoiding the loss of, money. Subjects responded faster both when exerting greater effort and when exerting effort in anticipation of winning money. Using fMRI we inspected BOLD responses during anticipation (before any action was executed) and when the outcome was delivered. In this way we indexed BOLD signals associated with an anticipated need to exert effort and its affective consequences, as well as the effect of executed effort on the representation of outcomes. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsal striatum (dorsal putamen) signalled the anticipation of effort, independent of the prospect of winning or losing. Activity in ventral striatum (ventral putamen) was greater for better than expected outcomes compared to worse than expected outcomes, an effect attenuated in the context of having exerted greater effort. Our findings provide evidence that neural representations of anticipated actions are sensitive to the expected demands but not to the expected value of their consequence, whereas representations of outcome value are discounted by exertion, commensurate with an integration of cost and benefit so as to approximate net value. PMID:23554497

Kurniawan, I.T.; Guitart-Masip, M.; Dayan, P.; Dolan, R. J.

2013-01-01

185

Use of groundwater lifetime expectancy for the performance assessment of a deep geologic radioactive waste repository:2. Application to a Canadian Shield environment  

E-print Network

Cornaton et al. [2007] introduced the concept of lifetime expectancy as a performance measure of the safety of subsurface repositories, based upon the travel time for contaminants released at a certain point in the subsurface to reach the biosphere or compliance area. The methodologies are applied to a hypothetical but realistic Canadian Shield crystalline rock environment, which is considered to be one of the most geologically stable areas on Earth. In an approximately 10\\times10\\times1.5 km3 hypothetical study area, up to 1000 major and intermediate fracture zones are generated from surface lineament analyses and subsurface surveys. In the study area, mean and probability density of lifetime expectancy are analyzed with realistic geologic and hydrologic shield settings in order to demonstrate the applicability of the theory and the numerical model for optimally locating a deep subsurface repository for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel. The results demonstrate that, in general, groundwater lifetime exp...

Park, Y -J; Normani, S D; Sykes, J F; Sudicky, E A

2011-01-01

186

Cassini launch contingency effort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the Cassini launch, JHU/APL's on-station real-time launch contingency activities were implemented. Live news from NASA Select TV of a successful Cassini launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The Cassini launch contingency effort contributed to mission safety and demonstrated successful cooperation between several agencies. .

Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

2002-01-01

187

Role of information systems in controlling costs: the electronic medical record (EMR) and the high-performance computing and communications (HPCC) efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 18, 1991, the IEEE-USA produced an entity statement which endorsed the vital importance of the High Performance Computer and Communications Act of 1991 (HPCC) and called for the rapid implementation of all its elements. Efforts are now underway to develop a Computer Based Patient Record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the HPCC, and the so-called `Patient Card'. Multiple legislative initiatives which address these and related information technology issues are pending in Congress. Clearly, a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public. Timely and reliable information represents a critical element in any initiative to reform the health care system as well as to protect and improve the health of every person. Appropriately used, information technologies offer a vital means of improving the quality of patient care, increasing access to universal care and lowering overall costs within a national health care program. Health care reform legislation should reflect increased budgetary support and a legal mandate for the creation of a national health care information system by: (1) constructing a National Information Infrastructure; (2) building a Computer Based Patient Record System; (3) bringing the collective resources of our National Laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; and (4) utilizing Government (e.g. DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues.

Kun, Luis G.

1994-12-01

188

DETECTION OF TRANSITING JOVIAN EXOPLANETS BY GAIA PHOTOMETRY-EXPECTED YIELD  

SciTech Connect

Several attempts have been made in the past to assess the expected number of exoplanetary transits that the Gaia space mission will detect. In this Letter, we use the updated design of Gaia and its expected performance and apply recent empirical statistical procedures to provide a new assessment. Depending on the extent of the follow-up effort that will be devoted, we expect Gaia to detect from a few hundreds to a few thousands of transiting exoplanets.

Dzigan, Yifat; Zucker, Shay, E-mail: yifatdzigan@gmail.com, E-mail: shayz@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Geophysical, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2012-07-01

189

Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

2014-01-01

190

Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Non-clinical Children: Relationships with Self-report and Performance-based Measures of Attention and Effortful Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control,\\u000a and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8–12 years. For this purpose, children completed\\u000a self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression,\\u000a and aggression) and were tested with a neuropsychological battery for

Peter Muris; Els van der Pennen; Rianne Sigmond; Birgit Mayer

2008-01-01

191

Argumentative Men: Expectations of Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argumentativeness, an assertive style of communication, has been conceptualized as both constructive and desirable; it is linked with several managerial qualities, such as group leadership, better decision-making, and enhanced credibility. A rea sonable expectation is that supervisors would exhibit a higher level of argumenta tiveness. However, most efforts to show a direct link between argumentativeness and workplace success have led

Nancy M. Schullery

1999-01-01

192

The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low

Sydney Lynn Stansbury

1997-01-01

193

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Cognitive Effort Drives Workspace Configuration of Human  

E-print Network

, Cambridge CB2 0SZ, United Kingdom, 2Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Medical Research Council, Cambridge CB2 7EF, United Kingdom, 3Clinical Unit Cambridge, GlaxoSmithKline, Addenbrooke's Centre for Clinical Investigations, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom Effortful cognitive performance is theoretically expected

Henson, Rik

194

The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort  

SciTech Connect

The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

Brown, K.D.

1995-01-01

195

High Performance Computing and Communications: New Program Direction Would Benefit from a More Focused Effort. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The House Armed Services Committee asked the GAO (General Accounting Office) to examine the HPCC (High Performance Computing and Communications) program in terms of: (1) the effectiveness of the program's management structure in setting goals and measuring progress, and (2) how extensively private industry has been involved in the planning and…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Information Management Div.

196

Student Expectations of Grade Inflation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students completed evaluation-of-teaching surveys in five different courses to develop an evaluation instrument that would provide results concerning faculty performance. Two questions examined students' expectations regarding grades. Results indicated a significant degree of expected grade inflation. Large proportions of students doing…

Landrum, R. Eric

1999-01-01

197

Etiquette and effort: holding doors for others.  

PubMed

Etiquette, the customary code of polite behavior among members of a group, provides a means of conveying respect for others, but what is the basis for etiquette's unwritten rules? Here we show that one form of etiquette, holding a door open for another person, reflects the door holder's expectation that the person for whom he or she holds the door shares the belief that the total effort expended by the two of them will be less than the summed efforts of the two individuals acting on their own. Our observations extend recent work on effort reduction in motor control to the management of social interactions. PMID:21515739

Santamaria, Joseph P; Rosenbaum, David A

2011-05-01

198

Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Efforts  

E-print Network

Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Efforts Christine Kirby, MassDEP ZE-MAP Meeting October 24, 2014 #12 deployment · Provides ongoing support to region and states on EVs. #12;Massachusetts EV Initiative (MEVI-miles driven by state fleets; develop MA fuel efficiency standard for public fleets #12;Massachusetts Electric

California at Davis, University of

199

Measuring Cycling Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the basic mechanics of cycling with a simple reckoning of how much effort is needed from the cyclist. The work done by the cyclist is quantified when the ride is on the flat and also when pedaling uphill. Proves that by making use of the available gears on a mountain bike, cycling uphill can be accomplished without pain. (Author/ASK)

Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

1999-01-01

200

Assessing Public Relations Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to establish goals and objectives for public relations activities is discussed, followed by descriptions of several evaluation techniques for public relations programs. The continuous education of faculty regarding costs and logistics of publicity, and long-term continuity in the public relations effort are stressed as essential elements…

Slocum, Doris; Johnson, T. Earle, Jr.

1977-01-01

201

Effort Gap Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Biological Resources Research Center (BRRC) at the University of Nevada, Reno, the Effort Gap Database organizes information on biological research efforts in the Great Basin. Users may search the database (by multiple topics) for current and past projects, or they may add new information to the database. Typical returns provide information such as project title, scientific goals, available data, Principal Investigators, temporal and spatial scale of research, habitats in study area, types of organisms, source of funding, and finished products. Designed as an interactive Web application to allow and encourage researchers to share research foci and learn about other conservation biology projects in Nevada, this database is an excellent example of how to facilitate collaboration across multiple ecological scales and agencies.

202

International aerospaceplane efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the U.S. began the first reusable space booster effort in the late 1950's, it is no longer an exclusive field. All of the technologically advanced nations, and several groups of nations, have one or more reusable booster efforts in progress. A listing of the entries in the field is presented. The list is somewhat misleading, because it includes both fully reusable and partially reusable boosters, both manned and unmanned, and both flight test and operational proposals. Additionally, not all of the projects are funded, and only a few of the projects will survive. The most likely candidates are the following: France/ESA, Germany/ESA, Great Britain/ESA/(USSR), USSR(past), and Japan. A discussion of the preceding projects is provided.

Lindley, Charles A.

1992-01-01

203

Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making  

PubMed Central

Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action. PMID:21734862

Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J.

2011-01-01

204

Vaccination efforts lauded in Brazil.  

PubMed

According to a United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) report, which evaluated progress toward fulfillment of the 29 recommendations of the Childhood Pact signed in 1993 by 22 of Brazil's 27 provincial governors, large-scale vaccination programs have been successful while attempts to improve education have not. The pact covered the rights of children and adolescents, the reduction of infant mortality, and improved health and education services. Massive vaccination efforts have eradicated polio from Brazil and reduced measles from 23,000 cases in 1992 to 124 cases in 1993 and 14 cases, to date, in 1994. However, 77% of primary school students are over the expected age for their educational level; plans to increase literacy among adolescents who lack primary education were frustrated, and teacher's strikes in many states cut into their time with students. In 1993, classes were suspended in 10 states to protest poor salaries and a lack of respect for teachers, another issue to be addressed by the pact. Provision of lunches for at least 180 days of the year in order to prevent malnutrition and boost school attendance in the poorest areas was also in the pact, but 17 of the 22 states which signed the pact have yet to do implement lunch programs. UNICEF, the executive secretary of the pact, has released a document, "Expectations for 1995-1998," suggesting renewal of the pact in combination with other measures to ensure the survival and development of Brazil's children. PMID:12346578

1994-12-19

205

Dissociations between Expectancy and Performance in Simple and Two-Choice Reaction-Time Tasks: A Test of Associative and Nonassociative Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perruchet, Cleeremans, and Destrebecqz (2006) reported a striking dissociation between trends in the conscious expectancy of an event and the speed of a response that is cued by that event. They argued that this indicates the operation of independent processes in human associative learning. However, there remains a strong possibility that this…

Barrett, Louise C.; Livesey, Evan J.

2010-01-01

206

UV RESEARCH - FUNDED AND IN HOUSE EFFORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Risk Management research Laboratory (NRMRL) has performed or funded limited in-house and extramural research on the disinfection of CCL listed organisms using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In addition, multiple extramural efforts have been funded to assess operation...

207

Expectancy, Value, and Motivation for Test Taking When Optimism Declines: A Continuation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consistent with prior research, expected performance on a midterm examination decreased for 48 college students as the test approached in time, as did grade-level goal and perceived adequacy of effort, although indices of goal value and of motivation to achieve the goal remained constant. Changes were generally monotonic across three occasions.…

Wicker, Frank W.; Turner, Jeannine E.; Reed, JoyLynn H.; McCann, Erin J.; Do, Seung Lee

208

Navy superconductivity efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

Gubser, D. U.

1990-01-01

209

LEAST COLLABORATIVE EFFORT OR LEAST INDIVIDUAL EFFORT: EXAMINING THE EVIDENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Clark's Collaborative theory, least collaborative effort is seen as one outcome of the joint production of language. This assumption is problematic in three respects. Firstly, the claim for least collaborative effort is made in contrast to rather idealised conceptions of 'least effort'. Secondly, the way in which effort is often measured seems somewhat simplistic: utterance length does not necessarily

Bethan L. Davies

210

Effort estimation for corrective software maintenance  

E-print Network

;12/20 Evaluating model performances (1/4) · Statistical analysis ­ If cost estimation model is developed using setting · Building effort estimation models ­ Evaluating model performances ­ Assessing predictive asset to maintenance managers in · Planning maintenance · Performing cost/benefits analysis · Approach

Bae, Doo-Hwan

211

Attitudes and expectations of producers to the use of a microcomputer-based management information system to monitor dairy herd performance  

PubMed Central

The attitudes and expectations of producers toward the use of a microcomputer-based herd management information system were assessed. The study was conducted over a two-year period, beginning in January 1986, and was operated as a bureau service. The implementation and use of the program are described elsewhere. Pre- and posttrial questionnaires were administered to assess producer attitudes. We found that the monthly analysis reports were used in the management of the dairy farms and were found to be a useful management tool. The majority of producers indicated a willingness to pay, on average, $6.86/cow/year for such a service. PMID:17423946

Lissemore, Kerry D.; Leslie, Ken E.; Martin, S. Wayne; Menzies, Paula I.; Meek, Alan H.

1992-01-01

212

Client expectation from doctors: Expectation - reality gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims and objectives: To determine client expectation from doctors, a descriptive survey was conducted amongst people above 18 years of age and doctors of Faridpur District. Methodology: For this purpose a total of 400 patients and 30 doctors were involved. Both rural and urban population were included. A sample of 30 doctors was selected from the outdoor department of Faridpur

Rahman MM; Rahman S; Begum N; Asaduzzaman AKM

213

Prioritizing global conservation efforts.  

PubMed

One of the most pressing issues facing the global conservation community is how to distribute limited resources between regions identified as priorities for biodiversity conservation. Approaches such as biodiversity hotspots, endemic bird areas and ecoregions are used by international organizations to prioritize conservation efforts globally. Although identifying priority regions is an important first step in solving this problem, it does not indicate how limited resources should be allocated between regions. Here we formulate how to allocate optimally conservation resources between regions identified as priorities for conservation--the 'conservation resource allocation problem'. Stochastic dynamic programming is used to find the optimal schedule of resource allocation for small problems but is intractable for large problems owing to the "curse of dimensionality". We identify two easy-to-use and easy-to-interpret heuristics that closely approximate the optimal solution. We also show the importance of both correctly formulating the problem and using information on how investment returns change through time. Our conservation resource allocation approach can be applied at any spatial scale. We demonstrate the approach with an example of optimal resource allocation among five priority regions in Wallacea and Sundaland, the transition zone between Asia and Australasia. PMID:16541073

Wilson, Kerrie A; McBride, Marissa F; Bode, Michael; Possingham, Hugh P

2006-03-16

214

Is Effort Praise Motivational? The Role of Beliefs in the Effort-Ability Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two studies, we investigated how beliefs in the effort-ability relationship moderated the effects of effort praise on student motivation. Study 1 showed that the more the participants believed that effort and ability were related positively (the positive rule) versus related negatively (the inverse rule), the more they would have positive…

Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Ng, Yee-lam

2008-01-01

215

Worldwide effort against smoking.  

PubMed

The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because smokers need to be aware of the dangers of smoking. Health education projects and public information should address the hazards of smoking and discourage smoking from becoming the social norm. PMID:12314496

1986-07-01

216

Swedish nuclear waste efforts  

SciTech Connect

After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

Rydberg, J.

1981-09-01

217

Human genome efforts in Japan.  

PubMed

Some project-oriented biosciences have been promoted cooperatively by three governmental agencies in Japan: the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Science and Technology Agency. All three agencies have increased their budgetary requests for human genome analyses for FY 1991. The Panel on Life Sciences (chaired by Dr. W. Mori, former president of the University of Tokyo) of the Science and Technology Council of Japan which is chaired by the Prime Minister has decided to organize a working group to suggest how best to coordinate efforts in human genome analyses in Japan. The genome project was initially promoted by the Science and Technology Agency through a program for the design and construction of automated machines for DNA sequencing. Work is ongoing at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research to integrate, by system engineering, instruments that can separate DNA fragments, perform plaque selection, carry out dideoxy reaction, and read the resulting DNA sequence. However, scientists now realize the enormity of the tasks of compiling DNA sequence data and of mapping the genes and fragments obtained, and efforts are being made to solve these problems. Academic societies have organized symposia to promote general interest in this subject. The most important way for Japan to contribute to research on human genome analyses, however, may be in the evaluation of supporting mechanisms (technical assistance and research resources) and in the recognition and preparation of the transition of biology to a big science approach. PMID:1991587

Ikawa, Y

1991-01-01

218

Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

Rice, J. R.

1978-01-01

219

When is irony effortful?  

PubMed

Whereas some studies indicate that ironic-as opposed to literal-readings of utterances take longer to process, others indicate that the 2 are processed at comparable speeds. We propose that mindreading processes are at least partly responsible for the mixed results, as we present 3 experiments that include stories having a target utterance with either an Ironic or Literal reading. Experiment 1 replicates earlier findings (Spotorno, Koun, Prado, Van Der Henst, & Noveck, 2012) showing that ironic readings take longer than literal ones when fillers include decoys, stories that call for an ironic remark but present a banal utterance instead and thus diffuse participants' expectations for irony. Starting with Experiment 2, decoys are removed, leading to effects that are arguably revealing of Theory of Mind processes. One is an Early-Late effect, which occurs when ironic utterances are read as readily as literal ones in the 2nd half of an experimental session, creating "mixed" results in the laboratory. In Experiment 3, we further added antecedents before a critical event so that, later, the target utterance would be echoing an explicitly stated thought and would facilitate irony comprehension (Gibbs, 1986; Sperber & Wilson, 1981). Results reveal an Early-Late effect here, too. Further evidence of Theory of Mind activity follows from analyses of participants' Social Skill subscale scores in the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin, & Clubley, 2001). Socially inclined participants are more likely than the socially disinclined to use a story's negative event to portend the arrival of an irony; in contrast, socially disinclined participants appear more reactive than the socially inclined to explicit antecedents. PMID:24773194

Spotorno, Nicola; Noveck, Ira A

2014-08-01

220

DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTES IN RCRA-C DISPOSAL CELLS - DISPOSAL CELLS EXPECTED CASE PERFORMANCE, WORKER EXPOSURES, AND HUMAN INTRUSION  

EPA Science Inventory

Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology....

