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1

Replication and Extension of Expectancy Models for Job Effort, Satisfaction and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vroom's expectancy models for job effort, satisfaction and performance were tested and received moderate support. Also, five modifications or extensions of the theory are reviewed and empirically tested. In general, these changes suggested that the inclus...

T. R. Mitchell E. Vinson

1973-01-01

2

Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2010-01-01

3

Asserting Performance Expectations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traditional techniques for performance analysis provide a means for extracting and analyzing raw performance information from applications. Users then reason about and compare this raw performance data to their performance expectations for important appli...

J. S. Vetter P. Worley

2002-01-01

4

Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.

1998-09-04

5

Ipsative, Normative and Return on Effort Versions of Expectancy Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews versions of testing expectancy theory predictions of individual choice behavior. The ipsative, normative and return on effort approaches are addressed as are the issues of conceptual, methodical and empirical problems associated with each approach. In order to test the hypotheses as to which approach would yield stronger…

Kopelman, Richard E.

6

Testing Expectancy Theory Predictions Using Behaviorally Based Measures of Motivational Effort for Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectancy theory predictions were tested using a sample of engineers who had been rated on dimensions of work motivation or effort (in contrast to performance) using the behaviorally based rating scales designed by Landy and Guion (1970). (Author)

Arvey, Richard D.; Neel, C. Warren

1974-01-01

7

Student Effort and Performance over the Semester  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors extend the standard education production function and student time allocation analysis to focus on the interactions between student effort and performance over the semester. The purged instrumental variable technique is used to obtain consistent estimators of the structural parameters of the model using data from intermediate…

Krohn, Gregory A.; O'Connor, Catherine M.

2005-01-01

8

Expectancy Theory Predictions of Academic Performance and Satisfaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Expectancy theory models were used to predict the satisfaction, effort and performance of college students. This theory suggests that effort and satisfaction are related to the degree to which the behavior (or job) is seen as leading to various outcomes w...

T. R. Mitchell D. M. Nebeker

1971-01-01

9

Second-order contrast based on the expectation of effort and reinforcement.  

PubMed

Pigeons prefer signals for reinforcement that require greater effort (or time) to obtain over those that require less effort to obtain (T. S. Clement, J. Feltus, D. H. Kaiser, & T. R. Zentall, 2000). Preference was attributed to contrast (or to the relatively greater improvement in conditions) produced by the appearance of the signal when it was preceded by greater effort. In Experiment 1, the authors of the present study demonstrated that the expectation of greater effort was sufficient to produce such a preference (a second-order contrast effect). In Experiments 2 and 3, low versus high probability of reinforcement was substituted for high versus low effort, respectively, with similar results. In Experiment 3, the authors found that the stimulus preference could be attributed to positive contrast (when the discriminative stimuli represented an improvement in the probability of reinforcement) and perhaps also negative contrast (when the discriminative stimuli represented reduction in the probability of reinforcement). PMID:11868235

Clement, Tricia S; Zentall, Thomas R

2002-01-01

10

Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.  

PubMed

Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success. PMID:19743655

Shutts, Joe

2009-09-01

11

Enhanced Expectancies Improve Performance Under Pressure  

PubMed Central

Beyond skill, beliefs in requisite abilities and expectations can affect performance. This experiment examined effects of induced perceptions of ability to perform well under generic situations of challenge. Participants (N?=?31) first completed one block of 20 trials on a throwing accuracy task. They then completed questionnaires ostensibly measuring individual differences in the ability to perform under pressure. Enhanced-expectancy group participants were told that they were well-suited to perform under pressure, while the control group received neutral information. Subsequently, all participants completed another block of 20 trials on the throwing task, with their performance videotaped and under the assumption that they could secure a prize for themselves and a paired participant with successful performance. Both groups had similar accuracy scores on the first trial block. The enhanced-expectancy group significantly increased their throwing accuracy in the higher-pressure situation (second block), whereas the control group showed no change in performance. Furthermore, beliefs regarding performance under challenge predicted throwing accuracy on the second block. The present findings provide evidence that enhancing individuals’ generic expectancies regarding performance under pressure can affect their motor performance.

McKay, Brad; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Wulf, Gabriele

2012-01-01

12

Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

2010-01-01

13

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performance plans, and other measures of performance. Such expectations include those...and respect for others. (c) Performance expectations may take the form...assignment, including expectations regarding the...timeliness, and/or other expected...

2010-01-01

14

Visual Search Performance and Observer Expectations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field experiment is reported in which subject's expectations regarding cues to detection of selected target types, and the effect such expectations might have on time to detection, were investigated. A scenario procedure for measurement of expectations ...

C. J. Woodruff

1986-01-01

15

Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

2012-01-01

16

SMAP Radar Processing and Expected Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will describe the processing algorithms being developed for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radar data and the expected characteristics of the measured backscattering cross sections. The SMAP radar combines some unique features such as a conically scanned antenna with SAR processing of the data. The rapidly varying squint angle gives the measurements variable resolution and noise characteristics and poses a challenge to the processor to maintain accuracy around the wide (1000 km) swath. Rapid variation of Doppler around the scan leads to a time domain azimuth correlation algorithm, and variation of the Doppler geometry will likely require varying the processing bandwidth to manage ambiguity contamination errors. The basic accuracy requirement is 1-dB (one-sigma) in the backscatter measurements at a resolution of 3 km. The main error contributions come from speckle noise, calibration uncertainty, and radio frequency interference (RFI). Speckle noise is determined by system design parameters and details of the processing algorithms. The calibration of the backscatter measurements will be based on pre-launch characterization of the radar components which allow corrections for short term (~1 month) variations in performance. Longer term variations and biases will be removed using measurements of stable reference targets such as parts of the Amazon rain forest, and possibly the oceans and ice sheets. RFI survey measurements will be included to measure the extent of RFI around the world. The SMAP radar is designed to be able to hop the operating frequency within the 80 MHz allocated band to avoid the worst RFI emitters. Data processing will detect and discard further RFI contaminated measurements. This work is supported by the SMAP project at JPL - CalTech. The SMAP mission has not been formally approved by NASA. The decision to proceed with the mission will not occur until the completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. Material in this document related to SMAP is for information purposes only.

West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.

2011-12-01

17

Expectancy Theory and Policy Capturing: A Predictive Model of Student Effort in an Academic Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examined the valence and force models as hypothesized by Vroom's expectancy theory. It also examined the behavioral characteristics of the variable expectancy. The research involved a decision making exercise to capture the course preference a...

M. A. Morehouse

1979-01-01

18

Expectation gaps between stakeholders and web-based corporate public relations efforts: Focusing on Fortune 500 corporate web sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how Fortune 500 corporations use corporate-focused web site public relations efforts to prioritize different stakeholders while trying to meet the expectations of each stakeholder. The study found that shareholder needs are most often addressed by the corporations followed by consumers, community members, government agencies, and activists. The results of the study suggest there are expectation gaps between

Sora Kim; Jae-Hee Park; Emma K. Wertz

2010-01-01

19

Early antecedents to students' expected performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to confirm the predictive validity of several antecedents to students' early perceptions of future performance in collegiate courses. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A non-experimental design was used to test a proposed model based on a review of relevant literature. Students completed surveys capturing the constructs researched. Findings – Students' internal locus of control predicted

John Garger; Michael Thomas; Paul H. Jacques

2010-01-01

20

Early Antecedents to Students' Expected Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to confirm the predictive validity of several antecedents to students' early perceptions of future performance in collegiate courses. Design/methodology/approach: A non-experimental design was used to test a proposed model based on a review of relevant literature. Students completed surveys capturing the…

Garger, John; Thomas, Michael; Jacques, Paul H.

2010-01-01

21

Expected Performance Centering for Analog\\/RF Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We unite the conventional analog\\/RF design objectives such as design centering and performance targeting and propose a generalized analog\\/RF design objective. We propose expected performance centering, i.e., to maximize the expected performance margin of a circuit under process and environmental variations for topology selection with performance specification in a hierarchical design. We develop three methods to compute expected performance margin.

Bao Liu; Andrew B. Kahng

2006-01-01

22

Student effort expectations and their learning in first-year introductory physics: A case study in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) survey was designed to probe students’ expectations about their understanding of the process of learning physics and the structure of physics knowledge—cognitive expectations. This survey was administered to first-year university students in Thailand in the first semester of an introductory calculus-based physics course during academic years 2007 and 2008, to assess their expectations at the beginning of the course. The precourse MPEX results were compared and correlated with two separate measures of student learning: (1) individual students’ normalized gains from pre and post Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) results, which measure students’ conceptual understanding, and (2) student’s scores on the final exam, which measure their more general problem-solving ability. The results showed a significant positive correlation between their overall MPEX score and five of the six MPEX cluster scores, with their normalized learning gains on the FMCE for both academic years. The results also showed significant positive correlations between student MPEX scores and their final exam scores for the overall MPEX score and all MPEX cluster scores except for the effort cluster. We interviewed two groups of five students each, one group with small favorable scores on the precourse MPEX effort cluster and one with high favorable scores on the precourse MPEX effort cluster, to see how the students’ learning efforts compared with their MPEX results. We concluded from the interviews that what the students think or expect about the MPEX effort involved in learning physics does not match what they actually do.

Wutchana, U.; Emarat, N.

2011-06-01

23

Mood Effects Associated with Incongruency between Expectations and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interrelationships of expected and objective performance and moods of pleasantness and unpleasantness among 13 members of an intramural softball team are presented. It was found that expectations of success are positively associated with poor performa...

R. J. Biersner W. B. McHugh J. Skirgaudas

1974-01-01

24

5 CFR 9901.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Setting and communicating performance expectations...Performance Management § 9901.406 Setting and communicating performance expectations...that set general or specific performance targets at the individual, team, and/or...

2009-01-01

25

5 CFR 9901.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and communicating performance expectations...Performance Management § 9901.406 Setting and communicating performance expectations...that set general or specific performance targets at the individual, team, and/or...

2010-01-01

26

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Setting and communicating performance expectations...Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and communicating performance expectations...that set general or specific performance targets at the individual, team, and/or...

2009-01-01

27

Predicting Academic Performance: The Impact of Expectancy and Needs Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both expectancy-theory and needs-theory variables were used to predict college student performance (overall grade point average) for 81 students. The average valence variable from the expectancy theory model was found to be the best overall predictor of actual academic performance, but the need for autonomy score was also a predictor. (SLD)

Geiger, Marshall A.; Cooper, Elizabeth A.

1995-01-01

28

Work Performance: A New Approach to Expectancy Theory Predictions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was conducted to develop and test a model of performance based upon a reconceptualization of Vroom's (1964) expectancy model. The reconceptualized model assumes that an individual chooses from among levels of performance rather than, as proposed ...

D. M. Nebeker M. C. Moy

1976-01-01

29

Parental Expectations and Children's Academic Performance in Sociocultural Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review research on parental expectations and their effects on student achievement within and across diverse\\u000a racial and ethnic groups. Our review suggests that the level of parental expectations varies by racial\\/ethnic group, and that\\u000a students' previous academic performance is a less influential determinant of parental expectations among racial\\/ethnic minority\\u000a parents than among European American parents. To

Yoko Yamamoto; Susan D. Holloway

2010-01-01

30

Parental Expectations and Children's Academic Performance in Sociocultural Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we review research on parental expectations and their effects on student achievement within and across diverse racial and ethnic groups. Our review suggests that the level of parental expectations varies by racial/ethnic group, and that students' previous academic performance is a less influential determinant of parental…

Yamamoto, Yoko; Holloway, Susan D.

2010-01-01

31

Predictions of Key Entry Performance Using the Reconceptualized Expectancy Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was conducted to replicate and to extend development of the reconceptualized expectancy model which predicts individual performance based on: (1) the individual's valence or value of outcomes; (2) the probability that these outcomes would be obta...

D. M. Nebeker S. L. Dockstader E. C. Shumate

1978-01-01

32

The Relationship of IQ to Effort Test Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between IQ and nine effort indicators was examined in a sample of 189 neuropsychology clinic outpatients who were not in litigation or attempting to obtain disability. Participants with the lowest IQ (50–59) failed approximately 60% of the effort tests, while patients with an IQ of 60 to 69 failed 44% of effort indicators, and individuals with borderline IQ

Andy C. Dean; Tara L. Victor; Kyle B. Boone; Ginger Arnold

2008-01-01

33

Feedback and Performance Expectancies in an Academic Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study on sex differences in performance expectancies among college students indicate that positive feedback may reduce such differences. The study also suggests, however, that the effect of previous feedback can be cancelled by changes in the performance situation, such as a change in instructor and/or subject matter. (Author/GC)

Kimball, Meredith M.; Gray, Vicky A.

1982-01-01

34

Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study is presented of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector. The reconstruction of tracks, leptons, photons, missing energy and jets is investigated, together with the performance of b-tagging and the trigger. The physics potential for a variety of interesting physics processes, within the Standard Model and beyond, is examined. The study comprises a series of notes based

G. Aad; E. Abat; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; M. Aharrouche; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad; H. Ahmed; G. Aielli; T. Akdogan; T. P. A. Akesson; G. Akimoto; M. S. Alam; M. A. Alam; J. Albert; S. Albrand; M. Aleksa; I. N. Aleksandrov; F. Alessandria; C. Alexa; G. Alexander; G. Alexandre; T. Alexopoulos; M. Alhroob; G. Alimonti; J. Alison; M. Aliyev; P. P. Allport; S. E. Allwood-Spiers; A. Aloisio; R. Alon; A. Alonso; J. Alonso; M. G. Alviggi; K. Amako; P. Amaral; C. Amelung; V. V. Ammosov; A. Amorim; G. Amoros; N. Amram; C. Anastopoulos; C. F. Anders; K. J. Anderson; A. Andreazza; V. Andrei; M-L. Andrieux; X. S. Anduaga; F. Anghinolfi; A. Antonaki; M. Antonelli; S. Antonelli; B. Antunovic; F. A. Anulli; G. Arabidze; I. Aracena; Y. Arai; A. T. H. Arce; J. P. Archambault; S. Arfaoui; J-F. Arguin; T. Argyropoulos; E. Arik; M. Arik; A. J. Armbruster; O. Arnaez; C. Arnault; A. Artamonov; D. Arutinov; M. Asai; S. Asai; S. Ask; B. Asman; D. Asner; L. Asquith; K. Assamagan; A. Astbury; A. Astvatsatourov; T. Atkinson; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; E. Auge; K. Augsten; M. A. Aurousseau; N. Austin; G. Avolio; R. Avramidou; A. Axen; C. Ay; G. Azuelos; Y. Azuma; M. A. Baak; G. Baccaglioni; C. Bacci; H. Bachacou; K. Bachas; M. Backes; E. Badescu; P. Bagnaia; Y. Bai; D. C. Bailey; J. T. Baines; O. K. Baker; F. Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa; E. Banas; S. Banerjee; D. Banfi; A. Bangert; V. Bansal; S. P. Baranov; A. Barashkou; T. B. Barber; E. L. Barberio; D. Barberis; M. B. Barbero; D. Y. Bardin; T. Barillari; M. Barisonzi; T. Barklow; N. B. Barlow; N. B. Barlow; R. M. Barnett; S. Baron; A. Baroncelli; A. Baroncelli; F. Barreiro; J. Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa; P. Barrillon; R. Bartoldus; D. Bartsch; J. Bastos; R. L. Bates; J. R. Batley; A. Battaglia; M. Battistin; F. Bauer; M. Bazalova; B. Beare; P. H. Beauchemin; R. B. Beccherle; N. Becerici; P. Bechtle; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; M. Beckingham; K. H. Becks; I. Bedajanek; A. J. Beddall; P. Bednar; V. A. Bednyakov; C. Bee; S. Behar Harpaz; P. K. Behera; M. Beimforde; C. Belanger-Champagne; P. J. Bell; W. H. Bell; G. Bella; L. Bellagamba; F. Bellina; M. Bellomo; A. Belloni; K. Belotskiy; O. Beltramello; S. Ben Ami; O. Beltramello; D. Benchekroun; M. Bendel; B. H. Benedict; N. Benekos; Y. Benhammou; G. P. Benincasa; D. P. Benjamin; M. Benoit; J. R. Bensinger; K. Benslama; S. Bentvelsen; M. Beretta; D. Berge; E. Bergeaas Kuutmann; N. Berger; F. Berghaus; E. Berglund; J. Beringer; K. Bernardet; P. Bernat; R. Bernhard; C. Bernius; T. Berry; A. Bertin; N. Besson; S. Bethke; R. M. Bianchi; M. Bianco; O. Biebel; J. Biesiada; M. Biglietti; H. Bilokon; S. Binet; A. Bingul; C. Bini; C. Biscarat; M. Bischofberger; U. Bitenc; K. M. Black; R. E. Blair; G. Blanchot; C. Blocker; J. Blocki; A. Blondel; W. Blum; U. Blumenschein; C. Boaretto; G. J. Bobbink; A. Bocci; B. Bodine; J. Boek; N. Boelaert; S. Boeser; J. A. Bogaerts; A. Bogouch; C. Bohm; J. Bohm; V. Boisvert; T. Bold; V. Boldea; V. G. Bondarenko; M. Bondioli; M. Boonekamp; C. N. Booth; P. S. L. Booth; J. R. A. Booth; A. Borisov; G. Borissov; I. Borjanovic; S. Borroni; K. Bos; D. Boscherini; M. Bosman; M. Bosteels; H. Boterenbrood; J. Bouchami; J. Boudreau; E. V. Bouhova-Thacker; C. Boulahouache; C. Bourdarios; J. Boyd; I. R. Boyko; A. Braem; P. Branchini; G. W. Brandenburg; A. Brandt; O. Brandt; U. Bratzler; J. E. Brau; H. M. Braun; B. Brelier; J. Bremer; R. Brenner; S. Bressler; D. Breton; N. D. Brett; D. Breton; F. M. Brochu; I. Brock; R. Brock; E. Brodet; F. Broggi; G. Brooijmans; W. K. Brooks; E. Brubaker; P. A. Bruckman de Renstrom; D. Bruncko; R. Bruneliere; S. Brunet; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; M. Bruschi; T. Buanes; F. B. Bucci; P. Buchholz; A. G. Buckley; I. A. Budagov; V. Buescher; L. Bugge; F. Bujor; O. Bulekov; M. Bunse; T. Buran; H. Burckhart; S. Burdin; S. Burke; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; F. Butin; B. Butler; J. M. Butler; C. M. Buttar; J. M. Butterworth; T. Byatt; S. Cabrera Urban; D. Caforio; O. Cakir; P. Calafiura; G. Calderini; R. Calkins; L. P. Caloba; R. Calkins; D. Calvet; P. Camarri; M. Cambiaghi; D. Cameron; F. Campabadal Segura; S. Campana; M. Campanelli; V. Canale; J. Cantero; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; I. Caprini; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; M. Capua; R. Caputo; C. Caramarcu; R. Cardarelli; T. Carli; G. Carlino; L. Carminati; B. Caron; S. Caron; S. Carron Montero; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; J. Carvalho; D. Casadei; M. P. Casado; M. Cascella; C. Caso; A. M. Castaneda Hernadez; E. Castaneda Miranda; V. Castillo Gimenez; N. F. Castro; G. Cataldi; A. Catinaccio; J. R. Catmore; A. Catinaccio; G. Cattani; S. Caughron; D. Cauz; P. Cavalleri; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza; V. Cavasinni; A. Cazzato

2008-01-01

35

Self-consistent MPI-IO performance requirements and expectations.  

SciTech Connect

We recently introduced the idea of self-consistent performance requirements for MPI communication. Such requirements provide a means to ensure consistent behavior of an MPI library, thereby ensuring a degree of performance portability by making it unnecessary for a user to perform implementation-dependent optimizations by hand. For the collective operations in particular, a large number of such rules could sensibly be formulated, without making hidden assumptions about the underlying communication system or otherwise constraining the MPI implementation. In this paper, we extend this idea to the realm of parallel I/O (MPI-IO), where the issues are far more subtle. In particular, it is not always possible to specify performance requirements without making assumptions about the implementation or without a priori knowledge of the I/O access pattern. For such cases, we introduce the notion of performance expectations, which specify the desired behavior for good implementations of MPI-IO. I/O performance requirements as well as expectations could be automatically checked by an appropriate benchmarking tool.

Gropp, W. D.; Kimpe, D.; Ross, R.; Thakur, R.; Traff, J. L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Illinois; Katholieke Univ. Leuven; NEC Laboratories Europe

2008-01-01

36

High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from thirties to fifties, the age category most affected was in the forties range. Incident rate calculations (incidents per 100 training runs) revealed that the 2002, 2003, and 2004 time periods registered the highest reported incident rate levels (3.4, 6.1, and 4.1 respectively) when compared to the following years (all = 1.0). In addition to general hand-arm discomfort being the highest reported result from training, specific types of hand injuries or symptoms included erythema, fingernail delamination, abrasions, muscle soreness/fatigue, paresthesia, bruising, blanching, and edema. Specific body locations most affected by hand injuries included the metacarpophalangeal joints, fingernails, finger crotches, fingers in general, interphalangeal joints, and fingertips. Causes of injuries reported in the LSAH data were primarily attributed to the forces that the gloved hands were exposed to due to hand intensive tasks and/or poor glove sizing. DISCUSSION: Although the age data indicate that most injuries are reported by male crewmembers in their forties, that is also the dominant gender and age range of most EVA crew therefore it is not an unexpected finding. Age and gender analysis will continue as more details on the uninjured population is accrued. While there is a reasonable mechanism to link training quantity to injury, the results were inconsistent and point to the need for a consistent method of suit-related injury screening and documentation. For instance, the high-incident rate levels for the years 2002 to 2004 could be attributed to a comprehensive medical review of crewmembers post-NBL EVA training that occurred from July 19, 2002 to January 16, 2004. Furthermore, there could have been increased awareness from an investigation at the NBL. These investigations may have temporarily increased the fidelity of reported injuries and discomforts during these dates as compared to surrounding years, when injury signs and symptom were no longer actively being investigated but rather voluntarily reported. Data mining for possible mechanistic factors continues and include

Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

2014-01-01

37

VCL Laser Altimeter Surface Return Expected Geolocation Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, expected to launch in the spring of 2002, will carry a unique Multi-Beam Laser Altimeter (MBLA) instrument designed to observe vegetative canopy structure for a nominal mission duration of 2 years. The VCL MBLA is a three-beam instrument where each laser is capable of producing returns with 30-m along-track spacing and 25-m-diameter footprints. Identifying the precise location of the point on the Earth's surface from which the laser energy reflects is a critical issue in the validation and application of the data. The resultant geolocation accuracy is dependent on the performance of many components of the VCL system including: laser pulse round trip travel time observation to surface, navigation tracking data, attitude determination system data, timing, laser pointing and body orientation stability, knowledge of instrument and navigation tracking point positions, media and geophysical corrections. Additionally, it is critical to calibrate on-orbit instrument parameters including pointing and range corrections. The geolocation and calibration methodology and algorithms will be summarized. A detailed geolocation error analysis identifying the contributions from each system component, along with the resultant expected geolocation accuracy, will be presented. A brief discussion of the operational geolocation process will also be presented. Science and data validation implications from geolocation performance will be summarized.

Luthcke, S. B.; Blair, J. B.; Hofton, M. A.; Rowlands, D. D.; Zelensky, N. P.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

38

Expected performance of the Plasma Diagnostic Instrumentation on DICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DICE (Dynamic Ionospheric Cubesat Experiment) is an NSF mission scheduled for launch October 25, 2011 consisting of two identical satellites placed in a 350 x 820 km orbit at 101.95 degree inclination. The payload consists of a suite of miniaturized ionospheric diagnostic instruments including a ten meter electric field double probe, an electric field spectrometer, a sweeping Langmuir probe and a three axis magnetometer. These instruments will be used to understand the formation of storm-time enhanced density plumes in the late afternoon local time sector where observations are currently lacking. The instrumentation suite will provide measurements of the ionospheric density and fields at 70 Hz (~0.12 km/sample) on orbit with temperature and spectrometer data at lower rates. Within this paper we show the expected performance of the instrumentation and ground based calibration results.

Burr, S.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C. S.; Crowley, G.; Hui, D.; Suresh, P.; Neilsen, T.

2010-12-01

39

Principal Leadership and Teacher Expectancy in Low-Performing Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the relationship between principal leadership and teacher expectancy within Chicago's accountability context. Current school accountability policies assume that the threat of sanctions will motivate teachers to improve. The study uses expectancy theory, which suggests that any impact on motivation will be constrained by…

Finnigan, Kara S.

2005-01-01

40

Expected EDL navigation performance with spacecraft to spacecraft data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pinpoint landing (defined for the purpose of this discussion as landing within 1km of a preselected target) is a key Advanced Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology for future Mars landers. Key scientific goals for Mars exploration, such as the search for water and characterization of aqueous process on Mars, the study of mineralogy and weathering of the Martian surface and the search for preserved biosignatures in Martian rocks, requires placing landers at pre-defined locations of greatest scientific interest. The capability to land within 1 km of a pre-defined landing site will improve safety and enable landing within roving range of sites of scientific interest while avoiding hazardous areas. A critical component of the closed-loop guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) system required for pinpoint landing is position and velocity estimation in real time. Spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will take advantage of the UHF link between two spacecraft (i.e. to an orbiter from an approaching lander for EDL telemetry relay) to build radiometric data, specifically the velocity between the two spacecraft along the radio beam, that are processed to determine position and velocity in real time. The improved onboard state knowledge provided by spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will reduce the landed position error and improve the performance of entry guidance. Results from the first of two years planned for this effort are documented here, including selection and documentation of prototype algorithms that will go forward into flight code along with analysis results used to define the algorithm set.

Burkhart, P. Daniel; Ely, Todd; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, Glenn; Campbell, Todd; Mogensen, Andy

2005-01-01

41

The Expected Performance from the NASA OCO-2 Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) will be launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on a Delta-II 7320 launch vehicle as early as 1 July 2014. Once deployed in the 705-km Afternoon Constellation (A-Train), it will collect the measurements needed to estimate the column-averaged, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction (XCO2) with improved precision, resolution, and coverage. The OCO-2 spacecraft carries and points a 3-channel, imaging, grating spectrometer that collects high resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the 765 nm O2 A-band and in the CO2 bands centered near 1610 and 2060 nm. These spectral ranges overlap those used by the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) TANSO-FTS, the current standard in space-based XCO2 measurements. The OCO-2 instrument performance was extensively characterized during pre-launch testing, facilitating comparisons with the TANSO-FTS. OCO-2 has slightly lower spectral resolution, but the far wings of its instrument line shape functions decay more rapidly, such that it yields similar spectral contrast within O2 and CO2 bands. The instruments have similar continuum signal to noise ratios (SNR) for bright scenes, but the OCO-2 instrument has higher SNR at low light levels associated with absorption lines or dark surfaces. The OCO-2 spectrometers will collect 24 soundings per second, yielding up to a million soundings per day over the sunlit hemisphere. For routine operations, the OCO-2 instrument boresight will be pointed at the local nadir or at the 'glint spot,' where sunlight is specularly reflected from the surface. Nadir observations provide the best spatial resolution and are expected to yield more cloud-free soundings. Glint observations will have much better SNR over dark, ocean surfaces. The nominal plan is to alternate between glint and nadir observations on successive 16-day ground-track repeat cycles, so that the entire sunlit hemisphere is sampled in both modes at 32-day intervals. The instrument's rapid sampling, small (< 3 km2) sounding footprint, and high SNR, combined with the spacecraft's ability to point the instrument's aperture toward the glint spot over the entire sunlit hemisphere, are expected to provide more complete coverage of the ocean, cloudy regions, and high latitude continents. While the OCO-2 measurement capabilities provide opportunities to improve the XCO2 precision, resolution, and coverage, they also pose some formidable challenges for calibration, retrieval, and validation. To fully exploit this instrument's capabilities, the 24,000 spectral/spatial channels must be cross-calibrated to within a fraction of 1%. Substantial increases in algorithm speed and more efficient data screening techniques are needed to fully utilize the much larger data volume. Finally, a comprehensive validation program will be needed to ensure the accuracy of the retrieved XCO2 estimates. This presentation will summarize the OCO-2 measurement capabilities and observation strategies, and the methods adopted to address these challenges.

Crisp, D.; Eldering, A.; Gunson, M. R.; Pollock, H.

2013-12-01

42

29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Effort is concerned with the measurement of the physical or mental exertion needed for the performance of a job...performance of an activity which may require extra physical or mental exertion is not alone sufficient to justify a...

2013-07-01

43

Gender and young children's expectations for performance in arithmetic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracked the progress of approximately 1,100 children from the beginning of 1st grade to the end of 3rd grade. Ss included Whites at a suburban school and Blacks and Whites whose background was urban and lower class. Ss', their mothers', and their peers' expectations for their grades in reading, arithmetic, and conduct were assessed each semester. Ss' actual grades and

Doris R. Entwisle; David P. Baker

1983-01-01

44

Stereotype Threat in Middle School: The Effects of Prior Performance on Expectancy and Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotype threat research has demonstrated how presenting situational cues in a testing environment, such as raising the salience of negative stereotypes, can adversely affect test performance (Perry, Steele, & Hilliard, 2003; Steele & Aronson, 1995) and expectancy (Cadinu, Maass, Frigerio, Impagliazzo, & Latinotti, 2003; Stangor, Carr, & Kiang,…

Howard, Keith E.; Anderson, Kenneth A.

2010-01-01

45

Investigating the effect of model type and practice format on performance expectations and actual physical performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on social cognitive theory, we tested the effects of model type (mastery vs. coping) and form of practice (physical, imagery, or none) on performance expectations (self-efficacy and perceived task difficulty) and balance on a stabilometer task. After obtaining baseline measures, 78 participants viewed either mastery or coping demonstrations of the task and practiced according to their allocated condition for

Jennifer Cumming; Richard Ramsey

2011-01-01

46

5 CFR 9901.410 - Addressing performance that does not meet expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performance that does not meet expectations. 9901.410 Section...performance that does not meet expectations. (a) If at any time...performance is not meeting expectations, the supervisor will...U.S.C. chapter 75 or other appropriate procedures...

2010-01-01

47

5 CFR 9901.410 - Addressing performance that does not meet expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performance that does not meet expectations. 9901.410 Section...performance that does not meet expectations. (a) If at any time...performance is not meeting expectations, the supervisor will...U.S.C. chapter 75 or other appropriate procedures...

2009-01-01

48

Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student…

Sorhagen, Nicole S.

2013-01-01

49

Sustainability of Teacher Expectation Bias Effects on Long-Term Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we address the relationship between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics, its effect on long-term student performance, and the development of this effect over time. Expectation bias was defined as the difference between observed and predicted teacher expectation. These predicted expectations were estimated from a…

de Boer, Hester; Bosker, Roel J.; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

2010-01-01

50

MicrOmega/Hayabusa 2 expected performances, through ground calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MicrOmega is a NIR hyperspectral microscope, operating in the 0.95 - 3.65 µm spectral range, with the goal of characterizing the microscopic composition of the asteroid surface, in contact with the MASCOT Lander of the Hayabusa 2 mission. Ground calibration of the flight unit has demonstrated outstanding performances, which will be reported: minerals (both igneous and altered), and a variety of organics can be detected and identified, at their grain scale, through a totally unprecedented investigation.

Bibring, Jean-Pierre

2014-05-01

51

Expected orbit determination performance for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission  

SciTech Connect

The TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) mission, launched during the summer of 1992, has the requirement that the radial component of its orbit must be computed to an accuracy of 13 cm root-mean-square (rms) or better, allowing measurements of the sea surface height to be computed to similar accuracy when the satellite height is differenced with the altimeter measurements. This will be done by combining precise satellite tracking measurements with precise models of the forces acting on the satellite. The Space Geodesy Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), as part of the T/P precision orbit determination (POD) Team, has the responsibility within NASA for the T/P precise orbit computations. The prelaunch activities of the T/P POD Team have been mainly directed towards developing improved models of the static and time-varying gravitational forces acting on T/P and precise models for the non-conservative forces perturbing the orbit of T/P such as atmospheric drag, solar and Earth radiation pressure, and thermal imbalances. The radial orbit error budget for T/P allows 10 cm rms error due to gravity field mismodeling, 3 cm due to solid Earth and ocean tides, 6 cm due to radiative forces, and 3 cm due to atmospheric drag. A prelaunch assessment of the current modeling accuracies for these forces indicates that the radial orbit error requirements can be achieved with the current models, and can probably be surpassed once T/P tracking data are used to fine tune the models. Provided that the performance of the T/P spacecraft is nominal, the precise orbits computed by the T/P POD Team should be accurate to 13 cm or better radially.

Nerem, R.S.; Putney, B.H.; Marshall, J.A.; Lerch, F.J. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Pavlis, E.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Klosko, S.M.; Luthcke, S.B.; Patel, G.B.; Williamson, R.G.; Zelensky, N.P.

