Science.gov

Sample records for performance expectancy effort

  1. Increasing Expectations for Student Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Karen Maitland; Schilling, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    States that few higher education institutions have publicly articulated clear expectations of the knowledge and skills students are to attain. Describes gap between student and faculty expectations for academic effort. Reports that what is required in students' first semester appears to play a strong role in shaping the time investments made in…

  2. Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…

  3. Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such

  4. Are We Expecting Enough Effort from Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    A recent study comparing Asian and American students identified three factors that contribute to superior performance of elementary school children. These are: (1) amount of class time devoted to academics and direct instruction; (2) parent support of academic activities; and (3) student effort. The study and its findings are discussed. (MT)

  5. Ipsative, Normative and Return on Effort Versions of Expectancy Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopelman, Richard E.

    This report reviews versions of testing expectancy theory predictions of individual choice behavior. The ipsative, normative and return on effort approaches are addressed as are the issues of conceptual, methodical and empirical problems associated with each approach. In order to test the hypotheses as to which approach would yield stronger…

  6. Dementia and effort test performance.

    PubMed

    Dean, Andy C; Victor, Tara L; Boone, Kyle B; Philpott, Linda M; Hess, Ryan A

    2009-01-01

    Research on the performance of patients with dementia on tests of effort is particularly limited. We examined archival data from 214 non-litigating patients with dementia on 18 effort indices derived from 12 tests (WAIS-III/WAIS-R Digit Span and Vocabulary, Dot Counting Test, Warrington Recognition Memory Test-Words, WMS-III Logical Memory, Rey Word Recognition Memory Test, Finger Tapping, b-Test, Rey 15-Item, Test of Memory Malingering, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Rey Complex Figure Test). Results indicated that recommended cut-offs for Digit Span indicators (Vocabulary Minus Digit Span and four-digit forward span time score) provided > or =90% specificity across participants, while the majority of other effort tests displayed specificities in the 30-70% range. Analyses of test specificity as a function of Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score and specific dementia diagnosis are provided, as well as adjustments to cut-offs to maintain specificity where feasible. PMID:18609332

  7. Testing Expectancy Theory Predictions Using Behaviorally Based Measures of Motivational Effort for Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvey, Richard D.; Neel, C. Warren

    1974-01-01

    Expectancy theory predictions were tested using a sample of engineers who had been rated on dimensions of work motivation or effort (in contrast to performance) using the behaviorally based rating scales designed by Landy and Guion (1970). (Author)

  8. Energetical bases of extraversion: effort, arousal, EEG, and performance.

    PubMed

    Beauducel, André; Brocke, Burkhard; Leue, Anja

    2006-11-01

    This study investigates an extension of H.J. Eysenck's [Eysenck, H.J., 1967. The Biological Basis of Personality. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL] arousal theory of extraversion, incorporating an effort system as a control system for different aspects of arousal. Extraverts were expected to have lower levels of reticocortical arousal than introverts, to invest more effort, and to have lower task performance in a monotonous vigilance task. In a 40-min vigilance task, participants had to react to the shorter of two 1 kHz tones presented binaurally at an event rate of 200 per 10 min. Spontaneous EEG, event-related potential, and performance data of 40 extremely introverted and 41 extremely extraverted students were available for statistical analysis. A tendency for lower arousal levels of extraverts (alpha 2 band), the expected higher effort investment (P300) and a lower performance (hits) of extraverts were found. PMID:16426692

  9. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    PubMed

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success. PMID:19743655

  10. Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

  11. The association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with nurses’ efforts

    PubMed Central

    Motlagh, Farhad Shafiepour; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Yaghoubi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: One important factor in growth, progress, and increase in work efficiency of employees of any enterprise is to make considerable effort. Supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran also addressed the issue of need for more efforts. The goal of this study was to determine the association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with efforts of nurses to provide a suitable model. Materials and Methods: The current study was a descriptive study. The study group consists of all nurses who worked in hospitals of Isfahan. Due to some limitations all nurses of the special unit, surgery wards and operating room were questioned. The data collection tools were the Organizational Justice Questionnaire, organizational expectations questionnaire, and double effort questionnaire. Content validity of the mentioned questionnaires was confirmed after considering the experts’ comments. The reliability of these questionnaires, using the Cronbach’s alpha, were 0.79, 0.83 and 0.92, respectively. The Pearson correlation and the structural equation model were used for the analysis of data. Findings There was a significant correlation between the perceived organizational justice and the double effort of nurses during the surgery of patients. Correlation of the expectation from job, usefulness of job, and its attractiveness with double effort of nurses before the surgery was also statistically significant. Moreover, it was shown that the root of the mean square error of estimation (RMSEA) was 0.087, the fitted goodness index (GFI) was 0.953, the value of chi-square was 268.5, and the model was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Today Justice is an essential need for human life and its importance in organizations and social life of individuals is evident. PMID:23833614

  12. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  13. Is poor performance on recognition memory effort measures indicative of generalized poor performance on neuropsychological tests?

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Marios; Bauer, Lyndsey; Ashendorf, Lee; Fisher, Jerid M; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2005-03-01

    The detection of suboptimal effort has become crucial in clinical neuropsychological practice in order to make accurate diagnoses, prognoses, and referrals. Symptom Validity Testing (SVT) has been the most commonly utilized model for assessing effort, and frequently includes recognition memory tasks. Some conflicting views on this model purport, however, that measures of effort gathered from a recognition memory paradigm do not necessarily extend to effort in other cognitive domains and other areas of performance. The present study sought to investigate whether performance on an SVT measure, which utilizes recognition memory, the TOMM, could predict performance on other measures that do not evaluate recognition memory or just memory per se in a group of mildly traumatic brain-injured litigants. Results indicated that poor performance on the TOMM was significantly correlated with poorer performance on the WAIS-R and the HRNB-A. Further, experimental exploration of these results indicated that the overall neuropsychological performance of litigants with suboptimal effort was poorer than what is generally expected from mild TBI individuals, and was also lower than the other mild TBI examinees in the study, who were not classified by the TOMM as exhibiting suboptimal effort. These findings support the proposition that poor effort as measured by recognition memory effort measures is not restricted to recognition and memory measures. In fact, in the present study it appears that a poor performance on the TOMM is predictive of a generalized poorer performance on standardized measures such as the WAIS-R and the HNRB-A. PMID:15708729

  14. Expected performance of m-solution backtracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper derives upper bounds on the expected number of search tree nodes visited during an m-solution backtracking search, a search which terminates after some preselected number m problem solutions are found. The search behavior is assumed to have a general probabilistic structure. The results are stated in terms of node expansion and contraction. A visited search tree node is said to be expanding if the mean number of its children visited by the search exceeds 1 and is contracting otherwise. It is shown that if every node expands, or if every node contracts, then the number of search tree nodes visited by a search has an upper bound which is linear in the depth of the tree, in the mean number of children a node has, and in the number of solutions sought. Also derived are bounds linear in the depth of the tree in some situations where an upper portion of the tree contracts (expands), while the lower portion expands (contracts). While previous analyses of 1-solution backtracking have concluded that the expected performance is always linear in the tree depth, the model allows superlinear expected performance.

  15. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Expected Instrument Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.; Markham, Brian L.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Storey, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is scheduled for a December 2012 launch date. LDCM is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In order to provide the necessary spectral coverage of the visible through shortwave-infrared (SWIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR), the satellite will carry two sensors. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine visible to shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will collect coincident image data for two TIR bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it's manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space F!ight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite instrument systems, present pre-launch performance data for OLI and TIRS, and present simulated images to highlight notable features and expected imaging performance.