221

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY UNDERSTANDING EFFORT REPORTING  

E-print Network

effort, but uncompensated. In practice, however, Vanderbilt's accounting system records only effort to assist faculty and administrators in understanding the federal government's requirements for effort government's Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21 or A-110. Any questions about Vanderbilt

Bordenstein, Seth

222

The Impact of Age and Motivation on Cognitive Effort: Implications for Cognitive Engagement in Older Adulthood  

PubMed Central

We examined age differences in the effort required to perform the basic cognitive operations needed to achieve a specified objective outcome and how hypothesized increases in effort requirements in later life are related to intrinsic motivation associated with enjoyment of and participation in effortful cognitive activities. Young (N = 59; 20–40 years) and older (N = 57; 64–85 years) adults performed a memory-search task varying in difficulty across trials, with systolic blood pressure responsivity—calculated as the increase over baseline during task performance—used as a measure of effort expenditure and task engagement. Consistent with expectations, older adults exhibited greater levels of responsivity (i.e., effort) at all levels of objective task difficulty, and this increase was reflected in subjective perceptions of difficulty. Older adults also exhibited greater levels of disengagement (i.e., effort withdrawal) than younger adults at higher levels of task difficulty, conceivably reflecting the disproportionately greater effort required for successful performance in the former group. We also found that, relative to younger adults, older adults’ engagement was more sensitive to the importance attached to the task (i.e., motivation to do well). Finally, we also obtained evidence that increased costs associated with cognitive engagement in later life were negatively associated with intrinsic levels of motivation to engage in effortful cognitive activity. The results support the general conclusion that the costs of cognitive activity increase with age in adulthood, and that these costs influence individuals’ willingness to engage resources in support of demanding cognitive activities. PMID:23421325

Ennis, Gilda E.; Hess, Thomas M.; Smith, Brian T.

2013-01-01

223

ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY RELATED TO PARTICLES AND NUCLEI Thermal analysis and expected performance of the low energy instrument on board the HXMT satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Energy X-ray Instrument (LE) of the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) uses the Swept Charge Device (SCD) to detect the X-rays in 1-15 keV. The performance of SCD is vulnerable to temperature. We analyzed the thermal condition of LE at different satellite working attitudes with the Finite Element Method (FEM). It is shown that the angle between the sunlight and the normal line of the barrier should be less than 26°, to keep the SCD detectors working in the required temperature range, i.e. -40 °C to -80 °C. We find that the performance of LE is very stable in this temperature range, with a typical energy resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV.

Wang, Yu-Sa; Chen, Yong; Xu, Yu-Peng; Wang, Juan; Cui, Wei-Wei; Li, Wei; Han, Da-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Liang; Chen, Tian-Xiang; Li, Cheng-Kui; Yang, Yan-Ji; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Huo, Jia; Zhang, Jun-Min; Zheng, Yi-Qian

2010-12-01

224

Are three contact efforts really reflective of a repeated high-intensity effort bout?  

PubMed

Johnston, RD, Gabbett, TJ, Walker, S, Walker, B, and Jenkins, DG. Are three contact efforts really reflective of a repeated high-intensity effort bout? J Strength Cond Res 29(3): 816-821, 2015-The use of 3 or more efforts (running and contact), separated by short recovery periods, is widely used to define a "repeated high-intensity effort" (RHIE) bout in rugby league. It has been suggested that due to fatigue, players become less effective after RHIE bouts; however, there is little evidence to support this. This study determined whether physical performance is reduced after performing 1, 2, or 3 efforts with minimal recovery. Twelve semiprofessional rugby league players (age: 24.5 ± 2.9 years) competed in 3 "off-side" small-sided games (2 × 10-minute halves) with a contact bout performed every 2 minutes. The rules of each game were identical except for the number of contact efforts performed in each bout. Players performed 1, 2, or 3 × 5-second wrestling bouts in the single-, double- and triple-contact game, respectively. Movement demands of each game were monitored using global positioning system units. From the first to the second half, there were trivial reductions in relative distance during the single-contact game (ES = -0.13 ± 0.12), small reductions during the double-contact game (ES = -0.47 ± 0.24), and moderate reductions during the triple-contact game (ES = -0.74 ± 0.27). These data show that running intensity is progressively reduced as the number of contact efforts per bout is increased. Targeting defensive players and forcing them to perform 2 or more consecutive contact efforts is likely to lead to greater reductions in running intensity. Conditioning performing multiple contact efforts while maintaining running intensity should therefore be incorporated into training for contact team sports. PMID:25226335

Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J; Walker, Shane; Walker, Ben; Jenkins, David G

2015-03-01

225

Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

Kalvelage, T.A.

2002-01-01

226

Evidence for effects of task difficulty but not learning on neurophysiological variables associated with effort.  

PubMed

Learning to master a task is expected to be accompanied by a decrease in effort during task execution. We examine the possibility to monitor learning using physiological measures that have been reported to reflect effort or workload. Thirty-five participants performed different difficulty levels of the n-back task while a range of physiological and performance measurements were recorded. In order to dissociate non-specific time-related effects from effects of learning, we used the easiest level as a baseline condition. This condition is expected to only reflect non-specific effects of time. Performance and subjective measures confirmed more learning for the difficult level than for the easy level. The difficulty levels affected physiological variables in the way as expected, therewith showing their sensitivity. However, while most of the physiological variables were also affected by time, time-related effects were generally the same for the easy and the difficult level. Thus, in a well-controlled experiment that enabled the dissociation of general time effects from learning we did not find physiological variables to indicate decreasing effort associated with learning. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24841994

Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A; Holewijn, Michael; van Erp, Jan B F

2014-08-01

227

Reflections on Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf…

Santini, Joseph

2014-01-01

228

A Superintendent's High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

Pascopella, Angela

2009-01-01

229

An Unexpected Expected Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)

Schwartzman, Steven

1993-01-01

230

Modeling the Surface Composition of 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Expected Performance of the VIRTIS-M Spectrometer Onboard the Rosetta Spacecraft.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rosetta spacecraft will encounter comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in the second half of 2014. The present study investigates the capabilities of the VIRTIS-M imaging spectrometer onboard Rosetta to detect and characterize the cometary nucleus surface composition; this is one of the major scientific objectives of the spectrometer that covers the range 0.25-5 ?m. A radiative transfer model is applied to mixtures of plausible endmembers to determine the spectral radiance as a function of the observing conditions. We simulated surfaces composed of different types of ices mixtures assuming areal or intimate mixing. For the time being, we have assumed mixtures including water ice, carbon dioxide ice and methanol, but a wide range organics and other compounds (of known optical constants) can be used to generate mixtures. The ices are mixed with a dark opaque featureless component, having a spectral reflectance derived from the dark terrains of Tempel 1 as detected from HRII aboard Deep Impact. The I/F spectra for the areal and intimate mixing are calculated using Hapke's model. The VIRTIS-M Simulator is an essential tool to calculate the instrumental signal / noise ratio (S/N) for different input signals and different observing conditions in which the spectrometer will operate during the mission. Its main aim is to obtain the optimal integration time, which allows to reach the best S/N while avoiding the saturation. Given a radiance in input, the simulator's output is the retrieved error on the signal. Moreover, given the heliocentric distance, it calculates the reflectance with its error.. Detection criteria for the various icy components are based on the evaluation of the error on the band area of diagnostic absorption features. As expected, factors that increase the detectability of a spectral feature for a given endmember are: 1) longer integration time; 2) larger endmember abundance; 3) areal mixing with the dark terrain; 4) shorter heliocentric distance. On the other hand, if the signal is too high there is the possibility to reach saturation. Therefore, the simulator, allows to identify the optimal integration time for balancing the other factors. Finally, we plan to use the simulator to identify detection limits for the various components of the surface during the various phases of the mission.

Raponi, A.; Ciarniello, M.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.

2013-12-01

231

FE2707 Expected value/mathematical expectation 1 FE2707 Expected value/mathematical expectation  

E-print Network

expectation of f , E [f(X)], is de#12;ned by E [f(X)] = P ! i 2 p(! i )f(! i ) E [f(X)] = R ! i 2 d! p of the stock. The expected stock price is given E [f(X)] = 1 6 (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6) = 3:5. (ii) Life-out) is given by f(t). Then, the expected pro#12;t is given by E [f(t)] = R 1 0 dt p(t)f(t), which

Magdon-Ismail, Malik

232

Raising Expectations To Improve Student Learning. Urban Monograph Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of low teacher expectations of students is addressed, bearing in mind that any effort to address low teacher expectations for students that does not address the broader issue of school change will fail. The first section of the monograph explores the relationship between teacher expectations and student achievement. The second section…

Bamburg, Jerry D.

233

Information for Expectant Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents Families About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Information for Expectant Parents Language: English Español (Spanish) ... Defects, Blood Disorders & Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How ...

234

Calculating Expectation Shift  

E-print Network

This paper concerns the problem of calculating expectation shift due to variability which tends to occur whenever the function of a random variable is nonlinear and especially tends to occur in the neighborhood of a local ...

Frey, Daniel

2011-01-01

235

The DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort: Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

hatwill enable researchers to develop new systems by selectingcomponents from library of reusable modulesand assembling them together. Their effort will be focusedon creating specialized knowledge and reasonersspecific to the task of their system. Their new systemwould inter-operate with existing systems, usingthem to perform some of its reasoning. In this way,declarative knowledge, problem solving techniques andreasoning services could all be shared

Ramesh S. Patil; Richard E. Fikes; Peter F. Patel-schneider

1993-01-01

236

Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

Li, Daoquan

2012-01-01

237

[Limitation of the therapeutic effort].  

PubMed

The limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE) consists in not applying extraordinary or disproportionate measures for therapeutic purposes that are proposed for a patient with poor life prognosis and/or poor quality of life. There are two types. The first is to not initiate certain measures or to withdraw them when they are established. A decision of the LTE should be based on some rigorous criteria, so that we make the following proposal. First, it is necessary to know the most relevant details of the case to make a decision: the preferences of the patient, the preferences of the family when pertinent, the prognosis (severity), the quality of life and distribution of the limited resources. After, the decision should be made. In this phase, participatory deliberation should be established to clarify the end of the intervention. Finally, if it is decided to perform an LTE, it should be decided how to do it. Special procedures, disproportionate measures, that are useless and vain should not be initiated for the therapeutic objective designed (withdraw them if they have been established). When it has been decided to treat a condition (interim measures), the treatment should be maintained. This complex phase may need stratification of he measures. Finally, the necessary palliative measures should be established. PMID:21813120

Herreros, B; Palacios, G; Pacho, E

2012-03-01

238

Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

Not Available

1991-04-08

239

Expected beam performance of the SNS linac  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project is a collaboration among Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. The linac, which injects beam into an accumulator ring, is comprised of both normal and superconducting RF (SRF) accelerating structures. Two room-temperature RF structures, a 402.5-MHz drift-tube linac (DTL) and an 805-MHz coupled-cavity linac (CCL), accelerate an H-minus

J. Stovall; J. H. Billen; S. Nath; H. Takeda; L. M. Young; D. Jeon; K. R. Crandall; R. Shafer

2001-01-01

240

Family Income, Expectations Tied to Kindergarten Performance  

MedlinePLUS

... to childrearing is really important," he said. Karen Smith, a pediatric psychologist with the University of Texas ... kids, probably because they've been read to," Smith said. Poorer parents "may not even have the ...

241

Heterogeneity in expected longevities.  

PubMed

We develop a new methodology to compute differences in the expected longevity of individuals of a given cohort who are in different socioeconomic groups at a certain age. We address the two main problems associated with the standard use of life expectancy: (1) that people's socioeconomic characteristics change, and (2) that mortality has decreased over time. Our methodology uncovers substantial heterogeneity in expected longevities, yet much less heterogeneity than what arises from the naive application of life expectancy formulae. We decompose the longevity differences into differences in health at age 50, differences in the evolution of health with age, and differences in mortality conditional on health. Remarkably, education, wealth, and income are health-protecting but have very little impact on two-year mortality rates conditional on health. Married people and nonsmokers, however, benefit directly in their immediate mortality. Finally, we document an increasing time trend of the socioeconomic gradient of longevity in the period 1992-2008, and we predict an increase in the socioeconomic gradient of mortality rates for the coming years. PMID:25391225

Pijoan-Mas, Josep; Ríos-Rull, José-Víctor

2014-12-01

242

It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.

2010-08-27

243

Parenting with High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

2014-01-01

244

Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

Devine, Kelley

245

Maintaining High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

2014-01-01

246

Longevity and life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in life expectancy at all ages during the last two centuries is in need of a quantitative model capable of resuming the whole process under a single concept and simple mathematics. The basic hypothesis was that through improved hygiene, medicine, and life-style, the stumbling blocks to the full expression of longevity were progressively removed. The mathematics of learning

Cesare Marchetti

1997-01-01

247

EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

Wagner, Howard A.

2010-01-01

248

Sandbagging efforts in Fargo, ND  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Volunteer sandbagging efforts, used to build levees in Fargo, ND during historic flooding. The height of these levees are built based on flood predictions, made by the National Weather Service using USGS streamflow information. ...

249

Hearing on FBI Counterterrorism Efforts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available on the Washington Post Web site, the above listed link is the entire transcript of the Senate's Judiciary Committee hearing on FBI counterterrorism efforts held on June 6, 2002. Users can view remarks from members of the committee, and hear testimonials from others such as the FBI director and Inspector General Glenn Fine. Although the transcript is rather long, it not only gives information regarding counterterrorism efforts, but also provides insight into the world of Congressional committees and how they operate.

2002-01-01

250

An investigation of gender and grade-level differences in middle school students' attitudes about science, in science process skills ability, and in parental expectations of their children's science performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary purpose of the study was to examine different variables (i.e. science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation for their children in science, which may impinge on science education differently for males and females in grades five, seven, and nine. The research question addressed by the study was: What are the differences between science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation in science on the academic success of fifth, seventh, and ninth graders in science and do effects differ according to gender and grade level? The subjects included fifth, seven, and ninth grade students ( n = 543) and their parents (n = 474) from six rural, public elementary schools and two rural, public middle schools in Southern Mississippi. A two-way (grade x gender) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences in science process skill abilities of females and males in grade five, seven, and nine. An additional separate two-way multivariate analysis of variance (grade x gender) was also used to determine the differences in science attitudes of males and females in grade five, seven, and nine. A separate analysis of variance (PPSEX [parent's gender]) with the effects being parents' gender was used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. An additional separate analysis of variance (SSEX [student's gender]) with the effects being the gender of the student was also used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. Results of the analyses indicated significant main effects for grade level (p < .001) and gender (p < .001) on the TIPS II. There was no significant grade by gender interaction on the TIPS II. Results for the TOSRA also indicated a significant main effect for grade (p < .001) and the interaction of grade by sex ( p < .001). On variable ATT 5 (enjoyment of science lessons), males' attitudes toward science decreased across the grade levels; whereas, females decreased from grade five to seven, but showed a significant increase from grade seven to nine. Results from the analysis of variance with the parent's gender as the main effect showed no significant difference. The analysis of variance with student's gender as the main effect showed no significant difference.

White, Terri Renee'

251

EXPECTATIONS AND FISCAL STIMULUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in unproductive government spending trigger substitution effects—both inter- and intra-temporal—and a wealth effect. The ultimate impacts on the economy hinge on current and expected monetary and fiscal policy behavior. Studies that impose active monetary policy and passive fiscal policy typically find that government consumption crowds out private consumption: higher future taxes create a strong negative wealth effect, while the

TROY DAVIG; ERIC M. LEEPER

2009-01-01

252

Does cleanliness influence moral judgments? Response effort moderates the effect of cleanliness priming on moral judgments  

PubMed Central

Whether cleanliness influences moral judgments has recently become a topic of debate in the psychological literature. After the initial report that activating the notion of physical purity can result in less severe moral judgments (Schnall et al., 2008a), a direct replication (Johnson et al., 2014a) with much larger sample sizes failed to yield similar findings. The current paper examines the possibility that only non-conscious activation of the cleanliness concept, as achieved in participants with low response effort on priming materials, can produce the expected effect. An online replication (Study 1, N = 214) provided evidence that, when participants exerted low (yet still acceptable) levels of response effort to the experimental material, cleanliness priming led to more lenient moral judgments than neutral priming. An online experiment (Study 2, N = 440; replicated in Study 2a, N = 436) manipulating participants’ effort on the priming task (low vs. high) supported the hypothesized mechanism. Specifically, respondents in the low response effort group were instructed to complete the priming task as quickly as possible without too much attention, and the cleanliness priming resulted in less extreme moral judgments than the neutral condition as expected. In contrast, respondents in the high response effort group were instructed to perform to the best of their ability on the priming task, with a non-significant difference on moral ratings between cleanliness and neutral conditions. In addition to helping resolve the controversy regarding the cleanliness hypothesis, the current paper calls into attention the role of response effort in the execution and replication of priming studies. PMID:25414690

Huang, Jason L.

2014-01-01

253

Major Efforts 2010-2015 Strategic Plan  

E-print Network

#12;Major Efforts · 2010-2015 Strategic Plan · Trustees approved at Sep meeting · http://www.njit.edu/president/planning/index.php · Middle States Self-Study htt // jit d / iddl t t /i d h #· http://www.njit.edu/middlestates/index.php planning · Faculty Separation Incentive Program · Performance-based pay system for facultye o a ce based

Bieber, Michael

254

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2012-09-01

255

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2011-09-01

256

Reproductive effort decreases antibody responsiveness  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and intensity of parasitic infection often increases in animals when they are reproducing. This may be a consequence of increased rates of parasite transmission due to reproductive effort. Alternatively, endocrine changes associated with reproduction can lead to immunosuppression. Here we provide support for a third potential mechanism: reduced immunocompetence as a consequence of adaptive reallocation of resources in times of increased energetic demand. In captive zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, reproductive effort was manipulated through brood size. Enhanced effort was found to affect the production of antibodies towards sheep red blood cells. In addition, activity of zebra finches was manipulated independently of parental care. Experimentally increased daily workloads in activity reward schedules also suppressed antibody production. Thus, we show that not just the reproductive state, but the increased activity that accompanies reproduction is associated with immunocompetence. This mechanism may be sufficient to explain the increased parasitism observed in reproducing animals. We suggest that reduced immunocompetence as a consequence of increased reproductive effort may be an important pathway for the life history cost of reproduction.

Deerenberg, C.; Arpanius, V.; Daan, S.; Bos, N.

