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1

Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2010-01-01

2

Asserting Performance Expectations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traditional techniques for performance analysis provide a means for extracting and analyzing raw performance information from applications. Users then reason about and compare this raw performance data to their performance expectations for important appli...

J. S. Vetter P. Worley

2002-01-01

3

Effects of Expected Effort on Females in the Labor Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce expectations regarding the amount of exerted effort by males and females into the “standard” labor market equilibrium. Using a theoretical model, we show that the gender wage gap increases when the expected effect is incorporated into the model. Based on a survey, we find that there are inaccurate expectations regarding the amount effort exerted by males and females.

Ori Zax; Mosi Rosenboim; Tal Shavit

2012-01-01

4

Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.

1998-09-04

5

THE PERFORMANCE OF GLOBAL EXPECTATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectancy plays a central role in both structural descriptions of music, as well as psychological explanations of the apprehension of such music structure. This experiment investigates some of the factors underlying global expectancy formation, using a production task. Performers saw a number of melodic and combined melodic\\/harmonic contexts, and were asked to complete these fragments in terms of how they

Mark A. Schmuckler

1990-01-01

6

Experimental Test of a Return on Effort Version of Expectancy Theory: Across-Person and Within-Person Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although incremental algorithms are widely used in a variety of decision contexts, they have rarely been extended to models of human work behavior. In an experiment, predictions of intended effort and performance were compared using an incremental (return on effort) version of expectancy theory and the conventional model. Incremental predictions were consistently superior.

Richard E. Kopelman; Andrew M. Liebman; Gary A. Yukl

1978-01-01

7

Effort and performance in group contests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study contest performance by focusing on the per capita payoffs of the contestants in an important class of asymmetric two-group contests. The group with the higher valuation has a greater chance of winning the contest whenever the rent-seeking technology is increasing and concave. We note that equilibrium efforts and payoffs per capita are uniquely defined and can be subjected

Kofi O. Nti

1998-01-01

8

Student Effort and Performance over the Semester  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors extend the standard education production function and student time allocation analysis to focus on the interactions between student effort and performance over the semester. The purged instrumental variable technique is used to obtain consistent estimators of the structural parameters of the model using data from intermediate…

Krohn, Gregory A.; O'Connor, Catherine M.

2005-01-01

9

Enhanced Expectancies Improve Performance Under Pressure  

PubMed Central

Beyond skill, beliefs in requisite abilities and expectations can affect performance. This experiment examined effects of induced perceptions of ability to perform well under generic situations of challenge. Participants (N?=?31) first completed one block of 20 trials on a throwing accuracy task. They then completed questionnaires ostensibly measuring individual differences in the ability to perform under pressure. Enhanced-expectancy group participants were told that they were well-suited to perform under pressure, while the control group received neutral information. Subsequently, all participants completed another block of 20 trials on the throwing task, with their performance videotaped and under the assumption that they could secure a prize for themselves and a paired participant with successful performance. Both groups had similar accuracy scores on the first trial block. The enhanced-expectancy group significantly increased their throwing accuracy in the higher-pressure situation (second block), whereas the control group showed no change in performance. Furthermore, beliefs regarding performance under challenge predicted throwing accuracy on the second block. The present findings provide evidence that enhancing individuals’ generic expectancies regarding performance under pressure can affect their motor performance.

McKay, Brad; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Wulf, Gabriele

2012-01-01

10

Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

2010-01-01

11

Verbal expectancies and performance after alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

New verbal expectancies about the effects of alcohol were experimentally induced in subjects by suggesting in writing and verbally that food had positive, negative, or neutral effects on performance after alcohol. Subjects (n = 120, male) received this suggestion, food (fed or fasted), and alcohol (alcohol or placebo) in a between-subjects design. Alcohol impaired reaction time and tracking (with a

Richard Hammersley; Frances Finnigan; Keith Millar

1998-01-01

12

Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

2010-01-01

13

Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

2011-01-01

14

The CMS tracker and expected performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust tracking and a detailed vertex reconstruction are essential characteristics of each modern High Energy Physics experiment. This is particularly true in the LHC environment where thousands of tracks are expected to cross the inner part of the detector each bunch crossing (25ns). In order to meet these requirements the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) collaboration has recently proposed to build a multi-layer full-silicon tracker with a pixel vertex detector close to the beam pipe. This layout is different from the one originally proposed in the CMS Tracker TDR (Technical Design Report, CERN/LHCC 98-6) where a inner silicon tracker surrounded by an outer MSGC tracker was foreseen. In this paper the reasons which led to change the CMS baseline proposal are explained, and the layout and expected performances of the recently proposed all-silicon tracker are described.

Bagliesi, G.

2001-07-01

15

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Setting and communicating performance expectations. 9701.406 Section...HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and communicating performance expectations. (a)...

2013-01-01

16

Effects of Response Effort on Discrimination Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pigeons performed on a discrete-trial successive discrimination procedure. On each trial the key was either red or white. The red was associated with a reinforcement probability of .25, and the white with .50. In two experiments the effects of varying the...

T. F. Elsmore

1971-01-01

17

Focusing Your E-Recruitment Efforts to Meet the Expectations of College-Bound Students. E-Expectations 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early in 2010, the E-Expectations research group surveyed more than 1,000 college-bound high school students, polling them on their online behaviors and expectations, as well as other key enrollment-related topics. Highlights of the study include: (1) 1 in 4 students reported removing a school from their prospective list because of a bad…

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010

2010-01-01

18

SMAP Radar Processing and Expected Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will describe the processing algorithms being developed for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radar data and the expected characteristics of the measured backscattering cross sections. The SMAP radar combines some unique features such as a conically scanned antenna with SAR processing of the data. The rapidly varying squint angle gives the measurements variable resolution and noise characteristics and poses a challenge to the processor to maintain accuracy around the wide (1000 km) swath. Rapid variation of Doppler around the scan leads to a time domain azimuth correlation algorithm, and variation of the Doppler geometry will likely require varying the processing bandwidth to manage ambiguity contamination errors. The basic accuracy requirement is 1-dB (one-sigma) in the backscatter measurements at a resolution of 3 km. The main error contributions come from speckle noise, calibration uncertainty, and radio frequency interference (RFI). Speckle noise is determined by system design parameters and details of the processing algorithms. The calibration of the backscatter measurements will be based on pre-launch characterization of the radar components which allow corrections for short term (~1 month) variations in performance. Longer term variations and biases will be removed using measurements of stable reference targets such as parts of the Amazon rain forest, and possibly the oceans and ice sheets. RFI survey measurements will be included to measure the extent of RFI around the world. The SMAP radar is designed to be able to hop the operating frequency within the 80 MHz allocated band to avoid the worst RFI emitters. Data processing will detect and discard further RFI contaminated measurements. This work is supported by the SMAP project at JPL - CalTech. The SMAP mission has not been formally approved by NASA. The decision to proceed with the mission will not occur until the completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. Material in this document related to SMAP is for information purposes only.

West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.

2011-12-01

19

CEO Turnover: More Evidence on the Role of Performance Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on CEO turnover indicates that a number of factors, including age, firm performance, and expected firm performance affect CEO turnover. Measurement of expected performance in these studies is typically based on investment analysts’ forecasts of earnings; these expectations potentially suffer from a number of problems, including the tendency for CEOs to “manage” analysts’ expectations. We examine the relationship

Brad Humphreys; Rodney Paul; Andrew Weinbach

2011-01-01

20

Student effort expectations and their learning in first-year introductory physics: A case study in Thailand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) survey was designed to probe studentsâ expectations about their understanding of the process of learning physics and the structure of physics knowledgeâcognitive expectations. This survey was administered to first-year university students in Thailand in the first semester of an introductory calculus-based physics course during academic years 2007 and 2008, to assess their expectations at the beginning of the course. The precourse MPEX results were compared and correlated with two separate measures of student learning: (1) individual studentsâ normalized gains from pre and post Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) results, which measure studentsâ conceptual understanding, and (2) studentâs scores on the final exam, which measure their more general problem-solving ability. The results showed a significant positive correlation between their overall MPEX score and five of the six MPEX cluster scores, with their normalized learning gains on the FMCE for both academic years. The results also showed significant positive correlations between student MPEX scores and their final exam scores for the overall MPEX score and all MPEX cluster scores except for the effort cluster. We interviewed two groups of five students each, one group with small favorable scores on the precourse MPEX effort cluster and one with high favorable scores on the precourse MPEX effort cluster, to see how the studentsâ learning efforts compared with their MPEX results. We concluded from the interviews that what the students think or expect about the MPEX effort involved in learning physics does not match what they actually do.

Wutchana, Umporn; Emarat, Narumon

2012-05-09

21

A Performance Evaluation of the Collaborative Efforts in an Online Group Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the performance of 13 graduate students' collaborative efforts toward a group research project in an Instructional Analysis, Design, and Evaluation online course. Gaps between course expectations from the instructor and student collaborative performance were identified through the review of the team agreement, the use of…

Brown, Lori A.; Eastham, Nicholas P.; Ku, Heng-Yu

2006-01-01

22

A Performance Evaluation of the Collaborative Efforts in an Online Group Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the performance of 13 graduate students' collaborative efforts toward a group research project in an Instructional Analysis, Design, and Evaluation online course. Gaps between course expectations from the instructor and student collaborative performance were identified through the review of the team agreement, the use of…

Brown, Lori A.; Eastham, Nicholas P.; Ku, Heng-Yu

2006-01-01

23

Early Antecedents to Students' Expected Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to confirm the predictive validity of several antecedents to students' early perceptions of future performance in collegiate courses. Design/methodology/approach: A non-experimental design was used to test a proposed model based on a review of relevant literature. Students completed surveys capturing the…

Garger, John; Thomas, Michael; Jacques, Paul H.

2010-01-01

24

Early antecedents to students' expected performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to confirm the predictive validity of several antecedents to students' early perceptions of future performance in collegiate courses. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A non-experimental design was used to test a proposed model based on a review of relevant literature. Students completed surveys capturing the constructs researched. Findings – Students' internal locus of control predicted

John Garger; Michael Thomas; Paul H. Jacques

2010-01-01

25

Student effort expectations and their learning in first-year introductory physics: A case study in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) survey was designed to probe students’ expectations about their understanding of the process of learning physics and the structure of physics knowledge—cognitive expectations. This survey was administered to first-year university students in Thailand in the first semester of an introductory calculus-based physics course during academic years 2007 and 2008, to assess their expectations at the beginning of the course. The precourse MPEX results were compared and correlated with two separate measures of student learning: (1) individual students’ normalized gains from pre and post Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) results, which measure students’ conceptual understanding, and (2) student’s scores on the final exam, which measure their more general problem-solving ability. The results showed a significant positive correlation between their overall MPEX score and five of the six MPEX cluster scores, with their normalized learning gains on the FMCE for both academic years. The results also showed significant positive correlations between student MPEX scores and their final exam scores for the overall MPEX score and all MPEX cluster scores except for the effort cluster. We interviewed two groups of five students each, one group with small favorable scores on the precourse MPEX effort cluster and one with high favorable scores on the precourse MPEX effort cluster, to see how the students’ learning efforts compared with their MPEX results. We concluded from the interviews that what the students think or expect about the MPEX effort involved in learning physics does not match what they actually do.

Wutchana, U.; Emarat, N.

2011-06-01

26

A Healthy Bottom Line: Healthy Life Expectancy as an Outcome Measure for Health Improvement Efforts  

PubMed Central

Context: Good health is the most important outcome of health care, and healthy life expectancy (HLE), an intuitive and meaningful summary measure combining the length and quality of life, has become a standard in the world for measuring population health. Methods: This article critically reviews the literature and practices around the world for measuring and improving HLE and synthesizes that information as a basis for recommendations for the adoption and adaptation of HLE as an outcome measure in the United States. Findings: This article makes the case for adoption of HLE as an outcome measure at the national, state, community, and health care system levels in the United States to compare the effectiveness of alternative practices, evaluate disparities, and guide resource allocation. Conclusions: HLE is a clear, consistent, and important population health outcome measure that can enable informed judgments about value for investments in health care.

Stiefel, Matthew C; Perla, Rocco J; Zell, Bonnie L

2010-01-01

27

The importance of race and social class information in the formation of expectancies about academic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the perceived locus of control, expected academic performance, and relative importance of 5 causal factors (ability, effort, luck, task difficulty, and quality of instruction) in the academic performance of a stimulus student. Both the race (Black vs White) and social class (middle vs lower) of the stimulus student were varied. Ss were enrolled in elementary education (n = 64)

Harris M. Cooper; Reuben M. Baron; Charles A. Lowe

1975-01-01

28

Expected Performance of Real-Time Interactive System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memorandum describes the expected real-time performance of an interactive long-period seismic processing system and of an interactive complex cepstrum program, both utilizing a graphic output. It was found that a highly automated system could probabl...

S. S. Lane

1975-01-01

29

Maintenance personnel performance simulation (MAPPS) model: overview and evaluation efforts  

SciTech Connect

The development of the MAPPS model has been completed and the model is currently undergoing evaluation. These efforts are addressing a number of identified issues concerning practicality, acceptability, usefulness, and validity. Preliminary analysis of the evaluation data that has been collected indicates that MAPPS will provide comprehensive and reliable data for PRA purposes and for a number of other applications. The MAPPS computer simulation model provides the user with a sophisticated tool for gaining insights into tasks performed by NPP maintenance personnel. Its wide variety of input parameters and output data makes it extremely flexible for application to a number of diverse applications. With the demonstration of favorable model evaluation results, the MAPPS model will represent a valuable source of NPP maintainer reliability data and provide PRA studies with a source of data on maintainers that has previously not existed.

Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.; Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Ryan, T.G.

1984-01-01

30

Consumer Food Satisfaction: Fulfillment of Expectations or Evaluation of Performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates whether consumers when buying food products are likely to form expectation-performance comparisons or whether they are more likely to base their satisfaction assessment on performance evaluation. Three different experiments were conducted in order to investigate the problem setting. The food products used were shrimp (experiment A), cheese (experiment B), and potato chips (experiment C). In contrast to

Torben Hansen

2008-01-01

31

Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study is presented of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector. The reconstruction of tracks, leptons, photons, missing energy and jets is investigated, together with the performance of b-tagging and the trigger. The physics potential for a variety of interesting physics processes, within the Standard Model and beyond, is examined. The study comprises a series of notes based

G. Aad; E. Abat; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; M. Aharrouche; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad; H. Ahmed; G. Aielli; T. Akdogan; T. P. A. Akesson; G. Akimoto; M. S. Alam; M. A. Alam; J. Albert; S. Albrand; M. Aleksa; I. N. Aleksandrov; F. Alessandria; C. Alexa; G. Alexander; G. Alexandre; T. Alexopoulos; M. Alhroob; G. Alimonti; J. Alison; M. Aliyev; P. P. Allport; S. E. Allwood-Spiers; A. Aloisio; R. Alon; A. Alonso; J. Alonso; M. G. Alviggi; K. Amako; P. Amaral; C. Amelung; V. V. Ammosov; A. Amorim; G. Amoros; N. Amram; C. Anastopoulos; C. F. Anders; K. J. Anderson; A. Andreazza; V. Andrei; M-L. Andrieux; X. S. Anduaga; F. Anghinolfi; A. Antonaki; M. Antonelli; S. Antonelli; B. Antunovic; F. A. Anulli; G. Arabidze; I. Aracena; Y. Arai; A. T. H. Arce; J. P. Archambault; S. Arfaoui; J-F. Arguin; T. Argyropoulos; E. Arik; M. Arik; A. J. Armbruster; O. Arnaez; C. Arnault; A. Artamonov; D. Arutinov; M. Asai; S. Asai; S. Ask; B. Asman; D. Asner; L. Asquith; K. Assamagan; A. Astbury; A. Astvatsatourov; T. Atkinson; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; E. Auge; K. Augsten; M. A. Aurousseau; N. Austin; G. Avolio; R. Avramidou; A. Axen; C. Ay; G. Azuelos; Y. Azuma; M. A. Baak; G. Baccaglioni; C. Bacci; H. Bachacou; K. Bachas; M. Backes; E. Badescu; P. Bagnaia; Y. Bai; D. C. Bailey; J. T. Baines; O. K. Baker; F. Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa; E. Banas; S. Banerjee; D. Banfi; A. Bangert; V. Bansal; S. P. Baranov; A. Barashkou; T. B. Barber; E. L. Barberio; D. Barberis; M. B. Barbero; D. Y. Bardin; T. Barillari; M. Barisonzi; T. Barklow; N. B. Barlow; N. B. Barlow; R. M. Barnett; S. Baron; A. Baroncelli; A. Baroncelli; F. Barreiro; J. Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa; P. Barrillon; R. Bartoldus; D. Bartsch; J. Bastos; R. L. Bates; J. R. Batley; A. Battaglia; M. Battistin; F. Bauer; M. Bazalova; B. Beare; P. H. Beauchemin; R. B. Beccherle; N. Becerici; P. Bechtle; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; M. Beckingham; K. H. Becks; I. Bedajanek; A. J. Beddall; P. Bednar; V. A. Bednyakov; C. Bee; S. Behar Harpaz; P. K. Behera; M. Beimforde; C. Belanger-Champagne; P. J. Bell; W. H. Bell; G. Bella; L. Bellagamba; F. Bellina; M. Bellomo; A. Belloni; K. Belotskiy; O. Beltramello; S. Ben Ami; O. Beltramello; D. Benchekroun; M. Bendel; B. H. Benedict; N. Benekos; Y. Benhammou; G. P. Benincasa; D. P. Benjamin; M. Benoit; J. R. Bensinger; K. Benslama; S. Bentvelsen; M. Beretta; D. Berge; E. Bergeaas Kuutmann; N. Berger; F. Berghaus; E. Berglund; J. Beringer; K. Bernardet; P. Bernat; R. Bernhard; C. Bernius; T. Berry; A. Bertin; N. Besson; S. Bethke; R. M. Bianchi; M. Bianco; O. Biebel; J. Biesiada; M. Biglietti; H. Bilokon; S. Binet; A. Bingul; C. Bini; C. Biscarat; M. Bischofberger; U. Bitenc; K. M. Black; R. E. Blair; G. Blanchot; C. Blocker; J. Blocki; A. Blondel; W. Blum; U. Blumenschein; C. Boaretto; G. J. Bobbink; A. Bocci; B. Bodine; J. Boek; N. Boelaert; S. Boeser; J. A. Bogaerts; A. Bogouch; C. Bohm; J. Bohm; V. Boisvert; T. Bold; V. Boldea; V. G. Bondarenko; M. Bondioli; M. Boonekamp; C. N. Booth; P. S. L. Booth; J. R. A. Booth; A. Borisov; G. Borissov; I. Borjanovic; S. Borroni; K. Bos; D. Boscherini; M. Bosman; M. Bosteels; H. Boterenbrood; J. Bouchami; J. Boudreau; E. V. Bouhova-Thacker; C. Boulahouache; C. Bourdarios; J. Boyd; I. R. Boyko; A. Braem; P. Branchini; G. W. Brandenburg; A. Brandt; O. Brandt; U. Bratzler; J. E. Brau; H. M. Braun; B. Brelier; J. Bremer; R. Brenner; S. Bressler; D. Breton; N. D. Brett; D. Breton; F. M. Brochu; I. Brock; R. Brock; E. Brodet; F. Broggi; G. Brooijmans; W. K. Brooks; E. Brubaker; P. A. Bruckman de Renstrom; D. Bruncko; R. Bruneliere; S. Brunet; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; M. Bruschi; T. Buanes; F. B. Bucci; P. Buchholz; A. G. Buckley; I. A. Budagov; V. Buescher; L. Bugge; F. Bujor; O. Bulekov; M. Bunse; T. Buran; H. Burckhart; S. Burdin; S. Burke; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; F. Butin; B. Butler; J. M. Butler; C. M. Buttar; J. M. Butterworth; T. Byatt; S. Cabrera Urban; D. Caforio; O. Cakir; P. Calafiura; G. Calderini; R. Calkins; L. P. Caloba; R. Calkins; D. Calvet; P. Camarri; M. Cambiaghi; D. Cameron; F. Campabadal Segura; S. Campana; M. Campanelli; V. Canale; J. Cantero; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; I. Caprini; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; M. Capua; R. Caputo; C. Caramarcu; R. Cardarelli; T. Carli; G. Carlino; L. Carminati; B. Caron; S. Caron; S. Carron Montero; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; J. Carvalho; D. Casadei; M. P. Casado; M. Cascella; C. Caso; A. M. Castaneda Hernadez; E. Castaneda Miranda; V. Castillo Gimenez; N. F. Castro; G. Cataldi; A. Catinaccio; J. R. Catmore; A. Catinaccio; G. Cattani; S. Caughron; D. Cauz; P. Cavalleri; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza; V. Cavasinni; A. Cazzato

2008-01-01

32

Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Mathematics Performance Expectations (MPE) define the content and level of achievement students must reach to be academically prepared for success in entry-level, credit-bearing mathematics courses in college or career training. They were developed through a process that involved faculty from Virginia's two- and four-year colleges and…

Virginia Department of Education, 2011

2011-01-01

33

Assets, parental expectations and involvement, and children's educational performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationships between parental assets with their expectations and involvement of children's education, and children's educational performance measured 2 years later. Through the analysis of the mother–child data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), results indicate that after controlling for family income and other parent characteristics, parental assets were positively related to children's math

Min Zhan

2006-01-01

34

Expectancy effects on competitive 5 km time-trial performance.  

PubMed

Manipulating athletes' beliefs and expectations through deception has been shown to improve sport performance in artificial environments, but this has not been demonstrated systematically in real life competition where the effects could easily be masked. This study investigated the placebo effect of belief in a new performance-enhancing supplement on 5 km competitive time-trial performance. Fifteen competitive male endurance runners (mean±s: Age=33±5; Height=175±8.1 cm; Weight=71.0±7.2 kg, 5 km personal best: 19:13±1:13 minutes) volunteered to participate in four 5 km competitive time trials over a three week period (two experimental and two baseline). In experimental trials, participants ingested a placebo drink that was informed to improve 5 km endurance performance. Conditions were randomised between baseline and experimental. Magnitude inferences and 95% confidence intervals were used to determine if a positive expectancy could have a smallest worthwhile effect on 5 km endurance performance of 0.5%. Mean 5 km performance time-trial for the expectation of receiving a beneficial supplement was different from that of baseline (1195±79 s; 95% confidence interval 1152 to 1239 vs. 1216±81 s; 1171 to 1261 s, P<0.001). Relative to baseline, a very likely beneficial main effect of receiving a positive expectation (1.72±1.03, 95% CI 1.00±2.44%) was demonstrated. The results suggest that the placebo effect could be used in a real life competitive environment to improve 5 km running performance. PMID:24159106

Hurst, P; Board, L; Roberts, J

2013-11-01

35

Self-consistent MPI-IO performance requirements and expectations.  

SciTech Connect

We recently introduced the idea of self-consistent performance requirements for MPI communication. Such requirements provide a means to ensure consistent behavior of an MPI library, thereby ensuring a degree of performance portability by making it unnecessary for a user to perform implementation-dependent optimizations by hand. For the collective operations in particular, a large number of such rules could sensibly be formulated, without making hidden assumptions about the underlying communication system or otherwise constraining the MPI implementation. In this paper, we extend this idea to the realm of parallel I/O (MPI-IO), where the issues are far more subtle. In particular, it is not always possible to specify performance requirements without making assumptions about the implementation or without a priori knowledge of the I/O access pattern. For such cases, we introduce the notion of performance expectations, which specify the desired behavior for good implementations of MPI-IO. I/O performance requirements as well as expectations could be automatically checked by an appropriate benchmarking tool.

Gropp, W. D.; Kimpe, D.; Ross, R.; Thakur, R.; Traff, J. L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Illinois; Katholieke Univ. Leuven; NEC Laboratories Europe

2008-01-01

36

Expected Performance of Adaptive Optics in Large Aperture Solar Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar adaptive optics has become an indispensable tool for high resolution solar observations. New generation solar telescopes, such as the 4 m aperture Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, introduce a new set of challenges to solar adaptive optics correction. Larger aperture sizes are more susceptible to the effects on AO correction performance of the extended field-of-view of the cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Observations at large zenith angles further enhance these field-of-view effects and can introduce more performance reductions due to atmospheric dispersion. We study the expected correction performance of solar adaptive optics systems in large aperture solar telescopes using an end-to-end adaptive optics simulation package.

Marino, J.; Rimmele, T. R.

2012-12-01

37

Student Effort Expectations and Their Learning in First-Year Introductory Physics: A Case Study in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) survey was designed to probe students' expectations about their understanding of the process of learning physics and the structure of physics knowledge--cognitive expectations. This survey was administered to first-year university students in Thailand in the first semester of an introductory calculus-based…

Wutchana, U.; Emarat, N.

2011-01-01

38

NPOESS Preparatory Project Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite - Expected Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) is a new generation space-based system designed to monitor global changes in stratospheric ozone. The suite consists of a Limb Sensor, a Nadir Sensor, and a Main Electrical Box (MEB). The OMPS suite has recently been completed and delivered, after a successful interagency review process, to the NPP prime contractor, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS). It has since been integrated to the NPP spacecraft. This poster will summarize the expected performance of OMPS as determined from the pre-launch test data and analysis. The poster will also describe how potential performance deficiencies may be corrected with algorithm modifications, as well as potential improvements for the next flight model.

Caponi, M. Z.; Hornstein, J.; Flynn, L. E.; Janz, S. J.; Segura, A.

2009-12-01

39

Performance Improvement: How to Demonstrate and Document Infection Control Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home health care infection control programs are multifaceted and involve every member of a home care agency. The infection control process involves five key areas: staff education, detailed policy and procedures, documentation of an infection, surveillance of the program, and a quality\\/performance improvement aspect. As home health care agencies move toward outcome measures, a comprehensive infection control program is key

Denise Maringer

1998-01-01

40

Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics  

SciTech Connect

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV mass scale where groundbreaking discoveries are expected. In the focus are the investigation of the electroweak symmetry breaking and linked to this the search for the Higgs boson as well as the search for Physics beyond the Standard Model. In this report a detailed examination of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector is provided, with a major aim being to investigate the experimental sensitivity to a wide range of measurements and potential observations of new physical processes. An earlier summary of the expected capabilities of ATLAS was compiled in 1999 [1]. A survey of physics capabilities of the CMS detector was published in [2]. The design of the ATLAS detector has now been finalised, and its construction and installation have been completed [3]. An extensive test-beam programme was undertaken. Furthermore, the simulation and reconstruction software code and frameworks have been completely rewritten. Revisions incorporated reflect improved detector modelling as well as major technical changes to the software technology. Greatly improved understanding of calibration and alignment techniques, and their practical impact on performance, is now in place. The studies reported here are based on full simulations of the ATLAS detector response. A variety of event generators were employed. The simulation and reconstruction of these large event samples thus provided an important operational test of the new ATLAS software system. In addition, the processing was distributed world-wide over the ATLAS Grid facilities and hence provided an important test of the ATLAS computing system - this is the origin of the expression 'CSC studies' ('computing system commissioning'), which is occasionally referred to in these volumes. The work reported does generally assume that the detector is fully operational, and in this sense represents an idealised detector: establishing the best performance of the ATLAS detector with LHC proton-proton collisions is a challenging task for the future. The results summarised here therefore represent the best estimate of ATLAS capabilities before real operational experience of the full detector with beam. Unless otherwise stated, simulations also do not include the effect of additional interactions in the same or other bunch-crossings, and the effect of neutron background is neglected. Thus simulations correspond to the low-luminosity performance of the ATLAS detector. This report is broadly divided into two parts: firstly the performance for identification of physics objects is examined in detail, followed by a detailed assessment of the performance of the trigger system. This part is subdivided into chapters surveying the capabilities for charged particle tracking, each of electron/photon, muon and tau identification, jet and missing transverse energy reconstruction, b-tagging algorithms and performance, and finally the trigger system performance. In each chapter of the report, there is a further subdivision into shorter notes describing different aspects studied. The second major subdivision of the report addresses physics measurement capabilities, and new physics search sensitivities. Individual chapters in this part discuss ATLAS physics capabilities in Standard Model QCD and electroweak processes, in the top quark sector, in b-physics, in searches for Higgs bosons, supersymmetry searches, and finally searches for other new particles predicted in more exotic models.

Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington /Athens U. /Natl. Tech. U., Athens /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /Belgrade U. /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Humboldt U., Berlin /Bern U., LHEP /Birmingham U. /Bogazici U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U.

2011-11-28

41

Expected performance of the Plasma Diagnostic Instrumentation on DICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DICE (Dynamic Ionospheric Cubesat Experiment) is an NSF mission scheduled for launch October 25, 2011 consisting of two identical satellites placed in a 350 x 820 km orbit at 101.95 degree inclination. The payload consists of a suite of miniaturized ionospheric diagnostic instruments including a ten meter electric field double probe, an electric field spectrometer, a sweeping Langmuir probe and a three axis magnetometer. These instruments will be used to understand the formation of storm-time enhanced density plumes in the late afternoon local time sector where observations are currently lacking. The instrumentation suite will provide measurements of the ionospheric density and fields at 70 Hz (~0.12 km/sample) on orbit with temperature and spectrometer data at lower rates. Within this paper we show the expected performance of the instrumentation and ground based calibration results.

Burr, S.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C. S.; Crowley, G.; Hui, D.; Suresh, P.; Neilsen, T.

2010-12-01

42

Expectation of having consumed caffeine can improve performance and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored whether caffeine, and expectation of having consumed caffeine, affects attention, reward responsivity and mood using double-blinded methodology. 88 participants were randomly allocated to ‘drink-type’ (caffeinated\\/decaffeinated coffee) and ‘expectancy’ (told caffeinated\\/told decaffeinated coffee) manipulations. Both caffeine and expectation of having consumed caffeine improved attention and psychomotor speed. Expectation enhanced self-reported vigour and reward responsivity. Self-reported depression increased at post-drink

Lynne Dawkins; Fatima-Zahra Shahzad; Suada S. Ahmed; Caroline J. Edmonds

2011-01-01

43

The expected performance of stellar parametrization with Gaia spectrophotometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaia will obtain astrometry and spectrophotometry for essentially all sources in the sky down to a broad-band magnitude limit of G = 20, an expected yield of 109 stars. Its main scientific objective is to reveal the formation and evolution of our Galaxy through chemodynamical analysis. In addition to inferring positions, parallaxes and proper motions from the astrometry, we must also infer the astrophysical parameters of the stars from the spectrophotometry, the blue photometer (BP)/red photometer (RP) spectrum. Here we investigate the performance of three different algorithms [Support Vector Machine (SVM), ILIUM and Aeneas] for estimating the effective temperature, line-of-sight interstellar extinction, metallicity and surface gravity of A-M stars over a wide range of these parameters and over the full magnitude range Gaia will observe (G = 6-20 mag). One of the algorithms, Aeneas, infers the posterior probability density function over all parameters, and can optionally take into account the parallax and the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to improve the estimates. For all algorithms the accuracy of estimation depends on G and on the value of the parameters themselves, so a broad summary of performance is only approximate. For stars at G = 15 with less than 2 mag extinction, we expect to be able to estimate Teff to within 1 per cent, log g to 0.1-0.2 dex and [Fe/H] (for FGKM stars) to 0.1-0.2 dex, just using the BP/RP spectrum (mean absolute error statistics are quoted). Performance degrades at larger extinctions, but not always by a large amount. Extinction can be estimated to an accuracy of 0.05-0.2 mag for stars across the full parameter range with a priori unknown extinction between 0 and 10 mag. Performance degrades at fainter magnitudes, but even at G = 19 we can estimate log g to better than 0.2 dex for all spectral types and [ Fe /H] to within 0.35 dex for FGKM stars, for extinctions below 1 mag.

Liu, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Sordo, R.; Vallenari, A.; Borrachero, R.; Luri, X.; Sartoretti, P.

2012-11-01

44

Effects of performance anxiety on effort and performance in rock climbing: A test of processing efficiency theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies examined the effort and performance of rock climbers in the context of processing efficiency theory. Anxiety was manipulated by different means in the three studies. In each study, the effort due only to the physical exertion of climbing was controlled for. Anxiety, effort, and performance were measured via self-report, an integrated heart rate measure, and belayer observation. Consistent

Lew Hardy; Andrew Hutchinson

2007-01-01

45

Unmet Expectations: Why Is There Such a Difference between Student Expectations and Classroom Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Past studies indicate that students are frequently poor judges of their likely academic performance in the classroom. The difficulty a student faces in accurately predicting performance on a classroom exam may be due to unrealistic optimism or may be due to an inability to self-evaluate academic performance, but the resulting disconnect between…

Stinson, Terrye A.; Zhao, Xiaofeng

2008-01-01

46

The effect of achievement goals on enjoyment, effort, satisfaction and performance.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of achievement goals and achievement emotions on sport satisfaction, performance and effort among competitive athletes. Participants were 200 athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of mastery-approach goals on satisfaction with sport experience and performance, the direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and effort, the direct effect of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals on performance, and the direct effect of mastery-avoidance goals on effort. Results showed a positive direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and an indirect effect, through enjoyment, on satisfaction, performance, and effort. We did not find support for the hypothesized effect of performance-approach or performance-avoidance goals on performance. The applied implications of endorsing mastery-approach goals are discussed. PMID:22046994

Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

2011-07-26

47

Travelers' Intent to Use Mobile Technologies as a Function of Effort and Performance Expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the nature of the tourism product (inherently experiential, intangible, and heterogeneous) and the substantial geographical distances, trial prior to the purchase decision is almost impossible. These kinds of distances could be overcome by information about the product, which is available in advance and can be gathered by the consumer. The upsurge of mobile technology is providing great flexibility

Sujin Oh; Xinran Y. Lehto

2009-01-01

48

Achievement Goals in a Presentation Task: Performance Expectancy, Achievement Goals, State Anxiety, and Task Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of the study were to test the linkages between achievement goals to task performance, as mediated by state anxiety arousal. Performance expectancy was also examined as antecedents of achievement goals. A presentation task in a computer practice class was used as achievement task. Fifty-three undergraduates (37 females and 16 males) were…

Tanaka, Ayumi; Takehara, Takuma; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

2006-01-01

49

Expectancies of reinforcement control in biofeedback and cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of expectancies concerning the controllability of outcomes in a biofeedback task. Forty-eight college undergraduates were subjects. Frontal (forehead) electromyographic (EMG) responses were measured during baseline (no treatment), pretreatment, and test sessions. During pretreatment, subjects were assigned to one of three groups. Using a fictitious blood vessel control task, the success group received false feedback and

John G. Carlson; Joyce L. Feld

1981-01-01

50

Effects of performance anxiety on effort and performance in rock climbing: a test of processing efficiency theory.  