  16. Focusing Your E-Recruitment Efforts to Meet the Expectations of College-Bound Students. E-Expectations 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early in 2010, the E-Expectations research group surveyed more than 1,000 college-bound high school students, polling them on their online behaviors and expectations, as well as other key enrollment-related topics. Highlights of the study include: (1) 1 in 4 students reported removing a school from their prospective list because of a bad…

  17. Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

  18. SMAP Radar Processing and Expected Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation will describe the processing algorithms being developed for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radar data and the expected characteristics of the measured backscattering cross sections. The SMAP radar combines some unique features such as a conically scanned antenna with SAR processing of the data. The rapidly varying squint angle gives the measurements variable resolution and noise characteristics and poses a challenge to the processor to maintain accuracy around the wide (1000 km) swath. Rapid variation of Doppler around the scan leads to a time domain azimuth correlation algorithm, and variation of the Doppler geometry will likely require varying the processing bandwidth to manage ambiguity contamination errors. The basic accuracy requirement is 1-dB (one-sigma) in the backscatter measurements at a resolution of 3 km. The main error contributions come from speckle noise, calibration uncertainty, and radio frequency interference (RFI). Speckle noise is determined by system design parameters and details of the processing algorithms. The calibration of the backscatter measurements will be based on pre-launch characterization of the radar components which allow corrections for short term (~1 month) variations in performance. Longer term variations and biases will be removed using measurements of stable reference targets such as parts of the Amazon rain forest, and possibly the oceans and ice sheets. RFI survey measurements will be included to measure the extent of RFI around the world. The SMAP radar is designed to be able to hop the operating frequency within the 80 MHz allocated band to avoid the worst RFI emitters. Data processing will detect and discard further RFI contaminated measurements. This work is supported by the SMAP project at JPL - CalTech. The SMAP mission has not been formally approved by NASA. The decision to proceed with the mission will not occur until the completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. Material in this document related to SMAP is for information purposes only.

  19. Status Valued Goal Objects and Performance Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hysom, Stuart J.

    2009-01-01

    I designed an experiment to test predictions, derived from expectation states theories, that the unequal allocation of social rewards among collective task-focused actors will affect the actors' rates of power and prestige behavior. Past research shows that allocations of exchangeable resources can have these effects. The prediction, however, is…

  20. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    2012-09-01

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving. PMID:22664690

  1. Early Antecedents to Students' Expected Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garger, John; Thomas, Michael; Jacques, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to confirm the predictive validity of several antecedents to students' early perceptions of future performance in collegiate courses. Design/methodology/approach: A non-experimental design was used to test a proposed model based on a review of relevant literature. Students completed surveys capturing the…

  2. Standards of Performance--Expectations and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The APU was set up in 1975 in England to conduct national surveys of science performance and to make the findings available to a variety of audiences. The research reported here was carried out from 1979 to 1982 to investigate how people make judgments about the APU science results. (RM)

  3. A Performance Evaluation of the Collaborative Efforts in an Online Group Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lori A.; Eastham, Nicholas P.; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of 13 graduate students' collaborative efforts toward a group research project in an Instructional Analysis, Design, and Evaluation online course. Gaps between course expectations from the instructor and student collaborative performance were identified through the review of the team agreement, the use of…

  4. An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance

    PubMed Central

    Kurzban, Robert; Duckworth, Angela; Kable, Joseph W.; Myers, Justus

    2013-01-01

    Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternate explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost – that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternate explanations both for the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across subdisciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternate models might be empirically distinguished. PMID:24304775

  5. Physics in Films: Student Performance and Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maronde, Dan

    2005-11-01

    During the past three years an ambitious, long term, pilot project, given the sobriquet ``Physics in Films,'' has been developed and implemented at UCF. The goal of the project is to revitalize the traditional general education Physical Science course typically included in the curricula of most colleges and universities. The transformation of the course introducing clips from popular Hollywood movies to illustrate principles of physical science has been very successful. It has been praised by the students and has attracted the attention of both scientific and public media. In this talk, we present data to support the claims that the course is more interesting for the students and that their performance is superior to that of students in the traditional course.

  6. Predictors of Neuropsychological Effort Test Performance in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Lindsay F.; Gold, James M.; Sullivan, Sara K.; Strauss, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence that insufficient effort may be common in schizophrenia, posing significant threats to the validity of neuropsychological test results. Low effort may account for a significant proportion of variance in neuropsychological test scores and the generalized cognitive deficit that characterizes the disorder. The current study evaluated clinical predictors of insufficient effort in schizophrenia using an embedded effort measure, the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Effort Index (EI). Participants were 330 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or another psychotic disorder who received a battery of neuropsychological tests, including: Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), and RBANS. Clinical assessments designed to measure functional outcome, symptoms, and premorbid adjustment were also obtained. Results indicated that 9.4% of patients failed the EI. Patients who failed had lower full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ, as well as poorer performance on RBANS domains not included in the EI (immediate memory, language, and visuospatial/construction). Patients who failed the EI also displayed poorer community-based vocational outcome, greater likelihood of having “deficit schizophrenia” (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms), and increased severity of positive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that insufficient effort was most significantly predicted by a combination of low IQ, negative symptoms, and positive symptoms. Findings suggest that although insufficient effort may be relatively uncommon in schizophrenia, it is associated with important clinical outcomes. The RBANS EI may be a useful tool in evaluating insufficient effort in schizophrenia. PMID:25583248

  7. Academic Expectations and Actual Achievements: The Roles of Hope and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Uzi; Einav, Michal; Ziv, Orit; Raskind, Ilana; Margalit, Malka

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to extend the research on adolescents' hope, academic expectations, and average grades. The hope theory (Snyder, "Psychological Inquiry" 13(4):249-275, 2002), the salutogenic paradigm (with a focus on sense of coherence (SOC) (Antonovsky 1987)), and Bandura's ("Journal of Management" 38(1):9-44,

  8. The Link between Educational Expectations and Effort in the College-for-All Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie; Farkas, George

    2011-01-01

    From the Wisconsin status attainment model to rational choice, classical sociological, social-psychological, and economic theories of student educational transitions have assumed that students' expectations are positively related to their ultimate attainment. However, the growth of the college-for-all ethos raises questions about that assumption.…

  9. Academic Expectations and Actual Achievements: The Roles of Hope and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Uzi; Einav, Michal; Ziv, Orit; Raskind, Ilana; Margalit, Malka

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to extend the research on adolescents' hope, academic expectations, and average grades. The hope theory (Snyder, "Psychological Inquiry" 13(4):249-275, 2002), the salutogenic paradigm (with a focus on sense of coherence (SOC) (Antonovsky 1987)), and Bandura's ("Journal of Management" 38(1):9-44,…

  10. A Healthy Bottom Line: Healthy Life Expectancy as an Outcome Measure for Health Improvement Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Matthew C; Perla, Rocco J; Zell, Bonnie L

    2010-01-01

    Context: Good health is the most important outcome of health care, and healthy life expectancy (HLE), an intuitive and meaningful summary measure combining the length and quality of life, has become a standard in the world for measuring population health. Methods: This article critically reviews the literature and practices around the world for measuring and improving HLE and synthesizes that information as a basis for recommendations for the adoption and adaptation of HLE as an outcome measure in the United States. Findings: This article makes the case for adoption of HLE as an outcome measure at the national, state, community, and health care system levels in the United States to compare the effectiveness of alternative practices, evaluate disparities, and guide resource allocation. Conclusions: HLE is a clear, consistent, and important population health outcome measure that can enable informed judgments about value for investments in health care. PMID:20377757

  11. Student Expectations and Graduate Market Performance in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; Sanyal, Bikas

    1982-01-01

    Student expectations and actual labor market performance of a sample of Egypt's university graduates in 1978 are compared. It was found that economic rewards followed supply and demand, especially with regard to specialization. Expected or actual unemployment after graduation was found to be of short duration. (MSE)

  12. Teacher Expectancy Related to Student Performance in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Himanshu S.

    A study was designed (1) to discover the effect of teacher expectation on student performance in the cognitive and in the psychomotor skills, and (2) to analyze students' attitudes toward teachers because of teacher expectations. The study utilized two different instructional units. The quality milk production unit was used to teach cognitive…

  13. Maintenance personnel performance simulation (MAPPS) model: overview and evaluation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.; Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Ryan, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the MAPPS model has been completed and the model is currently undergoing evaluation. These efforts are addressing a number of identified issues concerning practicality, acceptability, usefulness, and validity. Preliminary analysis of the evaluation data that has been collected indicates that MAPPS will provide comprehensive and reliable data for PRA purposes and for a number of other applications. The MAPPS computer simulation model provides the user with a sophisticated tool for gaining insights into tasks performed by NPP maintenance personnel. Its wide variety of input parameters and output data makes it extremely flexible for application to a number of diverse applications. With the demonstration of favorable model evaluation results, the MAPPS model will represent a valuable source of NPP maintainer reliability data and provide PRA studies with a source of data on maintainers that has previously not existed.