1997-01-01

257

Outsourcing the Software Testing Effort  

E-print Network

by bringing them out in discussion. #12;Outsourcing? n Process in which a company transfers all or part of one.e. the information systems (IS) employees) are either terminated or hired by the vendor. #12;Software TestOutsourcing the Software Testing Effort: A Negotiating Checklist Cem Kaner, J.D., Ph.D. STAR East

258

ATR NSUF Instrumentation Enhancement Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to expand instrumentation available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing real-time measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to increase data fidelity and reduce posttest examination costs. This paper

Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; Joshua E. Daw; Curtis Wilkins

2011-01-01

259

An expected profit model for monetizing fishing location choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop and analyze the properties of a new type of discrete choice model which jointly estimates the expected value of catch and location choice. This model implicitly monetizes location choices and can be used to predict costs and effort redistribution of creating marine protected areas or of implementing other policy changes that either increase travel costs or alter expected

Alan C. Haynie; David F. Layton

2010-01-01

260

Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

1993-01-01

261

Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…

Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

2012-01-01

262

Gender differences in attributions for triathlon performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causal attributions given by athletes for performance can influence performance satisfaction, expectation of future success, and persistence in training and competition. Young and inexperienced athletes often show gender differences in sport attribution, with males attributing success to controllable or stable factors like ability and effort, and females attributing success to uncontrollable or unstable factors like luck and social support. Would

Helen M. Hendy; Bonnie J. Boyer

1993-01-01

263

High School to Community College: New Efforts to Build Shared Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although K-12 schools and community colleges share responsibility for the futures of a vast number of young Californians, and both are under pressure to improve student academic achievement, the groups operate under separate governance systems, pursue distinct missions, gauge success based on different measures, and are seldom looked at together.…

Rosin, Matthew; Wilson, Kathy

2008-01-01

264

Summary of process research analysis efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of solar-cell process research analysis efforts was presented. Process design and cell design are interactive efforts where technology from integrated circuit processes and other processes are blended. The primary factors that control cell efficiency are: (1) the bulk parameters of the available sheet material, (2) the retention and enhancement of these bulk parameters, and (3) the cell design and the cost to produce versus the finished cells performance. The process sequences need to be tailored to be compatible with the sheet form, the cell shape form, and the processing equipment. New process options that require further evaluation and utilization are lasers, robotics, thermal pulse techniques, and new materials. There are numerous process control techniques that can be adapted and used that will improve product uniformity and reduced costs. Two factors that can lead to longer life modules are the use of solar cell diffusion barriers and improved encapsulation.

Burger, D. R.

1985-01-01

265

ATR NSUF Instrumentation Enhancement Efforts  

SciTech Connect

A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to expand instrumentation available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing real-time measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to increase data fidelity and reduce posttest examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide improved in-pile instrumentation to users.

Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; Joshua E. Daw; Curtis Wilkins

2011-01-01

266

New standard exceeds expectations  

SciTech Connect

The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.

Bennett, M.J. (Environmental Data Resources Inc., Southport, CT (United States))

1993-08-01

267

UNICEF: USA Kosovo Relief Efforts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last Friday, the US Committee for UNICEF launched a new Website dedicated to providing the latest information on humanitarian relief efforts in Kosovo and neighboring nations. The site features official UNICEF press releases on recent events, situation reports on the region's status, data on the refugee crisis, and an Alert! mailing list, which keeps subscribers up-to-date on important issues affecting the human rights of children in the Balkans and worldwide.

268

Effort-based decision making in the rat: an [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose micro positron emission tomography study.  

PubMed

Decision making refers to the process by which subjects choose between competing courses of action based on the expected costs and benefits of their consequences. Lesion studies in rats suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex and the nucleus accumbens are key structures of a neural system that subserves effort-based decision making. Little is known about brain activation associated with effort-based decisions in intact rats. Using an open hypothesis approach, we used 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to assess regional metabolic changes in two conditions of an effort-based decision making task. In the "same effort" condition, male rats could choose between two response options associated with the same effort but different reward sizes, i.e., decision making was simply a function of reward size. By contrast, in the "different effort" condition, an integration of different efforts and reward sizes associated with the two response options was necessary before making a decision. Separate PET scans were performed from each condition. Subtractive analysis revealed that metabolic activity was increased in the different effort relative to the same effort condition in the left anterior cingulate, left orbitofrontal and prelimbic cortex region. Metabolic activity was decreased in the infralimbic cortex and septum region. Our findings suggest that making decisions on how much effort to invest to obtain greater rewards evokes changes of metabolic activity in multiple brain areas associated with cognitive, limbic, motor and autonomic functions. This study demonstrates that FDG-PET provides a tool to determine in rats regional brain metabolic activity in cognitive tasks. PMID:20660253

Endepols, Heike; Sommer, Susanne; Backes, Heiko; Wiedermann, Dirk; Graf, Rudolf; Hauber, Wolfgang

2010-07-21

269

Less-than-Best-Effort Services: Pricing and Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the notion of a service offering a degraded performance with respect to the best-effort service traditionally found in IP networks has gained acceptance among network researchers. Such a less-than-best-effort (LBE) service may be considered as another way of providing a differentiated quality of service, following A. Odlyzko's \\

Yezekael Hayel; David Ros; Bruno Tuffin

2004-01-01

270

New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper describes JHU/APL's roles and responsibilities in the launch contingency effort, and the specific tasks to fulfill those responsibilities. The overall effort contributed to mission safety and demonstrated successful cooperation between several agencies.

Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

2007-01-01

271

Perception that "everything requires a lot of effort": transcultural SCL-25 item validation.  

PubMed

This brief report illustrates how the migration context can affect specific item validity of mental health measures. The SCL-25 was administered to 432 recently settled immigrants (220 Haitian and 212 Arabs). We performed descriptive analyses, as well as Infit and Outfit statistics analyses using WINSTEPS Rasch Measurement Software based on Item Response Theory. The participants' comments about the item You feel everything requires a lot of effort in the SCL-25 were also qualitatively analyzed. Results revealed that the item You feel everything requires a lot of effort is an outlier and does not adjust in an expected and valid fashion with its cluster items, as it is over-endorsed by Haitian and Arab healthy participants. Our study thus shows that, in transcultural mental health research, the cultural and migratory contexts may interact and significantly influence the meaning of some symptom items and consequently, the validity of symptom scales. PMID:19752650

Moreau, Nicolas; Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile; Chenguiti, Khalid

2009-09-01

272

Spatial based Expectation Maximizing (EM)  

PubMed Central

Background Expectation maximizing (EM) is one of the common approaches for image segmentation. Methods an improvement of the EM algorithm is proposed and its effectiveness for MRI brain image segmentation is investigated. In order to improve EM performance, the proposed algorithms incorporates neighbourhood information into the clustering process. At first, average image is obtained as neighbourhood information and then it is incorporated in clustering process. Also, as an option, user-interaction is used to improve segmentation results. Simulated and real MR volumes are used to compare the efficiency of the proposed improvement with the existing neighbourhood based extension for EM and FCM. Results the findings show that the proposed algorithm produces higher similarity index. Conclusions experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in compare to other existing algorithms on various noise levels. PMID:22029864

2011-01-01

273

EXPECTATION, CONDITIONAL EXPECTATION AND MARTINGALES IN LOCAL FIELDS  

E-print Network

EXPECTATION, CONDITIONAL EXPECTATION AND MARTINGALES IN LOCAL FIELDS STEVEN N. EVANS AND TYE LIDMAN. EVANS AND TYE LIDMAN a, b, and s integers, where a and b are not divisible by p. Set |r| = p-s . If we

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

274

Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy  

PubMed Central

Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

2015-01-01

275

Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

2012-01-01

276

Effort Reporting Essentials for Principal Investigators  

E-print Network

compliance overview Effort certification process Initial ecrt certification cycle Table of dates, activities and responsibilities Process flow diagram Data in ecrt Effort statement statuses Training using electronic signatures All the payroll detail for the effort reporting period is available within

Suzuki, Masatsugu

277

Subpopulation triage: how to allocate conservation effort among populations.  

PubMed

Threatened species often exist in a small number of isolated subpopulations. Given limitations on conservation spending, managers must choose from strategies that range from managing just one subpopulation and risking all other subpopulations to managing all subpopulations equally and poorly, thereby risking the loss of all subpopulations. We took an economic approach to this problem in an effort to discover a simple rule of thumb for optimally allocating conservation effort among subpopulations. This rule was derived by maximizing the expected number of extant subpopulations remaining given n subpopulations are actually managed. We also derived a spatiotemporally optimized strategy through stochastic dynamic programming. The rule of thumb suggested that more subpopulations should be managed if the budget increases or if the cost of reducing local extinction probabilities decreases. The rule performed well against the exact optimal strategy that was the result of the stochastic dynamic program and much better than other simple strategies (e.g., always manage one extant subpopulation or half of the remaining subpopulation). We applied our approach to the allocation of funds in 2 contrasting case studies: reduction of poaching of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and habitat acquisition for San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica). For our estimated annual budget for Sumatran tiger management, the mean time to extinction was about 32 years. For our estimated annual management budget for kit foxes in the San Joaquin Valley, the mean time to extinction was approximately 24 years. Our framework allows managers to deal with the important question of how to allocate scarce conservation resources among subpopulations of any threatened species. PMID:18477029

McDonald-Madden, Eve; Baxter, Peter W J; Possingham, Hugh P

2008-06-01

278

Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

2010-11-29

279

Kidney Failure: What to Expect  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics and Titles : Kidney Failure: What to Expect Kidney Failure: What to Expect On this page: How ... through Research For More Information Acknowledgments How does kidney failure affect a person’s health? Kidney failure can ...

280

FastStats: Life Expectancy  

MedlinePLUS

... data Deaths and mortality How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010? Life expectancy at age 25, by sex and education level, Health, United States, 2011, figure ...

281

Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

2006-01-01

282

CONSUMERS' EXPECTATIONS AND CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some studies have examined the impact of consumers' expectations on consumption expenditure. However, none of these studies concludes a clear positive relationship between these variables. It has been argued that consumers' expectations about the economy's future should have an impact on consumers' decisions about how much to consume and how much to save. While consumers' expectations seem to be a

Shokoofeh Fazel

2005-01-01

283

?-adrenergic impact underlies the effect of mood and hedonic instrumentality on effort-related cardiovascular response.  

PubMed

After habituation, participants were first induced into negative vs. positive moods and performed then an attention task with either low vs. high hedonic instrumentality of success. In the high-instrumentality condition participants expected to see a funny movie after success and an unpleasant movie after failure; in the low-instrumentality condition participants expected an unpleasant movie after success and a pleasant movie after failure. Effort-related cardiovascular response (ICG, blood pressure) was assessed during mood inductions and task performance. As predicted by the mood-behavior-model (Gendolla, 2000), responses of cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and systolic blood pressure were stronger in the high-instrumentality/negative-mood condition than in the other three cells. Here the high hedonic instrumentality of success justified the high effort that was perceived as necessary in a negative mood. Moreover, the PEP effects indicate that cardiovascular response was driven by beta-adrenergic impact on the heart rather than by vascular adjustments. PMID:21382436

Silvestrini, Nicolas; Gendolla, Guido H E

2011-05-01

284

EFFECTS OF SOCIAL CLASS AND LEVEL OF ASPIRATION ON PERFORMANCE IN A STRUCTURED MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION SITUATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOCIAL CLASS, SUCCESS EXPECTATIONS OF MOTHERS, AND A TASK PERFORMANCE OF MOTHER AND CHILD WERE EXAMINED TO DETERMINE WHETHER DIFFERENCES IN EXPECTATIONS OF SUCCESS WOULD BE REFLECTED IN PERFORMANCE SCORES AND IN MEASURES OF EFFORT IN A PERCEPTUAL MOTOR TEST. THE SUBJECTS WERE 160 NEGRO MOTHERS FROM FOUR SOCIOECONOMIC…

BROPHY, JERE; AND OTHERS

285

Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced. The contingency efforts, while not exercised for the two successful launches, still contributed to mission safety and demonstrated cooperation among multiple agencies.

McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

2004-02-01

286

The Expectancy Table: A Tool for Midterm Conferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author suggests the use of expectancy tables as a method for informing students about the predictability of their future performance. The expectancy table simply and directly reveals the relationship between measures of past performance and those of future performances. (Author)

Sycamore, James N.

1978-01-01

287

NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

Sander, Libby

2008-01-01

288

Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

2005-01-01

289

Interaction of poststroke voluntary effort and functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation.  

PubMed

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may be able to augment functional arm and hand movement after stroke. Poststroke neuroprostheses that incorporate voluntary effort and FES to produce the desired movement must consider how forces generated by voluntary effort and FES combine, even in the same muscle, in order to provide an appropriate level of stimulation to elicit the desired assistive force. The goal of this study was to determine whether the force produced by voluntary effort and FES add together independently of effort or whether the increment in force depends on the level of voluntary effort. Isometric force matching tasks were performed under different combinations of voluntary effort and FES. Participants reached a steady level of force, and while attempting to maintain a constant effort level, FES was applied to augment the force. Results indicate that the increment in force produced by FES decreases as the level of initial voluntary effort increases. Potential mechanisms causing the change in force output are proposed, but the relative contribution of each mechanism is unknown. PMID:23516086

Makowski, Nathaniel; Knutson, Jayme; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick

2013-01-01

290

Control of robotic assistance using poststroke residual voluntary effort.  

PubMed

Poststroke hemiparesis limits the ability to reach, in part due to involuntary muscle co-activation (synergies). Robotic approaches are being developed for both therapeutic benefit and continuous assistance during activities of daily living. Robotic assistance may enable participants to exert less effort, thereby reducing expression of the abnormal co-activation patterns, which could allow participants to reach further. This study evaluated how well participants could perform a reaching task with robotic assistance that was either provided independent of effort in the vertical direction or in the sagittal plane in proportion to voluntary effort estimated from electromyograms (EMG) on the affected side. Participants who could not reach targets without assistance were enabled to reach further with assistance. Constant anti-gravity force assistance that was independent of voluntary effort did not reduce the quality of reach and enabled participants to exert less effort while maintaining different target locations. Force assistance that was proportional to voluntary effort on the affected side enabled participants to exert less effort and could be controlled to successfully reach targets, but participants had increased difficulty maintaining a stable position. These results suggest that residual effort on the affected side can produce an effective command signal for poststroke assistive devices. PMID:25373107

Makowski, Nathaniel S; Knutson, Jayme S; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick E

2015-03-01

291

Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is any one really ready for the Spanish Inquisition? Assign studnets to participate in reading the play, The Spanish Inquisition by Monty Python. While readiang the play, display the following pictures at appropiate times. Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion Confess!!! Get the Cushions!!!! Get the comfy Chair! Now you'll confess! Confess women, CONFESS!!! Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!!! ...

Mrs. Hirschi

2005-04-08

292

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

. There is extensive solvent visible, as well as benzyl alcohol...".) 7. Include your GC-MS-3, and print and attach at and what kind of formatting expections apply. 9. Note: Keep copies of your reports and NMR's and GC

Jasperse, Craig P.

293

An investigation of gender and grade-level differences in middle school students' attitudes about science, in science process skills ability, and in parental expectations of their children's science performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of the study was to examine different variables (i.e. science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation for their children in science, which may impinge on science education differently for males and females in grades five, seven, and nine. The research question addressed by the study was: What are the differences between science process

Terri Renee' White

1999-01-01

294

Listener Effort for Highly Intelligible Tracheoesophageal Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether: (a) inexperienced listeners can reliably judge listener effort and (b) whether listener effort provides unique information beyond speech intelligibility or acceptability in tracheoesophageal speech. Twenty inexperienced listeners made judgments of speech acceptability and amount of effort

Nagle, Kathy F.; Eadie, Tanya L.

2012-01-01

295

Externalities, expectations, and Pigouvian taxes  

SciTech Connect

This article derives Pigouvian-type corrective measures for reciprocal externalities when non-Nash behavior characterizes the participants. These reciprocal externalities may involve various kinds of environmental pollutants, such as acid rain. A comparison between corrective measures for Nash and non-Nash behavior demonstrates that positive conjectures, regarding the other agent's externality-generating activity, have an expectation-internalizing influence that usually reduces the required corrective measures. Negative conjectures (e.g., free-riding expectations), however, have an expectation-externalizing effect that increases the required corrective measures. The article analyzes both two-person and n-person externalities. 13 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Cornes, R.; Sandler, T.

1985-03-01

296

The expected value of control: An integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function  

PubMed Central

Summary The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function. PMID:23889930

Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M.; Cohen, Jonathan D.

2013-01-01

297

The Mobile Browsing Behaviors and Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the…

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

2012-01-01

298

Spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia - A measure of mental effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The validity of the spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia as a measure of mental effort was investigated using a computer simulation of a hovercraft piloted along a river as the experimental task. Strong correlation was observed between the subjective effort-ratings and the heart-rate variability (HRV) power spectrum between 0.06 and 0.14 Hz. Significant correlations were observed not only between subjects but, more importantly, within subjects as well, indicating that the spectral analysis of HRV is an accurate measure of the amount of effort being invested by a subject. Results also indicate that the intensity of effort invested by subjects cannot be inferred from the objective ratings of task difficulty or from performance.

Vicente, Kim J.; Craig Thornton, D.; Moray, Neville

1987-01-01

299

The Role of Ability Beliefs and Incentives in Middle School Students' Intention, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uncovers the predictive relationship of middle school students' ability beliefs (self-efficacy and expectancy-related beliefs) and incentives (outcome expectancy, importance, interest, and usefulness) to intention, cardiovascular fitness, and teacher-rated effort in physical education. Participants (N = 252; 118 boys, 134 girls)…

Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken R.; Zhang, Tao

2009-01-01

300

U.S. Navy battery requirements and development efforts  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research, The Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) is the focal point for exploratory battery development within the US Navy. NSWC is responsible for identifying naval power needs not met by existing technology. To accomplish this, the authors conduct a biennial power source survey to assess the technology gap between state-of-the-art battery performance and mid-to-long term fleet needs. Once Navy power requirements have been identified, high payoff technologies are developed to meet them. During the 1993 survey, the authors identified four Navy systems requiring battery developments, namely sonobuoys, mines, underwater vehicles and torpedoes. Power supply inadequacies were found to be the result of two important factors, a shift in Navy focus from deep ocean waters to the more complex, littoral (coastal) environments, and an increased emphasis on the cost effectiveness of a system in an era of reduced military budgets. The survey revealed the following issues: (1) future sonobuoys will require significantly greater power than the presently used lithium/sulfur dioxide batteries can provide; (2) there is concern in the mine community over the future availability of specific batteries; (3) in the case of underwater vehicles (including torpedo targets), there is a desire for a more cost-effective power source having a greater energy density than the presently used silver oxide/zinc cells; (4) enhanced energy density was requested by the torpedo community to provide increased operational time. As expected, safety and environmental issues were of concern to participants responding to the survey. This paper will discuss the recommendations of the power needs survey and summarize efforts underway to implement them.