PubMed

Three studies examined the effort and performance of rock climbers in the context of processing efficiency theory. Anxiety was manipulated by different means in the three studies. In each study, the effort due only to the physical exertion of climbing was controlled for. Anxiety, effort, and performance were measured via self-report, an integrated heart rate measure, and belayer observation. Consistent with processing efficiency theory, the results showed that higher levels of anxiety were usually associated with higher levels of effort and commensurately higher levels of performance. However, the results also suggested that cognitive anxiety may not be the prime determinant of the effort and performance changes observed. Finally, the results suggested that other individual difference variables may play an important part in determining the extent to which individuals may be able to make use of anxiety-induced effort. PMID:17999221

Hardy, Lew; Hutchinson, Andrew

2007-06-01

51

The effect of achievement goals on enjoyment, effort, satisfaction and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of achievement goals and achievement emotions on sport satisfaction, performance and effort among competitive athletes. Participants were 200 athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of mastery-approach goals on satisfaction with sport experience and performance, the direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and effort, the direct effect of performance-approach and

Rogelio Puente-Díaz

2012-01-01

52

The effect of achievement goals on enjoyment, effort, satisfaction and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of achievement goals and achievement emotions on sport satisfaction, performance and effort among competitive athletes. Participants were 200 athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of mastery-approach goals on satisfaction with sport experience and performance, the direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and effort, the direct effect of performance-approach and

Rogelio Puente-Díaz

2011-01-01

53

The ZR Final Design Pulsed Power Performance Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largest X-ray generating facility in the world (~1.8 MJ), the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), is presently undergoing a major upgrade. Upon completion of its refurbishment, ZR is expected to deliver an output current of 26 MA to a standard 20 mm by 40 mm diameter Z-pinch load with a 100-ns implosion time. In addition to nearly

D. E. Bliss; D. D. Bloomquist; H. C. Harjes; J. M. Lehr; F. W. Long; J. E. Maenchen; D. H. McDaniel; G. R. McKee; M. E. Savage; D. L. Smith; K. W. Struve; J. W. Weed; E. A. Weinbrecht; J. R. Woodworth; D. L. Johnson; J. P. Corley

2006-01-01

54

Supercomputer and cluster performance modeling and analysis efforts:2004-2006.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes efforts by the Performance Modeling and Analysis Team to investigate performance characteristics of Sandia's engineering and scientific applications on the ASC capability and advanced architecture supercomputers, and Sandia's capacity Linux clusters. Efforts to model various aspects of these computers are also discussed. The goals of these efforts are to quantify and compare Sandia's supercomputer and cluster performance characteristics; to reveal strengths and weaknesses in such systems; and to predict performance characteristics of, and provide guidelines for, future acquisitions and follow-on systems. Described herein are the results obtained from running benchmarks and applications to extract performance characteristics and comparisons, as well as modeling efforts, obtained during the time period 2004-2006. The format of the report, with hypertext links to numerous additional documents, purposefully minimizes the document size needed to disseminate the extensive results from our research.

Sturtevant, Judith E.; Ganti, Anand; Meyer, Harold (Hal) Edward; Stevenson, Joel O.; Benner, Robert E., Jr. (.,; .); Goudy, Susan Phelps; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Taylor, Mark A.; Malins, Robert Joseph; Scott, Ryan T.; Barnette, Daniel Wayne; Rajan, Mahesh; Ang, James Alfred; Black, Amalia Rebecca; Laub, Thomas William; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas; Franke, Brian Claude

2007-02-01

55

The Effects of Response Effort on Safe Performance by Therapists at an Autism Treatment Facility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of response effort on safe behaviors (i.e., glove wearing, hand sanitizing, and electrical outlet replacement) exhibited by therapists at an autism treatment center were examined. Participants were exposed to 2 or 3 levels of effort (i.e., high, medium, low) for each dependent variable. Results showed increased safe performance during…

Casella, Sarah E.; Wilder, David A.; Neidert, Pamela; Rey, Catalina; Compton, Megan; Chong, Ivy

2010-01-01

56

Anxiety-induced performance catastrophes: Investigating effort required as an asymmetry factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies are reported that test the hypothesis that previous support for the cusp catastrophe model of anxiety and performance, and the hysteresis effect in particular, could have been due to a complex interaction between cognitive anxiety and effort required rather than between cognitive anxiety and physiological arousal. We used task difficulty to manipulate effort required in a letter transformation

Lew Hardy; Stuart Beattie; Tim Woodman

2007-01-01

57

Investigating the effect of model type and practice format on performance expectations and actual physical performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on social cognitive theory, we tested the effects of model type (mastery vs. coping) and form of practice (physical, imagery, or none) on performance expectations (self-efficacy and perceived task difficulty) and balance on a stabilometer task. After obtaining baseline measures, 78 participants viewed either mastery or coping demonstrations of the task and practiced according to their allocated condition for

Jennifer Cumming; Richard Ramsey

2011-01-01

58

The effects of individual and team competitions on performance, emotions, and effort.  

PubMed

It is well documented that competition can affect performance and emotion in sport. However, our understanding of the comparative effects of individual and team competitions on performance and emotion is limited. We also know little about emotion-based mechanisms underlying the effects of different types of competition on performance. To address these issues, 64 participants completed a handgrip endurance task during time-trial, one-on-one, two-on-two, and four-on-four competitions while self-report and possible corroborative physiological measures of enjoyment, anxiety, and effort were assessed. Results indicated that performance, enjoyment, anxiety, and effort increased from individual to team competitions. The observed increases in performance were mediated by increased enjoyment and effort. Our findings illustrate differential effects of individual and team competitions on performance and emotion. Moreover, they indicate that both enjoyment-based and anxiety-based mechanisms can explain changes in performance among different types of individual and team competition. PMID:23535972

Cooke, Andrew; Kavussanu, Maria; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher

2013-04-01

59

29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring...

2013-07-01

60

Complex, Performance-Based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there has been an increasing emphasis on assessment results, as well as increasing concern about the nature of the most widely used forms of student assessment and uses that are made of the results. These conflicting forces have helped create a burgeoning interest in alternative forms of assessments, particularly complex, performance-based assessments. It is argued that there

ROBERT L. LINN; EVA L. BAKER; STEPHEN B. DUNBAR

1991-01-01

61

Performance Overconfidence: Metacognitive Effects or Misplaced Student Expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has shown that students consistently overestimate their performance on academic exams, with the error being inversely related to their grades. The effect has been explained as a matter of competency. If true, then students who do not know what they do not know are put in a double bind. They do not have the cognitive ability to recognize

Dennis E. Clayson

2005-01-01

62

Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student…

Sorhagen, Nicole S.

2013-01-01

63

Caffeine increases psychomotor performance on the effort expenditure for rewards task  

PubMed Central

Preclinical studies suggest that cost/benefit decision-making involves interactions between adenosine and dopamine (DA). In rats, DA depletion decreases willingness to incur effort costs, while adenosine antagonism reverses these effects, likely by increasing DA transmission. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist commonly used to facilitate effortful tasks, and thus may affect decisions involving effort costs in humans. The current study examined acute effects of 200 mg of caffeine on willingness to exert effort for monetary rewards at varying levels of reward value and reward probability, in young adult light caffeine users. Based on previous findings with amphetamine, we predicted that caffeine would increase willingness to exert effort. At separate sessions, 23 healthy normal adults received placebo or 200 mg caffeine under counterbalanced double-blind conditions, then completed the effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT). Measures of subjective and cardiovascular effects were obtained at regular intervals. Caffeine produced small but significant subjective and cardiovascular effects, and sped psychomotor performance on the EEfRT. Caffeine did not alter willingness to exert effort, except in high cardiovascular responders to caffeine, in whom it decreased willingness to exert effort. These results were contrary to our predictions, but consistent with rodent studies suggesting that moderate doses of caffeine alone do not affect effort, but rather only influence effort in the context of DA antagonism. Our results demonstrate that psychomotor speeding and decisional effects on the EEfRT are dissociable, providing additional evidence for the EEfRT as a specific measure of effort-based decision-making. This study provides a starting point for exploring contributions of the adenosine system to motivation in humans.

Wardle, Margaret C.; Treadway, Michael T.; de Wit, Harriet

2013-01-01

64

Expected orbit determination performance for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission  

SciTech Connect

The TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) mission, launched during the summer of 1992, has the requirement that the radial component of its orbit must be computed to an accuracy of 13 cm root-mean-square (rms) or better, allowing measurements of the sea surface height to be computed to similar accuracy when the satellite height is differenced with the altimeter measurements. This will be done by combining precise satellite tracking measurements with precise models of the forces acting on the satellite. The Space Geodesy Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), as part of the T/P precision orbit determination (POD) Team, has the responsibility within NASA for the T/P precise orbit computations. The prelaunch activities of the T/P POD Team have been mainly directed towards developing improved models of the static and time-varying gravitational forces acting on T/P and precise models for the non-conservative forces perturbing the orbit of T/P such as atmospheric drag, solar and Earth radiation pressure, and thermal imbalances. The radial orbit error budget for T/P allows 10 cm rms error due to gravity field mismodeling, 3 cm due to solid Earth and ocean tides, 6 cm due to radiative forces, and 3 cm due to atmospheric drag. A prelaunch assessment of the current modeling accuracies for these forces indicates that the radial orbit error requirements can be achieved with the current models, and can probably be surpassed once T/P tracking data are used to fine tune the models. Provided that the performance of the T/P spacecraft is nominal, the precise orbits computed by the T/P POD Team should be accurate to 13 cm or better radially.

Nerem, R.S.; Putney, B.H.; Marshall, J.A.; Lerch, F.J. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Pavlis, E.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Klosko, S.M.; Luthcke, S.B.; Patel, G.B.; Williamson, R.G.; Zelensky, N.P.

1993-03-01

65

How does mental health care perform in respect to service users' expectations? Evaluating inpatient and outpatient care in Germany with the WHO responsiveness concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health systems increasingly try to make their services more responsive to users' expectations. In the context of the World Health Report 2000, WHO developed the concept of health system responsiveness as a performance parameter. Responsiveness relates to the system's ability to respond to service users' legitimate expectations of non-medical aspects. We used this concept in an effort to evaluate

Anke Bramesfeld; Felix Wedegärtner; Hermann Elgeti; Susanne Bisson

2007-01-01

66

Effortful Control in "Hot" and "Cool" Tasks Differentially Predicts Children's Behavior Problems and Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children's adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer…

Kim, Sanghag; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

2013-01-01

67

Test Expectancy and Performance on Factual and Higher-Level Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effect of test expectancy on preferred strategy use and test performance on factual and higher-level questions in learning from expository text was studied, using 42 undergraduates who reported their study strategies and completed a multiple-choice test. Test expectancy affected neither preferred strategy use nor test performance. (SLD)|

Feldt, Ronald C.

1990-01-01

68

Adolescents' expectancies of success, self-evaluations, and attributions about performance on spatial and verbal tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the expectancies of success, evaluations of performance, and achievement-related attributions that high school students made about verbal and spatial tasks that typically show sex differences. Although no sex differences were found in task performance, boys expected to do better than girls on both the spatial and verbal tasks. After completing the task, the girls continued to

Idy Barasch Gitelson; Anne C. Petersen; Maryse H. Tobin-Richards

1982-01-01

69

41 CFR 102-117.275 - What performance must I expect from a TSP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-01-01...2013-01-01 false What performance must I expect from...Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION...117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance §...

2013-01-01

70

Interactive effects of visual and auditory intervention on physical performance and perceived effort.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using different types of media on physical performance and perceived exertion. This study was divided into two parts. In Part 1, we examined the effects of different combination of audio and video interventions on physical performance and rating of perceived effort (RPE). We recruited 20 collegiate students who performed a 12-minute cycling task (where they were asked to bike as hard as possible) under 4 conditions (music, video, music and video, and control) in a randomized order. Results indicated participants in the 2 media groups (music & audio) reported a significantly lower score for RPE. In addition, there was also an effect of media type where participants in music condition perceived less effort on the cycling task compared to the video condition. Part 2 examined how music preference influenced physical performance, but used a running task (where they were asked to run as hard as possible), and by recruiting a much larger sample. Seventy-five students were assigned into 5 groups (high preference and high motivation, high preference and low motivation, low preference and low motivation, low preference and high motivation, and control) based on responses on the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI. Results showed that music preference, but not its motivational quality, had a significant effect on physical performance. Overall, these results show that listening to music, and in particular preferred music increases physical performance and reduces perceived effort. Key PointsAmong different sensory stimulations, music can enhance physical performance more strongly than video.In addition to the motivational level of the music, music preference can also influence the physical performance of aerobic exercise participants. PMID:24149142

Lin, Ju-Han; Lu, Frank Jing-Horng

2013-09-01

71

Interactive Effects of Visual and Auditory Intervention on Physical Performance and Perceived Effort  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using different types of media on physical performance and perceived exertion. This study was divided into two parts. In Part 1, we examined the effects of different combination of audio and video interventions on physical performance and rating of perceived effort (RPE). We recruited 20 collegiate students who performed a 12-minute cycling task (where they were asked to bike as hard as possible) under 4 conditions (music, video, music and video, and control) in a randomized order. Results indicated participants in the 2 media groups (music & audio) reported a significantly lower score for RPE. In addition, there was also an effect of media type where participants in music condition perceived less effort on the cycling task compared to the video condition. Part 2 examined how music preference influenced physical performance, but used a running task (where they were asked to run as hard as possible), and by recruiting a much larger sample. Seventy-five students were assigned into 5 groups (high preference and high motivation, high preference and low motivation, low preference and low motivation, low preference and high motivation, and control) based on responses on the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI. Results showed that music preference, but not its motivational quality, had a significant effect on physical performance. Overall, these results show that listening to music, and in particular preferred music increases physical performance and reduces perceived effort. Key Points Among different sensory stimulations, music can enhance physical performance more strongly than video. In addition to the motivational level of the music, music preference can also influence the physical performance of aerobic exercise participants.

Lin, Ju-Han; Lu, Frank Jing-Horng

2013-01-01

72

Glucose administration, heart rate and cognitive performance: effects of increasing mental effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: It is known that glucose administration is capable of improving performance on tests of declarative verbal memory and non-mnemonic\\u000a tasks requiring high ”mental effort”. At the same time, cognitively demanding tasks are associated with elevated heart rate,\\u000a a response that could feasibly be part of a physiological mechanism serving to increase the delivery of glucose to active\\u000a brain substrates.

David O. Kennedy; Andrew B. Scholey

2000-01-01

73

Need for cognition, task difficulty, and the formation of performance expectancies.  

PubMed

In the present article, the authors analyze how performance expectancies are generated and how they affect actual performance. The authors predicted that task difficulty would affect performance expectancies only when cognitive motivation (i.e., need for cognition [NFC]) and cognitive capacity are high. This should be the case because analyzing task difficulty is a process requiring cognitive capacity as well as cognitive motivation. The findings supported the expected NFC x Difficulty interaction for the formation of performance expectancies (Study 1, Study 2), but only when cognitive capacity was high (Study 2). The authors also predicted that expectancies would affect actual performance only if the task is difficult and if task difficulty is taken into account when the expectancy is generated. This hypothesis was supported: Significant relations between performance expectancies and actual performance were found only for difficult tasks and for participants higher in NFC. Studies 5 and 6 showed clear evidence that the NFC x Difficulty interaction could not be explained by differences in the use of task-specific self-concepts. The findings were robust across academic, social, and physical tasks. PMID:19379036

Reinhard, Marc-André; Dickhäuser, Oliver

2009-05-01

74

Self-monitoring, and individual expectation of performance-norms in sport teams.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-monitoring and individuals' expectation of performance-norms, the attitudes shared among team members about how high a performance the group should achieve in team sports. A secondary purpose was to assess whether the relationship between self-monitoring and individual expectation of performance-norms would be moderated by the type of group selected. Analysis suggests that for an elite sport team there is no difference between the performance-norm for the team and individuals' expectations in terms of self-monitoring. For recreational sport teams, however, those high on self-monitoring had higher individual expectations of performance-norms than the low self-monitors. PMID:10710761

Kim, M S

1999-12-01

75

Caffeine Consumption, Expectancies of Caffeine-Enhanced Performance, and Caffeinism Symptoms among University Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gathered self-report data on college students' (n=797) expectations of caffeine-enhanced performance, level of beverage caffeine consumed daily, and caffeinism signs experienced after consumption of caffeinated beverages. Results supported extending the expectancies model of substance use motivation from alcohol to caffeine. (Author/ABL)|

Bradley, John R.; Petree, Allen

1990-01-01

76

Adolescents' Expectancies of Success, Self-Evaluations, and Attributions about Performance on Spatial and Verbal Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined the expectancies of success, evaluations of performance, and achievement-related attributions about tasks that typically show sex differences. Results suggest that there are generalized, rather than task specific, sex differences in achievement expectancies, evaluations, and attributions. (Author/GC)|

Gitelson, Idy Barasch; And Others

1982-01-01

77

The effects of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort mobility performance in wheelchair athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m sprint times reduced in 18° (5.89±0.47 s, P=0.011) and 20° camber (5.93±0.47 s, P=0.030) compared with 24° (6.05±0.45 s). Large effect sizes revealed that 18° camber enabled greater acceleration over the first 2 (r=0.53, 95% CI=0.004 to 0.239) and 3 (r=0.59, 95% CI=0.017 to 0.170) pushes compared with 24°. Linear mobility times significantly improved (P?0.05) in 15° (16.08±0.84 s), 18° (16.06±0.97 s) and 20° (16.22±0.84 s) camber compared with 24° (16.62±1.10 s). Although no statistically significant main effect of camber was revealed, large effect sizes (r=0.72, 95% CI=0.066 to 0.250) demonstrated that 18° camber reduced times taken to perform the manoeuvrability drill compared with 15°. It was concluded that 18° camber was the best performing setting investigated given its superior performance for both linear and non-linear aspects of mobility, whereas 24° camber impaired linear performance. This was likely to be due to the greater drag forces experienced. Subsequently, athletes would be recommended to avoid 24° camber and young or inexperienced athletes in particular may benefit from selecting 18° as a starting point due to its favourable performance for all aspects of mobility performance in the current study. PMID:22187387

Mason, B; van der Woude, L; Tolfrey, K; Goosey-Tolfrey, V

2011-12-20

78

Achievement-Related Expectancies, Academic Self-Concept, and Mathematics Performance of Academically Underprepared Adolescent Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between achievement-related expectancies, academic self-concept, and mathematics performance of 191 academically underprepared adolescent students was examined. After the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, a significant main effect for academic self-concept was found; as expected, students with higher academic self-concept earned significantly higher mathematics grades. In addition, after the effects of prior achievement were controlled for,

J. Daniel House

1993-01-01

79

Achievement-related expectancies, academic self-concept, and mathematics performance of academically underprepared adolescent students.  

PubMed

The relationship between achievement-related expectancies, academic self-concept, and mathematics performance of 191 academically underprepared adolescent students was examined. After the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, a significant main effect for academic self-concept was found; as expected, students with higher academic self-concept earned significantly higher mathematics grades. In addition, after the effects of prior achievement were controlled for, female students were found to earn significantly higher mathematics grades than did male students. A significant three-way (Sex x Ethnic Group x Achievement-Related Expectancies) interaction was also noted. Unlike in several previous studies, no significant racial differences in mathematics performance were found. These students had a similar socioeconomic status (SES), and the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, suggesting that racial and gender differences in mathematics achievement may be partially explained by prior schooling and SES background, as posited by Reyes and Stanic (1988). PMID:8331332

House, J D

1993-03-01

80

Gender Differences in Math and Verbal Self-Concept, Performance Expectations, and Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in mathematics and verbal self-concept, performance expectations, intrinsic motivation, and goal orientation were examined in 4 samples of Norwegian students. A total of 907 students in 6th grade (n = 277), 9th grade (n = 239), 11th grade (n = 264), and adult students enrolled in first year of senior high school (n = 127) participated in the

Sidsel Skaalvik; Einar M. Skaalvik

2004-01-01

81

Improving performance expectancies in stereotypic domains: task relevance and the reduction of stereotype threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiments presented here extend previous research on reducing stereotype threat, along with examining the mediating role of performance expectancies. Women who generated shared academic characteristics between men and women predicted higher scores for themselves on a math test compared to the baseline and those who generated shared non-academic characteristics or shared physical characteristics. No effects were found for male

Harriet E. S. Rosenthal; Richard J. Crisp; Mein-Woei Suen

2007-01-01

82

Virginia's College and Career Ready Initiative Grade 12 English Capstone Course Content and Performance Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virginia's "College and Career Ready English Performance Expectations" grade 12 capstone course contains high-interest contextualized content designed to give certain students an additional boost for competent and successful entry into college and careers. The course will add to students' preparation for critical reading, college and workplace…

Virginia Department of Education, 2011

2011-01-01

83

A Bayesian Procedure for Assessing Process Performance Based on Expected Relative Loss with Asymmetric Tolerances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi has introduced the loss function approach to quality improvement by focusing on the reduction of variation around the target value. This concept pays attention to the product designer’s original intent; that is, values of a critical characteristic at a target lead to maximum product performance. To address this concept, Johnson (1992) proposed the concept of expected relative squared error

Chien-Wei Wu; M. H. Shu

2007-01-01

84

The base rate of suboptimal effort in a pediatric mild TBI sample: Performance on the Medical Symptom Validity Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance on the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) was examined in 193 consecutively referred patients aged 8 through 17 years who had sustained a mild traumatic brain injury. A total of 33 participants failed to meet actuarial criteria for valid effort on the MSVT. After accounting for possible false positives and false negatives, the base rate of suboptimal effort in

Michael W. Kirkwood; John W. Kirk

2010-01-01

85

Autonomy Support and Intrinsic Goal Progress Expectancy and Its Links to Longitudinal Study Effort and Subjective Wellbeing: The Differential Mediating Effect of Intrinsic and Identified Regulations and the Moderator Effects of Effort and Intrinsic Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) process model of subjective wellbeing among students at Norwegian Folk High Schools. In this model the authors hypothesized that students' intrinsic goal progress expectancy in the chosen study activity and perceived autonomy support from teachers would be positively associated with intrinsic and identified regulations of activity. In turn, intrinsic regulation

Rune Waaler; Halgeir Halvari; Knut Skjesol; Tor Egil Bagøien

2012-01-01

86

Pre-existent expectancy effects in the relationship between caffeine and performance.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the impact of pre-existent expectancy regarding the effects of the caffeine load of a drink and the perception of the caffeine content on subjective mood and vigilance performance. Caffeine deprived participants (N=25) were tested in four conditions (within subjects design), using a 2×2 design, with caffeine load and information regarding the caffeine content of the drink. In two sessions, they were given caffeinated coffee and in two were given decaffeinated coffee. Within these two conditions, on one occasion they were given accurate information about the drink and on the other they were given inaccurate information about the drink. Mood and vigilance performance were assessed post ingestion. Caffeine was found to enhance performance, but only when participants were accurately told they were receiving it. When decaffeinated coffee was given, performance was poorer, irrespective of expectancy. However, when caffeine was given, but participants were told it was decaffeinated coffee, performance was as poor as when no caffeine had been administered. There were no easily interpretable effects on mood. The pharmacological effects of caffeine appear to act synergistically with expectancy. PMID:20382192

Elliman, Nicola A; Ash, Jennifer; Green, Michael W

2010-04-09

87

Performance Evaluation of General and Company Specific Models in Software Development Effort Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of our effort estimation analysis of a European Space Agency database consisting of 108 software development projects. We develop and evaluate simple empirical effort estimation models that include only those productivity factors found to be significant for these projects and determine if models based on a multicompany database can be successfully used to

Katrina Maxwell; Luk Van Wassenhove; Soumitra Dutta

1999-01-01

88

Hope and optimism: latent structures and influences on grade expectancy and academic performance.  

PubMed

A synthesized model of trait hope (Snyder 1994, 2002) and trait optimism (Scheier & Carver, 1985) is proposed. In this model hope and optimism are conceptualized as facets of an overarching trait called goal attitude. Structural equation modeling is used to test the plausibility of the proposed model in a sample of 345 students in a university psychology course who completed the Adult Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) and the Life Orientation Test-Revised (Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994). The proposed model shows acceptable fit to the observed data. The synthesized model is used to examine the unique and common influences of hope and optimism on grade expectancy and academic performance in 312 students who completed the course. The results show that hope uniquely influenced students' grade expectancies, whereas optimism did not. In turn, grade expectancies influenced academic performance. Neither hope nor optimism had a unique, direct influence on academic performance. In contrast, the shared aspect of hope and optimism (i.e., goal attitude) had a direct influence on academic performance. PMID:19076999

Rand, Kevin L

2008-12-10

89

Pre-existent expectancy effects in the relationship between caffeine and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the impact of pre-existent expectancy regarding the effects of the caffeine load of a drink and the perception of the caffeine content on subjective mood and vigilance performance. Caffeine deprived participants (N=25) were tested in four conditions (within subjects design), using a 2×2 design, with caffeine load and information regarding the caffeine content of the drink.

Nicola A. Elliman; Jennifer Ash; Michael W. Green

2010-01-01

90

Role of Social–Cognitive Expectations in High School Students' Mathematics-Related Interest and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested path models of academic interest and performance that were derived from social–cognitive theory. Two samples of high school students took part in the study: 151 geometry students and 145 advanced algebra students. Measures of objective math ability, perceived sources of efficacy information, outcome expectations, course-specific self-efficacy, interest in mathematics and science activities, and math course grades were

Frederick G. Lopez; Robert W. Lent; Steven D. Brown; Paul A. Gore

1997-01-01

91

Negative expectancy appraisals and defeatist performance beliefs and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Negative symptoms have clear functional implications in schizophrenia and are typically unresponsive to current treatments. The cognitive model of negative symptoms suggests that dysfunctional beliefs are influential in the development and maintenance of negative symptoms and schizophrenia. The current study reports on a preliminary investigation of a new measure of Negative Expectancy Appraisals (specifically beliefs about limited probability of success and perception of limited cognitive resources), and also evaluates whether dysfunctional beliefs are more closely linked to particular subdomains of negative symptoms. Sixty two individuals with schizophrenia completed measures of dysfunctional beliefs and were rated on negative symptoms. Analyses indicated that the endorsement of beliefs regarding low expectations for success and perception of limited resources (Negative Expectancy Appraisals) are robustly associated with diminished experience negative symptoms (avolition, asociality, and anhedonia), but are not associated with negative symptoms reflecting diminished expressivity (blunted affect, alogia). Similarly, Defeatist Performance Beliefs are modestly related to diminished experience, but not diminished expression, negative symptoms. Negative Expectancy Appraisals were also robustly linked to depressive symptoms. Results from the current study provide evidence that dysfunctional beliefs are clearly relevant to consider in relation to negative symptoms, and may represent a fruitful treatment target. PMID:21704387

Couture, Shannon M; Blanchard, Jack J; Bennett, Melanie E

2011-06-24

92

Traits and cognitions of perfectionism and their relation with coping style, effort, achievement, and performance anxiety in Japanese musicians.  

PubMed

Research has shown that 2 major facets of perfectionism can be differentiated: perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. In order to investigate how these different facets of perfectionism are related to coping, effort, achievement, and performance anxiety in musicians, we asked 275 professional and amateur Japanese musicians to complete measures of perfectionism traits, perfectionism cognitions, coping style, effort, achievement, and performance anxiety. While both facets of perfectionism showed a similar pattern of correlation with coping measures, they were differently associated with effort, achievement, and performance anxiety. In addition, results of hierarchical regression analysis showed the incremental validity of perfectionism cognitions in explaining variance in performance anxiety above the variance explained by other variables, such as trait perfectionism. These findings demonstrate that perfectionism in musicians has both positive and negative elements. PMID:21477982

Kobori, Osamu; Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

2011-03-16

93

Understanding Internet Searching Performance in a Heterogeneous Portal for K-12 Students: Search Success, Search Time, Strategy, and Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study sought to better understand search performance using an online portal containing a collection of heterogeneous library resources for K-12 students. Search performance is examined in terms of search success, search time, strategy, and effort. This study revealed unsuccessful searches tended to take longer than successful searches;…

Zhang, Yin; Robins, David; Holmes, Jason; Salaba, Athena

2009-01-01

94

The dorsomedial striatum encodes net expected return, critical for energizing performance vigor  

PubMed Central

Decision making requires an actor to not only steer behavior towards specific goals, but also determine the optimal vigor of performance. Current research and models have largely focused on the former problem of how actions are directed, while overlooking the latter problem of how they are energized. Here, we designed a self-paced decision-making paradigm that showed that rats' performance vigor globally fluctuates with the net value of their options, suggesting that they maintain long-term estimates of the value of their current state. Lesions of the dorsomedial (DMS), and to a lesser degree, in the ventral striatum (VS) impaired such state-dependent modulation of vigor, rendering vigor to depend more exclusively on the outcomes of immediately preceding trials. The lesions, however, spared choice biases. Neuronal recordings showed that the DMS is enriched with net-value-coding neurons. In sum, the DMS encodes one's net expected return, which drives the general motivation to perform.

Wang, Alice Y.; Miura, Keiji; Uchida, Naoshige

2013-01-01

95

The dorsomedial striatum encodes net expected return, critical for energizing performance vigor.  

PubMed

Decision making requires an actor to not only steer behavior toward specific goals but also determine the optimal vigor of performance. Current research and models have largely focused on the former problem of how actions are directed while overlooking the latter problem of how they are energized. Here we designed a self-paced decision-making paradigm, which showed that rats' performance vigor globally fluctuates with the net value of their options, suggesting that they maintain long-term estimates of the value of their current state. Lesions of the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and, to a lesser degree, in the ventral striatum impaired such state-dependent modulation of vigor, rendering vigor to depend more exclusively on the outcomes of immediately preceding trials. The lesions, however, spared choice biases. Neuronal recordings showed that the DMS is enriched in net value-coding neurons. In sum, the DMS encodes one's net expected return, which drives the general motivation to perform. PMID:23584742

Wang, Alice Y; Miura, Keiji; Uchida, Naoshige

2013-04-14

96

Learner Involvement in Instruction on a Complex Cognitive Task: Application of a Composite Measure of Performance and Mental Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study presents an application of a measure of learner involvement developed by Paas, Tuovinen, van Merrienboer, and Darabi (2005). These authors combined learners' performance scores with their perceived mental effort invested in instruction and used it to assess learner involvement in instructional conditions. The present study examines the…

Darabi, A. Aubteen; Nelson, David W.; Paas, Fred

2007-01-01

97

Expectancy-Related Modulations of Neural Oscillations in Continuous Performance Tasks  

PubMed Central

Analysis of neural oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during cognitive tasks provides valuable information about underlying neuronal processing not accessible by other methods such as event-related potentials (ERPs) and the BOLD signal in fMRI. We investigated neural substrates of motor preparation and expectancy by analyzing neural oscillations of healthy subjects performing the AX continuous performance task (AX-CPT), a task widely used to evaluate processes such as cognitive control, motor preparation and anticipatory and sustained attention. The task consists of letters presented sequentially on a monitor, and subjects are required to respond only when they see the letter A (cue) followed by the letter X (target). In this study, to emphasize expectation and motor preparation, three versions of AX-CPT were used in which the overall propensity to respond was differentially modulated, by changing the probability of the letter sequences. Neural activity was investigated in three time windows following presentation of the cue: sensory, evaluation and preparation. Alpha power was reduced following cue onset similarly in all versions of the task in both the sensory and evaluation periods, but in the later preparation period there were task dependent modulations. Alpha was decreased when an infrequent cue increased the chance of a response, and increased when a propensity to respond had to be overcome, possibly reflecting an anticipatory attentional mechanism to gate visuo-motor processing. Beta power was modulated by task and cue in both evaluation and preparation periods. In the latter, beta power reflected the propensity to respond and correlated both with amplitude of the contingent negative variation (CNV), an ERP that reflects response preparation, and with reaction time. Some clinical populations such as patients with schizophrenia or attention-deficit disorder show specific deficits when performing the AX-CPT. These results provide a basis for investigating the differential neural underpinnings of oscillatory cognitive control deficits observed in various patient populations.

Bickel, S.; Dias, E.C.; Epstein, M.L.; Javitt, D.C.

2012-01-01

98

Expected performance of a hard X-ray polarimeter (POLAR) by Monte Carlo simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarization measurements of the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can provide diagnostic information for understanding the nature of the central engine. POLAR is a compact polarimeter dedicated to the polarization measurement of GRBs between 50 and 300 keV and is scheduled to be launched aboard the Chinese Space Laboratory around the year 2012. A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation has been accomplished to model the expected performance of POLAR while a prototype of POLAR is being constructed. The modulation factor, efficiency and effective area, background rates and minimum detectable polarization (MDP) were calculated for different detector configurations and trigger strategies. With the optimized detector configuration and trigger strategy and the total weight constraint of less than 30 kg, the primary science goal to determine whether most GRBs are strongly polarized can be achieved, and about 9 GRBs/yr can be detected with an MDP<10% for the conservative detector configuration.

Xiong, Shaolin; Produit, Nicolas; Wu, Bobing

2009-07-01

99

Construction and Expected Performance of the Hadron Blind Detector for the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC  

SciTech Connect

A new hadron blind detector (HBD) for electron identification in high density hadron environment has been installed in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC in the fall of 2006. The HBD will identify low momentum electron-positron pairs to reduce the combinatorial background in the e{sup +}e{sup -} mass spectrum, mainly in the region below 1 GeV/c2. The HBD is a windowless proximity-focusing Cherenkov detector with a radiator length of 50 cm, a CsI photocathode and three layers of gas electron multipliers (GEM). Pure CF4 is used as a radiator and a detector gas. This proceeding describes the construction details and the expected performance of the HBD.