  14. 5 CFR 9901.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and communicating performance expectations. 9901.406 Section 9901.406 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES... DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.406 Setting...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and communicating performance expectations. 9701.406 Section 9701.406 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... expectations. 9701.406 Section 9701.406 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and... and its strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans,...

  17. 5 CFR 9901.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting and communicating performance expectations. 9901.406 Section 9901.406 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES... strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans, and other...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... expectations. 9701.406 Section 9701.406 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and... and its strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans,...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... expectations. 9701.406 Section 9701.406 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and... and its strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans,...

  20. Boon and Bane of Being Sure: The Effect of Performance Certainty and Expectancy on Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested certainty to be an important factor when investigating effects of level of expectancies on future behavior. With the present study, we addressed the interplay of expectancy certainty and level of expectancies regarding task performance. We assumed that certain performance expectancies provide a better basis for the…

  1. Face-induced expectancies influence neural mechanisms of performance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Osinsky, Roman; Seeger, Jennifer; Mussel, Patrick; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    In many daily situations, the consequences of our actions are predicted by cues that are often social in nature. For instance, seeing the face of an evaluator (e.g., a supervisor at work) may activate certain evaluative expectancies, depending on the history of prior encounters with that particular person. We investigated how such face-induced expectancies influence neurocognitive functions of performance monitoring. We recorded an electroencephalogram while participants completed a time-estimation task, during which they received performance feedback from a strict and a lenient evaluator. During each trial, participants first saw the evaluator's face before performing the task and, finally, receiving feedback. Therefore, faces could be used as predictive cues for the upcoming evaluation. We analyzed electrocortical signatures of performance monitoring at the stages of cue processing, task performance, and feedback reception. Our results indicate that, at the cue stage, seeing the strict evaluator's face results in an anticipatory preparation of fronto-medial monitoring mechanisms, as reflected by a sustained negative-going amplitude shift (i.e., the contingent negative variation). At the performance stage, face-induced expectancies of a strict evaluation rule led to increases of early performance monitoring signals (i.e., frontal-midline theta power). At the final stage of feedback reception, violations of outcome expectancies differentially affected the feedback-related negativity and frontal-midline theta power, pointing to a functional dissociation between these signatures. Altogether, our results indicate that evaluative expectancies induced by face-cues lead to adjustments of internal performance monitoring mechanisms at various stages of task processing. PMID:26527096

  2. Expectations developed over multiple timescales facilitate visual search performance

    PubMed Central

    Gekas, Nikos; Seitz, Aaron R.; Seriès, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our perception of the world is strongly influenced by our expectations, and a question of key importance is how the visual system develops and updates its expectations through interaction with the environment. We used a visual search task to investigate how expectations of different timescales (from the last few trials to hours to long-term statistics of natural scenes) interact to alter perception. We presented human observers with low-contrast white dots at 12 possible locations equally spaced on a circle, and we asked them to simultaneously identify the presence and location of the dots while manipulating their expectations by presenting stimuli at some locations more frequently than others. Our findings suggest that there are strong acuity differences between absolute target locations (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical) and preexisting long-term biases influencing observers' detection and localization performance, respectively. On top of these, subjects quickly learned about the stimulus distribution, which improved their detection performance but caused increased false alarms at the most frequently presented stimulus locations. Recent exposure to a stimulus resulted in significantly improved detection performance and significantly more false alarms but only at locations at which it was more probable that a stimulus would be presented. Our results can be modeled and understood within a Bayesian framework in terms of a near-optimal integration of sensory evidence with rapidly learned statistical priors, which are skewed toward the very recent history of trials and may help understanding the time scale of developing expectations at the neural level. PMID:26200891

  3. Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Mathematics Performance Expectations (MPE) define the content and level of achievement students must reach to be academically prepared for success in entry-level, credit-bearing mathematics courses in college or career training. They were developed through a process that involved faculty from Virginia's two- and four-year colleges and…

  4. Self-consistent MPI-IO performance requirements and expectations.

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W. D.; Kimpe, D.; Ross, R.; Thakur, R.; Traff, J. L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Illinois; Katholieke Univ. Leuven; NEC Laboratories Europe

    2008-01-01

    We recently introduced the idea of self-consistent performance requirements for MPI communication. Such requirements provide a means to ensure consistent behavior of an MPI library, thereby ensuring a degree of performance portability by making it unnecessary for a user to perform implementation-dependent optimizations by hand. For the collective operations in particular, a large number of such rules could sensibly be formulated, without making hidden assumptions about the underlying communication system or otherwise constraining the MPI implementation. In this paper, we extend this idea to the realm of parallel I/O (MPI-IO), where the issues are far more subtle. In particular, it is not always possible to specify performance requirements without making assumptions about the implementation or without a priori knowledge of the I/O access pattern. For such cases, we introduce the notion of performance expectations, which specify the desired behavior for good implementations of MPI-IO. I/O performance requirements as well as expectations could be automatically checked by an appropriate benchmarking tool.

  5. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from thirties to fifties, the age category most affected was in the forties range. Incident rate calculations (incidents per 100 training runs) revealed that the 2002, 2003, and 2004 time periods registered the highest reported incident rate levels (3.4, 6.1, and 4.1 respectively) when compared to the following years (all = 1.0). In addition to general hand-arm discomfort being the highest reported result from training, specific types of hand injuries or symptoms included erythema, fingernail delamination, abrasions, muscle soreness/fatigue, paresthesia, bruising, blanching, and edema. Specific body locations most affected by hand injuries included the metacarpophalangeal joints, fingernails, finger crotches, fingers in general, interphalangeal joints, and fingertips. Causes of injuries reported in the LSAH data were primarily attributed to the forces that the gloved hands were exposed to due to hand intensive tasks and/or poor glove sizing. DISCUSSION: Although the age data indicate that most injuries are reported by male crewmembers in their forties, that is also the dominant gender and age range of most EVA crew therefore it is not an unexpected finding. Age and gender analysis will continue as more details on the uninjured population is accrued. While there is a reasonable mechanism to link training quantity to injury, the results were inconsistent and point to the need for a consistent method of suit-related injury screening and documentation. For instance, the high-incident rate levels for the years 2002 to 2004 could be attributed to a comprehensive medical review of crewmembers post-NBL EVA training that occurred from July 19, 2002 to January 16, 2004. Furthermore, there could have been increased awareness from an investigation at the NBL. These investigations may have temporarily increased the fidelity of reported injuries and discomforts during these dates as compared to surrounding years, when injury signs and symptom were no longer actively being investigated but rather voluntarily reported. Data mining for possible mechanistic factors continues and includes more detailed training timelines, hand anthropometry, and suit sizing information. The limited published data looking at hand-arm anthropometry correlated hand-anthropometry metrics with injuries stemming from glove design and operation. Future work will include further evaluation of body sizing and fit in relation to hand injury incidents.

  6. Student Effort Expectations and Their Learning in First-Year Introductory Physics: A Case Study in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wutchana, U.; Emarat, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) survey was designed to probe students' expectations about their understanding of the process of learning physics and the structure of physics knowledge--cognitive expectations. This survey was administered to first-year university students in Thailand in the first semester of an introductory calculus-based…

  7. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  8. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  9. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  10. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  11. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington /Athens U. /Natl. Tech. U., Athens /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /Belgrade U. /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Humboldt U., Berlin /Bern U., LHEP /Birmingham U. /Bogazici U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U.