1993-03-01

52

The shadow knows: performance expectations of new hires in an IT organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

As organizations reshape themselves to meet market and customer demands, expectations companies have of their employees change, which means employment contracts must also change. Social research on organizations has gained interest in recent years, but research on psychological contracts has been particularly limited. Rousseau (1995) noted the importance of performance expectations, but that these expectations were frequently not conveyed to

Diane Bandow

2004-01-01

53

Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

2010-01-01

54

The Impact of Effort and Strategy Use on Academic Performance: Student and Teacher Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the perceptions of 308 adolescents with learning disabilities, 355 average achievers, and their 57 teachers on student level of effort, strategy use, and academic performance. Findings indicated that the students with learning disabilities demonstrated positive academic self-concepts, whereas teachers' judgments were…

Meltzer, Lynn; Katzir-Cohen, Tamar; Miller, Lynne; Roditi, Bethany

2001-01-01

55

Effortful Control in "Hot" and "Cool" Tasks Differentially Predicts Children's Behavior Problems and Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children's adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer…

Kim, Sanghag; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

2013-01-01

56

Anxiety-induced performance catastrophes: investigating effort required as an asymmetry factor.  

PubMed

Two studies are reported that test the hypothesis that previous support for the cusp catastrophe model of anxiety and performance, and the hysteresis effect in particular, could have been due to a complex interaction between cognitive anxiety and effort required rather than between cognitive anxiety and physiological arousal. We used task difficulty to manipulate effort required in a letter transformation task. Experiment 1 (N=32) used high levels of trait anxiety together with a competitive environment to induce state anxiety. Experiment 2 (N=20) used a competitive environment with social pressure and ego threat instructions to induce high levels of worry. Both studies revealed significant three-way interactions as hypothesized with follow-up tests showing some support for the hysteresis hypothesis in Study 1, and strong support for the hysteresis hypothesis in Study 2. The findings support a processing efficiency theory explanation of anxiety-induced performance catastrophes and indicate that two cusp catastrophe models of performance may exist; one that incorporates the interactive effects of cognitive anxiety and physiological arousal upon performance and the other that incorporates the interactive effects of cognitive anxiety and effort required upon performance. PMID:17319048

Hardy, Lew; Beattie, Stuart; Woodman, Tim

2007-02-01

57

The Prediction of College Student Academic Performance and Retention: Application of Expectancy and Goal Setting Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educators, students, and the nation facing critical professional labor shortages. Expectancy and goal setting theories were used to predict academic performance and college student retention. Students' academic expectancy motivation at the start of the college…

Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.

2010-01-01

58

The influence of effort on neuropsychological performance in children: is performance on the TOMM indicative of neuropsychological ability?  

PubMed

The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but is being increasingly used with children, though it is not yet entirely clear what suboptimal TOMM performance means in terms of neuropsychological test scores. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether performance on the TOMM can be used as a predictive marker for neuropsychological performance in children. Participants (N = 75) completed the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), Children's Memory Test, and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trails. Results revealed significant correlations between age, education level, IQ, and many of the neuropsychological measures administered, indicating that as children's TOMM scores increase, so do their cognitive performances. Children were subsequently divided into two groups: optimal effort and suboptimal effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Results suggest significant differences in IQ performance and WCST Failure to Maintain Set; however, there were no differences in regard to any other neuropsychological measures administered. It was also found that a larger proportion of the younger children (aged 6 to 10 years old) scored below the TOMM cutoff compared with older children. This study illustrates that although correlations exist, suboptimal effort on the TOMM may not predict poorer performance on a neuropsychological evaluation in children as has been reported in other studies. PMID:24236939

Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R

2014-01-01

59

Glucose administration, heart rate and cognitive performance: effects of increasing mental effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: It is known that glucose administration is capable of improving performance on tests of declarative verbal memory and non-mnemonic\\u000a tasks requiring high ”mental effort”. At the same time, cognitively demanding tasks are associated with elevated heart rate,\\u000a a response that could feasibly be part of a physiological mechanism serving to increase the delivery of glucose to active\\u000a brain substrates.

David O. Kennedy; Andrew B. Scholey

2000-01-01

60

Group Motivation and Group Task Performance: The Expectancy-Valence Theory Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated effects of group motivation on group task performance. Created two levels of valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence variable reflected on group productivity on unstructured and task persistence measures. Expectancy variable's effect was on task persistence measure. Instrumentality affected group productivity on structured…

Nakanishi, Masayuki

1988-01-01

61

Caffeine Consumption, Expectancies of Caffeine-Enhanced Performance, and Caffeinism Symptoms among University Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gathered self-report data on college students' (n=797) expectations of caffeine-enhanced performance, level of beverage caffeine consumed daily, and caffeinism signs experienced after consumption of caffeinated beverages. Results supported extending the expectancies model of substance use motivation from alcohol to caffeine. (Author/ABL)

Bradley, John R.; Petree, Allen

1990-01-01

62

Factors Complicating Expectancy Theory Predictions of Work Motivation and Job Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conventional paradigm for testing expectancy theory predictions of work behavior has been to correlate expectancy-value reports with concurrent measures of motivation and performance. Although this static, two-variable approach has typically yielded statistically significant results, correlations have not been sizable. This study, using a…

Kopelman, Richard E.

63

Teachers' communication of differential expectations for children's classroom performance: Some behavioral data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the processes by which teachers communicate differential performance expectations to different children through observational study of dyadic contacts between teachers and individual students in 4 1st grade classrooms. Differential teacher expectations for different children were associated with a variety of interaction measures, although many of these relationships are attributable to objective differences. However, other differential teacher behavior was observed

Jere E. Brophy; Thomas L. Good

1970-01-01

64

Linking immigrant parents' educational expectations and aspirations to their children's school performance.  

PubMed

The authors examined the relationships of parental expectations and aspirations for their children's educational attainment to children's academic performance in school among 783 immigrant-origin children aged 5-18 years in Canada. The results of hierarchical regression analyses, after accounting for student and family background characteristics, indicated that immigrant parents' expectations and aspirations for their children's educational attainment were positively linked to immigrant-origin children's academic performance in school. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed. PMID:24796154

Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Lee, Daphnee H L

2014-01-01

65

Academic performance and social competence of adolescents: predictions based on effortful control and empathy.  

PubMed

This study explored the predictive power of effortful control (EC) on empathy, academic performance, and social competence in adolescents. We obtained self-report measures of EC and dispositional empathy in 359 students (197 girls and 162 boys) aged between 12 and 14 years. Each student provided information about the prosocial behavior of the rest of his/her classmates and completed a sociogram. At the end of the school year, we calculated the mean grade of each student and the teacher responsible for each class completed a questionnaire on the academic skills of his/her students. The study confirmed the existence of a structural equation model (SEM) in which EC directly predicted academic performance and social competence. Additionally, empathic concern partially mediated the effect of EC on social competence. Finally, social competence significantly predicted academic performance. The article discusses the practical applications of the model proposed. PMID:24230950

Zorza, Juan P; Marino, Julián; de Lemus, Soledad; Acosta Mesas, Alberto

2013-01-01

66

Change in Strategy: The Relationship of Attribution, Expectancy, Performance, and Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the degree to which change in examination preparation for graduate statistics was related to measures of attribution, expectancy, prior performance, perceived success/failure, and satisfaction. Performance was the single best predictor of change in preparation. Three attribution measures and satisfaction contributed unique…

Chandler, Theodore A.; And Others

1982-01-01

67

Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults.  

PubMed

Research has shown that water supplementation positively affects cognitive performance in children and adults. The present study considered whether this could be a result of expectancies that individuals have about the effects of water on cognition. Forty-seven participants were recruited and told the study was examining the effects of repeated testing on cognitive performance. They were assigned either to a condition in which positive expectancies about the effects of drinking water were induced, or a control condition in which no expectancies were induced. Within these groups, approximately half were given a drink of water, while the remainder were not. Performance on a thirst scale, letter cancellation, digit span forwards and backwards and a simple reaction time task was assessed at baseline (before the drink) and 20 min and 40 min after water consumption. Effects of water, but not expectancy, were found on subjective thirst ratings and letter cancellation task performance, but not on digit span or reaction time. This suggests that water consumption effects on letter cancellation are due to the physiological effects of water, rather than expectancies about the effects of drinking water. PMID:23104227

Edmonds, Caroline J; Crombie, Rosanna; Ballieux, Haiko; Gardner, Mark R; Dawkins, Lynne

2013-01-01

68

Performance of Patients with Epilepsy or Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures on Four Measures of Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exaggeration of cognitive symptoms or poor effort on cognitive testing has been addressed primarily in the traumatic brain injury literature. The present investigation aims to extend the evaluation of effort to the epilepsy monitoring setting, where base rates of failure on effort testing remain unknown for patients with intractable epilepsy (ES), psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), or both conditions (ES+PNES). In

Dona E. Cragar; David T. R. Berry; Toufic A. Fakhoury; Jean E. Cibula; Frederick A. Schmitt

2006-01-01

69

Autonomy Support and Intrinsic Goal Progress Expectancy and Its Links to Longitudinal Study Effort and Subjective Wellbeing: The Differential Mediating Effect of Intrinsic and Identified Regulations and the Moderator Effects of Effort and Intrinsic Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors tested a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) process model of subjective wellbeing among students at Norwegian Folk High Schools. In this model the authors hypothesized that students' intrinsic goal progress expectancy in the chosen study activity and perceived autonomy support from teachers would be positively…

Waaler, Rune; Halvari, Halgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

2013-01-01

70

Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985-1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This 'multilateral' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125 mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125 mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250 C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government, and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

1992-05-01

71

Migration Expectations and Performances of Open-Country Young Adults: A Longitudinal Study, 1948-1956.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the migration expectations of a sample of 152 respondents interviewed while high school seniors in 1948 and reinterviewed in 1956 concerning their migration performances. The research was designed to test the general hypothesis that a relationship exists between certain social and personal characteristics and migration…

Yoesting, Dean R.; Bohlen, Joe M.

72

Students' Expectations: Ratings of Teacher Performance as Biased by Teachers' Physical Attractiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 21-item questionnaire was designed to determine the effects of teachers' sex, age and physical attractiveness on primary students' expectations of teacher performance. The questionnaire, administered to 144 third grade students, included photographs of male and female teachers who varied in age and physical attractiveness. The students were…

Irilli, Joseph P.; And Others

73

An Investigation of Student Expectation, Perceived Performance and Satisfaction of E-textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the use of e-textbooks in a college level introductory information systems course using an empirical study that gave students the option to buy electronic or print versions of the same textbook. The study measured and analyzed student expectations prior to purchase, perceived performance and satisfaction after use, intention to…

Philip, George C.; Moon, Soo-Young

2013-01-01

74

Social comparison and performance: Experimental evidence on the fair wage–effort hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the impact of wage comparisons for worker productivity. We present three studies which all use three-person gift-exchange experiments. Consistent with Akerlof and Yellen's (1990) fair wage–effort hypothesis we find that disadvantageous wage discrimination leads to lower efforts while advantageous wage discrimination does not increase efforts on average. Two studies allow us to measure wage comparison effects at the

Simon Gächter; Christian Thöni

2010-01-01

75

"Of Course I Will ...": The Combined Effect of Certainty and Level of Expectancies on Persistence and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of performance expectancies for the prediction of regulation of behavior and actual performance has long been established. Building on theories from the field of social cognition, we suggest that the level of performance expectancies, as well as the certainty of the expectancy, have a joint influence on an individual's beliefs and…

Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Englert, Chris

2011-01-01

76

Cloudy with a Chance of Sarcasm or Sunny with High Expectations: Using Best Practice Language to Strengthen Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What's the forecast in your classroom? Are you forecasting cloudy with a chance of sarcasm or sunny with high expectations? A teacher's Language of Practice holds the key to creating a climate of mutual respect in our schools. This article will explore the power and promise of "teacher language," and how it can be used to…

Holloman, Hal; Yates, Peggy H.

2013-01-01

77

On the evaluation of expected performance cost for partially observed closed-loop stochastic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New methods are presented for evaluating the expected performance cost of partially observed closed-loop stochastic systems. When the variances of the process statistics are small, a linearized model of the closed-loop stochastic system is defined for which the expected cost can be evaluated by recursion on a set of purely deterministic difference equations. When the variances of the process statistics are large, the linearized model can be used in the control variate method of variance reduction for reducing the number of sample paths required for effective Monte Carlo estimation.

Bayard, D. S.; Eslami, M.

1985-01-01

78

Performance Evaluation of General and Company Specific Models in Software Development Effort Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of our effort estimation analysis of a European Space Agency database consisting of 108 software development projects. We develop and evaluate simple empirical effort estimation models that include only those productivity factors found to be significant for these projects and determine if models based on a multicompany database can be successfully used to

Katrina Maxwell; Luk Van Wassenhove; Soumitra Dutta

1999-01-01

79

Leader Behavior: An Expectancy Theory Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Expectancy theory has found increasing use in the study of such variables as worker efforts, performance and satisfaction. The paper suggests some mathematical modifications of expectancy theory which extend its use to the prediction of leader behavior. D...

D. M. Nebeker T. R. Mitchell

1973-01-01

80

Influence of poor effort on neuropsychological test performance in U.S. military personnel following mild traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of poor effort on neuropsychological test performance in military personnel following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Participants were 143 U.S. service members who sustained a TBI, divided into three groups based on injury severity and performance on the Word Memory Test and four embedded markers of poor effort: MTBI-pass (n?=?87),

Rael T. Lange; Sonal Pancholi; Aditya Bhagwat; Victoria Anderson-Barnes; Louis M. French

2012-01-01

81

Multilevel performance probability: a meta-analytic integration of expectancy and self-efficacy.  

PubMed

A meta-analysis of one approach to measuring expectancy and self-efficacy was conducted. Although used for over 25 years, this measure has yet to be named or integrated across the two theoretical domains. We proposed to label this measure a Multilevel Performance Probability and conducted a meta-analysis. The search for empirical tests of expectancy and self-efficacy using this procedure yielded 16 studies with ratings which could be subjected to meta-analysis. Five studies with 8 tests were taken from expectancy studies and 11 studies with 47 tests from studies of self-efficacy. In total, the analyses involved 7,444 subjects across 55 tests of the Multilevel Performance Probability to performance relationship. Examination of the measure as a predictor of performance gave a mean r of .51 (p<.001) which is in the same direction and larger than values from other meta-analyses conducted within each of the two theoretical domains (rs of .21 and .38). PMID:11597056

Cady, S H; Boyd, D G; Neubert, M J

2001-06-01

82

Conducting research with non-clinical healthy undergraduates: does effort play a role in neuropsychological test performance?  

PubMed

Poor effort by examinees during neuropsychological testing has a profound effect on test performance. Although neuropsychological experiments often utilize healthy undergraduate students, the test-taking effort of this population has not been investigated previously. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether undergraduate students exercise variable effort in neuropsychological testing. During two testing sessions, participants (N = 36) were administered three Symptom Validity Tests (SVTs), the Test of Memory Malingering, the Dot Counting Test, and the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), along with various neuropsychological tests. Analyses revealed 55.6% of participants in Session 1 and 30.8% of participants in Session 2 exerted poor effort on at least one SVT. Poor effort on the SVTs was significantly correlated with poor performance on various neuropsychological tests and there was support for the temporal stability of effort. These preliminary results suggest that the base rate of suboptimal effort in a healthy undergraduate population is quite high. Accordingly, effort may serve as a source of variance in neuropsychological research when using undergraduate students. PMID:23027440

An, Kelly Y; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Joordens, Steve

2012-12-01

83

System Analysis of the Expected Electrodynamic Tether Performance for the ProSEDS Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some expected systems performance aspects of NASA's ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) electrodynamic (ED) tether mission after recently being required to lower its initial orbit from 360 km to 285 km. In addition, the ProSEDS tether, which has conductive and non-conductive sections, shortened its nonconductive section thereby reducing overall tether length from 15-km to 12-km long.

Keith R Fuhrhop; Brian E. Gilchrist; Nestor R. Voronka

84

Mood impact on effort-related cardiovascular reactivity depends on task context: Evidence from a task with an unfixed performance standard.  

PubMed

Gendolla and colleagues have consistently found that negative mood leads to higher effort-related cardiovascular reactivity than positive mood if performers can choose their own performance standard (Gendolla et al., 2001; Gendolla and Krüsken, 2001a, 2002a,b). However, an integration of motivational intensity theory with the mood literature suggests that the impact of mood on cardiovascular activity should vary with task context. In a 2 (task context: demand vs. reward)×2 (mood valence: negative vs. positive) between-persons design, participants performed a memory task without a fixed performance standard. The results showed the expected interaction. Positive mood led to higher effort mobilization-reflected by increased pre-ejection period and heart rate reactivity-than negative mood if participants had answered questions about task reward before performing the task. If participants had responded to questions about task demand, the pattern was reversed. These results extend and add to preceding research that has demonstrated that mood impact on effort-related cardiovascular activity is not stable but depends on task context. PMID:24814934

Richter, Michael; Knappe, Katja

2014-08-01

85

The dorsomedial striatum encodes net expected return, critical for energizing performance vigor  

PubMed Central

Decision making requires an actor to not only steer behavior towards specific goals, but also determine the optimal vigor of performance. Current research and models have largely focused on the former problem of how actions are directed, while overlooking the latter problem of how they are energized. Here, we designed a self-paced decision-making paradigm that showed that rats' performance vigor globally fluctuates with the net value of their options, suggesting that they maintain long-term estimates of the value of their current state. Lesions of the dorsomedial (DMS), and to a lesser degree, in the ventral striatum (VS) impaired such state-dependent modulation of vigor, rendering vigor to depend more exclusively on the outcomes of immediately preceding trials. The lesions, however, spared choice biases. Neuronal recordings showed that the DMS is enriched with net-value-coding neurons. In sum, the DMS encodes one's net expected return, which drives the general motivation to perform.

Wang, Alice Y.; Miura, Keiji; Uchida, Naoshige

2013-01-01

86

The Performance of Individuals with Mental Retardation on Cognitive Tests Assessing Effort and Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine which tests of effort and motivation would be appropriate for use with patients with mental retardation when feigning of cognitive deficits is suspected. The seven measures evaluated included the WMS-III Rarely Missed Index Test, forced-choice recognition portion of the California Verbal Learning Test-II, Reliable Digit Span test, Rey 15-Item Test, Rey Dot

Paul Marshall; Maggie Happe

2007-01-01

87

How Negative Expectancies and Attitudes Undermine Females' Math Confidence and Performance: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Females' underperformance in mathematics is discussed as a function of negative expectancies by parents, teachers, and peers. These negative expectancies of significant others lead to negative self-expectancies and negative attitudes about mathematics on the part of female students. These negative expectancies and attitudes lead to lower…

Gutbezahl, Jennifer

88

Effects of Imagery Training on Cognitive Performance and Use of Physiological Measures as an Assessment Tool of Mental Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of motor imagery training on cognitive performance was examined and the physiological mechanisms involved in the contribution of mental practice to motor learning were considered. The subject's mental effort during motor imagery was assessed by using psychophysiological measures and particularly eye blink activity as an…

Papadelis, Christos; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Albani, Maria

2007-01-01

89

Learner Involvement in Instruction on a Complex Cognitive Task: Application of a Composite Measure of Performance and Mental Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an application of a measure of learner involvement developed by Paas, Tuovinen, van Merrienboer, and Darabi (2005). These authors combined learners' performance scores with their perceived mental effort invested in instruction and used it to assess learner involvement in instructional conditions. The present study examines the…

Darabi, A. Aubteen; Nelson, David W.; Paas, Fred

2007-01-01

90

Attributional Bias Instrument (ABI): Validation of a Measure to Assess Ability and Effort Explanations for Math Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present work investigates the validation of a newly developed instrument, the attributional bias instrument, based on achievement attribution theories that distinguish between effort and ability explanations of behavior. The instrument further incorporates the distinction between explanations for success versus failure in academic performance.…

Espinoza, Penelope P.; Quezada, Stephanie A.; Rincones, Rodolfo; Strobach, E. Natalia; Gutierrez, Maria Armida Estrada

2012-01-01

91

The neural coding of expected and unexpected monetary performance outcomes: dissociations between active and observational learning.  

PubMed

Successful adaptation to the environment requires the learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations. Such associations can be learned actively by trial and error or by observing the behaviour and accompanying outcomes in other persons. The present study investigated similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of active and observational learning from monetary feedback using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two groups of 15 subjects each - active and observational learners - participated in the experiment. On every trial, active learners chose between two stimuli and received monetary feedback. Each observational learner observed the choices and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance as assessed via active test trials without feedback was comparable between groups. Different activation patterns were observed for the processing of unexpected vs. expected monetary feedback in active and observational learners, particularly for positive outcomes. Activity for unexpected vs. expected reward was stronger in the right striatum in active learning, while activity in the hippocampus was bilaterally enhanced in observational and reduced in active learning. Modulation of activity by prediction error (PE) magnitude was observed in the right putamen in both types of learning, whereas PE related activations in the right anterior caudate nucleus and in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were stronger for active learning. The striatum and orbitofrontal cortex thus appear to link reward stimuli to own behavioural reactions and are less strongly involved when the behavioural outcome refers to another person's action. Alternative explanations such as differences in reward value between active and observational learning are also discussed. PMID:22074898

Bellebaum, C; Jokisch, D; Gizewski, E R; Forsting, M; Daum, I

2012-02-01

92

The Interactive Effects of Conscientiousness, Work Effort, and Psychological Climate on Job Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, conscientiousness-performance relationships have been modest, suggesting the need to examine theoretically-relevant moderating variables. Based on theory and empirical research suggesting that performance variance is maximally predicted in the presence of person and situation variables, we examined the moderating potential of work…

Byrne, Zinta S.; Stoner, Jason; Thompson, Kenneth R.; Hochwarter, Wayne

2005-01-01

93

Intangible effort and performance: the case of the French wine industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates to what extent intangible investments have a positive impact on French wine companies' financial performance. French wine companies are small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), so the task is (a) to measure their intangible expenses and capital, and (b) to estimate their impact on companies' performances. The authors then analyze the effect of property structures (cooperatives and corporations)

Paul Amadieu; Jean-Laurent Viviani

2010-01-01

94

Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for targeted advertisement of student resources such as tutoring services. The students who are identified in the over-performing student population received higher grades than their fellow students, but spent less time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for honors programs, independent research projects, and peer-tutoring programs. Incorporating these evaluation criteria to online homework systems will allow instructors to quickly identify students in these academic student populations.

Perdian, David C.

2012-10-01

95

Expected Performance of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Solar-B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) is currently under development for flight on the Japanese Solar-B satellite. EIS uses a multilayer-coated off-axis telescope mirror and a multilayer-coated toroidal grating spectrometer to produce stigmatic spectra of solar regions isolated by a 1024 arcsec high slit. The instrument produces monochromatic images either by rastering the solar image across a narrow entrance slit or by using a very wide slit. Half of each optic is coated to optimize reflectance at 19.5 nm, and the other half to optimize reflectance at 27.0 nm, with each wavelength range imaged onto a separate CCD detector. In this presentation we provide an update on the EIS hardware development and show details of the expected performance of the instrument in solar quiet regions, active regions, and flares.

Mariska, J. T.; Brown, C. M.; Dere, K. P.; Doschek, G. A.; Korendyke, C. M.; Myers, S. H.; Seely, J. F.; Culhane, J. L.; Watanabe, T.

2003-05-01

96

Reflective Thinking, Effort, Persistence, Disorganization and Academic Performance: A Mediational Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This article reports on a two-phase study that was conducted looking at study processing strategies, reflective thinking practice, and academic performance. Phase I is a mediational analysis of conceptual model that we have developed involving examination of direct and mediating effects between the four phases of reflection (habitual…

Phan, Huy P.

2009-01-01

97

Vitamin B6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the effects of vitamin B-6 supplementation (20 mg pyridoxine HCL daily for 3 months) on mood and performance in 38 self-supporting healthy men, aged between 70–79 years. Effects were compared with 38 controls who received placebo and were matched for age, plasma pyridoxal-5?-phosphate (PLP) concentration and intelligence score. Before and after drug intervention vitamin B-6 status was

J. B. Deijen; E. J. van der Beek; J. F. Orlebeke; H. van den Berg

1992-01-01

98

Expected Performance and Initial Results From The 2001 Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (grs) Instrument Suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Odyssey Gamma -Ray Spectrometer (GRS) is a suite of three different instruments that share a common electronics box and complimentary scientific objectives. The instruments are the GRS proper, the Neutron Spectrometer (NS) and the High-Energy Neutron Detector (HEND). This instrument is a follow-on instrument to the GRS that was lost on the Mars Observer Mission in 1993. It is the last of the original seven Mars Observer instruments to get a Mars re-flight opportunity, and because of the long delay, it is the only one to be a new design. It is described in detail in Boynton et al. (2002). The NS was supplied by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the HEND was supplied by the Space Research Institute (Russia), and the central electronics box and the GRS proper was supplied by the University of Arizona, who also was responsible for the integration of the instrument suite. The GRS uses a cooled high-purity Ge detector to provide high spectral resolution, and it performed beautifully in flight. During cruise the resolution was 3.7 keV at 1332 keV (full-width at half maximum). This is substantially better than a good quality scintillation detector which would typically have a resolution of about 65 to 70 keV. We expect this excellent performance to allow us to determine the abundances of about 16 elements (Boynton et al. 1992). The two neutron systems have been collecting data since early January 2002, but the orbit and spacecraft orientation are not designed for quantitative data collection. We expect to be in the final mapping configuration in late February and will begin taking our science data at that time. Presently it is not clear when the orbit will be aligned such that the cooler on the gamma -ray detector will have sufficiently little sunlight on it that we can get cold enough to apply high voltage to the sensor and collect gamma data. We are hopeful to have interesting results to discuss at the meeting. References: Boynton, W. V. et al. (1992), J. Geophys. Res. 97:7681-7698. Boynton, W. V. et al. (2002), Space Sci. Rev. (In preparation).

Boynton, W. V.; Feldman, W. C.; Mitrofanov, I.; Trombka, J. I.; Arnold, J. R.; Englert, P. A. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Squyres, S. W.; D'Uston, C.; Wänke, H.; Brückner, J.; Drake, D. M.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R.; Shinohara, C.; Anderson, F. S.

99

Comparison of Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a comparison of Virginia's mathematics performance expectations with the common core state standards for mathematics. The comparison focuses on number and quantity, algebra, functions, geometry, and statistics and probability. (Contains 1 footnote.)

Virginia Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

100

Examination of Faculty Expectations of Technical College Administrators as an Important Factor in High Performing Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular thought supports the notion that faculty expectations of technical college administrators appear to be linked to the success or failure of an institution at accomplishing its mission. These expectations provide the basis for the development of relationships that foster the growth of technical training and thus the growth of a skilled…

Dupuis, Phyllis A.

2009-01-01

101

Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported. Detailed consideration of the effects of both the natural and induced ionizing radiation environment during ISS design, development, and flight operations has produced a safe, efficient manned space platform that is largely immune to deleterious effects of the LEO ionizing radiation environment. The assumption of a small shielding mass for purposes of design and verification has been shown to be a valid worst-case approximation approach to design for reliability, though predicted dependences of single event effect (SEE) effects on latitude, longitude, SEP events, and spacecraft structural shielding mass are not observed. The Figure of Merit (FOM) method over predicts the rate for median shielding masses of about 10g/cm(exp 2) by only a factor of 3, while the Scott Effective Flux Approach (SEFA) method overestimated by about one order of magnitude as expected. The Integral Rectangular Parallelepiped (IRPP), SEFA, and FOM methods for estimating on-orbit (Single Event Upsets) SEU rates all utilize some version of the CREME-96 treatment of energetic particle interaction with structural shielding, which has been shown to underestimate the production of secondary particles in heavily shielded manned spacecraft. The need for more work directed to development of a practical understanding of secondary particle production in massive structural shielding for SEE design and verification is indicated. In contrast, total dose estimates using CAD based shielding mass distributions functions and the Shieldose Code provided a reasonable accurate estimate of accumulated dose in Grays internal to the ISS pressurized elements, albeit as a result of using worst-on-worst case assumptions (500 km altitude x 2) that compensate for ignoring both GCR and secondary particle production in massive structural shielding.

Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

2005-01-01

102

Description and expected performance of flight-model, 12-gigahertz, output stage tube for the communications technology satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight model output stage tube for the Communications Technology Satellite is described. The output stage tube is a 12-GHz, 200-W, coupled cavity traveling wave tube. The tube has a multistage depressed collector for efficiency enhancement. Collector cooling is accomplished by direct radiation to space. Expected rf performance and factors affecting on orbit performance and life are discussed.

Chomos, G. J.; Curren, A. N.

1976-01-01

103

The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first…

Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

2013-01-01

104

The Imaging and Slitless Spectroscopy Instrument for Surveys (ISSIS): expected radiometric performance, operation modes and data handling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISSIS is the instrument for imaging and slitless spectroscopy on-board WSO-UV. In this article, a detailed comparison between ISSIS expected radiometric performance and other ultraviolet instruments is shown. In addition, we present preliminary information on the performance verification tests and on the foreseen procedures for in-flight operation and data handling.

Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Belén Perea, G.; Sánchez, Néstor; Santiago, Javier López; Chirivella, Jóse; Seijas, Juan

2014-04-01

105

An investigation of the patterns of self-efficacy, outcome expectation, outcome value, and performance across trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy, Bandura's concept of a central cognitive mediating belief, has been widely researched and found to play an important role in the initiation, persistence, and achievement of a variety of behaviors. Self-efficacy can be viewed as one aspect of expectancy-value theory, but little research has been conducted to identify the relationship between measures of self-efficacy and outcome expectation across performance

Thomas L. Sexton; Bruce W. Tuckman; Kevin Crehan

1992-01-01

106

What Are School Counselors Expected to Do? Alignment between Professional School Counselor Evaluations and Performance Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the alignment between Arizona public high school administrators' expectations of professional school counselors, the "ASCA National Model" (2005), and the instruments used in Arizona to evaluate professional school counselors. Participants included ten principals and assistant principals, and 103 of the 111 public school…

Nebe, Mary Bayly

2010-01-01

107

Motives, Expectations, Preparedness and Academic Performance: a Study of Students of Accounting at a Spanish University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the motives, expectations and preparedness of students is important for accounting educators, as they seek to develop learning environments that promote high quality learning outcomes. This paper examines these factors with a sample of entry level students on a Business and Management degree at a Spanish university. The study also explores the influence of these antecedent variables on academic

Jos L. Arquero; Marann Byrne; Jos Mara Gonzlez

2009-01-01

108

Expectancy of an open-book test decreases performance on a delayed closed-book test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined the influence of practice with, and the expectancy of, open-book tests (students viewed studied material while taking the test) versus closed-book tests (students completed the test without viewing the studied material) on delayed retention and transfer. Using GRE materials specifically designed for open-book testing, participants studied passages and then took initial open- or closed-book tests. Open-book testing

Pooja K. Agarwal; Henry L. Roediger III

2011-01-01

109

Effect of Test-Expectancy and Word Bank Availability on Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined test-expectancy as it applies to fill-in-the-blank tests. We randomly assigned 60 college students to take a fill-in-the-blank vocabulary test in one of three conditions. Two groups took the test with a word bank available; we told one group but not the other that they would have a word bank. The third group took the test with no word…

Glass, Laura A.; Clause, Christopher B.; Kreiner, David S.

2007-01-01

110

Defense Management: DOD Needs to Demonstrate That Performance-Based Logistics Contracts Are Achieving Expected Benefits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DOD program offices could not demonstrate that they have achieved cost savings or performance improvements through the use of performance-based logistics arrangements. Although DOD guidance on implementing these arrangements states program offices should ...

2005-01-01

111

Effects of Methylphenidate and Expectancy on ADHD Children's Performance, Self-Evaluations, Persistence, and Attributions on a Cognitive Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 0.3 mg\\/kg methylphenidate (MPH) and expectancy regarding medication on the performance and task persistence of 60 boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were investigated. In a balanced-placebo design, boys in 4 groups (received placebo\\/drug crossed with told placebo\\/drug) completed the task in success and failure conditions. Medication improved participants' task persistence following failure. Participants' task performance

William E. Pelham; Betsy Hoza; Heidi L. Kipp; Elizabeth M. Gnagy; Sarah T. Trane

1997-01-01

112

Audit Expectation?Performance Gap Revisited: Evidence from New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Part 1: The Gap in New Zealand and the United Kingdom in 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criticism of auditors and loss of confidence in their work result from auditors not meeting society's expectations of them; that is, from the audit expectation?performance gap. Prior research found this gap has three components: a reasonableness, deficient standards and deficient performance gap. In 2008, research was conducted to identify differences in the audit expectation?performance gap in the United Kingdom (UK)

Brenda Porter; Ciaran Ó hÓgartaigh; Rachel Baskerville

2012-01-01

113

The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

2005-01-01

114

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of current data and understanding of site characteristics at Yucca Mountain, the likely performance range of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel can be calculated. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1987-01-01

115

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current data and understanding about the site conditions at Yucca Mountain provide a basis for calculating the likely range of performance of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1984-01-01

116

Simple cavity-QED two-bit universal quantum logic gate: The principle and expected performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple scheme for a universal two-bit quantum logic gate using circular Rydberg atoms and a superconducting millimeter-wave cavity. We analyze in detail the performances of this gate, using the parameters of an experiment currently under way in our laboratory.