Smith, P.H.; James, S.D.; Keller, P.B. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States). Carderock Div.

1995-07-01

301

Uncovering the expectancy effect: the validation of Acupuncture Expectancy Scale  

PubMed Central

Purpose Research suggests that expectancy may modulate the response to medical interventions, including acupuncture. However, the paucity of validated tools to measure expectancy limits rigorous evaluation. We sought to validate a previously developed Acupuncture Expectancy Scale (AES) as an instrument to measure patients’ expected responses to acupuncture. Methods Participants were patients with stage I to III cancers seen in outpatient medical and radiation oncology clinics. They were drawn from three study cohorts that included 404 participants. We examined the reliability, validity and responsiveness of AES. Results The scores of AES had internal consistency (Cronbach’s ? coefficient) of 0.95 and test-retest reliability of 0.62 over four weeks without acupuncture treatment. Those who had previously used acupuncture had higher AES compared to those who were acupuncture naïve (12.4 vs. 9.5, p=0.002). AES was higher in those who reported willingness to participate in an acupuncture trial compared to those who did not want to participate in an acupuncture trial (11.5 vs. 8.1, p<0.001). Those patients who enrolled in a pilot trial of acupuncture had higher AES score than the general outpatient population (13.0 vs. 9.8, p=0.02), and expectancy increased during the course of acupuncture treatment (13.0 to 16.5, p<0.017). Conclusion The AES is reliable and valid, and scores appear to increase during or after prior therapy. Incorporation of AES in clinical trials and outcome studies can evaluate the role of expectancy on acupuncture outcomes. PMID:21280459

Mao, Jun J.; Xie, Sharon X.; Bowman, Marjorie A.

2013-01-01

302

RBANS embedded measures of suboptimal effort in dementia: effort scale has a lower failure rate than the effort index.  

PubMed

The importance of evaluating effort in neuropsychological assessments has been widely acknowledged, but measuring effort in the context of dementia remains challenging due to the impact of dementia severity on effort measure scores. Two embedded measures have been developed for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS; Randolph, C., Tierney, M. C., Mohr, E., & Chase, T. N. (1998). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS): Preliminary clinical validity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20 (3), 310-319): the Effort Index (EI; Silverberg, N. D., Wertheimer, J. C., & Fichtenberg, N. L. (2007). An effort index for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21 (5), 841-854) and the Effort Scale (ES; Novitski, J., Steele, S., Karantzoulis, S., & Randolph, C. (2012). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status effort scale. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27 (2), 190-195). We explored failure rates on these effort measures in a non-litigating mixed dementia sample (N = 145). Failure rate on the EI was high (48%) and associated with dementia severity. In contrast, failure on the ES was 14% but differed based on type of dementia. ES failure was low (4%) when dementia was due to Alzheimer disease (AD), but high (31%) for non-AD dementias. These data raise concerns about use of the RBANS embedded effort measures in dementia evaluations. PMID:25472686

Burton, Rachel L; Enright, Joe; O'Connell, Megan E; Lanting, Shawnda; Morgan, Debra

2015-02-01

303

Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed. PMID:24404807

Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

2014-01-01

304

Desettling Expectations in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calls for the improvement of science education in the USA continue unabated, with particular concern for the quality of learning opportunities for students from historically nondominant communities. Despite many and varied efforts, the field continues to struggle to create robust, meaningful forms of science education. We argue that "settled…

Bang, M.; Warren, B.; Rosebery, A. S.; Medin, D.

2012-01-01

305

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 85 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

. There is extensive solvent visible, as well as benzyl alcohol...".) 7. Include your GC-MS-3, and print and attach of formatting expections apply. 9. Note: Keep three extra copies of your NMR and your GC-MS's. Pyrazolidinone 3

Jasperse, Craig P.

306

Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2012-01-01

307

Do juries meet our expectations?  

PubMed

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony, and weather forecasting, we argue that the frequency of mistakes probably far exceeds these "tolerable" levels. We are not arguing against the use of juries. Rather, we point out that a closer look at jury decisions reveals a serious gap between what we expect from juries and what probably occurs. When deciding issues of guilt and/or punishing convicted criminals, we as a society should recognize and acknowledge the abundance of error. PMID:12508698

Arkes, Hal R; Mellers, Barbara A

2002-12-01

308

Facets of Job Effort in Bus Driver Health: Deconstructing Effort in the Effort–Reward Imbalance Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to test the relative value of developing and using job-specific facets of effort and testing them using J. Siegrist's (1996) effort–reward imbalance (ERI) theory to extend understanding of how one might determine job strain in urban bus driving. In addition, the interactive effects of the ERI model are further investigated to address the lack of research into

John L. M. Tse; Rhona Flin; Kathryn Mearns

2007-01-01

309

Software Faults Fixing Effort: Analysis and Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software developers spend significant amount of their time fixing faults. However, not many papers have addressed the effort needed to fix software faults. This paper is focused on comprehensive analysis of the fix implementation effort and factors that affect it, as well as on predicting the level of effort based on information recorded in software change requests. The work is based on data related to 1200 failures, extracted from the change tracking system of a large NASA mission. Our results show that (1) 83% of the total fix implementation effort was associated with only 20% of failures. (2) Both safety critical failures and post-release failures required three times more effort to fix compared to non-critical and pre-release counterparts, respectively. (3) Failures with fixes spread across multiple components and/or across multiple types of software artifacts required more effort. The spread across artifacts was more costly than spread across components. (4) Surprisingly, some types of faults associated with later life-cycle did not require significant effort, especially if only one type of artifact was fixed. (5) The level of fix implementation effort was predicted with 73% accuracy. The medium level fix implementation effort was classified more successfully than both low and high levels.

Hamill, Maggie; Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

2014-01-01

310

Coordinating a Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Retailer and Effort Dependent Demand  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

Li, Liying

2014-01-01

311

Auditory cortex mediates the perceptual effects of acoustic temporal expectation  

PubMed Central

When events occur at predictable instants, anticipation improves performance. Knowledge of event timing modulates motor circuits, improving response speed. By contrast, the neuronal mechanisms underlying changes in sensory perception due to expectation are not well understood. We have developed a novel behavioral paradigm for rats in which we manipulated expectations about sound timing. Valid expectations improved both the speed and the accuracy of subjects’ performance, indicating not only improved motor preparedness but also enhanced perception. Single neuron recordings in primary auditory cortex revealed enhanced representation of sounds during periods of heightened expectation. Furthermore, we found that activity in auditory cortex was causally linked to the performance of the task, and that changes in the neuronal representation of sounds predicted performance on a trial-by-trial basis. Our results indicate that changes in neuronal representation as early as primary sensory cortex mediate the perceptual advantage conferred by temporal expectation. PMID:21170056

Jaramillo, Santiago; Zador, Anthony M.

2011-01-01

312

48 CFR 1352.216-71 - Level of effort (cost-plus-fixed-fee, term contract).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clauses 1352.216-71 Level of effort (cost-plus-fixed-fee, term contract...insert the following clause: Level of Effort (Cost-Plus-Fixed-Fee, Term Contract...2010) (a) In performance of the effort directed in this contract, the contractor...provide the total of Direct Productive Labor Hours (DPLH) as specified in...

2010-10-01

313

Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA?s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

314

Jitter-free Audio Playout over Best Effort Packet Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to explore important issues in play- out of audio over best effort audio networks and the improvements that can be made at the upper layers without changing the underlying network. This paper starts with a review of existing methods, the experiments conducted based on them and comments on their performance. The point of departure

Aman Kansal; Abhay Karandikar

315

Trunk muscle activation during sub-maximal extension efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuromuscular fatigue of the trunk musculature, particularly lumbar paraspinal and abdominal muscles, is important in when evaluating motor control of the trunk. Activation of agonists and antagonists trunk muscles was hypothesized to change during sub-maximal isometric trunk extension efforts. Thirteen women were positioned in 30° of trunk flexion and performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction in trunk extension against an isokinetic

Michael W. Olson

2010-01-01

316

Muscle fibers, ubiquinone and exercise capacity in effort angina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen male patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and effort angina performed OBLA exercise stress tests (set to 2.0 mmol × 1-1). They had muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle the day before coronary by-pass grafting, and from the internal and external intercostal, diaphragm and gastrocnemius muscles during surgery. They had a low WOBLA (83 ± 6 W, mean

Jan Karlsson; Sigurd Gunnes; Bjarne Semb

1996-01-01

317

Children's Judgments of Expected Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…

Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.

1994-01-01

318

Great Expectations and New Beginnings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

Davis, Frances A.

2009-01-01

319

Generalized expectancies for interpersonal trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes results of a program of research on interpersonal trust, defined as belief in social communications. Construction of a scale for measuring individual differences, construct validity studies, and investigations of antecedents of trust, correlates of trust, and changes of college student trust are included. The evidence supports the hypothesis of (a) stable individual differences in a generalized expectancy for interpersonal

Julian B. Rotter

1971-01-01

320

Life expectancy under random censorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with estimation of life expectancy used in survival analysis and competing risk study under the condition that the data are randomly censored by K independent censoring variables. The estimator constructed is based on a theorem due to Berman [2], and it involves an empirical distribution function which is related to the Kaplan-Meier estimate used in biometry. It

Grace Yang

1977-01-01

321

Life Expectancy following Psychogeriatric Reactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To estimate life expectancy of psychogeriatric patients having participated in a reactivation program. To identify prognostic characteristics – on admission – for survival after discharge. Design: A prospective, clinical-empirical observational study. Setting: A Dutch psychiatric-skilled nursing home. Participants: Psychogeriatric patients (n = 75) suffering from very mild to moderate cognitive function disorders in conjunction with psychiatric function disorders. Intervention:

T. J. E. M. Bakker; H. J. Duivenvoorden; J. van der Lee; W. J. Schudel

2004-01-01

322

Expectancy theory analysis of migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Expectancy Theory analysis was used to explain patterns of migration in Iran. Fifty-four Iranian males and females were interviewed about their perception of the probability of attaining certain life outcomes in an urban or rural environment, and the importance of each outcome. The subjects were divided into three samples: migrants to the capital city, villagers, and migrants who had

Martin M. Chemers; Roya Ayman; Carol Werner

1978-01-01

323

Do Introductory Science Courses Select for Effort or Aptitude?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On the first day of classes, students in introductory biology courses believe that effort is the most accurate predictor of their academic success. Students know which academic behaviors are important for success, and they are confident that they will earn high grades, attend lectures and help sessions, take advantage of other opportunities to master the course material and raise their grade. Despite this optimism, many students do not follow through on their first-day-of-class expectations, and their grades suffer accordingly. Academic success in introductory science courses is strongly associated with effort-based behaviors, but only weakly associated with aptitude. The relevant research findings are discussed in this chapter relative to how instructors can help students succeed in introductory science courses.

Randy Moore

2006-01-01

324

Frontal midline ? power as an index of listening effort.  

PubMed

Attempts to identify physiological correlates of listening effort have mainly focused on peripheral measures (e.g. pupillometry) and auditory-evoked/event-related potentials. Although nonauditory studies have suggested that sustained time-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) features in the ?-band (4-7?Hz) are correlated with domain-general mental effort, little work has characterized such features during effortful listening. Here, high-density EEG data was collected while listeners performed a sentence-recognition task in noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of which varied across blocks. Frontal midline ? (Fm?), largely driven by sources localized in or near the medial frontal cortex, showed greater power with decreasing SNR and was positively correlated with self-reports of effort. Increased Fm? was present before speech onset and during speech presentation. Fm? power also differed across SNRs when including only trials in which all words were recognized, suggesting that the effects were unrelated to performance differences. Results suggest that frontal cortical networks play a larger role in listening as acoustic signals are increasingly masked. Further, sustained time-frequency EEG features may usefully supplement previously used peripheral and event-related potential measures in psychophysiological investigations of effortful listening. PMID:25536119

Wisniewski, Matthew G; Thompson, Eric R; Iyer, Nandini; Estepp, Justin R; Goder-Reiser, Max N; Sullivan, Sarah C

2015-01-21

325

Expectation Grammars: Leveraging High-Level Expectations for Activity Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-based recognition and prediction of a temporally ex- tended activity can benefit from a detailed description of high-level expectations about the activity. Stochastic gr am- mars allow for an efficient representation of such expecta- tions and are well-suited for the specification of temporall y well-ordered activities. In this paper, we extend stochast ic grammars by adding event parameters, state checks,

David Minnen; Irfan A. Essa; Thad Starner

2003-01-01

326

Adaptive and Qualitative Changes in Encoding Strategy With Experience: Evidence From the Test-Expectancy Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Three experiments demonstrated learners’ abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study–test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study–test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants’ metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests. PMID:22103783

Finley, Jason R.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

2012-01-01

327

Patterns of Research Effort in Birds  

PubMed Central

Between species differences in research effort can lead to biases in our global view of evolution, ecology and conservation. The increase in meta-taxonomic comparative analyses on birds underlines the need to better address how research effort is distributed in this class. Methods have been developed to choose which species should be studied to obtain unbiased comparative data sets, but a precise and global knowledge of research effort is required to be able to properly apply them. We address this issue by providing a data set of research effort (number of papers from 1978 to 2008 in the Zoological Record database) estimates for the 10 064 species of birds. We then test whether research effort is associated with phylogeny, geography and eleven different life history and ecological traits. We show that phylogeny accounts for a large proportion of the variance, while geographic range and all the tested traits are also significant contributors to research effort variance. We identify avian taxa that are under- and overstudied and address the importance of research effort biases in evaluating vulnerability to extinction, with non-threatened species studied twice as much as threatened ones. Our research effort data set covering the entire class Aves provides a tool for researchers to incorporate this potential confounding variable in comparative analyses. PMID:24587149

Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

2014-01-01

328

OVERVIEW OF UF'S NEW EFFORT REPORTING SYSTEM  

E-print Network

. #12;LIFECYCLE OF A FAR Unit Leader (Tim White) and PI discuss planned effort Planned effort is input on FAR by FAR Initiator (Chris Peters) Chris works with Tim& PI to address any FAR errors Chris submits to Tim for final approval Faculty will receive electronic notification to acknowledge FAR When

Watson, Craig A.

329

Web Development Effort Estimation Using Analogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although estimating the effort required in developing Web applications is a difficult task, accurate estimates of development effort have an important role to play in the successful management of Web development projects. In software development work to date, emphasis has focused on algorithmic cost models such as COCOMO and function points. Two disadvantages of these models are firstly, the need

Emilia Mendes; Steve Counsell

2000-01-01

330

Neural substrates underlying effort computation in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The lack of initiative, drive or effort in patients with schizophrenia is linked to marked functional impairments. However, our assessment of effort and motivation is crude, relying on clinical rating scales based largely on patient recall. In order to better understand the neurobiology of effort in schizophrenia, we need more rigorous measurements of this construct. In the behavioural neuroscience literature, decades of work has been carried out developing various paradigms to examine the neural underpinnings of an animal's willingness to expend effort for a reward. Here, we shall review this literature on the nature of paradigms used in rodents to assess effort, as well as those used in humans. Next, the neurobiology of these effort-based decisions will be discussed. We shall then review what is known about effort in schizophrenia, and what might be inferred from experiments done in other human populations. Lastly, we shall discuss future directions of research that may assist in shedding light on the neurobiology of effort cost computations in schizophrenia. PMID:24035741

Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

2013-12-01

331

Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

1988-01-01

332

Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

2011-01-01

333

Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

2013-01-01

334

Unmet Expectations for Care and the Patient-physician Relationship  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To profile patients likely to have unmet expectations for care, examine the effects of such expectations, and investigate how physicians' responses to patients' requests affect the development of unfulfilled expectations. DESIGN Patient and physician questionnaires were administered before and after outpatient visits. A follow-up telephone survey was administered 2 weeks post visit. SETTING The offices of 45 family practice, internal medicine, and cardiology physicians. PATIENTS Nine hundred nine adults reporting a health problem or concern. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Before their visits, patients rated their general health and trust in the index physician. After the visit, patients reported upon 8 types of unmet expectations and any request they made. Two weeks thereafter, patients rated their visit satisfaction, improvement, and intention to adhere to the physician's advice. They also reported any postvisit health system contacts. Overall, 11.6% of patients reported ?1 unmet expectation. Visits in which a patient held an unmet expectation were rated by physicians as less satisfying and more effortful. At follow-up, patients who perceived an unmet expectation for care also reported less satisfaction with their visits, less improvement, and weaker intentions to adhere. Patients with an unmet expectation related to clinical resource allocation had more postvisit health system contacts. Unmet expectations were typically reported by a patient whose request for a resource was not fulfilled. CONCLUSIONS Unmet expectations adversely affect patients and physicians alike. Physicians' nonfulfillment of patients' requests plays a significant role in patients' beliefs that their physicians did not meet their expectations for care. PMID:12406352

Bell, Robert A; Kravitz, Richard L; Thom, David; Krupat, Edward; Azari, Rahman

2002-01-01

335

Expectation to hydrologists on groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water demands are increasing globally since the latter half of 20th century. Especially, underground water demands have been increasing rapidly everywhere in the world. As a result, various kinds of environmental destruction were also occurred world-widely. Climate change is accelerating to increase the severe disasters and water crisis including the underground water critical situation. Thus, underground hydrologist's duty is very important, and it is expected to research and solve the above-mentioned matters for them.

Takahasi, Yutaka

336

Televisions, Physicians, and Life Expectancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Allan Rossman of Dickinson College, describes a dataset on life expectancies, densities of people per television set, and densities of people per physician in various countries of the world. The example addresses correlation versus causation and data transformations. The author states that "the example has proven very useful for helping students to discover the fundamental principle that correlation does not imply causation."

Rossman, Allan

337

Performance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Department of Transportation combines the performance report for 2001 with the performance plan for 2003. Released in March 2002, its purpose is to weigh statistics and historical trends to improve the nation's transportation system. A key focus of the report is safety; this includes highway, aviation, rail, and all forms of transportation related safety. In light of September 11, national security is another top priority. For each issue covered in the report, the performance of the DOT in recent years is assessed, and specific goals are set. Strategies and initiatives are named to achieve the proposed objectives.