    2011-11-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV mass scale where groundbreaking discoveries are expected. In the focus are the investigation of the electroweak symmetry breaking and linked to this the search for the Higgs boson as well as the search for Physics beyond the Standard Model. In this report a detailed examination of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector is provided, with a major aim being to investigate the experimental sensitivity to a wide range of measurements and potential observations of new physical processes. An earlier summary of the expected capabilities of ATLAS was compiled in 1999 [1]. A survey of physics capabilities of the CMS detector was published in [2]. The design of the ATLAS detector has now been finalised, and its construction and installation have been completed [3]. An extensive test-beam programme was undertaken. Furthermore, the simulation and reconstruction software code and frameworks have been completely rewritten. Revisions incorporated reflect improved detector modelling as well as major technical changes to the software technology. Greatly improved understanding of calibration and alignment techniques, and their practical impact on performance, is now in place. The studies reported here are based on full simulations of the ATLAS detector response. A variety of event generators were employed. The simulation and reconstruction of these large event samples thus provided an important operational test of the new ATLAS software system. In addition, the processing was distributed world-wide over the ATLAS Grid facilities and hence provided an important test of the ATLAS computing system - this is the origin of the expression 'CSC studies' ('computing system commissioning'), which is occasionally referred to in these volumes. The work reported does generally assume that the detector is fully operational, and in this sense represents an idealised detector: establishing the best performance of the ATLAS detector with LHC proton-proton collisions is a challenging task for the future. The results summarised here therefore represent the best estimate of ATLAS capabilities before real operational experience of the full detector with beam. Unless otherwise stated, simulations also do not include the effect of additional interactions in the same or other bunch-crossings, and the effect of neutron background is neglected. Thus simulations correspond to the low-luminosity performance of the ATLAS detector. This report is broadly divided into two parts: firstly the performance for identification of physics objects is examined in detail, followed by a detailed assessment of the performance of the trigger system. This part is subdivided into chapters surveying the capabilities for charged particle tracking, each of electron/photon, muon and tau identification, jet and missing transverse energy reconstruction, b-tagging algorithms and performance, and finally the trigger system performance. In each chapter of the report, there is a further subdivision into shorter notes describing different aspects studied. The second major subdivision of the report addresses physics measurement capabilities, and new physics search sensitivities. Individual chapters in this part discuss ATLAS physics capabilities in Standard Model QCD and electroweak processes, in the top quark sector, in b-physics, in searches for Higgs bosons, supersymmetry searches, and finally searches for other new particles predicted in more exotic models.

  12. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where substantial... equal pay standard cannot apply even though the jobs may be equal in all other respects. Effort...

  13. Expectations Lead to Performance: The Transformative Power of High Expectations in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ye; Engler, Karen S.; Oetting, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the preschool program at Missouri State University where deaf and hard of hearing children with all communication modalities and all styles of personal assistive listening devices are served. The job of the early intervention providers is to model for parents what high expectations look like and how to translate those…

  14. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend interventions where possible that could be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigation focused on the discomforts and injuries of U.S. crewmembers who had worn the pressurized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit and experienced 4000 Series or Phase VI glove related incidents during 1981 to 2010 for either EVA ground training or in-orbit flight. We conducted an observational retrospective case-control investigation using 1) a literature review of known injuries, 2) data mining of crew injury, glove sizing, and hand anthropometry databases, 3) descriptive statistical analyses, and finally 4) statistical risk correlation and predictor analyses to better understand injury prevalence and potential causation. Specific predictor statistical analyses included use of principal component analyses (PCA), multiple logistic regression, and survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards regression). Results of these analyses were computed risk variables in the forms of odds ratios (likelihood of an injury occurring given the magnitude of a risk variable) and hazard ratios (likelihood of time to injury occurrence). Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, we selected predictor variables significant at p=0.15. RESULTS: Through 2010, there have been a total of 330 NASA crewmembers, from which 96 crewmembers performed 322 EVAs during 1981-2010, resulting in 50 crewmembers being injured inflight and 44 injured during 11,704 ground EVA training events. Of the 196 glove related injury incidents, 106 related to EVA and 90 to EVA training. Over these 196 incidents, 277 total injuries (126 flight; 151 training) were reported and were then grouped into 23 types of injuries. Of EVA flight injuries, 65% were commonly reported to the hand (in general), metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, and finger (not including thumb) with fatigue, abrasion, and paresthesia being the most common injury types (44% of total flight injuries). Training injuries totaled to more than 70% being distributed to the fingernail, MCP joint, and finger crotch with 88% of the specific injuries listed as pain, erythema, and onycholysis. Of these training injuries, when reporting pain or erythema, the most common location was the index finger, but when reporting onycholysis, it was the middle finger. Predictor variables specific to increased risk of onycholysis included: female sex (OR=2.622), older age (OR=1.065), increased duration in hours of the flight or training event (OR=1.570), middle finger length differences in inches between the finger and the EVA glove (OR=7.709), and use of the Phase VI glove (OR=8.535). Differentiation between training and flight and injury reporting during 2002-2004 were significant control variables. For likelihood of time to first onycholysis injury, there was a 24% reduction in rate of reporting for each year increase in age. Also, more experienced crewmembers, based on number of EVA flight or training events completed, were less likely to report an onycholysis injury (3% less for every event). Longer duration events also found reporting rates to occur 2.37 times faster for every hour of length. Crewmembers with larger hand size reported onycholysis 23% faster than those with smaller hand size. Finally, for every 1/10th of an inch increase in difference between the middle finger length and the glove, the rate of reporting increased by 60%. DISCUSSION: One key finding was that the Series 4000 glove had a lower injury risk than the Phase VI, which provides a platform for further evaluation. General interventions that reduce hand overexertion and repetitive use exposure through tool development, procedural changes and shorter exposures may be one mitigation path, but due to the way the training event times were reported, we cannot provide a guideline for a specific event duration change. When the finger length was different from the glove length, the risk of injury increased indicating that the use of larger finger take-ups could be contributing to injury and therefore may not be recommended. Prior to this investigation, there was one previous investigation indicating hand anthropometry may be related to onycholysis. We found different hand anthropometry variables indicated by this investigation as compared to the prior, specifically differences in middle finger length compared to glove finger length, which point more towards a sizing issue than a specific anthropometry issue. Additionally, although this investigation has identified sizing as an issue, the force and environmental-related variables of the EVA glove that could also cause injury were not accounted for.

  15. Unmet Expectations: Why Is There Such a Difference between Student Expectations and Classroom Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Terrye A.; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2008-01-01

    Past studies indicate that students are frequently poor judges of their likely academic performance in the classroom. The difficulty a student faces in accurately predicting performance on a classroom exam may be due to unrealistic optimism or may be due to an inability to self-evaluate academic performance, but the resulting disconnect between

  16. Expected EDL navigation performance with spacecraft to spacecraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, P. Daniel; Ely, Todd; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, Glenn; Campbell, Todd; Mogensen, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Pinpoint landing (defined for the purpose of this discussion as landing within 1km of a preselected target) is a key Advanced Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology for future Mars landers. Key scientific goals for Mars exploration, such as the search for water and characterization of aqueous process on Mars, the study of mineralogy and weathering of the Martian surface and the search for preserved biosignatures in Martian rocks, requires placing landers at pre-defined locations of greatest scientific interest. The capability to land within 1 km of a pre-defined landing site will improve safety and enable landing within roving range of sites of scientific interest while avoiding hazardous areas. A critical component of the closed-loop guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) system required for pinpoint landing is position and velocity estimation in real time. Spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will take advantage of the UHF link between two spacecraft (i.e. to an orbiter from an approaching lander for EDL telemetry relay) to build radiometric data, specifically the velocity between the two spacecraft along the radio beam, that are processed to determine position and velocity in real time. The improved onboard state knowledge provided by spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will reduce the landed position error and improve the performance of entry guidance. Results from the first of two years planned for this effort are documented here, including selection and documentation of prototype algorithms that will go forward into flight code along with analysis results used to define the algorithm set.