Milov, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Awes, Terry C [ORNL; Batsouli, Sotiria [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Cianciolo, Vince [ORNL; Efremenko, Yuri [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Read Jr, Kenneth F [ORNL; Silvermyr, David O [ORNL; Sorensen, Soren P [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Stankus, Paul W [ORNL; Young, Glenn R [ORNL; Zhang, Chun [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); PHENIX, Collaboration [The

2007-01-01

100

Behavior and performance of Fuzzy-RED AQM algorithm in best-effort networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we shortly discuss the need for improved congestion control in the Internet and concentrate on performance analysis and tuning issues of RED (Random Early Detection)-like AQMs (Active Queue Management) algorithms. We revisit the prin- ciples of Fuzzy-RED and its linear counterparts and examine their advantages and possible shortcomings. We also perform extensive simulations in various net- work

Timo Lehto; Mikko Laurikkala; Teemu Ekola; Hannu Koivisto

101

Intangible effort and performance: the case of the French wine industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates to what extent intangible investments have a positive impact on French wine companies' financial performance. French wine companies are small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), so the task is (a) to measure their intangible expenses and capital, and (b) to estimate their impact on companies' performances. The authors then analyze the effect of property structures (cooperatives and corporations)

Paul Amadieu; Jean-Laurent Viviani

2010-01-01

102

The effect of effort on baseline neuropsychological test scores in high school football athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePoor effort on baseline neuropsychological tests is expected to influence interpretation of post-concussion assessment scores. Our study examined effort in an athletic population to determine if poor effort effects neuropsychological test performance.

Tamerah N. Hunt; Michael S. Ferrara; L. Stephen Miller; Stephen Macciocchi

2007-01-01

103

Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for targeted advertisement of student resources such as tutoring services. The students who are identified in the over-performing student population received higher grades than their fellow students, but spent less time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for honors programs, independent research projects, and peer-tutoring programs. Incorporating these evaluation criteria to online homework systems will allow instructors to quickly identify students in these academic student populations.

Perdian, David C.

2012-10-01

104

Reflective Thinking, Effort, Persistence, Disorganization and Academic Performance: A Mediational Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This article reports on a two-phase study that was conducted looking at study processing strategies, reflective thinking practice, and academic performance. Phase I is a mediational analysis of conceptual model that we have developed involving examination of direct and mediating effects between the four phases of reflection (habitual…

Phan, Huy P.

2009-01-01

105

Federal Efforts to Improve the Lowest-Performing Schools: District Views on School Improvement Grant Requirements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As Congress considers legislation to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965, one topic of debate is the program of school improvement grants (SIGs) authorized by section 1003(g) of Title I. SIGs are intended to help to turn around low-performing schools and are part of the larger ESEA Title I program to improve…

Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

2011-01-01

106

Comparison of Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a comparison of Virginia's mathematics performance expectations with the common core state standards for mathematics. The comparison focuses on number and quantity, algebra, functions, geometry, and statistics and probability. (Contains 1 footnote.)|

Virginia Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

107

Predicting the Performance of a GRID Environment: An Initial Effort to Increase Scheduling Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GRID environments are privileged targets for computation-intensive problem solving in areas from weather forecasting to seismic analysis. Mainly composed by commodity hardware, these environments can deliver vast computational capacity, at relatively low cost. In order to take full advantage of their power we need to have efficient task schedulers with the ability to maximize resource effectiveness, shortening execution times. GRID schedulers must not only decide taking a snapshot of the GRID's status into account, but should also consider the output involved in past decisions. In this work, we intend to show how resource usage can be analyzed, through the use of data mining techniques, to predict performance availability of a GRID environment, as a preliminary work to increase scheduling efficiency as well as adequate resource provisioning.

Guerreiro, Nuno; Belo, Orlando

108

From serving students to serving the economy: Changing expectations of faculty role performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, it is argued that academic managers in state bureaucracies and universities are changing their expectations of faculty role. Such changes are generally justified as a necessary response to the fiscal crisis faced in many states. The nature and degree of these changing expectations are assessed through analysis of the goals and objectives addressing teaching, research and service

Sheila Slaughter

1985-01-01

109

Examination of Faculty Expectations of Technical College Administrators as an Important Factor in High Performing Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Popular thought supports the notion that faculty expectations of technical college administrators appear to be linked to the success or failure of an institution at accomplishing its mission. These expectations provide the basis for the development of relationships that foster the growth of technical training and thus the growth of a skilled…

Dupuis, Phyllis A.

2009-01-01

110

Expectation to receive methylphenidate enhances subjective arousal but not cognitive performance  

PubMed Central

Nonmedical use of prescription stimulant medication such as methylphenidate (MPH) has increased among college students over the past several years. Common motivations for use include enhancements in cognition and subjective arousal. As it is unclear whether stimulant medication exerts the same effect on healthy individuals as for those with ADHD, it is possible that many reported effects of prescription stimulants by healthy individuals may stem from placebo effects, which may be an important mechanism underlying initiation and maintenance of nonmedical use. This study examined whether placebo effects influence reports of subjective mood and cognitive performance among college students who endorsed several risk factors for prescription stimulant misuse (i.e., low GPA, fraternity/sorority involvement, binge drinking, cannabis use). Ninety-six subjects (60% male) completed a battery of cognitive tests and questionnaires assessing present mood state on two occasions. Forty-seven participants were randomized to an experimental condition and orally ingested what they believed to be MPH, though actually placebo, on one visit and received no medication on the other visit. The control group received no medication on either visit. During the administration visit, experimental participants reported feeling significantly more high and stimulated compared to the non-administration visit and to the control subjects. However, cognitive enhancement differences were not generally seen between visits or groups. This research demonstrates that placebo effects for prescription stimulants do influence subjective mood and may be implicated in nonmedical stimulant use. This knowledge may be useful in challenging prescription stimulant-related expectancies to decrease the prevalence of use among college students.

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2013-01-01

111

Expectation to receive methylphenidate enhances subjective arousal but not cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Nonmedical use of prescription-stimulant medication such as methylphenidate (MPH) has increased among college students over the past several years. Common motivations for use include enhancements in cognition and subjective arousal. As it is unclear whether stimulant medication exerts the same effect on healthy individuals as for those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, it is possible that many reported effects of prescription stimulants by healthy individuals may stem from placebo effects, which may be an important mechanism underlying initiation and maintenance of nonmedical use. This study examined whether placebo effects influence reports of subjective mood and cognitive performance among college students who endorsed several risk factors for prescription-stimulant misuse (i.e., low grade point average, fraternity/sorority involvement, binge drinking, cannabis use). Ninety-six subjects (60% male) completed cognitive tests and questionnaires assessing present mood state on two occasions. Forty-seven participants were randomized to an experimental condition and orally ingested what they believed to be MPH, though actually placebo, on one visit and received no medication on the other visit. The control group received no medication on either visit. During the administration visit, experimental participants reported feeling significantly more high and stimulated compared with the nonadministration visit and to the control subjects. However, cognitive enhancement differences were not generally seen between visits or groups. This research demonstrates that placebo effects for prescription stimulants do influence subjective mood and may be implicated in nonmedical stimulant use. This knowledge may be useful in challenging prescription-stimulant-related expectancies to decrease the prevalence of use among college students. PMID:21875224

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2011-08-29

112

Expected effect of caffeine on motor performance predicts the type of response to placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments (N=56) investigated the relationship between subjects’ expectancies concerning the effect of caffeine on a motor skill, and\\u000a the type of placebo response. Male subjects were assigned to four groups. Three groups expected to receive caffeine but received\\u000a a placebo. Prior to the placebo, two of the groups received information about the effect of caffeine on a motor skill

M. Fillmore; M. Vogel-Sprott

1992-01-01

113

Beam dynamics and expected RHIC performance with 56MHz RF upgrade  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade of the RHIC storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was recently proposed. This upgrade will provide a significant increase in the acceptance of the RHIC 197 MHz storage RF bucket. This paper summarizes simulations of beam evolution due to intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvements are shown for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and protons at 250 GeV.

Fedotov,A.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.

2009-05-04

114

Between-day reliability of electromechanical delay of selected neck muscles during performance of maximal isometric efforts  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to assess the between-day reliability of the electromechanical delay (EMD) of selected neck muscles during the performance of maximal isometric contractions in five different directions. Methods Twenty-one physically active males participated in two testing sessions separated by seven to eight days. Using a custom-made fixed frame dynamometer, cervical force and surface electromyography (EMG) were recorded bilaterally from the splenius capitis, upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles during the performance of efforts in extension, flexion, left and right lateral bending, and protraction. The EMD was extracted using the Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator. Reliability indices calculated for each muscle in each testing direction were: the difference in scores between the two testing sessions and corresponding 95% confidence intervals, the standard error of measurement (SEM) and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Results EMD values showed no evidence of systematic difference between the two testing sessions across all muscles and testing directions. The SEM for extension, flexion and lateral bending efforts ranged between 2.5 ms to 4.8 ms, indicating a good level of measurement precision. For protraction, SEM values were higher and considered to be imprecise for research and clinical purposes. ICC values for all muscles across all testing directions ranged from 0.23 to 0.79. Conclusion EMD of selected neck muscles can be measured with sufficient precision for the assessment of neck muscle function in an athletic population in the majority of directions tested.

Almosnino, Sivan; Pelland, Lucie; Pedlow, Samuel V; Stevenson, Joan M

2009-01-01

115

Expectancy Work Motivation, Central Life Interests, Voluntarism, Organizational Situation, Job Satisfaction, and Perceived Teaching Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the hypotheses that expectancy work motivation, individual attitudes toward work, and structural and environmental components are predictions of teacher job satisfaction and effectiveness. Samples were selected from junior high school and higher education faculties. Subjects responded to open-ended questionnaires, and results…

Miskel, Cecil; And Others

116

Expectancy effect: Impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectancy or placebo effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. To determine the effect of taking pills on cognitive function, 40 participants were randomly assigned to a pill or no-pill condition. Healthy seniors who took a 2-week supply of methylcellulose pills, which they were told was an experimental cognitive enhancer, were compared to seniors not taking any pills.

Barry S. Oken; Kristin Flegal; Daniel Zajdel; Shirley Kishiyama; Mitchell Haas; Dawn Peters

2008-01-01

117

Influence of poor effort on self-reported symptoms and neurocognitive test performance following mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

When considering a diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome, clinicians must systematically evaluate and eliminate the possible contribution of many differential diagnoses, comorbidities, and factors that may cause or maintain self-reported symptoms long after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). One potentially significant contributing factor is symptom exaggeration. The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of poor effort on self-reported symptoms (postconcussion symptoms and cognitive complaints) and neurocognitive test performance following MTBI. The MTBI sample consisted of 63 referrals to a concussion clinic, evaluated within 5 months post injury (M = 2.0, SD = 1.0, range = 0.6-4.6), who were receiving financial compensation from the Workers' Compensation Board. Participants completed the Post-Concussion Scale (PCS), British Columbia Cognitive Complaints Inventory (BC-CCI), selected tests from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Screening Module (S-NAB), and the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). Participants were divided into two groups based on TOMM performance (15 fail, 48 pass). There were significant main effects and large effect sizes for the PCS (p = .002, d = 0.79) and BC-CCI (p = .011, d = 0.98) total scores. Patients in the TOMM fail group scored higher than those in the TOMM pass group on both measures. Similarly, there were significant main effects and/or large effect sizes on the S-NAB. Patients in the TOMM fail group performed more poorly on the Attention (p = .004, d = 1.26), Memory (p = .006, d = 1.16), and Executive Functioning (p > .05, d = 0.70) indexes. These results highlight the importance of considering the influence of poor effort, in conjunction with a growing list of factors that can influence, maintain, and/or mimic the persistent postconcussion syndrome. PMID:20437284

Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L; Brooks, Brian L; Rennison, V Lynn Ashton

2010-04-30

118

Expectancy of an open-book test decreases performance on a delayed closed-book test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined the influence of practice with, and the expectancy of, open-book tests (students viewed studied material while taking the test) versus closed-book tests (students completed the test without viewing the studied material) on delayed retention and transfer. Using GRE materials specifically designed for open-book testing, participants studied passages and then took initial open- or closed-book tests. Open-book testing

Pooja K. Agarwal; Henry L. Roediger III

2011-01-01

119

Student expectations and labour market performance: The case of the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses individual data on 10,000 higher education students and 5,000 graduates in the Philippines in 1977 to assess theex ante student perceptions of the labour market against actual labour market outcomes. A comparison of mean expected and actual earnings by various sample characteristics reveals a high degree of realism from the students' viewpoint. Individual self-assessed foregone earnings are

George Psacharopoulos; Bikas Sanyal

1981-01-01

120

Expectancy effect: impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors.  

PubMed

Expectancy or placebo effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. To determine the effect of taking pills on cognitive function, 40 participants were randomly assigned to a pill or no-pill condition. Healthy seniors who took a 2-week supply of methylcellulose pills, which they were told was an experimental cognitive enhancer, were compared to seniors not taking any pills. There were 2 primary outcome measures defined prior to the study-Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word List delayed recall and Stroop color word task time-as well as 7 other cognitive outcome measures. There was a significant effect of pill taking on the 2 primary outcome measures. There was also an effect of pill taking on choice reaction time and Word List immediate recall but not on the other 5 secondary cognitive outcome measures. In an exploratory analysis of potential predictors of the expectancy effect, perceived stress and self-efficacy but not personality traits interacted with the pill-taking effect on cognitive function. Further characterizing and understanding this observed expectancy effect is important to maximize cognitive health and improve clinical trial design. PMID:18165936

Oken, Barry S; Flegal, Kristin; Zajdel, Daniel; Kishiyama, Shirley; Haas, Mitchell; Peters, Dawn

2007-12-12

121

Effects of imagery training on cognitive performance and use of physiological measures as an assessment tool of mental effort.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of motor imagery training on cognitive performance was examined and the physiological mechanisms involved in the contribution of mental practice to motor learning were considered. The subject's mental effort during motor imagery was assessed by using psychophysiological measures and particularly eye blink activity as an 'indirect' measurement of subjects' attention. An electronic flight simulation program (Multiple Attribute Task Battery--MATB) was used to assess performance. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the study divided in two groups: the control group and the imagery-training group. The subjects of the imagery group were asked for additional imagery training. The subjects of the actual performing group were asked additionally to passively observe the task in order to have equal time of exposure to the task. Performance scores and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, eye blinking activity and muscular activity were recorded during all sessions. The results revealed significantly higher performance level of the imagery-training group than the control group. Heart rate and respiratory rate significantly increased during imagery sessions compared to rest. A slight electromyographic activity was observed during the imagination of movement. Our findings support the notion that mental practice improves motor performance in a task where spatiotemporal or dynamic control of the action is highly required. The effects of mental practice on motor performance could be explained by the existence of a top-down mechanism based on the activation of a central representation of the movements, since the vegetative activation during motor imagery seems to be centrally controlled. PMID:17335950

Papadelis, Christos; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Albani, Maria

2007-03-01

122

Planck pre-launch status: Low Frequency Instrument calibration and expected scientific performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the calibration and scientific performance parameters of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) measured during the ground cryogenic test campaign. These parameters characterise the instrument response and constitute our optimal pre-launch knowledge of the LFI scientific performance. The LFI shows excellent 1\\/f stability and rejection of instrumental systematic effects; its measured noise performance shows that LFI is the

A. Mennella; M. Bersanelli; R. C. Butler; F. Cuttaia; O. D'Arcangelo; R. J. Davis; M. Frailis; S. Galeotta; A. Gregorio; C. R. Lawrence; R. Leonardi; S. R. Lowe; N. Mandolesi; M. Maris; P. Meinhold; L. Mendes; G. Morgante; M. Sandri; L. Stringhetti; L. Terenzi; M. Tomasi; L. Valenziano; F. Villa; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca; M. Balasini; C. Franceschet; P. Battaglia; P. M. Lapolla; P. Leutenegger; M. Miccolis; L. Pagan; R. Silvestri; B. Aja; E. Artal; G. Baldan; P. Bastia; T. Bernardino; L. Boschini; G. Cafagna; B. Cappellini; F. Cavaliere; F. Colombo; L. de La Fuente; J. Edgeley; M. C. Falvella; F. Ferrari; S. Fogliani; E. Franceschi; T. Gaier; F. Gomez; J. M. Herreros; S. Hildebrandt; R. Hoyland; N. Hughes; P. Jukkala; D. Kettle; M. Laaninen; D. Lawson; P. Leahy; S. Levin; P. B. Lilje; D. Maino; M. Malaspina; P. Manzato; J. Marti-Canales; E. Martinez-Gonzalez; A. Mediavilla; F. Pasian; J. P. Pascual; M. Pecora; L. Peres-Cuevas; P. Platania; M. Pospieszalsky; T. Poutanen; R. Rebolo; N. Roddis; M. Salmon; M. Seiffert; A. Simonetto; C. Sozzi; J. Tauber; J. Tuovinen; J. Varis; A. Wilkinson; F. Winder

2010-01-01

123

To What Degree Does the Desire for Promotion Motivate Faculty to Perform Research? Testing the Expectancy Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the rationale of expectancy theory, this article examines to what degree the desire for promotion motivates faculty to do research. Using Taiwanese faculty survey data, it is found that faculty members who show higher motivation for promotion display better research performance than their colleagues who show lower motivation for promotion. This article also indicates that different kinds of

Flora F. Tien

2000-01-01

124

General and Specific Self-Efficacy in the Context of a Training Intervention to Enhance Performance Expectancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A pretest-posttest field study investigated self-efficacy, both general and specific, in an intensive training experience to prepare new recruits for their work assignments. Specific issues addressed include (1) the effects of the training experience on general self-efficacy (GSE), work-specific selfefficacy (SSE), and performance expectancy; (2)…

Schwoerer, Catherine E.; May, Douglas R.; Hollensbe, Elaine C.; Mencl, Jennifer

2005-01-01

125

Effects of Methylphenidate and Expectancy on ADHD Children's Performance, Self-Evaluations, Persistence, and Attributions on a Cognitive Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 0.3 mg\\/kg methylphenidate (MPH) and expectancy regarding medication on the performance and task persistence of 60 boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were investigated. In a balanced-placebo design, boys in 4 groups (received placebo\\/drug crossed with told placebo\\/drug) completed the task in success and failure conditions. Medication improved participants' task persistence following failure. Participants' task performance

William E. Pelham; Betsy Hoza; Heidi L. Kipp; Elizabeth M. Gnagy; Sarah T. Trane

1997-01-01

126

Expectation-driven changes in cortical functional connectivity influence working memory and long-term memory performance.  

PubMed

Expectations generated by predictive cues increase the efficiency of perceptual processing for complex stimuli (e.g., faces, scenes); however, the impact this has on working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) has not yet been investigated. Here, healthy young adults performed delayed-recognition tasks that differed only in stimulus category expectations, while behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected. Univariate and functional-connectivity analyses were used to examine expectation-driven, prestimulus neural modulation, networks that regulate this modulation, and subsequent memory performance. Results revealed that predictive category cueing was associated with both enhanced WM and LTM for faces, as well as baseline activity shifts in a face-selective region of the visual association cortex [i.e., fusiform face area (FFA)]. In addition, the degree of functional connectivity between FFA and right inferior frontal junction (IFJ), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), inferior frontal gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus correlated with the magnitude of prestimulus activity modulation in the FFA. In an opposing manner, prestimulus connectivity between FFA and posterior cingulate cortex, a region of the default network, negatively correlated with FFA activity modulation. Moreover, whereas FFA connectivity with IFJ and the precuneus predicted enhanced expectation-related WM performance, FFA connectivity with MFG predicted LTM improvements. These findings suggest a model of expectancy-mediated neural biasing, in which a single node (e.g., FFA) can be dynamically linked or disconnected from different brain regions depending on prestimulus expectations, and the strength of distinct connections is associated with WM or LTM benefits. PMID:20980597

Bollinger, Jacob; Rubens, Michael T; Zanto, Theodore P; Gazzaley, Adam

2010-10-27

127

Processing Expectancy Violations during Music Performance and Perception: An ERP Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musicians are highly trained motor experts with pronounced associations between musical actions and the corresponding auditory effects. However, the importance of auditory feedback for music performance is controversial, and it is unknown how feedback during music performance is processed. The present study investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of auditory feedback manipulations in pianists. To disentangle effects of action-based

Clemens Maidhof; Niki Vavatzanidis; Wolfgang Prinz; Martina Rieger; Stefan Koelsch

2010-01-01

128

IBS and expected luminosity performance for RHIC beams at top energy with 56 MHz SRF cavity  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of RF system in RHIC is to capture injected bunches, accelerate them to the top energy, and store bunches at the top energy for many hours. The accelerating RF system operates at harmonic number h=360 of the particle revolution frequency f=78.196 kHz, which corresponds to 28.15MHz. The storage RF system accepts the shortened bunches at top energy and provides longitudinal focusing to keep these bunches short during the store time (collision mode). The storage system operates at harmonic number h=7x360=2520, which corresponds to an RF frequency of 197.05 MHz [1]. Recently, an upgrade of storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was proposed [2]. This upgrade will provide significant increase in the acceptance of storage RF bucket. Presently, the short bunch length for collisions is obtained via RF gymnastics with bunch rotation (called re-bucketing), because the length of 197MHz bucket of 5 nsec is too short to accommodate long bunches otherwise. However, due to bucket non-linearity and hardware complications some increase in the longitudinal emittance occurs during re-bucketing. The 56MHz cavity will produce sufficiently short bunches which would allow one to operate without re-bucketing procedure. This Note summarizes simulation of beam evolution due to Intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvement is shown both for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and for protons at 250 GeV.

Fedotov,A.

2008-10-01

129

Expectancies, mood, and performance of depressed and nondepressed psychiatric inpatients on chance and skill tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The learned helplessness model of depression predicts that, compared with nondepressed patients, depressed patients will demonstrate psychomotor deficits, provide lower subjective evaluations of their performance, and perceive reinforcement in skill tasks as more response independent. These predictions were tested in 32 depressed (mean age 35 yrs) and 32 nondepressed (mean age 38 yrs) psychiatric inpatients, who had been administered the

Robert C. Smolen

1978-01-01

130

An Assessment of General Education Mathematics Courses via Examination of Student Expectations and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures for measuring the extent to which the educational goals are being met. These measures will, of necessity, be multi-dimensional since no single statistic can adequately represent departmental performance with respect to most departmental goals. Measures of student learning and other student outcomes should be included in the procedures. (p. 5)

George R. Barnes; Patricia B. Cerrito; Inessa Levi

2004-01-01

131

Managing Performance in the Forensic Sciences: Expectations in Light of Limited Budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

For forensic service providers worldwide, the demand for high-quality services greatly outpaces available resources to meet those requests. The gap between the demand for services and the resource-restricted supply of those services has implications for managing performance: the effectiveness and efficiency of forensic science. The effectiveness of forensic science is directly related to the quality of the scientific analysis and

Hilton Kobus; Max Houck; Paul Speaker; Richard Riley; Tom Witt

2011-01-01

132

Product Delivery Expectations: Hanford LAW Product Performance and Acceptance Tanks Focus Area Task  

SciTech Connect

This task has several facets all aimed at providing technical products that will support the immobilization of Hanford's Low Activity Waste. Since this task breaks new ground in developing predictive capability, a review process external to the technical team is critical for acceptance by the technical community and is key to Hanford's Performance Assessment review process.

Holtzscheiter, E.W.

1999-04-29

133

Operational studies and expected performance of superconducting quadrupole magnets in the first stages of secondary beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low current, large bore, epoxy impregnated superconducting quadrupole magnet was constructed as a possible prototype for secondary beam use. Beam quenching tests were performed by targetting a primary proton beam directly onto the quadrupole coil and by using the quadrupole in its anticipated role as part of the first stage flux collection triplet for a zero degree anti-proton secondary

P. H. Garbincius; P. O. Mazur; R. P. Stanek; R. P. Smith; S. H. Kim; C. I. Krieger; J. D. Gonczy; A. L. Kelly; D. C. Underwood; E. J. Wallace

1983-01-01

134

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of current data and understanding of site characteristics at Yucca Mountain, the likely performance range of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel can be calculated. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1987-01-01

135

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current data and understanding about the site conditions at Yucca Mountain provide a basis for calculating the likely range of performance of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1984-01-01

136

More attention must be paid: The neurobiology of attentional effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in attentional effort are defined as the motivated activation of attentional systems in response to detrimental challenges on attentional performance, such as the presentation of distractors, prolonged time-on-task, changing target stimulus characteristics and stimulus presentation parameters, circadian phase shifts, stress or sickness. Increases in attentional effort are motivated by the expected performance outcome; in the absence of such motivation,

Martin Sarter; William J. Gehring; Rouba Kozak

2006-01-01

137

Case Study of Expected Seismic Performance of an Instrumented Steel Moment Frame Building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relevant number of modern welded steel structures suffered unexpected damage during the January 1994 Northridge earthquake. The damage of welded special moment resisting frames (W-SMRJF) typically involved the brittle fracture in the welded girder to column connection areas. In the aftermath of the Northridge earthquake the research and structural engineering communities addressed the issue of the seismic safety of damaged and undamaged W-SMRF's. However, even though seismic design codes in the United States were significantly revised after the Northridge quake, still there are hundreds of existing W-Serf's in the US and in other countries, designed and detailed according to pre-Northridge criteria. This work is a case study on seismic response of a W-SMRF instrumented by the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) which was shaken during the 1987 Whittier, 1991 Sierra Madre and 1994 Northridge earthquakes. A detailed finite element model of the structure is developed to analyze the building dynamic response during recorded strong motions. Model accuracy was assessed by comparing prediction of the analytical model with actual CSMIP response records. In order to assess its vulnerability in response to future and possibly stronger earthquakes, nonlinear analyses were conducted subjecting the model to the Newhall and Sylmar records of the 1994 Northridge and to the 1995 Kobe earthquakes. Analysis results show that the structure behaved linearly during these earthquakes. The predicted response to larger and more severe ground motions show that plastic deformation occur at many column ends and inelastic deformation demands exceed the expected capacity of the welded pre-Northridge beam-to-column connections.

Amore, Enzo D'; Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

2008-07-01

138

Case Study of Expected Seismic Performance of an Instrumented Steel Moment Frame Building  

SciTech Connect

A relevant number of modern welded steel structures suffered unexpected damage during the January 1994 Northridge earthquake. The damage of welded special moment resisting frames (W-SMRJF) typically involved the brittle fracture in the welded girder to column connection areas. In the aftermath of the Northridge earthquake the research and structural engineering communities addressed the issue of the seismic safety of damaged and undamaged W-SMRF's. However, even though seismic design codes in the United States were significantly revised after the Northridge quake, still there are hundreds of existing W-Serf's in the US and in other countries, designed and detailed according to pre-Northridge criteria. This work is a case study on seismic response of a W-SMRF instrumented by the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) which was shaken during the 1987 Whittier, 1991 Sierra Madre and 1994 Northridge earthquakes. A detailed finite element model of the structure is developed to analyze the building dynamic response during recorded strong motions. Model accuracy was assessed by comparing prediction of the analytical model with actual CSMIP response records. In order to assess its vulnerability in response to future and possibly stronger earthquakes, nonlinear analyses were conducted subjecting the model to the Newhall and Sylmar records of the 1994 Northridge and to the 1995 Kobe earthquakes. Analysis results show that the structure behaved linearly during these earthquakes. The predicted response to larger and more severe ground motions show that plastic deformation occur at many column ends and inelastic deformation demands exceed the expected capacity of the welded pre-Northridge beam-to-column connections.

Amore, Enzo D' [University 'Mediterranea' of Reggio Calabria, loc. Feo di Vito, 89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan [University of California, Berkeley, 781 Davis Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-1710 (United States)

2008-07-08

139

Federated or cached searches: Providing expected performance from multiple invasive species databases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invasive species are a universal global problem, but the information to identify them, manage them, and prevent invasions is stored around the globe in a variety of formats. The Global Invasive Species Information Network is a consortium of organizations working toward providing seamless access to these disparate databases via the Internet. A distributed network of databases can be created using the Internet and a standard web service protocol. There are two options to provide this integration. First, federated searches are being proposed to allow users to search "deep" web documents such as databases for invasive species. A second method is to create a cache of data from the databases for searching. We compare these two methods, and show that federated searches will not provide the performance and flexibility required from users and a central cache of the datum are required to improve performance.

Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Newman, Gregory J.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

2011-06-01

140

2.45 GHz ECR ion source and expected performance for polarized heavy ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single stage 2.45 GHz ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source has been constructed as the first section of a polarized heavy ion source based on spin and charge exchange collisions. Performance of the ECR ion source measured for ionization of a 3He gas has revealed a sizable difference in the behavior of yields for 3He2+ and 3He+ ions taken

M. Tanaka; T. Ohshima; K. Katori; M. Fujiwara; T. Itahashi; H. Ogata; M. Kondo; L. W. Anderson

1991-01-01

141

Operational studies and expected performance of superconducting quadrupole magnets in the first stages of secondary beams  

SciTech Connect

A low current, large bore, epoxy impregnated superconducting quadrupole magnet was constructed at Argonne National Laboratory as a possible prototype for secondary beam use. The quadrupole magnet was placed in the Fermilab P-West High Intensity Area beam for beam quenching tests. Tests were performed by targetting a primary proton beam directly onto the quadrupole coil and by using the quadrupole in its anticipated role as part of the first stage flux collection triplet for a zero degree anti-proton secondary beam formed from the decays of neutral Lambda particles. Comparing the results with similar tests performed using forced flow Energy Saver dipoles shows that the epoxy impregnated quadrupoles have a much greater sensitivity to beam induced quenching at a similar fraction of the conductor short sample limit. Using the CASIM program, calculations indicate that such eopxy impregnated coils would not be viable as first stage flux collection elements without appreciable collimation and subsequent loss of secondary beam acceptance. Quadrupoles based on Energy Saver technology appear capable of tolerating acceptable primary beam intensities. The momentum dispersing bends will require even larger aperture superconducting dipoles or neutral beam dump within the bend string.

Garbincius, P.H.; Mazur, P.O.; Stanek, R.P.; Smith, R.P.; Kim, S.H.; Krieger, C.I.; Gonczy, J.D.; Kelly, A.L.; Underwood, D.C.; Wallace, E.J.

1983-08-01

142

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the random integer command on their graphing calculators to simulate rolling a die. They will then use operations on lists to analyze the probability of rolling the first 1 on the 1st roll, 2nd roll, and so on and finally find the expected value. Teacher notes explain in detail how to perform these actions on the graphing calculator.

2008-10-17

143

The Influence of Stimulus Material on Attention and Performance in the Visual Expectation Paradigm: A Longitudinal Study with 3- And 6-Month-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This longitudinal study examined the influence of stimulus material on attention and expectation learning in the visual expectation paradigm. Female faces were used as attention-attracting stimuli, and non-meaningful visual stimuli of comparable complexity (Greebles) were used as low attention-attracting stimuli. Expectation learning performance

Teubert, Manuel; Lohaus, Arnold; Fassbender, Ina; Vierhaus, Marc; Spangler, Sibylle; Borchert, Sonja; Freitag, Claudia; Goertz, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Gudi, Helene; Kolling, Thorsten; Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2012-01-01

144

Self- and Teacher Expectancy Effects on Academic Performance of College Students Enrolled in an Academic Reinforcement Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self- and teacher expectancy effects on the academic achievement of black college freshmen in an academic reinforcement program were investigated. Results indicated more significant self-expectancy effects than teacher expectancy effects on achievement. (Author/DWH)

Haynes, Norris M.; Johnson, Sylvia T.

1983-01-01

145

Influence of poor effort on self-reported symptoms and neurocognitive test performance following mild traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

When considering a diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome, clinicians must systematically evaluate and eliminate the possible contribution of many differential diagnoses, comorbidities, and factors that may cause or maintain self-reported symptoms long after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). One potentially significant contributing factor is symptom exaggeration. The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of poor effort on self-reported

Rael T. Lange; Grant L. Iverson; Brian L. Brooks; V. Lynn Ashton Rennison

2010-01-01

146

Dopamine modulates reward expectancy during performance of a slot machine task in rats: evidence for a 'near-miss' effect.  

PubMed

Cognitive accounts of gambling suggest that the experience of almost winning-so-called 'near-misses'-encourage continued play and accelerate the development of pathological gambling (PG) in vulnerable individuals. One explanation for this effect is that near-misses signal imminent winning outcomes and heighten reward expectancy, galvanizing further play. Determining the neurochemical processes underlying the drive to gamble could facilitate the development of more effective treatments for PG. With this aim in mind, we evaluated rats' performance on a novel model of slot machine play, a form of gambling in which near-miss events are particularly salient. Subjects responded to a series of three flashing lights, loosely analogous to the wheels of a slot machine, causing the lights to set to 'on' or 'off'. A winning outcome was signaled if all three lights were illuminated. At the end of each trial, rats chose between responding on the 'collect' lever, resulting in reward on win trials, but a time penalty on loss trials, or starting a new trial. Rats showed a marked preference for the collect lever when both two and three lights were illuminated, indicating heightened reward expectancy following near-misses similar to wins. Erroneous collect responses were increased by amphetamine and the D(2) receptor agonist quinpirole, but not by the D(1) receptor agonist SKF 81297 or receptor subtype selective antagonists. These data suggest that dopamine modulates reward expectancy following the experience of almost winning during slot machine play, via activity at D(2) receptors, and this may result in an enhancement of the near-miss effect and facilitate further gambling. PMID:21209612

Winstanley, Catharine A; Cocker, Paul J; Rogers, Robert D

2011-01-05

147

Dopamine Modulates Reward Expectancy During Performance of a Slot Machine Task in Rats: Evidence for a 'Near-miss' Effect  

PubMed Central

Cognitive accounts of gambling suggest that the experience of almost winning—so-called ‘near-misses'—encourage continued play and accelerate the development of pathological gambling (PG) in vulnerable individuals. One explanation for this effect is that near-misses signal imminent winning outcomes and heighten reward expectancy, galvanizing further play. Determining the neurochemical processes underlying the drive to gamble could facilitate the development of more effective treatments for PG. With this aim in mind, we evaluated rats' performance on a novel model of slot machine play, a form of gambling in which near-miss events are particularly salient. Subjects responded to a series of three flashing lights, loosely analogous to the wheels of a slot machine, causing the lights to set to ‘on' or ‘off'. A winning outcome was signaled if all three lights were illuminated. At the end of each trial, rats chose between responding on the ‘collect' lever, resulting in reward on win trials, but a time penalty on loss trials, or starting a new trial. Rats showed a marked preference for the collect lever when both two and three lights were illuminated, indicating heightened reward expectancy following near-misses similar to wins. Erroneous collect responses were increased by amphetamine and the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole, but not by the D1 receptor agonist SKF 81297 or receptor subtype selective antagonists. These data suggest that dopamine modulates reward expectancy following the experience of almost winning during slot machine play, via activity at D2 receptors, and this may result in an enhancement of the near-miss effect and facilitate further gambling.