P. Domokos; J. M. Raimond; M. Brune; S. Haroche

1995-01-01

117

Site Effect and Expected Seismic Performance of Buildings in Palestine- Case Study: Nablus City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of local geology on ground-motion amplification and building damage were studied in Palestine-West Bank. Nakamura's method of microtremor analysis was applied in this study. The measurements showed significantly higher amplification in the frequency range of building vulnerability in different parts of Nablus city. This finding is consistent with the distribution of the earthquake damage grades in the urban areas struck by the 11 February 2004 earthquake (ML = 5.2) with a focal depth of 17 km beneath the northeastern part of the Dead Sea Basin. Quite large differences in amplification between around 1 and 9 were computed between the eastern and western rims of the city. The downtown built in the central part of the city on soft clay, marl and valley deposits, whereas the northern and southern parts of urban areas in Nablus city lying on mountains consist of consolidated carbonates bedrock. In the central part of the city and at the rims, where the thickness of fluvial deposits and soft formations is about 15 m, amplifications between 6.74 and 8.67 for dominant natural period range of 0.8-1.1 sec were obtained. On the southern and northern mountains, which are located on limestone rocks covered with a thin layer of soil, the amplification in the same frequency range was low. Calculating the natural period of the existing common buildings (Tb) in the studied area (buildings with 10-12 stories), by using the dynamic analysis method. The values of Tb obtained were much closed to the site dominant natural period (Ts). The findings of this study indicate that the expected differences in damage grades for urban areas in Nablus city could be attributed to variations in the thickness and physical properties of Tertiary-Quaternary sediments, which appear to be rather heterogeneous.

Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

2008-07-01

118

MANEMO Routing in Practice: Protocol Selection, Expected Performance, and Experimental Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the deployment of post-disaster MANEMO (MANET for NEMO) composed of mobile routers and stations, we evaluate two candidate routing protocols through network simulation, theoretical performance analysis, and field experiments. The first protocol is the widely adopted Optimized Link State Routing protocol (OLSR) and the second is the combination of the Tree Discovery Protocol (TDP) with Network In Node Advertisement (NINA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that these two protocols are compared in both theoretical and practical terms. We focus on the control overhead generated when mobile routers perform a handover. Our results confirm the correctness and operational robustness of both protocols. More interestingly, although in the general case OLSR leads to better results, TDP/NINA outperforms OLSR both in the case of sparse networks and in highly mobile networks, which correspond to the operation point of a large set of post-disaster scenarios.

Tazaki, Hajime; van Meter, Rodney; Wakikawa, Ryuji; Wongsaardsakul, Thirapon; Kanchanasut, Kanchana; Dias de Amorim, Marcelo; Murai, Jun

119

Federated or cached searches: providing expected performance from multiple invasive species databases  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive species are a universal global problem, but the information to identify them, manage them, and prevent invasions is stored around the globe in a variety of formats. The Global Invasive Species Information Network is a consortium of organizations working toward providing seamless access to these disparate databases via the Internet. A distributed network of databases can be created using the Internet and a standard web service protocol. There are two options to provide this integration. First, federated searches are being proposed to allow users to search “deep” web documents such as databases for invasive species. A second method is to create a cache of data from the databases for searching. We compare these two methods, and show that federated searches will not provide the performance and flexibility required from users and a central cache of the datum are required to improve performance.

Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Newman, Gregory J.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

120

Performance of the ITER ICRF Antenna plug as expected from TOPICA matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performances of the present ICRF antenna plug design is evaluated by means of the TOPICA 24×24 matrix for plasma loading supplemented by 4-port junction (4PJ) matrices. For their interpretation these results are compared with a cruder modeling by the semi-analytical code ANTITER II. From this analysis we conclude: (1) The broadbanding effect of the service stub on the response

A. Messiaen; R. Koch; P. Dumortier; F. Louche; R. Maggiora; D. Milanesio; R. Weynants

2009-01-01

121

Principles, operations, and expected performance of the LISA Pathfinder charge management system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The test masses of LISA Pathfinder are free flying and therefore not grounded to the spacecraft by a wire. Because of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and unknown microscopic surface effects during initial test mass release, an unacceptable level of absolute charge might be present on the test masses. A charged test mass can endanger transition to high accuracy control modes which are required for science experiments. Furthermore, charged test masses introduce unwanted disturbance accelerations for example due to Coulomb interactions with surrounding conducting surfaces. The charge management system is designed to discharge the test masses up to a tolerable level of absolute charge such that the mission goal can be achieved. It is therefore an essential part of the experiments to be performed with the LISA Technology Package. The paper describes charge management tasks to be performed on board the spacecraft and summarizes the principles of charge measurement and discharge control. An overview of the experiment operations is given where the interconnection of operational charge management system modes and operational modes of the drag-free, suspension and attitude control system is considered. Simulated performance results are presented.

Ziegler, T.; Fichter, W.; Schulte, M.; Vitale, S.

2009-03-01

122

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the random integer command on their graphing calculators to simulate rolling a die. They will then use operations on lists to analyze the probability of rolling the first 1 on the 1st roll, 2nd roll, and so on and finally find the expected value. Teacher notes explain in detail how to perform these actions on the graphing calculator.

2008-10-17

123

Detector response of GSC/MAXI and its expected performance in orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image(MAXI) is an X-ray all sky monitor, which will be attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS) around the year 2008. MAXI carries two types of scientific instruments. The Gas Slit Camera(GSC) consists of twelve Xe filled one-dimensional position sensitive gas proportional counters sensitive to X-ray in 2-30 keV band. The Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC) is a set of X-ray CCD arrays sensitive to 0.5-10 keV photons. Both detectors are utilized in combination with a slit and orthogonally arranged collimator plates to produce one-dimensional X-ray images along sky great circles. The instruments are now under fabrication and preflight testing. A detector response matrix (DRM) of GSC is also under development phase based on flight model calibration tests for counters and collimators. MAXI's overall performance depends on not only hardware characteristics but on the fact that the field-of-view changes in time even during observations. To study this complicated situation, we are developing a software, DRM builder, and also a simulation software to evaluate "realistic" performance of GSC in ISS orbits.

Tsuchiya, Y.; Yoshida, A.; Yamaoka, K.; Arakuni, T.; Miyakawa, T.; Matsuoka, M.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Yokota, T.; Kawasaki, K.; Kuramata, N.; Katayama, H.; Morii, M.; Mihara, T.; Nakajima, M.; Isobe, N.; Kohama, M.; Tsunemi, H.; Miyata, E.; Kawai, N.; Kataoka, J.; Negoro, H.

2005-08-01

124

Thermal Performance Expectations of the Advanced Stirling Convertor Over a Range of Operating Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) will enable various missions such as small body sample return, atmospheric missions around Venus, as well as long - duration deep space missions. Analysis of the temperature distributions are performed on an Advanced Stirling Convertor, and the results are compared with available experimental measurements. This analysis includes applied environmental conditions that are similar to those that will be experienced while the convertor is in operation. The applied conditions represent a potential mission profile including pre-takeoff sterilization, launch, transit, and return. The results focus on the anticipated peak temperatures of the magnets in the linear alternator. These results confirm that the ASC can support future missions to deep space targets, extreme environment landers, as well as more conventional goals.

Reid, Terry V.; Dyson, Rodger W.

2010-01-01

125

MIMA, a miniaturized Fourier infrared spectrometer for Mars ground exploration: Part I. Concept and expected performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Infrared MApper (MIMA) is a FT-IR miniaturised spectrometer which is being developed for ESA ExoMars Pasteur mission. The Martian Infrared MApper Fourier Spectrometer is designed to provide remote measurements of mineralogy and atmosphere of the scene surrounding a Martian rover and guide it to key targets for detailed in situ measurements by other rover experiments. Among the main scientific objectives of the MIMA instrument are to assist the rover in rock/soils selection for further in-situ investigation and to identify rocks and soils on the Martian surface which provide evidence of past/present biological activity. The instrument is also designed to measure the water vapour abundance and vertical distribution and its diurnal and seasonal variation, dust opacity, optical properties, composition, diurnal and seasonal variation. The instrument is a double pendulum interferometer providing spectra in the 2 - 25 ?m wavelength domain with a resolving power of 1000 at 2 ?m and 80 at 25 ?m. The radiometric performances are SNR > 40 in the near infrared and a NEDe = 0.002 in the thermal region. The instrument design is very compact, with a total mass of 1kg and an average power consumption of 5 W.

Bellucci, G.; Saggin, B.; Fonti, S.; Biondi, D.; Cerulli, P.; De Luca, M.; Altieri, F.; Mattana, A.; Alberti, E.; Marzo, G.; Zasova, L.

2007-10-01

126

Performance of the ITER ICRF Antenna plug as expected from TOPICA matrices  

SciTech Connect

The performances of the present ICRF antenna plug design is evaluated by means of the TOPICA 24x24 matrix for plasma loading supplemented by 4-port junction (4PJ) matrices. For their interpretation these results are compared with a cruder modeling by the semi-analytical code ANTITER II. From this analysis we conclude: (1) The broadbanding effect of the service stub on the response of the 4PJ made for one triplet is maintained for the complete array for all the heating and current drive phasings. (2) For a given maximum voltage of the 8 feeding lines the radiated power capability is roughly constant in the entire frequency band. (3) The power capability of the array is significantly dependent on the distance of the antenna to the Last Closed Flux Surface, the density profile in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and on the toroidal and poloidal phasings. The dependence on phasing is stronger for wider SOL (4) For a not too optimistic plasma density profile (Sc2 shortl7) a power capability exceeding 20 MW is only obtained for the 00 {pi}{pi} heating toroidal phasing and for the co-current drive phasing in the upper part of the frequency band for a maximum voltage in the complete system of 45 kV. (5), On account of the plasma gyrotropy the quadrature poloidal phasing introduced by hybrid feeding must excite waves propagating upwards in the ITER configuration to obtain the best coupling, (6) The large power capability difference between opposite current drive phasings is attributed to the coupling between the toroidal and poloidal phasings induced by the poloidal steady magnetic field.

Messiaen, A.; Koch, R.; Dumortier, P.; Louche, F.; Weynants, R. [LPP-ERM/KMS, EURATOM-Belgian State Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Brussels (Belgium); Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino,, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Torino (Italy)

2009-11-26

127

Self- and Teacher Expectancy Effects on Academic Performance of College Students Enrolled in an Academic Reinforcement Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self- and teacher expectancy effects on the academic achievement of black college freshmen in an academic reinforcement program were investigated. Results indicated more significant self-expectancy effects than teacher expectancy effects on achievement. (Author/DWH)

Haynes, Norris M.; Johnson, Sylvia T.

1983-01-01

128

Expectancy Theory Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An objective of this effort was to reformulate expectancy theory in organizational behavior in objective terms and measurable concepts, employing sound multivariate models. Although a vast amount of literature in organizational behavior has been generated...

P. Horst

1982-01-01

129

Modeling and Evaluating Pilot Performance in NextGen: Review of and Recommendations Regarding Pilot Modeling Efforts, Architectures, and Validation Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NextGen operations are associated with a variety of changes to the national airspace system (NAS) including changes to the allocation of roles and responsibilities among operators and automation, the use of new technologies and automation, additional information presented on the flight deck, and the entire concept of operations (ConOps). In the transition to NextGen airspace, aviation and air operations designers need to consider the implications of design or system changes on human performance and the potential for error. To ensure continued safety of the NAS, it will be necessary for researchers to evaluate design concepts and potential NextGen scenarios well before implementation. One approach for such evaluations is through human performance modeling. Human performance models (HPMs) provide effective tools for predicting and evaluating operator performance in systems. HPMs offer significant advantages over empirical, human-in-the-loop testing in that (1) they allow detailed analyses of systems that have not yet been built, (2) they offer great flexibility for extensive data collection, (3) they do not require experimental participants, and thus can offer cost and time savings. HPMs differ in their ability to predict performance and safety with NextGen procedures, equipment and ConOps. Models also vary in terms of how they approach human performance (e.g., some focus on cognitive processing, others focus on discrete tasks performed by a human, while others consider perceptual processes), and in terms of their associated validation efforts. The objectives of this research effort were to support the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in identifying HPMs that are appropriate for predicting pilot performance in NextGen operations, to provide guidance on how to evaluate the quality of different models, and to identify gaps in pilot performance modeling research, that could guide future research opportunities. This research effort is intended to help the FAA evaluate pilot modeling efforts and select the appropriate tools for future modeling efforts to predict pilot performance in NextGen operations.

Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Keller, John; Peters, Steve; Small, Ronald; Hutchins, Shaun; Algarin, Liana; Gore, Brian Francis; Hooey, Becky Lee; Foyle, David C.

2013-01-01

130

An Investigation of the Effects of Self-Adapted Testing on Examinee Effort and Performance in a Low-Stakes Achievement Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a variety of situations in which low-stakes achievement tests--which are defined as those having few or no consequences for examinee performance--are used in applied measurement. A problem inherent in such testing is that we often cannot assume that all examinees give their best effort to their test, which suggests that the test scores…

Wise, Steven L.; Owens, Kara M.; Yang, Sheng-Ta; Weiss, Brandi; Kissel, Hilary L.; Kong, Xiaojing; Horst, Sonia J.

2005-01-01

131

Positive and Negative Self-Perceptions: Is There a Cyclical Relationship between Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Effort, Strategy Use, and Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was part of a larger research program designed to investigate how effort interacts with strategy use to mediate the academic performance of successful students with learning disabilities (LD) and how teachers' and students' perceptions influence these relationships. The sample consisted of 46 students with LD and 46 matched students…

Meltzer, Lynn; Reddy, Ranjini; Pollica, Laura Sales; Roditi, Bethany; Sayer, Julie; Theokas, Christina

2004-01-01

132

Positive and Negative Self-Perceptions: Is There a Cyclical Relationship Between Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Effort, Strategy Use, and Academic Performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was part of a larger research program designed to investigate how effort interacts with strategy use to mediate the academic performance of successful students with learning disabilities (LD) and how teachers' and students' perceptions influence these relationships. The sample consisted of 46 students with LD and 46 matched students without LD and their seven teachers from Grades 6-8.

Lynn Meltzer; Ranjini Reddy; Laura Sales Pollica; Bethany Roditi; Julie Sayer; Christina Theokas

2004-01-01

133

A Reputation for Success (or Failure): The Association of Peer Academic Reputations With Academic Self-Concept, Effort, and Performance Across the Upper Elementary Grades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations between children's academic reputations among peers and their academic self-concept, effort, and performance were examined in a longitudinal study of 427 students initially enrolled in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Assessments were completed in the fall and spring of 2 consecutive school years and in the fall of a 3rd school year. Peer academic reputation (PAR) correlated moderately

Scott D. Gest; Kelly L. Rulison; Alice J. Davidson; Janet A. Welsh

2008-01-01

134

Effects of Social-Psychological Factors on Creative Performance: The Role of Informational and Controlling Expected Evaluation and Modeling Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of two social-psychological factors, expected evaluation and modeling, on creativity was investigated in a laboratory study. The controlling and informational aspects of expected evaluation were manipulated and individuals were provided no example, a standard example, or a creative example of a solution to a representative management problem. As expected, individuals had significantly higher creativity and intrinsic motivation when

Christina E. Shalley; Jill E. Perry-Smith

2001-01-01

135

A longitudinal multilevel model analysis of the within-person and between-person effect of effortful engagement and academic self-efficacy on academic performance.  

PubMed

Using data from an accelerated longitudinal study, we examined the within-person and between-person effect of effortful engagement and academic self-efficacy on academic performance across students (N=135) in elementary school. Teachers assessed participants' effortful engagement and participants rated their academic self-efficacy once per year for 3years. Academic performance was assessed through standardized test scores in reading and math. Multilevel models indicated that within-person change in Effortful Engagement and Academic Self-Efficacy scores significantly predicted concomitant within-person change in reading test scores, B=2.71, p=.043, Pseudo-R(2)=.02 and B=4.72, p=.005, Pseudo-R(2)=.04, respectively. Participants with higher between-person levels of Effortful Engagement had higher initial reading test scores, B=10.03, p=.001, Pseudo-R(2)=.09, and math test scores, B=11.20, p<.001, Pseudo-R(2)=.15, whereas participants with higher between-person levels of Academic Self-Efficacy showed a faster rate of increase in math test scores across elementary school, B=10.21, p=.036, Pseudo-R(2)=.25. At the between-person level, Effortful Engagement mediated the association between Academic Self-Efficacy and both reading and math test scores, although no support was found for mediation at the within-person level. Collectively, results suggest that trait-level psychological factors can vary meaningfully within school-aged children and that both within-person change and between-person individual differences in these traits have important consequences for academic performance. PMID:24930821

Galla, Brian M; Wood, Jeffrey J; Tsukayama, Eli; Har, Kim; Chiu, Angela W; Langer, David A

2014-06-01

136

The effect of breathing an ambient low-density, hyperoxic gas on the perceived effort of breathing and maximal performance of exercise in well-trained athletes  

PubMed Central

Background The role of the perception of breathing effort in the regulation of performance of maximal exercise remains unclear. Aims To determine whether the perceived effort of ventilation is altered through substituting a less dense gas for normal ambient air and whether this substitution affects performance of maximal incremental exercise in trained athletes. Methods Eight highly trained cyclists (mean SD) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)?=?69.9 (7.9) (mlO2/kg/min) performed two randomised maximal tests in a hyperbaric chamber breathing ambient air composed of either 35% O2/65% N2 (nitrox) or 35% O2/65% He (heliox). A ramp protocol was used in which power output was incremented at 0.5?W/s. The trials were separated by at least 48?h. The perceived effort of breathing was obtained via Borg Category Ratio Scales at 3?min intervals and at fatigue. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and minute ventilation (VE) were monitored continuously. Results Breathing heliox did not change the sensation of dyspnoea: there were no differences between trials for the Borg scales at any time point. Exercise performance was not different between the nitrox and heliox trials (peak power output?=?451 (58) and 453 (56)?W), nor was VO2max (4.96 (0.61) and 4.88 (0.65)?l/min) or maximal VE (157 (24) and 163 (22)?l/min). Between?trial variability in peak power output was less than either VO2max or maximal VE. Conclusion Breathing a less dense gas does not improve maximal performance of exercise or reduce the perception of breathing effort in highly trained athletes, although an attenuated submaximal tidal volume and VE with a concomitant reduction in VO2 suggests an improved gas exchange and reduced O2 cost of ventilation when breathing heliox.

Ansley, L; Petersen, D; Thomas, A; Gibson, A St Clair; Robson-Ansley, P; Noakes, T D

2007-01-01

137

Buoyancy under Control: Underwater Locomotor Performance in a Deep Diving Seabird Suggests Respiratory Strategies for Reducing Foraging Effort  

PubMed Central

Background Because they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag) and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth. Methodology/Principal Findings Using accelerometers, we show that during both the descent and ascent phases of dives, shags modelled their acceleration and stroking activity on the natural variation of buoyancy with depth. For example, during the descent phase, birds increased swim speed with depth. But in parallel, and with a decay constant similar to the one in the equation explaining the decrease of buoyancy with depth, they decreased foot-stroke frequency exponentially, a behaviour that enables birds to reduce oxygen consumption. During ascent, birds also reduced locomotor cost by ascending passively. We considered the depth at which they started gliding as a proxy to their depth of neutral buoyancy. This depth increased with maximum dive depth. As an explanation for this, we propose that shags adjust their buoyancy to depth by varying the amount of respiratory air they dive with. Conclusions/Significance Calculations based on known values of stored body oxygen volumes and on deep-diving metabolic rates in avian divers suggest that the variations of volume of respiratory oxygen associated with a respiration mediated buoyancy control only influence aerobic dive duration moderately. Therefore, we propose that an advantage in cormorants - as in other families of diving seabirds - of respiratory air volume adjustment upon diving could be related less to increasing time of submergence, through an increased volume of body oxygen stores, than to reducing the locomotor costs of buoyancy control.

Cook, Timothee R.; Kato, Akiko; Tanaka, Hideji; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Bost, Charles-Andre

2010-01-01

138

Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg?1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (?3.9% ± 1.6% and ?4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (?3.0% ± 1.3% and ?2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

2014-01-01

139

Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in acute improvements in mood and cognitive performance during sustained mental effort.  

PubMed

Cocoa flavanols (CF) positively influence physiological processes in ways that suggest their consumption may improve aspects of cognitive function. This study investigated the acute cognitive and subjective effects of CF consumption during sustained mental demand. In this randomized, controlled, double-blinded, balanced, three period crossover trial 30 healthy adults consumed drinks containing 520 mg, 994 mg CF and a matched control, with a three-day washout between drinks. Assessments included the state anxiety inventory and repeated 10-min cycles of a Cognitive Demand Battery comprising of two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Serial Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task and a 'mental fatigue' scale, over the course of 1 h. Consumption of both 520 mg and 994 mg CF significantly improved Serial Threes performance. The 994 mg CF beverage significantly speeded RVIP responses but also resulted in more errors during Serial Sevens. Increases in self-reported 'mental fatigue' were significantly attenuated by the consumption of the 520 mg CF beverage only. This is the first report of acute cognitive improvements following CF consumption in healthy adults. While the mechanisms underlying the effects are unknown they may be related to known effects of CF on endothelial function and blood flow. PMID:19942640

Scholey, Andrew B; French, Stephen J; Morris, Penelope J; Kennedy, David O; Milne, Anthea L; Haskell, Crystal F

2010-10-01

140

Performance Evaluation of a Multiplex Assay for Future Use in Biomarker Discovery Efforts to Predict Body Composition  

PubMed Central

Background Interest in biomarker patterns and disease has led to the development of immunoassays that evaluate multiple analytes in parallel with little sample. However, there are no current standards for multiplex configuration, validation, and quality, thus, validation by platform, population, and question of interest is recommended. We sought to determine the best blood fraction for multiplex evaluation of circulating biomarkers in postmenopausal women and to explore body composition phenotype discrimination by biomarkers. Methods Archived serum and plasma samples from a sample of healthy postmenopausal women with the highest (n=9) and lowest (n=11) percent lean mass, by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, were used to measure 90 analytes by bead-based, suspension multiplex assays. Replicates of serum and plasma were analyzed in a random selection of 4 of these individuals. Results Ninety-percent of the analytes were detectable for ?50% of samples; when limited to these well detected analytes, mean replicate correlations for serum and plasma were 0.87and 0.85 respectively. Serum had lower error rates discriminating phenotypes; 7 serum versus 2 plasma analytes discriminated extreme body phenotypes. Conclusion Serum and plasma performed similarly for the majority of the analytes. Serum demonstrated a slight advantage in predicting extreme body composition phenotypes in postmenopausal women using parallel evaluation of analytes.

Bea, Jennifer W.; Wright, Nicole C.; Thompson, Patricia; Hu, Chengcheng; Guerra, Stefano; Chen, Zhao

2012-01-01

141

Rational Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rational Expectations was set up by Ralph Lazar, former strategist and economist for Goldman Sachs, Barings & Credit Suisse First Boston, as a "resource for anyone interested in [emerging markets] economics -- students, teachers, lecturers, journalists, professionals, or just the curious." A fully comprehensive guide to the people, places, and events of the economics world, Rational Expectations includes an searchable database of over 1,000 organizations and institutions in OECD countries and emerging markets, a conference calendar, and job listings. The site also links to academic, professional, and government organizations, as well as a huge suggested publication list and macroeconomic and financial market data. Rational Expectations will be a welcome resource for anyone interested in emerging markets economics.

Lazar, Ralph.

142

Great Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how some universities are proactively looking to improve, enhance, and increase student housing on-campus through new and renovated residence halls that meet and exceed the expectations of today's students. Renovation improvements related to maximizing security, enhancing a homelike environment; developing a sense of community, and…

Smith, Jana J.

2000-01-01

143

What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

Keeley, Thomas Allen

2010-01-01

144

Performance expectations for future moderate resolution visible and infrared space instruments based on AIRS and MODIS in-flight experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lessons learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) projects highlight areas where further technology development is needed to address future land, ocean and atmospheric measurement needs. Although not established as requirements at this time, it is anticipated that scientists will expect improvements in the areas of spatial, spectral, radiometric, polarimetric, temporal and calibration

Thomas S. Pagano; Steven E. Broberg; H. Aumann; Richard L. Baron

145

Performance expectations for future moderate resolution visible and infrared space instruments based on AIRS and MODIS in-flight experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lessons learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) projects highlight areas where further technology development is needed to address future land, ocean and atmospheric measurement needs. Although not established as requirements at this time, it is anticipated that scientists will expect improvements in the areas of spatial, spectral, radiometric, polarimetric, temporal and calibration

Thomas S. Pagano; Steven E. Broberg; Hartmut H. Aumann; Richard L. Baron

2005-01-01

146

The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the model. Motivation variables did account for a portion of the variance in performance, but not in the ways predicted. Increasing the number of subjects in each group and adding the following variables to the model would clarify the role that motivation plays in performance: realistic self-appraisal; perceived competition; and elaboration, organization, and rehearsal strategies. Based on results, the following interventions were recommended to increase undergraduate science performance: assessment in realistic self-appraisal of science skills; instruction in elaboration and organization strategies; and encouragement of intrinsic interest in science.

Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

147

A Comprehensive Expectancy Motivation Model: Implications for Adult Education and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive Expectancy Motivation Model is based on valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory. It describes expectancy motivation as part of a larger process that includes past experience, motivation, effort, performance, reward, and need satisfaction. The model has significant implications for the design, marketing, and delivery of adult…

Howard, Kenneth W.

1989-01-01

148

Teacher Reactions to the Performance-Based Bonus Program: How the Expectancy Theory Works in the South Korean School Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted in order to examine how and to what extent the implementation of the performance-based bonus program in South Korean schools has motivated teachers to improve their behavior, as well as to identify any other positive or negative effects of the program. Interviews with teachers indicated that a large percentage of teachers…

Ha, Bong-Woon; Sung, Youl-Kwan

2011-01-01

149

The Effect of Dictionary Usage on EFL Test Performance Compared with Student and Teacher Attitudes and Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies, carried out independently at Ben Gurion University and at Haifa University, tested students of comparable English proficiency who were enrolled in similar courses of English reading comprehension. The studies were carried out to investigate the effect of dictionary use in examinations on students' test performance. In the study at…

Bensoussan, Marsha; And Others

150

Simulation of the expected performance of a seamless scanner for brain PET based on highly pixelated CdTe detectors.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is the evaluation of the design for a nonconventional PET scanner, the voxel imaging PET (VIP), based on pixelated room-temperature CdTe detectors yielding a true 3-D impact point with a density of 450 channels/cm(3), for a total 6 336 000 channels in a seamless ring shaped volume. The system is simulated and evaluated following the prescriptions of the NEMA NU 2-2001 and the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results show that the excellent energy resolution of the CdTe detectors (1.6% for 511 keV photons), together with the small voxel pitch (1 × 1 × 2 mm(3)), and the crack-free ring geometry, give the design the potential to overcome the current limitations of PET scanners and to approach the intrinsic image resolution limits set by physics. The VIP is expected to reach a competitive sensitivity and a superior signal purity with respect to values commonly quoted for state-of-the-art scintillating crystal PETs. The system can provide 14 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 3.95% and 21 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 0.73% according to NEMA NU 2-2001 and NEMA NU 4-2008, respectively. The calculated NEC curve has a peak value of 122 kcps at 5.3 kBq/mL for NEMA NU 2-2001 and 908 kcps at 1.6 MBq/mL for NEMA NU 4-2008. The proposed scanner can achieve an image resolution of ~ 1 mm full-width at half-maximum in all directions. The virtually noise-free data sample leads to direct positive impact on the quality of the reconstructed images. As a consequence, high-quality high-resolution images can be obtained with significantly lower number of events compared to conventional scanners. Overall, simulation results suggest the VIP scanner can be operated either at normal dose for fast scanning and high patient throughput, or at low dose to decrease the patient radioactivity exposure. The design evaluation presented in this work is driving the development and the optimization of a fully operative prototype to prove the feasibility of the VIP concept. PMID:24108750

Mikhaylova, Ekaterina; De Lorenzo, Gianluca; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Kolstein, Machiel; Cañadas, Mario; Arce, Pedro; Calderón, Yonatan; Uzun, Dilber; Ariño, Gerard; Macias-Montero, José Gabriel; Martinez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles; Cabruja, Enric

2014-02-01

151

Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Health workers’ motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers’ experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers’ motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers attesting to the importance of the salary for motivation. Lessons learned from OPRAS can be utilized in the implementation of P4P and can enhance our knowledge on motivation and performance in the health services in low-income contexts such as Tanzania.

2012-01-01

152

Predicting Student Achievement for Low Stakes Tests with Effort and Task Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated motivation for taking low stakes tests. Based on expectancy-value theory, we expected that the effect of student perceptions of three task values (interest, usefulness, and importance) on low stakes test performance would be mediated by the student's reported effort. We hypothesized that all three task value components would play a…

Cole, James S.; Bergin, David A.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.

2008-01-01

153

Effort and valuation in the brain: The effects of anticipation and execution  

PubMed Central

Neural representations of the effort deployed in performing actions, and the valence of the outcomes they yield, form the foundation of action choice. To discover whether brain areas represent effort and outcome valence together, or whether they represent one but not the other, we examined these variables in an explicitly orthogonal way. We did this by asking human subjects to exert one of two levels of effort to improve their chances of either winning, or avoiding the loss of, money. Subjects responded faster both when exerting greater effort and when exerting effort in anticipation of winning money. Using fMRI we inspected BOLD responses during anticipation (before any action was executed) and when the outcome was delivered. In this way we indexed BOLD signals associated with an anticipated need to exert effort and its affective consequences, as well as the effect of executed effort on the representation of outcomes. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsal striatum (dorsal putamen) signalled the anticipation of effort, independent of the prospect of winning or losing. Activity in ventral striatum (ventral putamen) was greater for better than expected outcomes compared to worse than expected outcomes, an effect attenuated in the context of having exerted greater effort. Our findings provide evidence that neural representations of anticipated actions are sensitive to the expected demands but not to the expected value of their consequence, whereas representations of outcome value are discounted by exertion, commensurate with an integration of cost and benefit so as to approximate net value.

Kurniawan, I.T.; Guitart-Masip, M.; Dayan, P.; Dolan, R. J.

2013-01-01

154

Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Non-Clinical Children: Relationships with Self-Report and Performance-Based Measures of Attention and Effortful Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control, and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8-12 years. For this purpose, children completed self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological…

Muris, Peter; van der Pennen, Els; Sigmond, Rianne; Mayer, Birgit

2008-01-01

155

NASA Efforts on Nanotechnology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the field of nanotechnology within the theme of "New efforts in Nanotechnology Research," will be presented. NASA's interest, requirements and current efforts in this emerging field will be discussed. In particular, NASA efforts to develop nanoelectronic devices, fuel cells, and other applications of interest using this novel technology by collaborating with academia will be addressed. Progress on current collaborations in this area with the University of Puerto Rico will be highlighted.

Miranda, Felix A.

2003-01-01

156

The effort heuristic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presented here suggests that effort is used as a heuristic for quality. Participants rating a poem (Experiment 1), a painting (Experiment 2), or a suit of armor (Experiment 3) provided higher ratings of quality, value, and liking for the work the more time and effort they thought it took to produce. Experiment 3 showed that the use of

Justin Kruger; Derrick Wirtz; Leaf Van Boven; T. William Altermatt

2004-01-01

157

Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Non-clinical Children: Relationships with Self-report and Performance-based Measures of Attention and Effortful Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control,\\u000a and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8–12 years. For this purpose, children completed\\u000a self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression,\\u000a and aggression) and were tested with a neuropsychological battery for

Peter Muris; Els van der Pennen; Rianne Sigmond; Birgit Mayer

2008-01-01

158

Changes in the spectral power and coherence of the EEG alpha rhythm in humans performing grasp efforts by the right and left arm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared changes in the EEG indices in healthy dextral volunteers performing static force grasps by the arm. Three test\\u000a modes were used: (i) performance of two successive grasps by the dominant (right) arm (test A), (ii) performance of two successive\\u000a grasps by the subdominant (left) arm (test B), and (iii) performance of the grasps first by the right arm

E. P. Man’kovskaya

2006-01-01

159

DETECTION OF TRANSITING JOVIAN EXOPLANETS BY GAIA PHOTOMETRY-EXPECTED YIELD  

SciTech Connect

Several attempts have been made in the past to assess the expected number of exoplanetary transits that the Gaia space mission will detect. In this Letter, we use the updated design of Gaia and its expected performance and apply recent empirical statistical procedures to provide a new assessment. Depending on the extent of the follow-up effort that will be devoted, we expect Gaia to detect from a few hundreds to a few thousands of transiting exoplanets.

Dzigan, Yifat; Zucker, Shay, E-mail: yifatdzigan@gmail.com, E-mail: shayz@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Geophysical, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2012-07-01

160

Effort-based cost-benefit valuation and the human brain  

PubMed Central

In both the wild and the laboratory, animals' preferences for one course of action over another reflect not just reward expectations but also the cost in terms of effort that must be invested in pursuing the course of action. The ventral striatum and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACCd) are implicated in the making of cost-benefit decisions in the rat but there is little information about how effort costs are processed and influence calculations of expected net value in other mammals including the human. We carried out a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to determine whether and where activity in the human brain was available to guide effort-based cost-benefit valuation. Subjects were scanned while they performed a series of effortful actions to obtain secondary reinforcers. At the beginning of each trial, subjects were presented with one of eight different visual cues which they had learned indicated how much effort the course of action would entail and how much reward could be expected at its completion. Cue-locked activity in the ventral striatum and midbrain reflected the net value of the course of action, signaling the expected amount of reward discounted by the amount of effort to be invested. Activity in ACCd also reflected the interaction of both expected reward and effort costs. Posterior orbitofrontal and insular activity, however, only reflected the expected reward magnitude. The ventral striatum and anterior cingulate cortex may be the substrate of effort-based cost-benefit valuation in primates as well as in rats.