  17. The Expected Performance from the NASA OCO-2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, D.; Eldering, A.; Gunson, M. R.; Pollock, H.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) will be launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on a Delta-II 7320 launch vehicle as early as 1 July 2014. Once deployed in the 705-km Afternoon Constellation (A-Train), it will collect the measurements needed to estimate the column-averaged, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction (XCO2) with improved precision, resolution, and coverage. The OCO-2 spacecraft carries and points a 3-channel, imaging, grating spectrometer that collects high resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the 765 nm O2 A-band and in the CO2 bands centered near 1610 and 2060 nm. These spectral ranges overlap those used by the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) TANSO-FTS, the current standard in space-based XCO2 measurements. The OCO-2 instrument performance was extensively characterized during pre-launch testing, facilitating comparisons with the TANSO-FTS. OCO-2 has slightly lower spectral resolution, but the far wings of its instrument line shape functions decay more rapidly, such that it yields similar spectral contrast within O2 and CO2 bands. The instruments have similar continuum signal to noise ratios (SNR) for bright scenes, but the OCO-2 instrument has higher SNR at low light levels associated with absorption lines or dark surfaces. The OCO-2 spectrometers will collect 24 soundings per second, yielding up to a million soundings per day over the sunlit hemisphere. For routine operations, the OCO-2 instrument boresight will be pointed at the local nadir or at the 'glint spot,' where sunlight is specularly reflected from the surface. Nadir observations provide the best spatial resolution and are expected to yield more cloud-free soundings. Glint observations will have much better SNR over dark, ocean surfaces. The nominal plan is to alternate between glint and nadir observations on successive 16-day ground-track repeat cycles, so that the entire sunlit hemisphere is sampled in both modes at 32-day intervals. The instrument's rapid sampling, small (< 3 km2) sounding footprint, and high SNR, combined with the spacecraft's ability to point the instrument's aperture toward the glint spot over the entire sunlit hemisphere, are expected to provide more complete coverage of the ocean, cloudy regions, and high latitude continents. While the OCO-2 measurement capabilities provide opportunities to improve the XCO2 precision, resolution, and coverage, they also pose some formidable challenges for calibration, retrieval, and validation. To fully exploit this instrument's capabilities, the 24,000 spectral/spatial channels must be cross-calibrated to within a fraction of 1%. Substantial increases in algorithm speed and more efficient data screening techniques are needed to fully utilize the much larger data volume. Finally, a comprehensive validation program will be needed to ensure the accuracy of the retrieved XCO2 estimates. This presentation will summarize the OCO-2 measurement capabilities and observation strategies, and the methods adopted to address these challenges.

  18. Achievement Goals in a Presentation Task: Performance Expectancy, Achievement Goals, State Anxiety, and Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Ayumi; Takehara, Takuma; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test the linkages between achievement goals to task performance, as mediated by state anxiety arousal. Performance expectancy was also examined as antecedents of achievement goals. A presentation task in a computer practice class was used as achievement task. Fifty-three undergraduates (37 females and 16 males) were…

  19. Expectancies, Utility Values, and Attributions for Performance in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kirby A.; And Others

    Some of the determinants of the decision to take or not to take mathematics are explored. The focus is on sex and grade differences in responses to questions about mathematics. The results show that fifth- and sixth-grade girls tended to have higher expectancies for success as well as higher ratings of their ability in mathematics than the boys…

  20. Outcome Expectancies of People Who Conduct Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Nancy K.; Latham, Gary P.

    1986-01-01

    Examined outcome expectancies of people who conduct appraisals. Interviews with 32 appraisers in the newsprint industry showed that appraisers perceived no consequences to them of conducting appraisals. Questionnaires completed by 39 appraisers in the banking industry provided moderate support for alternate hypothesis that appraisers perceive…

  1. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and... and its strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans,...

  2. Supercomputer and cluster performance modeling and analysis efforts:2004-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Sturtevant, Judith E.; Ganti, Anand; Meyer, Harold Edward; Stevenson, Joel O.; Benner, Robert E., Jr.; Goudy, Susan Phelps; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Taylor, Mark A.; Malins, Robert Joseph; Scott, Ryan T.; Barnette, Daniel Wayne; Rajan, Mahesh; Ang, James Alfred; Black, Amalia Rebecca; Laub, Thomas William; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas; Franke, Brian Claude

    2007-02-01

    This report describes efforts by the Performance Modeling and Analysis Team to investigate performance characteristics of Sandia's engineering and scientific applications on the ASC capability and advanced architecture supercomputers, and Sandia's capacity Linux clusters. Efforts to model various aspects of these computers are also discussed. The goals of these efforts are to quantify and compare Sandia's supercomputer and cluster performance characteristics; to reveal strengths and weaknesses in such systems; and to predict performance characteristics of, and provide guidelines for, future acquisitions and follow-on systems. Described herein are the results obtained from running benchmarks and applications to extract performance characteristics and comparisons, as well as modeling efforts, obtained during the time period 2004-2006. The format of the report, with hypertext links to numerous additional documents, purposefully minimizes the document size needed to disseminate the extensive results from our research.

  3. The Effects of Response Effort on Safe Performance by Therapists at an Autism Treatment Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casella, Sarah E.; Wilder, David A.; Neidert, Pamela; Rey, Catalina; Compton, Megan; Chong, Ivy

    2010-01-01

    The effects of response effort on safe behaviors (i.e., glove wearing, hand sanitizing, and electrical outlet replacement) exhibited by therapists at an autism treatment center were examined. Participants were exposed to 2 or 3 levels of effort (i.e., high, medium, low) for each dependent variable. Results showed increased safe performance during…

  4. A Cross-National Comparison of Reported Effort and Mathematics Performance in TIMSS Advanced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklöf, Hanna; Pavešic, Barbara Japelj; Grønmo, Liv Sissel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure students' reported test-taking effort and the relationship between reported effort and performance on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced mathematics test. This was done in three countries participating in TIMSS Advanced 2008 (Sweden, Norway, and Slovenia), and the…

  5. Performance Overconfidence: Metacognitive Effects or Misplaced Student Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayson, Dennis E.

    2005-01-01

    Prior research has shown that students consistently overestimate their performance on academic exams, with the error being inversely related to their grades. The effect has been explained as a matter of competency. If true, then students who do not know what they do not know are put in a double bind. They do not have the cognitive ability to…

  6. Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorhagen, Nicole S.

    2013-01-01

    This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student…

  7. Sustainability of Teacher Expectation Bias Effects on Long-Term Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Hester; Bosker, Roel J.; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we address the relationship between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics, its effect on long-term student performance, and the development of this effect over time. Expectation bias was defined as the difference between observed and predicted teacher expectation. These predicted expectations were estimated from a…

  8. Employers' Expectations and Evaluation of the Job Performance of Employees with Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, John

    1994-01-01

    A survey was conducted of 38 employers' expectations and evaluation of job performance of workers with mild intellectual disability in Hong Kong. Of 25 work-related attributes, employer ratings showed that employees with intellectual disabilities exceeded expectations in 7 aspects and performed below expectation in 5 aspects. (Author/DB)

  9. Testing the mere effort account of the evaluation-performance relationship.

    PubMed

    McFall, Sametria R; Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2009-01-01

    Research traditions in psychology in which the evaluation-performance relationship was examined do not show agreement on the mediating process, nor is there any compelling evidence that favors one account over the others. On the basis of a molecular analysis of performance on the Remote Associates Test (RAT), Harkins (2006) argued that the potential for evaluation motivates participants to perform well, which potentiates prepotent responses. If the prepotent response is correct, performance is facilitated. If the prepotent response is incorrect, and participants do not know, or if they lack the knowledge or time required for correction, performance is debilitated. The present research pits this mere effort account against 4 other potential explanations (withdrawal of effort, processing interference, focus of attention, and drive) on 3 tasks that were specifically selected for this purpose (anagram solution, the Stroop Color-Word task, and the antisaccade task). In each case, the results are consistent with the mere effort account. PMID:19210071