Winstanley, Catharine A; Cocker, Paul J; Rogers, Robert D

2011-01-01

148

Role of information systems in controlling costs: the electronic medical record (EMR) and the high-performance computing and communications (HPCC) efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

On October 18, 1991, the IEEE-USA produced an entity statement which endorsed the vital importance of the High Performance Computer and Communications Act of 1991 (HPCC) and called for the rapid implementation of all its elements. Efforts are now underway to develop a Computer Based Patient Record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the HPCC, and the

Luis G. Kun

1994-01-01

149

Detecting Suboptimal Cognitive Effort: Classification Accuracy of the Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II, Brief Test of Attention, and Trail Making Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many cognitive measures have been studied for their ability to detect suboptimal cognitive effort; however, attention measures have not been extensively researched. The current study evaluated the classification accuracy of commonly used attention\\/concentration measures, the Brief Test of Attention (BTA), Trail Making Test (TMT), and the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II). Participants included 413 consecutive patients who completed a comprehensive

Michelle Busse; Douglas Whiteside

2012-01-01

150

The Effects of a Caffeine Placebo and Experimenter Expectation on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Well-Being, and Cognitive Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of experimenter expectations and different instructions in a balanced placebo design. 157 subjects were randomized into a 2 × 4 factorial design. Two experimenters were led to expect placebos either to produce physiological effects or not (pro- vs. antiplacebo). All subjects except a control group received a caffeine placebo. They were either made to expect coffee,

Harald Walach; Stefan Schmidt; Yvonne-Michelle Bihr; Susanne Wiesch

2001-01-01

151

Life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give simple upper and lower bounds on life expectancy. In a life-table population, if e(0) is the life expectancy at birth, M is the median length of life, and e(M) is the expected remaining life at age M, then (M+e(M))\\/2?e(0)?M+e(M)\\/2. In general, for any age x, if e(x) is the expected remaining life at age x, and ?(x) is

Joel E. Cohen

2011-01-01

152

High School Newspaper Problems; Expectations for Newspaper Staff Members; Cooperative Efforts to Solve School Press; The Newsmagazine--Asset or Liability; Newspaper Advisers and Freedom of the Press (Exploratory Studies).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains five exploratory studies into the problems faced by high school journalism teachers and publications advisors. "High School Newspaper Problems" investigates the areas of finance, facilities, censorship, freedom of speech, and staff recruitment; "Expectations for Newspaper Staff Members as Learners" samples the views of…

Campbell, Laurence R.

153

Naming speed performance and stimulant effects indicate effortful, semantic processing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

This study investigated rapid automatized naming and effects of stimulant medication in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without concurrent reading disorder (RD). Two ADHD groups (67 ADHD only; 21 ADHD + RD) and a control group of 27 healthy age-matched peers were compared on four variables: color naming speed, letter naming speed, phonologic decoding, and arithmetic computation. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was conducted to predict group membership. The four variables loaded onto two discriminant functions with good specificity: phonologic decoding, letter naming speed, and arithmetic defined the first function; color naming speed defined the second function. Both ADHD groups were significantly slower in color naming than controls, but did not differ from one another. DFA correctly classified 96% of the control group, 91% of ADHD + RD, and 82% of ADHD only. A subset of children in the ADHD groups participated subsequently in an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with three single doses (10, 25, 20 mg) of methylphenidate. Methylphenidate selectively improved color-naming speed but had no effect on the speed of naming letters or digits. These findings challenge the tenet that naming speed deficits are specific to RD and implicate naming speed deficits associated with effortful semantic processing in ADHD, which are improved but not normalized by stimulant medication. PMID:10885682

Tannock, R; Martinussen, R; Frijters, J

2000-06-01

154

Structured self-reflection as a tool to enhance perceived performance and maintain effort in adult recreational salsa dancers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of structured self-reflection in community dance classes would influence achievement goal orientations, levels of intrinsic motivation, or perceived dance performance. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic...

155

Buoyancy under Control: Underwater Locomotor Performance in a Deep Diving Seabird Suggests Respiratory Strategies for Reducing Foraging Effort  

PubMed Central

Background Because they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag) and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth. Methodology/Principal Findings Using accelerometers, we show that during both the descent and ascent phases of dives, shags modelled their acceleration and stroking activity on the natural variation of buoyancy with depth. For example, during the descent phase, birds increased swim speed with depth. But in parallel, and with a decay constant similar to the one in the equation explaining the decrease of buoyancy with depth, they decreased foot-stroke frequency exponentially, a behaviour that enables birds to reduce oxygen consumption. During ascent, birds also reduced locomotor cost by ascending passively. We considered the depth at which they started gliding as a proxy to their depth of neutral buoyancy. This depth increased with maximum dive depth. As an explanation for this, we propose that shags adjust their buoyancy to depth by varying the amount of respiratory air they dive with. Conclusions/Significance Calculations based on known values of stored body oxygen volumes and on deep-diving metabolic rates in avian divers suggest that the variations of volume of respiratory oxygen associated with a respiration mediated buoyancy control only influence aerobic dive duration moderately. Therefore, we propose that an advantage in cormorants - as in other families of diving seabirds - of respiratory air volume adjustment upon diving could be related less to increasing time of submergence, through an increased volume of body oxygen stores, than to reducing the locomotor costs of buoyancy control.

Cook, Timothee R.; Kato, Akiko; Tanaka, Hideji; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Bost, Charles-Andre

2010-01-01

156

Attentional processes and cognitive performance during expectancy of painful galvanic stimulations: a high-resolution EEG study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present high-resolution electroencephalographic (EEG) study, an omitted-stimulus paradigm induced a strong expectancy for a predictable painful stimulation (nonpainful in the control condition). During the expectancy of pain, concurrent cognitive demands were superimposed. The aim was to investigate the effects on primary sensorimotor and central midline areas of the competition among concurrent attentional processes related to cognition and pain

Claudio Babiloni; Alfredo Brancucci; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Fabio Babiloni; Paolo Capotosto; Filippo Carducci; Febo Cincotti; Claudio Del Percio; Laura Petrini; Paolo Maria Rossini; Andrew C. N Chen

2004-01-01

157

Between-day reliability of electromechanical delay of selected neck muscles during performance of maximal isometric efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the between-day reliability of the electromechanical delay (EMD) of selected neck muscles during the performance of maximal isometric contractions in five different directions. METHODS: Twenty-one physically active males participated in two testing sessions separated by seven to eight days. Using a custom-made fixed frame dynamometer, cervical force and surface electromyography (EMG)

Sivan Almosnino; Lucie Pelland; Samuel V Pedlow; Joan M Stevenson

2009-01-01

158

The role of effort in moderating the anxiety-performance relationship: Testing the prediction of processing efficiency theory in simulated rally driving.  

PubMed

We tested some of the key predictions of processing efficiency theory using a simulated rally driving task. Two groups of participants were classified as either dispositionally high or low anxious based on trait anxiety scores and trained on a simulated driving task. Participants then raced individually on two similar courses under counterbalanced experimental conditions designed to manipulate the level of anxiety experienced. The effort exerted on the driving tasks was assessed though self-report (RSME), psychophysiological measures (pupil dilation) and visual gaze data. Efficiency was measured in terms of efficiency of visual processing (search rate) and driving control (variability of wheel and accelerator pedal) indices. Driving performance was measured as the time taken to complete the course. As predicted, increased anxiety had a negative effect on processing efficiency as indexed by the self-report, pupillary response and variability of gaze data. Predicted differences due to dispositional levels of anxiety were also found in the driving control and effort data. Although both groups of drivers performed worse under the threatening condition, the performance of the high trait anxious individuals was affected to a greater extent by the anxiety manipulation than the performance of the low trait anxious drivers. The findings suggest that processing efficiency theory holds promise as a theoretical framework for examining the relationship between anxiety and performance in sport. PMID:17176526

Wilson, Mark; Smith, Nickolas C; Chattington, Mark; Ford, Mike; Marple-Horvat, Dilwyn E

2006-11-01

159

Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in acute improvements in mood and cognitive performance during sustained mental effort.  

PubMed

Cocoa flavanols (CF) positively influence physiological processes in ways that suggest their consumption may improve aspects of cognitive function. This study investigated the acute cognitive and subjective effects of CF consumption during sustained mental demand. In this randomized, controlled, double-blinded, balanced, three period crossover trial 30 healthy adults consumed drinks containing 520 mg, 994 mg CF and a matched control, with a three-day washout between drinks. Assessments included the state anxiety inventory and repeated 10-min cycles of a Cognitive Demand Battery comprising of two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Serial Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task and a 'mental fatigue' scale, over the course of 1 h. Consumption of both 520 mg and 994 mg CF significantly improved Serial Threes performance. The 994 mg CF beverage significantly speeded RVIP responses but also resulted in more errors during Serial Sevens. Increases in self-reported 'mental fatigue' were significantly attenuated by the consumption of the 520 mg CF beverage only. This is the first report of acute cognitive improvements following CF consumption in healthy adults. While the mechanisms underlying the effects are unknown they may be related to known effects of CF on endothelial function and blood flow. PMID:19942640

Scholey, Andrew B; French, Stephen J; Morris, Penelope J; Kennedy, David O; Milne, Anthea L; Haskell, Crystal F

2009-11-26

160

Testing the reliability and validity of self-efficacy and outcome expectations of restorative care performed by nursing assistants.  

PubMed

The primary aims of this study were to determine the reliability and validity of 2 measures: the Nursing Assistant Self-efficacy for Restorative Care Scale and the Nursing Assistant Outcome Expectations for Restorative Care Scale. This study included 386 nursing assistants from 8 nursing homes. The findings provide some support for the reliability and validity of these measures on the basis of Rasch analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and convergent validity. PMID:18344783

Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Pretzer-Aboff, Ingrid; Rogers, Valerie; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L

161

Dopamine Modulates Reward Expectancy During Performance of a Slot Machine Task in Rats: Evidence for a ‘Near-miss’ Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive accounts of gambling suggest that the experience of almost winning—so-called ‘near-misses’—encourage continued play and accelerate the development of pathological gambling (PG) in vulnerable individuals. One explanation for this effect is that near-misses signal imminent winning outcomes and heighten reward expectancy, galvanizing further play. Determining the neurochemical processes underlying the drive to gamble could facilitate the development of more effective

Catharine A Winstanley; Paul J Cocker; Robert D Rogers

2011-01-01

162

Great Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Inside one Washington, DC, elementary school, Principal John Pannell has high hopes for his students and an expansive school vision. Malcolm X School compensates for disorder outside by clearly inculcating rules and behavior expectations. Children in school uniforms daily repeat a motto promoting Malcolm X as a school of love allowing no hitting,…

Natale, Jo Anna

1993-01-01

163

Parental Expectations of Educational and Personal-Social Performance and Childrearing Patterns as a Function of Attractiveness, Sex, and Conduct of Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of a child's sex, physical attractiveness, and conduct on parental expectancies of academic and social performance as well as socialization practices of the child's parents were assessed by comparing parental responses on these measures after reading a child's report card. Parents of elementary-age school children were asked to read…

Adams, Gerald R.; LaVoie, Joseph C.

164

Partisan politics and stock market performance: The effect of expected government partisanship on stock returns in the 2002 German federal election  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational partisan theory suggests that firms perform better under right- than left-leaning governments. In the pre-election\\u000a time, investors should anticipate these effects of government partisanship. This is the first study to investigate such anticipated\\u000a partisan effects in Germany. Applying conditional volatility models we analyze the impact of expected government partisanship\\u000a on stock market performance in the 2002 German federal election.

Roland Füss; Michael M. Bechtel

2008-01-01

165

M-Service Expectancies and Attitudes: Linkages and Effects of First Impressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relations between expectancies and attitudes towards new mobile services and how perceptions underlying the constructs alter in the immediate period upon trial of the services. First, a simple structural equation model is tested and linkages between performance expectancy, effort expectancy and attitude are verified. Second, to obtain an in-depth understanding of changes pertaining to the respondents'

Lars Andreas Knutsen

2005-01-01

166

Performance of p-bulk microstrip sensors under 60Co ? irradiation at rates expected at the HL-LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing p-bulk microstrip sensors for the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC accelerator, HL-LHC. The stability of FZ (float zone) wafers available to Hamamatsu Photonics was examined by irradiating them at rates expected at the HL-LHC. They show degradation in the operational voltage at low dose but recover after the dose is accumulated. The instability is dependent on the bias voltage and dose rate, and also on the irradiation history. We have characterized the instability and attributed the cause to the charge concentration at the electrode edge. The strip isolation, which is degraded while in irradiation, is shown not to induce any practical problem for the operation.

Takahashi, Y.; Hara, K.; Kim, S.; Ikegami, Y.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.; Mitsui, S.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.

2013-01-01

167

Do the contingencies of external monitoring, ownership incentives, or free cash flow explain opposing firm performance expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoclassical and strategy frameworks stipulate that managers promote corporate performance and shareholder interests in their\\u000a resource allocation decisions. Agency related works anticipate that executives seek their own personal interests at a cost\\u000a to performance and shareholder wealth in their resource allocation choices. In this study, an attempt is made to resolve these\\u000a conflicting anticipations. We propose that changes in levels

Peter Wright; Mark Kroll; Ananda Mukherji; Michael L. Pettus

2009-01-01

168

Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Health workers’ motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers’ experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers’ motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers attesting to the importance of the salary for motivation. Lessons learned from OPRAS can be utilized in the implementation of P4P and can enhance our knowledge on motivation and performance in the health services in low-income contexts such as Tanzania.

2012-01-01

169

Performance Monitoring in the Anterior Cingulate is Not All Error Related: Expectancy Deviation and the Representation of Action-Outcome Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several converging lines of evidence suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is selectively involved in error detection or evaluation of poor performance. Here we chal- lenge this notion by presenting event-related potential (ERP) evidence that the feedback-elicited error-related negativity, an ERP component attributed to the ACC, can be elicited by pos- itive feedback when a person is expecting negative

Flavio T. P. Oliveira; John J. Mcdonald; David Goodman

2007-01-01

170

Design and expected performances of the SCAO-WFS module of SIMPLE, the high-resolution near-infrared spectrometer for E-ELT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and discuss the design and expected performances of the SCAO-WFS module of SIMPLE, the highsd resolution near-infrared spectrometer for the E-ELT which is designed to operate in the wavelengths range 0.84-2.5mum with an entrance slit width of 27mas which yields a spectral resolving power of R=130,000. We analyze both pyramid and SH wave-front sensors operating at near-infrared wavelengths

A. Tozzi; E. Oliva; M. Le Louarn; L. Origlia

2010-01-01

171

Current state of development and expected performance of copper-lithium alloys as an impurity control system in fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to impurity control involves the development of materials displaying both strong surface segregation of a low-Z component and high secondary ion fractions in the sputtering of that component. Key issues that have been studied with particular reference to copper-lithium alloys relate to the completeness of the overlayer, its rate of formation in a reactor environment, lowering of substrate sputtering and self-sputtering yields, durability of the overlayer, and depletion of the bulk alloy in the low-Z component. Other factors that must be considered in the materials selection process relate to response to disruptions, heat transfer, thermal stress, fabricability, radiation damage, activation, and tritium permeation. Copper-lithium alloys have been evaluated as a surface material for the impurity control system of the INTOR reactor. Both the medium-edge temperature limiter regime and the low-edge temperature divertor regime were examined. The analysis used TRIM code data to predict sputtering coefficients for copper-lithium with a 1.5 monolayer coverage of lithium. The REDEP code was used to evaluate the erosion performance for INTOR. Other properties such as fabrication and thermal performance were also briefly assessed. It was found from the standpoint of erosion that copper-lithium is a very good candidate material for the medium-edge temperature regime and also works well in the low-edge temperature regime. For the medium-edge temperature regime, the use of copper-lithium results in an almost negligible erosion rate over the entire surface.

Brooks, J.N.; Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.; Mattas, R.F.; DeWald, A.B.

1985-01-01

172

Intervening in Expectation Communication: The "Alterability" of Teacher Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Theoretical and practical implications of the proposition that teachers' differential behavior toward high and low expectation students serves a control function were tested. As predicted, initial performance expectations were found related to later perceptions of control over performance, even when the initial relationship between expectations

Cooper, Harris M.

173

Cassini launch contingency effort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the Cassini launch, JHU/APL's on-station real-time launch contingency activities were implemented. Live news from NASA Select TV of a successful Cassini launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The Cassini launch contingency effort contributed to mission safety and demonstrated successful cooperation between several agencies. .

Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

2002-01-01

174

Effort and valuation in the brain: The effects of anticipation and execution  

PubMed Central

Neural representations of the effort deployed in performing actions, and the valence of the outcomes they yield, form the foundation of action choice. To discover whether brain areas represent effort and outcome valence together, or whether they represent one but not the other, we examined these variables in an explicitly orthogonal way. We did this by asking human subjects to exert one of two levels of effort to improve their chances of either winning, or avoiding the loss of, money. Subjects responded faster both when exerting greater effort and when exerting effort in anticipation of winning money. Using fMRI we inspected BOLD responses during anticipation (before any action was executed) and when the outcome was delivered. In this way we indexed BOLD signals associated with an anticipated need to exert effort and its affective consequences, as well as the effect of executed effort on the representation of outcomes. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsal striatum (dorsal putamen) signalled the anticipation of effort, independent of the prospect of winning or losing. Activity in ventral striatum (ventral putamen) was greater for better than expected outcomes compared to worse than expected outcomes, an effect attenuated in the context of having exerted greater effort. Our findings provide evidence that neural representations of anticipated actions are sensitive to the expected demands but not to the expected value of their consequence, whereas representations of outcome value are discounted by exertion, commensurate with an integration of cost and benefit so as to approximate net value.

Kurniawan, I.T.; Guitart-Masip, M.; Dayan, P.; Dolan, R. J.

2013-01-01

175

Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Non-Clinical Children: Relationships with Self-Report and Performance-Based Measures of Attention and Effortful Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control, and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8-12 years. For this purpose, children completed self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological…

Muris, Peter; van der Pennen, Els; Sigmond, Rianne; Mayer, Birgit

2008-01-01

176

Behavior, Expectations and Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

2010-01-01

177

Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Non-clinical Children: Relationships with Self-report and Performance-based Measures of Attention and Effortful Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control,\\u000a and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8–12 years. For this purpose, children completed\\u000a self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression,\\u000a and aggression) and were tested with a neuropsychological battery for

Peter Muris; Els van der Pennen; Rianne Sigmond; Birgit Mayer

2008-01-01

178

Dopamine D1 Receptors in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Regulate Effort-Based Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in encoding whether or not an action is worth performing in view of the expected benefit and the cost of performing the action. Dopamine input to the ACC may be critical for this form of effort-based decision making; however, the role of distinct ACC dopamine receptors is yet unknown.…

Schweimer, Judith; Hauber, Wolfgang

2006-01-01

179

Web Effort Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software effort models and effort estimates help project managers allocate resources, control costs, and schedule and improve current practices, leading to projects that are finished on time and within budget. In the context of Web development and maintenance, these issues are also crucial, and very challenging, given that Web projects have short schedules and a highly fluidic scope. Therefore this

Emilia Mendes; Nile Mosley; Steve Counsell

180

DETECTION OF TRANSITING JOVIAN EXOPLANETS BY GAIA PHOTOMETRY-EXPECTED YIELD  

SciTech Connect

Several attempts have been made in the past to assess the expected number of exoplanetary transits that the Gaia space mission will detect. In this Letter, we use the updated design of Gaia and its expected performance and apply recent empirical statistical procedures to provide a new assessment. Depending on the extent of the follow-up effort that will be devoted, we expect Gaia to detect from a few hundreds to a few thousands of transiting exoplanets.

Dzigan, Yifat; Zucker, Shay, E-mail: yifatdzigan@gmail.com, E-mail: shayz@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Geophysical, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2012-07-01

181

Programming Effort Estimation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project investigates various models of programming effort estimation and prediction at various stages of the software development process. The project has led to several results and models. This report concentrates on results from the last y...

S. D. Conte H. E. Dunsmore V. Y. Shen

1984-01-01

182

Adaptation to Muscular Effort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adaptation to muscular effort was investigated at the subjective level by matching perceived fatigue with white noise. The psychophysical function for loudness was used to construct individual adaptation functions. The emphasis is on individual adaptive b...

J. Hosman

1967-01-01

183

Households’ recycling efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Households’ recycling effort is often argued to be of an insignificant size. It is also frequently argued that this contribution, if significant, is not a cost to households, since it is voluntary. Thus households’ use of time and energy are frequently disregarded in cost-benefit analyses of stricter recycling targets. In this survey, based on 1162 interviews, we find that sorting

Annegrete Bruvoll; Bente Halvorsen; Karine Nyborg

2002-01-01

184

Measuring Cycling Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the basic mechanics of cycling with a simple reckoning of how much effort is needed from the cyclist. The work done by the cyclist is quantified when the ride is on the flat and also when pedaling uphill. Proves that by making use of the available gears on a mountain bike, cycling uphill can be accomplished without pain. (Author/ASK)|

Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

1999-01-01

185

The motivating function of thinking about the future: expectations versus fantasies.  

PubMed

Two forms of thinking about the future are distinguished: expectations versus fantasies. Positive expectations (judging a desired future as likely) predicted high effort and successful performance, but the reverse was true for positive fantasies (experiencing one's thoughts and mental images about a desired future positively). Participants were graduates looking for a job (Study 1), students with a crush on a peer of the opposite sex (Study 2), undergraduates anticipating an exam (Study 3), and patients undergoing hip-replacement surgery (Study 4). Effort and performance were measured weeks or months (up to 2 years) after expectations and fantasies had been assessed. Implications for the self-regulation of effort and performance are discussed. PMID:12416922

Oettingen, Gabriele; Mayer, Doris

2002-11-01

186

Name Stereotypes and Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The studies described here were executed to explore and verify the conjecture that teachers' expectations are likely to be systematically associated with implicit stereotyped perceptions of names, and these stereotypical expectations may in turn be reflected in teachers' subjective evaluation of student products and performance. (Author/RK)

Harari, Herbert; McDavid, John W.

1973-01-01

187

Design and expected performances of the SCAO-WFS module of SIMPLE, the high-resolution near-infrared spectrometer for E-ELT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and discuss the design and expected performances of the SCAO-WFS module of SIMPLE, the highsd resolution near-infrared spectrometer for the E-ELT which is designed to operate in the wavelengths range 0.84-2.5?m with an entrance slit width of 27mas which yields a spectral resolving power of R=130,000. We analyze both pyramid and SH wave-front sensors operating at near-infrared wavelengths (1-2 ?m). The main results can be summarized as follows. - Good levels of AO correction can only be achieved within a few arc-sec of the reference star. The primary applications of SCAO correction are therefore observations where the science object is compact and bright enough to be used as reference star, feeding the WFS via a beam-splitter. We concentrate on a WFS operating at nearinfrared wavelengths because many of the scientific targets of SIMPLE are intrinsically very red. - The pyramid WFS provides better performances than the SH, because it is less affected by aliasing errors. - The quality of AO correction is almost independent on the wavelength at which the wave-front is sensed. Therefore, we simplify the design the WFS module by not including the K-band, i.e. operating in the 1.0-2.1?m range. Extension to shorter wavelengths is also possible but requires exchanging the atmospheric dispersion compensator. - Using a pyramid WFS with 84x84 sub-apertures one can achieve remarkably high values of light-concentration in the slit, i.e. ~70% in K and ~40% at 0.9?m. - The limiting magnitude for the 84×84 WFS is about 13.5+2.5•log(?), where ? is the fraction of stellar light sent to the WFS by the beam-splitter. - Somewhat fainter limits, i.e. magnitudes ~14.0+2.5•log(?), can be achieved by changing the camera optics of the WFS and sampling 42×42 sub-apertures.

Tozzi, A.; Oliva, E.; Le Louarn, M.; Origlia, L.

2010-07-01

188

Culture and effort: British and Irish work-related values and attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines British and Irish work-related values and attitudes. It is set in the context of the importance of eliciting high work commitment and effort from employees as a necessary condition for enhanced competitive performance. More specifically it seeks to establish if British and Irish work values and attitudes conform to what we would expect from Hofstede's indices. On

Black Boyd

1994-01-01

189

Effort issues in post-acute outpatient acquired brain injury rehabilitation seekers.  

PubMed

Recent findings suggest that compromised patient effort occurs in nonlitigious settings, but the nature and base rate of suboptimal effort in these settings remains poorly understood. In the treatment-seeking, acquired brain injury, outpatient rehabilitation sample included in this investigation, 21.8% of the patients scored below recommended cutting scores for suboptimal effort on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). Disability status was the only variable explored in this study to be associated with suboptimal effort. It should be noted, however, that the proportion of patients on disability was large in both the optimal and suboptimal effort groups, suggesting that failure on the TOMM may not be a specific predictor of disability status in this sample. Importantly, performance on the TOMM was unrelated to age, education, time from injury to evaluation, and injury severity. Depression and anxiety were also shown to be unrelated to TOMM performance in this rehabilitation sample. As expected, performance on neurocognitive testing was significantly lower in the suboptimal effort group. This study suggests that reduced effort occurs outside forensic settings, is related to neuropsychometric performance, and urges further research into effort across various settings. PMID:18560145

Locke, Dona E C; Smigielski, Jeffrey S; Powell, Matthew R; Stevens, Susanna R

2008-01-01

190

Determination of joint efforts in the human body during maximum ramp pushing efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining with accuracy, the internal efforts in the human body is a great challenge in Biomechanics, particularly in Physical Therapy and Ergonomics. In this context, the present study develops a human body model that permits a non-invasive determination of the joint efforts produced by a seated subject performing maximum ramp pushing efforts. The joint interactions during these experiments are provided

M. Raisona; P. Y. Willemsd; Batiment Stevin; Batiment Euler

191

Determination of joint efforts in the human body during maximum ramp pushing efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining with accuracy, the internal efforts in the human body is a great challenge in Biomechanics, particularly in Physical Therapy and Ergonomics. In this context, the present study develops a human body model that permits a non-invasive determination of the joint efforts produced by a seated subject performing maximum ramp pushing efforts. The joint interactions during these experiments are provided

M. Raison; C. Gaudez; S. Le Bozec; P. Y. Willems

2007-01-01

192

Dissociations Between Expectancy and Performance in Simple and Two-Choice Reaction-Time Tasks: A Test of Associative and Nonassociative Explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perruchet, Cleeremans, and Destrebecqz (2006) reported a striking dissociation between trends in the conscious expectancy of an event and the speed of a response that is cued by that event. They argued that this indicates the operation of independent processes in human associative learning. However, there remains a strong possibility that this dissociation is not a consequence of associative learning

Louise C. Barrett; Evan J. Livesey

2010-01-01

193

Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making  

PubMed Central

Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J.

2011-01-01

194

Navy superconductivity efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

Gubser, D. U.

1990-04-01

195

Effort on Homework in Grades 5-9: Development, Motivational Antecedents, and the Association with Effort on Classwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2 studies, an expectancy-value framework was applied to investigate effort expended on mathematics homework. In Study 1 (2,712 students in grades 5, 7, and 9; mean age=13.37 years), lower homework effort was found in higher grades. The effects of intrinsic value on homework effort were higher in the older cohorts, whereas the effects of the…

Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Kastens, Claudia; Koller, Olaf

2006-01-01

196

Illustration of sampling-based approaches to the calculation of expected dose in performance assessments for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  

SciTech Connect

A deep geologic repository for high level radioactive waste is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. As mandated in the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated public health and safety standards (i.e., 40 CFR Part 197) for the YM repository, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has promulgated licensing standards (i.e., 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc.) consistent with 40 CFR Part 197 that the DOE must establish are met in order for the YM repository to be licensed for operation. Important requirements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. relate to the determination of expected (i.e., mean) dose to a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) and the incorporation of uncertainty into this determination. This presentation describes and illustrates how general and typically nonquantitive statements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. can be given a formal mathematical structure that facilitates both the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI and the appropriate separation in this calculation of aleatory uncertainty (i.e., randomness in the properties of future occurrences such as igneous and seismic events) and epistemic uncertainty (i.e., lack of knowledge about quantities that are poorly known but assumed to have constant values in the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI).

Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD. (.; .)

2007-04-01

197

Client expectation from doctors: Expectation - reality gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims and objectives: To determine client expectation from doctors, a descriptive survey was conducted amongst people above 18 years of age and doctors of Faridpur District. Methodology: For this purpose a total of 400 patients and 30 doctors were involved. Both rural and urban population were included. A sample of 30 doctors was selected from the outdoor department of Faridpur

Rahman MM; Rahman S; Begum N; Asaduzzaman AKM

198

The realism of expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of expectation are considered to be distributed along a continuum with realistic at one extreme and unrealistic at the other. Experimental data were analyzed with reference to the several criteria. Reliability and generality of the level of expectation were shown to be sensitive to the position of the expectations on the realism-unrealism continuum. Failure to control this characteristic of

Francis W. Irwin

1944-01-01

199

Swedish nuclear waste efforts  

SciTech Connect

After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

Rydberg, J.

1981-09-01

200

Worldwide effort against smoking.  

PubMed

The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because smokers need to be aware of the dangers of smoking. Health education projects and public information should address the hazards of smoking and discourage smoking from becoming the social norm. PMID:12314496

1986-07-01

201

Automatic effort mobilization and the principle of resource conservation: one can only prime the possible and justified.  

PubMed

Two experiments tested the idea that the principle of resource conservation moderates and limits automaticity effects on effort mobilization. Effort-related cardiovascular response was assessed in cognitive tasks with different levels of task difficulty (Experiment 1) and success incentive (Experiment 2) during which participants were exposed to suboptimally presented action versus inaction primes. As expected, implicit activation of the action concept resulted in stronger effort-related cardiovascular response than activation of the inaction concept-but only when the task was feasible and success incentive was sufficiently high. Effects on task performance were compatible with those on effort. The findings indicate that the automaticity effect of action/inaction primes on effort mobilization is situated, sensitive to task context, and limited by extreme task difficulty and low incentive. The findings facilitate a theoretical integration of automaticity in effort mobilization with the principle of resource conservation. PMID:23527847

Silvestrini, Nicolas; Gendolla, Guido H E

2013-03-25

202

Patient expectations of fair complaint handling in hospitals: empirical data  

PubMed Central

Background A common finding in several studies is patients' dissatisfaction with complaint handling in health care. The reasons why are for the greater part unknown. The key to an answer may be found in a better understanding of patients' expectations. We investigated patients' expectations of complaint handling in hospitals. Methods Subjects were patients who had lodged a complaint at the complaint committees of 74 hospitals in the Netherlands. A total of 424 patients (response 75%) completed a written questionnaire at the start of the complaint procedures. Derived from justice theory, we asked what they expected from fair procedures, fair communication and fair outcome of complaint handling. Results The predominant reason for complainants to lodge a complaint was to prevent the incident from happening again. Complainants expected fair procedures from the complaint committee, in particular an impartial position. This was most important to 87% of the complainants. They also expected to be treated respectfully. Furthermore, they expected the hospital and the professional involved to respond to their complaint. A change in hospital performances was the most wanted outcome of complaint handling, according to 79% of the complainants. They also expected disclosure from the professionals. Professionals should admit a mistake when it had occurred. More complainants (65%) considered it most important to get an explanation than an apology (41%). Only 32% of complainants expected the professional to make an effort to restore the doctor-patient relationship. A minority of complainants (7%) wanted financial compensation. Conclusion Nearly all complainants want to prevent the incident from happening again, not out of pure altruism, but in order to restore their sense of justice. We conclude that complaint handling that does not allow for change is unlikely to meet patients' expectations. Secondly, complaint handling should not be left exclusively to complaint committees, the responses of hospital and professionals are indispensable.

Friele, Roland D; Sluijs, Emmy M

2006-01-01

203

A Superintendent's High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

Pascopella, Angela

2009-01-01

204

Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

Kalvelage, T. A.

2002-01-01

205

Operating the EOSDIS at the Land Processes DAAC Managing Expectations, Requirements, and Performance Across Agencies, Missions, Instruments, Systems, and User Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990's. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990's changed as each community had its say -- first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC -- particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) -- are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

Kalvelage, Thomas A.

2002-09-01

206

National Service Programs: Status of AmeriCorps Reform Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study determined the status of the Corporation for National and Community Service reform efforts to improve AmeriCorps. Work focused on the reform efforts related to reducing costs. The study relied on funding data from the Corporation's grant data system on grant awards and expected funding matches from non-Corporation sources. Analysis…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

207

Health expectancy indicators.  

PubMed Central

An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities.

Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

1999-01-01

208

Antecedents and Consequences of TESOL Student Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affective variables can help understand differences in student performance. This paper presents student expectations as an affective variable that has so far received little research attention. Students have expectations from educational providers, the fulfilment of which can create a positive learning environment leading to better performance.…

Bordia, Sarbari; Wales, Lynn; Gallois, Cindy; Pittam, Jeffery

2008-01-01

209

Are effort measures sensitive to cognitive impairment?  

PubMed

The basic premise of symptom validity tests (SVTs) is that appropriate effort can be assessed because the designs of SVT measures are thought to be insensitive to all but the most extreme forms of impairment of memory. In patients with mild traumatic brain injury in particular, it is thought that failure on effort measures consistently reflects poor effort or even conscious exaggeration of symptoms. This study examines the issue of SVT failure as a reflection of cognitive impairment and/or neuropsychiatric impairment by presenting cases of three patients who were given full neuropsychological batteries but in each case failed the Word Memory Test (WMT), a verbal recognition SVT measure. One patient who failed the WMT was probably in the early stages of dementia. The WMT fit the "Genuine Memory Impaired Profile". Two mild traumatic brain injury patients failed the WMT but their patterns of performance suggested that cognitive deficits influenced WMT performance. In determining the validity of neuropsychological test data in the individual case, it is recommended that the examiner consider whether cognitive impairment could affect performance on effort measures and the recommended cut score. Also, it is recommended that examiners use multiple indicators of effort. PMID:22338360

Willis, Pamelia F; Farrer, Thomas J; Bigler, Erin D

2011-12-01

210

[Limitation of the therapeutic effort].  