Croxson, Paula L; Walton, Mark E; O'Reilly, Jill X; Behrens, Timothy EJ; Rushworth, Matthew FS

2010-01-01

161

The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort  

SciTech Connect

The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

Brown, K.D.

1995-01-01

162

International aerospaceplane efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the U.S. began the first reusable space booster effort in the late 1950's, it is no longer an exclusive field. All of the technologically advanced nations, and several groups of nations, have one or more reusable booster efforts in progress. A listing of the entries in the field is presented. The list is somewhat misleading, because it includes both fully reusable and partially reusable boosters, both manned and unmanned, and both flight test and operational proposals. Additionally, not all of the projects are funded, and only a few of the projects will survive. The most likely candidates are the following: France/ESA, Germany/ESA, Great Britain/ESA/(USSR), USSR(past), and Japan. A discussion of the preceding projects is provided.

Lindley, Charles A.

1992-01-01

163

TIMS performance evaluation summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this effort was to investigate the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) operation under various conditions to determine what effect, if any, there is on the TIMS performance. This effort was undertaken because of reports from investigators that the TIMS is not performing as expected when flown on the ARC C-130. This effort was initiated with a meeting at Stennis Space Center (SSC) with representatives from SSC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and ARC.

Spiering, Bruce; Meeks, G.; Anderson, J.; Jaggi, S.; Kuo, S.

1992-01-01

164

Personal effort in social relationships across adulthood.  

PubMed

We explored age differences in the amount of personal effort that people put forth to maintain relationships across adulthood in diverse family-life contexts. More specifically, we examined how personal effort in social relationships is age-differently related to emotional closeness and perceptions of reciprocity. A total of 658 early-midlife (37 years) and old-age adults (73 years) from three life contexts (biological parents, parents from blended families with at least one stepchild, childless individuals) completed a questionnaire assessing ego-centered social networks, relationship quality, perceived conflict, and personal characteristics. As expected, perceived relationship effort was more pronounced and more strongly associated with emotional closeness in old age than in early midlife. In both age groups, perceived effort was comparably associated with reciprocity and conflict. Such associations were similar across the different life contexts. The findings suggest that perceived personal effort in social relationships contributes to the proactive shaping of social worlds across adulthood. PMID:23586359

Lang, Frieder R; Wagner, Jenny; Wrzus, Cornelia; Neyer, Franz J

2013-06-01

165

Navy superconductivity efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

Gubser, D. U.

1990-01-01

166

Lifetime reproductive effort.  

PubMed

In a 1966 American Naturalist article, G. C. Williams initiated the study of reproductive effort (RE) with the prediction that longer-lived organisms ought to expend less in reproduction per unit of time. We can multiply RE, often measured in fractions of adult body mass committed to reproduction per unit time, by the average adult life span to get lifetime reproductive effort (LRE). Williams's hypothesis (across species, RE decreases as life span increases) can then be refined to read "LRE will be approximately constant for similar organisms." Here we show that LRE is a key component of fitness in nongrowing populations, and thus its value is central to understanding life-history evolution. We then develop metabolic life-history theory to predict that LRE ought to be approximately 1.4 across organisms despite extreme differences in production and growth rates. We estimate LRE for mammals and lizards that differ in growth and production by five- to tenfold. The distributions are approximately normal with means of 1.43 and 1.41 for lizards and mammals, respectively (95% confidence intervals: 1.3-1.5 and 1.2-1.6). Ultimately, therefore, a female can only produce a mass of offspring approximately equal to 1.4 times her own body mass during the course of her life. PMID:18171160

Charnov, Eric L; Warne, Robin; Moses, Melanie

2007-12-01

167

Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making  

PubMed Central

Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J.

2011-01-01

168

[Expectations and service performance of social psychiatry services in free Saxony. An analysis of viewpoints of psychiatric practice and clinical specialists and coworkers of social psychiatric services].  

PubMed

After the "Polyclinic system" that had predominated in the GDR had been dismantled, a far-reaching restructuring of the complementary psychiatric care sector became necessary. In the State of Saxony, comprehensive establishment of a homogeneous home-visit outpatient service is the first building block in an interlinked system of regionalized community psychiatry. Based on about 20 years of experience in the Federal States of the FRG, this function is fulfilled by social psychiatry services (SPS). The present study investigates the expectations of free-practising psychiatrists (n = 165), doctors in psychiatric hospitals (n = 95) and staff of social psychiatry services (n = 138) throughout the State of Saxony in respect of available care and the way these new care structures work. The results are approximately representative owing to the high rate of responses in an anonymous postal survey of three specified groups (48.5%, 67.4%, 84.0%). All the groups surveyed expected that the clientel to be looked after by SPS will chiefly consist of the group of chronically mentally ill persons. Moreover, the consistently expressed expectations as to the central care/therapy to be provided by SPS can be summarised as the core of directly client-oriented SPS work. This consists of the elements "welfare work", "individual and institutionalised social therapy", and "help in administrative measures". The main differences between the two groups of doctors is that free-practising psychiatrists more often expect a large SPS involvement with regard to social therapy provided at an institutional level, whereas hospital doctors expect this with regard to medical therapies in the strict sense. Hospital doctors have greater expectations that SPS will also fulfil further functions: work with relatives, public relations, establishment of a crisis service and running self-help groups. The expectations of SPS staff with regard to the therapy they should provide themselves exceed what has already been currently achieved in all sectors. A detailed analysis of contents is also presented in this article. Besides improved staffing, SPS employees state that eliminating internal organisational and postgraduate training deficits are two major requirements for stabilization of their work. Appraisals of the quality of care for the chronically mentally ill in the outpatient complementary sector requested by hospital doctors and SPS staff in comparison with former provision structures in the GDR, show deterioration in the economic security of patients as well as of possibilities available in occupational rehabilitation. On the other hand, there are some improvements in the training of specialist staff whereas protection of the personality rights of patients as well as care measures are now free from ideological bias. These are crucial prerequisites for an update individualised, need-orientated therapeutic procedure. To counteract overburdening of the SPS with expectations of care and to enable a more unequivocal positioning of its structure in a complex system of psychosocial care, further need-orientated development and establishment of psychiatric facilities close to the community concerned, are urgently required, a least as far as the State of Saxony is concerned. PMID:9445839

Kallert, T W; Leisse, M; Kreiner, B; Bach, O

1997-10-01

169

Illustration of sampling-based approaches to the calculation of expected dose in performance assessments for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  

SciTech Connect

A deep geologic repository for high level radioactive waste is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. As mandated in the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated public health and safety standards (i.e., 40 CFR Part 197) for the YM repository, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has promulgated licensing standards (i.e., 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc.) consistent with 40 CFR Part 197 that the DOE must establish are met in order for the YM repository to be licensed for operation. Important requirements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. relate to the determination of expected (i.e., mean) dose to a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) and the incorporation of uncertainty into this determination. This presentation describes and illustrates how general and typically nonquantitive statements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. can be given a formal mathematical structure that facilitates both the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI and the appropriate separation in this calculation of aleatory uncertainty (i.e., randomness in the properties of future occurrences such as igneous and seismic events) and epistemic uncertainty (i.e., lack of knowledge about quantities that are poorly known but assumed to have constant values in the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI).

Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD. (.; .)

2007-04-01

170

Expecting the Best  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational expectations are psychological constructs that change over time and can be altered or influenced by various factors. The concept of educational expectations refers to how much schooling students realistically believe that they will complete. These expectations are eventually raised or lowered as students see others like themselves…

DiPaula, John

2010-01-01

171

Simulation of the expected performance of INSERT: A new multi-modality SPECT/MRI system for preclinical and clinical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (INtegrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus, that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems such as 3 T MRI with 59 cm bore diameter. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes will be developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging, the second one dedicated to clinical imaging.

Busca, P.; Fiorini, C.; Butt, A. D.; Occhipinti, M.; Peloso, R.; Quaglia, R.; Schembari, F.; Trigilio, P.; Nemeth, G.; Major, P.; Erlandsson, K.; Hutton, B. F.

2014-01-01

172

Effects of Cognitive Development Level on the Relationships between Self-Efficacy, Causal Attribution, and Outcome Expectancy and Performance in Reading and Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined how specific developmental levels of cognitive ability affect the relationship between beliefs and performance; how cognitive development levels affect reading and writing performance; and how developmental level affects the interactions between the reading and writing domains. Subjects, 150 undergraduates between the ages of 18…

Horn, Christy A.; And Others

173

Retrospective CMORPH Reprocessing Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Climate Prediction Center morphing method (CMORPH) uses motion vectors derived from half-hourly interval geostationary satellite IR imagery to propagate the relatively high quality precipitation estimates derived from passive microwave (PMW) data to define high-resolution precipitation estimates over the globe (Joyce et al. 2004). Precipitation estimates from all available PMW sensors are merged for each 30-minute period, and calibrated to the TRMM TMI 2A12 rainfall estimates before propagation. Currently PMW precipitation estimates from nine instruments are used (TRMM TMI, AQUA AMSR-E, two DMSP SSM/I, four NOAA AMSU, and METOP-A MHS). Infrared (IR) data from five geostationary meteorological satellites are used to infer the movement of precipitation features that have been identified by the PMW information by performing spatial lag correlations on IR imagery that are 30 minutes apart in time. Essentially, the IR data are used to determine cloud motion, and that motion is applied to the PMW-derived rainfall. The shape and intensity of the PMW derived rainfall patterns are modified by "morphing". This is accomplished by doing a linear interpolation (in time) between rainfall features propagated forward in time, i.e. from the previous PMW overpass to the most current scan, and rainfall propagated backward in time, i.e. from the most current overpass to the previous scan. Currently the CMORPH archive is slightly longer than five years initiating in December 2002, corresponding to the methodology conception date. A project is underway at NOAA/CPC to extend the CMORPH satellite estimates back to 2000. PMW rainfall estimates from the NOAA-17 AMSU and AQUA AMSR-E are available from mid-2002, NOAA-16 AMSU from late 2000, NOAA-15 AMSU from early 2000, DMSP-15 SSMI since late 1999, TRMM TMI since December 1997, DMSP-14 since mid-1997, and DMSP-13 since mid-1995. Thus while PMW sampling previous to the December 2002 CMORPH inception is sparse relative to the current PMW constellation, there is enough to retrospectively reprocess CMORPH well beyond the current archive start. Also IR based PMW calibrated rainfall estimates will be calculated as part of the retrospective reprocessing. These estimates will be blended for times and locations that the PMW information is too old for relative accuracy. This blended method (CMORPH-IR) combines the CMORPH and IR based estimates via an error model developed by running test CMORPH processing, albeit withholding random high quality PMW estimates, and determining the error/skill of the CMORPH relative to the IR-based rainfall as a function of season, surface type, region, and age of PMW information in half hourly increments from PMW scan time. The retrospective processing will be performed for Year 2002 and proceed backward. Detailed results will be reported at the meeting.

Yarosh, Y.; Joyce, R.; Xie, P.

2008-05-01

174

Leader-member exchange and its dimensions: effects of self-effort and other's effort on relationship quality.  

PubMed

Two hundred thirty-two manager-subordinate dyads provided data on the effort expended toward the development of leader-member exchange (LMX) relationships, how such effort related to expectations about relationship quality, and intentions to exert future effort toward relationship development. For both managers and subordinates, higher quality LMX relationships were reported and expectations were met when the other member of the dyad put forth effort into relationship development. One's own higher effort coupled with lower effort by the other was associated with a lower quality LMX relationship. Examination of the 4 dimensions of LMX (R. C. Liden & J. M. Maslyn, 1998) revealed unique effects depending on the dimension considered. In addition, LMX and relationship tenure interacted, showing that future effort toward relationship development was greatest when individuals had been in higher quality relationships for longer periods of time. PMID:11519653

Maslyn, J M; Uhl-Bien, M

2001-08-01

175

DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTES IN RCRA-C DISPOSAL CELLS - DISPOSAL CELLS EXPECTED CASE PERFORMANCE, WORKER EXPOSURES, AND HUMAN INTRUSION  

EPA Science Inventory

Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology....

176

Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

Kalvelage, T. A.

2002-01-01

177

Reward expectations in honeybees  

PubMed Central

The study of expectations of reward helps to understand rules controlling goal-directed behavior as well as decision making and planning. I shall review a series of recent studies focusing on how the food gathering behavior of honeybees depends upon reward expectations. These studies document that free-flying honeybees develop long-term expectations of reward and use them to regulate their investment of energy/time during foraging. Also, they present a laboratory procedure suitable for analysis of neural substrates of reward expectations in the honeybee brain. I discuss these findings in the context of individual and collective foraging, on the one hand, and neurobiology of learning and memory of reward.

2010-01-01

178

An eight-octant phase-mask coronagraph for the Subaru coronagraphic extreme AO (SCExAO) system: system design and expected performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An eight-octant phase-mask (EOPM) coronagraph is one of the highest performance coronagraphic concepts, and attains simultaneously high throughput, small inner working angle, and large discovery space. However, its application to ground-based telescopes such as the Subaru Telescope is challenging due to pupil geometry (thick spider vanes and large central obstruction) and residual tip-tilt errors. We show that the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system, scheduled to be installed onto the Subaru Telescope, includes key technologies which can solve these problems. SCExAO uses a spider removal plate which translates four parts of the pupil with tilted plane parallel plates. The pupil central obstruction can be removed by a pupil remapping system similar to the PIAA optics already in the SCExAO system, which could be redesigned with no amplitude apodization. The EOPM is inserted in the focal plane to divide a stellar image into eight-octant regions, and introduces a ?-phase difference between adjacent octants. This causes a self-destructive interference inside the pupil area on a following reimaged pupil plane. By using a reflective mask instead of a conventional opaque Lyot stop, the stellar light diffracted outside the pupil can be used for a coronagraphic low-order wave-front sensor to accurately measure and correct tip-tilt errors. A modified inverse-PIAA system, located behind the reimaged pupil plane, is used to remove off-axis aberrations and deliver a wide field of view. We show that this EOPM coronagraph architecture enables high contrast imaging at small working angle on the Subaru Telescope. Our approach could be generalized to other phase-mask type coronagraphs and other ground-based telescopes.

Murakami, Naoshi; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Matsuo, Taro; Yokochi, Kaito; Nishikawa, Jun; Tamura, Motohide; Kurokawa, Takashi; Baba, Naoshi; Vogt, Frédéric; Garrel, Vincent; Yoshikawa, Takashi

2010-07-01

179

[Limitation of the therapeutic effort].  

PubMed

The limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE) consists in not applying extraordinary or disproportionate measures for therapeutic purposes that are proposed for a patient with poor life prognosis and/or poor quality of life. There are two types. The first is to not initiate certain measures or to withdraw them when they are established. A decision of the LTE should be based on some rigorous criteria, so that we make the following proposal. First, it is necessary to know the most relevant details of the case to make a decision: the preferences of the patient, the preferences of the family when pertinent, the prognosis (severity), the quality of life and distribution of the limited resources. After, the decision should be made. In this phase, participatory deliberation should be established to clarify the end of the intervention. Finally, if it is decided to perform an LTE, it should be decided how to do it. Special procedures, disproportionate measures, that are useless and vain should not be initiated for the therapeutic objective designed (withdraw them if they have been established). When it has been decided to treat a condition (interim measures), the treatment should be maintained. This complex phase may need stratification of he measures. Finally, the necessary palliative measures should be established. PMID:21813120

Herreros, B; Palacios, G; Pacho, E

2012-03-01

180

An inflation expectations horserace  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, the academic literature has focused on three survey measures of expected inflation: the Livingston Survey, the Survey of Professional Forecasters, and the Michigan Survey. While these measures have been useful in developing models of forecasting inflation, the data are low frequency measures which appear anachronistic in the modern era of high frequency and real-time data. I present a

Giselle C. Guzman

2009-01-01

181

It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.

2010-08-27

182

Evidence for effects of task difficulty but not learning on neurophysiological variables associated with effort.  

PubMed

Learning to master a task is expected to be accompanied by a decrease in effort during task execution. We examine the possibility to monitor learning using physiological measures that have been reported to reflect effort or workload. Thirty-five participants performed different difficulty levels of the n-back task while a range of physiological and performance measurements were recorded. In order to dissociate non-specific time-related effects from effects of learning, we used the easiest level as a baseline condition. This condition is expected to only reflect non-specific effects of time. Performance and subjective measures confirmed more learning for the difficult level than for the easy level. The difficulty levels affected physiological variables in the way as expected, therewith showing their sensitivity. However, while most of the physiological variables were also affected by time, time-related effects were generally the same for the easy and the difficult level. Thus, in a well-controlled experiment that enabled the dissociation of general time effects from learning we did not find physiological variables to indicate decreasing effort associated with learning. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24841994

Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A; Holewijn, Michael; van Erp, Jan B F

2014-08-01

183

A Study of Expectations and the Marital Quality of Participants of a Marital Enrichment Seminar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study investigated the effects of expectations of effort of self and spouse on the marital quality of marital enrichment seminar participants. Self-report measures of marital quality, expectations regarding effort put into implementing what was learned during the seminar, amount of perceived effort, and satisfaction with effort

Dixon, Lee J.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Frousakis, Nikki N.; Schumm, Jeremiah A.

2012-01-01

184

Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

Not Available

1991-04-08

185

Developing mechanisms of temperamental effortful control.  

PubMed

Studies of temperament from early childhood to adulthood have demonstrated inverse relationships between negative affectivity and effortful control. Effortful control is also positively related to the development of conscience and appears as a protective factor in the development of behavior disorders. In this study, the development of attentional mechanisms underlying effortful control was investigated in 2- to 3-year-old children, as indexed by their performance in a) making anticipatory eye movements to ambiguous locations and b) resolving conflict between location and identity in a spatial conflict task. The ability to make anticipatory eye movements to ambiguous locations within a sequence was clearly present at 24 months. By 30 months, children could also successfully perform a spatial conflict task that introduced conflict between identity and location, and at that age, children's success on ambiguous anticipatory eye movements was related to lower interference from conflict in the spatial conflict task. Children's performance on the eye-movement task was correlated with performance and reaction time on spatial tasks, and both were related to aspects of effortful control and negative affect as measured in children's parent-reported temperament. PMID:14633060

Rothbart, Mary K; Ellis, Lesa K; Rueda, M Rosario; Posner, Michael I

2003-12-01

186

Effort on homework in grades 5-9: development, motivational antecedents, and the association with effort on classwork.  

PubMed

In 2 studies, an expectancy-value framework was applied to investigate effort expended on mathematics homework. In Study 1 (2,712 students in grades 5, 7, and 9; mean age=13.37 years), lower homework effort was found in higher grades. The effects of intrinsic value on homework effort were higher in the older cohorts, whereas the effects of the expectancy component were lower. In Study 2 (571 students in grades 8 and 9; mean age=14.72), an expanded expectancy-value framework was found to explain both homework and classwork variables. The means for effort and value were lower for homework than for classwork; these differences were partly moderated by students' conscientiousness. The implications of homework behavior and motivation for developmental research are highlighted. PMID:16942508

Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Kastens, Claudia; Köller, Olaf

2006-01-01

187

Expected beam performance of the SNS linac  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project is a collaboration among Argonne, Brookhaven, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. The linac, which injects beam into an accumulator ring, is comprised of both normal and superconducting RF (SRF) accelerating structures. Two room-temperature RF structures, a 402.5-MHz drift-tube linac (DTL) and an 805-MHz coupled-cavity linac (CCL), accelerate an H-minus

J. Stovall; J. H. Billen; S. Nath; H. Takeda; L. M. Young; D. Jeon; K. R. Crandall; R. Shafer

2001-01-01

188

Genetic enhancements and expectations.  

PubMed

Some argue that genetic enhancements and environmental enhancements are not importantly different: environmental enhancements such as private schools and chess lessons are simply the old-school way to have a designer baby. I argue that there is an important distinction between the two practices--a distinction that makes state restrictions on genetic enhancements more justifiable than state restrictions on environmental enhancements. The difference is that parents have no settled expectations about genetic enhancements. PMID:19567693

Sorensen, K

2009-07-01

189

EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

Wagner, Howard A.

2010-01-01

190

Responsibility and Effort in Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organizations, like individuals, have distinct identities. In economic competition with individuals, organizations have several advantages. In particular, they provide for the multiplication of human effort and allow for an efficient division of labor. Ta...

B. Latane

1986-01-01

191

Hearing on FBI Counterterrorism Efforts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available on the Washington Post Web site, the above listed link is the entire transcript of the Senate's Judiciary Committee hearing on FBI counterterrorism efforts held on June 6, 2002. Users can view remarks from members of the committee, and hear testimonials from others such as the FBI director and Inspector General Glenn Fine. Although the transcript is rather long, it not only gives information regarding counterterrorism efforts, but also provides insight into the world of Congressional committees and how they operate.

2002-01-01

192

An Examination of Optimism, Pessimism, and Performance Perfectionism as Predictors of Positive Psychological Functioning in Middle-Aged Adults: Does Holding High Standards of Performance Matter Beyond Generalized Outcome Expectancies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a multifunctional model of perfectionism (E. Chang, Cognitive Ther Res, 30:677–697, 2006), this study examined the\\u000a relations between performance perfectionism, optimism, pessimism, and positive psychological functioning (e.g., self-acceptance,\\u000a positive relations with others, and personal growth) in a sample of 246 middle-aged adults. Results from correlational analyses\\u000a indicated that positive aspects of performance perfectionism, especially positive self-oriented performance perfectionism,

Edward C. Chang

2009-01-01

193

Perceived Effort Saved's Influence on Perceptions of Effort and Accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost-benefit framework is a well established behavioral decision making theory and has shown remarkable consistency across a wide range of studies. One of the frameworks main tenets is that decision makers want to minimize effort (cost) and maximize accuracy (benefit) when making a decision. Research suggests that decision makers will adapt their decision- making process to the task by

A. Ross Taylor

194

Using Expectancy Violation To Investigate Student Dissatisfaction In Studio Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics students, especially those in pedagogically reformed courses, are sometimes dissatisfied with the course structure. Expectancy violation (EV), which arises when studentsâ pedagogical expectations are not met, is a possible cause for this dissatisfaction. Previous research has identified instances of EV in reformed physics classes, but detailed investigations are needed to determine how EV relates to course satisfaction. In this pilot study, we paired a modified Pedagogical Expectancy Violation Assessment (PEVA) with a course satisfaction questionnaire to measure studentsâ perceived expectations, experiences, and satisfaction in three different physics courses: algebra-based SCALE-UP style at EKU (N=61), calculus-based lecture at UCF (N=179), and calculus-based SCALE-UP at UCF (N=88). Course satisfaction was positively correlated with performance and the number of positively-perceived EVs and negatively correlated with the number of negatively-perceived EVs. Studentsâ opinions about the frequency of a few particular activities predicted a large amount of the variability in course satisfaction. While inconclusive, these preliminary results guide reform efforts of the PEVA.

Gaffney, Jon D.; Gaffney, Amy L.; Chini, Jacquelyn J.

2014-01-30

195

Cerebral palsy life expectancy.  

PubMed

The life expectancy of people who have perinatally acquired cerebral palsy can be similar to that of the general population, or it can be reduced substantially. The most important factors that are associated with reduced survival are disabilities of motor, cognitive, or visual functions. Prematurity and low birth weight are associated with lower rates of disability, and better survival. A 2-year-old who has severe cerebral palsy has about a 40% chance of living to age 20, in contrast to a child who has mild cerebral palsy, for whom the chance is 99%. Cerebral palsy, respiratory diseases, epilepsy, and congenital malformation are the most commonly recorded causes of early death. PMID:16765736

Hutton, Jane L

2006-06-01

196

A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents. PMID:15362011

Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

2004-09-01

197

New standard exceeds expectations  

SciTech Connect

The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.

Bennett, M.J. (Environmental Data Resources Inc., Southport, CT (United States))

1993-08-01

198

Preventing Marketing Efforts That Bomb.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a marketplace overwhelmed with messages, too many institutions waste money on ineffective marketing. Highlights five common marketing errors: limited definition of marketing; unwillingness to address strategic issues; no supporting data; fuzzy goals and directions; and unrealistic expectations, time lines, and budgets. Though trustees are not…

Sevier, Robert A.

2000-01-01

199

Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

1993-01-01

200

Shuttle operational expectations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of orbital flight tests (OFT) of the Space Shuttle are reviewed, and modifications planned for upcoming operational flights are discussed. The performance of the solid rocket boosters, external tank, main engines, structural system, propulsion system, reaction control system, electric power system, heat rejection system, hydraulic system, avionics, and other systems is described and evaluated as generally highly satisfactory. Payload servicing and deployment were also successfully demonstrated by OFT. Additional facilities planned for the operational flights are briefly described, and improvements that will make the Challenger spacecraft lighter than Columbia, provide it with more thrust, and give it a larger payload are summarized. Some software modifications being introduced are also mentioned.

Abrahamson, J. A.

1982-01-01

201

Expectancy and Expected Value: Decision Models for Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of Expectancy Theory and Expected Value models is reviewed. The research supporting these models in the areas of decision making, leadership attitudes, motivation and social power is discussed. The final section provides insights into the ...

T. R. Mitchell

1976-01-01

202

Expecting ourselves to expect: the Bayesian brain as a projector.  

PubMed

Clark's essay lays the foundation for a Bayesian account of the "projection" of consciously perceived properties: The expectations that our brains test against inputs concern the particular affordances that evolution has designed us to care about, including especially expectations of our own expectations. PMID:23663550

Dennett, Daniel C

2013-06-01

203

Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

2012-01-01

204

Sensors and Data Acquisition Development Efforts at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes efforts at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to develop spacecraft sensors and instruments which meet the expected needs of potential clients on a budget. Sensors are profiled, and the topics covered include systems health monitoring, smart structures, software algorithms, and testing.

Perotti, Jose M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

205

Expectancy-Value Theory of Achievement Motivation.  

PubMed

We discuss the expectancy-value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy-value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest. Research is reviewed dealing with two issues: (1) change in children's and adolescents' ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and subjective values, and (2) relations of children's and adolescents' ability-expectancy beliefs and subjective task values to their performance and choice of activities. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10620382

Wigfield; Eccles

2000-01-01

206

Mental effort in binary categorization aided by binary cues.  

PubMed

Binary cueing systems assist in many tasks, often alerting people about potential hazards (such as alarms and alerts). We investigate whether cues, besides possibly improving decision accuracy, also affect the effort users invest in tasks and whether the required effort in tasks affects the responses to cues. We developed a novel experimental tool to study binary categorization performance. In two experiments, participants decided whether items on a screen were intact or faulty, based on the configuration of lighter and darker areas in items. Cues were available in half of the experimental blocks, and participants could use them in their decisions. Experimental conditions differed in the effort required to perform the task, manipulated through the contrast between lighter and darker areas (higher contrast vs. lower contrast), and in the validity of cues (medium vs. high validity). In the NASA-TLX, participants reported that with highly valid cues, they invested less effort in the task, whereas with medium validity cues, they invested similar effort as without cues. Responses to the high-validity cues were stronger than responses to the medium-validity cues. The required effort in the task did not affect the strength of responses to cues. We conclude that the invested effort may decrease when cues are available, but users will not rely more strongly on cues in more demanding situations to reduce the invested effort. We therefore recommend integrating cues into work environments, as they reduce users' effort without necessarily leading to overdependence on the cues to reduce invested effort. PMID:23544474

Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael

2013-03-01

207

Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

2006-01-01

208

Greater efforts to combat AIDS.  

PubMed

In China the first AIDS case was reported in 1985, and by August 1996 there were 4305 HIV-infected patients registered, of whom 131 had full-blown AIDS. The number of afflicted people doubled every year after 1994. The actual number of infected people is estimated to range from 50,000 to 100,000. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the main cause of the spreading of AIDS. By the end of 1995 China had a cumulated total of 1,744,659 cases of STDs including 362,000 cases that were registered in 1995 alone. The government launched efforts to prevent and treat AIDS by laws, regulations, and policies. An information, education, and communication (IEC) program was started using the mass media. A national network has been set up for monitoring AIDS and HIV infection. Exhibitions and counseling sessions are also held regularly. Nevertheless, the epidemic spread of AIDS in neighboring countries also poses a threat to Chinese public health. Therefore, the government is intensifying its efforts to curb drug addiction and prostitution and to strengthen the management of transfusion and blood products. The Beijing municipal government funded the establishment of a network for the monitoring and prevention of AIDS, with 25 laboratories for screening for AIDS and 10 sub-centers for STD prevention and treatment. The Beijing Association for Preventing STDs and AIDS was also founded and a telephone hot-line in operation delivers counseling on STDs and AIDS. An exhibition on AIDS prevention was held in December, 1996, in a park in the center of the city, and similar exhibitions will be held in other parts of the country. PMID:12347917

1997-04-01

209

[Guangdong Prefecture's birth control efforts cited].  

PubMed

Huiyang Prefecture in Guangdong Province (China) has rapidly lowered its population growth through patient and meticulous ideological effort among the masses. Compared with the same period last year, the prefecture's population growth and birth rate from January to August this year dropped by 0.55 and 0.9%, respectively. Due to failures in effectively implementing the family planning policies, the prefecture's once decreasing population rapidly increased in recent years. In some counties and communes, several children were born to over 30% of married couples. The ideological effort included persuasion and education to publicize the advantages of family planning and to ensure that birth control measures were effectively followed. In about 1 month, the cadres visiting Dongguan County persuaded over 27,000 people to be sterilized. The experience of Huiyang Prefecture shows that by linking family planning with state, collective, and individual interests as well as by relying on ideological efforts, the masses can be educated to voluntarily practice birth control. The Guangdong provincial people's government recently held a meeting in Huiyang Prefecture to propagate the prefecture's experience. The point was strongly made at the meeting that all localities must unify their understanding, intensify their leadership, and perform penetrating political and ideological work in order to reduce the province's population growth. PMID:12338058

1981-09-16

210

American College of Medical Genetics recommendations for the design and performance expectations for clinical genomic copy number microarrays intended for use in the postnatal setting for detection of constitutional abnormalities.  

PubMed

Genomic copy number microarrays have significantly increased the diagnostic yield over a karyotype for clinically significant imbalances in individuals with developmental delay, intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, and autism, and they are now accepted as a first tier diagnostic test for these indications. As it is not feasible to validate microarray technology that targets the entire genome in the same manner as an assay that targets a specific gene or syndromic region, a new paradigm of validation and regulation is needed to regulate this important diagnostic technology. We suggest that these microarray platforms be evaluated and manufacturers regulated for the ability to accurately measure copy number gains or losses in DNA (analytical validation) and that the subsequent interpretation of the findings and assignment of clinical significance be determined by medical professionals with appropriate training and certification. To this end, the American College of Medical Genetics, as the professional organization of board-certified clinical laboratory geneticists, herein outlines recommendations for the design and performance expectations for clinical genomic copy number microarrays and associated software intended for use in the postnatal setting for detection of constitutional abnormalities. PMID:21681105

Kearney, Hutton M; South, Sarah T; Wolff, Daynna J; Lamb, Allen; Hamosh, Ada; Rao, Kathleen W

2011-07-01

211

Institutional Research: What Should We Expect? Defining and Exceeding Campus Expectations. AIR 1995 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectations and roles of institutional researchers in higher education institutions are considered, as well as the question of what a research office should expect from its institution. A performance monitoring system for the assessment and continuous improvement of institutional research is also proposed. Ways that institutional research can be…

Clagett, Craig A.; Kerr, Helen S.

212

Perception that "everything requires a lot of effort": transcultural SCL-25 item validation.  

PubMed

This brief report illustrates how the migration context can affect specific item validity of mental health measures. The SCL-25 was administered to 432 recently settled immigrants (220 Haitian and 212 Arabs). We performed descriptive analyses, as well as Infit and Outfit statistics analyses using WINSTEPS Rasch Measurement Software based on Item Response Theory. The participants' comments about the item You feel everything requires a lot of effort in the SCL-25 were also qualitatively analyzed. Results revealed that the item You feel everything requires a lot of effort is an outlier and does not adjust in an expected and valid fashion with its cluster items, as it is over-endorsed by Haitian and Arab healthy participants. Our study thus shows that, in transcultural mental health research, the cultural and migratory contexts may interact and significantly influence the meaning of some symptom items and consequently, the validity of symptom scales. PMID:19752650

Moreau, Nicolas; Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile; Chenguiti, Khalid

2009-09-01

213

Effort-based decision making in the rat: an [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose micro positron emission tomography study.  