2002-01-01

338

Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation: A developmental perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

I consider Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value model of achievement performance and choice from a developmental perspective, by examining how recent research on the development of young children's competence beliefs, expectancies for success, subjective task values, and achievement goals can be incorporated into the model. The kinds of change in children's achievement beliefs considered include change in the factor structure

Allan Wigfield

1994-01-01

339

Personality Factors and Expectation Effects in Teacher-Student Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the effect of teacher expectations on student performance has been well documented, little research has focused on the effect of teacher personality styles on student-teacher interactions. To investigate the effect of teachers' locus of control and their expectations of their own effectiveness on student success, 77 female college…

Feldman, Robert S.

340

Using expected values to simplify decision making under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation study examines the impact of a simplification strategy that replaces distributional attribute evaluations with their expected values and uses those expectations in an additive value model. Several alternate simplified forms and approximation approaches are investigated, with results showing that in general the simplified models are able to provide acceptable performance that is fairly robust to a variety of

Ian N. Durbach; Theodor J. Stewart

2009-01-01

341

The Martyrdom Effect: When Pain and Effort Increase Prosocial Contributions  

PubMed Central

Most theories of motivation and behavior (and lay intuitions alike) consider pain and effort to be deterrents. In contrast to this widely held view, we provide evidence that the prospect of enduring pain and exerting effort for a prosocial cause can promote contributions to the cause. Specifically, we show that willingness to contribute to a charitable or collective cause increases when the contribution process is expected to be painful and effortful rather than easy and enjoyable. Across five experiments, we document this “martyrdom effect,” show that the observed patterns defy standard economic and psychological accounts, and identify a mediator and moderator of the effect. Experiment 1 showed that people are willing to donate more to charity when they anticipate having to suffer to raise money. Experiment 2 extended these findings to a non-charity laboratory context that involved real money and actual pain. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the martyrdom effect is not the result of an attribute substitution strategy (whereby people use the amount of pain and effort involved in fundraising to determine donation worthiness). Experiment 4 showed that perceptions of meaningfulness partially mediate the martyrdom effect. Finally, Experiment 5 demonstrated that the nature of the prosocial cause moderates the martyrdom effect: the effect is strongest for causes associated with human suffering. We propose that anticipated pain and effort lead people to ascribe greater meaning to their contributions and to the experience of contributing, thereby motivating higher prosocial contributions. We conclude by considering some implications of this puzzling phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23559692

Olivola, Christopher Y; Shafir, Eldar

2013-01-01

342

Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions  

PubMed Central

The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., “courage”). As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm (HRA) but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the HRA. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain tasks. PMID:24478659

Holec, Victoria; Pirot, Heather L.; Euston, David R.

2014-01-01

343

Information Management System for Site Remediation Efforts.  

PubMed

/ Environmental regulatory agencies are responsible for protecting human health and the environment in their constituencies. Their responsibilities include the identification, evaluation, and cleanup of contaminated sites. Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) constitute a major source of subsurface and groundwater contamination. A significant portion of a regulatory body's efforts may be directed toward the management of UST-contaminated sites. In order to manage remedial sites effectively, vast quantities of information must be maintained, including analytical dataon chemical contaminants, remedial design features, and performance details. Currently, most regulatory agencies maintain such information manually. This makes it difficult to manage the data effectively. Some agencies have introduced automated record-keeping systems. However, the ad hoc approach in these endeavors makes it difficult to efficiently analyze, disseminate, and utilize the data. This paper identifies the information requirements for UST-contaminated site management at the Waste Cleanup Section of the Department of Environmental Resources Management in Dade County, Florida. It presents a viable design for an information management system to meet these requirements. The proposed solution is based on a back-end relational database management system with relevant tools for sophisticated data analysis and data mining. The database is designed with all tables in the third normal form to ensure data integrity, flexible access, and efficient query processing. In addition to all standard reports required by the agency, the system provides answers to ad hoc queries that are typically difficult to answer under the existing system. The database also serves as a repository of information for a decision support system to aid engineering design and risk analysis. The system may be integrated with a geographic information system for effective presentation and dissemination of spatial data. PMID:10742478

Laha; Mukherjee; Nebhrajani

2000-05-01

344

USGS Shoots Video of Flooding Efforts  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS public affairs specialist, Jennifer LaVista prepares to shoot video of USGS efforts during historic flooding in Fargo, ND. The videos can be viewed at http://www.usgs.gov/homepage/science_features/flooding_march09.asp...

345

Modeling Efforts to Inform Countries' Screening Decisions  

Cancer.gov

Modeling Efforts to Inform Countries’ Screening Decisions Ann Graham Zauber, Iris Vogelaar, Marjolein van Ballegooijen, Deb Schrag, Rob Boer, Dik Habbema, and Sidney Winawer May 11, 2006 International Breast Cancer Screening Network Biennial Meeting,

346

The effect of sleep loss on next day effort.  

PubMed

The study had two primary objectives. The first was to determine whether sleep loss results in a preference for tasks demanding minimal effort. The second was to evaluate the quality of performance when participants, under conditions of sleep loss, have control over task demands. In experiment 1, using a repeated-measures design, 50 undergraduate college students were evaluated, following one night of no sleep loss and one night of sleep loss. The Math Effort Task (MET) presented addition problems via computer. Participants were able to select additions at one of five levels of difficulty. Less-demanding problems were selected and more additions were solved correctly when the participants were subject to sleep loss. In experiment 2, 58 undergraduate college students were randomly assigned to a no sleep deprivation or a sleep deprivation condition. Sleep-deprived participants selected less-demanding problems on the MET. Percentage correct on the MET was equivalent for both the non-sleep-deprived and sleep-deprived groups. On a task selection question, the sleep-deprived participants also selected significantly less-demanding non-academic tasks. Increased sleepiness, fatigue, and reaction time were associated with the selection of less difficult tasks. Both groups of participants reported equivalent effort expenditures; sleep-deprived participants did not perceive a reduction in effort. These studies demonstrate that sleep loss results in the choice of low-effort behavior that helps maintain accurate responding. PMID:12753348

Engle-Friedman, Mindy; Riela, Suzanne; Golan, Rama; Ventuneac, Ana M; Davis, Christine M; Jefferson, Angela D; Major, Donna

2003-06-01

347

Legislator Uses of Public Performance Reports: Findings from a Five-Year Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key assumption in efforts to implement and improve cross-government public reporting systems is that legislators will make use of the performance information to enhance accountability and improve program and policy effectiveness. This five-year study is an assessment of expectations and actual uses of annual performance reports by elected…

McDavid, James C.; Huse, Irene

2012-01-01

348

Reproductive effort and success of wild female mallards: does male quality matter?  

PubMed

In accordance with the differential allocation hypothesis, females are expected to increase their reproductive investment when mated to high-quality males. In waterfowl, reproductive, investment increased when captive female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were mated to more attractive males, but information for wild ducks is lacking. Studies of waterfowl mating systems have focused primarily on the importance of plumage coloration of males and female mate choice, whereas investigations of reproductive ecology examine female attributes and virtually ignore the role of males in investment decisions. Here, we used unique data for 253 pairs of wild mallards to test whether females mated to high-quality males would increase reproductive effort and reproduce more successfully. We derived measurements of female and male body size and condition, and indices of male plumage quality, and related these traits to patterns of reproductive effort and performance of females. Consistent with predictions, yearling females nested earlier and had higher nest survival when mated to males with better plumage scores. Furthermore, when paired with larger bodied males, yearling females renested more often, and nest and brood survival increased among older females. Although the strength of male effects varied with breeding stage and female age or experience, this is one of a few studies to demonstrate an additive effect of male quality on investment and success of females, in free-ranging birds. PMID:23973707

Sheppard, Jennifer L; Clark, Robert G; Devries, James H; Brasher, Michael G

2013-11-01

349

Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

2011-01-01

350

Adult and pediatric CPR: Attitudes and expectations of health professionals and laypersons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nationally accepted resuscitation courses offer few guidelines for terminating unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resusitation (CPR). Data were collected from 305 physicians and nurses in 1988\\/1989 and 401 physicians, nurses, and laypersons in 1998\\/1999 to assess their attitudes and expectations about adult and pediatric CPR. Respondents felt pediatric CPR efforts should continue longer than adult CPR efforts. Respondents in 1998\\/1999 felt CPR efforts

David Roberts; Donna Hirschman; Karen Scheltema

2000-01-01

351

Work More, Then Feel More: The Influence of Effort on Affective Predictions  

PubMed Central

Two studies examined how effort invested in a task shapes the affective predictions related to potential success in that task, and the mechanism underlying this relationship. In Study 1, PhD students awaiting an editorial decision about a submitted manuscript estimated the effort they had invested in preparing that manuscript for submission and how happy they would feel if it were accepted. Subjective estimates of effort were positively related to participants' anticipated happiness, an effect mediated by the higher perceived quality of one's work. In other words, the more effort one though having invested, the happier one expected to feel if it were accepted, because one expected a higher quality manuscript. We replicated this effect and its underlying mediation in Study 2, this time using an experimental manipulation of effort in the context of creating an advertising slogan. Study 2 further showed that participants mistakenly thought their extra efforts invested in the task had improved the quality of their work, while independent judges had found no objective differences in quality between the outcomes of the high- and low-effort groups. We discuss the implications of the relationship between effort and anticipated emotions and the conditions under which such relationship might be functional. PMID:25028961

Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M.; Toma, Claudia; Corneille, Olivier

2014-01-01

352

Neural integration of risk and effort costs by the frontal pole: only upon request.  

PubMed

Rewards in real life are rarely received without incurring costs and successful reward harvesting often involves weighing and minimizing different types of costs. In the natural environment, such costs often include the physical effort required to obtain rewards and potential risks attached to them. Costs may also include potential risks. In this study, we applied fMRI to explore the neural coding of physical effort costs as opposed to costs associated with risky rewards. Using an incentive-compatible valuation mechanism, we separately measured the subjective costs associated with effortful and risky options. As expected, subjective costs of options increased with both increasing effort and increasing risk. Despite the similar nature of behavioral discounting of effort and risk, distinct regions of the brain coded these two cost types separately, with anterior insula primarily processing risk costs and midcingulate and supplementary motor area (SMA) processing effort costs. To investigate integration of the two cost types, we also presented participants with options that combined effortful and risky elements. We found that the frontal pole integrates effort and risk costs through functional coupling with the SMA and insula. The degree to which the latter two regions influenced frontal pole activity correlated with participant-specific behavioral sensitivity to effort and risk costs. These data support the notion that, although physical effort costs may appear to be behaviorally similar to other types of costs, such as risk, they are treated separately at the neural level and are integrated only if there is a need to do so. PMID:23345243

Burke, Christopher J; Brünger, Christian; Kahnt, Thorsten; Park, Soyoung Q; Tobler, Philippe N

2013-01-23

353

Gating of attentional effort through the central thalamus  

PubMed Central

The central thalamus plays an important role in the regulation of arousal and allocation of attentional resources in the performance of even simple tasks. To assess the contribution of central thalamic neurons to short-term adjustments of attentional effort, we analyzed 166 microelectrode recordings obtained from two rhesus monkeys performing a visuomotor simple reaction time task with a variable foreperiod. Multiunit responses showed maintained firing rate elevations during the variable delay period of the task in ?24% of recording sites. Simultaneously recorded local field potentials demonstrated significant decreases in power at ?10–20 Hz and increases in power at 30–100 Hz during the delay period when compared against precue baselines. Comparison of the spectral power of local field potentials during the delay period of correct and incorrect trials showed that, during incorrect trials, similar, but reduced, shifts of spectral power occurred within the same frequency bands. Sustained performance of even simple tasks requires regulation of arousal and attention that combine in the concept of “attentional effort”. Our findings suggest that central thalamic neurons regulate task performance through brief changes in firing rates and spectral power changes during task-relevant short-term shifts of attentional effort. Increases in attentional effort may be reflected in changes within the central thalamic local populations, where correct task performance associates with more robust maintenance of firing rates during the delay period. Such ongoing fluctuations of central thalamic activity likely reflect a mix of influences, including variations in moment-to-moment levels of motivation, arousal, and availability of cognitive resources. PMID:23221415

Shah, S. A.; Hudson, A. E.; Nauvel, T.; Kalik, S. F.; Purpura, K. P.

2013-01-01

354

Stimulus and Response Expectancies Influence the Cognitive Effects of Cigarettes  

PubMed Central

The pharmacological, stimulus expectancy, and response expectancy effects of light cigarettes (0.60 mg yield of nicotine) compared with virtually nicotine-free cigarettes (less than 0.05 mg yield of nicotine) were examined using a between-subjects design. A total of 103 college-student smokers completed tests of cognition before and after smoking one type of cigarette, which was evaluated on a number of dimensions. Cigarettes with nicotine were preferred on most dimensions, and stimulus expectancy partially mediated the relationship between nicotine and subjective effects of the cigarettes. Stimulus expectancy also mediated the effect of nicotine on tension reduction immediately after smoking, but not near the end of the experiment. Response expectancy effects of nicotine were related to predicted and actual recall performance, such that participants who performed well tended to attribute the effect to the cigarette they smoked. Implications for smoking cessation and research studies using non-nicotine cigarettes are discussed. PMID:19851480

Kelemen, William L.

2009-01-01

355

Age and state-dependent reproductive effort in male mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammalian polygynous mating systems, male reproductive effort consists mainly of male–male competition and courting of\\u000a females, which entail substantial somatic costs. Males are thus expected to adjust their reproductive effort according to\\u000a their age and condition. In this study, we examined how activity budgets of male mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), a polygynous ungulate, varied with age in a marked

Julien Mainguy; Steeve D. Côté

2008-01-01

356

Rising Expectations: Access to Biomedical Information  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To provide an overview of the expansion in public access to electronic biomedical information over the past two decades, with an emphasis on developments to which the U.S. National Library of Medicine contributed. Methods Review of the increasingly broad spectrum of web-accessible genomic data, biomedical literature, consumer health information, clinical trials data, and images. Results The amount of publicly available electronic biomedical information has increased dramatically over the past twenty years. Rising expectations regarding access to biomedical information were stimulated by the spread of the Internet, the World Wide Web, advanced searching and linking techniques. These informatics advances simplified and improved access to electronic information and reduced costs, which enabled inter-organizational collaborations to build and maintain large international information resources and also aided outreach and education efforts The demonstrated benefits of free access to electronic biomedical information encouraged the development of public policies that further increase the amount of information available. Conclusions Continuing rapid growth of publicly accessible electronic biomedical information presents tremendous opportunities and challenges, including the need to ensure uninterrupted access during disasters or emergencies and to manage digital resources so they remain available for future generations. PMID:18587496

Lindberg, D. A. B.; Humphreys, B. L.

2008-01-01

357

The Effects of Education Compatibility and Technological Expectancy on E-Learning Acceptance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discerning what influences a student's acceptance of e-learning is still unclear and has not been well investigated. On the basis of the expectancy-value theory, much effort has been put into identifying the effectual factors regarding the technological expectancy of students. However, aside from technological usage, the adoption of an e-learning…

Chen, Jian-Liang

2011-01-01

358

Life expectancy following orbital exenteration.  

PubMed

Orbital exenteration is a physically debilitating procedure that may be a necessity in the management of orbital malignancy. It requires a sensitive multidisciplinary approach, both preoperatively and postoperatively. Providing life expectancy information for patients during preoperative counselling is pertinent to informed consent and in addressing patients' expectations. A retrospective review from one tertiary care centre was undertaken for a cohort of patients who were exenterated for orbital malignancy between 1998 and 2010. The cases were identified using an International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10)-derived database and were analysed using Prism statistical software (V.5.04). Cause of death was ascertained by liaising with the general practitioner and the National Registrar Office for Births, Deaths, and Marriages, Southport, UK. In total, 41 men and 32 women were identified. Mean age was 72?years with 47 cases living and 26 deceased at the time of review. The overall 5-year survival rate in this study was 64%. Kaplan-Meier analysis for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) against non-BCC returned a p value of 0.0199, with an HR of 0.3927 (CI 0.1788 to 0.8626). Kaplan-Meier analysis for cleared against non-cleared margins returned a p value of 0.2890, with an HR of 0.6571(CI 0.3024 to 1.428). Our results represent the highest 5-year survival data to date. However, the overall prognosis for patients who undergo orbital exenteration for malignancy remains poor. We hypothesise that the causes are multi-factorial. We recommend a multidisciplinary approach to the care of these patients, involving head and neck teams, oncology and other appropriate specialties, to optimise outcomes for this vulnerable patient group. PMID:24879806

Wong, James Chiun Lon; Thampy, Reshma; Cook, Anne

2015-01-01

359

American lifelines alliance efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was performed on American Lifelines Alliance (ALA) efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability. ALA is a public-private partnership project, with the goal of reducing risks to lifelines from natural hazards and human threat events. The mechanism used by ALA for developing national guidelines for lifeline systems is dependent upon using existing Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as means to achieve national consensus.

Nishenko, S.P.; Savage, W.U.; Honegger, D.G.; McLane, T.R.

2002-01-01

360

The special effort processing of FGGE data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic FGGE level IIb data set was enhanced. It focused on removing deficiencies in the objective methods of quality assurance, removing efficiencies in certain types of operationally produced satellite soundings, and removing deficiencies in certain types of operationally produced cloud tracked winds. The Special Effort was a joint NASA-NOAA-University of Wisconsin effort. The University of Wisconsin installed an interactive McIDAS capability on the Amdahl computer at the Goddard Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) with one interactive video terminal at Goddard and the other at the World Weather Building. With this interactive capability a joint processing effort was undertaken to reprocess certain FGGE data sets. NOAA produced a specially edited data set for the special observing periods (SOPs) of FGGE. NASA produced an enhanced satellite sounding data set for the SOPs while the University of Wisconsin produced an enhanced cloud tracked wind set from the Japanese geostationary satellite images.

1983-01-01

361

Conflict and expectancies interact to predict sexual behavior under the influence among gay and bisexual men  

PubMed Central

As the mechanisms of the associations between substance use and risky sex remain unclear, this study investigates the interactive roles of conflicts about casual sex and condom use and expectancies of the sexual effects of substances in those associations among gay men. Conflict interacted with expectancies to predict sexual behavior under the influence; low casual sex conflict coupled with high expectancies predicted the highest number of casual partners, and high condom use conflict and high expectancies predicted the highest number of unprotected sex acts. Results have implications for intervention efforts that aim to improve sexual decision-making and reduce sexual expectancies. PMID:23584507

Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit

2013-01-01

362

Effort, exaggeration and malingering after concussion.  