  10. Caffeine increases psychomotor performance on the effort expenditure for rewards task

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Margaret C.; Treadway, Michael T.; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that cost/benefit decision-making involves interactions between adenosine and dopamine (DA). In rats, DA depletion decreases willingness to incur effort costs, while adenosine antagonism reverses these effects, likely by increasing DA transmission. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist commonly used to facilitate effortful tasks, and thus may affect decisions involving effort costs in humans. The current study examined acute effects of 200 mg of caffeine on willingness to exert effort for monetary rewards at varying levels of reward value and reward probability, in young adult light caffeine users. Based on previous findings with amphetamine, we predicted that caffeine would increase willingness to exert effort. At separate sessions, 23 healthy normal adults received placebo or 200 mg caffeine under counterbalanced double-blind conditions, then completed the effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT). Measures of subjective and cardiovascular effects were obtained at regular intervals. Caffeine produced small but significant subjective and cardiovascular effects, and sped psychomotor performance on the EEfRT. Caffeine did not alter willingness to exert effort, except in high cardiovascular responders to caffeine, in whom it decreased willingness to exert effort. These results were contrary to our predictions, but consistent with rodent studies suggesting that moderate doses of caffeine alone do not affect effort, but rather only influence effort in the context of DA antagonism. Our results demonstrate that psychomotor speeding and decisional effects on the EEfRT are dissociable, providing additional evidence for the EEfRT as a specific measure of effort-based decision-making. This study provides a starting point for exploring contributions of the adenosine system to motivation in humans. PMID:22750066

  11. Expected orbit determination performance for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission

    SciTech Connect

    Nerem, R.S.; Putney, B.H.; Marshall, J.A.; Lerch, F.J. ); Pavlis, E.C. ); Klosko, S.M.; Luthcke, S.B.; Patel, G.B.; Williamson, R.G.; Zelensky, N.P.

    1993-03-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) mission, launched during the summer of 1992, has the requirement that the radial component of its orbit must be computed to an accuracy of 13 cm root-mean-square (rms) or better, allowing measurements of the sea surface height to be computed to similar accuracy when the satellite height is differenced with the altimeter measurements. This will be done by combining precise satellite tracking measurements with precise models of the forces acting on the satellite. The Space Geodesy Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), as part of the T/P precision orbit determination (POD) Team, has the responsibility within NASA for the T/P precise orbit computations. The prelaunch activities of the T/P POD Team have been mainly directed towards developing improved models of the static and time-varying gravitational forces acting on T/P and precise models for the non-conservative forces perturbing the orbit of T/P such as atmospheric drag, solar and Earth radiation pressure, and thermal imbalances. The radial orbit error budget for T/P allows 10 cm rms error due to gravity field mismodeling, 3 cm due to solid Earth and ocean tides, 6 cm due to radiative forces, and 3 cm due to atmospheric drag. A prelaunch assessment of the current modeling accuracies for these forces indicates that the radial orbit error requirements can be achieved with the current models, and can probably be surpassed once T/P tracking data are used to fine tune the models. Provided that the performance of the T/P spacecraft is nominal, the precise orbits computed by the T/P POD Team should be accurate to 13 cm or better radially.

  12. Including Performance Assessments in Accountability Systems: A Review of Scale-Up Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tung, Rosann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature and field review is to understand previous efforts at scaling up performance assessments for use across districts and states. Performance assessments benefit students and teachers by providing more opportunities for students to demonstrate their knowledge and complex skills, by providing teachers with better…

  13. Effect of alternative video displays on postures, perceived effort, and performance during microsurgery skill tasks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Denny; Green, Cooper; Kasten, Steven J; Sackllah, Michael E; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    Physical work demands and posture constraint from operating microscopes may adversely affect microsurgeon health and performance. Alternative video displays were developed to reduce posture constraints. Their effects on postures, perceived efforts, and performance were compared with the microscope. Sixteen participants performed microsurgery skill tasks using both stereo and non-stereoscopic microscopes and video displays. Results showed that neck angles were 9-13° more neutral and shoulder flexion were 9-10° more elevated on the video display than the microscope. Time observed in neck extension was higher (30% vs. 17%) and neck movements were 3x more frequent on the video display than microscopes. Ratings of perceived efforts did not differ among displays, but usability ratings were better on the microscope than the video display. Performance times on the video displays were 66-110% slower than microscopes. Although postures improved, further research is needed to improve task performance on video displays. PMID:26585502

  14. Effortful Control in "Hot" and "Cool" Tasks Differentially Predicts Children's Behavior Problems and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sanghag; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children's adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer

  15. MAINTAINING DATA QUALITY IN THE PERFORMANCE OF A LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED MONITORING EFFORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macauley, John M. and Linda C. Harwell. In press. Maintaining Data Quality in the Performance of a Large Scale Integrated Monitoring Effort (Abstract). To be presented at EMAP Symposium 2004: Integrated Monitoring and Assessment for Effective Water Quality Management, 3-7 May 200...

  16. Attributional Gender Bias: Teachers' Ability and Effort Explanations for Students' Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope; ArasdaLuzFontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students' performance in math. Whereas boys' successes in math are attributed to ability, girls' successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys' failures in math are attributed to a

  17. Educating for High Performance. Honoring Change in Connecticut's Schools. Selected Change Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Business and Industry Association, Hartford.

    This booklet describes 46 change efforts that Connecticut educators have undertaken to ensure that all students have the opportunity to learn at high levels and to succeed in a high performance economy. They are organized by category according to whether they are district-level changes, demonstration schools, or instructional practices. A summary…

  18. Effortful Control in "Hot" and "Cool" Tasks Differentially Predicts Children's Behavior Problems and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sanghag; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children's adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer…

  19. Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

  20. Attributional Gender Bias: Teachers' Ability and Effort Explanations for Students' Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students' performance in math. Whereas boys' successes in math are attributed to ability, girls' successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys' failures in math are attributed to a…

  1. Do Hospitals Alter Patient Care Effort Allocations under Pay-for-Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Lauren Hersch; Dimick, Justin B; Iwashyna, Theodore J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether hospitals increase efforts on easy tasks relative to difficult tasks to improve scores under pay-for-performance (P4P) incentives. Data Source The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare data from Fiscal Years 2003 through 2005 and 2003 American Hospital Association Annual Survey data. Study Design We classified measures of process compliance targeted by the Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration as easy or difficult to improve based on whether they introduce additional per-patient costs. We compared process compliance on easy and difficult tasks at hospitals eligible for P4P bonus payments relative to hospitals engaged in public reporting using random effects regression models. Principal Findings P4P hospitals did not preferentially increase efforts for easy tasks in patients with heart failure or pneumonia, but they did exhibit modestly greater effort on easy tasks for heart attack admissions. There is no systematic evidence that effort was allocated toward easier processes of care and away from more difficult tasks. Conclusions Despite perverse P4P incentives to change allocation of efforts across tasks to maximize performance scores at lowest cost, we find little evidence that hospitals respond to P4P incentives as hypothesized. Alternative incentive structures may motivate greater response by targeted hospitals. PMID:21029088

  2. The Prediction of College Student Academic Performance and Retention: Application of Expectancy and Goal Setting Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.