PubMed

Decision making refers to the process by which subjects choose between competing courses of action based on the expected costs and benefits of their consequences. Lesion studies in rats suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex and the nucleus accumbens are key structures of a neural system that subserves effort-based decision making. Little is known about brain activation associated with effort-based decisions in intact rats. Using an open hypothesis approach, we used 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to assess regional metabolic changes in two conditions of an effort-based decision making task. In the "same effort" condition, male rats could choose between two response options associated with the same effort but different reward sizes, i.e., decision making was simply a function of reward size. By contrast, in the "different effort" condition, an integration of different efforts and reward sizes associated with the two response options was necessary before making a decision. Separate PET scans were performed from each condition. Subtractive analysis revealed that metabolic activity was increased in the different effort relative to the same effort condition in the left anterior cingulate, left orbitofrontal and prelimbic cortex region. Metabolic activity was decreased in the infralimbic cortex and septum region. Our findings suggest that making decisions on how much effort to invest to obtain greater rewards evokes changes of metabolic activity in multiple brain areas associated with cognitive, limbic, motor and autonomic functions. This study demonstrates that FDG-PET provides a tool to determine in rats regional brain metabolic activity in cognitive tasks. PMID:20660253

Endepols, Heike; Sommer, Susanne; Backes, Heiko; Wiedermann, Dirk; Graf, Rudolf; Hauber, Wolfgang

2010-07-21

214

Measuring expectations: forecast vs. ideal expectations. Does it really matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer's participation in service delivery is so central to cognition that it affects consumer's quality evaluations. The study presented in this paper investigates the ways that visitor expectations change as a result of first hand experience with a service in the context of a major art exhibition. The research design allowed for two operational definitions of expectations, namely forecast and

Bronwyn Higgs; Michael Jay Polonsky; Mary Hollick

2005-01-01

215

Metaphor Comprehension and Cognitive Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated processing differences between metaphorical and literal versions of the same sentences. The purposes of the study were (1) to directly compare the on-line processing demands of metaphoric and nonmetaphoric sentences, and (2) to examine the consequences of such sentences for memory performance. The subjects were 39 college…

Petrun, Craig J.; Belmore, Susan M.

216

Expectancy bias in anxious samples.  

PubMed

Although it is well documented that anxious individuals have negative expectations about the future, it is unclear what cognitive processes give rise to this expectancy bias. Two studies are reported that use the Expectancy Task, which is designed to assess expectancy bias and illuminate its basis. This task presents individuals with valenced scenarios (Positive Valence, Negative Valence, or Conflicting Valence), and then evaluates their tendency to expect subsequent future positive relative to negative events. The Expectancy Task was used with low and high trait anxious (Study 1: n = 32) and anxiety sensitive (Study 2: n = 138) individuals. Results suggest that in the context of physical concerns, both high anxious samples display a less positive expectancy bias. In the context of social concerns, high trait anxious individuals display a negative expectancy bias only when negatively valenced information was previously presented. Overall, this suggests that anxious individuals display a less positive expectancy bias, and that the processes that give rise to this bias may vary by type of situation (e.g., social or physical) or anxiety difficulty. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24798678

Cabeleira, Cindy M; Steinman, Shari A; Burgess, Melissa M; Bucks, Romola S; MacLeod, Colin; Melo, Wilson; Teachman, Bethany A

2014-06-01

217

Canadian efforts to prevent and control hypertension  

PubMed Central

Suboptimum blood pressure is estimated to be the leading risk factor for death worldwide and is associated with 13.5% of deaths globally. The clinical diagnosis of hypertension affects one in four adults globally and is expected to increase by 60% between 2000 and 2025. Clearly, global efforts to prevent and control hypertension are important health issues. While Canada had a prevalence of hypertension similar to that of the United States in the early 1990s, the treatment and control rate was only 13% compared with 25% in the United States. A national strategic plan was developed, and a coalition of organizations and health care professional and scientist volunteers actively implemented parts of the strategy. Specific initiatives that have evolved include the development of hypertension knowledge translation programs for health professionals, the public and people with hypertension, an outcomes research program to assess the impact of hypertension and guide national-, regional- and community-based knowledge translation interventions, and a program to reduce the prevalence of hypertension by decreasing sodium additives in food. These initiatives have relied on the active involvement of health care professional volunteers, health care professional and scientific organizations and various government departments. There have been large increases in the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, with corresponding reductions in cardiovascular disease and total mortality associated with the start of the hypertension initiatives. As a result, Canada is becoming recognized as a world leader in the prevention, treatment and control of hypertension.

Campbell, Norman RC; Chen, Guanmin

2010-01-01

218

Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

Baskett, Linda Musun

1985-01-01

219

Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is any one really ready for the Spanish Inquisition? Assign studnets to participate in reading the play, The Spanish Inquisition by Monty Python. While readiang the play, display the following pictures at appropiate times. Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion Confess!!! Get the Cushions!!!! Get the comfy Chair! Now you'll confess! Confess women, CONFESS!!! Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!!! ...

Hirschi, Mrs.

2005-04-08

220

How Students Verify Conjectures: Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight teachers were interviewed concerning how students verify conjectures. The study is a sequel to a previous study, "How Students Verify Conjectures" [Bergqvist, T. (2000). "How students verify conjectures." "Research reports in Mathematics Education" 3]. Teachers' expectations of students' reasoning and performance are examined, and also how…

Bergqvist, Tomas

2005-01-01

221

An Accountability Approach Using Expectancy Criteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If American schools are to be held accountable for pupil achievement, a reliable means of determining the difference between a child's actual achievement and his learning potential must be found. This study examines the utilization of composite measures of a pupil's base level of performance as effective predictors of learning expectancy. In…

Metos, Thomas H.; Luty, Elanny T.

222

International Educational Performance of the United States: Is There a Problem That Money Can Fix?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of fiscal effort to eighth-grade achievement on international assessments was compared among U.S. states, for U.S. states versus foreign countries, and for the United States versus foreign countries. U.S. performance was as expected, given its relative fiscal effort, and several states were as efficient as top-performing foreign…

Goldschmidt, Pete; Eyermann, Therese S.

1999-01-01

223

QM Position Expectation Value Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The QM Position Expectation Value program displays the time evolution of the position-space wave function and the associated position expectation value. The default wave function is a two-state superposition of infinite square well states. Additional states and other potential energy functions can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. QM Position Expectation Value is one of 18 Open Source Physics programs that model time-dependent quantum mechanics using an energy eigenstate expansion. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the qm_expectation_x.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Superposition.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-04-17

224

QM Momentum Expectation Value Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The QM Momentum Expectation Value program displays the time evolution of the position-space wave function and the associated momentum expectation value. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the qm_expectation_p.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default wave function is a Gaussian wave packet in a harmonic oscillator. Additional states and other potential energy functions can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. QM Momentum Expectation Value is one of 18 Open Source Physics programs that model time-dependent quantum mechanics using an energy eigenstate expansion. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Superposition.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-04-17

225

Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies*  

PubMed Central

Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population.

Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

2009-01-01

226

Pain Expectancies, Pain, and Functional Self-Efficacy Expectancies as Determinants of Disability in Patients with Chronic Low Back Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested the predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities, expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back pain patients. Before assessment of function, patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks--functional self-efficacy (FSE)--and the likelihood working would…

Lackner, Jeffrey M.; And Others

1996-01-01

227

Effort scaling of isometric muscle contractions.  

PubMed

Maximum voluntary manual pull was measured on 18 Ss. These values were then used to determine the forces at 10% intervals from 30% to 100% of maximum strength for each S. In subsequent sessions, Ss started an exertion at one of these effort levels and then maintained an equal sensation of effort for 60 sec. The data at all 8 effort levels were closely approximated by triple-exponential decay functions. The percentage error between observed and calculated values ranged from 0.7% for the 100% effort data to 2.5% for the 20% condition. Since the function generated by a maximum voluntary contraction was not qualitatively different from the sub-maximal effort functions, it would seem that the fatigue curve may be viewed as a maximum effort function and, as such, involves the same processes that generate the lower intensity effort functions. PMID:23952629

Caldwell, L S; Grossman, E E

1973-03-01

228

A novel scale to assess resistance-exercise effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the validity of a novel subjective scale for assessing resistance-exercise effort. Seventeen male bodybuilders performed five sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of one-repetition maximum, for the bench press and squat. At the completion of each set, participants quantified their effort via the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and novel estimated-repetitions-to-failure scales, and continued repetitions

Daniel A. Hackett; Nathan A. Johnson; Mark Halaki; Chin-Moi Chow

2012-01-01

229

Achieving Common Expectations for Overall Goals amid Diversity among Cooperative Extension Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the initial phase of a strategic planning effort for the development of Florida's 1988 through 1991 long-range cooperative extension program, an effort was initiated to achieve common expectations for overall organizational mission and purpose among diverse cooperative extension faculty. The unification effort included the following…

Taylor, Barbara

230

Desettling Expectations in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calls for the improvement of science education in the USA continue unabated, with particular concern for the quality of learning opportunities for students from historically nondominant communities. Despite many and varied efforts, the field continues to struggle to create robust, meaningful forms of science education. We argue that "settled…

Bang, M.; Warren, B.; Rosebery, A. S.; Medin, D.

2012-01-01

231

Do juries meet our expectations?  

PubMed

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony, and weather forecasting, we argue that the frequency of mistakes probably far exceeds these "tolerable" levels. We are not arguing against the use of juries. Rather, we point out that a closer look at jury decisions reveals a serious gap between what we expect from juries and what probably occurs. When deciding issues of guilt and/or punishing convicted criminals, we as a society should recognize and acknowledge the abundance of error. PMID:12508698

Arkes, Hal R; Mellers, Barbara A

2002-12-01

232

The Martyrdom Effect: When Pain and Effort Increase Prosocial Contributions  

PubMed Central

Most theories of motivation and behavior (and lay intuitions alike) consider pain and effort to be deterrents. In contrast to this widely held view, we provide evidence that the prospect of enduring pain and exerting effort for a prosocial cause can promote contributions to the cause. Specifically, we show that willingness to contribute to a charitable or collective cause increases when the contribution process is expected to be painful and effortful rather than easy and enjoyable. Across five experiments, we document this “martyrdom effect,” show that the observed patterns defy standard economic and psychological accounts, and identify a mediator and moderator of the effect. Experiment 1 showed that people are willing to donate more to charity when they anticipate having to suffer to raise money. Experiment 2 extended these findings to a non-charity laboratory context that involved real money and actual pain. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the martyrdom effect is not the result of an attribute substitution strategy (whereby people use the amount of pain and effort involved in fundraising to determine donation worthiness). Experiment 4 showed that perceptions of meaningfulness partially mediate the martyrdom effect. Finally, Experiment 5 demonstrated that the nature of the prosocial cause moderates the martyrdom effect: the effect is strongest for causes associated with human suffering. We propose that anticipated pain and effort lead people to ascribe greater meaning to their contributions and to the experience of contributing, thereby motivating higher prosocial contributions. We conclude by considering some implications of this puzzling phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Olivola, Christopher Y; Shafir, Eldar

2013-01-01

233

First Things First: What Americans Expect from the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to reform and improve the nation's schools have encountered serious roadblocks, often in the form of parental opposition. This document describes findings of a study that investigated parents' expectations of America's public schools. Data were derived from a national telephone survey with over 1,100 Americans, including 550 White,…

Johnson, Jean; Immerwahr, John

234

Measuring cocaine effect expectancies among therapeutic community inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence has accumulated that beliefs about alcohol contribute to the etiology and maintenance of different patterns of drinking and drinking-related behavior. This research focus has been expanded from alcohol to include marijuana and cocaine. The present study was designed to improve upon earlier efforts to measure the domain of cocaine effect expectancies, which were based on samples of college students.

William Fals-Stewart

1996-01-01

235

The Selection of Channels When Seeking Information: Cost/Benefit vs. Least-Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two models of selecting information sources--Cost/Benefit (information seekers select sources on basis of expected benefits and costs), and Least-Effort (seekers select sources on basis of minimizing effort or cost). Results of a study proposing that users place different weights on costs and benefits are presented. (EJS)

Hardy, Andrew P.

1982-01-01

236

Parenting, Coparenting, and Effortful Control in Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relations among parenting, coparenting, and effortful control in preschoolers. The sample included 89 families with 2 parents and their firstborn 36-month-old children. Information was obtained by means of observation and parent-report questionnaires. In general, maternal parenting, paternal parenting, and coparenting were related to effortful control. Effortful control was more strongly predicted from parenting and coparenting when

Annemiek Karreman; Cathy van Tuijl; Marcel A. G. van Aken; Maja Dekovi?

2008-01-01

237

Children's Effortful Control and Academic Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations among children’s effortful control, school liking, and academic competence with a sample of 240 7- to 12-year-old children. Parents and children reported on effortful control, and teachers and children assessed school liking. Children, parents, and teachers reported on children’s academic competence. Significant positive correlations existed between children’s effortful control, school liking, and academic competence. Consistent with

Carlos Valiente; Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant; Kimberly S. Castro

2007-01-01

238

The Social Aspects of Fishing Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

While economic literature inspired by the “tragedy of the commons” has emphasised people’s tendency to increase fishing effort\\u000a beyond desirable levels, sociologists and anthropologists who have studied the social aspects of fishing have often emphasised\\u000a the capacity of these factors to restrict fishing effort. The article addresses the influence of social norms and communication\\u000a on fishing effort in an empirical

Stig S. Gezelius

2007-01-01

239

Expected utility with lower probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory to characterize uncertainty neutrality and different degrees of uncertainty aversion.

Hans JØrgen Jacobsen; Birgitte Sloth; TORBEN TRANAES

1994-01-01

240

Expectations in Incremental Discourse Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way in which discourse features express connections back to the previous discourse has been described in the literature in terms of on a suitably defined right frontier, can be used to both process expectations and constrain discouse processing in general.

Dan Cristea; Bonnie Lynn Webber

1997-01-01

241

The Mobile Browsing Behaviors and Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the…

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

2012-01-01

242

Corporate Governance for Contractors Performing Iraq Reconstruction Efforts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Coalition Provisional Authority, Office of the Inspector General (CPA-IG), pursuant to Public Law 108-106, 'The Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for the Defense and Reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan,' November 6, 2003, is conducting a se...

B. Flynn G. Montoya J. Betar M. Guagliano R. Murrell

2004-01-01

243

Spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia - A measure of mental effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The validity of the spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia as a measure of mental effort was investigated using a computer simulation of a hovercraft piloted along a river as the experimental task. Strong correlation was observed between the subjective effort-ratings and the heart-rate variability (HRV) power spectrum between 0.06 and 0.14 Hz. Significant correlations were observed not only between subjects but, more importantly, within subjects as well, indicating that the spectral analysis of HRV is an accurate measure of the amount of effort being invested by a subject. Results also indicate that the intensity of effort invested by subjects cannot be inferred from the objective ratings of task difficulty or from performance.

Vicente, Kim J.; Craig Thornton, D.; Moray, Neville

1987-01-01

244

Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

1988-01-01

245

Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

2011-01-01

246

The expected value of control: An integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function  

PubMed Central

Summary The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function.

Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M.; Cohen, Jonathan D.

2013-01-01

247

Support expectations of cancer patients.  

PubMed

Patients' satisfaction is a paramount in the delivery of health care provisions, particularly in patients with poor prognosis. Effective communication with such patients helps in achieving a better satisfaction score. A survey was conducted on upper gastrointestinal cancer patients to assess their perceived satisfaction regarding the healthcare received. A frank but supportive communication helps in meeting the expectations of these patients in their cancer journey. PMID:23374529

Jafferbhoy, Sadaf; Tappenden, Janine; Allen, Tracey; Shiwani, Muhammad Hanif

2013-02-01

248

Televisions, Physicians, and Life Expectancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Allan Rossman of Dickinson College, describes a dataset on life expectancies, densities of people per television set, and densities of people per physician in various countries of the world. The example addresses correlation versus causation and data transformations. The author states that "the example has proven very useful for helping students to discover the fundamental principle that correlation does not imply causation."

Rossman, Allan

2009-06-22

249

Criteria for Estimating Effort for Requirements Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IT practitioners realize that poor scheduling can cause project failure. This is because schedule overruns may be caused by the effort involved in making requirement changes. A software process improvement challenge is to better estimate the cost and effort of requirements changes. Difficulties with such effort estimation is partially caused by lack of data for analysis supported with little information about the data types involved in the requirements changes. This research is an exploratory study, based on change request forms, in requirements change categorization. This categorization can be used to develop an empirical model for requirements change effort as input into a cost estimation model. An empirically based estimation model will provide IT practitioners with a basis for better estimation of effort needed for requirements changes.

Chua, Bee Bee; Bernardo, Danilo Valeros; Verner, June

250

Effortful Retrieval Reduces Hippocampal Activity and Impairs Incidental Encoding  

PubMed Central

Functional imaging studies frequently report that the hippocampus is engaged by successful episodic memory retrieval. However, considering that concurrent encoding of the background environment occurs during retrieval and influences medial temporal lobe activity, it is plausible that hippocampal encoding functions are reduced with increased attentional engagement during effortful retrieval. Expanding upon evidence that retrieval efforts suppress activity in hippocampal regions implicated in encoding, this study examines the influence of retrieval effort on encoding performance and the interactive effects of encoding and retrieval on hippocampal and neocortical activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while subjects performed a word recognition task with incidental picture encoding. Both lower memory strength and increased search duration were associated with encoding failure and reduced hippocampal and default network activity. Activity in the anterior hippocampus tracked encoding, which was more strongly deactivated when incidental encoding was unsuccessful. These findings highlight potential contributions from background encoding processes to hippocampal activations during neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval.

Reas, Emilie T.; Brewer, James B.

2014-01-01

251

Do Introductory Science Courses Select for Effort or Aptitude?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On the first day of classes, students in introductory biology courses believe that effort is the most accurate predictor of their academic success. Students know which academic behaviors are important for success, and they are confident that they will earn high grades, attend lectures and help sessions, take advantage of other opportunities to master the course material and raise their grade. Despite this optimism, many students do not follow through on their first-day-of-class expectations, and their grades suffer accordingly. Academic success in introductory science courses is strongly associated with effort-based behaviors, but only weakly associated with aptitude. The relevant research findings are discussed in this chapter relative to how instructors can help students succeed in introductory science courses.

Moore, Randy

2006-01-01

252

Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA?s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

253

Jitter-free Audio Playout over Best Effort Packet Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to explore important issues in play- out of audio over best effort audio networks and the improvements that can be made at the upper layers without changing the underlying network. This paper starts with a review of existing methods, the experiments conducted based on them and comments on their performance. The point of departure

Aman Kansal; Abhay Karandikar

254

Origins of Effortful Control: Infant and Parent Contributions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effortful control (EC) refers to the ability to inhibit a dominant response to perform a subdominant one and has been shown as protective against a myriad of difficulties. Research examining precursors of EC has been limited to date, and in this study, infancy contributors to toddler EC were examined. Specifically, parent/family background…

Gartstein, Maria A.; Bridgett, David J.; Young, Brandi N.; Panksepp, Jaak; Power, Thomas

2013-01-01

255

Human performance considerations for a Mars mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

If astronauts are expected to perform at peak levels on the Martian surface after 5 months of interplanetary travel, and resume normal, active lifestyles upon their return to earth after a total of 31 months of space exploration, a serious effort must be made toward keeping them healthy during each phase. Bone loss is one of the most difficult problems

Leslie A. Wickman

2006-01-01

256

Modeling Efforts to Inform Countries' Screening Decisions  

Cancer.gov

Modeling Efforts to Inform Countries’ Screening Decisions Ann Graham Zauber, Iris Vogelaar, Marjolein van Ballegooijen, Deb Schrag, Rob Boer, Dik Habbema, and Sidney Winawer May 11, 2006 International Breast Cancer Screening Network Biennial Meeting,

257

Homeland Security Regional Unity of Effort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A significant multi-state/regional unity of effort capability gap exists between the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the fifty states' independent emergency operations systems. Homeland Security Presidential Directives 5 and 8 directed the creat...

J. V. Keaveny

2011-01-01

258

Perceived listening effort for a tonal task with contralateral competing signals  

PubMed Central

Perceived listening effort was assessed for a monaural irregular-rhythm detection task while competing signals were presented to the contralateral ear. When speech was the competing signal, listeners reported greater listening effort compared to either contralateral steady-state noise or no competing signal. Behavioral thresholds for irregular-rhythm detection were unaffected by competing speech, indicating that listeners compensated for this competing signal with effortful listening. These results suggest that perceived listening effort may be associated with suppression of task-irrelevant information, even for conditions where informational masking and competition for linguistic processing resources would not be expected.

Bologna, William J.; Chatterjee, Monita; Dubno, Judy R.

2013-01-01

259

Effortful control and executive attention in typical and atypical development: An event-related potential study.  

PubMed

Executive attention and its relationship with effortful control (EC) were investigated in children with ADHD (n=24), autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n=20), and controls (n=21). Executive attention measures included flanker-performance and event-related potentials (N2, P3, and ERN). EC was assessed using questionnaires. Only the ERN was found to be robustly related to EC across groups. N2 did not differ between groups and only children with ADHD+ODD showed diminished executive attention as expressed in RT and P3. In ADHD, monitoring of incorrect (ERN) and correct (CRN) responses was diminished. Overall, the link between EC and executive attention was less strong as expected and varied depending on group and measure considered. All groups were able to detect conflict (N2) and all but ADHD+ODD were able to allocate extra attention in order to respond correctly (P3). Findings indicate a general reduced response monitoring in ADHD. PMID:24686073

Samyn, Vicky; Wiersema, Jan R; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roeyers, Herbert

2014-05-01

260

Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

2011-01-01

261

Overview and stellar statistics of the expected Gaia Catalogue using the Gaia Object Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: An effort has been made to simulate the expected Gaia Catalogue, including the effect of observational errors. We statistically analyse this simulated Gaia data to better understand what can be obtained from the Gaia astrometric mission. This catalogue is used to investigate the potential yield in astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic information and the extent and effect of observational errors on the true Gaia Catalogue. This article is a follow-up to previous work, where the expected Gaia Catalogue content was reviewed but without the simulation of observational errors. Methods: We analysed the Gaia Object Generator (GOG) catalogue using the Gaia Analysis Tool (GAT), thereby producing a number of statistics about the catalogue. Results: A simulated catalogue of one billion objects is presented, with detailed information on the 523 million individual single stars it contains. Detailed information is provided for the expected errors in parallax, position, proper motion, radial velocity, and the photometry in the four Gaia bands. Information is also given on the expected performance of physical parameter determination, including temperature, metallicity, and line-of-sight extinction.

Luri, X.; Palmer, M.; Arenou, F.; Masana, E.; de Bruijne, J.; Antiche, E.; Babusiaux, C.; Borrachero, R.; Sartoretti, P.; Julbe, F.; Isasi, Y.; Martinez, O.; Robin, A. C.; Reylé, C.; Jordi, C.; Carrasco, J. M.

2014-06-01

262

Adaptive and Qualitative Changes in Encoding Strategy With Experience: Evidence From the Test-Expectancy Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Three experiments demonstrated learners’ abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study–test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study–test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants’ metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests.

Finley, Jason R.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

2012-01-01

263

Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions.  

PubMed

The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., "courage"). As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm (HRA) but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the HRA. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain tasks. PMID:24478659

Holec, Victoria; Pirot, Heather L; Euston, David R

2014-01-01

264

Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions  

PubMed Central

The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., “courage”). As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm (HRA) but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the HRA. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain tasks.

Holec, Victoria; Pirot, Heather L.; Euston, David R.

2014-01-01

265

DOE/Allison ceramic vane effort  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities to be accomplished and the expected results from the program to develop ultra-high efficiency gas turbine systems. The topics of the report include the objectives, the approach, project description including design/analysis of ceramic vanes and mounting hardware; procurement of ceramic vanes; thermal shock proof tests; vane/mount proof test in engine; ceramic vane field demonstration, and expected results.

Wenglarz, R.; Ali, S.; Browning, W.; Calcuttawala, S.; Khandelwal, P.

1995-12-31

266

Suppressed Working Memory on the WMS-III as a Marker for Poor Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical utility of memory minus Working Memory Index (memory-WMI) discrepancy scores on the WMS-III for detecting poor effort in 145 personal injury litigants (19 poor effort, 126 adequate effort). On average, participants in the poor effort group performed significantly lower on all WMS-III memory indexes and demonstrated larger memory-WMI discrepancy scores

Rael T. Lange; Grant L. Iverson; Karen Sullivan; Debbie Anderson

2006-01-01

267

Extreme Vacua: Achievements and Expectations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining pressures between 10-12 and 10-14 Torr inside vacuum systems operating at room temperature imposes severe limitations on the choice of materials and pumps. If the proper choice is made and the proper procedures are followed, the main obstacle to achieving such low pressure results from the hydrogen outgassing of the metal walls of the vacuum system. However, at the lower end of this range and for pumping systems based on getter pumps (both titanium sublimation and non-evaporable getter pumps), methane may become the main component of the residual gas pressure. Although a large effort has been devoted to developing suitable gauges, only a few of them have been actually tested at the extreme vacuum for which they were designed. Furthermore, none of the commercially available instruments is adequate for pressures below 10-12 Torr. The basic physical phenomena which contribute to defining the vacuum condition inside a system operating in this pressure range are reviewed. Guidelines to the selection of materials and pumps are given and discussed with the help of some examples.

Benvenuti, C.

1988-01-01

268

Rising Expectations: Access to Biomedical Information  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To provide an overview of the expansion in public access to electronic biomedical information over the past two decades, with an emphasis on developments to which the U.S. National Library of Medicine contributed. Methods Review of the increasingly broad spectrum of web-accessible genomic data, biomedical literature, consumer health information, clinical trials data, and images. Results The amount of publicly available electronic biomedical information has increased dramatically over the past twenty years. Rising expectations regarding access to biomedical information were stimulated by the spread of the Internet, the World Wide Web, advanced searching and linking techniques. These informatics advances simplified and improved access to electronic information and reduced costs, which enabled inter-organizational collaborations to build and maintain large international information resources and also aided outreach and education efforts The demonstrated benefits of free access to electronic biomedical information encouraged the development of public policies that further increase the amount of information available. Conclusions Continuing rapid growth of publicly accessible electronic biomedical information presents tremendous opportunities and challenges, including the need to ensure uninterrupted access during disasters or emergencies and to manage digital resources so they remain available for future generations.

Lindberg, D. A. B.; Humphreys, B. L.

2008-01-01

269

The special effort processing of FGGE data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic FGGE level IIb data set was enhanced. It focused on removing deficiencies in the objective methods of quality assurance, removing efficiencies in certain types of operationally produced satellite soundings, and removing deficiencies in certain types of operationally produced cloud tracked winds. The Special Effort was a joint NASA-NOAA-University of Wisconsin effort. The University of Wisconsin installed an interactive McIDAS capability on the Amdahl computer at the Goddard Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) with one interactive video terminal at Goddard and the other at the World Weather Building. With this interactive capability a joint processing effort was undertaken to reprocess certain FGGE data sets. NOAA produced a specially edited data set for the special observing periods (SOPs) of FGGE. NASA produced an enhanced satellite sounding data set for the SOPs while the University of Wisconsin produced an enhanced cloud tracked wind set from the Japanese geostationary satellite images.

1983-01-01

270

High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

Kalemci, Emrah [Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey)

2011-09-21

271

Effort thrombosis: recognition and management while underway.  

PubMed

Effort thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins is an uncommon cause of upper extremity swelling. Prompt recognition and treatment of this disorder is important in order to minimize the complications of pulmonary embolism and postphlebitic syndrome that can occur with this condition. This can be very challenging while underway or in the field. A sailor who developed effort vein thrombosis while underway on board the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln is presented to review the presentation and management of this disorder, particularly as it applies to active duty military personnel. PMID:1749504

Mitchell, P B; MacGillivray, D C; Almond, M D

1991-10-01

272

Gender Bias in Mothers' Expectations about Infant Crawling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined influence of child's sex on mothers' expectations about their 11-month-olds' motor development. Found that mothers of girls underestimated their performance on the novel task of crawling down steep and shallow slopes and mothers of boys overestimated their performance. Girls and boys exhibited identical levels of motor performance during…

Mondschein, Emily R.; Adolph, Karen E.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.

2000-01-01

273

Faculty Expectations for College Presidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the norms espoused by the professoriate regarding the role performance of academe presidents resulting with eight inviolable and five admonitory normative structures. The findings showed institutional and individual faculty characteristics do promote a level of influence on the degree of indignation registered on various…

Fleming, J. Christopher

2010-01-01

274

NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal

Lammers

2012-01-01

275

User Effort Related to Apartment Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the quality of the interior physical environment of apartment dwellings for the users and their activities, 115 residents in two-bedroom apartments were interviewed using a structured schedule. To obtain an evaluation of the human costs of using the environment, respondents rated their effort for tasks in each room. The users' evaluations of specific design features helped interpret ratings.

Rose E. Steidl

1981-01-01

276

Library of Congress Digital Library effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Library of Congress has been actively seeking gift funds to continue the digitization efforts begun five years ago by its American Memory pilot project, which has successfully digitized more than 210,000 items. Many of these items have been made available to 44 test sites around the United States, and selected items from this project are also available via the

Herbert S. Becker

1995-01-01

277

Restructuring Schooling: Learning from Ongoing Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular demands for school restructuring are increasingly common. This book is designed for diverse audiences who are interested in school improvement. Chapter 1, "Restructuring: In Search of a Movement" (Joseph Murphy), provides a historical and conceptual framework of restructuring efforts. Chapter 2, "Feeling the Ripples, Riding the Waves"…

Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Hallinger, Philip, Ed.

278

Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele

2010-01-01

279

Efforts to Generate Maps of Atoll Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief overview of the current status of reef island mapping, and reports on our efforts to generate maps for two low-lying atoll countries, the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Tuvalu, for which no recent detailed land-use maps or topographic maps are available. Three topics are presented: 1) Nationwide mapping by satellite remote sensing, 2) Shoreline

Hiroya YAMANO; Hiroto SHIMAZAKI; Hajime KAYANNE; Hiromune YOKOKI; Toru YAMAGUCHI; Masashi CHIKAMORI; Masayuki TAMURA; Toshimi MURASE; Yasuhiro SUZUKI; Hiroshi TAKAGI; Masao WATANABE; Shinya WATANABE; Satoshi YOSHII; Wolf FORSTREUTER

2005-01-01

280

Training Teachers--A Cooperative Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a successful collaborative teacher preparation effort between a suburban school district and the neighboring state university. This partnership supplies elementary physical education teachers who are familiar with the curriculum and instructional techniques of the school district. General guidelines on how to create a…

Cusimano, Barbara Ewens

1990-01-01

281

The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

2012-08-01

282

Labor Effort Disincentives of Negative Income Taxation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study attempts to determine what labor effort disincentives, if any, will result from the introduction of a negative income tax plan into the fiscal structure of the U.S. The study's conclusions are: disincentives appear to be associated with negative...

W. C. Spaeth

1974-01-01

283

Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

Paulston, Rolland G.

1975-01-01

284

Behavior Contracts: A Home School Cooperative Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on behavior contracts at school which attempt to promote a home school cooperative effort. The contract is drawn up at school, and classroom teachers award points for appropriate school behaviors; parents in turn reward the student if the report is good. (DS)

Stitely, Rose Patton

1978-01-01

285

Nonverbal Expectancy Effects in the Political Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectancy effects--the unconscious shaping of receiver behavior by signalling sender expectations--while recognized in science, have not been documented extensively from a communication perspective, nor are nonverbal aspects of expectancy effects fully known. Expectancy is a function of three elements, the sender's predisposition (including…

Corder, Lloyd E.

286

Changing Role Expectations of Psychiatric Occupational Therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric occupational therapists have experienced multiple changes in role expectations with the move from long term care to short term care. These expectations have caused frustration, low self-esteem, and job dissatisfaction. These feelings may be better understood in terms of expectation generated stressors as identified by organization theorists. Having reviewed these stressors, this article will review role expectation changes of

Janet E. Short

1984-01-01

287

Work More, Then Feel More: The Influence of Effort on Affective Predictions  

PubMed Central

Two studies examined how effort invested in a task shapes the affective predictions related to potential success in that task, and the mechanism underlying this relationship. In Study 1, PhD students awaiting an editorial decision about a submitted manuscript estimated the effort they had invested in preparing that manuscript for submission and how happy they would feel if it were accepted. Subjective estimates of effort were positively related to participants' anticipated happiness, an effect mediated by the higher perceived quality of one's work. In other words, the more effort one though having invested, the happier one expected to feel if it were accepted, because one expected a higher quality manuscript. We replicated this effect and its underlying mediation in Study 2, this time using an experimental manipulation of effort in the context of creating an advertising slogan. Study 2 further showed that participants mistakenly thought their extra efforts invested in the task had improved the quality of their work, while independent judges had found no objective differences in quality between the outcomes of the high- and low-effort groups. We discuss the implications of the relationship between effort and anticipated emotions and the conditions under which such relationship might be functional.

Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M.; Toma, Claudia; Corneille, Olivier

2014-01-01

288

Genome sequences and great expectations.  

PubMed

To assess how automatic function assignment will contribute to genome annotation in the next five years, we have performed an analysis of 31 available genome sequences. An emerging pattern is that function can be predicted for almost two-thirds of the 73,500 genes that were analyzed. Despite progress in computational biology, there will always be a great need for large-scale experimental determination of protein function. PMID:11178275

Iliopoulos, I; Tsoka, S; Andrade, M A; Janssen, P; Audit, B; Tramontano, A; Valencia, A; Leroy, C; Sander, C; Ouzounis, C A

2001-01-01

289

Neural integration of risk and effort costs by the frontal pole: only upon request.  