PubMed

Although most individuals who suffer a mild traumatic brain injury have complete recovery, a number experience persistent symptoms that appear inconsistent with the severity of the injury. Symptoms may be ascribed to malingering, exaggeration or poor effort on cognitive testing. The purpose of this paper is to propose that previously unconsidered factors, informed by social psychology and behavioural economics, can appear as 'symptom magnification' or 'poor effort', which are incorrectly interpreted as the result of a conscious process. These are complex and multi-determined behaviours with a unique differential diagnosis which have important implications for research, evaluation and treatment. PMID:22696584

Silver, Jonathan M

2012-08-01

363

Effort thrombosis: recognition and management while underway.  

PubMed

Effort thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins is an uncommon cause of upper extremity swelling. Prompt recognition and treatment of this disorder is important in order to minimize the complications of pulmonary embolism and postphlebitic syndrome that can occur with this condition. This can be very challenging while underway or in the field. A sailor who developed effort vein thrombosis while underway on board the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln is presented to review the presentation and management of this disorder, particularly as it applies to active duty military personnel. PMID:1749504

Mitchell, P B; MacGillivray, D C; Almond, M D

1991-10-01

364

High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

Kalemci, Emrah [Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey)

2011-09-21

365

Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort.  

PubMed

Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

Friman, P C

1995-01-01

366

Adaptive best effort protocols for video delivery  

E-print Network

data when transmitted over best-effort networks like the Internet. The protocols are end-to-end, and do not propose any modifications (like reservations) to the network infrastructure-hence, they can be used over the existing Internet. The design...

Madhwaraj, Ashwin Raj

1998-01-01

367

Behavior Contracts: A Home School Cooperative Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on behavior contracts at school which attempt to promote a home school cooperative effort. The contract is drawn up at school, and classroom teachers award points for appropriate school behaviors; parents in turn reward the student if the report is good. (DS)

Stitely, Rose Patton

1978-01-01

368

The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

2012-08-01

369

Effort Attribution: The Direction Makes a Difference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present experiment tested the hypothesis that effort attribution given for prior achievement is effective in promoting subsequent achievement behaviors. Forty children drawn from two elementary schools and lacking in subtraction skills received training and opportunities to solve subtraction problems. In the context of training, children…

Schunk, Dale H.

370

School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

Johnston, Robert

2015-01-01

371

Economic Woes May Hurt Colleges' Green Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent events on Wall Street raise a complicated question: Will the financial crisis help or hurt colleges' sustainability efforts? Both are possible. In this article, the author discusses how the Wall Street meltdown may hurt colleges' green initiatives. However, advocates of sustainability see an opportunity to change the conversation. A…

Carlson, Scott

2008-01-01

372

V and V Efforts of Auroral Precipitation Models: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Auroral precipitation models have been valuable both in terms of space weather applications and space science research. Yet very limited testing has been performed regarding model performance. A variety of auroral models are available, including empirical models that are parameterized by geomagnetic indices or upstream solar wind conditions, now casting models that are based on satellite observations, or those derived from physics-based, coupled global models. In this presentation, we will show our preliminary results regarding V&V efforts of some of the models.

Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Rastaetter, Lutz; Hesse, Michael

2011-01-01

373

20 CFR 641.740 - How will the Department determine whether a grantee fails, meets, or exceeds the expected levels...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...meet the expected levels of performance in the next Program Year...meet the expected levels of performance for 3 consecutive Program...make available for public review, information on the actual performance of each grantee with...

2014-04-01

374

20 CFR 641.740 - How will the Department determine whether a grantee fails, meets, or exceeds the expected levels...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...meet the expected levels of performance in the next Program Year...meet the expected levels of performance for 3 consecutive Program...make available for public review, information on the actual performance of each grantee with...

2012-04-01

375

20 CFR 641.740 - How will the Department determine whether a grantee fails, meets, or exceeds the expected levels...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...meet the expected levels of performance in the next Program Year...meet the expected levels of performance for 3 consecutive Program...make available for public review, information on the actual performance of each grantee with...

2011-04-01

376

20 CFR 641.740 - How will the Department determine whether a grantee fails, meets, or exceeds the expected levels...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...meet the expected levels of performance in the next Program Year...meet the expected levels of performance for 3 consecutive Program...make available for public review, information on the actual performance of each grantee with...

2013-04-01

377

Students' Perceptions of Peer Evaluation: An Expectancy Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the difficulty of evaluating uneven performance among group members, many researchers suggest incorporating peer evaluations in a grading system that permits an instructor to evaluate and grade individual performance more equitably within a group. In this study, the authors employ expectancy theory to assess key factors that may…

Chen, Yining; Lou, Hao

2004-01-01

378

Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

1995-01-01

379

Clinical expectations: what facilitators expect from ESL students on clinical placement.  

PubMed

Many nursing students for whom English is a second language (ESL) face challenges related to communication on clinical placement and although clinical facilitators are not usually trained language assessors, they are often in a position of needing to assess ESL students' clinical language performance. Little is known, however, about the particular areas of clinical performance facilitators focus on when they are assessing ESL students. This paper discusses the results of a study of facilitators' written assessment comments about the clinical performance of a small group of ESL nursing students over a two and a half year period. These comments were documented on students' clinical assessment forms at the end of each placement. The results provide a more detailed insight into facilitators' expectations of students' language performance and the particular challenges faced by ESL students and indicate that facilitators have clear expectations of ESL students regarding communication, learning styles and professional demeanour. These findings may help both ESL students and their facilitators better prepare for clinical placement. PMID:22079570

San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

2012-03-01

380

Goals, Values, and Beliefs as Predictors of Achievement and Effort in High School Mathematics Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined gender and motivation in high school mathematics classes through an expectancy-value framework with 366 students. Task-specific goals were much stronger predictors of effort than were any other set of variables. For both males and females, endorsing the stereotype that mathematics is a male domain was negatively related to reported…

Greene, Barbara A.; DeBacker, Teresa K.; Ravindran, Bhuvaneswari; Krows, A. Jean

1999-01-01

381

Understanding Activist Leadership Effort in the Movement Opposing Drinking and Driving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why do some social movement leaders work harder than others? And, how does gender affect the patterns we uncover? Utilizing historical case study evidence of local chapters in the emerging movement opposing drinking and driving we are able to develop and test theoretical expectations about predictors of weekly effort among MADD and RID leaders.…

Dorius, Cassandra R.; McCarthy, John D.

2011-01-01

382

Male reed buntings do not adjust parental effort in relation to extrapair paternity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental effort is considered to be costly; therefore, males are expected to provide less care to unrelated offspring. Theoretical models suggest that males should either reduce their care to the entire brood or alternatively distinguish between related and unrelated nestlings and direct provisioning to kin when paternity is in doubt. Reed buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus) have been found to have high

Karen M. Bouwman; C. M. Lessells; Jan Komdeura

2005-01-01

383

The Influence of Parenthood on the Work Effort of Married Men and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the 1992-93 National Survey of Families and Households were used to examine the effect of parenthood on married men's and women's employment and work hours. Parenthood decreased women's work effort as expected. Findings for men support two competing models--"good provider" and "involved father"--reflecting traditional versus modern…

Kaufman, Gayle; Uhlenberg, Peter

2000-01-01

384

New technology emphasizes international offshore effort  

SciTech Connect

While the offshore industry is focusing its major development efforts on the deeper waters of the US Gulf, West Africa and Brazil, technology has not stood still in the world`s many other established and frontier offshore development areas. These selected items drawn from contributions by UK companies and a major joint-venture development in Eastern Canada emphasize this effort. Included here are: (1) announcement of a major six-field, 3 Tcf gas development off Nova Scotia`s Sable Island and award of two drilling contracts; (2) a comprehensive study of mobile production units in the UK by Smith Rea Energy Analysts; (3) four applications of an option to high-pressure swivels on an FPSO with multiple subsea inlet lines; (4) a contract to supply a DC bus drive for 17 ESPs on Texaco`s Captain field; and (5) review of an environmental study of the Falkland Islands in preparation for exploration activity.

NONE

1997-07-01

385

Control effort associated with model reference adaptive control for vibration damping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) is studied in numerical simulations with the objective of understanding the effects of differences between the plant and the reference model. MRAC is applied to two structural systems with adjustable error between the reference model and the actual plant. Performance indices relating to control effort and response characteristics are monitored in order to determine what effects small errors have on the control effort and performance of the two systems. It is shown that reasonable amounts of error in the reference model can cause dramatic increases in both the control effort and response magnitude (as measured by energy integrals) of the plant.

Messer, Richard Scott; Haftka, Raphael T.

1991-01-01

386

Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

Smith, Danford

2010-01-01

387

Survey of Preservation Efforts in Law Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ms. Turpening conducted on-site surveys of the preservation efforts and prior- ities of thirty law libraries during 2000-2001. She analyzes the results of these surveys, discusses her observations, and makes recommendations for individ- ual libraries and the leadership of the American Association of Law Libraries. ¶1 Librarians have taken care of the books in their institutions for hundreds of years.1

Patricia K. Turpening

388

Qualitative Evaluation of Health Information Exchange Efforts  

PubMed Central

Because most health information exchange (HIE) initiatives are as yet immature, formative evaluation is recommended so that what is learned through evaluation can be immediately applied to assist in HIE development efforts. Qualitative methods can be especially useful for formative evaluation because they can guide ongoing HIE growth while taking context into consideration. This paper describes important HIE-related research questions and outlines appropriate qualitative research techniques for addressing them. PMID:17904914

Ash, Joan S.; Guappone, Kenneth P.

2007-01-01

389

Materials characterization on efforts for ablative materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental efforts to develop a new procedure to measure char depth in carbon phenolic nozzle material are described. Using a Shor Type D Durometer, hardness profiles were mapped across post fired sample blocks and specimens from a fired rocket nozzle. Linear regression was used to estimate the char depth. Results are compared to those obtained from computed tomography in a comparative experiment. There was no significant difference in the depth estimates obtained by the two methods.

Tytula, Thomas P.; Schad, Kristin C.; Swann, Myles H.

1992-01-01

390

NRC; Smog control efforts off mark  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the National Research Council says the U.S. regulatory programs to control smog may have been misdirected the past 20 years, and more emphasis needs to be placed on limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. An NRC study the ozone control efforts have focused mainly on controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. However, in many parts of the country controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides would be more effective, it the, noting VOCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of ozone.

Not Available

1992-01-06

391

Next Generation Science Standards -Performance Expectations The Next Generation Science  

E-print Network

Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate a copy of Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science, go to: http://www. globalchange.gov/resourc science literacy by providing an educational framework of principles and concepts. The Essential

392

The Academic Researcher Role: Enhancing Expectations and Improved Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article distinguishes between six tasks related to the academic researcher role: (1) networking; (2) collaboration; (3) managing research; (4) doing research; (5) publishing research; and (6) evaluation of research. Data drawn from surveys of academic staff, conducted in Norwegian universities over three decades, provide evidence that the…

Kyvik, Svein

2013-01-01

393

Expectations for Achievement and Performance: Assessing Student Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessing students' achievement of the new national "Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning" is complex and involves the whole school. Assessment should be tied to content learning; measure students' ability to do and know; test real experiences; consider inquiry's overlapping, recursive nature; involve qualitative measures; demand…

Stripling, Barbara

1999-01-01

394

Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

Prewitt, Jeff

395

Will I Do as Well on the Final Exam as I Expect? An Examination of Students' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immediately prior to an exam, it is common to hear students commenting on whether they anticipate doing as well on the exam as they expect (or, in other words, whether they anticipate performing as well on the exam as the standard at which they believe they should be performing). These anticipations have received little past research attention. In…

Burns, David J.

2008-01-01

396

Supporting Scientists' Efforts in Education and Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth and space scientists have a long history of engagement in science education and outreach to K-12 students, educators and the public. While a few scientists obtain funding to do science education and public outreach (E/PO), often in partnership with formal or informal educators, many volunteer their time to such efforts. Nevertheless, faced with lingering challenges to science education and science literacy in the US, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, and professional societies are calling for greater numbers of scientists to provide more effective science outreach. The realization of this goal requires understanding the challenges and needs of scientists engaged or interested in education and outreach, figuring out best practices in scientist-educator partnerships, and offering resources and support structures that maximize scientists' efforts in E/PO. The NASA Science Mission Directorate's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum has initiated several activities toward these ends. Among them are: creating samplers and quick start guides to existing NASA Astrophysics E/PO resources and funding opportunities, a compilation from a variety of sources of credible online guides to doing E/PO, and tip sheets on audience misconceptions about astronomical topics. Feedback from both scientists and E/PO professionals has indicated these efforts are headed in the right direction. This presentation will introduce these resources to the AGU meeting participants, forming a basis for further discussions on how we can better support scientists in E/PO.

Sharma, M.; NASA SMD Astrophysics Science Education; Public Outreach Forum

2011-12-01

397

Exploring students’ reflective thinking practice, deep processing strategies, effort, and achievement goal orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research indicates that study processing strategies, effort, reflective thinking practice, and achievement goals are important factors contributing to the prediction of students’ academic success. Very few studies have combined these theoretical orientations within one conceptual model. This study tested a conceptual model that included, in particular, deep processing strategies, effort, mastery and performance?approach goals, reflection, and critical thinking. We

Huy Phuong Phan

2009-01-01

398

Expected-Credibility-Based Job Scheduling for Reliable Volunteer Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a proposal of an expected-credibility-based job scheduling method for volunteer computing (VC) systems with malicious participants who return erroneous results. Credibility-based voting is a promising approach to guaranteeing the computational correctness of VC systems. However, it relies on a simple round-robin job scheduling method that does not consider the jobs' order of execution, thereby resulting in numerous unnecessary job allocations and performance degradation of VC systems. To improve the performance of VC systems, the proposed job scheduling method selects a job to be executed prior to others dynamically based on two novel metrics: expected credibility and the expected number of results for each job. Simulation of VCs shows that the proposed method can improve the VC system performance up to 11%; It always outperforms the original round-robin method irrespective of the value of unknown parameters such as population and behavior of saboteurs.

Watanabe, Kan; Fukushi, Masaru; Horiguchi, Susumu

399

Interpersonal Expectancy Effects: A Forty Year Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpersonal expectancy effects--the unintentional expectations that experimenters, teachers, and authority figures bring to experiments, classrooms, and other situations--can wield significant influence on individuals. Some of the issues surrounding expectancy effects are detailed in this paper. The effect itself has been recreated in…

Rosenthal, Robert

400

Expectancy Induces Dynamic Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral studies using motor preparation paradigms have revealed that increased expectancy of a response signal shortens reaction times (RTs). Neurophysiological data suggest that in such paradigms, not only RT but also neuronal activity in the motor structures involved is modulated by expectancy of behaviorally relevant events. Here, we directly tested whether expectancy of a response signal modulates excitability of the

Gijs Van Elswijk; Bert U. Kleine; Sebastiaan Overeem; Dick F. Stegeman

2007-01-01

401

EXPECTATIONS AND DROPOUTS IN SCHOOLS OF NURSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXPECTATIONS AND EXPERIENCES OF STRESS AND SATISFACTION OF 1852 1ST-YR STUDENTS IN 43 NURSING SCHOOLS WERE ASSESSED BY QUESTIONNAIRE. LOW BUT SIGNIFICANT NEGATIVE CORRELATIONS WERE OBTAINED BETWEEN WITHDRAWAL AND (1) EXPERIENCED SATISFACTIONS, AND (2) CONFIRMATION OF EXPECTATIONS, ESPECIALLY WITH RESPECT TO SATISFACTIONS. WITHDRAWAL WAS UNRELATED TO EXPERIENCED STRESS, WHETHER EXPECTED OR UNEXPECTED.

MILDRED E. KATZELL

1968-01-01

402

Development efforts to improve curved-channel microchannel plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Curved-channel microchannel plate (C-plate) improvements resulting from an ongoing NASA STIS microchannel plate (MCP) development program are described. Performance limitations of previous C-plates led to a development program in support of the STIS MAMA UV photon counter, a second generation instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. C-plate gain, quantum detection efficiency, dark noise, and imaging distortion, which are influenced by channel curvature non-uniformities, have all been improved through use of a new centrifuge fabrication technique. This technique will be described, along with efforts to improve older, more conventional shearing methods. Process optimization methods used to attain targeted C-plate performance goals will be briefly characterized. Newly developed diagnostic measurement techniques to study image distortion, gain uniformity, input bias angle, channel curvature, and ion feedback, will be described. Performance characteristics and initial test results of the improved C-plates will be reported. Future work and applications will also be discussed.

Corbett, M. B.; Feller, W. B.; Laprade, B. N.; Cochran, R.; Bybee, R.; Danks, A.; Joseph, C.

1993-01-01

403

Indirectly predicting the maintenance effort of  

E-print Network

maintenance Activity performed on an artifact in order to remove a residual fault while leaving the intended semantics unchanged Perfective / Adaptive maintenance Including enhancive maintenance Activities performed Such as security, performance, usability and so on or to adapt to a new platform #12;4/20 Introduction (2

Bae, Doo-Hwan

404

Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

Holden, N. E.

2014-06-01

405

Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report III, Volume 2. Specifications  

SciTech Connect

Report III, Volume 2 contains those specifications numbered K through Y, as follows: Specifications for Compressors (K); Specifications for Piping (L); Specifications for Structures (M); Specifications for Insulation (N); Specifications for Electrical (P); Specifications for Concrete (Q); Specifications for Civil (S); Specifications for Welding (W); Specifications for Painting (X); and Specifications for Special (Y). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available for the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors.

none,

1982-01-01

406

Graphene based field effect transistors: Efforts made towards flexible electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of flexibility in existing electronics has been realized as a key point for practical application of unusual format electronics that can extend the application limit of biomedical equipments and of course daily routine kind of electronic devices. Graphene showed the great potentiality for flexible format owing to its excellent electronic, mechanical and optical properties. Field effect transistor (FET) is a basic unit for digital and analog electronics thus enormous efforts have been attempted to fabricate the flexible FETs in order to get the high performance. This article reviews the recent development of graphene based FETs including the fabrication and active layers material compatibility in flexible format.

Sharma, Bhupendra K.; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

2013-11-01

407

Status of Educational Efforts in National Security Workforce  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the status of educational efforts for the preparation of a national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This report includes an assessment of the current educational situation for the national security workforce.