    2010-01-01

    Student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educators, students, and the nation facing critical professional labor shortages. Expectancy and goal setting theories were used to predict academic performance and college student retention. Students' academic expectancy motivation at the start of the college…

  3. The Effect on Children's Performance of a Discrepancy between Adult Expectancy and Feedback Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Ellen D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Ninety-six high-achieving fourth graders performed a memory task before which either positive or negative expectancy statements were made by an adult and after which either positive or negative feedback statements were given. For high IQ children, performance was higher for discrepant combinations of expectancy-feedback. (Author/MH)

  4. How Need for Cognition Affects the Formation of Performance Expectancies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with low Need for Cognition (NFC) have been found to process information using a peripheral route compared to individuals higher in NFC. These differences affect the formation of performance expectancies. Based on previous work demonstrating that the formation of performance expectancies can be understood as an information processing…

  5. Interactive effects of visual and auditory intervention on physical performance and perceived effort.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ju-Han; Lu, Frank Jing-Horng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using different types of media on physical performance and perceived exertion. This study was divided into two parts. In Part 1, we examined the effects of different combination of audio and video interventions on physical performance and rating of perceived effort (RPE). We recruited 20 collegiate students who performed a 12-minute cycling task (where they were asked to bike as hard as possible) under 4 conditions (music, video, music and video, and control) in a randomized order. Results indicated participants in the 2 media groups (music & audio) reported a significantly lower score for RPE. In addition, there was also an effect of media type where participants in music condition perceived less effort on the cycling task compared to the video condition. Part 2 examined how music preference influenced physical performance, but used a running task (where they were asked to run as hard as possible), and by recruiting a much larger sample. Seventy-five students were assigned into 5 groups (high preference and high motivation, high preference and low motivation, low preference and low motivation, low preference and high motivation, and control) based on responses on the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI. Results showed that music preference, but not its motivational quality, had a significant effect on physical performance. Overall, these results show that listening to music, and in particular preferred music increases physical performance and reduces perceived effort. Key PointsAmong different sensory stimulations, music can enhance physical performance more strongly than video.In addition to the motivational level of the music, music preference can also influence the physical performance of aerobic exercise participants. PMID:24149142

  6. Pressing Obligations or Inspiring Potentials? The Influence of the Ought vs. Expected Selves on Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Waclaw; Ciastek, Slawomir; Michalczuk, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of activating expected self as compared to the effects of activating the ought self. The expected self is a component of self-knowledge that pertains to the perception of one’s capabilities and potentials. Two experimental studies compared participants’ task performance after manipulating the momentary accessibility of the expected self vs. the ought self. In Study 1, contrary to expectations, the activation of the expected self resulted in poorer outcomes when the task required sustained attention. However, an interesting mood difference was revealed, which led us to hypothesise that activating the expected self results in slower (i.e., less hasty) work while performing the task. This hypothesis was confirmed in the second study.

  7. Mental simulation and experience as determinants of performance expectancies in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Huddy, Vyv; Drake, Gareth; Wykes, Til

    2016-03-30

    People with schizophrenia demonstrate both impairment in mental time travel and reduced expectancies of performance on future tasks. We aimed to reconcile these findings within the Kahneman and Tversky (1982) simulation heuristic framework by testing a key prediction that impaired future simulation would be associated with reduced performance expectancies in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SZSPEC). A total of 54 individuals (30 people with SZSPEC and 24 healthy controls) generated mental simulations of everyday scenarios; after each response they rated performance expectations, distress and the similarity of the scenario to experience. Independent raters coded the coherence of responses. We found that people with SZSPEC had, compared to healthy controls, lower performance expectations and greater anticipated distress when imaging everyday scenarios. Lower performance expectancies were associated with lower experience of similar scenarios, greater negative symptoms and social withdrawal in the SZSPEC group. The current study confirmed previous findings of both impaired mental simulation and abnormal performance expectations in people with SZSPEC, together with the association of the latter with negative symptoms. Experience with social or occupational activities plays a more important role in determining performance expectancies in people with SS than the ability to mentally simulate scenarios. PMID:26921059

  8. Predicting Pilot Error in Nextgen: Pilot Performance Modeling and Validation Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Gore, Brian; Hooey, Becky

    2012-01-01

    We review 25 articles presenting 5 general classes of computational models to predict pilot error. This more targeted review is placed within the context of the broader review of computational models of pilot cognition and performance, including such aspects as models of situation awareness or pilot-automation interaction. Particular emphasis is placed on the degree of validation of such models against empirical pilot data, and the relevance of the modeling and validation efforts to Next Gen technology and procedures.

  9. Factors Complicating Expectancy Theory Predictions of Work Motivation and Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopelman, Richard E.

    The conventional paradigm for testing expectancy theory predictions of work behavior has been to correlate expectancy-value reports with concurrent measures of motivation and performance. Although this static, two-variable approach has typically yielded statistically significant results, correlations have not been sizable. This study, using a…

  10. Group Motivation and Group Task Performance: The Expectancy-Valence Theory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakanishi, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    Investigated effects of group motivation on group task performance. Created two levels of valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence variable reflected on group productivity on unstructured and task persistence measures. Expectancy variable's effect was on task persistence measure. Instrumentality affected group productivity on structured

  11. Caffeine Consumption, Expectancies of Caffeine-Enhanced Performance, and Caffeinism Symptoms among University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, John R.; Petree, Allen

    1990-01-01

    Gathered self-report data on college students' (n=797) expectations of caffeine-enhanced performance, level of beverage caffeine consumed daily, and caffeinism signs experienced after consumption of caffeinated beverages. Results supported extending the expectancies model of substance use motivation from alcohol to caffeine. (Author/ABL)

  12. Motivated or Paralyzed? Individuals' Beliefs about Intelligence Influence Performance Outcome of Expecting Rapid Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Jie; Vance, Kaleigh

    2013-01-01

    The current research examines whether and how beliefs about intelligence moderate the effects of expecting rapid feedback on exam performance. Thirty-six undergraduates participated in a field experiment with two between-subjects independent variables: anticipated feedback proximity and beliefs about intelligence. The results show that expecting

  13. Linking immigrant parents' educational expectations and aspirations to their children's school performance.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Lee, Daphnee H L

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of parental expectations and aspirations for their children's educational attainment to children's academic performance in school among 783 immigrant-origin children aged 5-18 years in Canada. The results of hierarchical regression analyses, after accounting for student and family background characteristics, indicated that immigrant parents' expectations and aspirations for their children's educational attainment were positively linked to immigrant-origin children's academic performance in school. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed. PMID:24796154

  14. Treating Chronically Ill Diabetic Patients with Limited Life Expectancy: Implications for Performance Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, LeChauncy D.; Landrum, Cassie R.; Urech, Tracy H.; Profit, Jochen; Virani, Salim S.; Petersen, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives To validly assess quality-of-care differences among providers, performance measurement programs must reliably identify and exclude patients for whom the quality indicator may not be desirable, including those with limited life expectancy. We developed an algorithm to identify patients with limited life expectancy and examined the impact of limited life expectancy on glycemic control and treatment intensification among diabetic patients. Design We identified diabetic patients with coexisting congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, end-stage liver disease, and/or primary/metastatic cancers with limited life expectancy. To validate our algorithm, we assessed 5-year mortality among patients identified as having limited life expectancy. We compared rates of meeting performance measures for glycemic control between patients with and without limited life expectancy. Among uncontrolled patients, we examined the impact of limited life expectancy on treatment intensification within 90 days. Setting 110 Veterans Administration facilities; October 2006 – September 2007 Participants 888,628 diabetic patients Measurements Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <9%; treatment intensification within 90 days Results 29,016 (3%) patients had limited life expectancy. Adjusting for age, 5-year mortality was 5 times higher among patients with limited life expectancy than those without. Patients with limited life expectancy had poorer glycemic control (77.1% vs. 78.1%) and less frequent treatment intensification (20.9% vs. 28.6%) than patients without, even after controlling for patient-level characteristics (odds ratio [OR]=0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.81-0.86 and OR=0.71; 95% CI=0.67-0.76, respectively). Conclusion Patients with limited life expectancy were slightly, but significantly less likely than those without to have HbA1c levels controlled and to receive treatment intensification, suggesting that providers treat these patients less aggressively. Quality measurement and performance-based reimbursement systems should acknowledge the different needs of this population. PMID:22260627

  15. Effort, symptom validity testing, performance validity testing and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, Erin D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: To understand the neurocognitive effects of brain injury, valid neuropsychological test findings are paramount. Review: This review examines the research on what has been referred to a symptom validity testing (SVT). Above a designated cut-score signifies a ‘passing’ SVT performance which is likely the best indicator of valid neuropsychological test findings. Likewise, substantially below cut-point performance that nears chance or is at chance signifies invalid test performance. Significantly below chance is the sine qua non neuropsychological indicator for malingering. However, the interpretative problems with SVT performance below the cut-point yet far above chance are substantial, as pointed out in this review. This intermediate, border-zone performance on SVT measures is where substantial interpretative challenges exist. Case studies are used to highlight the many areas where additional research is needed. Historical perspectives are reviewed along with the neurobiology of effort. Reasons why performance validity testing (PVT) may be better than the SVT term are reviewed. Conclusions: Advances in neuroimaging techniques may be key in better understanding the meaning of border zone SVT failure. The review demonstrates the problems with rigidity in interpretation with established cut-scores. A better understanding of how certain types of neurological, neuropsychiatric and/or even test conditions may affect SVT performance is needed. PMID:25215453

  16. 5 CFR 9901.410 - Addressing performance that does not meet expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addressing performance that does not meet expectations. 9901.410 Section 9901.410 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES... DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.410 Addressing...