PubMed

Rewards in real life are rarely received without incurring costs and successful reward harvesting often involves weighing and minimizing different types of costs. In the natural environment, such costs often include the physical effort required to obtain rewards and potential risks attached to them. Costs may also include potential risks. In this study, we applied fMRI to explore the neural coding of physical effort costs as opposed to costs associated with risky rewards. Using an incentive-compatible valuation mechanism, we separately measured the subjective costs associated with effortful and risky options. As expected, subjective costs of options increased with both increasing effort and increasing risk. Despite the similar nature of behavioral discounting of effort and risk, distinct regions of the brain coded these two cost types separately, with anterior insula primarily processing risk costs and midcingulate and supplementary motor area (SMA) processing effort costs. To investigate integration of the two cost types, we also presented participants with options that combined effortful and risky elements. We found that the frontal pole integrates effort and risk costs through functional coupling with the SMA and insula. The degree to which the latter two regions influenced frontal pole activity correlated with participant-specific behavioral sensitivity to effort and risk costs. These data support the notion that, although physical effort costs may appear to be behaviorally similar to other types of costs, such as risk, they are treated separately at the neural level and are integrated only if there is a need to do so. PMID:23345243

Burke, Christopher J; Brünger, Christian; Kahnt, Thorsten; Park, Soyoung Q; Tobler, Philippe N

2013-01-23

290

Effort increases sensitivity to reward and loss magnitude in the human brain.  

PubMed

It is ecologically adaptive that the amount of effort invested to achieve a reward increases the relevance of the resulting outcome. Here, we investigated the effect of effort on activity in reward and loss processing brain areas by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In total, 28 subjects were endowed with monetary rewards of randomly varying magnitude after performing arithmetic calculations that were either difficult (high effort), easy (low effort) or already solved (no effort). Subsequently, a forced donation took place, where a varying part of the endowment was transferred to a charity organization, causing a loss for the subject. Results show that reward magnitude positively modulates activity in reward-processing brain areas (subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and nucleus accumbens) only in the high effort condition. Furthermore, anterior insular activity was positively modulated by loss magnitude only after high effort. The results strongly suggest an increasing relevance of outcomes with increasing previous effort. PMID:23202663

Hernandez Lallement, Julen; Kuss, Katarina; Trautner, Peter; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin; Fliessbach, Klaus

2014-03-01

291

The Relationship Between Effort and Moral Worth: Three Amendments to Sorensen's Model  

PubMed Central

Kelly Sorensen defends a model of the relationship between effort and moral worth in which the effort exerted in performing a morally desirable action contributes positively to the action’s moral worth, but the effort required to perform the action detracts from its moral worth. I argue that Sorensen’s model, though on the right track, is mistaken in three ways. First, it fails to capture the relevance of counterfactual effort to moral worth. Second, it wrongly implies that exerting unnecessary effort confers moral worth on an action. Third, it fails to adequately distinguish between cases in which effort is required because of defects of moral character and those in which effort is required because of barriers external to moral character, such as social pressures or non-moral cognitive deficits. I suggest three amendments to Sorensen’s model that correct these three defects.

Douglas, Thomas

2014-01-01

292

American lifelines alliance efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was performed on American Lifelines Alliance (ALA) efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability. ALA is a public-private partnership project, with the goal of reducing risks to lifelines from natural hazards and human threat events. The mechanism used by ALA for developing national guidelines for lifeline systems is dependent upon using existing Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as means to achieve national consensus.

Nishenko, S. P.; Savage, W. U.; Honegger, D. G.; McLane, T. R.

2002-01-01

293

Neural correlates of mental effort evaluation--involvement of structures related to self-awareness.  

PubMed

Mental effort is a limited resource which must be invested to perform mental tasks. The amount of mental effort investment that an individual experiences during task performance can be measured afterwards with the help of self-rating scales. Earlier research suggests that integration of information about somatic state changes is crucial for the self-evaluation of mental effort investment. Damage to the pathways which convey information about somatic state changes can lead to an inability to self-evaluate mental effort investment, while conceptually similar evaluations of task difficulty can still be performed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation, while subjects rated their mental effort investment and the difficulty of a previously performed task. Our results show stronger activation of the left anterior insular cortex (aIC) during evaluation of mental effort. Additionally, the activity in left aIC during task performance was modulated by changes in task demand in a similar way as the self-ratings of mental effort. We argue that aIC does not only play a role in the integration of self-related information during self-evaluation of mental effort investment, but that left aIC might also be involved in the experience of mental effort during task performance. PMID:23202660

Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, Rainer

2014-03-01

294

The Effects of Education Compatibility and Technological Expectancy on E-Learning Acceptance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discerning what influences a student's acceptance of e-learning is still unclear and has not been well investigated. On the basis of the expectancy-value theory, much effort has been put into identifying the effectual factors regarding the technological expectancy of students. However, aside from technological usage, the adoption of an e-learning…

Chen, Jian-Liang

2011-01-01

295

Performance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Department of Transportation combines the performance report for 2001 with the performance plan for 2003. Released in March 2002, its purpose is to weigh statistics and historical trends to improve the nation's transportation system. A key focus of the report is safety; this includes highway, aviation, rail, and all forms of transportation related safety. In light of September 11, national security is another top priority. For each issue covered in the report, the performance of the DOT in recent years is assessed, and specific goals are set. Strategies and initiatives are named to achieve the proposed objectives.

2002-01-01

296

The fallacies of concurrent climate policy efforts.  

PubMed

Climate policy has assumed an extreme degree of urgency in the international debate in recent years. This article begins by taking a critical look at the scientific underpinnings of the efforts to stabilize the climate. It points to several serious question marks on the purported relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, and expresses distrust about claims of impending catastrophes related to rising sea levels, hurricanes, and spread of infectious disease. It then reviews the concurrent climate policy efforts and concludes that they are incoherent, misguided and unduly costly, and that they have so far had no perceptible impact on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The exceedingly ambitious policy plans currently under preparation suffer from similar fallacies. For these reasons, but also because of the remaining scientific doubts and the exorbitant costs that have to be incurred, skepticism is expressed about the preparedness to implement the climate policy plans currently on the table. PMID:20701178

Radetzki, Marian

2010-05-01

297

New technology emphasizes international offshore effort  

SciTech Connect

While the offshore industry is focusing its major development efforts on the deeper waters of the US Gulf, West Africa and Brazil, technology has not stood still in the world`s many other established and frontier offshore development areas. These selected items drawn from contributions by UK companies and a major joint-venture development in Eastern Canada emphasize this effort. Included here are: (1) announcement of a major six-field, 3 Tcf gas development off Nova Scotia`s Sable Island and award of two drilling contracts; (2) a comprehensive study of mobile production units in the UK by Smith Rea Energy Analysts; (3) four applications of an option to high-pressure swivels on an FPSO with multiple subsea inlet lines; (4) a contract to supply a DC bus drive for 17 ESPs on Texaco`s Captain field; and (5) review of an environmental study of the Falkland Islands in preparation for exploration activity.

NONE

1997-07-01

298

Materials characterization on efforts for ablative materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental efforts to develop a new procedure to measure char depth in carbon phenolic nozzle material are described. Using a Shor Type D Durometer, hardness profiles were mapped across post fired sample blocks and specimens from a fired rocket nozzle. Linear regression was used to estimate the char depth. Results are compared to those obtained from computed tomography in a comparative experiment. There was no significant difference in the depth estimates obtained by the two methods.

Tytula, Thomas P.; Schad, Kristin C.; Swann, Myles H.

1992-01-01

299

NRC; Smog control efforts off mark  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the National Research Council says the U.S. regulatory programs to control smog may have been misdirected the past 20 years, and more emphasis needs to be placed on limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. An NRC study the ozone control efforts have focused mainly on controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. However, in many parts of the country controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides would be more effective, it the, noting VOCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of ozone.

Not Available

1992-01-06

300

Measuring Tax Effort in Arab Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Arab countries face difficulties in generating sufficient revenues for public expenditure and may face a budget deficit. This study makes use of pooled time-series and cross-sectional country data for the 1994-2000 time period for 16 Arab countries to examine the determinants of the tax effort. The results suggest that in the Arab countries, the main determinants of the tax

M. Nagy Eltony

2002-01-01

301

How do feelings influence effort? An empirical study of entrepreneurs' affect and venture effort.  

PubMed

How do feelings influence the effort of entrepreneurs? To obtain data on this issue, the authors implemented experience sampling methodology in which 46 entrepreneurs used cell phones to provide reports on their affect, future temporal focus, and venture effort twice daily for 24 days. Drawing on the affect-as-information theory, the study found that entrepreneurs' negative affect directly predicts entrepreneurs' effort toward tasks that are required immediately. Results were consistent for within-day and next-day time lags. Extending the theory, the study found that positive affect predicts venture effort beyond what is immediately required and that this relationship is mediated by future temporal focus. The mediating effects were significant only for next-day outcomes. Implications of findings on the nature of the affect-effort relationship for different time lags are discussed. PMID:19594247

Foo, Maw-Der; Uy, Marilyn A; Baron, Robert A

2009-07-01

302

Evaluation of a New Index of Mechanical Ventilation Weaning: The Timed Inspiratory Effort.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: The performance of most indices used to predict ventilator weaning outcomes remains below expectation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new weaning index, the timed inspiratory effort (TIE) index, which is based on the maximal inspiratory pressure and the occlusion time required to reach it. METHODS: This observational prospective study included patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Patients ready to be weaned had their TIE index and 6 previously reported indices recorded. The primary end point was the overall predictive performance of the studied weaning indices (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves [AUCs]). The secondary end points were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. P values <.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: From the 128 initially screened patients, the 103 patients selected for the study included 45 women and 58 men (mean age 60.8 ± 19.8 years). In all, 60 patients were weaned, 43 were not weaned, and 32 died during the study period. Tracheotomy was necessary in 61 patients. The mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 17.5 ± 17.3 days. The AUC of 3 weaning predictors (the TIE index, the integrative weaning index, and the frequency-to-tidal volume [f/Vt] ratio index) was higher than the other indices. The TIE index had the largest AUC. CONCLUSION: The TIE index performed better than the best weaning indices used in clinical practice. PMID:23753238

de Souza, Leonardo Cordeiro; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo

2013-04-10

303

What your leader expects of you.  

PubMed

The success of an executive team depends heavily on the relationships the boss has with his or her direct reports. Yet the leadership literature has had little to say about what is expected in those relationships-on either side. Larry Bossidy, formerly the chairman and CEO of Honeywell, and before that of AlliedSignal, shares what he calls "the CEO compact," detailing the behaviors a leader should look for in subordinates and what they should be able to expect in return. A CEO's best people, he says, know when a situation calls for them to get involved. They generate ideas-remembering that some of the best ones may sound crazy at first. They are willing to collaborate, putting the long-term good of the company above short-term goals of their divisions. They step up to lead initiatives, even if the outcome is uncertain. They develop leaders among their people, especially through direct involvement in performance appraisals. They stay current on world events and anticipate how those events may affect the company and its competition. They drive their own growth by exposing themselves to new people and ideas and by accepting demanding assignments. And they sustain these behaviors in bad times as well as good. On the other side of the compact, the boss should provide clarity of direction; set goals and objectives; give frequent, specific, and immediate feedback; be decisive and timely; demonstrate honesty and candor; and offer an equitable compensation plan. Executives who aren't lucky enough to have such a boss can create a compact with their own subordinates, Bossidy says, and demonstrate by example. The result will be to improve team and company performance and accelerate individual growth. PMID:17432153

Bossidy, Larry

2007-04-01

304

A pitfall for the expectancy theory of human eyelid conditioning.  

PubMed

Two simple eyeblink conditioning experiments with random intermittent reinforcement schedules were performed. In Experiment 1, subjects had to rate their expectancy for an unconditioned stimulus (US) on a seven-level scale prior to each trial. As anticipated, expectancy for US increased with a successive conditioned stimulus (CS) alone, and decreased with successive CS-US pairings. However, Experiments 1 and 2 showed that the frequency of eyeblink conditioned responses (CRs) evolved in a direction opposite to that of expectancy changes: CRs increased, whereas expectancy for US decreased, and vice versa. The possible effect of sensitization on eyeblink response was ruled out by the lack of a run effect in an unpaired control group in Experiment 2. These results tend to disconfirm the expectancy theory of conditioning. Although they were explicitly predicted by the conventional "strength" theory of conditioning, an alternative interpretation is proposed within a cognitive framework. PMID:4069791

Perruchet, P

1985-01-01

305

The REACH 2010 logic model: an illustration of expected performance.  

PubMed

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supports 40 Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH 2010) community coalitions in designing, implementing, and evaluating community-driven strategies to eliminate health disparities in racial and ethnic groups. The REACH 2010 logic model was developed to assist grantees in identifying, documenting, and evaluating local attributes of the coalition and its partners to reduce and eliminate local health disparities. The model emphasizes the program's theory of change for addressing health disparities; it displays five distinct stages of evaluation for which qualitative and quantitative measurement data are collected. The CDC is relying on REACH 2010 grantees to provide credible evidence that explains how community contributions have changed conditions and behaviors, thus leading to the reduction and elimination of health disparities. PMID:16356374

Tucker, Pattie; Liao, Youlian; Giles, Wayne H; Liburd, Leandris

2006-01-01

306

Simulation Studies of the Expected Performance of Kerava Solar Village.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kerava solar village is the first regional building complex in Finland with a combined solar heating and heat pump system using seasonal heat storage. The village will be completed at the beginning of 1983. In this study the heating system of Kerava s...

P. D. Lund R. Maekinen J. T. Routti H. Vuorelma

1982-01-01

307

The Academic Researcher Role: Enhancing Expectations and Improved Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article distinguishes between six tasks related to the academic researcher role: (1) networking; (2) collaboration; (3) managing research; (4) doing research; (5) publishing research; and (6) evaluation of research. Data drawn from surveys of academic staff, conducted in Norwegian universities over three decades, provide evidence that the…

Kyvik, Svein

2013-01-01

308

Expected orbit determination performance for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each of the components required for the computation of precise orbits for the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) spacecraft - gravity field modeling, nonconservative force modeling, and satellite tracking technologies - is examined. The research conducted in the Space Geodesy Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center in preparation for meeting the 13-cm radial orbit accuracy requirement for the T/P mission is outlined. New developments in modeling the earth's gravitational field and modeling the complex nonconservative forces acting on T/P are highlighted. The T/P error budget is reviewed, and a prelaunch assessment of the predicted orbit determination accuracies is summarized.

Nerem, R. S.; Putney, Barbara H.; Marshall, J. A.; Lerch, Francis J.; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Klosko, Steven M.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Patel, Girish B.; Williamson, Ronald G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.

1993-01-01

309

Biophysical limitations on deep diving: Some limiting performance expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decompression is treated according to the conventional Haldane model, but with continuously varying gas mixture, and continuous\\u000a ascent.\\u000a \\u000a Analytical expressions are derived for the inert gas, tissue super-saturation, during dives with optimum gas mixtures. Analog\\u000a computer results are used to show the supersaturation graphically, on dives of 300 ft. with 20 minutes on the bottom, and\\u000a 1,000 ft. with 4

Hugh Bradner; R. Stuart Mackay

1963-01-01

310

Physical Education Curriculum Guide: Performance Expectations, K-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this guide was to unify physical education programs in several school districts through the development of common objectives. Curricular content was developed according to levels of learning in attitudes, concepts, and skills, recognizing skills in a sequential developmental and spiral arrangement. Nine areas of motor skill…

1980

311

Can expectancy influence hemispheric asymmetries?  

PubMed

We carried out three experiments with the aim of verifying a critical assumption of Kinsbourne's (Acta Psychol., 33 (1970), 193-201; Attention and Performance V, London: Academic press, (1975), pp. 81-96) 'dynamic' attentional hypothesis of hemispheric asymmetries, namely, that asymmetries arise only when subjects know in advance what type of stimulus and/or cognitive mode they are about to be engaged with. We used a paradigm modified from Posner (J. Exp. Psychol., 109 (1980), 160-174) to study the effects of non-spatial 'cognitive' cueing on hemispheric asymmetries using a lexical decision and a visuo-spatial discrimination task (acute vs. obtuse angles). While we did not find significant overall hemispheric asymmetries with the spatial material, we found a consistent advantage of the left hemisphere in the lexical decision task. In Experiment 2 where the cue was presented in central vision and only the stimuli were lateralised and in Experiment 3 where both cue and stimuli were lateralised to the same hemisphere, the left hemisphere advantage did not interact with the effect of cueing. In contrast, in Experiment 4, where only the cue was lateralised and the stimuli were centrally presented, the left hemisphere advantage in the lexical decision task emerged only following invalid cueing. While the results of Experiments 2 and 3 are not in keeping with Kinsbourne's hypothesis, the result of Experiment 4 shows that some pre-exposural mechanisms may indeed affect the emergence of hemispheric asymmetries. A differential susceptibility in 'disengaging' from the processing mode induced by an invalid cue might represent another interesting example of hemispheric difference. PMID:11257287

Mascetti, G G; Nicoletti, R; Carfagna, C; Cilia, S M; Marzi, C A

2001-01-01

312

Nursing students' expectations of the college experience.  

PubMed

Nursing students' expectations of college have not received much attention in the empirical literature. These expectations may be important in better understanding nurses' motivations, role acquisition, and academic and professional success. The first study discussed in this article examined the reliability and construct validity of an instrument designed to assess students' (N = 95) expectations of their college experience. The results indicate good reliability and validity. The second study discussed in this article examined differences in expectations, comparing nursing and non-nursing students (N = 160) in an urban college setting. The results suggest expectations emphasizing practical and professional aspects (i.e., acquiring a profession, earning more money), followed by self-betterment and social life expectations. Nursing students differed from non-nursing students by reporting higher self-betterment and professional expectations but lower academic expectations. Implications for application and further research are discussed. PMID:18792705

Zysberg, Leehu; Zisberg, Anna

2008-09-01

313

Students' Perceptions of Peer Evaluation: An Expectancy Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the difficulty of evaluating uneven performance among group members, many researchers suggest incorporating peer evaluations in a grading system that permits an instructor to evaluate and grade individual performance more equitably within a group. In this study, the authors employ expectancy theory to assess key factors that may…

Chen, Yining; Lou, Hao

2004-01-01

314

Higher Order Expectations in Asset Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine formally Keynes' idea that higher order beliefs can drive a wedge between an asset price and its fundamental value based on expected future payoffs. Higher order expectations add an additional term to a standard asset pricing equation. We call this the higher order wedge, which depends on the difference between higher and first order expectations of future payoffs.

Philippe Bacchetta; Eric van Wincoop

2008-01-01

315

Explanatory style, expectations, and depressive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty-five college students completed questionnaires measuring explanatory style, general expectations for future good and bad events, specific expectations for future good and bad events, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling confirmed the prediction of the attributional reformulation of learned helplessness theory that the link between stability and globality of explanatory style and depression is mediated by expectations.

Christopher Peterson; Robert S. Vaidya

2001-01-01

316

Student Expectations of Course and Instructor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates student expectations of themselves and their instructors by administering a precourse questionnaire to 393 introductory psychology students at Emporia State University (Kansas). Uses a postcourse questionnaire to determine how these expectations were met. Shows women and men had similar expectations. Contends results are useful to…

Becker, Angela H.; And Others

1990-01-01

317

Multidimensional Scaling for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although expectancies for alcohol have been shown to influence drinking behavior, current expectancy questionnaires do not lend themselves to the study of how expectancies are represented in memory. Two studies were conducted which utilized multidimensional scaling techniques designed to produce hypothesized representations of cognitive…

Rather, Bruce; And Others

318

Respiratory effort energy estimation using Doppler radar.  

PubMed

Human respiratory effort can be harvested to power wearable biosensors and mobile electronic devices. The very first step toward designing a harvester is to estimate available energy and power. This paper describes an estimation of the available power and energy due to the movements of the torso during breathing, using Doppler radar by detecting breathing rate, torso displacement, torso movement velocity and acceleration along the sagittal movement of the torso. The accuracy of the detected variables is verified by two reference methods. The experimental result obtained from a healthy female human subject shows that the available power from circumferential movement can be higher than the power from the sagittal movement. PMID:23365993

Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Yavari, Ehsan; Young, Jared; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Stickley, Cris

2012-01-01

319

Measuring Student Effort and Engagement in an Introductory Physics Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Multiple scales reflecting student effort were developed using factor and scale analysis on data from an introductory physics course. This data included interactions with an on-line homework system. One of the scales displays many characteristics of a metric of the individual level of engagement in the course. This scale is shown to be a good predictor of performance on class exams and the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Furthermore, normalized learning gains on the FCI are well predicted by this scale while pre-instructional FCI scores provide no additional predictive ability, agreeing with observations by Richard Hake. This scale also correlates strongly with epistemological beliefs that learning is related to effort and is the responsibility of the student. The factors that enter into this scale, writing and mastering expert-like problem-solving, are consistent with this being a measure of individual levels of class engagement.

Bonham, Scott W.

2009-07-06

320

Review of efforts combining neural networks and evolutionary computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the widespread recognition of the capacity for neural networks to perform general function approximation, a variety of such mapping functions have been used to address difficult problems in pattern recognition, time series forecasting, automatic control, image compression, and other engineering applications. Although these efforts have met with considerable success, the design and training of neural networks have remained much of an art, relying on human expertise, trial, and error. More recently, methods in evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, evolution strategies, and evolutionary programming, have been used to assist in and automate the design and training of neural networks. This presentation offers a review of these efforts and discusses the potential benefits and limitations of such combinations.

Fogel, David B.; Angeline, Peter J.

1995-04-01

321

Measuring the intensity of pregnancy planning effort.  

PubMed

This study validated a measure of pregnancy planning effort based on Miller's conceptual framework in two clinical settings. The questionnaire's main items deal with general behaviour with regard to pregnancy, timing and proception (proception being the reverse of contraception). Values for these three items are added to yield a continuous score ranging from 0 to 12. The study population comprised 448 women of different cultural backgrounds recruited in prenatal, fertility and family planning clinics in Quebec and North Carolina. The results indicate that the internal consistency between the three items pertaining to pregnancy planning was excellent (Cronbach's alpha of 0.83). Test-retest reliability after a 4-week interval was excellent, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.86 for the planning score. The planning score median for women attending family planning clinics (1.00) was significantly lower than that for those recruited in fertility clinics (11.00), confirming the discriminant ability of the instrument. Path analysis shows that the conceptual model corroborates the observed data and explains 53% of the pregnancy planning variability. In conclusion, this is the first questionnaire specifically designed to assess the intensity of pregnancy planning effort, a potentially important variable in epidemiological studies and clinical practice. PMID:12562477

Morin, Pascale; Payette, Hélène; Moos, Merry-K; St-Cyr-Tribble, Denise; Niyonsenga, Théophile; De Wals, Philippe

2003-01-01

322

On the energy cost of mental effort.  

PubMed

The discovery of the Law of Conservation of Energy in the 1840s had consequences for psychological theory. Does the process of thinking involve a novel form of energy that is not recognized by physical science? E. L. Youmans (1821-1887) argued that "mental operations are dependent upon material changes in the nervous system." Kurd Lasswitz (1848-1910) introduced the term "psychophysical energy," based upon the electrical activity of the brain. At the beginning of the twentieth century Alfred Lehmann (1858-1921) claimed that intense mental effort leads to a net increase in oxygen utilization and regarded this as evidence of a specific psychic energy. His views were adopted and extended by Hans Berger (1873-1941). F. G. Benedict (1870-1957), drawing upon extensive experience with balance experiments conducted on humans in large-scale respiration calorimeters, concluded that mental effort probably had no effect upon the brain's metabolism. Modern approaches to the problem make use of PET imaging, which detects local changes in glucose utilization by the brain during cognitive activity. PMID:16443571

Sourkes, Theodore L

2006-03-01

323

Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

Singh, Gurkirpal

2005-01-01

324

Sex-Role Stereotyping in Two Newspapers of 1885: The Influence of the Pioneer Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To answer the questions of whether the pioneer effort and subsequent differences in lifestyles affected sex-role stereotyping in newspapers in 1885 and whether a widely perceived difference in role expectation was evident in the popular writing of the times, a study examined the differences in sex roles reflected in popular journalistic portrayals…

Jolliffe, Lee; Bond, Turner

325

Predicting Homework Effort: Support for a Domain-Specific, Multilevel Homework Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the domain-specific, multilevel homework model proposed in the present study, students' homework effort is influenced by expectancy and value beliefs, homework characteristics, parental homework behavior, and conscientiousness. The authors used structural equation modeling and hierarchical linear modeling analyses to test the model in…

Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Schnyder, Inge; Niggli, Alois

2006-01-01

326

Understanding Activist Leadership Effort in the Movement Opposing Drinking and Driving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why do some social movement leaders work harder than others? And, how does gender affect the patterns we uncover? Utilizing historical case study evidence of local chapters in the emerging movement opposing drinking and driving we are able to develop and test theoretical expectations about predictors of weekly effort among MADD and RID leaders.…

Dorius, Cassandra R.; McCarthy, John D.

2011-01-01

327

Neutronics R&D efforts in support of the European breeder blanket development programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent progress in the R&D neutronics efforts spent in the EU to support the development of the HCLL and HCPB breeder blankets is presented. These efforts include neutronic design activities performed in the framework of the European DEMO reactor study, validation efforts by means of neutronics mock-up experiments using 14 MeV neutron generators and the development of dedicated computational

U. Fischer; P. Batistoni; A. Klix; I. Kodeli; D. Leichtle; R. L. Perel

2009-01-01

328

Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA activities. The program provides teachers with a one-week summer professional development workshop, long-term teacher support through classroom visits, teacher access to GLOBE instrumentation, and research opportunities for students. Professional development is centered on student engagement through inquiry, opportunities for collaborative student research, and the GLOBE Program's atmosphere protocols and learning activities. Beyond the training week, teachers receive follow-up specifically addressing current opportunities for student engagement in current research and opportunities for students to present research findings. The first cohort of teachers completed the professional development workshop in July 2012. This session will summarize the planning and implementation details of the summer workshop, including schedule and materials. In addition to these details, we will share our evaluation of follow-up activities and survey results highlighting teachers' perceived barriers to implementing atmosphere investigations. These results will add to the discussion on effective programs aimed at inspiring young scientists.

Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

2012-12-01

329

The NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span over two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis (NCR) Effort. NCR consisted of 1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved using modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms, and 2) blending, where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. The results indicated major improvement over the previously available CZCS archive. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll.

Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.; OReilly, John E.; Patt, Frederick S.; Wang, Meng-Hua; Yoder, James; Casey-McCabe, Nancy; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

330

Piezoelectric and electromagnetic respiratory effort energy harvesters.  

PubMed

The movements of the torso due to normal breathing could be harvested as an alternative, and renewable power source for an ultra-low power electronic device. The same output signal could also be recorded as a physiological signal containing information about breathing, thus enabling self-powered wearable biosensors/harvesters. In this paper, the selection criteria for such a biosensor, optimization procedure, trade-offs, and challenges as a sensor and harvester are presented. The empirical data obtained from testing different modules on a mechanical torso and a human subject demonstrated that an electromagnetic generator could be used as an unobtrusive self-powered medical sensor by harvesting more power, offering reasonable amount of output voltage for rectification purposes, and detecting respiratory effort. PMID:24110468

Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Padasdao, Bryson; Romine, R; Stickley, C; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

2013-01-01

331

NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts  

SciTech Connect

Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research.' While NREL maintains a robust patent portfolio, often companies are looking to do more than just license a technology. These relationships are invaluable in successfully moving technologies from NREL to the marketplace. 'We may generate new and potentially valuable innovations, but our commercialization partners do the heavy work of building a successful business around our technology,' Farris said. Tools such as CRADAs (Cooperative Research and Development Agreements) allow NREL to continue working with companies to refine and develop technologies. And, working with businesses is an area where NREL excels. NREL is responsible for one quarter of the CRADAs in the DOE system. 'When you look at the results of our CRADA program, you can demonstrate that we are actively engaged with companies in collaborating on research and moving technologies to market,' Farris said. NREL is first among DOE labs with 186 active CRADAs. And last year, NREL also was first with the number of new CRADAs signed. 'Part of the success in our working with industry goes back to NREL's mission to grow and support new industries,' Farris added. 'NREL has basic research capabilities, but we are never going to be the ultimate producer of a commercial product. That is the role of the private sector.' Farris also credits the advocacy and support that the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy at DOE provides for these technology transfer activities. 'EERE's support is critical to our success,' Farris said. To assist the private sector in moving a technology from the lab to the manufacturing line, NREL has a number of programs in place to give that first, or even final, nudge toward commercialization. For instance, the Commercialization Assistance Program helps startups overcome technical barriers by granting free access to 40 hours of work at the lab. Through the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Center, NREL also helps clean energy businesses develop strong links with the financial community, as well as other key stakeholders in the commercialization process. In March, NREL formally opened the Colorado Center for Renewable Ene

Lammers, H.

2012-02-01

332

Directed-energy process technology efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

Alexander, P.

1985-01-01

333

Prediction and synthesis efforts at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

One important aspect of an organic synthesis effort related to the development of new explosives, is the ability to estimate the properties of proposed molecules. In most cases, the detonation velocity and C-J pressure are estimated for the proposed explosive using any number of existing predictive methods. Novel explosives are being proposed, at Los Alamos and elsewhere, that are qualitatively different in their molecular makeup than most of the existing conventional ones. These explosives include, highly strained cage molecules, heterocyclic molecules, low hydrogen-containing molecules, and high nitrogen-containing molecules. This paper describes alternate ways of viewing detonation velocities and a new method for estimating detonation velocity of a proposed compound. 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Stine, J.R.; Coburn, M.D.

1988-01-01

334

Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension  

PubMed Central

When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning.

Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting

2013-01-01

335

The Tenure Survey: Expectations for Research, Technology, and Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the findings of a survey that sought to measure the utility function placed by doctoral students and faculty members on research, teaching, and service within the promotion and tenure environment. The results indicate that doctoral students and faculty members are satisfied with expending only the requisite amount of effort to perform their teaching and service responsibilities adequately.

Hubert Glover

1993-01-01

336

Development efforts to improve curved-channel microchannel plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Curved-channel microchannel plate (C-plate) improvements resulting from an ongoing NASA STIS microchannel plate (MCP) development program are described. Performance limitations of previous C-plates led to a development program in support of the STIS MAMA UV photon counter, a second generation instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. C-plate gain, quantum detection efficiency, dark noise, and imaging distortion, which are influenced by channel curvature non-uniformities, have all been improved through use of a new centrifuge fabrication technique. This technique will be described, along with efforts to improve older, more conventional shearing methods. Process optimization methods used to attain targeted C-plate performance goals will be briefly characterized. Newly developed diagnostic measurement techniques to study image distortion, gain uniformity, input bias angle, channel curvature, and ion feedback, will be described. Performance characteristics and initial test results of the improved C-plates will be reported. Future work and applications will also be discussed.

Corbett, M. B.; Feller, W. B.; Laprade, B. N.; Cochran, R.; Bybee, R.; Danks, A.; Joseph, C.

1993-01-01

337

Critical reading effort during text revision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns one of the processes involved in written verbal production: text revising. Our aim was to experimentally test the specificity of reading for revision as compared to reading for comprehension, and to determine the cognitive cost of initiating and performing critical-reading processes. A two-session experiment was conducted on students who had to perform a comprehension task and a

Jean-Yves Roussey; Annie Piolat

2008-01-01

338

Automatic and effortful processes in memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a framework for the conceptualization of a broad range of memory phenomena that integrates research on memory performance in young children, the elderly, and individuals under stress with research on memory performance in normal college students. One basic assumption is that encoding operations vary in their attentional requirements. Operations that drain minimal energy from limited-capacity attentional mechanisms are called

Lynn Hasher; Rose T. Zacks

1979-01-01

339

Heart rate variability and cognitive function: effects of physical effort.  

PubMed

This study investigated alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive performance before and after physical effort, for 30 high-level track and field athletes (23 males and 7 females). Interbeat intervals were assessed at the baseline and during each task of a CogState cognitive battery (simple reaction time, choice reaction time, working memory, short-term memory and sustained attention). Time and frequency domain measures of HRV were compared between conditions and between tasks. The results indicated differences in HRV between executive and non-executive tasks. There was a significant increase in sympathetic-modulation-related indices after physical effort. The differences between executive and non-executive tasks were the same in post-test. Correlations were found between HRV and cognitive performance, which differed by speed and accuracy. We conclude that HRV is related to cognitive demand and that the correlation between HRV and cognitive performance seems to be stronger after physical exercise. The results raise questions about the psychophysiological meaning of different HRV signals and this has implications for future research about the relationship between HRV and cognition. PMID:19632295

Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Takase, Emílio; Darby, David

2009-10-01

340

Graphene based field effect transistors: Efforts made towards flexible electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of flexibility in existing electronics has been realized as a key point for practical application of unusual format electronics that can extend the application limit of biomedical equipments and of course daily routine kind of electronic devices. Graphene showed the great potentiality for flexible format owing to its excellent electronic, mechanical and optical properties. Field effect transistor (FET) is a basic unit for digital and analog electronics thus enormous efforts have been attempted to fabricate the flexible FETs in order to get the high performance. This article reviews the recent development of graphene based FETs including the fabrication and active layers material compatibility in flexible format.