None

2008-03-31

408

Corticospinal excitability during imagined and observed dynamic force production tasks: Effortfulness matters.  

PubMed

Research on motor imagery and action observation has become increasingly important in recent years particularly because of its potential benefits for movement rehabilitation and the optimization of athletic performance (Munzert et al., 2009). Motor execution, motor imagery, and action observation have been shown to rely largely on a similar neural network in motor and motor-related cortical areas (Jeannerod, 2001). Given that motor imagery is a covert stage of an action and its characteristics, it has been assumed that modifying the motor task in terms of, for example, effort will impact neural activity. With this background, the present study examined how different force requirements influence corticospinal excitability (CSE) and intracortical facilitation during motor imagery and action observation of a repetitive movement (dynamic force production). Participants were instructed to kinesthetically imagine or observe an abduction/adduction movement of the right index finger that differed in terms of force requirements. Trials were carried out with single- or paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Surface electromyography was recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM). As expected, results showed a significant main effect on mean peak-to-peak motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes in FDI but no differences in MEP amplitudes in ADM muscle. Participants' mean peak-to-peak MEPs increased when the force requirements (movement effort) of the imagined or observed action were increased. This reveals an impact of the imagined and observed force requirements of repetitive movements on CSE. It is concluded that this effect might be due to stronger motor neuron recruitment for motor imagery and action observation with an additional load. That would imply that the modification of motor parameters in movements such as force requirements modulates CSE. PMID:25639231

Helm, F; Marinovic, W; Krüger, B; Munzert, J; Riek, S

2015-04-01

409

Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

2009-01-31

410

Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

Singh, Gurkirpal

2005-01-01

411

Analytical Properties of Credibilistic Expectation Functions  

PubMed Central

The expectation function of fuzzy variable is an important and widely used criterion in fuzzy optimization, and sound properties on the expectation function may help in model analysis and solution algorithm design for the fuzzy optimization problems. The present paper deals with some analytical properties of credibilistic expectation functions of fuzzy variables that lie in three aspects. First, some continuity theorems on the continuity and semicontinuity conditions are proved for the expectation functions. Second, a differentiation formula of the expectation function is derived which tells that, under certain conditions, the derivative of the fuzzy expectation function with respect to the parameter equals the expectation of the derivative of the fuzzy function with respect to the parameter. Finally, a law of large numbers for fuzzy variable sequences is obtained leveraging on the Chebyshev Inequality of fuzzy variables. Some examples are provided to verify the results obtained. PMID:24723800

Wang, Bo; Watada, Junzo

2014-01-01

412

Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was diverted into the Porong River through a mud pump system. Also we continuously monitor changes in eruption behavior and try to anticipate the consequences, particularly after the Ring Dyke (of main vent) collapsed and became useless in controlling the flow. In September 2009 spectacular eruption intensity with kick and wave developed and is continuing. Surface and subsurface investigations continue ceaselessly to try to understand the forces driving the eruption. There are no precedents for mitigation of such a large scale mud volcano in a densely populated area that seems destined to continue for a very long time. This makes all efforts to stop eruption together with the emergency efforts, which have to be conducted simultaneously with recovery and reconstruction efforts that cover all basic needs of people live in the area. This is why BPLS has to develop innovative and creative efforts, mainly by applying the basic principle of learning by doing.

Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

2009-12-01

413

Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA activities. The program provides teachers with a one-week summer professional development workshop, long-term teacher support through classroom visits, teacher access to GLOBE instrumentation, and research opportunities for students. Professional development is centered on student engagement through inquiry, opportunities for collaborative student research, and the GLOBE Program's atmosphere protocols and learning activities. Beyond the training week, teachers receive follow-up specifically addressing current opportunities for student engagement in current research and opportunities for students to present research findings. The first cohort of teachers completed the professional development workshop in July 2012. This session will summarize the planning and implementation details of the summer workshop, including schedule and materials. In addition to these details, we will share our evaluation of follow-up activities and survey results highlighting teachers' perceived barriers to implementing atmosphere investigations. These results will add to the discussion on effective programs aimed at inspiring young scientists.

Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

2012-12-01

414

Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension  

PubMed Central

When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909

Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting

2013-01-01

415

Natural variation in a testosterone-mediated trade-off between mating effort and parental effort.  

PubMed

Male birds frequently face a trade-off between acquiring mates and caring for offspring. Hormone manipulation studies indicate that testosterone often mediates this trade-off, increasing mating effort while decreasing parental effort. Little is known, however, about individual covariation between testosterone and relevant behavior on which selection might act. Using wild, male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we measured individual variation in testosterone levels before and after standardized injections of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The GnRH challenges have been shown to produce short-term testosterone increases that are similar to those produced naturally in response to social stimuli, repeatable in magnitude, and greater in males with more attractive ornaments. We correlated these testosterone increases with behavioral measures of mating and parental effort (aggressive response to a simulated territorial intrusion and nestling feeding, respectively). Males that showed higher postchallenge testosterone displayed more territorial behavior, and males that produced higher testosterone increases above initial levels displayed reduced parental behavior. Initial testosterone levels were positively but nonsignificantly correlated with aggression but did not predict parental behavior. These relationships suggest that natural variation in testosterone, specifically the production of short-term increases, may underlie individual variation in the mating effort/parental effort trade-off. We discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of hormonally mediated trade-offs. PMID:18171169

McGlothlin, Joel W; Jawor, Jodie M; Ketterson, Ellen D

2007-12-01

416

Prediction and synthesis efforts at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

One important aspect of an organic synthesis effort related to the development of new explosives, is the ability to estimate the properties of proposed molecules. In most cases, the detonation velocity and C-J pressure are estimated for the proposed explosive using any number of existing predictive methods. Novel explosives are being proposed, at Los Alamos and elsewhere, that are qualitatively different in their molecular makeup than most of the existing conventional ones. These explosives include, highly strained cage molecules, heterocyclic molecules, low hydrogen-containing molecules, and high nitrogen-containing molecules. This paper describes alternate ways of viewing detonation velocities and a new method for estimating detonation velocity of a proposed compound. 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Stine, J.R.; Coburn, M.D.

1988-01-01

417

NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts  

SciTech Connect

Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research.' While NREL maintains a robust patent portfolio, often companies are looking to do more than just license a technology. These relationships are invaluable in successfully moving technologies from NREL to the marketplace. 'We may generate new and potentially valuable innovations, but our commercialization partners do the heavy work of building a successful business around our technology,' Farris said. Tools such as CRADAs (Cooperative Research and Development Agreements) allow NREL to continue working with companies to refine and develop technologies. And, working with businesses is an area where NREL excels. NREL is responsible for one quarter of the CRADAs in the DOE system. 'When you look at the results of our CRADA program, you can demonstrate that we are actively engaged with companies in collaborating on research and moving technologies to market,' Farris said. NREL is first among DOE labs with 186 active CRADAs. And last year, NREL also was first with the number of new CRADAs signed. 'Part of the success in our working with industry goes back to NREL's mission to grow and support new industries,' Farris added. 'NREL has basic research capabilities, but we are never going to be the ultimate producer of a commercial product. That is the role of the private sector.' Farris also credits the advocacy and support that the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy at DOE provides for these technology transfer activities. 'EERE's support is critical to our success,' Farris said. To assist the private sector in moving a technology from the lab to the manufacturing line, NREL has a number of programs in place to give that first, or even final, nudge toward commercialization. For instance, the Commercialization Assistance Program helps startups overcome technical barriers by granting free access to 40 hours of work at the lab. Through the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Center, NREL also helps clean energy businesses develop strong links with the financial community, as well as other key stakeholders in the commercialization process. In March, NREL formally opened the Colorado Center for Renewable Ene

Lammers, H.

2012-02-01

418

The NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span over two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis (NCR) Effort. NCR consisted of 1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved using modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms, and 2) blending, where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. The results indicated major improvement over the previously available CZCS archive. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll.

Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.; OReilly, John E.; Patt, Frederick S.; Wang, Meng-Hua; Yoder, James; Casey-McCabe, Nancy; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

419

Two groups challenge US acid rain efforts  

SciTech Connect

In its report, Acid Rain Invades Our National Parks, the National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA) says acid rain is being detected at all 27 national park monitoring sites. In 1980, 87 national parks expressed concern in a NPCA survey over acid rain. Repolled in 1986, more than half of the respondents reported that no research on acid rain was under way. The NPCA report concludes that the alarm that was sounded in 1980 fell largely on deaf ears, and calls for the structural and scientific reorganization of the National Park Service. The National Audubon Society shares NPCA's dissatisfaction with federal efforts to tackle the problem of acid rain and has taken testing into its own hands. Through its Citizens Acid Rain Monitoring Network, Audubon volunteers have collected readings of acidity at 64 monitoring stations in 31 states since July.

Not Available

1987-11-01

420

VPS GRCop-84 Liner Development Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past several years, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been working with Plasma Processes, Inc. (PPI) to fabricate combustion chamber liners using the Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) process. Multiple liners of a variety of shapes and sizes have been created. Each liner has been fabricated with GRCop-84 (a copper alloy with chromium and niobium) and a functional gradient coating (FGC) on the hot wall. While the VPS process offers versatility and a reduced fabrication schedule, the material system created with VPS allows the liners to operate at higher temperatures, with maximum blanch resistance and improved cycle life. A subscal unit (5K lbf thrust class) is being cycle tested in a LOX/Hydrogen thrust chamber assembly at MSFC. To date, over 75 hot-fire tests have been accumulated on this article. Tests include conditions normally detrimental to conventional materials, yet the VPS GRCop-84 liner has yet to show any signs of degradation. A larger chamber (15K lbf thrust class) has also been fabricated and is being prepared for hot-fire testing at MSFC near the end of 2003. Linear liners have been successfully created to further demonstrate the versatility of the process. Finally, scale up issues for the VPS process are being tackled with efforts to fabricate a full size, engine class liner. Specifically, a liner for the SSME's Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) has recently been attempted. The SSME size was chosen for convenience, since its design was readily available and its size was sufficient to tackle specific issues. Efforts to fabricate these large liners have already provided valuable lessons for using this process for engine programs. The material quality for these large units is being evaluated with destructive analysis and these results will be available by the end of 2003.

Elam, Sandra K.; Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Tim; Hickman, Robert; Pickens, Tim

2003-01-01

421

Automatic and effortful processes in memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a framework for the conceptualization of a broad range of memory phenomena that integrates research on memory performance in young children, the elderly, and individuals under stress with research on memory performance in normal college students. One basic assumption is that encoding operations vary in their attentional requirements. Operations that drain minimal energy from limited-capacity attentional mechanisms are called

Lynn Hasher; Rose T. Zacks

1979-01-01

422

GROUPED'ANALYSEETDETHORIECONOMIQUELYONSTTIENNE BiasedInformationandEffort  

E-print Network

Employement Relations Sur- vey claim that all their workers are involved in performance appraisal as in Brown the agent's performance and thus the principal's profit. This, however, does not increase efficiency. We-Claire Villeval. I am also grateful to participants at the GATE and CEDEX research seminars, the ESA meetings

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

423

Trunk muscle activation during sub-maximal extension efforts.  

PubMed

Neuromuscular fatigue of the trunk musculature, particularly lumbar paraspinal and abdominal muscles, is important in when evaluating motor control of the trunk. Activation of agonists and antagonists trunk muscles was hypothesized to change during sub-maximal isometric trunk extension efforts. Thirteen women were positioned in 30 degrees of trunk flexion and performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction in trunk extension against an isokinetic dynamometer. One of two sub-maximal efforts (50% and 70%) was performed to induce neuromuscular fatigue on two different days. Surface electromyography of the lumbar paraspinal (LP), rectus abdominis, and external oblique muscles was recorded during each session. Torque output, median frequency of the power density spectrum, and normalized integrated electromyography were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance to evaluate trends in the data over time. Paraspinal muscles showed signs of fatigue in both conditions (p<0.05) Abdominal activity did not increase during the 70% condition, but showed a non-significant trend (p=0.07), coinciding with the reduced median frequency of LP muscles. The neuromuscular system modulates its motor control strategy to identify the muscle activation levels necessary to maintain force output. This information is necessary in the evaluation of contributing mechanisms to trunk stability in furthering preventative and rehabilitative treatments. PMID:19716741

Olson, Michael W

2010-02-01

424

Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households  

PubMed Central

Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households’ expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households’ stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses. PMID:23997423

Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

2013-01-01

425

Expectancy–Value Theory of Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the expectancy–value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy–value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest.

Allan Wigfield; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

2000-01-01

426

expect: Curing Those Uncontrollable Fits of Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNIX programs used to be designed so that they could be connected with pipes createdby a shell. This paradigm is insufficient when dealing with many modern programsthat demand to be used interactively.expect is a program designed to control interactive programs. expect reads a scriptthat resembles the dialogue itself but which may include multiple paths through it.Scripts include:. send\\/expect sequences -

Don Libes

1990-01-01

427

Expectancy and Repetition in Task Preparation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We studied the mechanisms of task preparation using a design that pitted task expectancy against task repetition. In one experiment, two simple cognitive tasks were presented in a predictable sequence containing both repetitions and non-repetitions. The typical task sequence was AABBAABB. Occasional violations of this sequence allowed us to measure the effects of valid versus invalid expectancy. With this design, we were able to study the effects of task expectancy, task repetition, and interaction.

Ruthruff, E.; Remington, R. W.; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

428

Musculoskeletal pain and effort-reward imbalance- a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Musculoskeletal pain may be triggered by physical strains and psychosocial risk factors. The effort-reward imbalance model (ERI model) is a stress model which measures psychosocial factors in the working world. The question is whether workers with an effort-reward imbalance report musculoskeletal pain more frequently than those with no effort-reward imbalance. A systematic review using a best evidence synthesis approach was conducted to answer this question. Methods A literature search was conducted for the period from 1996 to 2012, using three databases (Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO). The research criteria related to psychosocial, work-related stress as per the ERI model and to musculoskeletal pain. A quality score was developed using various quality criteria to assess the standard of the studies. The level of evidence was graded as in (Am J Ind Med 39:180–193, 2001). Results After applying the inclusion criteria, a total of 19 studies were included in the review: 15 cross-sectional studies, three prospective studies and one case–control study. 74% of all studies exhibited good methodological quality, 53% collected data using the original ERI questionnaire, and in 42% of the studies, there was adequate control for physical working conditions. Furthermore, different cut-off points were used to classify exposed and non-exposed individuals. On the basis of 13 studies with a positive, statistically significant association, a moderate level of evidence was inferred for the association between effort-reward imbalance and musculoskeletal pain. The evidence for a role of over-commitment and for its interaction with effort-reward imbalance was rated as inconclusive - on the basis of eight and five studies, respectively. Conclusions On the basis of the available evidence, no reliable conclusion may be drawn about any association between the psychosocial factors ascertained using the ERI model and musculoskeletal pain. Before a reliable statement can be made on the association between ERI and musculoskeletal pain, additional longitudinal studies must be performed - with a standardised method for recording and classifying exposure, as well as control of physical confounders. Appropriate preventive measures can then be specified. PMID:24428955

2014-01-01

429

IMPROVED COLOR BARCODES VIA EXPECTATION MAXIMIZATION STYLE INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION  

E-print Network

IMPROVED COLOR BARCODES VIA EXPECTATION MAXIMIZATION STYLE INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION Orhan Bulan- work for extending monochrome barcodes to color with increased data rates. The undesired absorption to cross-channel color interference that significantly dete- riorates the performance of the color barcode

Sharma, Gaurav

430

Survey Measures of Expected U.S. Inflation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forecasting performance of widely accessible surveys of expected inflation are evaluated against naive and financial market benchmark forecasts. In the period of rising inflation (1960-80), the Michigan household consensus forecasts exhibited smaller errors than the Livingston Survey of economists and the benchmark forecasts. Unlike Livingston, the Michigan forecasts were unbiased. Since 1980, Livingston forecasts have been more accurate than

Lloyd B. Thomas Jr.

1999-01-01

431

The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

2013-01-01

432

Generalized Expectancies for Internal Versus External Control of Reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of reward or reinforcement on preceding behavior depend in part on whether the person perceives the reward as contingent on his own behavior or independent of it. Acquisition and performance differ in situations perceived as determined by skill versus chance. Persons may also differ in generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. This report summarizes several

Julian B. Rotter

1966-01-01

433

Disconnections between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…

Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy

2008-01-01

434

AIDS and dualism : Ethiopia's burden under rational expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An AIDS epidemic threatens Ethiopia with a long wave of premature adult mortality, and thus with an enduring setback to capital formation and economic growth. The authors develop a two-sector model with three overlapping generations and intersectorally mobile labor, in which young adults allocate resources under rational expectations. They calibrate the model to the demographic and economic data, and perform

Clive Bell; Anastasios Koukoumelis

2009-01-01

435

Goals and task difficulty expectations modulate striatal responses to feedback.  

PubMed

The striatum plays a critical role in learning from reward, and it has been implicated in learning from performance-related feedback as well. Positive and negative performance-related feedback is known to engage the striatum during learning by eliciting a response similar to the reinforcement signal for extrinsic rewards and punishments. Feedback is an important tool used to teach new skills and promote healthful lifestyle changes, so it is important to understand how motivational contexts can modulate its effectiveness at promoting learning. While it is known that striatal responses scale with subjective factors influencing the desirability of rewards, it is less clear how expectations and goals might modulate the striatal responses to cognitive feedback during learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of task difficulty expectations and achievement goals on feedback processing during learning. We found that individuals who scored high in normative goals, which reflect a desire to outperform other students academically, showed the strongest effects of our manipulation. High levels of normative goals were associated with greater performance gains and exaggerated striatal sensitivity to positive versus negative feedback during blocks that were expected to be more difficult. Our findings suggest that normative goals may enhance performance when difficulty expectations are high, while at the same time modulating the subjective value of feedback as processed in the striatum. PMID:24638235

DePasque Swanson, Samantha; Tricomi, Elizabeth

2014-06-01

436

Getting to Parallel: Assessing the Return on Expectations of Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Companies are scrutinizing resources they allocate to performance programs and are asking questions like: "What is the value?" and "How do you know?" This article advocates for an increased focus on the return on expectations (ROE) via evidence of the three Cs: consensus, correspondence, and consistency. (Author/AEF)

McLinden, Daniel; Trochim, William M. K.