PubMed

The limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE) consists in not applying extraordinary or disproportionate measures for therapeutic purposes that are proposed for a patient with poor life prognosis and/or poor quality of life. There are two types. The first is to not initiate certain measures or to withdraw them when they are established. A decision of the LTE should be based on some rigorous criteria, so that we make the following proposal. First, it is necessary to know the most relevant details of the case to make a decision: the preferences of the patient, the preferences of the family when pertinent, the prognosis (severity), the quality of life and distribution of the limited resources. After, the decision should be made. In this phase, participatory deliberation should be established to clarify the end of the intervention. Finally, if it is decided to perform an LTE, it should be decided how to do it. Special procedures, disproportionate measures, that are useless and vain should not be initiated for the therapeutic objective designed (withdraw them if they have been established). When it has been decided to treat a condition (interim measures), the treatment should be maintained. This complex phase may need stratification of he measures. Finally, the necessary palliative measures should be established. PMID:21813120

Herreros, B; Palacios, G; Pacho, E

2011-08-02

211

Expected Relationship Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing collaborative business-to-business relationships demands an understanding of how relationships create value for the firm and a method to accurately assess that value. The purpose of this research is to propose a new construct, expected relationship value, and an innovative method for its measurement. The proposed methodology relies on qualitative research techniques to gather dispersed organizational knowledge about the relationship.

John E Hogan

2001-01-01

212

Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

Devine, Kelley

213

Expectations of the System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectations of the System is a student-created film which details the findings of a participatory action research (PAR) project conducted in South Los Angeles. In the summer of 2008, a critical research team composed of seven high school-aged Black males and a mathematics education researcher (also a Black male) conducted qualitative and quantitative research to explore the incarceration and university

Terry Clarence L Sr

2009-01-01

214

It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.

2010-08-27

215

Separation Theorems and Expected Utilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a number of separation theorems for linear spaces, then explores the relationships between these theorems and expected utility theory. Three topics in expected utility are discussed: axioms for expected utility; unanimous expectations;...

P. C. Fishburn

1974-01-01

216

Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

Not Available

1991-04-08

217

Expectation States Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectation states theory is, in many ways, a textbook example of a theoretical research program. It is deductive, programmatic,\\u000a formalized mathematically, cumulative, precise, and predictive; and its propositions have been subjected to rigorous evaluation.\\u000a More importantly, however, it is a theory that illuminates core issues in social psychology and sociology more broadly. It\\u000a is fundamentally a “macro-micro-macro” explanation about one

Shelley J. Correll; Cecilia L. Ridgeway

218

Expectations and Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The above quote illustrates the trajectory this teen would use to reach her personal and professional future goals. Children\\u000a begin to acquire a sense of their future during the period of early to mid adolescence. During this developmental period,\\u000a they develop hopes, dreams, and aspirations for their future. Life-course expectations influence the goals that girls set\\u000a for themselves and the

Faye Z. Belgrave

219

Sandbagging efforts in Fargo, ND  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Volunteer sandbagging efforts, used to build levees in Fargo, ND during historic flooding. The height of these levees are built based on flood predictions, made by the National Weather Service using USGS streamflow information. ...

2009-03-30

220

Laboratory efforts to cultivate noroviruses.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide and are recognized as the foremost cause of foodborne illness. Despite numerous efforts, routine cell cultures have failed to yield replicating NoV. This paper describes methods used to try to grow NoV in vitro in two laboratories. Cells (A549, AGS, Caco-2, CCD-18, CRFK, CR-PEC, Detroit 551, Detroit 562, FRhK-4, HCT-8, HeLa, HEC, HEp-2, Ht-29, HuTu-80, I-407, IEC-6, IEC-18, Kato-3, L20B, MA104, MDBK, MDCK, RD, TMK, Vero and 293) were cultured on solid or permeable surfaces. Differentiation was induced using cell culture supplements such as insulin, DMSO and butyric acid. In some cases, the cells and the NoV-containing stool samples were treated with bioactive digestive additives. Variables evaluated in cultivation experiments included the method of preparation of the virus inoculum, the genotype of the virus, conditions for maintenance of cell monolayers, additives in the maintenance medium and the method of inoculation of the cells. Serial blind passage studies were performed routinely. In addition to evaluation for CPE, evidence of virus replication was sought using immunofluorescent assays to detect newly produced viral capsid antigen and RT-PCR assays to detect the viral genome. Although some infected cultures remained NoV positive by RT-PCR for up to five passages and an occasional cell in a monolayer showed evidence of specific immunofluorescence, no reproducible NoV-induced CPE was observed and all RT-PCR results that were positive initially were negative following continued passaging. Thus, attempts to develop a method for the cultivation of NoV were unsuccessful. PMID:14718622

Duizer, Erwin; Schwab, Kellogg J; Neill, Frederick H; Atmar, Robert L; Koopmans, Marion P G; Estes, Mary K

2004-01-01

221

Hearing on FBI Counterterrorism Efforts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available on the Washington Post Web site, the above listed link is the entire transcript of the Senate's Judiciary Committee hearing on FBI counterterrorism efforts held on June 6, 2002. Users can view remarks from members of the committee, and hear testimonials from others such as the FBI director and Inspector General Glenn Fine. Although the transcript is rather long, it not only gives information regarding counterterrorism efforts, but also provides insight into the world of Congressional committees and how they operate.

2002-01-01

222

Amping up effort: effects of d-amphetamine on human effort-based decision-making.  

PubMed

Animal studies suggest the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) plays an important role in decision-making. In rats, DA depletion decreases tolerance for effort and probability costs, while drugs enhancing DA increase tolerance for these costs. However, data regarding the effect of DA manipulations on effort and probability costs in humans remain scarce. The current study examined acute effects of d-amphetamine, an indirect DA agonist, on willingness of healthy human volunteers to exert effort for monetary rewards at varying levels of reward value and reward probability. Based on preclinical research, we predicted amphetamine would increase exertion of effort, particularly when reward probability was low. Over three sessions, 17 healthy normal adults received placebo, d-amphetamine 10 mg, and 20 mg under counterbalanced double-blind conditions and completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task. Consistent with predictions, amphetamine enhanced willingness to exert effort, particularly when reward probability was lower. Amphetamine did not alter effects of reward magnitude on willingness to exert effort. Amphetamine sped task performance, but its psychomotor effects were not strongly related to its effects on decision-making. This is the first demonstration in humans that dopaminergic manipulations alter willingness to exert effort for rewards. These findings help elucidate neurochemical substrates of choice, with implications for neuropsychiatric diseases characterized by dopaminergic dysfunction and motivational deficits. PMID:22090487

Wardle, Margaret C; Treadway, Michael T; Mayo, Leah M; Zald, David H; de Wit, Harriet

2011-11-16

223

Development of a Scale to measure outcome expectancy in alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy theory postulates that altering expectation of personal mastery is the major cognitive process involved in behavior change. Two classes of expectancy are discussed: (a) efficacy expectancy: the belief or confidence one has in being able to successfully perform a specific behavior, and (b) outcome expectancy: the belief one has about the consequences that will follow successful performance. Application of

Karen E. Solomon; Helen M. Annis

1989-01-01

224

Agentic extraversion as a predictor of effort-related cardiovascular response.  

PubMed

The present study examined an extraversion-based extension of the integrative model of cardiovascular effort regulation by Wright and Kirby [Wright, R.A., Kirby, L.D., 2001. Effort determination of cardiovascular response: an integrative analysis with applications in social psychology. In: Zanna, M.P. (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 255-307.]. This model explains cardiovascular effort reactivity in terms of task difficulty, ability appraisal, and success importance. Aggregate measures of cardiovascular variables (alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and cholinergic activation components) were used to measure extraversion-based differences in effort. Subjects performed a sequential letter task (n-back verbal working memory task) with four levels of difficulty. Agentic extraverts (n=10) appraised their ability and happiness as significantly higher than introverts (n=10). Introverts showed the expected shark-fin shaped pattern of effort-related cardiovascular reactivity for the alpha-adrenergic and cholinergic activation components. Effort decreased after the moderately difficult 2-back task. Results provide first evidence for an extraversion-based extension of the model and are discussed with regard to mood and resource allocation as possible mechanisms. PMID:18400356

Kemper, Christoph J; Leue, Anja; Wacker, Jan; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Hennighausen, Erwin; Stemmler, Gerhard

2008-03-02

225

Voluntary Efforts in Decentralized Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The growing emphasis on small-scale rural development has increased the need for decentralized management. This report, however, cautions that there are major differences in perspectives, interests, and expectations among rural peoples, their governments,...

L. Ralston J. Anderson E. Colson

1981-01-01

226

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2011-09-01

227

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2012-09-01

228

Peer Victimization and Effortful Control  

PubMed Central

The relations among peer victimization, effortful control, school engagement, and academic achievement were examined in a group of 390 (212 boys and 178 girls) racially diverse (38.20% Latino and 46.70% White) 6- to 10-year-old children. Specifically, a multimethod, multi-informant approach was used in which data were gathered using self-report, peer-report, and teacher-report questionnaires at three points in time: twice during the initial year of the study when children were in first and third grades and once in the fall of their second-grade and fourth-grade years, respectively. Findings showed that peer victimization was negatively correlated with effortful control; however, longitudinal analyses conducted to examine causal priority were inconclusive. Results from structural equation modeling were consistent with the hypotheses that school engagement mediated the relations between peer victimization and academic achievement, as well as between effortful control and academic achievement.

Iyer, Roopa V.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thompson, Marilyn

2012-01-01

229

Critique of ``Expected Value`` models  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of models in the defense community which use a methodology referred to as ``Expected Value`` to perform sequential calculations of unit attritions or expenditures. The methodology applied to two-sided, dependent, sequential events can result in an incorrect model. An example of such an incorrect model is offered to show that these models may yield results which deviate significantly from a stochastic or Markov process approach. The example was derived from an informal discussion at the Center for Naval Analyses.

May, W.L.

1996-06-01

230

Great expectations: what do patients expect and how can expectations be managed?  

PubMed

Patients' expectations of their treatment are a key determinant in their satisfaction with treatment. Expectations may encompass not only notions of the outcome of treatment, but also the process of treatment. This article explores the processes by which expectations are formed, differences in expectations across patient groups, and the psychopathology of individuals with unrealistic expectations of treatment manifest in body dysmorphic disorder. PMID:23794691

Newton, J T; Cunningham, S J

2013-06-01

231

Community College LRC Cooperative Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In times of greater competition for financial support among educational institutions and public service agencies, cooperation among such organizations takes on increased importance. Using data gathered from a written questionnaire, this national study addresses itself to the cooperative efforts undertaken by community collegc LRCs with other area libraries and non-library agencies. In both categories, kinds of cooperative activities, types of

Ruth J. Person

1985-01-01

232

Marijuana Primes, Marijuana Expectancies, and Arithmetic Efficiency*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Previous research has shown that primes associated with alcohol influence behavior consistent with specific alcohol expectancies. The present study examined whether exposure to marijuana-related primes and marijuana expectancies interact to produce similar effects. Specifically, the present study examined whether marijuana primes and marijuana expectancies regarding cognitive and behavioral impairment interact to influence performance on an arithmetic task. Method: Two independent samples (N = 260) of undergraduate students (both marijuana users and nonusers) first completed measures of marijuana-outcome expectancies associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment and with general negative effects (Sample 2). Later in the semester, participants were exposed to marijuana-related (or neutral) primes and then completed an arithmetic task. Results: Results from Sample 1 indicated that participants who were exposed to marijuana-themed magazine covers performed more poorly on the arithmetic task if they expected that marijuana would lead to cognitive and behavioral impairment. Results from Sample 2 indicated that, for marijuana users, cognitive and behavioral impairment expectancies, but not expectancies regarding general negative effects, similarly moderated arithmetic performance for participants exposed to marijuana-related words. Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that the implicit activation of specific marijuana-outcome expectancies can influence cognitive processes. Implications for research on marijuana are discussed.

Hicks, Joshua A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Friedman, Ronald S.

2009-01-01

233

High School to Community College: New Efforts to Build Shared Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although K-12 schools and community colleges share responsibility for the futures of a vast number of young Californians, and both are under pressure to improve student academic achievement, the groups operate under separate governance systems, pursue distinct missions, gauge success based on different measures, and are seldom looked at together.…

Rosin, Matthew; Wilson, Kathy

2008-01-01

234

Logical effort of carry propagate adders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide assortment of carry propagate adders offer varying area-delay tradeoffs. Wiring and choice of circuit family also affect the size and performance. This paper uses the method of logical effort to characterize the effects of architecture, circuit family, and wire capacitance on adder delay. Domino logic offers about a 30% speedup on most valency-2 adders. Although Kogge-Stone adders are

D. Harris; Ivan Sutherland

2003-01-01

235

STAKEHOLDERS' OPINIONS AND EXPECTATIONS OF THE GLOBAL FUND AND THEIR POTENTIAL ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze stakeholder opinions and expectations of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, and to discuss their potential economic and financial implications. Design The Global Fund commissioned an independent study, the “360° Stakeholder Assessment,” to canvas feedback on the organization’s reputation and performance with an on-line survey of 909 respondents representing major stakeholders worldwide. We created a proxy for expectations based on categorical responses for specific Global Fund attributes’ importance to the stakeholders, and current perceived performance. Methods Using multivariate regression, we analyzed 23 unfulfilled expectations related to: resource mobilization; impact measurement; harmonization and inclusion; effectiveness of the Global Fund partner environment; and portfolio characteristics. The independent variables are personal- and regional-level characteristics that affect expectations. Results The largest unfulfilled expectations relate to: mobilization of private sector resources; efficiency in disbursing funds; and assurance that people affected by the three diseases are reached. Stakeholders involved with the Fund through the Country Coordinating Mechanisms, those working in multilateral organizations, and persons living with HIV are more likely to have unfulfilled expectations. In contrast, higher levels of involvement with the Fund correlate with fulfilled expectations. Stakeholders living in sub-Saharan Africa were less likely to have their expectations met. Conclusions Stakeholders unfulfilled expectations result largely from factors external to them, but also from factors over which they have influence. In particular, attributes related to partnership score poorly even though stakeholders have influence in that area. Joint efforts to address perceived performance gaps may improve future performance, and positively influence investment levels and economic viability.

Galarraga, Omar; Bertozzi, Stefano M.

2009-01-01

236

The AstroHDF Effort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we update the astronomy community on our effort to deal with the demands of ever-increasing astronomical data size and complexity, using the Hierarchical Data Format, version 5 (HDF5) format (Wise et al. 2011). NRAO, LOFAR and VAO have joined forces with The HDF Group to write an NSF grant, requesting funding to assist in the effort. This paper briefly summarizes our motivation for the proposed project, an outline of the project itself, and some of the material discussed at the ADASS Birds of a Feather (BoF) discussion. Topics of discussion included: community experiences with HDF5 and other file formats; toolsets which exist and/or can be adapted for HDF5; a call for development towards visualizing large (> 1 TB) image cubes; and, general lessons learned from working with large and complex data.

Masters, J.; Alexov, A.; Folk, M.; Hanisch, R.; Heber, G.; Wise, M.

2012-09-01

237

ATR NSUF Instrumentation Enhancement Efforts  

SciTech Connect

A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to expand instrumentation available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing real-time measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to increase data fidelity and reduce posttest examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide improved in-pile instrumentation to users.

Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; Joshua E. Daw; Curtis Wilkins

2011-01-01

238

Trunk loading and expectation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the epidemiological literature has reported that there is a link between sudden unexpected load handling and the risk of a low back injury. However, few biomechanical studies have investigated the effect of this type of loading on trunk muscular response. An experiment was performed to test the hypothesis that sudden unexpected loads would create excessive forces upon the

W. S. MARRAS; S. L. RANGARAJULU; S. A. LAVENDER

1987-01-01

239

Norwegian oncologists' expectations of intensity-modulated radiotherapy.  

PubMed

AIthough intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may increase the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy for a range of malignancies, only a few IMRT treatments have yet been performed in the Nordic countries. The scores derived from a national survey to assess Norwegian oncologists' expectations of IMRT are presented. A questionnaire was distributed to all consultants in oncology at Norwegian radiotherapy clinics. Summary scores of daily general radiotherapy workload (DGRTW), acquaintance with IMRT (AI) and expectations of IMRT (EI) were derived. Thirty-nine questionnaires (67%) were returned from a total of 58 oncologists. The oncologists' scores on the AI scale (mean score: 7.5 out of 21) were rather low. Their AI scores were found to be positively correlated with their DGRTW. Higher scores on the EI scale were documented (mean score: 6.2 out of 14): 15 oncologists (39%) rated IMRT as one of the three major contributors to potentially increased cancer survival. Oncologists treating patients with prostate, head and neck, gastrointestinal and CNS tumours had higher EI scores than the other oncologists (7.7 vs. 5.1; p = 0.01). The Norwegian radiation oncologists' expectations of IMRT are high in terms of both the potential clinical benefit and the rate of implementation. This should encourage the radiotherapy communities to continue (or rapidly initiate) their efforts in providing the routines required for safe implementation of IMRT. PMID:12546530

Muren, Ludvig P; Mella, Olav; Hafslund, Rune; Dahl, Olav

2002-01-01

240

Medical Innovation Revisited: Social Contagion versus Marketing Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows that Medical Innovation—the landmark study by Coleman, Katz, and Menzel—and several subsequent studies analyzing the diffusion of the drug tetracycline have confounded social contagion with marketing effects. The article describes the medical community's understanding of tetracycline and how the drug was marketed. This situational analysis finds no reasons to expect social contagion; instead, aggressive marketing efforts may

Christophe Van den Bulte; Gary L. Lilien

2001-01-01

241

A Structural Analysis of Disappointment Aversion in a Real Effort Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a novel computerized real effort task, based on moving sliders across a screen, to test experimentally whether agents are disappointment averse when they compete in a real effort sequential-move tournament. Our theory predicts that a disappointment averse agent, who is loss averse around her endogenous expectations-based reference point, responds negatively to her rival's effort. We find significant evidence

David Gill; Victoria Liza Prowse

2010-01-01

242

Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

2012-01-01

243

Irony and Language Expectancy Theory: Evaluations of Expectancy Violation Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language expectancy theory (LET) provides the basis for a study of the relationship of ironic and literal messages in terms of persuasiveness and expectedness. The experimental design was a 2 (literal vs. ironic) × 2 (compliment vs. criticism) factor design. The expectation was that literal messages would be more expected and criticisms less preferred to compliments. The results indicated that the ironic

Joshua M. Averbeck

2010-01-01

244

Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

2010-11-29

245

Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and ...

2008-01-01

246

Maximum Expected Utility via MCMC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper provides a pure simulation approach to solving maximum,expected utility (MEU) problems. MEU problems require both integration, to compute the expected utility, and optimization, to find the optimal decision. In most cases of interest, the expected utility does not have a analytical solution, even for a given value of the decision. One must apply gradient methods around numerical

Eric Jacquier; Michael Johannes; Nicholas Polson

247

Life expectancy and endogenous growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an overlapping generations model with uncertain lifetime and endogenous growth. Individuals have to choose the length of time devoted to schooling before starting to work. We show that it depends positively on life expectancy. Moreover, the effect of life expectancy on growth is positive for economies with a relatively low life expectancy, but could be negative in more

David de la Croix; Omar Licandro

1999-01-01

248

Less-than-Best-Effort Services: Pricing and Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the notion of a service offering a degraded performance with respect to the best-effort service traditionally found in IP networks has gained acceptance among network researchers. Such a less-than-best-effort (LBE) service may be considered as another way of providing a differentiated quality of service, following A. Odlyzko's \\

Yezekael Hayel; David Ros; Bruno Tuffin

2004-01-01

249

Student Perception of Academic Grading: Personality, Academic Orientation, and Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Factors influencing student perceptions of academic grading were examined, with an emphasis on furthering understanding of the relevance of effort to students' conceptualization of grading. Students demonstrated a conceptualization of grading where effort should be weighted comparably to actual performance in importance to the composition of a…

Tippin, Gregory K.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.; Page, Stewart

2012-01-01

250

Perception that "everything requires a lot of effort": transcultural SCL-25 item validation.  

PubMed

This brief report illustrates how the migration context can affect specific item validity of mental health measures. The SCL-25 was administered to 432 recently settled immigrants (220 Haitian and 212 Arabs). We performed descriptive analyses, as well as Infit and Outfit statistics analyses using WINSTEPS Rasch Measurement Software based on Item Response Theory. The participants' comments about the item You feel everything requires a lot of effort in the SCL-25 were also qualitatively analyzed. Results revealed that the item You feel everything requires a lot of effort is an outlier and does not adjust in an expected and valid fashion with its cluster items, as it is over-endorsed by Haitian and Arab healthy participants. Our study thus shows that, in transcultural mental health research, the cultural and migratory contexts may interact and significantly influence the meaning of some symptom items and consequently, the validity of symptom scales. PMID:19752650

Moreau, Nicolas; Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile; Chenguiti, Khalid

2009-09-01

251

Formulation and Performance Studies of Polymer Bonded Explosives (PBX) Containing Energetic Binder Systems. Part 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an effort to comply with Insensitive Munitions (IM) criteria together with the expectation of increasing warhead performance against specified targets, two-part energetic binder systems comprising an energetic polymer and plasticizer that offer promise...

A. Provatas

2003-01-01

252

Pain Expectancies, Pain, and Functional Self-Efficacy Expectancies as Determinants of Disability in Patients With Chronic Low Back Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the relative predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities (functional self-efficacy [FSE]), expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back patients. Before behavioral assessment of function, 85 patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks (FSE) and the likelihood that their performances would be accompanied by pain and reinjury. Partial

Jeffrey M. Lackner; Ann Marie Carosella; Michael Feuerstein

1996-01-01

253

Patient (customer) expectations in hospitals.  

PubMed

The expectations of patient are one of the determining factors of healthcare service. The purpose of this study is to measure the Patients' Expectations, based on Patient's Rights. This study was done with Likert-Survey in Trabzon population. The analyses showed that the level of the expectations of the patient was high on the factor of receiving information and at an acceptable level on the other factors. Statistical meaningfulness was determined between age, sex, education, health insurance, and the income of the family and the expectations of the patients (p<0.05). According to this study, the current legal regulations have higher standards than the expectations of the patients. The reason that the satisfaction of the patients high level is interpreted due to the fact that the level of the expectation is low. It is suggested that the educational and public awareness studies on the patients' rights must be done in order to increase the expectations of the patients. PMID:17028043

Bostan, Sedat; Acuner, Taner; Yilmaz, Gökhan

2006-10-06

254

Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…

Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

2012-01-01

255

Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…

Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

2012-01-01

256

Gender differences in attributions for triathlon performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causal attributions given by athletes for performance can influence performance satisfaction, expectation of future success, and persistence in training and competition. Young and inexperienced athletes often show gender differences in sport attribution, with males attributing success to controllable or stable factors like ability and effort, and females attributing success to uncontrollable or unstable factors like luck and social support. Would

Helen M. Hendy; Bonnie J. Boyer

1993-01-01

257

Subpopulation triage: how to allocate conservation effort among populations.  

PubMed

Threatened species often exist in a small number of isolated subpopulations. Given limitations on conservation spending, managers must choose from strategies that range from managing just one subpopulation and risking all other subpopulations to managing all subpopulations equally and poorly, thereby risking the loss of all subpopulations. We took an economic approach to this problem in an effort to discover a simple rule of thumb for optimally allocating conservation effort among subpopulations. This rule was derived by maximizing the expected number of extant subpopulations remaining given n subpopulations are actually managed. We also derived a spatiotemporally optimized strategy through stochastic dynamic programming. The rule of thumb suggested that more subpopulations should be managed if the budget increases or if the cost of reducing local extinction probabilities decreases. The rule performed well against the exact optimal strategy that was the result of the stochastic dynamic program and much better than other simple strategies (e.g., always manage one extant subpopulation or half of the remaining subpopulation). We applied our approach to the allocation of funds in 2 contrasting case studies: reduction of poaching of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and habitat acquisition for San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica). For our estimated annual budget for Sumatran tiger management, the mean time to extinction was about 32 years. For our estimated annual management budget for kit foxes in the San Joaquin Valley, the mean time to extinction was approximately 24 years. Our framework allows managers to deal with the important question of how to allocate scarce conservation resources among subpopulations of any threatened species. PMID:18477029

McDonald-Madden, Eve; Baxter, Peter W J; Possingham, Hugh P

2008-05-09

258

Interpretation and expectation: the anxiety of influence.  

PubMed

Interpretations go beyond assigning unconscious meaning to analytic material. They inevitably communicate the analyst's assessments of the patient's present and past conflicts, and his expectations for their future resolution. The analyst's estimation of a patient's potential, as well as his personal investment in helping the patient realize that potential, is embedded in the interpretive process. Although careful analysis of unintended interpretive influences on a patient's transference and resistance is required to assure relative neutrality, there remains a residual conditioning effect of interpretations that catalyzes the analytic process and reinforces a patient's efforts to change. PMID:7650287

Raphling, D L

1995-01-01

259

The expected drug and its expected effect interact to determine placebo responses to alcohol and caffeine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested placebo responses in psychomotor performance when caffeine or alcohol was expected. Fifty male university students were assigned to one of four placebo groups or to a no-treatment control group. Two groups received placebo caffeine and two received placebo alcohol. Subjects performed 12 trials on a pursuit rotor task and performance was measured by the percent time on

Mark T. Fillmore; Lisa E. Mulvihill; Muriel Vogel-Sprott

1994-01-01

260

NASA Balloon Program Technology Development Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Balloon Program has been, and will continue to be, committed to improving the capabilities of balloons to support science missions. Fundamental to vehicle improvement is a program of technology development that will enable improved flight performance throughout the next decade. Building on the foundations of the 16-year R&D program, the technology efforts have been expanded to include planetary ballooning. The six main technology thrust areas are: materials, vehicle design &development, structural analysis, operations &support systems, performance modeling, and planetary balloons. Current activities include advancements in the Balloon Research and Development Laboratory, a remote autonomous instrument data acquisition system, balloon trajectory control technique simulations, and dynamic testing of aerially deployed planetary balloons. Some project specifics and recent advancements will be presented.

Fairbrother, D.

261

Music Cognition: Learning, Perception, Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in music cognition domain has shown that non musician listeners have implicit knowledge about the Western tonal musical\\u000a system. This knowledge, acquired by mere exposure to music in everyday life, influences perception of musical structures and\\u000a allows developing expectations for future incoming events. Musical expectations play a role for musical expressivity and influence\\u000a event processing: Expected events are processed

Barbara Tillmann

2007-01-01

262

Tonal expectations influence pitch perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the influence of tonal relatedness on pitch perception in melodies. Tonal expectations for\\u000a target tones were manipulated in melodic contexts while controlling sensory expectations, thus allowing us to assess specifically\\u000a the influence of tonal expectations on pitch perception. Three experiments provided converging evidence that tonal relatedness\\u000a modulates pitch perception in nonmusician listeners. Experiment 1 showed,

F. Marmel; B. Tillmann; W. J. Dowling

2008-01-01

263

Genomic medicine: too great expectations?  

PubMed

As advances in genomic medicine have captured the interest and enthusiasm of the public, an unintended consequence has been the creation of unrealistic expectations. Because these expectations may have a negative impact on individuals as well as genomics in general, it is important that they be understood and confronted. PMID:23872832

O'Rourke, P P

2013-08-01

264

Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is any one really ready for the Spanish Inquisition? Assign studnets to participate in reading the play, The Spanish Inquisition by Monty Python. While readiang the play, display the following pictures at appropiate times. Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion Confess!!! Get the Cushions!!!! Get the comfy Chair! Now you'll confess! Confess women, CONFESS!!! Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!!! ...

Hirschi, Mrs.

2005-04-08

265

Expected stock returns and volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relation between stock returns and stock market volatility. We find evidence that the expected market risk premium (the expected return on a stock portfolio minus the Treasury bill yield) is positively related to the predictable volatility of stock returns. There is also evidence that unexpected stock market returns are negatively related to the unexpected change in

Kenneth R. French; G. William Schwert; Robert F. Stambaugh

1987-01-01

266

Do Juries Meet Our Expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony,

Hal R. Arkes; Barbara A. Mellers

2002-01-01

267

Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, the National Task Force on Health Information recommended that in order to assess the health of Canadians, the health information system should include an aggregate index of population health. This article presents such an index—Health- Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE)—as one possibility in a range of indicators. In contrast to conventional life expectancy, which considers all years as equal,

Michael C. Wolfson

1996-01-01

268

Smokers' expectations to quit smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effectiveness of different smoking policies on smokers' expectations to quit smoking using a choice experiment on a sample of smokers identified within the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA Project. Our results indicate that restricted availability, increased cigarette prices, cessation subsidies and regulations at restaurants, bars and cafés increase the expected probability of smoking cessation. Regulations at work

Henrik Hammar; Fredrik Carlsson

2005-01-01

269

Academic success expectancy: The interplay of gender, situation, and meaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of success expectancy is discussed, followed by a review of the extensive but fragmented literature demonstrating that females frequently have a lower success expectancy than males in achievement contexts, despite having a similar performance. These varied findings are synthesized and cast into a framework asserting that success expectancy emerges from three major factors: (1) the meaning given to

Richard J. Gigliotti; Susan E. Secrest

1988-01-01

270

Neural encoding of competitive effort in the anterior cingulate cortex.  

PubMed

In social environments, animals often compete to obtain limited resources. Strategically electing to work against another animal represents a cost-benefit decision. Is the resource worth an investment of competitive effort? The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in cost-benefit decision-making, but its role in competitive effort has not been examined. We recorded ACC neurons in freely moving rats as they performed a competitive foraging choice task. When at least one of the two choice options demanded competitive effort, the majority of ACC neurons exhibited heightened and differential firing between the goal trajectories. Inter- and intrasession manipulations revealed that differential firing was not attributable to effort or reward in isolation; instead ACC encoding patterns appeared to indicate net utility assessments of available choice options. Our findings suggest that the ACC is important for encoding competitive effort, a cost-benefit domain that has received little neural-level investigation despite its predominance in nature. PMID:22885851

Hillman, Kristin L; Bilkey, David K

2012-08-12

271

States Boosting Efforts Against Distracted Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. States Boosting Efforts Against Distracted Driving: Report But increased education, law enforcement is stymied ... education and enforcement efforts to combat cellphone-linked distracted driving, a new report finds. "States recognize the threat ...

272

Achieving Common Expectations for Overall Goals amid Diversity among Cooperative Extension Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a part of the initial phase of a strategic planning effort for the development of Florida's 1988 through 1991 long-range cooperative extension program, an effort was initiated to achieve common expectations for overall organizational mission and purpose among diverse cooperative extension faculty. The unification effort included the following…

Taylor, Barbara

273

On the value of households' recycling efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do households' recycling efforts represent a social cost, which should be taken into account in cost-benefit analyses of alternative waste treatment systems? Some argue that it should not, since recycling efforts are to a large extent voluntary. We demonstrate that if the government can indirectly increase voluntary recycling efforts through appeals to the public or through similar means, then the

2002-01-01

274

Developing Mechanisms of Temperamental Effortful Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of temperament from early childhood to adult- hood have demonstrated inverse relationships between negative affectiv- ity and effortful control. Effortful control is also positively related to the development of conscience and appears as a protective factor in the development of behavior disorders. In this study, the development of attentional mechanisms underlying effortful control was investigated in 2- to 3-year-old

Mary K. Rothbart; Lesa K. Ellis; M. Rosario Rueda; Michael I. Posner

2003-01-01

275

Phase distribution of software development effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Effort distribution by phase ,or activity is an ,important but often overlooked aspect compared ,to other ,steps in the ,cost estimation process. Poor effort allocation is among ,the major root causes of rework due to insufficiently resourced ,early activities. This paper provides results of an ,empirical study on phase ,effort distribution data of 75 industry projects, from the China

Ye Yang; Mei He; Mingshu Li; Qing Wang; Barry W. Boehm

2008-01-01

276

Life expectancy of persons with chronic disabilities.  

PubMed

The life expectancy is an important summary measure of an individual's prognosis for survival. The life table is the preferred method for computing life expectancies, but it is not always feasible. We show that for several chronic disabilities, the logarithms of the age-specific mortality ratios (relative to the general population) decline linearly with age, reaching parity at age 85 or older. This, combined with a standard modeling of an individual's current mortality rate, yields a set of age-specific mortality rates that can be used to produce a "customized" life table. The life expectancy is then immediately available. In a series of empirical comparisons the method performed better than an assumption of constant excess death rate (EDR), and much better than one of constant mortality ratio (MR). The method may be useful for a variety of non-progressive disabilities, such as cerebral palsy and injuries of the brain or spinal cord. PMID:10339302

Strauss, D; Shavelle, R

1998-01-01

277

A novel scale to assess resistance-exercise effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the validity of a novel subjective scale for assessing resistance-exercise effort. Seventeen male bodybuilders performed five sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of one-repetition maximum, for the bench press and squat. At the completion of each set, participants quantified their effort via the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and novel estimated-repetitions-to-failure scales, and continued repetitions

Daniel A. Hackett; Nathan A. Johnson; Mark Halaki; Chin-Moi Chow

2012-01-01

278

Care of the Elderly in Japan: Changing Norms and Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzed changes in norms of filial care for elderly parents and expectations of old-age support from children, based on Japanese national surveys. Findings suggest that norms of filial care for elderly parents were fairly constant from 1963 until 1986, when major weakening of norms began. Government efforts to shift burden of caring back to…

Ogawa, Naohiro; Retherford, Robert D.