Sharma, Bhupendra K.; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

2013-11-01

341

Status of Educational Efforts in National Security Workforce  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the status of educational efforts for the preparation of a national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This report includes an assessment of the current educational situation for the national security workforce.

None

2008-03-31

342

48 CFR 35.009 - Subcontracting research and development effort.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Subcontracting research and development effort. 35.009 Section 35...CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.009 Subcontracting research and development effort. Since the...

2013-10-01

343

Comparison of Artificial Neural Network and Regression Models in Software Effort Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimating development effort remains a complex problem attracting considerable research attention. Improving the estimation techniques available to project managers would facilitate more effective control of time and budgets in software development. In this paper, predictive Artificial Neural Network and regression based models are investigated, comparing the performance of both methods. The results show that ANNs are effective in effort estimation.

Iris Fabiana De Barcelos Tronto; José Demisio Simões Da Silva; Nilson Sant Anna

2007-01-01

344

Alcohol, self-focus and complex reaction-time performance.  

PubMed

The effects of alcohol, expectancy and state-trait varieties of public self-focus on complex reaction-time performance were evaluated. The procedure crossed a 2 (expectancy) X 2 (dose) modified balanced-placebo design with two levels of public self-awareness (normal versus high). A median split procedure performed on public and private self-consciousness scale scores served to evaluate trait effects. Results indicated that subject's task performance was best understood as an interaction between his subjective experience of intoxication-sobriety, his beliefs concerning what he had drunk and the salience of situational standards toward effortful performance. Public self-consciousness proved to mediate the behavioral expression of conventional expectancies concerning drunken comportment. Interactions between alcohol, expectancy and self-focus are discussed in terms of an interactive model of drunken comportment. PMID:3361903

Ross, D F; Pihl, R O

1988-03-01

345

Understanding Activist Leadership Effort in the Movement Opposing Drinking and Driving  

PubMed Central

Why do some social movement leaders work harder than others? And, how does gender affect the patterns we uncover? Utilizing historical case study evidence of local chapters in the emerging movement opposing drinking and driving we are able to develop and test theoretical expectations about predictors of weekly effort among MADD and RID leaders. Taken together, our model explains 45 percent of the variation in leadership effort. We find bureaucratic complexity and victim support activities are more powerful predictors of effort than are individual leader characteristics, although all are important. Further analysis reveals that gender almost wholly conditions the strong effect of bureaucratic complexity on leadership effort so that increasingly complex chapter structures are associated with substantial increases in work hours for women but not men.

Dorius, Cassandra R.; McCarthy, John D.

2012-01-01

346

Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this…

Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J.

2004-01-01

347

Muscle activation level during maximal voluntary effort.  

PubMed

To assess the extent of the level of muscle activation during maximal voluntary effort, a method of superimposed trains of electrical impulses delivered at 100 Hz was employed. During a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in isometric knee extension, a submaximal superimposed electrical stimulation (ES) of differing train durations was induced to the quadriceps muscle, when maximal voluntary torque was achieved. For all train durations the force increased during ES. During 100 ms and longer trains, the additional torque reached a plateau. The same principle of submaximal electrical stimulation superimposed over MVC was used in explosive isometric knee extensions, comparing the rate of force growth in trials with and without ES. In all subjects ES had an augmenting effect during the increase in force and up to the maximal force. It was concluded that the subjects were not able voluntarily to activate fully their quadriceps muscle. This was true both for maximal force and for the increase in force. It seems that the existence of an activation deficit is a fact, the question is how to quantify it in a reliable and valid way. PMID:8789585

Strojnik, V

1995-01-01

348

Effortless Effort in Bone Regeneration: A Review  

PubMed Central

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of osteoconduction in bony changes in the oral cavity showed a wide range of biomaterials and their osteoinductive potential that emerged gradually and has to a large extent improved the quality of the bone prior to the placement of an implant. Alveolar bone loss is a major concern after tooth extraction in patients and therefore atraumatic extraction procedures should be followed to avoid further bone loss. To overcome the alveolar bone loss and to augment support for placing dental implants, many bone regenerative substitutes are available such as allografts, autografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials and osteoactive agents. In light of the steady progress in bone grafting techniques and graft materials, it has become possible to improve the volume, width, and height of bone in deficient areas of the oral cavity. These advances in regenerative dentistry thus facilitate an easy and convenient placement of an implant in an ideal position and angulations resulting in superior esthetics and function. Bone grafting materials and their substitutes are the alternative filler materials, which facilitate to reduce additional surgical procedures, risks, chances of cross infection involved in placing autografts and allografts into the bony structures. This review literature highlights various biomaterials that are helpful in bone healing and thus create an anatomically favorable base for ideal implant placement. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Dole V, Nikam A. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):120-4.

Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Dole, Vinaykumar; Nikam, Akhilesh

2014-01-01

349

RAGE Validation Efforts Using Cylindrical Mix Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing in compressible, convergent geometries, a wide range of simulations is underway as part of the LANL/AWE cylindrical mix effort. A key component involves benchmarking RAGE against recent experimental data, with the eventual goal of implementing validated mix models into advanced codes. Although comparisons of radiographic predictions between RAGE and LASNEX have shown consistency with experimental data in smooth, unperturbed cases, a question remains as to why 2-D RAGE over-predicts the level of mixing observed in experiments with an initial multi-mode surface roughness. Two explanations are currently being explored. First, that radiative preheat is modifying the initial surface conditions prior to the arrival of the main shock. Secondly, that 3-D effects provide an avenue for energy dissipation that is not adequately modeled in 2-D RAGE. Preliminary results indicate that inclusion of preheat does reduce the predicted level of mixing, but it is not sufficient to explain observed discrepancies. This talk will outline the conclusions from the preheat studies and present some very preliminary 3-D planar results. (USDOE W-7405-ENG-36)

Hueckstaedt, R. M.; Batha, S. H.; Balkey, M. M.; Delamater, N. D.; Fincke, J. R.; Holmes, R. L.; Lanier, N. E.; Magelssen, G. R.; Scott, J. M.; Parker, K. W.; Rothman, S. D.

2003-10-01

350

STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

2010-01-01

351

Prescription stimulant expectancies in recreational and medical users: results from a preliminary expectancy questionnaire.  

PubMed

Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2009-01-01

352

I endeavor to make it: effort increases valuation of subsequent monetary reward.  

PubMed

Although it is commonly accepted that the amount of effort we put into accomplishing a task would exert an influence on subsequent reward processing and outcome evaluation, whether effort is incorporated as a cost or it would increase the valuation of concomitant reward is still under debate. In this study, EEGs were recorded while subjects performed calculation tasks that required different amount of effort, correct responses of which were followed by either no reward or fixed compensation. Results showed that high effort induced larger differentiated FRN responses to the reward and non-reward discrepancy across two experimental conditions. Furthermore, P300 manifested valence effect during reward feedback, with more positive amplitudes for reward than for non-reward only in the high effort condition. These results suggest that effort might increase subjective evaluation toward subsequent reward. PMID:24308956

Ma, Qingguo; Meng, Liang; Wang, Lei; Shen, Qiang

2014-03-15

353

Novice Faculty: Encountering Expectations in Academia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six novice nursing faculty described their expectations of the teaching role and how they perceived expectations that other faculty and students had of them. Their stories revealed inadequacies in the way new faculty are prepared and mentored. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

Siler, Bobbie B.; Kleiner, Catherine

2001-01-01

354

Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

2012-01-01

355

Icelandic and American Students' Expectations about Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Expectations about Counseling-Brief Form was administered to 261 Icelandic and 225 American undergraduates. Results of a multivariate analysis of covariance reveal that Icelanders had higher expectations about counselor expertise than did Americans. Results are discussed in terms of counselor roles and functions and the role of help seeking in…

Aegisdottir, Stefania; Gerstein, Lawrence H.

2000-01-01

356

Student Acceptance and Expectation of Sexual Assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male and female students’ attitudes regarding the acceptance and expectation of sexual assault were examined. Participants also completed Burt’s (1980) Rape Myth Acceptance ( RMA) Scale. Acceptance of sexual aggression can lead to the exoneration of the perpetrator, whereas expectations of sexual aggression can lead to victim blaming. A feminist perspective of rape, with a focus on sexual socialization, indicates

Marian M. Morry; Erica Winkler

2001-01-01

357

The College President: Expectations, Realities, and Myths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two speeches are presented: Expectations and Realities for the College President, by Joseph Kauffman, and Myths of the College Presidency, by Donald E. Walker. The first discusses the discrepancies between the expectations and realities in three areas: the relationship with boards of trustees, relations with central administration in the state…

Kauffman, Joseph F.; Walker, Donald E.

358

What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

2008-01-01

359

Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

2012-01-01

360

What to Expect Your First Year Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online book from the U.S. Department of Education covers topics vital to new teachers. Topics include getting support from administrators, what to expect from students and parents, and what should be expected in a new job. The book takes the form of narrative and interviews with new teachers.

Depaul, Amy

2005-03-06

361

Expectations of Vocational Teachers for Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined three components of the initial expectations of 66 secondary vocational teachers toward mainstreamed educable mentally retarded and learning disabled children. Among findings was that presence of the labels lowered the initial academic and behavioral expectations of teachers in the sample. (SB)

Minner, Sam

1982-01-01

362

Expected utility theory without the completeness axiom  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of obtaining an expected utility representation for a potentially incomplete preference relation over lotteries by means of a set of von Neumann–Morgenstern utility functions. It is shown that, when the prize space is a compact metric space, a preference relation admits such a multi-utility representation provided that it satisfies the standard axioms of expected utility theory.

Juan Dubra; Fabio Maccheroni; Efe A. Ok

2004-01-01

363

Expectancy Theory in Media and Message Selection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)

Van Leuven, Jim

1981-01-01

364

Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th…

Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2012-01-01

365

Course Expectations and Career Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…

Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben

2008-01-01

366

Masson's intravascular hemangioma masquerading as effort thrombosis.  

PubMed

An otherwise healthy 55-year-old white woman had acute onset of right arm swelling. No precipitating factors were identified. Venograms revealed an occluded subclavian vein, and catheter-directed thrombolysis was performed. After lysis a persistent residual intraluminal filling defect was identified, with persistent symptoms. Partial claviculectomy was performed, the mass was removed, and patch venoplasty carried out, with good outcome. Pathologic analysis demonstrated the mass to be a Masson's hemangioma, a papillary proliferation of thin-walled capillaries intimately associated with thrombus. Considered a benign intravascular lesion, the treatment of choice is complete excision. PMID:15472612

Kumar, Amit; Surowiec, Scott; Nigwekar, Priya; Illig, Karl A

2004-10-01

367

Holographic data storage: rebirthing a commercialization effort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization of a commercial holographic data storage device has remained elusive for many decades. The most recent efforts were by InPhase Technologies between 2001 and 2009 resulting in 52 functioning prototypes capable of 300GB/disk and 20MB/s transfer rates. Despite being the world's first fully functional holographic drives, the primary competitor to holographic archive storage at that time, LTO, had already achieved 800GB and 120MB/in 2008; and by 2010, LTO had achieved 1.5TB and 140MB/s. This left InPhase at a competitive disadvantage to LTO archive solutions despite other strengths such as robustness, random access, and longer-term archive lifetime. Looking into the future, holographic data storage must be highly competitive with tape in three critical areas: cost/TB, capacity/footprint, and transfer rate. If this can be achieved, holographic data storage would become a superior solution given the low latencies and overall robustness to propel it into being the archive storage front-runner. New technology advancements by Akonia Holographics have enabled the potential for ultra-high capacity holographic storage devices that are capable of world record bit densities of over 2Tbit/in2, 200-300MB/s transfer rates, and a media cost less than $10/TB in the next 5 years. A demonstration platform based on these new advances has been designed and is currently being built by Akonia to progressively demonstrate bit densities of 2Tb/in2, 4Tb/in2, and 8Tb/in2 over the next year.

Anderson, Ken; Ayres, Mark; Sissom, Brad; Askham, Fred

2014-02-01

368

Database development in toxicogenomics: issues and efforts.  

PubMed Central

The marriage of toxicology and genomics has created not only opportunities but also novel informatics challenges. As with the larger field of gene expression analysis, toxicogenomics faces the problems of probe annotation and data comparison across different array platforms. Toxicogenomics studies are generally built on standard toxicology studies generating biological end point data, and as such, one goal of toxicogenomics is to detect relationships between changes in gene expression and in those biological parameters. These challenges are best addressed through data collection into a well-designed toxicogenomics database. A successful publicly accessible toxicogenomics database will serve as a repository for data sharing and as a resource for analysis, data mining, and discussion. It will offer a vehicle for harmonizing nomenclature and analytical approaches and serve as a reference for regulatory organizations to evaluate toxicogenomics data submitted as part of registrations. Such a database would capture the experimental context of in vivo studies with great fidelity such that the dynamics of the dose response could be probed statistically with confidence. This review presents the collaborative efforts between the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute ArrayExpress, the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Science Institute, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Center for Toxigenomics Chemical Effects in Biological Systems knowledge base. The goal of this collaboration is to establish public infrastructure on an international scale and examine other developments aimed at establishing toxicogenomics databases. In this review we discuss several issues common to such databases: the requirement for identifying minimal descriptors to represent the experiment, the demand for standardizing data storage and exchange formats, the challenge of creating standardized nomenclature and ontologies to describe biological data, the technical problems involved in data upload, the necessity of defining parameters that assess and record data quality, and the development of standardized analytical approaches.

Mattes, William B; Pettit, Syril D; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Bushel, Pierre R; Waters, Michael D

2004-01-01

369

Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

J Ashcroft; C Eshelman

2006-02-08

370

Conditions Influencing the Marketing Efforts of Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assesses the degree to which environmental change, competitive conditions and position, hospital characteristics, and organizational performance influence the extensiveness of a hospital's marketing activities. Changes in occupancy, revenue, and patient mix did not predict the level of marketing activities. Instead, the perceptions of marketing decision makers about changing environmental conditions were found to predict these activities.

Robert C. Myrtle; Charles F. Martinez

1990-01-01

371

Customer relations data aids marketing efforts.  

PubMed

A customer relations information system can help improve a hospital's marketing performance. With such a system, the author writes, a medical center can easily redirect its information systems away from the traditional transaction-oriented approach toward the building of long-lasting relationship with customers. PMID:10288556

Werronen, H J

1988-08-01

372

Gender differences in healthy life expectancy among Brazilian elderly  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined gender differences in healthy life expectancy (HLE) and unhealthy life expectancy (UHLE) among people aged 60 years or older living in a large Brazilian city. Methods Based on Chiang method, abridged life tables were constructed for men and for women. To calculate HLE, the Sullivan method was applied. Estimates of the prevalence of self-rated health and self-reported functional disability (global, mild/moderate, and severe) were obtained from a population-based household survey carried out in 2008, which involved non-institutionalized individuals. Results Findings showed that women live longer and these extra years would be spent in good self-rated health. For example, women aged 60 would live, on average, 4 more years in good health in comparison to men. In terms of global limitations and mild/moderate limitations, no gender differences were detected for HLE. However, UHLE was statistically higher among women than among men at all ages in the global limitations and mild/moderate limitations (except for the age 80). Women at age 60, for instance, could expect to live 3.1 years longer with mild/moderate limitations compared to men. Gender differences were identified for severe limitations for either HLE or UHLE. In comparison to men, women at age 60, for example, would expect to live 2.5 and 2.0 more years without and with severe limitations. Conclusions By showing that the advantage of longer life expectancy among women is not necessarily accompanied by worse health conditions, these findings add some evidence to the debate about male-female health-survival paradox. Policy efforts are necessary to reduce gender differences in the quantity and quality of years to be lived, providing equal opportunities to women and men live longer with quality of life, autonomy, and independence.

2014-01-01

373

Has Trade Liberalisation in Poor Countries Delivered the Promises Expected?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the evidence of the impact of trade liberalisation on the economic performance of poor developing countries with respect to poverty reduction, the distribution of income within countries, the distribution of income between countries, trade and the balance of payments, and economic growth, and finds that liberalisation has not delivered the benefits expected. Economic theory, and the historical

Penélope Pacheco-López; A. P. Thirlwall

2009-01-01

374

The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

2013-01-01

375

An investigation into the audit expectation gap in Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The audit profession is a social function, which provides services to associated parties based on confidence between auditors and users of financial reports. Despite the importance of the audit profession, currently it faces litigational problems with increased criticism of the performance of its role and function, and its inability to meet the expectations of society. This has resulted in auditors

Abdelsalam M. Eldarragi

2008-01-01

376

Anxiety-Expectation Mediation Model of Library Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents a test of the Anxiety-Expectation Mediation (AEM) model of library anxiety. The AEM model contains variables that are directly or indirectly related to information search performance, as measured by students' scores on their research proposals. This model posits that library anxiety and self-perception serve as factors that…

Jiao, Qun G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

377

Validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire-Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a brief version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire (MEEQ; Schafer & Brown, 1991). The original MEEQ was reduced to 6 items (MEEQ-B). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and two factors were identified (positive effects and negative effects) accounting for 52.3% of the variance.…

Torrealday, O.; Stein, L. A. R.; Barnett, N.; Golembeske, C.; Lebeau, R.; Colby, S. M.; Monti, P. M.

2008-01-01

378

A Second Look at "School-Life Expectancy"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of years a child of school-entry age can expect to remain in school is of great interest both as a measure of individual human capital and of the performance of an education system. An approximate indicator of this concept is the sum of age-specific enrolment rates. The relatively low data demands of this indicator that are feasible to…

Barakat, Bilal Fouad

2012-01-01

379

Disconnections between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…

Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy

2008-01-01

380

Private sector joins family planning effort.  

PubMed

Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost. PMID:12343476

1989-12-01

381

Neurobiology of placebo effects: expectations or learning?  

PubMed

Contemporary learning theories suggest that conditioning is heavily dependent on the processing of prediction errors, which signal a discrepancy between expected and observed outcomes. This line of research provides a framework through which classical theories of placebo effects, expectations and conditioning, can be reconciled. Brain regions related to prediction error processing [anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex or the nucleus accumbens] overlap with those involved in placebo effects. Here we examined the possibility that the magnitude of objective neurochemical responses to placebo administration would depend on individual expectation-effectiveness comparisons. We show that such comparisons and not expectations per se predict behavioral placebo responses and placebo-induced activation of µ-opioid receptor-mediated neurotransmission in regions relevant to error detection (e.g. ACC). Expectations on the other hand were associated with greater µ-opioid system activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex but not with greater behavioral placebo responses. The results presented aid the elucidation of molecular and neural mechanisms underlying the relationship between expectation-effectiveness associations and the formation of placebo responses, shedding light on the individual differences in learning and decision making. Expectation and outcome comparisons emerge as a cognitive mechanism that beyond reward associations appears to facilitate the formation and sustainability of placebo responses. PMID:23887819

Peciña, Marta; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

2014-07-01

382

Using expectations to monitor robotic progress and recover from problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How does a robot know when something goes wrong? Our research answers this question by leveraging expectations - predictions about the immediate future - and using the mismatch between the expectations and the external world to monitor the robot's progress. We use the cognitive architecture ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought - Rational) to learn the associations between the current state of the robot and the world, the action to be performed in the world, and the future state of the world. These associations are used to generate expectations that are then matched by the architecture with the next state of the world. A significant mismatch between these expectations and the actual state of the world indicate a problem possibly resulting from unexpected consequences of the robot's actions, unforeseen changes in the environment or unanticipated actions of other agents. When a problem is detected, the recovery model can suggest a number of recovery options. If the situation is unknown, that is, the mismatch between expectations and the world is novel, the robot can use a recovery solution from a set of heuristic options. When a recovery option is successfully applied, the robot learns to associate that recovery option with the mismatch. When the same problem is encountered later, the robot can apply the learned recovery solution rather than using the heuristics or randomly exploring the space of recovery solutions. We present results from execution monitoring and recovery performed during an assessment conducted at the Combined Arms Collective Training Facility (CACTF) at Fort Indiantown Gap.

Kurup, Unmesh; Lebiere, Christian; Stentz, Anthony; Hebert, Martial

2013-05-01

383

Expectations and Outcomes of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation  

PubMed Central

Objective: Prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) provision is increasing markedly despite poor patient outcomes. Misunderstanding prognosis in the PMV decision making process could provide an explanation to this phenomenon. Therefore, we aimed to compare PMV decision makers' expectations for long-term patient outcomes with prospectively observed outcomes. Design, Setting, and Patients: 126 patients undergoing PMV, their surrogates, and their intensive care unit physicians were enrolled consecutively (total n=378) at an academic medical center between April 2006 and April 2007 and followed prospectively for one year. Measurements: Participants were interviewed at the time of tracheostomy placement about their expectations for one-year patient survival, functional status, and quality of life. These expectations were then compared to observed one-year outcomes measured with validated questionnaires. Results: One-year follow up was 100%, with the exception of patient death or cognitive inability to complete interviews. At one year, only 11 (9%) patients were alive and independent of major functional status limitations. Most surrogates reported high baseline expectations for one-year patient survival (117 [93%]), functional status (90 [71%]), and quality of life (105 [83%]). In contrast, fewer physicians described high expectations for survival (54 [43%]), functional status (7 [6%]), and quality of life (5 [4%]). Surrogate-physician pair concordance in expectations was poor (all ?<0.08), as was their accuracy in outcome prediction (range 23-44%). Just 33 (26%) surrogates reported that physicians discussed what to expect for patients' likely future survival, general health, and caregiving needs. Conclusions: One-year patient outcomes for PMV patients were significantly worse than expected by patients' surrogates and physicians. Lack of prognostication about outcomes, discordance between surrogates and physicians about potential outcomes, and surrogates' unreasonably optimistic expectations appear to be potentially modifiable deficiencies in surrogate-physician interactions.

Cox, Christopher E.; Martinu, Tereza; Sathy, Shailaja J.; Clay, Alison S.; Chia, Jessica; Gray, Alice L.; Olsen, Maren K.; Govert, Joseph A.; Carson, Shannon S.; Tulsky, James A.

2009-01-01

384

It takes some effort. How minimal physical effort reduces consumption volume.  

PubMed

Plenty of studies have demonstrated that effort influences food choice. However, few have been conducted to analyze the effect of effort on consumption volume. Moreover, the few studies that have measured consumption volume all have strong limitations. The goal of the present paper is to disentangle confounding variables in earlier research and to rule out various alternative explanations. In a tasting setting focusing on snacking behavior, either unwrapping a food product or grabbing it with sugar tongs was enough to significantly reduce consumption, regardless of whether an unhealthy or healthy food item was used. Hardly any cognitive resources seem to be necessary for the effect to occur, as cognitive load did not affect the findings. In light of obesity being a pressing concern, these findings might be valuable for individuals as well as for the food industry. PMID:23932949

Brunner, Thomas A

2013-12-01

385

Expected injury cost indices on Finnish farms.  

PubMed

Annually, more than 6000 work-related injuries occur on Finnish farms. One-fourth of these injuries are classified as severe, resulting in considerable economic losses to agricultural enterprises and the national economy. The injury rate among farmers is more than twice that among all employees on average. This study aimed to identify the risk factors that should be considered when targeting interventions, thus improving their cost-effectiveness. The expected injury cost (EIC) risk index method, which combines the probability of injuries with their severity and costs, was implemented. The potential risk factors included the type of agricultural operation, worker characteristics (gender, age), agricultural work tasks performed, and the geographical location of the farm enterprise. Crop production emerged as the type of agricultural operation with the highest risk index (1.12). The lowest risk index was in sheep and goat husbandry operations (0.35). The risk index was higher for men compared to women (1.11 vs. 0.77). The highest risk age group was farmers from 55 to 59 years of age (1.36). Farmers under 40 (0.17 to 0.89) and over 65 years old (0.70) had the lowest injury risks. No evidence was found that dangerous regions are concentrated in certain geographical parts of the country. The most common agricultural work tasks in which injuries occurred were the repair and maintenance of machinery and equipment, the transportation and relocation of animals, and milking. These accounted for more than one-third of all compensated work injuries in 2005. The identified risk factors could be considered when setting priorities in injury prevention and resource allocation. PMID:22458014

Sinisalo, A

2012-01-01

386

Probing for the Multiplicative Term in Modern Expectancy-Value Theory: A Latent Interaction Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In modern expectancy-value theory (EVT) in educational psychology, expectancy and value beliefs additively predict performance, persistence, and task choice. In contrast to earlier formulations of EVT, the multiplicative term Expectancy x Value in regression-type models typically plays no major role in educational psychology. The present study…

Trautwein, Ulrich; Marsh, Herbert W.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagy, Gabriel; Jonkmann, Kathrin

2012-01-01

387

Affordances and Constraints of Immigrant Chinese Parental Expectations on Children's School Perfomance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with seven recent-immigrant Chinese families in Canada examined parental expectations of their children's school performance. Parents' expectations motivated their children to pursue goals with hard work, which enhanced self-efficacy and nurtured good study habits. However, high parental expectations and unwillingness to accommodate…

Li, Jun

2003-01-01

388

Stability of Visual Expectations at 3.0 Months of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 45 3-month-olds were observed for stability in forming visual expectations. Findings indicate that infant performance in the Visual Expectation Paradigm is reliable as early as 3 months. Individual differences exist in infants' tendency to form visual expectations. (RH)

Haith, Marshall M.; McCarty, Michael E.

1990-01-01

389

Measuring and Investigating Pretrial Multi-Expectations of Service Quality within the Higher Education Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding what consumers expect from a service provider prior to consumption is necessary for marketers because expectations provide a standard of comparison against which consumers judge the performance of that service provider. This study is an in-depth investigation into consumers' pretrial multi-expectations of service quality within a…

Prugsamatz, Sunita; Heaney, Joo-Gim; Alpert, Frank

2007-01-01

390

What to Expect After a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect After a Heart Transplant Staying in the Hospital The amount of time ... if you have too many side effects. Managing Transplant Medicines and Their Side Effects You'll have ...

391

What to Expect during a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During a Heart Transplant Just before heart transplant surgery, the patient will ... are not replaced as part of the surgery. Heart Transplant Figure A shows where the diseased heart is ...

392

What to Expect during Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Heart Surgery Heart surgery is done in a hospital, ... surgery, takes about 3–6 hours. Traditional Open-Heart Surgery For this type of surgery, you'll ...

393

Expected Supernovae Rates and Gravitational Waves Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data available in the Kraan-Korteweg catalog of 2810 nearby galaxies is used to evaluate the expected rate of supernovae (SN) events according to distance. Three different statistics and two virgocentric flow models for determinating distance of galaxies ...

P. Rapagnani

1989-01-01

394

What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant If you get into a medical center's ... friends also can offer support. When a Donor Lung Becomes Available OPTN matches donor lungs to recipients ...

395

What to Expect During a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During a Lung Transplant Just before lung transplant surgery, you will ... airway and its blood vessels to your heart. Lung Transplant The illustration shows the process of a ...

396

Rational Expectations Model of Financial Contagion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We develop a multiple asset rational expectations model of securities prices to explain the determinants of nancial market contagion. Our primary focus is on con- tagion through the cross-market hedging (rebalancing) of shared macroeconomic risks. Through...

L. E. Kodres M. Pritsker

1999-01-01

397

Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

2000-01-01

398

Determination of momentum expectation values for polyatomic molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MOEXVA program implements the recent formulation for the evaluation of momentum expectation values of diatomic molecules (J.M. Garcia de la Vega et al., J. Math. Chem. 21 (1993) 211), adapting this formulation to the general problem of polyatomic molecules. The program uses as input the molecular orbital output of any Hartree-Fock or Density-Functional-Theory molecular calculation for Cartesian or spherical Gaussian functions. the program performs an accurate determination of the orbital and total momentum expectation values of polyatomic molecules.

García de La Vega, José M.; Miguel, Beatriz

1998-03-01

399

NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the advanced boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the advanced boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO), opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable advanced booster that meets the SLS performance requirements. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss, for the first time publicly, the contract awards and how NASA intends to use the data from these efforts to prepare for the planned advanced booster DDT&E acquisition as the SLS Program moves forward with competitively procured affordable performance enhancements.

Crumbly, Christopher M.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; May, Todd A.

2012-01-01

400

NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and Risk Reduction Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, and its stated intent was to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the Advanced Boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the Advanced Boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit, opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the SLS performance requirements. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an Advanced Booster. This paper will discuss, for the first time publicly, the contract awards and how NASA intends to use the data from these efforts to prepare for the planned Advanced Booster DDT&E acquisition as the SLS Program moves forward with competitively procured affordable performance enhancements.

Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd; Dumbacher, Daniel

2012-01-01

401

Expected errors computed from effective bits  

SciTech Connect

This memorandum has two purposes. The first is to review how we can calculate error bars for a given data set from the effective-bits measurements. The second is to outline how we can use the error bars to quantify expected errors in linear fits to data, integrated data, and power spectral densities computed from data. The expected errors for these quantities are calculated using standard statistics and probability techniques.

Tunnell, T.

1990-10-22

402

Quantifying the effort individuals with aphasia invest in working memory tasks through heart rate variability.  

PubMed

PURPOSE The objective of this study was to quantify cognitive effort that individuals with aphasia and neurologically intact participants dedicate to verbal compared with spatial working memory tasks by using a physiological measure of effort: heart rate variability (HRV). METHOD Participants included 8 individuals with aphasia and 19 neurologically intact adults. Participants completed 3 verbal and 3 spatial working memory tasks that varied in difficulty. Performance accuracy and effort allocated to tasks was recorded. Effort was quantified as the change in the 0.07-0.14 Hz band of HRV from baseline to task conditions. RESULTS Results indicated that individuals with aphasia and control participants allocated effort to verbal and spatial working memory tasks. Unlike the control participants, participants with aphasia did not differentially invest effort based on task difficulty. Neither group allocated effort differentially based on task type. CONCLUSIONS Results of the physiological data provide preliminary support for accounts indicating that individuals with aphasia do not properly allocate effort to cognitive-linguistic tasks. Analysis of the Group × Difficulty interaction indicated that the aphasia group did not allocate extra effort when it was required. The lack of a difference in HRV for spatial and verbal tasks suggests that this difference is not specific to verbal stimuli. PMID:24686583

Christensen, Stephanie C; Wright, Heather Harris

2014-05-01

403

Taxation and life expectancy in Western Europe.  

PubMed

With the exception of Denmark, life expectancy in Western Europe has shown a significant increase over the last decades. During that period of time overall taxation has increased in most of the countries, especially in Denmark. We, therefore, examined whether taxation could influence life expectancy in Western Europe. We used information on the sum of income tax and employees' social contribution in percentage of gross wage earnings from the OECD database and data on disability adjusted life expectancy at birth from the World Health Organization database. We arbitrarily only included countries with populations in excess of 4 millions and thereby excluded smaller countries where tax exemption is part of the national monetary policy. We found that disability adjusted life expectancy at birth was inversely correlated to the total tax burden in Western Europe. We speculate whether a threshold exists where high taxes exert a negative influence on life expectancy despite increased welfare spending. The study suggests that tax burden should be considered among the multiple factors influencing life expectancy. PMID:15242031

Bagger, P J

2004-06-01

404

Masked First Name Priming Increases Effort-Related Cardiovascular Reactivity  

PubMed Central

Recent research on motivational intensity has shown that explicit manipulations of self-focused attention (e.g., mirrors and video cameras) increase effort-related cardiovascular responses during active coping. An experiment examined whether masked first name priming, an implicit manipulation of self-focused attention, had similar effects. Participants (n = 52 young adults) performed a self-paced cognitive task, in which they were told to get as many trials correct as possible within 5 minutes. During the task, the participant’s first name was primed for 0%, 33%, 67%, or 100% of the trials. First name priming, regardless of its frequency, significantly increased cardiovascular reactivity, particularly systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity. Furthermore, the priming manipulation interacted with individual differences in trait self-focus: trait self-focus predicted higher SBP reactivity in the 0% condition, but first name priming eliminated the effects of individual differences. Implications for self-awareness research and for the emerging interest in priming effects on effort are considered.

Silvia, Paul J.; Jones, Hannah C.; Kelly, Casey S.; Zibaie, Alireza

2011-01-01

405

A novel scale to assess resistance-exercise effort.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the validity of a novel subjective scale for assessing resistance-exercise effort. Seventeen male bodybuilders performed five sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of one-repetition maximum, for the bench press and squat. At the completion of each set, participants quantified their effort via the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and novel estimated-repetitions-to-failure scales, and continued repetitions to volitional exhaustion to determine actual-repetitions-to-failure. There were high correlations between estimated- and actual-repetitions-to-failure across sets for the bench press and squat (r ? 0.93; P < 0.05). During sets 3, 4, and 5, estimated-repetitions-to-failure predicted the number of repetitions to failure for the bench press and squat, as indicated by smaller effect sizes for differences (ES = 0.37-0.0). The estimated-repetitions-to-failure scale was reliable as indicated by high intraclass correlation coefficients (?0.92) and narrow 95% limits of agreement (?0.63 repetitions) for both the bench press and squat. Despite high correlations between RPE and actual-repetitions-to-failure (P < 0.05), RPE at volitional fatigue was less than maximal for both exercises. Our results suggest that the estimated-repetitions-to-failure scale is valid for predicting onset of muscular failure, and can be used for the assessment and prescription of resistance exercise. PMID:22873691

Hackett, Daniel A; Johnson, Nathan A; Halaki, Mark; Chow, Chin-Moi

2012-01-01

406

Associations between patient expectations of joint arthroplasty surgery and pre- and post-operative clinical status.  