1998-01-01

437

What Online Students Want Compared to What Institutions Expect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine whether a set of instructional practices commonly prescribed to online faculty in the higher education setting were consistent with the expectations of a group of experienced online student participants. Online faculty performance conventions were collected from 20 institutions of higher learning located in…

Bailie, Jeffrey L.

2014-01-01

438

Perceptions of Teacher Expectations by African American High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…

Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.

2010-01-01

439

Lifetime expectancy of polyurethane binder as magnetic recording media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the chemical structure and addition of cross-linking agent and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) on the tensile strength of polyurethanes (PU) binder have been investigated. An expectation of the lifetime of PU binder as magnetic recording media has been performed based on the tensile strength change in different environmental conditions.It was found that a small number of ester bonds

K. Nakamae; K. Yamaguchi; S. Asaoka; Y. Karube; Sudaryanto

1996-01-01

440

Anxiety-Expectation Mediation Model of Library Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents a test of the Anxiety-Expectation Mediation (AEM) model of library anxiety. The AEM model contains variables that are directly or indirectly related to information search performance, as measured by students' scores on their research proposals. This model posits that library anxiety and self-perception serve as factors that…

Jiao, Qun G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

441

Expectations of an emergency medicine clerkship director.  

PubMed

The clerkship director (CD) serves as a faculty leader within a school of medicine and plays a vital role in the hierarchy of undergraduate medical education. Collectively, CDs across specialties serve a multitude of roles and are responsible for clerkship administration, curricular development, teaching, mentoring, and advising students. The emergency medicine (EM) CD has a vitally important role to play in the future development of medical students. EM CDs should be valued and supported, because they often represent our specialty within the medical school and play a vital role in training the physicians of tomorrow. Opportunities and resources must be made available to CDs to run and maintain a successful EM clerkship, while also balancing their clinical duties and academic endeavors. In addition, EM CDs need support from their respective medical schools and departments to run highly successful medical student rotations. This article was prepared with the objective of establishing the importance of the EM CD, defining the job description of the CD, explaining the importance of adequate release time to perform the role of the CD, and describing the necessary resources and support for the position. With EM becoming an increasingly popular and integral rotation for medical students, it is likely that additional emphasis will be placed on the role of the EM CD. This reference document serves as a template for the job description and expectations of an EM CD. PMID:21521403

Rogers, Robert L; Wald, David A; Lin, Michelle; Zun, Leslie S; Christopher, Theodore; Manthey, David E

2011-05-01

442

Assessing Patients’ Expectations in Ambulatory Medical Practice  

PubMed Central

To compare three different approaches to the measurement of patients’ expectations for care, we conducted a randomized controlled trial. Medical outpatients (n= 318) of a small (six-physician), single-specialty (internal medicine), academically affiliated private practice in Sacramento, California, were contacted by telephone the night before a scheduled office visit and enrolled over a 5-month period in early 1994. Patients were randomly assigned to receive: (1) a self-administered, structured, previsit questionnaire combined with a postvisit questionnaire; (2) an interviewer-administered, semistructured, previsit interview combined with a postvisit questionnaire; or (3) a postvisit questionnaire only. We assessed the number and content of patients’ expectations by previsit questionnaire versus interview; the interaction between sociodemographic characteristics and survey method in predicting number of reported expectations; the effect of unfulfilled expectations elicited by questionnaire and interview on visit satisfaction; and the effect of unfulfilled expectations elicited directly and indirectly on visit satisfaction. Patients reported more expectations by structured questionnaire than semistructured interview (median 12 vs 3, p= .0001). Although there was no main effect of sociodemographic characteristics on expectations, nonwhite patients reported more expectations than white patients by questionnaire and fewer by interview. The number of interventions desired before the visit but not received (indirectly reported unfulfilled expectations) was associated with lower visit satisfaction regardless of whether a questionnaire or interview was used to elicit previsit expectations (p value for the interaction between number of expectations and survey method, > .20). Having more indirectly reported unfulfilled expectations was significantly associated with lower visit satisfaction even after controlling for the number of directly reported unfulfilled expectations (p= .021), but the incremental change in classification accuracy was small (increase in receiver-operating characteristic curve area, 3%). In conclusion, studies of patients’ expectations for care must contend with a substantial “method effect.” In this study from a single group practice, patients checked off more expectations using a structured questionnaire than they disclosed in a semistructured interview, but both formats predicted visit satisfaction. Asking patients about interventions received in relation to their previsit expectations added little to simply asking them directly about omitted care. The interaction of survey method with ethnicity and other sociodemographic characteristics requires further study. PMID:9034949

Kravitz, Richard L; Callahan, Edward J; Azari, Rahman; Antonius, Deirdre; Lewis, Charles E

1997-01-01

443

NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the advanced boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the advanced boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO), opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable advanced booster that meets the SLS performance requirements. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss, for the first time publicly, the contract awards and how NASA intends to use the data from these efforts to prepare for the planned advanced booster DDT&E acquisition as the SLS Program moves forward with competitively procured affordable performance enhancements.

Crumbly, Christopher M.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; May, Todd A.

2012-01-01

444

NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and Risk Reduction Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, and its stated intent was to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the Advanced Boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the Advanced Boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit, opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the SLS performance requirements. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an Advanced Booster. This paper will discuss, for the first time publicly, the contract awards and how NASA intends to use the data from these efforts to prepare for the planned Advanced Booster DDT&E acquisition as the SLS Program moves forward with competitively procured affordable performance enhancements.

Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd; Dumbacher, Daniel

2012-01-01

445

Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this…

Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J.

2004-01-01

446

Probing for the Multiplicative Term in Modern Expectancy-Value Theory: A Latent Interaction Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In modern expectancy-value theory (EVT) in educational psychology, expectancy and value beliefs additively predict performance, persistence, and task choice. In contrast to earlier formulations of EVT, the multiplicative term Expectancy x Value in regression-type models typically plays no major role in educational psychology. The present study…

Trautwein, Ulrich; Marsh, Herbert W.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagy, Gabriel; Jonkmann, Kathrin

2012-01-01

447

Measuring and Investigating Pretrial Multi-Expectations of Service Quality within the Higher Education Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding what consumers expect from a service provider prior to consumption is necessary for marketers because expectations provide a standard of comparison against which consumers judge the performance of that service provider. This study is an in-depth investigation into consumers' pretrial multi-expectations of service quality within a…

Prugsamatz, Sunita; Heaney, Joo-Gim; Alpert, Frank

2007-01-01

448

Prescription stimulant expectancies in recreational and medical users: results from a preliminary expectancy questionnaire.  

PubMed

Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2009-01-01

449

Gender differences in healthy life expectancy among Brazilian elderly  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined gender differences in healthy life expectancy (HLE) and unhealthy life expectancy (UHLE) among people aged 60 years or older living in a large Brazilian city. Methods Based on Chiang method, abridged life tables were constructed for men and for women. To calculate HLE, the Sullivan method was applied. Estimates of the prevalence of self-rated health and self-reported functional disability (global, mild/moderate, and severe) were obtained from a population-based household survey carried out in 2008, which involved non-institutionalized individuals. Results Findings showed that women live longer and these extra years would be spent in good self-rated health. For example, women aged 60 would live, on average, 4 more years in good health in comparison to men. In terms of global limitations and mild/moderate limitations, no gender differences were detected for HLE. However, UHLE was statistically higher among women than among men at all ages in the global limitations and mild/moderate limitations (except for the age 80). Women at age 60, for instance, could expect to live 3.1 years longer with mild/moderate limitations compared to men. Gender differences were identified for severe limitations for either HLE or UHLE. In comparison to men, women at age 60, for example, would expect to live 2.5 and 2.0 more years without and with severe limitations. Conclusions By showing that the advantage of longer life expectancy among women is not necessarily accompanied by worse health conditions, these findings add some evidence to the debate about male-female health-survival paradox. Policy efforts are necessary to reduce gender differences in the quantity and quality of years to be lived, providing equal opportunities to women and men live longer with quality of life, autonomy, and independence. PMID:24906547

2014-01-01

450

Using expectations to monitor robotic progress and recover from problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How does a robot know when something goes wrong? Our research answers this question by leveraging expectations - predictions about the immediate future - and using the mismatch between the expectations and the external world to monitor the robot's progress. We use the cognitive architecture ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought - Rational) to learn the associations between the current state of the robot and the world, the action to be performed in the world, and the future state of the world. These associations are used to generate expectations that are then matched by the architecture with the next state of the world. A significant mismatch between these expectations and the actual state of the world indicate a problem possibly resulting from unexpected consequences of the robot's actions, unforeseen changes in the environment or unanticipated actions of other agents. When a problem is detected, the recovery model can suggest a number of recovery options. If the situation is unknown, that is, the mismatch between expectations and the world is novel, the robot can use a recovery solution from a set of heuristic options. When a recovery option is successfully applied, the robot learns to associate that recovery option with the mismatch. When the same problem is encountered later, the robot can apply the learned recovery solution rather than using the heuristics or randomly exploring the space of recovery solutions. We present results from execution monitoring and recovery performed during an assessment conducted at the Combined Arms Collective Training Facility (CACTF) at Fort Indiantown Gap.

Kurup, Unmesh; Lebiere, Christian; Stentz, Anthony; Hebert, Martial

2013-05-01

451

An investigation of the effect of online consumer trust on expectation, satisfaction, and post-expectation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a framework regarding the relationship between consumer trust, satisfaction, expectation, and post-expectation\\u000a in the context of electronic commerce. In particular, the framework draws together from three theories: social exchange theory,\\u000a expectation-confirmation theory, and post-acceptance model of IS continuance. Following the longitudinal pre-purchase and\\u000a post-purchase stages, this study provides a theoretical framework combining trust, expectation, satisfaction, and post-expectation

Dan J. Kim

452

Expectations Increase as VLT First Light Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two weeks before the moment of "First Light" of Unit Telescope no. 1 of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) , the ESO Team at the Paranal Observatory reports good progress of the preparatory work. The crucial optimization of the world's first, thin 8.2-metre mirror proceeds according to the established plan. It is thus expected that this important event will take place as foreseen, i.e. during the night of May 25-26, 1998 . If no unforeseen obstacles are encountered, the first scientific images will then be presented during a series of near-simultaneous Press Conferences in the ESO member countries on May 27 . The photos will be published on the WWW the same day, together with explanatory texts. In preliminary optical tests at the first VLT Unit Telescope (UT1), the initial adjustment of the active optics system that controls the telescope optics has demonstrated excellent results. In particular, the first tests have verified the fine optical performance of the 8.2-m primary mirror and of the complex control system that maintains the shape of this thin and flexible Zerodur mirror. In short test exposures with the guide probe (the technical device that is used to steer the telescope) - i.e., not yet with the scientific CCD-camera that will be used for the First Light images - the telescope has been following the external seeing provided by the Paranal site. Image quality of better than 0.5 arcsec has been achieved routinely. "We are pleased with the progress and confident that the telescope will live up to the expectations", says Riccardo Giacconi , Director General of ESO. "The team at Paranal is doing a great job." For more details about the various media activities surrounding the VLT First Light event, please consult the First Light homepage. A list of locations, times and contact addresses for the Press Conferences is available on the web. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

1998-05-01

453

Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease  

SciTech Connect

The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort.

Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.

1982-06-01

454

Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching  

PubMed Central

Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

2011-01-01

455

Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.  

PubMed

Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

2011-11-12

456

Physician unionization efforts gain momentum, support.  

PubMed

Physicians increasingly are assuming the status of employees in healthcare organizations. Physicians also are seeing restrictions imposed on their practices by healthcare organizations seeking to control costs of care delivery. These trends have led a growing number of physicians to attempt to organize into unions. Obstacles to physician unionization efforts have included Federal antitrust laws that prohibit physicians from organizing, as well as physician reluctance to engage in organized activities they see as antithetical to their professional duties (e.g., strikes). In addition, physicians' attempts to unionize frequently have failed due to provisions of the National Labor Relations Act, which authorize collective bargaining only among individuals designated as "employees." Physicians seeking to form unions often are thwarted by the argument that they are not employees, but rather students, independent contractors, or supervisors, and therefore not entitled to protection under the act. Nonetheless, a number of recent developments, such as the American Medical Association's decision to endorse unionization by physicians and the National Labor Relations Board's decision that attending physicians should be regarded as employees, not supervisors, are creating a climate more conducive to physician unionization in the United States. PMID:11066682

Keating, G C

1999-11-01

457

STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

2010-01-01

458

Effortless Effort in Bone Regeneration: A Review  

PubMed Central

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of osteoconduction in bony changes in the oral cavity showed a wide range of biomaterials and their osteoinductive potential that emerged gradually and has to a large extent improved the quality of the bone prior to the placement of an implant. Alveolar bone loss is a major concern after tooth extraction in patients and therefore atraumatic extraction procedures should be followed to avoid further bone loss. To overcome the alveolar bone loss and to augment support for placing dental implants, many bone regenerative substitutes are available such as allografts, autografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials and osteoactive agents. In light of the steady progress in bone grafting techniques and graft materials, it has become possible to improve the volume, width, and height of bone in deficient areas of the oral cavity. These advances in regenerative dentistry thus facilitate an easy and convenient placement of an implant in an ideal position and angulations resulting in superior esthetics and function. Bone grafting materials and their substitutes are the alternative filler materials, which facilitate to reduce additional surgical procedures, risks, chances of cross infection involved in placing autografts and allografts into the bony structures. This review literature highlights various biomaterials that are helpful in bone healing and thus create an anatomically favorable base for ideal implant placement. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Dole V, Nikam A. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):120-4. PMID:25083047

Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Dole, Vinaykumar; Nikam, Akhilesh

2014-01-01

459

Teacher Expectations and the Able Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two middle school teachers and two students in each of the teacher's classes were assessed for field dependence-independence (FDI). The teachers were interviewed about their students. Found that one teacher had higher expectations and one had lower expectations for the student who had the same FDI orientation as the teacher than for the student…

Lee-Corbin, Hilary

1994-01-01

460

Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

2011-01-01

461

Expected utility theory without the completeness axiom  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of obtaining an expected utility representation for a potentially incomplete preference relation over lotteries by means of a set of von Neumann–Morgenstern utility functions. It is shown that, when the prize space is a compact metric space, a preference relation admits such a multi-utility representation provided that it satisfies the standard axioms of expected utility theory.

Juan Dubra; Fabio Maccheroni; Efe A. Ok

2004-01-01

462

Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

2012-01-01

463

Adjusted expectations, satisfaction and loyalty development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary contribution of this article is an analysis of the influence of the use of individual's expectations about a service consumption on the behavior models, that examine the process according to which loyalty and satisfaction are generated. More specifically, the research examines the implications of considering adjusted expectations, namely those that tourists have after having visited a destination, rather

Ramón Rufín; Cayetano Medina; Manuel Rey

2012-01-01

464

Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…

Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.

2004-01-01

465

Course Expectations and Career Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…

Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben

2008-01-01

466

Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th…

Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2012-01-01

467

Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

2012-01-01

468

EpidemiologyQJE.tex Macroeconomic Expectations of  

E-print Network

. Remarkably, however, there has been almost no work testing alternative models of expectations usin eponymous conference volume. That companion paper examines a variety of alternative epidemiological models in `animal spirits,' but the basis for most of today's macro models was laid in the rational expectations

Niebur, Ernst

469

College students' dining expectations in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary purpose of the study is to investigate college students' dining expectations and define the factors that shape their dining choices. In addition, the study investigates whether gender, ethnic origin, prior food and beverage working experience, spending habits and dining frequency influence students' dining expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A quantitative questionnaire was developed and randomly administered to college

Anastasios Zopiatis; Jovana Pribic

2007-01-01

470

Developments in Non-expected Utility Theory: The Hunt for a Descriptive Theory of Choice under Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent developments in the economic theory of individual decision making under risk. Since the 1950s it has been known that individual choices violate the standard model of expected utility in predictable ways. Considerable research effort has now been devoted to the project of developing a superior descriptive model. Following an overview of non-expected utility theories which distinguishes

Chris Starmer

2000-01-01

471

Systems engineering approach towards performance monitoring of emergency diesel generator  

SciTech Connect

Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. In this study, systems engineering approach towards the performance monitoring of Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) is presented. Performance monitoring is part and parcel of predictive maintenance where the systems and components conditions can be detected before they result into failures. In an effort to identify the proposal for addressing performance monitoring, the EDG boundary has been defined. Based on the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) results and industry operating experiences, the most critical component is identified. This paper proposed a systems engineering concept development framework towards EDG performance monitoring. The expected output of this study is that the EDG reliability can be improved by the performance monitoring alternatives through the systems engineering concept development effort.

Ramli, Nurhayati, E-mail: nurhayati14@gmail.com; Yong-kwan, Lee, E-mail: nurhayati14@gmail.com [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, 1456-1 Shinam-ri, Ulsan 689-882 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-12

472

Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs: The GPRA Metrics Effort  

SciTech Connect

The requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993 mandate the reporting of outcomes expected to result from programs of the Federal government. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops official metrics for its 11 major programs using its Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis (OPBFA). OPBFA conducts an annual integrated modeling analysis to produce estimates of the energy, environmental, and financial benefits expected from EERE’s budget request. Two of EERE’s major programs include the Building Technologies Program (BT) and Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the OPBFA effort by developing the program characterizations and other market information affecting these programs that is necessary to provide input to the EERE integrated modeling analysis. Throughout the report we refer to these programs as “buildings-related” programs, because the approach is not limited in application to BT or WIP. To adequately support OPBFA in the development of official GPRA metrics, PNNL communicates with the various activities and projects in BT and WIP to determine how best to characterize their activities planned for the upcoming budget request. PNNL then analyzes these projects to determine what the results of the characterizations would imply for energy markets, technology markets, and consumer behavior. This is accomplished by developing nonintegrated estimates of energy, environmental, and financial benefits (i.e., outcomes) of the technologies and practices expected to result from the budget request. These characterizations and nonintegrated modeling results are provided to OPBFA as inputs to the official benefits estimates developed for the Federal Budget. This report documents the approach and methodology used to estimate future energy, environmental, and financial benefits produced by technologies and practices supported by BT and by WIP. However, the approach is general enough for analysis of buildings-related technologies, independent of any specific program. An overview describes the GPRA process and the models used to estimate energy savings. The body of the document describes the algorithms used and the diffusion curve estimates.

Elliott, Douglas B.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Hostick, Donna J.

2004-06-18