1993-01-01

279

First Things First: What Americans Expect from the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to reform and improve the nation's schools have encountered serious roadblocks, often in the form of parental opposition. This document describes findings of a study that investigated parents' expectations of America's public schools. Data were derived from a national telephone survey with over 1,100 Americans, including 550 White,…

Johnson, Jean; Immerwahr, John

280

First Things First: What Americans Expect from the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Efforts to reform and improve the nation's schools have encountered serious roadblocks, often in the form of parental opposition. This document describes findings of a study that investigated parents' expectations of America's public schools. Data were derived from a national telephone survey with over 1,100 Americans, including 550 White,…

Johnson, Jean; Immerwahr, John

281

What Can We Expect from School Health Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School health education programs should fulfill five expectations: (1) increase understanding about individual and societal health; (2) increase individuals' decision-making skills about health behaviors; (3) increase individuals' abilities to engage in conducive health behaviors; (4) help individuals in their efforts to change health behavior;…

Kolbe, Lloyd J.

1982-01-01

282

Faculty Expectations for a Student Work Ethic: Mountains or Molehills?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract -- This paper addresses the perceived divide in effort between,faculty expectations and the student work ethic as it pertains to students in Engineering and Science Programs at the University of Detroit Mercy. While it does not offer any specific solutions to close the gap, the problem is examined from the opposing,viewpoints of two faculty and two students. The results

Mohan Krishnan; Sandra Yost; Katie Krause; John Rondini

283

The Impact of Expectation on College English Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

One problem concerning English teaching in China at present is that the achievement in English study does not match the energetic and financial efforts paid on the parts of teachers and students. This paper tries to explore this problem and discusses teachers' different expectations on the impact of students' English learning and teachers' teaching methods employed. The paper presumes that

Zhou Bin; Cui Fuquan

284

Do efforts to reduce the supply of illicit drugs increase turf war violence? a theoretical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models illicit drug dealers as territorial monopolists. The model shows that an increase in efforts to reduce the\\u000a supply of illicit drugs decreases a dealer’s expected monopoly returns over drug turf. Consequently, efforts to acquire drug\\u000a turf through violence are reduced.

Robert T. Burrus

1999-01-01

285

Expectancy of line segment orientation.  

PubMed

The question was asked whether briefly flashed line segments are easier to detect when presented at an expected, rather than an unexpected, orientation. Detection rates were measured in a two-interval forced choice (2IFC) paradigm that did not require the subject to identify the orientation of the line segment, only to detect its presence. The 2IFC paradigm was used to rule out bias or criterion effects. Subjects were led to expect lines in a particular or primary orientation by being presented lines with that orientation as cues before every trial, and by being tested with only that orientation during practice. Lines of the orthogonal, probe orientation replaced the primary on 25% of experimental trials. When the stimulus location was known in advance, lines of the primary orientation were detected more accurately than were probe lines, but when stimulus location was not known, detection rates were equal. Detection rates were also equal when subjects were informed of the probe at the end of the practice period, so that both orientations were expected; hence the subjects' expectations, not the probability of stimulus occurrence, are necessary for the effect to occur. Thus expecting a line of a particular orientation at a particular location facilities its detection. PMID:8903137

Kurylo, D D; Reeves, A; Scharf, B

1996-01-01

286

Desettling Expectations in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Calls for the improvement of science education in the USA continue unabated, with particular concern for the quality of learning opportunities for students from historically nondominant communities. Despite many and varied efforts, the field continues to struggle to create robust, meaningful forms of science education. We argue that "settled…

Bang, M.; Warren, B.; Rosebery, A. S.; Medin, D.

2012-01-01

287

Do juries meet our expectations?  

PubMed

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony, and weather forecasting, we argue that the frequency of mistakes probably far exceeds these "tolerable" levels. We are not arguing against the use of juries. Rather, we point out that a closer look at jury decisions reveals a serious gap between what we expect from juries and what probably occurs. When deciding issues of guilt and/or punishing convicted criminals, we as a society should recognize and acknowledge the abundance of error. PMID:12508698

Arkes, Hal R; Mellers, Barbara A

2002-12-01

288

Divided attention and mental effort after severe traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess dual-task performance in TBI patients, under different experimental conditions, with or without explicit emphasis on one of two tasks. Results were compared with measurement of the subjective mental effort required to perform each task. Forty-three severe TBI patients at the subacute or chronic phase performed two tasks under single- and dual-task conditions: (a) random generation; (b) visual go-no go reaction time task. Three dual-task conditions were given, requiring either to consider both tasks as equally important or to focus preferentially on one of them. Patients were compared to matched controls. Subjective mental effort was rated on a visual analogic scale. TBI patients showed a disproportionate increase in reaction time in the go-no go task under the dual-task condition. However, they were just as able as controls to adapt performance to the specific instructions about the task to be emphasised. Patients reported significantly higher subjective mental effort, but the variation of mental effort according to task condition was similar to that of controls. These results suggest that the divided attention deficit of TBI patients is related to a reduction in available processing resources rather than an impairment of strategic processes responsible for attentional allocation and switching. The higher level of subjective mental effort may explain why TBI patients frequently complain of mental fatigue, although this subjective complaint seems to be relatively independent of cognitive impairment. PMID:15178177

Azouvi, Philippe; Couillet, Josette; Leclercq, Michel; Martin, Yves; Asloun, Sybille; Rousseaux, Marc

2004-01-01

289

The Role of Ability Beliefs and Incentives in Middle School Students' Intention, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study uncovers the predictive relationship of middle school students' ability beliefs (self-efficacy and expectancy-related beliefs) and incentives (outcome expectancy, importance, interest, and usefulness) to intention, cardiovascular fitness, and teacher-rated effort in physical education. Participants (N = 252; 118 boys, 134 girls)…

Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken R.; Zhang, Tao

2009-01-01

290

The Role of Ability Beliefs and Incentives in Middle School Students' Intention, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uncovers the predictive relationship of middle school students' ability beliefs (self-efficacy and expectancy-related beliefs) and incentives (outcome expectancy, importance, interest, and usefulness) to intention, cardiovascular fitness, and teacher-rated effort in physical education. Participants (N = 252; 118 boys, 134 girls)…

Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken R.; Zhang, Tao

2009-01-01

291

The expected value of control: an integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function.  

PubMed

The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function. PMID:23889930

Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M; Cohen, Jonathan D

2013-07-24

292

Corporate Governance for Contractors Performing Iraq Reconstruction Efforts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Coalition Provisional Authority, Office of the Inspector General (CPA-IG), pursuant to Public Law 108-106, 'The Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for the Defense and Reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan,' November 6, 2003, is conducting a se...

B. Flynn G. Montoya J. Betar M. Guagliano R. Murrell

2004-01-01

293

The Case of Effort Variables in Student Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the existence of a structural shift between above- and below-average students in the econometric models that explain students' grades in principles of economics classes. Identifies a structural shift and estimates separate models for above- and below-average students. Concludes that separate models as well as educational policies are…

Borg, Mary O.; And Others

1989-01-01

294

The role of effort in perceiving distance.  

PubMed

Berkeley proposed that space is perceived in terms of effort. Consistent with his proposal, the present studies show that perceived egocentric distance increases when people are encumbered by wearing a heavy backpack or have completed a visual-motor adaptation that reduces the anticipated optic flow coinciding with walking effort. In accord with Berkeley's proposal and Gibson's theory of affordances, these studies show that the perception of spatial layout is influenced by locomotor effort. PMID:12661670

Proffitt, Dennis R; Stefanucci, Jeanine; Banton, Tom; Epstein, William

2003-03-01

295

20 CFR 641.740 - How will the Department determine whether a grantee fails, meets, or exceeds the expected levels...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fails, meets, or exceeds the expected levels of performance for the core indicators...consequences of failing to meet expected levels of performance? 641.740 Section...fails, meets, or exceeds the expected levels of performance for the core...

2012-04-01

296

SOLVING LINEAR RATIONAL EXPECTATIONS MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

t = 1,...,T , where C is a vector of constants, z(t) is an exogenously evolving, possi- bly serially correlated, random disturbance, and ?(t) is an expectational error, satisfying Et?(t + 1 )= 0, all t. The ?(t) terms are not given exogenously, but instead are treated as determined as part of the model solution. Models with more lags, or

CHRISTOPHER A. SIMS

1996-01-01

297

Tourism motivation and expectation formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical study introduces a model of tourism motivation and expectation formation. It is based on a discussion and operationalization of both the behaviorist notion of drive reduction and the cognitivist constructs of attitudes and values. While the satisfaction of inner-directed values and motivations depends on classes of objects, outer-directed values target specific objects. In the case of trying to

Juergen Gnoth

1997-01-01

298

Expectations of indoor climate control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses reassessment of indoor climate control in the context of current thermal comfort practice and research. We review the limitations of comfort models and standards with several examples. We examine how people's thermal sensation and preference may be influenced by culture and climate and associated issues of thermal expectations and adaptation. Finally, we discuss how incorporating these factors

Marc Fountain; Gail Brager; Richard de Dear

1996-01-01

299

Children's Judgments of Expected Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…

Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.

1994-01-01

300

Babbage's Expectations for his Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Babbage's expectations for his Difference Engine were those of a young enthusiast. Although he failed to complete his version of the engine, an independent implementation of his ideas was carried through by Georg and Edvard Scheutz. Two Scheutz engines were built and put to work, one at the Registrar-General's Office in London and one at the Dudley Observatory in Albany,

Maurice V. Wilkes

1991-01-01

301

Expectations in Incremental Discourse Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way in which discourse features express connections back to the previous discourse has been described in the literature in terms of on a suitably defined right frontier, can be used to both process expectations and constrain discouse processing in general.

Dan Cristea; Bonnie Lynn Webber

1997-01-01

302

Optimal expectations with complete markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Because agents have anticipatory feelings about future risks, it is optimal for them to manipulate their expectations. As in Brunnermeier and Parker (2003) and Gollier (2004), we examine the trade-off between the costs of erro- neous decisions based on these manipulated beliefs and the benefits of antici- pating a better future. In this paper, we assume that contingent markets

Christian Gollier

2007-01-01

303

Falling behind: life expectancy in US counties from 2000 to 2007 in an international context  

PubMed Central

Background The United States health care debate has focused on the nation's uniquely high rates of lack of insurance and poor health outcomes relative to other high-income countries. Large disparities in health outcomes are well-documented in the US, but the most recent assessment of county disparities in mortality is from 1999. It is critical to tracking progress of health reform legislation to have an up-to-date assessment of disparities in life expectancy across counties. US disparities can be seen more clearly in the context of how progress in each county compares to international trends. Methods We use newly released mortality data by age, sex, and county for the US from 2000 to 2007 to compute life tables separately for each sex, for all races combined, for whites, and for blacks. We propose, validate, and apply novel methods to estimate recent life tables for small areas to generate up-to-date estimates. Life expectancy rates and changes in life expectancy for counties are compared to the life expectancies across nations in 2000 and 2007. We calculate the number of calendar years behind each county is in 2000 and 2007 compared to an international life expectancy time series. Results Across US counties, life expectancy in 2007 ranged from 65.9 to 81.1 years for men and 73.5 to 86.0 years for women. When compared against a time series of life expectancy in the 10 nations with the lowest mortality, US counties range from being 15 calendar years ahead to over 50 calendar years behind for men and 16 calendar years ahead to over 50 calendar years behind for women. County life expectancy for black men ranges from 59.4 to 77.2 years, with counties ranging from seven to over 50 calendar years behind the international frontier; for black women, the range is 69.6 to 82.6 years, with counties ranging from eight to over 50 calendar years behind. Between 2000 and 2007, 80% (men) and 91% (women) of American counties fell in standing against this international life expectancy standard. Conclusions The US has extremely large geographic and racial disparities, with some communities having life expectancies already well behind those of the best-performing nations. At the same time, relative performance for most communities continues to drop. Efforts to address these issues will need to tackle the leading preventable causes of death.

2011-01-01

304

Expectation Grammars: Leveraging High-Level Expectations for Activity Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-based recognition and prediction of a temporally ex- tended activity can benefit from a detailed description of high-level expectations about the activity. Stochastic gr am- mars allow for an efficient representation of such expecta- tions and are well-suited for the specification of temporall y well-ordered activities. In this paper, we extend stochast ic grammars by adding event parameters, state checks,

David Minnen; Irfan A. Essa; Thad Starner

2003-01-01

305

Estimating the Physical Effort of Human Poses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of estimating the effort required to maintain a static pose by human beings. The problem is important in developing effective pose classification as wells as in developing models of human attention. We estimate the human pose effort using two kinds of body constraints - skeletal constraints and gravitational constraints. The extracted features are combined

Yinpeng Chen; Hari Sundaram; Jodi James

2006-01-01

306

Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

2011-01-01

307

Maximum efforts in contests with asymmetric valuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts may be reduced when players with different valuations participate in a contest. This paper considers the problem of designing a contest to elicit maximum aggregate effort from players with asymmetric valuations. Optimal designs for different classes of contest technologies are computed and characterized. A value weighted contest is optimal in the concave case. In the unconstrained case, the optimal

Kofi O. Nti

2004-01-01

308

Mothers’ developmental expectations for young  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to investigate the developmental timetables of rural and urban mothers in the Central Visayas, Philippines. Examined were mothers’ expectations for children’s development (physical\\/perceptual-motor, cognitive, and psychosocial) and mothers’ child rearing practices, as influenced by four selected variables (child’s gender and ordinal position, mother’s education, and rural or urban residence). The total sample size was

Phoebe Dauz Williams; Arthur R. Williams; Marcelo Lopez; Nenita P. Tayko

2000-01-01

309

Expectation to hydrologists on groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water demands are increasing globally since the latter half of 20th century. Especially, underground water demands have been increasing rapidly everywhere in the world. As a result, various kinds of environmental destruction were also occurred world-widely. Climate change is accelerating to increase the severe disasters and water crisis including the underground water critical situation. Thus, underground hydrologist's duty is very important, and it is expected to research and solve the above-mentioned matters for them.

Takahasi, Yutaka

310

Youth – lifestyle, expectation and media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterises modern young people as adventurous, high-tech and time-poor, and reviews how media and brands are attempting to evolve to match the needs of this market. Focuses on how the UK’s fourth largest daily national newspaper “Metro” has designed itself to fit the urban 18-24 year olds group. Reports research carried out by “Metro” which identified ten expectations of young

Katharine King

2006-01-01

311

[The kidney and life expectancy].  

PubMed

Basic renal functions are physiologically determined as precisely regulated relation between more and less physical events with low energy consumption and energy dependent cellular transport mechanisms. All well in ageing as under various conditions of renal diseases adaptive processes become biologically effective, so that stabilisation of homöostasis is possible up to a loss of 95% of normal function. Life expectancy has to be defined under the new conditions of renal replacement therapy effective beyond this biologically defined border line. PMID:1796531

Schoeppe, W

1991-12-01

312

Learning reward expectations in honeybees  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to test whether honeybees develop reward expectations. In our experiment, bees first learned to associate colors with a sugar reward in a setting closely resembling a natural foraging situation. We then evaluated whether and how the sequence of the animals’ experiences with different reward magnitudes changed their later behavior in the absence of reinforcement and within an otherwise similar context. We found that the bees that had experienced increasing reward magnitudes during training assigned more time to flower inspection 24 and 48 h after training. Our design and behavioral measurements allowed us to uncouple the signal learning and the nutritional aspects of foraging from the effects of subjective reward values. We thus found that the animals behaved differently neither because they had more strongly associated the related predicting signals nor because they were fed more or faster. Our results document for the first time that honeybees develop long-term expectations of reward; these expectations can guide their foraging behavior after a relatively long pause and in the absence of reinforcement, and further experiments will aim toward an elucidation of the neural mechanisms involved in this form of learning.

Gil, Mariana; De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Menzel, Randolf

2007-01-01

313

Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.  

PubMed

Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level. PMID:20962229

Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude

2010-10-20

314

[Corneal arcus and life expectancy].  

PubMed

In 1964-66, the authors completed the comprehensive medical screening of 1412 persons. Apart from the indicators of health state they also recorded their social and cultural parameters. The diagnoses they registered included AC, which has been covered in literature in rather contradicting ways. They found no data concerning survival; as analysing such a correlation is only possible within the frame-work of a several-decade follow-up study. By the end of the follow-up stage (31:12:1994), after 30 years, 1375 persons had died. Their death certificates and--if there were any--necropsy records have been processed and thoroughly analysed. They examined the occurrence of AC, life duration and survival probability--all in correlation with age, gender, constitution, certain diseases (hypertonia, ostheoarthrosis) and diagnoses at death (ischaemic heart diseases, acute myocardiac infarction, cerebrovascular diseases). They point it out that the occurrence of AC is significantly higher among males, but it increases in strong correlation with age in both sexes. Those who had AC were found to be older at the time of death, but it doesn't mean that AC correlates with better life expectancy--it means that AC occurs at older age. The survival probability of men over 75 was better than that of women. On the whole, AC is unfavourable concerning life expectancy, but the later it occurs, the less it can be used as an indicator of life expectancy. It was found that greater average weight correlated with longer average life duration, while among females the more a person weighed, the less frequent AC became. It was true for each weight group that those with AC had worse life expectancy. Altogether those with no AC were found to suffer from hypertonia significantly more frequently. The life expectancy of those with both AC and hypertonia, however, was always worse than those with hypertonia only, regardless of age and the type of hypertonia. Generally women are in a more favourable position, but in the 'serious' and 'very serious' hypertonia groups there is practically no difference in the survival of the two sexes. The authors have also found that AC has a significant negative prognostical value concerning survival and correlation with ostheoarthrosis, ischaemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. The correlation of AC with acute myocardiac infarction could not be proved convincingly. PMID:10628193

Károlyi, G; Balázsy, K

1999-12-01

315

Perceived listening effort for a tonal task with contralateral competing signals.  

PubMed

Perceived listening effort was assessed for a monaural irregular-rhythm detection task while competing signals were presented to the contralateral ear. When speech was the competing signal, listeners reported greater listening effort compared to either contralateral steady-state noise or no competing signal. Behavioral thresholds for irregular-rhythm detection were unaffected by competing speech, indicating that listeners compensated for this competing signal with effortful listening. These results suggest that perceived listening effort may be associated with suppression of task-irrelevant information, even for conditions where informational masking and competition for linguistic processing resources would not be expected. PMID:24116542

Bologna, William J; Chatterjee, Monita; Dubno, Judy R

2013-10-01

316

Perceived listening effort for a tonal task with contralateral competing signals  

PubMed Central

Perceived listening effort was assessed for a monaural irregular-rhythm detection task while competing signals were presented to the contralateral ear. When speech was the competing signal, listeners reported greater listening effort compared to either contralateral steady-state noise or no competing signal. Behavioral thresholds for irregular-rhythm detection were unaffected by competing speech, indicating that listeners compensated for this competing signal with effortful listening. These results suggest that perceived listening effort may be associated with suppression of task-irrelevant information, even for conditions where informational masking and competition for linguistic processing resources would not be expected.

Bologna, William J.; Chatterjee, Monita; Dubno, Judy R.

2013-01-01

317

Mindfulness Training Affects Attention—Or Is It Attentional Effort?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in attentional performance are at the core of proposed mechanisms for stress reduction in mindfulness meditation practices. However, this claim can be questioned because no previous studies have actively manipulated test effort in control groups and controlled for effects of stress reduction per se. In a blinded design, 48 young, healthy meditation novices were randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based

Christian Gaden Jensen; Signe Vangkilde; Vibe Frokjaer; Steen G. Hasselbalch

2012-01-01

318

Constant Effort During Static and Dynamic Muscular Exercise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ss maintained sense of effort constant over time for two tasks: static handgrip contractions held for three min., and dynamic exercise performed on a bicycle ergometer for 12 min. Initial force of handgrip ranged from 18-85% of maximum voluntary contracti...

K. B. Pandolf W. S. Cain

1974-01-01

319

Adaptive and Qualitative Changes in Encoding Strategy With Experience: Evidence From the Test-Expectancy Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Three experiments demonstrated learners’ abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study–test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study–test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants’ metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests.

Finley, Jason R.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

2012-01-01

320

"Sentinel effect" shows fraud control effort works.  

PubMed

The author analyzes the fraud and abuse track record of his agency in the past years, and discuss why that effort has had beneficial results for the healthcare industry and the federal fisc. The benefits of this enforcement effort flow directly from the specific enforcement actions, and indirectly from the response of others in the industry to the standards set forth in those actions. Mr. Thornton disputes assertions of some in the industry that the enforcement efforts are unfair, arbitrary, or draconian. Rather, they are an appropriate response to a documented problem with which the government is justifiably concerned. PMID:10662436

Thornton, D M

1999-01-01

321

Behavioral control over aversive events: Does control that requires effort reduce anxiety and physiological arousal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated whether the amount of effort required to control an aversive event influenced the amount of anxiety and physiological arousal associated with the aversive event. 89 male undergraduates participated in a 3 (unavoidable threat, avoidable threat, no threat)?×?2 (high-effort task performance, low-effort task performance)?×?2 (anticipation period, performance period) factorial experiment. Results indicate that (a) the aversive event (threat of electrical

Sheldon Solomon; David S. Holmes; Kevin D. McCaul

1980-01-01

322

Expectations for computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a sampling of the author's expectations for the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the areas of research, development and application. The primary focus of the discussion herein is related to the non-linear transonic flow regime, and more specifically, for calculations about commercial transport aircraft. However, many of these topics are pertinent to all flow field regimes and aircraft designs. The underlying goal is to enable the automation of multi-disciplinary design processes, which utilize state-of-the-art numerical simulation methods. These include issues pertaining to accuracy, robustness, efficiency, ease-of-use, uncertainty requirements and other challenges.

Vassberg, John C.

2005-11-01

323

Psychosocial assessment of expectant fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background: Comprehensive antenatal psychosocial assessment of mothers prior to the birth is established in many regions. While the influence\\u000a of fathers on infant and maternal well-being is also recognised as commencing before birth, the early identification of needs\\u000a among expectant fathers has not been addressed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: The current study surveyed fathers attending antenatal classes in public and private hospitals

R. Fletcher; G. Vimpani; G. Russell; D. Sibbritt

2008-01-01

324

Effort in Isometric Contractions: Buildup and Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the subjective effort experienced in isometric exertions in terms of force and duration. Apparent intensity doubles when the force of counteraction is increased by 50 percent. (Author)

J. C. Stevens W. S. Cain

1972-01-01

325

USGS Shoots Video of Flooding Efforts  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS public affairs specialist, Jennifer LaVista prepares to shoot video of USGS efforts during historic flooding in Fargo, ND. The videos can be viewed at http://www.usgs.gov/homepage/science_features/flooding_march09.asp...

2009-04-03

326

A NASA-Industry Team Effort  

NASA Website

The Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) design team has incorporated cutting-edge technology garnered through collaborative efforts with every NASA center and hundreds of industry experts across the country.

327

The Martyrdom Effect: When Pain and Effort Increase Prosocial Contributions.  

PubMed

Most theories of motivation and behavior (and lay intuitions alike) consider pain and effort to be deterrents. In contrast to this widely held view, we provide evidence that the prospect of enduring pain and exerting effort for a prosocial cause can promote contributions to the cause. Specifically, we show that willingness to contribute to a charitable or collective cause increases when the contribution process is expected to be painful and effortful rather than easy and enjoyable. Across five experiments, we document this "martyrdom effect," show that the observed patterns defy standard economic and psychological accounts, and identify a mediator and moderator of the effect. Experiment 1 showed that people are willing to donate more to charity when they anticipate having to suffer to raise money. Experiment 2 extended these findings to a non-charity laboratory context that involved real money and actual pain. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the martyrdom effect is not the result of an attribute substitution strategy (whereby people use the amount of pain and effort involved in fundraising to determine donation worthiness). Experiment 4 showed that perceptions of meaningfulness partially mediate the martyrdom effect. Finally, Experiment 5 demonstrated that the nature of the prosocial cause moderates the martyrdom effect: the effect is strongest for causes associated with human suffering. We propose that anticipated pain and effort lead people to ascribe greater meaning to their contributions and to the experience of contributing, thereby motivating higher prosocial contributions. We conclude by considering some implications of this puzzling phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23559692

Olivola, Christopher Y; Shafir, Eldar

2011-12-22

328

Infants' Visual Expectations and the Processing of Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Visual events are defined by a number of dimensions--their location in space, content (color, shape, etc.), and time tags (onset, duration, etc.). The role of time in infants' performance in the Visual Expectation Paradigm (VExP) was studied to evaluate whether infants encode in their expectation representation the timing of events in addition to…

Adler, Scott A.; Haith, Marshall M.; Arehart, Denise M.; Lanthier, Elizabeth C.

2008-01-01

329

Infants' Visual Expectations and the Processing of Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual events are defined by a number of dimensions—their location in space, content (color, shape, etc.), and time tags (onset, duration, etc.). The role of time in infants' performance in the Visual Expectation Paradigm (VExP) was studied to evaluate whether infants encode in their expectation representation the timing of events in addition to their spatial location and content. In Experiment

Scott A. Adler; Marshall M. Haith; Denise M. Arehart; Elizabeth C. Lanthier

2008-01-01

330

USING EXPECTATIONS DATA TO INFER MANAGERIAL OBJECTIVES AND CHOICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a theory-driven empirical framework to analyze managerial decision-making that incorporates subjective expectations data. Our goal is to recover parameters of the manager's utility function and assess the sensitivity of estimated preferences to alternative assumptions regarding the manager's expectations. We apply the model to examine the advertising decisions of the marketing manager of a large university performing arts center.

Tat Y. Chan; Barton H. Hamilton; Christopher Makler

2008-01-01

331

Strategic Failure in Social Interaction: Evidence for Expectancy Disconfirmation Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to test the idea that individuals may fail strategically in order to lower the expectations that others hold for their performances. In a pilot study, participants reported that, when lacking confidence, they would be particularly uncomfortable and anxious with high expectations and would attempt to lower them strategically. In Experiment 1, socially anxious and nonanxious participants

Ann H. Baumgardner; Elizabeth A. Brownlee

1987-01-01

332

Using expected values to simplify decision making under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation study examines the impact of a simplification strategy that replaces distributional attribute evaluations with their expected values and uses those expectations in an additive value model. Several alternate simplified forms and approximation approaches are investigated, with results showing that in general the simplified models are able to provide acceptable performance that is fairly robust to a variety of

Ian N. Durbach; Theodor J. Stewart

2009-01-01

333

Expected Reachability-Time Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an expected reachability-time game (ERTG) two players, Min and Max, move a token along the transitions of a probabilistic timed automaton, so as to minimise and maximise, respectively, the expected time to reach a target. These games are concurrent since at each step of the game both players choose a timed move (a time delay and action under their control), and the transition of the game is determined by the timed move of the player who proposes the shorter delay. A game is turn-based if at any step of the game, all available actions are under the control of precisely one player. We show that while concurrent ERTGs are not always determined, turn-based ERTGs are positionally determined. Using the boundary region graph abstraction, and a generalisation of Asarin and Maler's simple function, we show that the decision problems related to computing the upper/lower values of concurrent ERTGs, and computing the value of turn-based ERTGs are decidable and their complexity is in NEXPTIME ? co-NEXPTIME.

Forejt, Vojt?ch; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Norman, Gethin; Trivedi, Ashutosh

334

Effort discounting in human nucleus accumbens  

PubMed Central

A great deal of behavioral and economic research suggests that the value attached to a reward stands in inverse relation to the amount of effort required to obtain it, a principle known as effort discounting. In the current report, we present the first direct evidence for a neural analogue of effort discounting. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural responses to monetary rewards in the human nucleus accumbens, a structure previously demonstrated to encode reference-dependent reward information. The magnitude of accumbens activation was found to vary with reward outcome, but also with the degree of mental effort demanded to obtain individual rewards. For a fixed level of reward, accumbens was less strongly activated following a high demand for effort than following a lower demand. The magnitude of this effect was noted to correlate with preceding activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, a region that has been proposed to monitor information-processing demands and to mediate in the subjective experience of effort.

Botvinick, M. M.; Huffstetler, S.; McGuire, J. T.

2009-01-01

335

Performance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Department of Transportation combines the performance report for 2001 with the performance plan for 2003. Released in March 2002, its purpose is to weigh statistics and historical trends to improve the nation's transportation system. A key focus of the report is safety; this includes highway, aviation, rail, and all forms of transportation related safety. In light of September 11, national security is another top priority. For each issue covered in the report, the performance of the DOT in recent years is assessed, and specific goals are set. Strategies and initiatives are named to achieve the proposed objectives.

2002-01-01

336

The effect of sleep loss on next day effort.  

PubMed

The study had two primary objectives. The first was to determine whether sleep loss results in a preference for tasks demanding minimal effort. The second was to evaluate the quality of performance when participants, under conditions of sleep loss, have control over task demands. In experiment 1, using a repeated-measures design, 50 undergraduate college students were evaluated, following one night of no sleep loss and one night of sleep loss. The Math Effort Task (MET) presented addition problems via computer. Participants were able to select additions at one of five levels of difficulty. Less-demanding problems were selected and more additions were solved correctly when the participants were subject to sleep loss. In experiment 2, 58 undergraduate college students were randomly assigned to a no sleep deprivation or a sleep deprivation condition. Sleep-deprived participants selected less-demanding problems on the MET. Percentage correct on the MET was equivalent for both the non-sleep-deprived and sleep-deprived groups. On a task selection question, the sleep-deprived participants also selected significantly less-demanding non-academic tasks. Increased sleepiness, fatigue, and reaction time were associated with the selection of less difficult tasks. Both groups of participants reported equivalent effort expenditures; sleep-deprived participants did not perceive a reduction in effort. These studies demonstrate that sleep loss results in the choice of low-effort behavior that helps maintain accurate responding. PMID:12753348

Engle-Friedman, Mindy; Riela, Suzanne; Golan, Rama; Ventuneac, Ana M; Davis, Christine M; Jefferson, Angela D; Major, Donna

2003-06-01

337

20 CFR 641.720 - How will the Department and grantees initially determine and then adjust expected levels of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...adjust expected levels of performance for the core performance measures? 641.720 Section 641.720 Employees' Benefits ...adjust expected levels of performance for the core performance measures? (a) Initial agreement. Before the beginning...

2012-04-01

338

High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

Kalemci, Emrah [Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey)

2011-09-21

339

How do motivational regulation strategies affect achievement: Mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was assumed that the effect of motivational regulation strategies on achievement is mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence. A sample of 231 11th and 12th grade German high-school students provided self-reports on their use of motivational regulation strategies and effort management and completed an intelligence test. Students' half-year grades (GPA) were assessed six months later. As expected,

Malte Schwinger; Ricarda Steinmayr; Birgit Spinath

2009-01-01

340

Photometric stereo via expectation maximization.  

PubMed

This paper presents a robust and automatic approach to photometric stereo, where the two main components, namely surface normals and visible surfaces, are respectively optimized by Expectation Maximization (EM). A dense set of input images is conveniently captured using a digital video camera while a handheld spotlight is being moved around the target object and a small mirror sphere. In our approach, the inherently complex optimization problem is simplified into a two-step optimization, where EM is employed in each step: 1) Using the dense input, the weight or importance of each observation is alternately optimized with the normal and albedo at each pixel and 2) using the optimized normals and employing the Markov Random Fields (MRFs), surface integrabilities and discontinuities are alternately optimized in visible surface reconstruction. Our mathematical derivation gives simple updating rules for the EM algorithms, leading to a stable, practical, and parameter-free implementation that is very robust even in the presence of complex geometry, shadows, highlight, and transparency. We present high-quality results on normal and visible surface reconstruction, where fine geometric details are automatically recovered by our method. PMID:20075477

Wu, Tai-Pang; Tang, Chi-Keung

2010-03-01

341

Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort  

PubMed Central

Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort.

Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

1995-01-01

342

Conflict and expectancies interact to predict sexual behavior under the influence among gay and bisexual men.  

PubMed

As the mechanisms of the associations between substance use and risky sex remain unclear, this study investigates the interactive roles of conflicts about casual sex and condom use and expectancies of the sexual effects of substances in those associations among gay men. Conflict interacted with expectancies to predict sexual behavior under the influence; low casual sex conflict coupled with high expectancies predicted the highest number of casual partners, and high condom use conflict and high expectancies predicted the highest number of unprotected sex acts. Results have implications for intervention efforts that aim to improve sexual decision-making and reduce sexual expectancies. PMID:23584507

Wells, Brooke; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

2013-04-12

343

Neural correlates of mental effort evaluation-- involvement of structures related to self-awareness.  

PubMed

Mental effort is a limited resource which must be invested to perform mental tasks. The amount of mental effort investment that an individual experiences during task performance can be measured afterwards with the help of self-rating scales. Earlier research suggests that integration of information about somatic state changes is crucial for the self-evaluation of mental effort investment. Damage to the pathways which convey information about somatic state changes can lead to an inability to self-evaluate mental effort investment, while conceptually similar evaluations of task difficulty can still be performed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation, while subjects rated their mental effort investment and the difficulty of a previously performed task. Our results show stronger activation of the left anterior insular cortex (aIC) during evaluation of mental effort. Additionally, the activity in left aIC during task performance was modulated by changes in task demand in a similar way as the self-ratings of mental effort. We argue that aIC does not only play a role in the integration of self-related information during self-evaluation of mental effort investment, but that left aIC might also be involved in the experience of mental effort during task performance. PMID:23202660

Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, Rainer

2013-01-16

344

What is expected from ISO?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific mission of ISO is to perform spectroscopic and photometric observations of selected astronomical objects in the 2.5 - 200 microns infrared wavelength range at a sensitivity close to the limits imposed by natural astrophysical backgrounds. ISO is planned as an observatory and will be operated as far as possible in real-time. The scheduled launch date of ISO is

J. P. Baluteau

1991-01-01

345

State Agency Efforts in Water Conservation (California).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under ACR 165 (Statutes of 1976, Resolution Chapter 84), State agencies were asked to save water in all possible ways. The Department of Water Resources (DWR) was asked to help them in their efforts and recommended various water conservation practices. Th...