PubMed

Improvements in implant materials and designs have broadened surgical indications and improved the technical successes of joint arthroplasty surgery. Nevertheless, a small but notable proportion of patients remain dissatisfied despite technically successful surgery. Given reported associations between unfulfilled patient expectations and dissatisfaction, we performed a systematic review to investigate the current state of knowledge concerning potential associations between clinical status and patient expectations of joint arthroplasty procedures. A wide range of expectation assessment instruments was identified, some of which assessed probabilistic expectations and other value-based expectations. Consistent associations were identified between probabilistic expectations of surgery and better pre-operative disease-specific and general health status, as well as more desirable post-operative disease specific scores. In contrast, no consistent associations were identified between clinical status and value-based expectations. Fulfillment of expectations was consistently associated with superior disease-specific and general health absolute and change scores, irrespective of the expectations paradigm used. PMID:24793876

Dyck, Bailey A; Zywiel, Michael G; Mahomed, Anisah; Gandhi, Rajiv; Perruccio, Anthony V; Mahomed, Nizar N

2014-07-01

407

Validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire-Brief.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a brief version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire (MEEQ; Schafer & Brown, 1991). The original MEEQ was reduced to 6 items (MEEQ-B). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and two factors were identified (positive effects and negative effects) accounting for 52.3% of the variance. Internal consistencies (0.42 to 0.60) were slightly lower than those of the original MEEQ. The negative effect expectancy scale correlated with criterion variables that assess marijuana use (p ? .05). This measure is a helpful tool for clinicians to use when assessing youth expectancies. Replication across different samples of adjudicated youth is recommended. PMID:22058648

Torrealday, O; Stein, L A R; Barnett, N; Golembeske, C; Lebeau, R; Colby, S M; Monti, P M

2008-01-01

408

Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs: The GPRA Metrics Effort  

SciTech Connect

The requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993 mandate the reporting of outcomes expected to result from programs of the Federal government. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops official metrics for its 11 major programs using its Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis (OPBFA). OPBFA conducts an annual integrated modeling analysis to produce estimates of the energy, environmental, and financial benefits expected from EERE’s budget request. Two of EERE’s major programs include the Building Technologies Program (BT) and Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the OPBFA effort by developing the program characterizations and other market information affecting these programs that is necessary to provide input to the EERE integrated modeling analysis. Throughout the report we refer to these programs as “buildings-related” programs, because the approach is not limited in application to BT or WIP. To adequately support OPBFA in the development of official GPRA metrics, PNNL communicates with the various activities and projects in BT and WIP to determine how best to characterize their activities planned for the upcoming budget request. PNNL then analyzes these projects to determine what the results of the characterizations would imply for energy markets, technology markets, and consumer behavior. This is accomplished by developing nonintegrated estimates of energy, environmental, and financial benefits (i.e., outcomes) of the technologies and practices expected to result from the budget request. These characterizations and nonintegrated modeling results are provided to OPBFA as inputs to the official benefits estimates developed for the Federal Budget. This report documents the approach and methodology used to estimate future energy, environmental, and financial benefits produced by technologies and practices supported by BT and by WIP. However, the approach is general enough for analysis of buildings-related technologies, independent of any specific program. An overview describes the GPRA process and the models used to estimate energy savings. The body of the document describes the algorithms used and the diffusion curve estimates.

Elliott, Douglas B.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Hostick, Donna J.

2004-06-18

409

7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section 622.31 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon receipt of an...

2010-01-01

410

Effortful control as a personality characteristic of young children: antecedents, correlates, and consequences.  

PubMed

Effortful control, the ability to suppress a dominant response to perform a subdominant response, was assessed in 106 children during early childhood (at 22, 33, and 45 months) using multitask behavioral batteries. By 45 months, effortful control was highly longitudinally stable and coherent across tasks and thus appeared to be a traitlike characteristic of children's personality. Children who had been less intense in terms of proneness to anger and joy, and those who had been more inhibited to the unfamiliar in the second year developed higher effortful control. Children with higher effortful control at 22-45 months developed stronger consciences at 56 months and displayed fewer externalizing problems at 73 months. Effortful control mediated the oft-reported relations between maternal power assertion and impaired conscience development in children, even when child management difficulty was controlled. PMID:14633059

Kochanska, Grazyna; Knaack, Amy

2003-12-01

411

Home Visitation Assessing Progress, Managing Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early intervention efforts to promote healthy child development have long been a central feature of social service and public health reforms. Today, prenatal care, well-baby visits, and assessments to detect possible developmental delays are commonplace in most communities. Recently, child abuse prevention advocates have applied a developmental…

Daro, Deborah

2006-01-01

412

Great Expectations: Emergent Professional Development Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of all the reform efforts current in teacher education, the professional development school (PDS) advocated by the Holmes Group shows the greatest promise because it seeks to tie reforms in teacher education to reforms in schools themselves. This document describes how one institution of higher education (University of Utah) and one school…

Winitzky, Nancy; And Others

413

US effort on HTS power transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert’s ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year’s program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification, Dielectric system design approach, Dewar development for containing phase assemblies, cryo-cooling system design approach, etc. will be described. Finally; overall program schedule, critical milestone events, test plans and progress to date will be reported.

Mehta, S.

2011-11-01

414

Student Self-Concept and Effort: Gender and Grade Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' self-concept and effort in schoolwork are known to have significant influences on essential academic outcomes, but self-concept and effort may decline as students grow up. Students from 16 schools in Sydney (N = 2200) were asked to rate on two self-concept components (competency and affect) and effort in schoolwork. Based on measures…

Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

2011-01-01

415

An Assessment of Monitoring Efforts in Endangered Species Recovery Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery efforts for threatened and endangered species often must be ini- tiated with incomplete data. The outcomes of such efforts are difficult to predict, which makes monitoring the progress of recovery efforts an integral part of the recovery process. We evaluated the role of monitoring in recovery plans for 181 species listed as threatened and endangered under the U.S. Endangered

Steven P. Campbell; J. Alan Clark; Lisa H. Crampton; Anne D. Guerry; Leila T. Hatch; Parviez R. Hosseini; Joshua J. Lawler; Raymond J. O'Connor

2002-01-01

416

Estimation of Software Defects Fix Effort Using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software defects fix effort is an important software development process metric that plays a critical role in software quality assurance. People usually like to apply parametric effort estimation techniques using historical Lines of Code and Function Points data to estimate effort of defects fixes. However, these techniques are neither efficient nor effective for a new different kind of project's fixing

Hui Zeng; David Rine

2004-01-01

417

Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia Are Associated with Abnormal Effort-Cost Computations  

PubMed Central

Background Decision-making studies show that response selection is influenced by the “effort cost” associated with response alternatives. These effort-cost calculations seem to be mediated by a distributed neural circuit including the anterior cingulate cortex and subcortical targets of dopamine neurons. On the basis of evidence of dysfunction in these systems in schizophrenia (SZ), we examined whether effort-cost computations were impaired in SZ patients and whether these deficits were associated with negative symptoms. Methods Effort-cost decision-making performance was evaluated in 44 patients with SZ and 36 demographically matched control subjects. Subjects performed a computerized task where they were presented with a series of 30 trials in which they could choose between making 20 button presses for $1 or 100 button presses for higher amounts (varying from $3 to $7 across trials). Probability of reward receipt was also manipulated to determine whether certain (100%) or uncertain (50%) reward affected effort-based decision-making. Results Patients were less likely than control subjects to select the high-effort response alternative during the 100% probability condition, particularly when the value payoff was highest (i.e., $6 and $7). Patients were also less likely to select the high-effort option on trials after reward in the 50% probability condition. Furthermore, these impairments in effort-cost computations were greatest among patients with elevated negative symptoms. There was no association with haloperidol equivalent dosage. Conclusions The motivational impairments of SZ might be associated with abnormalities in estimating the “cost” of effortful behavior. This increased effort cost might undermine volition.

Gold, James M.; Strauss, Gregory P.; Waltz, James A.; Robinson, Benjamin M.; Brown, Jamie K.; Frank, Michael J.

2013-01-01

418

EXPECT: Explicit Representations for Flexible Acquisition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To create more powerful knowledge acquisition systems, we not only need better acquisition tools, but we need to change the architecture of the knowledge based systems we create so that their structure will provide better support for acquisition. Current acquisition tools permit users to modify factual knowledge but they provide limited support for modifying problem solving knowledge. In this paper, the authors argue that this limitation (and others) stem from the use of incomplete models of problem-solving knowledge and inflexible specification of the interdependencies between problem-solving and factual knowledge. We describe the EXPECT architecture which addresses these problems by providing an explicit representation for problem-solving knowledge and intent. Using this more explicit representation, EXPECT can automatically derive the interdependencies between problem-solving and factual knowledge. By deriving these interdependencies from the structure of the knowledge-based system itself EXPECT supports more flexible and powerful knowledge acquisition.

Swartout, BIll; Gil, Yolanda

1995-01-01

419

Experience and Choice Shape Expected Aversive Outcomes  

PubMed Central

The value assigned to aversive events is susceptible to contextual influences. Here, we asked whether a change in the valuation of negative events is reflected in an altered neuronal representation of their expected aversive outcome. We show that experiencing an aversive event in the past, and choosing to experience it in the future, reduces its aversive value. This psychological change is mirrored in an altered neural representation of aversive value in the caudate nucleus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Our findings indicate that subcortical regions known to track expected value such as the caudate nucleus, together with anterior cingulate cortical regions implicated in emotional modulation, mediate a re-valuation in expectancies of aversive states. The results provide a striking example of a contextual sensitivity in how the brain ascribes value to events, in a manner that may foster resilience in the face of adversity.

Sharot, Tali; Shiner, Tamara; Dolan, Raymond J

2010-01-01

420

The persistence of low expectations in special education law viewed through the lens of therapeutic jurisprudence  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than thirty-five years a paradigm of low expectations has infected efforts to educate children with disabilities and has been a persistent and stubborn obstacle to the successful implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and its predecessor, the Education of All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA). This dilemma raises questions addressed in this paper: What is meant

Richard Peterson

2010-01-01

421

Coercive Sexual Experiences, Protective Behavioral Strategies, Alcohol Expectancies and Consumption among Male and Female College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol use and sexual assault on college campuses are highly prevalent and the focus of numerous prevention and intervention efforts. Our goals were to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between coercive sexual experiences, utilization of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female…

Palmer, Rebekka S.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.

2010-01-01

422

Experimental Demonstration of the Effects of Expectancy Theory Variables on Work Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Expectancy Theory of work motivation is a prescriptive theory which predicts that the effort exerted in a work setting is partly a function of the worker's perceptions of his work environment. In spite of the predictive nature of the model, very little wo...

L. H. Peters

1984-01-01

423

Preparing Students for What? School-College Alignment in an Era of Greater Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the lack of coordination in efforts to improve elementary secondary education and higher education, then describes the Association of American Colleges and Universities' report "Greater Expectations: A New Vision for Learning as a Nation Goes to College" as the right point of departure for aligning and strengthening K-16 education. (EV)

Schneider, Carol Geary

2003-01-01

424

How Hard Do I Have to Work? Student and Faculty Expectations Regarding University Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examined student and faculty expectations regarding college student course work behaviors. Three hundred and eighty-seven students and 52 faculty members from the same university completed surveys designed to measure their perceptions of the amount of student effort required to earn an A, B, C, or D letter grade.…

Lammers, H. Bruce; Kiesler, Tina; Currren, Mary T.; Cours, Deborah; Connett, Brian

2005-01-01

425

Expected Improvement in NIMA Precise Orbit and Clock Estimates Due to Adding Crosslink Ranging Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the deployment of GPS Block HR and IIF satellites, crosslink data will be collected and used on-board for navigation. This motivated an effort to investigate the expected orbit and clock accuracy if crosslink data are available for post-processing on...

E. R. Swift M. J. Merrigan

1999-01-01

426

Expectancy Theory Predictions and Behaviorally Anchored Scales of Motivation: An Empirical Test of Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A behaviorally specific motivational effort rating scale was developed and tested. The organizational specific scale results were examined and compared to those generated from the Landy and Guion scale. It was found that the organizationally specific and engineer relevant scale is a better predictor of two types of expectancies. (Author)

Ivancevich, John M.

1976-01-01

427

Shared expectations for protection of identifiable health care information  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The Ethical Force Program is a collaborative effort to create performance measures for ethics in health care. This report\\u000a lays out areas of consensus that may be amenable to performance measurement on protecting the privacy, confidentiality and\\u000a security of identifiable health information.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Iterative consensus development process.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: The program’s oversight body and its expert panel on privacy include

Matthew K. Wynia; Steven S. Coughlin; Sheri Alpert; Deborah S. Cummins; Linda L. Emanuel

2001-01-01

428

What respondents really expect from researchers.  

PubMed

This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also ego-expressive, utilitarian, pleasurable, and epistemic by nature. Although results are reassuring in terms of commercialization of the psychological contract, they indicate some radical changes that are needed for the respondents to accept its continuation. The article discusses several practical and theoretical implications of such changes and suggests a series of corresponding propositions aimed at facilitating and inspiring future developments in this field. PMID:18591708

Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

2008-08-01

429

Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating.  

PubMed

Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity. PMID:23932947

Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah

2013-12-01

430

Do infants really expect agents to act efficiently? A critical test of the rationality principle  

PubMed Central

Recent experiments suggest that infants’ expectations about agents’ actions are guided by a principle of rationality: in particular, infants expect agents to pursue their goals efficiently, expending as little effort as possible. However, these experiments have all presented infants with infrequent or odd actions, leaving the results open to alternative interpretations and making it difficult to determine whether infants possess a general expectation of efficiency. Here we devised a critical test of the rationality principle that did not involve infrequent or odd actions. In two experiments, 16-month-olds watched events in which an agent faced two identical goal objects; although both objects could be reached by typical, everyday actions, one object was physically (Experiment 1) or mentally (Experiment 2) more accessible than the other. In both experiments, infants expected the agent to select the more accessible object, providing new evidence that infants possess a general and robust expectation of efficiency.

Scott, Rose M.; Baillargeon, Renee

2013-01-01

431

Informal payments and health worker effort: a quantitative study from Tanzania.  

PubMed

Informal payments-payments made from patients to health personnel in excess of official fees--are widespread in low-income countries. It is not obvious how such payments affect health worker effort. On the one hand, one could argue that because informal payments resemble formal pay for performance schemes, they will incite higher effort in the health sector. On the other hand, health personnel may strategically adjust their base effort downwards to maximise patients' willingness to pay informally for extra services. To explore the relationship between informal payments and health worker effort, we use a unique data set from Tanzania with over 2000 observations on the performance of 156 health workers. Patient data on informal payments are used to assess the likelihood that a particular health worker accepts informal payment. We find that health workers who likely accept payments do not exert higher average effort. They do however have a higher variability in the effort they exert to different patients. These health workers are also less sensitive to the medical condition of the patient. A likely explanation for these findings is that health workers engage in rent seeking and lower baseline effort to induce patients to pay. PMID:23188621

Lindkvist, Ida

2013-10-01

432

Reliability of maximum static work efforts by the human masseter muscle.  

PubMed

To study the reliability of nonfatiguing maximum voluntary static work efforts by the masseter muscle, six healthy subjects exercised teeth clenching in centric occlusion. Maximum voluntary teeth clenching was performed for 10 seconds on 2 different days, each with two trials, and maximum static work efforts (without artificial feedback-control) were quantified by integrated surface electromyography. Reliability was determined by factorial analyses of variance and intraclass correlations. Data reduction showed that maximum voluntary static work efforts were reproduced reliably during the four different trials. PMID:2910025

Christensen, L V

1989-01-01

433

Parental investment strategies in two species of nuthatch vary with stage-specific predation risk and reproductive effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history theory predicts that differences in reproductive effort and residual reproductive value among species should result in differences in the level of risk that parents are willing to tolerate to themselves versus their offspring. Specifically, highly fecund and shorter-lived species are expected to place greater value in current offspring than themselves, whereas less fecund and longer-lived species are expected to

Cameron K. Ghalambor; Thomas E. Martin

2000-01-01

434

How Long Does a Cough Last? Comparing Patients' Expectations With Data From a Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE We hypothesized that antibiotic overuse for acute cough illness (ACI) is in part due to a mismatch between patients’ expectations and the natural history of ACI. METHODS We performed a population-based random digit dialing survey of 493 adults in Georgia to determine their expectations regarding the duration of ACI. We also performed a systematic review of observational studies and the placebo or untreated control groups of randomized controlled trials to determine the duration of ACI from the published medical literature. We included studies of otherwise healthy adults with undifferentiated ACI, no clear bacterial cause, data on at least 1 cough outcome, and at least 1 week of follow-up. RESULTS The mean duration of cough in the published literature was 17.8 days. Survey respondents reported a median duration of 5 to 7 days and a mean duration of 7.2 to 9.3 days depending on the specific scenario. Patients expecting a longer duration of illness were more likely to be white, female, and have self-reported asthma or chronic lung disease. Independent predictors of the belief that antibiotics are always helpful included nonwhite race (OR = 1.82, 95% CI, 1.14–2.92), some college education or less (OR = 2.08, 95% CI, 1.26–3.45), and previous antibiotics for ACI (OR = 2.20, 95% CI, 1.34–3.55). CONCLUSIONS There is a mismatch between patients’ expectations regarding the duration of ACI and the actual duration based on the best available evidence. Efforts to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use should target this discrepancy.

Ebell, Mark H.; Lundgren, Jerold; Youngpairoj, Surasak

2013-01-01

435

An Activity for Exploring Marital Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning activity, designed for the use of high school students in a family life education course, is designed to explore attitudes towards mate qualities in order to increase the students' awareness of marital expectations. The activity utilizes the format of an auction game and a group discussion. (EC)

Saur, William G.

1976-01-01

436

Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)

McCallum, Bennett T.

1994-01-01

437

Analytic Derivatives for Linear Rational Expectations Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out the analytic solution for the calculation of exact derivatives in linear rational expectations models with reference to the optimal simple rule problem. We argue that there are substantial computational advantages of using analytic derivatives and compare the likely computational costs of using approximate and exact derivatives when calculating optimal coefficients for simple feedback rules. A specific

Andrew P. Blake

2004-01-01

438

Outcome Expectancies and Risk-Taking Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

One explanation for risk-taking behavior despite warnings about the dangers is that anticipated positive consequences outweigh possible negative outcomes. In a five-part investigation, a new questionnaire was developed to assess outcome expectancies for the potential consequences of involvement in a variety of risky activities. Conceptual and methodological limitations of previously available questionnaires were addressed and content, construct, and criterion validity

Kim Fromme; Elizabeth C. Katz; Kathy Rivet

1997-01-01

439

What to Expect After a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After a Lung Transplant Recovery in the Hospital After lung transplant surgery, you'll go to the hospital's ... take slow, deep breaths. You also may have lung function tests that use a regular spirometer. This ...

440

Young Infants' Expectations about Hidden Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants aged 3-5 months (mean of approximately 4 months) were given a novel anticipatory looking task to test object permanence understanding. They were trained to expect an experimenter to retrieve an object from behind a transparent screen upon hearing a cue (''Doors up, here comes the hand''). The experimenter then hid the object behind one of…

Ruffman, Ted; Slade, Lance; Redman, Jessica

2005-01-01

441

Accessing alcohol expectancy networks through semantic priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive theories of alcohol use have suggested that information pertinent to an individuals' experience with alcohol is acquired and stored in a semantic network of expectancies regarding the effects of alcohol. Semantic priming using a lexical decision task has been used to access memory processes within a semantic network. The present study involved screening 40 individuals with heavy current drinking

Luke W Galen

1996-01-01

442

Measuring Bubble Expectations and Investor Confidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents evidence on attitude changes among investors in the US stock market. Two basic attitudes are explored: bubble expectations and investor confidence. Semiannual time-series indicators of these attitudes are presented for US stock market institutional investors based on questionnaire survey results 1989 1998, from surveys that I have derived in collaboration with Fumiko Kon-Ya and Yoshiro Tsutsui. Five

Robert J. Shiller

1999-01-01

443

Ownership, Investor Protection and Earnings Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:?This study examines the interactive influence of corporate ownership, corporate governance and investor protection on the incorporation of current value shocks in the accounting earnings of European companies. This influence is investigated not only by means of the association between current news and current earnings but also with respect to the association of the same news with expected future earnings,

Christina Dargenidou; Stuart McLeay; Ivana Raonic

2007-01-01

444

Expected Linear 3-Dimensional Voronoi Diagram Algorithm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Let S be a set of n sites chosen independently from a uniform distribution in a cube in 3-dimensional Euclidean space. In the paper, an expected O(n) algorithm for constructing the Voronoi diagram for S together with numerical results obtained from an imp...

J. Bernal

1990-01-01

445

Remote Library Users: Needs and Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses remote library users in an academic environment. Highlights include user needs and expectations; user satisfaction; service to remote customers in nonlibrary environments, such as industry; the distance-learning context; student demographics; distance learning and library services; course design; and a case study at De Paul University.…

Cooper, Rosemarie; Dempsey, Paula R.; Menon, Vanaja; Millson-Martula, Christopher

1998-01-01

446

Training Therapists about Client Expectations of Psychotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has indicated that premature termination of therapy is sometimes due to a conflict in goal and outcome expectations between therapists and family members of clients. The present study requested both therapists and parents of child clients to complete questionnaires to determine if there is congruence between therapist and parental…

Soley, Georgia; Marshall, Renee; Chambliss, Catherine

447

What to Expect in the Emergency Room  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

English - What to Expect in the Emergency Room 2 min 20 sec To Listen to the Audio or Read/Print/Save the Handout, Click on a Picture Below To Download These Files, Right Click the Mouse and Choose "Save link as...." Audio Mobile ...

448

Using expect to Automate System Administration Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNIX system administration often involves programs designed only for interactive use. Many such programs (passwd, su, etc.) cannot be placed into shell scripts. Some programs (fsck, dump, etc.) are not specifically interactive, but have poor support for automated use. expect is a program which can \\

Don Libes

1990-01-01

449

Helpful and Harmful Expectations of Premarital Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of premarital programs, estimates indicate that only 30% of couples use these services. This study examined the helpful and harmful aspects of premarital programs that may encourage or discourage participation. As expected, participants identified improved communication and problem solving skills as most beneficial. Disclosing secrets or past relationship issues that threaten the stability of the relationship

Carlos E. Valiente; Catherine J. Belanger; Ana U. Estrada

2002-01-01

450

Athletes' expectations with regard to officiating competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to identify the cues upon which athletes rely when developing their expectations with regard to the competence of sports officials and to examine the sources of information, which are given priority in different kinds of sport (i.e. team, racquet and fighting sports). A questionnaire – the Athlete Perception of Sports Officials Questionnaire (APSO-Q) – was developed in

Fabrice Dosseville; Sylvain Laborde; Marjorie Bernier

2012-01-01

451

Inverse momentum expectation values for hydrogenic systems  

SciTech Connect

By using the Fourier transforms of the general hydrogenic bound state wave functions (as ultraspherical polynomials), one may find expectation values of arbitrary functions of momentum p. In this manner the effect of a reciprocity perturbation b/p can be evaluated for all hydrogenic states.

Delbourgo, R.; Elliott, D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, GPO, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

2009-06-15

452

Reproductive longevity and increased life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: female life expectancy in developed countries has increased by 30 years in the twentieth century. Aim: to determine if there has been an increase in reproductive longevity. Methods: we analysed age-specific fertility data from birth statistics for the USA, Canada, Japan, France, Sweden, the UK and Australia. Results: since 1940, birth rates for women aged 35 and over have

JACOB A. BRODY; M ARK D. GRANT; L AWRENCE J. FRATESCHI; SUSAN C. MILLER

453

Expectations and Experiences of Substitute Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the expectations of support for and the experiences of substitute teachers in an urban school division in Saskatchewan. Data were collected in semistructured interviews with seven substitute teachers. The purpose of the study was to explore how substitute teachers frame their professional experiences and construct their roles…

Duggleby, Patricia; Badali, Sal

2007-01-01

454

Children's Physical Appearance and Adult Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caregivers' expectancies and behaviors in relationship to young handicapped children were investigated in this paper. Two studies were conducted in an attempt to answer three questions: (1) How will caregivers respond to the young handicapped child? (2) Do the child's stimulus characteristics, such as physical appearance, create biases in…

Feeg, Veronica DeCarolis; Peters, Donald L.

455

Expected utility expressed in terms of moments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a review of the problem of establishing a preference ordering over a set of distributions, the principles of Pascal, Bernoulli and Tetens are discussed. The second section of the paper outlines ways of expressing expected utility in terms of moments, thus combining the Bernoulli and Tetens principles. The paper concludes by suggesting that the Tetens principle contains some very

Karl Borch

1973-01-01

456

Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

Hodges, Linda C.

2014-01-01

457

Validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire-Brief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a brief version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire (MEEQ; Schafer & Brown, 1991). The original MEEQ was reduced to 6 items (MEEQ-B). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and two factors were identified (positive effects and negative effects) accounting for 52.3% of the variance. Internal consistencies (0.42 to 0.60) were slightly

O. Torrealday; L. A. R. Stein; N. Barnett; C. Golembeske; R. Lebeau; S. M. Colby; P. M. Monti

2008-01-01

458

Serial or parallel processing in dual tasks: What is more effortful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that dual tasks can be performed with a serial or parallel strategy and that the parallel strategy is preferred even if this implies performance costs. The present study investigates the hypothesis that parallel processing is favored because it requires less mental effort compared to serial processing. A serial or parallel processing strategy was induced in a sample

Carola Lehle; Marco Steinhauser; Ronald Hübner

2009-01-01

459

College Students' Goal Orientations, Situational Motivation and Effort/Persistence in Physical Activity Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among college students' 2 x 2 goal orientations (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], performance-avoidance [PAv]), situational motivation (intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation and amotivation) and effort/persistence in…

Gao, Zan; Podlog, Leslie W.; Harrison, Louis

2012-01-01

460

Increase in Jumping Height Associated with Maximal Effort Vertical Depth Jumps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to assess if there existed a statistically significant increase in jumping performance when dropping from different heights, 32 males, aged 19 to 26, performed a series of maximal effort vertical jumps after dropping from eight heights onto a force plate. Results are analyzed. (Author/MT)

Bedi, John F.; And Others

1987-01-01

461

Opportunity cost calculations only determine justified effort--or, what happened to the resource conservation principle?  

PubMed

We welcome the development of a new model on effort and performance and the critique on existing resource-based models. However, considering the vast evidence for the significant impact of experienced task demand on resource allocation, we conclude that Kurzban et al.'s opportunity cost model is only valid for one performance condition: if task demand is unknown or unspecified. PMID:24304784

Gendolla, Guido H E; Richter, Michael

2013-12-01

462

Development of Sexual Expectancies among Adolescents: Contributions by Parents, Peers and the Media.  

PubMed

To expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents' exposure to four socializing agents-mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content-and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: social benefit, pleasure, social risk, and health risk. Data are from Waves 2 and 3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were not sexually active (N = 914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and social benefit, pleasure, and social risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and social benefit expectancies, and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and health risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted social risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710

Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina M; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Kerrick, Madeleine R; Grube, Joel W

2014-07-01

463

Mediating effects of computer-aided design usage: From concurrent engineering to product development performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the rates of market change accelerate and customer expectations grow, product development becomes an increasingly important activity. In this environment, the performance of the product development process and the impact of product design on costs are critical factors for organizational success. To respond, firms are adding resources such as computer-aided design (CAD) to enhance product development efforts. The use

Chong Leng Tan; Mark A. Vonderembse

2006-01-01

464

Volitional chewing with a conscious effort alters and facilitates swallowing during feeding sequence.  

PubMed

The key objective of mastication is to form a food bolus suitable for smooth swallowing. However, chewing is usually performed without a conscious effort. Poor bolus formation can cause pharyngeal residue and suffocation in elderly individuals with reduced swallowing function. Therefore, chewing with a conscious effort may help the bolus to more easily pass the pharynx. This study aimed to clarify the impact of mastication with a conscious effort on the feeding sequence. Subjects included 25 dentulous volunteers who were informed and provided written consent. Lateral videofluoroscopy was performed during the feeding of solid agar jelly under two conditions: chewing naturally in their usual manner (without volition) and chewing with a conscious effort (with volition). Temporal evaluation was performed for mastication, stage II transport (STII), swallow onset and oropharyngeal transit time. Moreover, bolus volume at swallow onset and subjective evaluation of swallowing easiness were measured. Volitional chewing with a conscious effort lengthened the duration of the chewing sequence before and after STII and delayed the swallow onset despite the fact that the bolus volume in the vallecula and hypopharynx (HYP) had significantly increased. Furthermore, with volition, the bolus transit time from swallow onset in the oral cavity, upper oropharynx and HYP was reduced, and subjective evaluation of swallowing easiness demonstrated significant improvement. These results suggest that volitional chewing with a conscious effort can alter bolus transport and swallowing, resulting in easier swallowing. PMID:24447287

Furuya, J; Hara, A; Nomura, T; Kondo, H

2014-03-01

465

A hierarchical model of approach achievement motivation and effort regulation during a 90-min. soccer match.  

PubMed

Research indicates that effort close to the lactate threshold during a soccer match is of importance to succeed, so a prospective study was conducted and a hierarchical achievement motivation approach model tested in relation to effort reglation among 55 male high level soccer players (M=23.6 yr., SD=4.3). The motive to chieve success was expected to be positively associated with the mastery goal, which would be positively associated with playing time close to the lactate threshold in the irst soccer match period, and this positively associated with the same magnitude of effort in the second period. We also examined whether the mastery goal would medite the link between the motive to achieve success and playing time close to the lactate threshold during the first period and also playing time close to the lactate threshold in the first period would mediate the link between the mastery goal and playing time at this effort level during the second period. LISREL analyses supported these predictions. Additional hierarchical polynomial multiple regression analyses indicated unexpected significant nonlinear associations between the motive to avoid failure and effort regulation. The latter is partly explained by ideas from the catastrophe theory. PMID:18065084

Thomassen, Tor Oskar; Halvari, Hallgeir

2007-10-01

466

Temporal expectation improves the quality of sensory information.  

PubMed

It is increasingly clear that we extract patterns of temporal regularity between events to optimize information processing. Whereas some of the mechanisms for facilitating action preparation and execution have been well documented, much less is understood about whether and how temporal expectations influence visual perception. We used a psychophysical paradigm and computational modeling to investigate the mechanisms by which temporal expectation can modulate visual perception. Visual targets appeared in a stream of noise-patches separated by a fixed (400 ms regular condition) or jittered (200/300/400/500/600 ms irregular condition) intervals. Targets were visual gratings tilted 45° clockwise or counter-clockwise, presented at one of seven contrast levels. Human observers were required to perform an orientation discrimination (i.e., left or right). Psychometric functions for contrast sensitivity fitted for the regular and irregular conditions indicated that temporal expectation modulates perceptual processing by enhancing the contrast sensitivity of visual targets. This increase in the signal strength was accompanied by a reduction in reaction times. A diffusion model indicated that rhythmic temporal expectation enhanced the signal-to-noise gain of the sensory evidence upon which decisions were made. These effects support the idea that temporal structure of external events can entrain the attentional focus and psychophysical data, optimizing the processing of relevant sensory information. PMID:22699922

Rohenkohl, Gustavo; Cravo, André M; Wyart, Valentin; Nobre, Anna C

2012-06-13

467

Young infants have biological expectations about animals  

PubMed Central

What are the developmental origins of our concept of animal? There has long been controversy concerning this question. At issue is whether biological reasoning develops from earlier forms of reasoning, such as physical and psychological reasoning, or whether from a young age children endow animals with biological properties. Here we demonstrate that 8-mo-old infants already expect novel objects they identify as animals to have insides. Infants detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and agentive (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) was revealed to be hollow. Infants also detected a violation when an object that was self-propelled and furry (but not an object that lacked one or both of these properties) either was shown to be hollow or rattled (when shaken) as although mostly hollow. Young infants’ expectations about animals’ insides may serve as a foundation for the development of more advanced biological knowledge.

Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renee; Gelman, Rochel

2013-01-01

468

Faculty Expectations and Development: The Tenure Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Professionals seeking careers in academia should understand the tenure process, and how to prepare successfully for the evaluations linked to the tenure decision. This chapter offers suggestions for persons pursuing tenure-track faculty positions in the discipline of food science. The first promotion process in academia (i.e., from assistant professor to associate professor) is typically linked to tenure consideration. The focus of this chapter is explaining tenure, tenure expectations, resources for guidance, how to manage the process, and how to prepare the tenure and promotion document. While most people are fearful of the promotion and tenure process, this fear and apprehension can be minimized by understanding the process and its expectations, and having good advice to follow to help ensure success.

Nielsen, S. Suzanne

469

Teachers' Expectations of Teacher-Student Interaction: Complementary and Distinctive Expectancy Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study it is investigated what student responses teachers expect in particular teacher behaviour vignettes, and whether experience and gender produce differences in expectations. Teacher behaviour vignettes were presented to teachers (N = 46), who described the student responses they anticipated. Anticipated student responses were then…

de Jong, R. J.; van Tartwijk, J.; Verloop, N.; Veldman, I.; Wubbels, T.

2012-01-01

470