1978-01-01

346

Inferring Change Effort from Configuration Management Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a methodology and algorithm for historical analysis of the effort necessary for developers to make changes to software. The algorithm identifies factors which have historically increased the difficulty of changes. This methodology has implications for research into cost drivers. As an example of a research finding, we find that a system under study was \\

Todd L. Graves; Audris Mockus

1998-01-01

347

Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

2007-01-01

348

Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele

2010-01-01

349

Encoding effort and recall: A cautionary note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments with 272 undergraduates attempted to demonstrate an effect on item memorability of the amount of effort expended during the encoding process. The encoding task in 2 experiments was the solution of anagrams of varying difficulty. In the 3rd experiment, Ss were required to judge whether a word fit meaningfully into a sentence frame, and the ease of making

Rose T. Zacks; Lynn Hasher; Henrianne Sanft; Karen C. Rose

1983-01-01

350

German COIL efforts: status and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, COIL research in Germany has started with microwave excitation of an oxygen flow. But soon all efforts have been devoted to the chemical generation of excited singlet oxygen and have eventually given rise to a supersonic 10 kW class rotating disk driven device. A diode based diagnostic provides data of small signal gain and cavity temperature which emphasize the

Willy L. Bohn

2002-01-01

351

Restructuring Schooling: Learning from Ongoing Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Popular demands for school restructuring are increasingly common. This book is designed for diverse audiences who are interested in school improvement. Chapter 1, "Restructuring: In Search of a Movement" (Joseph Murphy), provides a historical and conceptual framework of restructuring efforts. Chapter 2, "Feeling the Ripples, Riding the Waves"…

Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Hallinger, Philip, Ed.

352

International Efforts Against Trafficking in Human Beings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the changing mentality, the efforts to find a common definition,concerning trafficking in human beings, focusing on the issue to harmonisethe national and international legal measures, legal instruments aiming atcombat-ing traffic in human beings, we are witnessing an important segmentof the process towards internationalisation and europeanization of criminallaw and criminal justice.

Lenke Fehér

2000-01-01

353

Technology against Terrorism: The Federal Effort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with the Federal research and development effort in countering terrorism, and with the state of attempts to use technology to aid in detecting and preventing attempts to introduce explosives aboard aircraft. A review of the relevant R&D p...

1991-01-01

354

Empowering Students: Variables Impacting the Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a national 3-year project, the Empowered School District Project, which was implemented in nine school districts to empower school participants. This paper focuses on the efforts to empower students by helping them become independent, lifelong learners. The project was implemented in nine schools--five elementary and four…

Short, Paula M.; Greer, John T.

355

Spent Fuel Demonstration Tests: Best Effort Schedule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Best Effort Schedule has been developed for the storage and demonstration test of spent fuel in the Near-Surface Facility (NSTF). The primary goal is the earliest, safe storage of a spent fuel canister in a representative near-surface flow of Columbia P...

1978-01-01

356

The Share 709 System: A Cooperative Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHARE was created in August 1955. From the beginning, its aim has been to reduce redundant effort among various users of the IBM 704, insofar as the preparation of commonly used routines is concerned. The organization has operated on a cooperative basis—establishing a standard language of communication and exchanging a large number of programs which form the tools for effectively

Donald L. Shell

1959-01-01

357

The Effect of Effort Grading on Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the fall of 2004, Benedict College--a Historically Black College in Columbia, SC--began enforcing a new grading policy called Success Equals Effort (SE[squared]). Under this policy, students taking freshman and sophomore level courses were assigned grades that explicitly rewarded not only content learning ("knowledge" grade) but also measures…

Swinton, Omari H.

2010-01-01

358

An Expectancy Model of Laboratory Preparedness Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments investigating differential unconditioned stimulus (UCS) expectancy during fear-relevant (prepared) and fear-irrelevant (unprepared) stimuli revealed that (a) a UCS expectancy bias is apparent before conditioning, (b) initial differential UCS expectancy appears in spite of instructions informing the Ss of no UCS presentations, (c) differential UCS expectancies to fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli dissipate with continued nonreinforcement, (d) differential UCS expectancies may

Graham C. L. Davey

1992-01-01

359

Pygmalion in Media-Based Learning: Effects of Quality Expectancies on Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies investigated how quality expectations affect students' outcomes of media-based learning. Experiment 1 (N=62) demonstrated that students expecting a high-end computer-based training programme learned most, whereas students expecting a programme of ambiguous quality learned least and students having no expectations performed in between.…

Fries, Stefan; Horz, Holger; Haimerl, Charlotte

2006-01-01

360

The asymmetric effect of online social networking attribute-level performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the asymmetric effect of negative and positive attribute-level performance (i.e. effort expectancy, performance expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, flow experience, and satisfaction) of online social networking (OSN) on behavioral intention. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An investigation of behavioral intention in OSN was conducted, with a total of 482 effective questionnaires collected. The

Margaret L. Sheng; Chia-Lin Hsu; Cou-Chen Wu

2011-01-01

361

Obesity and Trends in Life Expectancy  

PubMed Central

Background. Increasing levels of obesity over recent decades have been expected to lead to an epidemic of diabetes and a subsequent reduction in life expectancy, but instead all-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortality rates have decreased steadily in most developed countries and life expectancy has increased. Methods. This paper suggests several factors that may be masking the effects of obesity on life expectancy. Results. It is possible that health and life expectancy gains could be even greater if it was not for the increasing prevalence of extreme obesity. It is also possible that the principal impact of obesity is on disability-free life expectancy rather than on life expectancy itself. Conclusion. If the principal impact of obesity were through disability-free life expectancy rather than on life expectancy itself, this would have substantial implications for the health of individuals and the future burden on the health care system.

Walls, Helen L.; Backholer, Kathryn; Proietto, Joseph; McNeil, John J.

2012-01-01

362

Measuring Website popularity and raising designers' effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we attempt to use three indices, visitors, expected events and different users, to measure the Website's popularity. Because one of these indices is to count how many visitors have browsed this Website, we need a counter that can prevent the counter value from being added by programs automatically. Hence, we develop a new counter called as the

Ko-kang Chu; Tsai-chen Shen; Yen-teh Hsia

2004-01-01

363

Effects of physical efforts on injury in elite soccer.  

PubMed

In this study, the influence of physical efforts on occurrence of match injury in a professional soccer club was investigated. Computerised motion-analysis was used to measure the physical efforts of players during 10 injury situations. Total distance and those covered at different movement intensities were measured across the 5-min period preceding injury. If the final run preceding injury involved a high-intensity action (HIA), the distance, duration and speed of the effort and the recovery time between this and the penultimate HIA were measured. To determine the influence of these physical efforts, the results were compared to a normative profile for players computed from data across 5 games for the same variables; habitual distances covered over a 5-min period and characteristics of and recovery time between HIA. Compared to the normative profile, no differences were reported in physical characteristics during the period leading up to injury or for HIA although the latter were substantially higher in intensity (duration and distance). A lower than normal recovery time between HIA prior to injury was observed (35.6+/-16.8 s vs. 98.8+/-17.5 s, p=0.003). Within the limitations of the small sample, these findings may aid in further understanding injury and physical performance in elite soccer. PMID:20024885

Carling, C; Gall, F L; Reilly, T P

2009-12-18

364

Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

1995-01-01

365

Defining Active and Reasonable Efforts: Reasonable Efforts to Prevent Placement and Preserve Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes development of guidelines to expand understanding of and compliance with both the reasonable efforts requirement of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act 1980 (P.L. 96-272) and active efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act 1978 (P.L. 95-608) to help keep Indian families together. (Author/BB)|

Hunner, Robert J.

1986-01-01

366

Legislator Uses of Public Performance Reports: Findings from a Five-Year Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A key assumption in efforts to implement and improve cross-government public reporting systems is that legislators will make use of the performance information to enhance accountability and improve program and policy effectiveness. This five-year study is an assessment of expectations and actual uses of annual performance reports by elected…

McDavid, James C.; Huse, Irene

2012-01-01

367

Summary results of the DOE flywheel development effort  

SciTech Connect

The technology and applications evaluation task focuses on defining performance and cost requirements for flywheels in the various areas of application. To date the DOE program has focused on automotive applications. The composite materials effort entails the testing of new commercial composites to determine their engineering properties. The rotor and containment development work uses data from these program elements to design and fabricate flywheels. The flywheels are then tested at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory and their performance is evaluated to indicate possible areas for improvement. Once a rotor has been fully developed it is transferred to the private sector.

Olszewski, M.; Martin, J.F.

1984-11-01

368

The Fallacies of Concurrent Climate Policy Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate policy has assumed an extreme degree of urgency in the international debate in recent years. This article begins by\\u000a taking a critical look at the scientific underpinnings of the efforts to stabilize the climate. It points to several serious\\u000a question marks on the purported relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, and expresses distrust about\\u000a claims of impending

Marian Radetzki

2010-01-01

369

Survey of Preservation Efforts in Law Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ms. Turpening conducted on-site surveys of the preservation efforts and prior- ities of thirty law libraries during 2000-2001. She analyzes the results of these surveys, discusses her observations, and makes recommendations for individ- ual libraries and the leadership of the American Association of Law Libraries. ¶1 Librarians have taken care of the books in their institutions for hundreds of years.1

Patricia K. Turpening

370

Expected orbit determination performance for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each of the components required for the computation of precise orbits for the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) spacecraft - gravity field modeling, nonconservative force modeling, and satellite tracking technologies - is examined. The research conducted in the Space Geodesy Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center in preparation for meeting the 13-cm radial orbit accuracy requirement for the T/P mission is outlined. New developments in modeling the earth's gravitational field and modeling the complex nonconservative forces acting on T/P are highlighted. The T/P error budget is reviewed, and a prelaunch assessment of the predicted orbit determination accuracies is summarized.

Nerem, R. S.; Putney, Barbara H.; Marshall, J. A.; Lerch, Francis J.; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Klosko, Steven M.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Patel, Girish B.; Williamson, Ronald G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.

1993-03-01

371

Expected Performance of double probe instrumentation on CubeSats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric field double probe has been successfully used on a number of space platforms including sounding rockets and satellites of various sizes for observing electric fields in the ionosphere. We present a review of the suitability of this technique for the 10x10x15 cm CubeSat form factor. The major issue of concern is the small surface area of the sensors

S. Burr; D. Hui; J. Pratt; C. Swenson

2009-01-01

372

The Academic Researcher Role: Enhancing Expectations and Improved Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article distinguishes between six tasks related to the academic researcher role: (1) networking; (2) collaboration; (3) managing research; (4) doing research; (5) publishing research; and (6) evaluation of research. Data drawn from surveys of academic staff, conducted in Norwegian universities over three decades, provide evidence that the…

Kyvik, Svein

2013-01-01

373

Ethnicity, Teachers' Expectations, and Students' Performances in Ontario Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within Canada, the examination of stratification and mobility has traditionally been related to both class and ethnicity. Previous research has not examined the theory that educational institutions may be, in part, perpetuating the vertical mosaic, because teachers assume that children from certain ethnic groups can learn more and faster than…

Clifton, Rodney A.; Bulcock, Jeffrey W.

374

Physical Education Curriculum Guide: Performance Expectations, K-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this guide was to unify physical education programs in several school districts through the development of common objectives. Curricular content was developed according to levels of learning in attitudes, concepts, and skills, recognizing skills in a sequential developmental and spiral arrangement. Nine areas of motor skill…

1980

375

Physical Education Curriculum Guide: Performance Expectations, K-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this guide was to unify physical education programs in several school districts through the development of common objectives. Curricular content was developed according to levels of learning in attitudes, concepts, and skills, recognizing skills in a sequential developmental and spiral arrangement. Nine areas of motor skill…

1980

376

Biophysical limitations on deep diving: Some limiting performance expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decompression is treated according to the conventional Haldane model, but with continuously varying gas mixture, and continuous\\u000a ascent.\\u000a \\u000a Analytical expressions are derived for the inert gas, tissue super-saturation, during dives with optimum gas mixtures. Analog\\u000a computer results are used to show the supersaturation graphically, on dives of 300 ft. with 20 minutes on the bottom, and\\u000a 1,000 ft. with 4

Hugh Bradner; R. Stuart Mackay

1963-01-01

377

Supporting Scientists' Efforts in Education and Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth and space scientists have a long history of engagement in science education and outreach to K-12 students, educators and the public. While a few scientists obtain funding to do science education and public outreach (E/PO), often in partnership with formal or informal educators, many volunteer their time to such efforts. Nevertheless, faced with lingering challenges to science education and science literacy in the US, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, and professional societies are calling for greater numbers of scientists to provide more effective science outreach. The realization of this goal requires understanding the challenges and needs of scientists engaged or interested in education and outreach, figuring out best practices in scientist-educator partnerships, and offering resources and support structures that maximize scientists' efforts in E/PO. The NASA Science Mission Directorate's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum has initiated several activities toward these ends. Among them are: creating samplers and quick start guides to existing NASA Astrophysics E/PO resources and funding opportunities, a compilation from a variety of sources of credible online guides to doing E/PO, and tip sheets on audience misconceptions about astronomical topics. Feedback from both scientists and E/PO professionals has indicated these efforts are headed in the right direction. This presentation will introduce these resources to the AGU meeting participants, forming a basis for further discussions on how we can better support scientists in E/PO.

Sharma, M.; NASA SMD Astrophysics Science Education; Public Outreach Forum

2011-12-01

378

What your leader expects of you.  

PubMed

The success of an executive team depends heavily on the relationships the boss has with his or her direct reports. Yet the leadership literature has had little to say about what is expected in those relationships-on either side. Larry Bossidy, formerly the chairman and CEO of Honeywell, and before that of AlliedSignal, shares what he calls "the CEO compact," detailing the behaviors a leader should look for in subordinates and what they should be able to expect in return. A CEO's best people, he says, know when a situation calls for them to get involved. They generate ideas-remembering that some of the best ones may sound crazy at first. They are willing to collaborate, putting the long-term good of the company above short-term goals of their divisions. They step up to lead initiatives, even if the outcome is uncertain. They develop leaders among their people, especially through direct involvement in performance appraisals. They stay current on world events and anticipate how those events may affect the company and its competition. They drive their own growth by exposing themselves to new people and ideas and by accepting demanding assignments. And they sustain these behaviors in bad times as well as good. On the other side of the compact, the boss should provide clarity of direction; set goals and objectives; give frequent, specific, and immediate feedback; be decisive and timely; demonstrate honesty and candor; and offer an equitable compensation plan. Executives who aren't lucky enough to have such a boss can create a compact with their own subordinates, Bossidy says, and demonstrate by example. The result will be to improve team and company performance and accelerate individual growth. PMID:17432153

Bossidy, Larry

2007-04-01

379

A Context Perspective on Early Adolescents' Friendship Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contextual underpinnings of early adolescents' friendship expectations were assessed in this study. In private interviews, 67 10- to 12-year-old children (38 girls) described behavior they would like same-and opposite-sex friends to perform in five peer activities (academic, telephone conversations, watching TV\\/listening to music sports, games). Responses were coded using a modified version of the Bigelow and LaGaipa friendship expectation dimensions.

Lynne Zarbatany; Kristen Ghesquiere; Karen Mohr

1992-01-01

380

Publicly owned accounting firm consolidators: executive benefit expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the company-related benefits expected by executives of public accounting companies consolidating accounting practices and the implications of these expectations for company performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses a case study approach involving the review of publicly available information and interviews with executives and senior professionals of two Australian, publicly-owned accounting

Mark Edward Pickering

2012-01-01

381

Ni-Cd battery life expectancy in geosynchronous orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of using nickel cadmium batteries as an alternate if flight qualified NiH2 batteries are not available is explored. Battery life expectancy data being a key element of power system design, an attempt is made to review the literature, life test data and in orbit performance data to develop an up to date estimate of life expectancy for NiCd batteries in a geosynchronous orbit.

Broderick, R. J.

1984-09-01

382

The relationship between voluntary electromyogram, endurance time and intensity of effort in isometric handgrip exercise.  

PubMed

The relationship between relative force, electromyogram (EMG) and time to fatigue was examined in seven male and seven female subjects [mean (SD) age, 21.7 (3.2) years] during isometric handgrip exercise. Subjects performed sustained submaximal contractions of the right handgrip at three different intensities: 30%, 50%, and 75% of the pretrial maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). EMG was sampled in 1-s epochs every 15 s during the contractions, and the integrated EMG (IEMG) values were then normalized to that of the pretrial MVC. As expected, time to fatigue was longest at 30% MVC and shortest at 75% MVC, but women performed consistently longer than men at each of the three intensities [woman vs men; 400.7 (35.8) vs 364.3 (34.4) s, 205.1 (15.6) vs 139.4 (13) s, and 89.9 (11.4) vs 66.4 (6.4) s, for 30%, 50%, and 75% MVC, respectively; P < 0.05)]. IEMG increased in a non-linear fashion over time during each trial, with the magnitude of IEMG being proportional to the intensity of the contraction. At the endurance limit, IEMG was greatest in the 75% MVC trial, however, no IEMG values reached those obtained in the related MVC [30%, 57.2 (6.9)%, 50%, 84.6 (5.7)%; 75%, 92.8 (7.4)%]. In conclusion, endurance time during sustained submaximal isometric handgrip exercise is dependent up on the intensity of the effort, with women having significantly larger endurance times than men. The related increase in IEMG is also proportional to the intensity of effort, however, the factors causing force to fail prior to the final IEMG reaching its predicted maximum remain to be elucidated. PMID:8549571

West, W; Hicks, A; Clements, L; Dowling, J

1995-01-01

383

Reproductive effort and the egg number vs. size trade-off in Physalaemus frogs (Anura: Leiuperidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of reproductive allocation are expected to differ between species according to temporally and spatially variable costs of reproduction. Even when reproductive allocation patterns are the same, species can also differ in how the reproductive effort is allocated between offspring number and size. In this study, we compared the reproductive allocation patterns and the offspring number vs. size trade-off in

Arley Camargo; Macarena Sarroca; Raúl Maneyro

2008-01-01

384

Predicting Homework Effort: Support for a Domain-Specific, Multilevel Homework Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the domain-specific, multilevel homework model proposed in the present study, students' homework effort is influenced by expectancy and value beliefs, homework characteristics, parental homework behavior, and conscientiousness. The authors used structural equation modeling and hierarchical linear modeling analyses to test the model in…

Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Schnyder, Inge; Niggli, Alois

2006-01-01

385

Community Expectations of College Completion and Attendance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communities relay expectations of behavior that influence residents' decision making processes. The study's purpose was to define and identify social, cultural, and human capital variables relevant to understanding community expectations of postsecondary attainment. The study sought an operational model of community expectancy that would allow…

Derden, Michael Wade

2011-01-01

386

Parental Expectations of Their Adolescents' Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines parental expectations of their children's teachers through use of the Expectations of Teachers questionnaire. Participating parents (N=765) reported greater expectations for help and assistance, followed by teaching competence and fairness on the part of the teacher. Mothers were found to hold higher fairness, help, and assistance…

Tatar, Moshe; Horenczyk, Gabriel

2000-01-01

387

Measuring Student Expectations and Their Effects on Satisfaction: The Importance of Managing Student Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigate the relationship between student expectations and student satisfaction. Can students’ satisfaction with a course be accurately predicted by comparing their perceptions to their expectations (as suggested by the expectancy\\/disconfirmation paradigm)? The results of these studies suggest that the answer to this question is strongly affected by the method used to measure student expectations. When recalled expectations and

Sara L. Appleton-Knapp; Kathleen A. Krentler

2006-01-01

388

When trying hard isn't natural: women's belonging with and motivation for male-dominated STEM fields as a function of effort expenditure concerns.  

PubMed

Feeling like one exerts more effort than others may influence women's feelings of belonging with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and impede their motivation. In Study 1, women STEM graduate students perceived they exerted more effort than peers to succeed. For women, but not men, this effort expenditure perception predicted a decreased sense of belonging, which in turn decreased motivation. Study 2 tested whether the male-dominated status of a field triggers such effort expectations. We created a fictional "eco-psychology" graduate program, which when depicted as male-dominated resulted in women expecting to exert relatively more effort and decreased their interest in pursuing the field. Study 3 found emphasizing effort as expected (and normal) to achieve success elevated women's feelings of belonging and future motivation. Results suggest effort expenditure perceptions are an indicator women use to assess their fit in STEM. Implications for enhancing women's participation in STEM are discussed. PMID:23187722

Smith, Jessi L; Lewis, Karyn L; Hawthorne, Lauren; Hodges, Sara D

2012-11-27

389

[Bioethics limitation of therapeutic effort in pediatrics].  

PubMed

Given that the demand of society has shifted to seek maximum efficiency, maximum help based on the patient autonomy respect and awareness of its necessity, the limitation of therapeutic effort is one of the decisions more complex. Therefore, it should be an institutional objective to know the limitations of practice, assess and encourage improvement and in doubtful cases, resort to Assistive Bioethics Committees to advise on the development of clinical protocols in cases which the professional or the therapeutic team is faced with an ethical dilemma. PMID:22483533

Peiró Peiró, A M; Ausina Gómez, A; Tasso Cereceda, M

2012-04-06

390

Respiratory effort energy estimation using Doppler radar.  

PubMed

Human respiratory effort can be harvested to power wearable biosensors and mobile electronic devices. The very first step toward designing a harvester is to estimate available energy and power. This paper describes an estimation of the available power and energy due to the movements of the torso during breathing, using Doppler radar by detecting breathing rate, torso displacement, torso movement velocity and acceleration along the sagittal movement of the torso. The accuracy of the detected variables is verified by two reference methods. The experimental result obtained from a healthy female human subject shows that the available power from circumferential movement can be higher than the power from the sagittal movement. PMID:23365993

Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Yavari, Ehsan; Young, Jared; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Stickley, Cris

2012-01-01

391

MEMS packaging efforts at Sandia National Laboratories.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has programs covering a broad range of MEMS technologies from LIGA to bulk to surface micromachining. These MEMS technologies are being considered for an equally broad range of applications, including sensors, actuators, optics, and microfluidics. As these technologies have moved from the research to the prototype product stage, packaging has been required to develop new capabilities to integrated MEMS and other technologies into functional microsystems. This paper discusses several of Sandia's MEMS packaging efforts, focusing mainly on inserting Sandia's SUMMIT V (5-level polysilicon) surface micromachining technology into fieldable microsystems.

Custer, Jonathan Sloane

2003-02-01

392

Effort Indicators within the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined whether performance patterns on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) could differentiate participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) showing adequate effort from those with mild TBI exhibiting poor effort using a case-control design. The TBI group consisted of 124 persons with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The poor effort group consisted of 77 persons with

Penny L. Wolfe; Scott R. Millis; Robin Hanks; Norman Fichtenberg; Glenn J. Larrabee; Jerry J. Sweet

2010-01-01

393

Nicotine and other substance interaction expectancies questionnaire: relationship of expectancies to substance use.  

PubMed

Smoking and substance abuse co-occur at high rates and substance abusers are less likely to quit smoking than are smokers in general. Therefore, more information about the beliefs substance abusers have about the role of smoking in substance use and in recovery would be useful when designing interventions to impact smoking among substance abusing patients. The present study developed a Nicotine and Other Substance Interaction Expectancies Questionnaire (NOSIE) to investigate the expectancies held by substance abusers in treatment about the effects of smoking on substance use, the effects of substance use on smoking, smoking to cope with recovery, and receptivity to smoking cessation during substance abuse treatment. The 29 items were Likert-rated by 160 substance dependent patients in an inner-city residential substance abuse treatment program and participating in a larger study of smoking at this site. Four components were derived and reduced to a 20-item measure with good reliability. No differences by gender or age were found. On average, the patients reported that substance use almost always increases their smoking or urges to smoke but that smoking only increased substance use or urges about half of the time, that they use smoking to cope with urges to use substances about half of the time, and that they generally agreed that smoking cessation or treatment should be tried during substance abuse treatment and would not harm recovery efforts. Three of the scales correlated with smoking dependence while one scale correlated with drug use severity and heavy drinking days. The scale of receptivity to smoking cessation correlated significantly with measures of motivation and barriers and predicted 1-month smoking cessation outcomes. However, scale scores on smoking to cope with recovery did not significantly predict 3-month relapse to substance use. Implications for theory and clinical interventions with substance abusers who smoke were discussed. PMID:15833569

Rohsenow, Damaris J; Colby, Suzanne M; Martin, Rosemarie A; Monti, Peter M

2005-05-01

394

Prevention and cure efforts both substitute and complement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose one could expend effort to prevent probabilistic transition to an adverse state, and also effort to expedite probabilistic transition to a beneficial state. Bearing in mind that the efforts occur in different states, should these efforts substitute or complement? Two appealing arguments are in conflict. If cure effort is costly, then the incentive to prevent should be high in

David A. Hennessy

2008-01-01

395

Prevention and Cure Efforts Both Substitute and Complement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose one could expend effort to prevent probabilistic transition to an adverse state, and also effort to expedite probabilistic transition to a beneficial state. Bearing in mind that the efforts occur in different states, should these efforts substitute or complement? Two appealing arguments are in conflict. If cure effort is costly, then the incentive to prevent should be high in

David A. Hennessy

2012-01-01

396

On Best-Effort Packet Reordering for Mitigating the Effects of Out-of-Order Delivery on Unmodified TCP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multipath routing and the ability to simultaneously use multiple network paths has long been proposed as a means for meeting the reliability and performance improvement goals of a next generation Internet. However, its use causes out-of-order packet delivery, which is well known to hinder TCP performance. While next-generation transport protocols will no doubt better cope with this phenomenon, a complete switch to these new protocols cannot be made on all devices “overnight” the reality is that we will be forced to continue using TCP on such multipath networks well after deployment of a future Internet is complete.In this paper, we investigate the use of best-effort packet reordering — an optional network layer service for improving the performance of any TCP session in the presence of out-of-order packet delivery. Such a service holds the promise of allowing unmodified TCP to take advantage of the reliability and performance gains offered by a future multipath-enabled Internet without suffering the adverse performance effects commonly associated with out-of-order packet delivery. Our experiments test the performance of two common TCP variants under packet dispersion with differing numbers of paths and amounts of inter-path latency variance. They were conducted using multipath network and packet reorderer implementations implemented within the Emulab testbed. Our results demonstrate that a simple best-effort reordering service can insulate TCP from the type of reordering that might be expected from use of packet dispersion over disjoint paths in a wide-area network, and is capable of providing significant performance benefits with few ill side-effects.

Lane, John Russell; Nakao, Akihiro

397

Varying Problem Effort and Choice: Using the Interspersal Technique to Influence Choice Towards More Effortful Assignments  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students were exposed to two pairs of mathematics assignments. Assignment Pair A included a high-effort assignment containing 18 long three-digit × two-digit (3×2) multiplication problems with all numerals in each problem being equal to or greater than four and a moderate-effort assignment that contained nine long problems and nine interspersed moderate 3×2 problems with numerals less than four. Assignment

Eric J. Billington; Christopher H. Skinner; Holly M. Hutchins; John C. Malone

2004-01-01

398

USA spearheads renewed efforts to combat AIDS.  

PubMed

This article presents the renewed efforts made by the US against AIDS. US Vice-President Al Gore claimed a US$150 million investment to help combat the international AIDS pandemic and contribute to international infectious disease control efforts. Likewise, the US will invest another US$100 million in HIV and AIDS prevention and treatment in Africa and Asia. It was also proposed that the US government would allocate US$325 million in the 2001 budget for worldwide HIV/AIDS prevention measures. Gore also promised that US$50 million would be allocated in February 2000 for funding, research, purchase and distribution of vaccines, as well as funding for militaries to prevent the spread of AIDS. Despite the increase in budget, the World Bank claims that the resources are inadequate for the fight against the epidemic. An annual allocation of US$1-2.3 billion would be necessary for AIDS prevention in Africa and currently Africa is receiving only US$160 million/year in official assistance for HIV/AIDS. The impact of AIDS has created societal instability and fertile ground for both internal and cross-border conflict. It was emphasized that without economic and social hope the nation would not have peace, and AIDS undermines both. PMID:10675132

Ashraf, H

2000-01-15

399

Optimising the sampling effort in riparian surveys.  

PubMed

Riparian condition is commonly measured as part of stream health monitoring programs as riparian vegetation provides an intricate linkage between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Field surveys of a riparian zone provide comprehensive riparian attribute data but can be considerably intensive and onerous on resources and workers. Our objective was to assess the impact of reducing the sampling effort on the variation in key riparian health indicators. Subsequently, we developed a non-parametric approach to calculate an information retained (IR) statistic for comparing several constrained systematic sampling schemes to the original survey. The IR statistic is used to select a scheme that reduces the time taken to undertake riparian surveys (and thus potentially the costs) whilst maximising the IR from the original survey. Approximate bootstrap confidence intervals were calculated to improve the inferential capability of the IR statistic. The approach is demonstrated using riparian vegetation indicators collected as part of an aquatic ecosystem health monitoring program in Queensland, Australia. Of the nine alternative sampling designs considered, the sampling design that reduced the sampling intensity per site by sixfold without significantly comprising the quality of the IR, results in halving the time taken to complete a riparian survey at a site. This approach could also be applied to reducing sampling effort involved in monitoring other ecosystem health indicators, where an intensive systematic sampling scheme was initially employed. PMID:22922831

Dobbie, Melissa J; Wang, You-Gan; Zammit, Rebecca; Offer, Alan; Negus, Peter; Blessing, Joanna

2012-08-26

400

Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

2009-01-31

401

Expected-Credibility-Based Job Scheduling for Reliable Volunteer Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a proposal of an expected-credibility-based job scheduling method for volunteer computing (VC) systems with malicious participants who return erroneous results. Credibility-based voting is a promising approach to guaranteeing the computational correctness of VC systems. However, it relies on a simple round-robin job scheduling method that does not consider the jobs' order of execution, thereby resulting in numerous unnecessary job allocations and performance degradation of VC systems. To improve the performance of VC systems, the proposed job scheduling method selects a job to be executed prior to others dynamically based on two novel metrics: expected credibility and the expected number of results for each job. Simulation of VCs shows that the proposed method can improve the VC system performance up to 11%; It always outperforms the original round-robin method irrespective of the value of unknown parameters such as population and behavior of saboteurs.

Watanabe, Kan; Fukushi, Masaru; Horiguchi, Susumu

402

Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was diverted into the Porong River through a mud pump system. Also we continuously monitor changes in eruption behavior and try to anticipate the consequences, particularly after the Ring Dyke (of main vent) collapsed and became useless in controlling the flow. In September 2009 spectacular eruption intensity with kick and wave developed and is continuing. Surface and subsurface investigations continue ceaselessly to try to understand the forces driving the eruption. There are no precedents for mitigation of such a large scale mud volcano in a densely populated area that seems destined to continue for a very long time. This makes all efforts to stop eruption together with the emergency efforts, which have to be conducted simultaneously with recovery and reconstruction efforts that cover all basic needs of people live in the area. This is why BPLS has to develop innovative and creative efforts, mainly by applying the basic principle of learning by doing.

Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

2009-12-01

403

Women's Retirement Expectations: How Stable Are They?  

PubMed Central

Objective Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we examine between- and within-person differences in expected retirement age as a key element of the retirement planning process. The expectation typologies of 1,626 women born between 1923 and 1937 were classified jointly on the basis of specificity and consistency. Methods Latent class analysis was used to determine retirement expectation patterns over a 7-year span. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate the effects of demographic and status characteristics on the likelihood of reporting 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of retirement expectations. Results Substantial heterogeneity in reports of expected retirement age between and within individuals over the 7-year span was found. Demographic and status characteristics, specifically age, race, marital status, job tenure, and recent job change, sorted respondents into different retirement expectation patterns. Conclusions The frequent within-person fluctuations and substantial between-person heterogeneity in retirement expectations indicate uncertainty and variability in both expectations and process of expectation formation. Variability in respondents' reports suggests that studying retirement expectations at multiple time points better captures the dynamics of preretirement planning.

Hardy, Melissa A.

2009-01-01

404

Recognizing Human Action Efforts: An Adaptive Three-Mode PCA Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a computationalframework capable of label- ing the effort of an action corresponding to the perceived level of exertion by the performer (low - high). The ap- proach initially factorizes examples (at different efforts) of an action into its three-mode principal components to re- duce the dimensionality. Then a learning phase is intro- duced to compute expressive-feature weights to

James W. Davis; Hui Gao

2003-01-01

405

Effects of Brain Injury Severity and Effort on Neuropsychological Tests of Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention impairment is one of the most common complaints following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Multiple studies have shown that performance on neuropsychological tests of attention is affected by many factors, including injury severity and effort. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of injury severity on neuropsychological tests across different domains of attention while controlling for effort.

Brian Guise

2010-01-01

406

The Informational Impact of Mood on Effort Mobilization: A Study of Cardiovascular and Electrodermal Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of mood on effort quantified as autonomic adjustments was investigated in an experiment. The authors induced positive versus negative moods with either 1 of 2 mood induction procedures (music vs. autobiographical recollection) that differed in the extent of required effort. Then participants performed an achievement task after demand appraisals were made. Results were as predicted. During the mood

Guido H. E. Gendolla; Andrea E. Abele; Jan Krüsken

2001-01-01

407

Test effort in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome when assessed using the Validity Indicator Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the potential contribution of suboptimal effort to the cognitive deficits that are associated with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) using the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP). Unlike most tests of effort, the VIP distinguishes between intentional and unintentional poor performance and does not assess cognitive functions that are affected by CFS, thereby reducing the risk of mistakenly attributing

Susan J. Cockshell; Jane L. Mathias

2012-01-01

408

Heart rate variability and cognitive function: effects of physical effort.  

PubMed

This study investigated alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive performance before and after physical effort, for 30 high-level track and field athletes (23 males and 7 females). Interbeat intervals were assessed at the baseline and during each task of a CogState cognitive battery (simple reaction time, choice reaction time, working memory, short-term memory and sustained attention). Time and frequency domain measures of HRV were compared between conditions and between tasks. The results indicated differences in HRV between executive and non-executive tasks. There was a significant increase in sympathetic-modulation-related indices after physical effort. The differences between executive and non-executive tasks were the same in post-test. Correlations were found between HRV and cognitive performance, which differed by speed and accuracy. We conclude that HRV is related to cognitive demand and that the correlation between HRV and cognitive performance seems to be stronger after physical exercise. The results raise questions about the psychophysiological meaning of different HRV signals and this has implications for future research about the relationship between HRV and cognition. PMID:19632295

Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Takase, Emílio; Darby, David

2009-07-24

409

Prediction and synthesis efforts at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

One important aspect of an organic synthesis effort related to the development of new explosives, is the ability to estimate the properties of proposed molecules. In most cases, the detonation velocity and C-J pressure are estimated for the proposed explosive using any number of existing predictive methods. Novel explosives are being proposed, at Los Alamos and elsewhere, that are qualitatively different in their molecular makeup than most of the existing conventional ones. These explosives include, highly strained cage molecules, heterocyclic molecules, low hydrogen-containing molecules, and high nitrogen-containing molecules. This paper describes alternate ways of viewing detonation velocities and a new method for estimating detonation velocity of a proposed compound. 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Stine, J.R.; Coburn, M.D.

1988-01-01

410

Piezoelectric and electromagnetic respiratory effort energy harvesters.  

PubMed

The movements of the torso due to normal breathing could be harvested as an alternative, and renewable power source for an ultra-low power electronic device. The same output signal could also be recorded as a physiological signal containing information about breathing, thus enabling self-powered wearable biosensors/harvesters. In this paper, the selection criteria for such a biosensor, optimization procedure, trade-offs, and challenges as a sensor and harvester are presented. The empirical data obtained from testing different modules on a mechanical torso and a human subject demonstrated that an electromagnetic generator could be used as an unobtrusive self-powered medical sensor by harvesting more power, offering reasonable amount of output voltage for rectification purposes, and detecting respiratory effort. PMID:24110468

Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Padasdao, Bryson; Romine, R; Stickley, C; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

2013-07-01

411

Two groups challenge US acid rain efforts  

SciTech Connect

In its report, Acid Rain Invades Our National Parks, the National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA) says acid rain is being detected at all 27 national park monitoring sites. In 1980, 87 national parks expressed concern in a NPCA survey over acid rain. Repolled in 1986, more than half of the respondents reported that no research on acid rain was under way. The NPCA report concludes that the alarm that was sounded in 1980 fell largely on deaf ears, and calls for the structural and scientific reorganization of the National Park Service. The National Audubon Society shares NPCA's dissatisfaction with federal efforts to tackle the problem of acid rain and has taken testing into its own hands. Through its Citizens Acid Rain Monitoring Network, Audubon volunteers have collected readings of acidity at 64 monitoring stations in 31 states since July.

Not Available

1987-11-01

412

Regional partnerships lead US carbon sequestration efforts  

SciTech Connect

During the sixth annual conference on carbon capture and sequestration, 7-10 May 2007, a snapshot was given of progress on characterization efforts and field validation tests being carried out through the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnership Initiative. The initiative is built on the recognition that geographical differences in fossil fuel/energy use and CO{sub 2} storage sinks across North America will dictate approaches to carbon sequestration. The first characterization phase (2003-2005) identified regional opportunities and developed frameworks to validate and deploy technologies. The validation phase (2005-2009) includes 10 enhanced oil recovery/enhanced gas recovery field tests in progress in Alberta and six US states and is applying lessons learned from these operations to sequestration in unmineable coal seams. Storage in saline formations are the focus of 10 field tests, and terrestrial sequestration will be studied in 11 other projects. 1 tab., 3 photos.

NONE

2007-07-01

413

NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts  

SciTech Connect

Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research.' While NREL maintains a robust patent portfolio, often companies are looking to do more than just license a technology. These relationships are invaluable in successfully moving technologies from NREL to the marketplace. 'We may generate new and potentially valuable innovations, but our commercialization partners do the heavy work of building a successful business around our technology,' Farris said. Tools such as CRADAs (Cooperative Research and Development Agreements) allow NREL to continue working with companies to refine and develop technologies. And, working with businesses is an area where NREL excels. NREL is responsible for one quarter of the CRADAs in the DOE system. 'When you look at the results of our CRADA program, you can demonstrate that we are actively engaged with companies in collaborating on research and moving technologies to market,' Farris said. NREL is first among DOE labs with 186 active CRADAs. And last year, NREL also was first with the number of new CRADAs signed. 'Part of the success in our working with industry goes back to NREL's mission to grow and support new industries,' Farris added. 'NREL has basic research capabilities, but we are never going to be the ultimate producer of a commercial product. That is the role of the private sector.' Farris also credits the advocacy and support that the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy at DOE provides for these technology transfer activities. 'EERE's support is critical to our success,' Farris said. To assist the private sector in moving a technology from the lab to the manufacturing line, NREL has a number of programs in place to give that first, or even final, nudge toward commercialization. For instance, the Commercialization Assistance Program helps startups overcome technical barriers by granting free access to 40 hours of work at the lab. Through the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Center, NREL also helps clean energy businesses develop strong links with the financial community, as well as other key stakeholders in the commercialization process. In March, NREL formally opened the Colorado Center for Renewable Ene

Lammers, H.

2012-02-01

414

Understanding Activist Leadership Effort in the Movement Opposing Drinking and Driving  

PubMed Central

Why do some social movement leaders work harder than others? And, how does gender affect the patterns we uncover? Utilizing historical case study evidence of local chapters in the emerging movement opposing drinking and driving we are able to develop and test theoretical expectations about predictors of weekly effort among MADD and RID leaders. Taken together, our model explains 45 percent of the variation in leadership effort. We find bureaucratic complexity and victim support activities are more powerful predictors of effort than are individual leader characteristics, although all are important. Further analysis reveals that gender almost wholly conditions the strong effect of bureaucratic complexity on leadership effort so that increasingly complex chapter structures are associated with substantial increases in work hours for women but not men.

Dorius, Cassandra R.; McCarthy, John D.

2012-01-01

415

Status of Educational Efforts in National Security Workforce  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the status of educational efforts for the preparation of a national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This report includes an assessment of the current educational situation for the national security workforce.

None

2008-03-31

416

Grief experiences and expectance of suicide.  

PubMed

Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief Experience Questionnaire and additional measurements on expectance and understanding. Results supported the prediction of a link between expecting suicide and understanding the suicide. Higher expectance and understanding were related to less searching for explanation and preoccupation with the suicide. There was no direct association with other grief experiences. We conclude that more attention should be brought to the relation between expecting the suicide of a loved one and later grief responses in research and in clinical practice. PMID:22276805

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

2012-01-25

417

expect: Curing Those Uncontrollable Fits of Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNIX programs used to be designed so that they could be connected with pipes createdby a shell. This paradigm is insufficient when dealing with many modern programsthat demand to be used interactively.expect is a program designed to control interactive programs. expect reads a scriptthat resembles the dialogue itself but which may include multiple paths through it.Scripts include:. send\\/expect sequences -

Don Libes

1990-01-01

418

Time-Variation in Expected Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article characterizes the stochastic behavior of expected retu rns on common stocks. The authors assume market efficiency and postulate an autoregressive process for conditional expected returns. They use weekly returns of ten size-based portfolios over the 1962-8 5 period and find that (1) the variation through time in expected returns is well characterized by a stationary first-order autoregression process;

Jennifer Conrad; Gautam Kaul

1988-01-01

419

Optimal power flow with expected security costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the expected-security-cost optimal power flow (ESCOPF) problem. The objective of the problem is to minimize the expected total cost of system operation subject to power system constraints and expected security costs. The probabilities of operating in the pre-contingency operating state and the probabilities of operating in all possible post-contingency states are considered. In addition, the ESCOPF problem

John Condren; Thomas W. Gedra; P. Damrongkulkamjorn

2006-01-01

420

Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.  

PubMed

Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each. PMID:24000836

Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

2013-09-01

421

Automatic and effortful processes in memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a framework for the conceptualization of a broad range of memory phenomena that integrates research on memory performance in young children, the elderly, and individuals under stress with research on memory performance in normal college students. One basic assumption is that encoding operations vary in their attentional requirements. Operations that drain minimal energy from limited-capacity attentional mechanisms are called

Lynn Hasher; Rose T. Zacks

1979-01-01

422

Prescription stimulant expectancies in recreational and medical users: results from a preliminary expectancy questionnaire.  

PubMed

Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2009-01-01

423

Mindfulness training affects attention--or is it attentional effort?  

PubMed

Improvements in attentional performance are at the core of proposed mechanisms for stress reduction in mindfulness meditation practices. However, this claim can be questioned because no previous studies have actively manipulated test effort in control groups and controlled for effects of stress reduction per se. In a blinded design, 48 young, healthy meditation novices were randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), nonmindfulness stress reduction (NMSR), or inactive control group. At posttest, inactive controls were randomly split into nonincentive and incentive controls, the latter receiving a financial reward to improve attentional performance. Pre- and postintervention, 5 validated attention paradigms were employed along with self-report scales on mindfulness and perceived stress and saliva cortisol samples to measure physiological stress. Attentional effects of MBSR, NMSR, and the financial incentive were comparable or significantly larger in the incentive group on all reaction-time-based measures. However, selective attention in the MBSR group improved significantly more than in any other group. Similarly, only the MBSR intervention improved the threshold for conscious perception and visual working memory capacity. Furthermore, stress-reducing effects of MBSR were supported because those in the MBSR group showed significantly less perceived and physiological stress while increasing their mindfulness levels significantly. We argue that MBSR may contribute uniquely to attentional improvements but that further research focusing on non-reaction-time-based measures and outcomes less confounded by test effort is needed. Critically, our data demonstrate that previously observed improvements of attention after MBSR may be seriously confounded by test effort and nonmindfulness stress reduction. PMID:21910559

Jensen, Christian Gaden; Vangkilde, Signe; Frokjaer, Vibe; Hasselbalch, Steen G

2011-09-12

424

Setting expectations in molecular optimizations: Strengths and limitations of commonly used composite parameters.  

PubMed

Over the past 15years there have been extensive efforts to understand and reduce the high attrition rates of drug candidates with an increased focus on physicochemical properties. The fruits of this labor have been the generation of numerous efficiency indices, metric-based rules and visualization tools to help guide medicinal chemists in the design of new compounds with more favorable properties. This deluge of information may have had the unintended consequence of further obfuscating molecular optimizations by the inability of these scoring functions, rules and guides to reach a consensus on when a particular transformation is identified as beneficial. In this manuscript, several composite parameters, or efficiency indices, are examined utilizing theoretical and experimental matched molecular pair analyses in order to understand the basis for how each will perform under varying scenarios of molecular optimizations. In contrast to empirically derived composite parameters based on heavy atom count, lipophilic efficiency (LipE) sets consistent expectations regardless of molecular weight or relative potency and can be used to generate consistent expectations for any matched molecular pair. PMID:24018190

Shultz, Michael D

2013-08-13

425

Escape from an effortful situation1  

PubMed Central

This experiment investigated the tendency to escape from a situation requiring effortful responding. Five human subjects responded in a situation where the response mechanism required 20-lb force to operate; responses were reinforced according to a variable-interval schedule. A subject escaped from this situation by emitting a vocal response which produced a 60-sec “easy period”. During the easy period the reinforcement contingency was switched to a response mechanism requiring 1 lb to operate. It was found that: (1) Escape responding could be conditioned and maintained by producing the easy period; the easy period did not maintain escape responding when the force requirement in the normal situation was equated with it. (2) The rate of escape responding was a function of the magnitude of the force normally required. (3) When easy periods were scheduled after fixed ratios, pausing from the end of the previous easy period to the first escape response was noted. It was concluded that a situation requiring high-force responding is a negative reinforcer. The pattern of fixed-ratio responding suggests that this reinforcer produces typical schedule control in human subjects.

Miller, L. Keith

1968-01-01

426

Fuel-conservation efforts of Texas municipal  

SciTech Connect

Based on survey findings, several conclusions can be made about how Texas police departments perceive and react to high and rising fuel costs. Responses received from all departments indicated some programatic efforts to conserve fuel, which demonstrates that Texas police departments have dealt with and are concerned about the rising cost of fuel. However, the problem of meeting fuel bills was apparently not a paralyzing one in 1981. For example, only about one in five departments claimed that fuel costs were second only to salaries in their budgets. In addition, although some departments have been relying on the more popular conservation plans for years, the majority had instituted such plans within two or three years. Among the most frequently used programs, two clusters of program choices appear. The first cluster includes more frequent tune-ups, increased maintenance, and reminders to offiers to conserve fuel. The second cluster includes shutting-off engines at given intervals, regular use of fixed position patrol, and reminders to officers to conserve fuel.

Crouch, B.M.

1982-05-01

427

RAGE Validation Efforts Using Cylindrical Mix Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing in compressible, convergent geometries, a wide range of simulations is underway as part of the LANL/AWE cylindrical mix effort. A key component involves benchmarking RAGE against recent experimental data, with the eventual goal of implementing validated mix models into advanced codes. Although comparisons of radiographic predictions between RAGE and LASNEX have shown consistency with experimental data in smooth, unperturbed cases, a question remains as to why 2-D RAGE over-predicts the level of mixing observed in experiments with an initial multi-mode surface roughness. Two explanations are currently being explored. First, that radiative preheat is modifying the initial surface conditions prior to the arrival of the main shock. Secondly, that 3-D effects provide an avenue for energy dissipation that is not adequately modeled in 2-D RAGE. Preliminary results indicate that inclusion of preheat does reduce the predicted level of mixing, but it is not sufficient to explain observed discrepancies. This talk will outline the conclusions from the preheat studies and present some very preliminary 3-D planar results. (USDOE W-7405-ENG-36)

Hueckstaedt, R. M.; Batha, S. H.; Balkey, M. M.; Delamater, N. D.; Fincke, J. R.; Holmes, R. L.; Lanier, N. E.; Magelssen, G. R.; Scott, J. M.; Parker, K. W.; Rothman, S. D.

2003-10-01

428

International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)|

Calvert, Philip J.

2001-01-01

429

PESSIMISTIC PORTFOLIO ALLOCATION AND CHOQUET EXPECTED UTILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the theory of choice under uncertain ty and risk yield a pessimistic decision theory that replaces the c lassical expected utility criterion with a Choquet expectation that accentuates the l ikelihood of the least favorable outcomes. A parallel theory has recently emerged in the literature on risk assessment. It is shown that a general form of pessimistic

430

Parental Educational Expectations for Adolescents with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data on eighth-grade students from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study compared parent expectations for students with visual impairment, hearing impairment, deafness, orthopedic impairment, or no disability. Parental educational expectations were higher for students with disabilities than for those without. Student…

Masino, Linda L.; Hodapp, Robert M.

1996-01-01

431

Socioeconomic inequalities in health expectancy in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various international studies have demonstrated socio-economic differences in health. Linking the 1991 Census to the National Register and using the Health Interview Survey 1997 has enabled assessment of the association between the level of education and health in Belgium using the composite indicator ‘health expectancy’.The Sullivan method was used to calculate health expectancy on the basis of current probability of

N Bossuyt; S Gadeyne; P Deboosere; H Van Oyen

2004-01-01

432

Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

2011-01-01

433

Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the

Katy Carlson; Michael Walsh Dickey; Lyn Frazier; Charles Clifton Jr

2009-01-01

434

Employer Expectations of Students Attending Job Fairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a survey about employer expectations of students attending job fairs, including how students should conduct themselves and dress. More than one-third indicated they expect students to be knowledgeable about their company. According to respondents, lack of clear career objectives accounts for the most common mistake made by students.…

Palomares, Amber

2000-01-01

435

Health expectancies in the older Thai population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate health expectancies in five domains: cognitive health, psychological health, physical health, functional ability and self-perceived global health (SPGH) in the older Thai population. There are few studies reporting health expectancies in multidimensional health domains, most of which reported only one health dimension. The dataset used was from the Bangkok Longitudinal Study by Siriraj Hospital for

Weerasak Muangpaisan; Prasert Assantachai; Somboon Intalapaporn; Kathryn Richardson; Carol Brayne

2011-01-01

436

What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

2008-01-01

437

What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

2008-01-01

438

Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and…

Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2012-01-01

439

Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

2012-01-01

440

College students' dining expectations in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary purpose of the study is to investigate college students' dining expectations and define the factors that shape their dining choices. In addition, the study investigates whether gender, ethnic origin, prior food and beverage working experience, spending habits and dining frequency influence students' dining expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A quantitative questionnaire was developed and randomly administered to college

Anastasios Zopiatis; Jovana Pribic

2007-01-01

441

Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

2012-01-01

442

Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…

Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.

2004-01-01

443

Bicameralism and Representation: partisanship and party expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Major party affiliated Upper House representatives in the Australian Parliament face two forms of representative expectations: Party and factors that are ancillary to party (often competing). The party and competing expectations on major party Senators are evolving with the increased professionalisation of political operations in Australia. Partisanship in the Senate is not necessarily driven primarily by loyalty or ideological

Peter van Onselen

2004-01-01

444

Adjusted expectations, satisfaction and loyalty development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary contribution of this article is an analysis of the influence of the use of individual's expectations about a service consumption on the behavior models, that examine the process according to which loyalty and satisfaction are generated. More specifically, the research examines the implications of considering adjusted expectations, namely those that tourists have after having visited a destination, rather

Ramón Rufín; Cayetano Medina; Manuel Rey

2012-01-01

445

Infectious Diseases, Reproductive Effort and the Cost of Reproduction in Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive effort can have profound effects on subsequent performance. Field experiments on the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) have demonstrated a number of trade-offs between life-history traits at different ages. The mechanism by which reproductive effort is mediated into future reproductive performance remains obscure. Anti-parasite adaptations such as cell-mediated immunity may probably also be costly. Hence the possibility exists of a

L. Gustafsson; D. Nordling; M. S. Andersson; B. C. Sheldon; A. Qvarnstrom

1994-01-01

446

Tracking objects of arbitrary shape using expectation-maximization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the general object tracking with arbitrary shape using rangefinders, which is a key module for detecting surrounding traffic and infrastructure for an autonomous driving vehicle. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm with locally matching is proposed for motion estimation between two consecutive range images. The complexity of the algorithm is O(N) with N the numbers of scan points. Quantitative performance

Shuqing Zeng; Yuanhong Li; Yantao Shen

2011-01-01

447

An investigation of the expectation gap in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Investors and financial statement users may have differing beliefs about the responsibility of an independent accounting firm performing an audit of a client's financial statements. This study aims to investigate the existence of an audit expectation gap between auditors and financial statement users in Egypt. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research method adopted in this study is identical to that

R. Dixon; A. D. Woodhead; M. Sohliman

2006-01-01

448

Expectancy theory prediction of the goal theory postulate, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal theory postulates that harder goals lead to higher performance than do easier goals. The present study tested the prediction, based on expectancy valence theory, that this would be true only if the payoff for succeeding at the harder goal is sufficiently greater than the alternatives to compensate for its greater difficulty. 63 undergraduates were each given an easy and

Tamao Matsui; Akinori Okada; Reiji Mizuguchi

1981-01-01

449

Problem Solving Style, Teacher Classroom Behavior and the Expectancy Phenomenon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated the relationship among teacher problem solving style, classroom behaviors, and susceptibility to the expectancy phenomenon (the possibility that pupil classroom performance can be influenced by a teacher's attitudes, beliefs, and actions). Based on Elkind's conceptual shift experiments (1966), 12 elementary school teachers…

Straussner, Joel H.

450

How Does Reward Expectation Influence Cognition in the Human Brain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospect of reward changes how we think and behave. We investigated how this occurs in the brain using a novel con- tinuous performance task in which fluctuating reward expecta- tions biased cognitive processes between competing spatial and verbal tasks. Critically, effects of reward expectancy could be distinguished from induced changes in task-related networks. Behavioral data confirm specific bias toward

James B. Rowe; Doris Eckstein; Todd Braver; Adrienne M. Owen

2008-01-01

451

Examining Stakeholder Expectations for Guiding School Reform: Including Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Improving the quality of secondary education in public schools requires involving all stakeholders in identifying and applying appropriate expectations. Many adult stakeholders are seeking action to eliminate the disparity between state and federal estimates of student achievement and to enable comparisons between the performance of students and…

Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.; Beckert, Troy

2011-01-01

452

SELECTION IN HEREFORD CATTLE. EXPECTED AND REALIZED RESPONSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 14 inbred lines and 14 linecross groups of Hereford cattle at the San Juan Basin Research Center, Hesperus, were used to evaluate expected and realized response in birth and weaning traits and postweaning traits in males and females over a 28-yr period. There were large differences in the means and variances of the performance traits among the inbreds

L. N. Nwakalor; J. S. Brinks; G. V. Richardson

2010-01-01

453

Planck pre-launch status: Expected LFI polarisation capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system-level description of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) considered as a differencing polarimeter, and evaluate its expected performance. The LFI is one of the two instruments on board the ESA Planck mission to study the cosmic microwave background. It consists of a set of 22 radiometers sensitive to linear polarisation, arranged in orthogonally-oriented pairs connected to 11

J. P. Leahy; M. Bersanelli; O. D'Arcangelo; K. Ganga; S. M. Leach; A. Moss; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; H. Kurki-Suonio; T. Poutanen; M. Sandri; D. Scott; J. Tauber; L. Valenziano; F. Villa; A. Wilkinson; A. Zonca; C. Baccigalupi; J. Borrill; R. C. Butler; F. Cuttaia; R. J. Davis; M. Frailis; E. Francheschi; S. Galeotta; A. Gregorio; R. Leonardi; N. Mandolesi; M. Maris; P. Meinhold; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; G. Morgante; G. Prezeau; G. Rocha; L. Stringhetti; L. Terenzi; M. Tomasi

2010-01-01

454

Disconnections between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…

Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy

2008-01-01

455

Effects of Help, Anonymity, and Privacy on Children's Academic Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effect of three aspects of the testing context--physical privacy, anonymity, and offers of help from a tester--on children's expectations. Performance of 96 11-year-old boys and girls on a pictorial recall memory task in a simulated test was evaluated. The subjects were divided into eight different groups varying on the…

Bird, Lisa

456

A Second Look at "School-Life Expectancy"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The number of years a child of school-entry age can expect to remain in school is of great interest both as a measure of individual human capital and of the performance of an education system. An approximate indicator of this concept is the sum of age-specific enrolment rates. The relatively low data demands of this indicator that are feasible to…

Barakat, Bilal Fouad

2012-01-01

457

Changes in life expectancy 1900-1990.  

PubMed

Life expectancy at birth has risen in all industrialized countries during the last 100 years, but mortality improvements by gender and region often have proceeded at very different rates. Although some countries have experienced increases in overall mortality during recent decades, the levels of life expectancy gains in countries such as Japan have confounded demographic predictions and have led to renewed research and debate over future mortality decline and the limits to human life. This paper reviews levels of and changes in life expectancy at birth and at older ages in industrialized countries during the 20th century. Trends in mortality and morbidity at older ages are summarized in the context of the historic epidemiological disease transition from infectious to chronic. Cause-specific and active/inactive decompositions of life expectancy are examined, as are initial attempts to correlate life expectancy with physical attributes that may reflect differential nutritional status. PMID:1590256

Kinsella, K G

1992-06-01

458

Treatment expectations for CAM interventions in pediatric chronic pain patients and their parents.  

PubMed

Patient expectations regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions have important implications for treatment adherence, attrition and clinical outcome. Little is known, however, about parent and child treatment expectations regarding CAM approaches for pediatric chronic pain problems. The present study examined ratings of the expected benefits of CAM (i.e. hypnosis, massage, acupuncture, yoga and relaxation) and conventional medicine (i.e. medications, surgery) interventions in 45 children (32 girls; mean age = 13.8 years +/- 2.5) and parents (39 mothers) presenting for treatment at a specialty clinic for chronic pediatric pain. Among children, medications and relaxation were expected to be significantly more helpful than the remaining approaches (P < 0.01). However, children expected the three lowest rated interventions, acupuncture, surgery and hypnosis, to be of equal benefit. Results among parents were similar to those found in children but there were fewer significant differences between ratings of the various interventions. Only surgery was expected by parents to be significantly less helpful than the other approaches (P < 0.01). When parent and child perceptions were compared, parents expected hypnosis, acupuncture and yoga, to be more beneficial than did children, whereas children expected surgery to be more helpful than did parents (P < 0.01). Overall, children expected the benefits of CAM to be fairly low with parents' expectations only somewhat more positive. The current findings suggest that educational efforts directed at enhancing treatment expectations regarding CAM, particularly among children with chronic pain, are warranted. PMID:16322810

Tsao, Jennie C I; Meldrum, Marcia; Bursch, Brenda; Jacob, Margaret C; Kim, Su C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

2005-10-10

459

The effects of education compatibility and technological expectancy on e-learning acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discerning what influences a student’s acceptance of e-learning is still unclear and has not been well investigated. On the basis of the expectancy-value theory, much effort has been put into identifying the effectual factors regarding the technological expectancy of students. However, aside from technological usage, the adoption of an e-learning system still must consider learning behavior. Thus, researchers should take

Jian-Liang Chen

2011-01-01

460

Mating-effort in adolescence: A conditional or alternative strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating-effort was defined as the psychological effort put forth to obtain and guard short-term mates. Hypotheses were derived that contrasted two views of high mating-effort. In the conditional strategy view, social failure would occur first and lead directly to individuals' adopting high mating-effort tactics. In the alternative strategy view, heritable dispositions would lead individuals to adopt high or low mating-effort

David C. Rowe; Alexander T. Vazsonyi; Aurelio Jose Figueredo

1997-01-01

461

Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease  

SciTech Connect

The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort.

Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.

1982-06-01

462

International journalists’ expectations from the US media coverage of Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how international journalists evaluated the performance of the US media in the coverage of Hurricane Katrina through the concept of journalistic expectations. A survey was conducted to determine whether expectations were met and whether they differed across cultures. Data were collected from Europe, Asia\\/ Middle East, Africa, North America, and South America. Expectations were not met for

Yusuf Kalyango; Petya Eckler

2010-01-01

463

Teacher-Pupil Interaction and Teacher Expectations for Pupil Achievement in Secondary Social Studies Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identification of behavioral correlates of differential teacher expectations for pupil performance is made through a system of dyadic interaction analysis. Observable differences in secondary teachers' behavior with pupils from whom they expect high achievement and pupils from whom they expect low achievement are measured in seven social studies…

Cornbleth, Catherine; And Others

464

Affordances and Constraints of Immigrant Chinese Parental Expectations on Children's School Perfomance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interviews with seven recent-immigrant Chinese families in Canada examined parental expectations of their children's school performance. Parents' expectations motivated their children to pursue goals with hard work, which enhanced self-efficacy and nurtured good study habits. However, high parental expectations and unwillingness to accommodate…

Li, Jun

2003-01-01

465

Probing for the Multiplicative Term in Modern Expectancy–Value Theory: A Latent Interaction Modeling Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern expectancy–value theory (EVT) in educational psychology, expectancy and value beliefs additively predict performance, persistence, and task choice. In contrast to earlier formulations of EVT, the multiplicative term Expectancy × Value in regression-type models typically plays no major role in educational psychology. The present study used latent moderated structural equation modeling to explore whether there is empirical support for

Ulrich Trautwein; Herbert W. Marsh; Benjamin Nagengast; Oliver Lüdtke; Gabriel Nagy; Kathrin Jonkmann

2012-01-01

466

Measuring and Investigating Pretrial Multi-Expectations of Service Quality within the Higher Education Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding what consumers expect from a service provider prior to consumption is necessary for marketers because expectations provide a standard of comparison against which consumers judge the performance of that service provider. This study is an in-depth investigation into consumers' pretrial multi-expectations of service quality within a…

Prugsamatz, Sunita; Heaney, Joo-Gim; Alpert, Frank

2007-01-01

467

Database development in toxicogenomics: issues and efforts.  

PubMed Central

The marriage of toxicology and genomics has created not only opportunities but also novel informatics challenges. As with the larger field of gene expression analysis, toxicogenomics faces the problems of probe annotation and data comparison across different array platforms. Toxicogenomics studies are generally built on standard toxicology studies generating biological end point data, and as such, one goal of toxicogenomics is to detect relationships between changes in gene expression and in those biological parameters. These challenges are best addressed through data collection into a well-designed toxicogenomics database. A successful publicly accessible toxicogenomics database will serve as a repository for data sharing and as a resource for analysis, data mining, and discussion. It will offer a vehicle for harmonizing nomenclature and analytical approaches and serve as a reference for regulatory organizations to evaluate toxicogenomics data submitted as part of registrations. Such a database would capture the experimental context of in vivo studies with great fidelity such that the dynamics of the dose response could be probed statistically with confidence. This review presents the collaborative efforts between the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute ArrayExpress, the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Science Institute, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Center for Toxigenomics Chemical Effects in Biological Systems knowledge base. The goal of this collaboration is to establish public infrastructure on an international scale and examine other developments aimed at establishing toxicogenomics databases. In this review we discuss several issues common to such databases: the requirement for identifying minimal descriptors to represent the experiment, the demand for standardizing data storage and exchange formats, the challenge of creating standardized nomenclature and ontologies to describe biological data, the technical problems involved in data upload, the necessity of defining parameters that assess and record data quality, and the development of standardized analytical approaches.

Mattes, William B; Pettit, Syril D; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Bushel, Pierre R; Waters, Michael D

2004-01-01

468

1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT  

SciTech Connect

The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to {+-}5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications.

Blind, B.

1997-01-01

469

Temporal expectation in focal hand dystonia.  

PubMed

Patients with writer's cramp present sensory and representational abnormalities relevant to motor control, such as impairment in the temporal discrimination between tactile stimuli and in pure motor imagery tasks, like the mental rotation of corporeal and inanimate objects. However, only limited information is available on the ability of patients with dystonia to process the time-dependent features (e.g. speed) of movement in real time. The processing of time-dependent features of movement has a crucial role in predicting whether the outcome of a complex motor sequence, such as handwriting or playing a musical passage, will be consistent with its ultimate goal, or results instead in an execution error. In this study, we sought to evaluate the implicit ability to perceive the temporal outcome of different movements in a group of patients with writer's cramp. Fourteen patients affected by writer's cramp in the right hand and 17 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Subjects were asked to perform a temporal expectation task by predicting the end of visually perceived human body motion (handwriting, i.e. the action performed by the human body segment specifically affected by writer's cramp) or inanimate object motion (a moving circle reaching a spatial target). Videos representing movements were shown in full before experimental trials; the actual tasks consisted of watching the same videos, but interrupted after a variable interval ('pre-dark') from its onset by a dark interval of variable duration. During the 'dark' interval, subjects were asked to indicate when the movement represented in the video reached its end by clicking on the space bar of the keyboard. We also included a visual working memory task. Performance on the timing task was analysed measuring the absolute value of timing error, the coefficient of variability and the percentage of anticipation responses. Patients with writer's cramp exhibited greater absolute timing error compared with control subjects in the human body motion task (whereas no difference was observed in the inanimate object motion task). No effect of group was documented on the visual working memory tasks. Absolute timing error on the human body motion task did not significantly correlate with symptom severity, disease duration or writing speed. Our findings suggest an alteration of the writing movement representation at a central level and are consistent with the view that dystonia is not a purely motor disorder, but it also involves non-motor (sensory, cognitive) aspects related to movement processing and planning. PMID:23361064

Avanzino, Laura; Martino, Davide; Martino, Isadora; Pelosin, Elisa; Vicario, Carmelo M; Bove, Marco; Defazio, Gianni; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

2013-01-29

470

Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

Ashcroft, John; Eshelman, Curtis

2007-01-01

471

Customer relations data aids marketing efforts.  

PubMed

A customer relations information system can help improve a hospital's marketing performance. With such a system, the author writes, a medical center can easily redirect its information systems away from the traditional transaction-oriented approach toward the building of long-lasting relationship with customers. PMID:10288556

Werronen, H J

1988-08-01

472

Some Efforts on Merit Pay Scaled Back  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two competing pressures--downsized budgets and rising policy interest--have left the future of performance-based teacher compensation uncertain. A dicey fiscal climate and research that has shown limited impact have led some states and districts to scale back, abandon, or change their fledgling merit-pay programs, causing observers to wonder what…

Fleming, Nora

2011-01-01

473

Confidence Intervals for Computational Effort Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

When researchers make alterations to the genetic program- ming algorithm they almost invariably wish to measure the change in performance of the evolutionary system. No one specic measure is stan- dard, but Koza's computational eort statistic is frequently used (8). In this paper the use of Koza's statistic is discussed and a study is made of three methods that produce

Matthew Walker; Howard Edwards; Chris Messom

2007-01-01

474

Merit-Based Scholarships and Student Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twenty-one states offer merit scholarships that require students to maintain a minimum grade point average (GPA). Using a comprehensive administrative database from Clemson University, this study estimates the relationship between the incentives created by a South Carolina merit scholarship (LIFE) and students' academic performance. I hypothesize…

Hernandez-Julian, Rey

2010-01-01

475

Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

J Ashcroft; C Eshelman

2006-02-08

476

Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging  

PubMed Central

Purpose:?Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians’ age expectations likely influence patients’ expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians’ age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging Survey (ERA-12) was used to assess (a) age expectations in a sample of primary care clinicians practicing in the United States and (b) clinician characteristics associated with ERA-12 scores.?Design and Methods:?This study was a cross-sectional survey of primary care clinicians affiliated with 5 practice-based research networks, October 2008 to June 2009. A total of 374 of the 1,510 distributed surveys were returned (24.8% response rate); 357 analyzed. Mean respondent age was 48.6 years (SD = 11.6; range 23–87 years); 88.0% physicians, 96.0% family medicine, 94.9% White, and 61.9% male.?Results:?Female clinicians reported higher ERA-12 scores; clinicians’ age expectations decreased with greater years in practice. Among the clinicians, higher ERA-12 scores were associated with higher clinician ratings of the importance of and personal skill in administering preventive counseling and the importance of delivering preventive services. Agreement with individual ERA-12 items varied widely.?Implications:?Unrealistically high or low ERA could negatively influence the quality of care provided to patients and patients’ own age expectations. Research should examine the etiology of clinicians’ age expectations and their association with older adult diagnoses and treatment. Medical education must incorporate strategies to promote clinician attitudes that facilitate successful patient aging.

Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

2011-01-01

477

Private sector joins family planning effort.  

PubMed

Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost. PMID:12343476

1989-12-01

478

TIMS Performance Evaluation Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this effort was to investigate the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) operation under various conditions to determine what effect, if any, there is on the TIMS performance. This effort was undertaken because of reports from inves...

B. Spiering G. Meeks J. Anderson S. Jaggi S. Kuo

1992-01-01

479

Pygmalion in media-based learning: Effects of quality expectancies on learning outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated how quality expectations affect students' outcomes of media-based learning. Experiment 1 (N=62) demonstrated that students expecting a high-end computer-based training programme learned most, whereas students expecting a programme of ambiguous quality learned least and students having no expectations performed in between. Analogous results were found for programme quality ratings. Experiment 2 (N=95) explored the effect under the

Stefan Fries; Holger Horz; Charlotte Haimerl

2006-01-01

480