  17. Evaluating Faculty Work: Expectations and Standards of Faculty Performance in Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia; Cox, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Expectations and the way they are communicated can influence employees' motivation and performance. Previous research has demonstrated individual effects of workplace climate and individual differences on faculty productivity. The present study focused on the characteristics of institutional performance standards, evaluation processes and

  18. Evaluating Faculty Work: Expectations and Standards of Faculty Performance in Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia; Cox, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Expectations and the way they are communicated can influence employees' motivation and performance. Previous research has demonstrated individual effects of workplace climate and individual differences on faculty productivity. The present study focused on the characteristics of institutional performance standards, evaluation processes and…

  19. Type 2 diabetes exaggerates exercise effort and impairs exercise performance in older women

    PubMed Central

    Huebschmann, A G; Kohrt, W M; Herlache, L; Wolfe, P; Daugherty, S; Reusch, J EB; Bauer, T A; Regensteiner, J G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with high levels of disability and mortality. Regular exercise prevents premature disability and mortality, but people with T2DM are generally sedentary for reasons that are not fully established. We previously observed that premenopausal women with T2DM report greater effort during exercise than their counterparts without diabetes, as measured by the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale. We hypothesized that RPE is greater in older women with T2DM versus no T2DM. Research design and methods We enrolled overweight, sedentary women aged 50–75 years with (n=26) or without T2DM (n=28). Participants performed submaximal cycle ergometer exercise at 30 W and 35% of individually-measured peak oxygen consumption (35% VO2peak). We assessed exercise effort by RPE (self-report) and plasma lactate concentration. Results VO2peak was lower in T2DM versus controls (p=0.003). RPE was not significantly greater in T2DM versus controls (30 W: Control, 10.4±3.2, T2DM, 11.7±2.3, p=0.08; 35% VO2peak: Control, 11.1±0.5, T2DM, 12.1±0.5, p=0.21). However, lactate was greater in T2DM versus controls (p=0.004 at 30 W; p<0.05 at 35% VO2peak). Greater RPE was associated with higher lactate, higher heart rate, and a hypertension diagnosis (p<0.05 at 30 W and 35% VO2peak). Conclusions Taken together, physiological measures of exercise effort were greater in older women with T2DM than controls. Exercise effort is a modifiable and thereby targetable end point. In order to facilitate regular exercise, methods to reduce exercise effort in T2DM should be sought. Trial number NCT00785005. PMID:26464803

  20. The benefit of expecting no conflict--Stronger influence of self-generated than cue-induced conflict expectations on Stroop performance.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Maike; Gaschler, Robert; Schwager, Sabine; Schubert, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The role of expectations in sequential adaptation to cognitive conflict has been debated controversially in prior studies. On the one hand, a sequential congruency effect (SCE) has been reported for trials in which participants expect a repetition of conflict level. On the other hand, conflict level expectations vs. the SCE have been shown to develop differentially across runs of trials with the same conflict level, arguing against the theory that the SCE is purely driven by expectation. The current verbal Stroop experiment addresses this controversy by two means. First, we tested which specific type of expectation (cue-induced expectations vs. self-generated predictions) might affect the SCE. Second, we assessed the impact of expectation on the SCE as well as the development of SCE and expectation with congruency level run length in one design. We observed a dissociation between expectations and SCE, demonstrating that the SCE is not exclusively driven by expectations. At the same time, we found evidence that (self-generated) expectations do have an impact on the SCE. Our data document especially high performance for one specific combination of task events: congruent trial accompanied by congruent prediction and conflict level repetition. Our results are in line with theories attributing conflict adaptation effects to the "adaption to the lack of conflict". We discuss our results in a broader context of theories about conflict monitoring. PMID:26649453

  1. Great Expectations, Mixed Results: Standards and Performance in Denver's New Public Schools, 2007-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the Denver Plan instituted in 2005, Denver Public Schools (DPS) has embarked upon a consistent strategy of opening new schools in an effort to improve overall academic performance. DPS has pursued this strategy under several different paths: an annual request for proposals from charter school applicants; allowing current…

  2. Unfinished tasks foster rumination and impair sleeping - particularly if leaders have high performance expectations.

    PubMed

    Syrek, Christine J; Antoni, Conny H

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between time pressure and unfinished tasks as work stressors on employee well-being. Relatively little is known about the effect of unfinished tasks on well-being. Specifically, excluding the impact of time pressure, we examined whether the feeling of not having finished the week's tasks fosters perseverative cognitions and impairs sleep. Additionally, we proposed that leader performance expectations moderate these relationships. In more detail, we expected the detrimental effect of unfinished tasks on both rumination and sleep would be enhanced if leader expectations were perceived to be high. In total, 89 employees filled out online diary surveys both before and after the weekend over a 5-week period. Multilevel growth modeling revealed that time pressure and unfinished tasks impacted rumination and sleep on the weekend. Further, our results supported our hypothesis that unfinished tasks explain unique variance in the dependent variables above and beyond the influence of time pressure. Moreover, we found the relationship between unfinished tasks and both rumination and sleep was moderated by leader performance expectations. Our results emphasize the importance of unfinished tasks as a stressor and highlight that leadership, specifically in the form of performance expectations, contributes significantly to the strength of this relationship. PMID:24933596

  3. Linking melodic expectation to expressive performance timing and perceived musical tension.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Pearce, Marcus T; Goodchild, Meghan; Dean, Roger T; Wiggins, Geraint; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    This research explored the relations between the predictability of musical structure, expressive timing in performance, and listeners' perceived musical tension. Studies analyzing the influence of expressive timing on listeners' affective responses have been constrained by the fact that, in most pieces, the notated durations limit performers' interpretive freedom. To circumvent this issue, we focused on the unmeasured prelude, a semi-improvisatory genre without notated durations. In Experiment 1, 12 professional harpsichordists recorded an unmeasured prelude on a harpsichord equipped with a MIDI console. Melodic expectation was assessed using a probabilistic model (IDyOM [Information Dynamics of Music]) whose expectations have been previously shown to match closely those of human listeners. Performance timing information was extracted from the MIDI data using a score-performance matching algorithm. Time-series analyses showed that, in a piece with unspecified note durations, the predictability of melodic structure measurably influenced tempo fluctuations in performance. In Experiment 2, another 10 harpsichordists, 20 nonharpsichordist musicians, and 20 nonmusicians listened to the recordings from Experiment 1 and rated the perceived tension continuously. Granger causality analyses were conducted to investigate predictive relations among melodic expectation, expressive timing, and perceived tension. Although melodic expectation, as modeled by IDyOM, modestly predicted perceived tension for all participant groups, neither of its components, information content or entropy, was Granger causal. In contrast, expressive timing was a strong predictor and was Granger causal. However, because melodic expectation was also predictive of expressive timing, our results outline a complete chain of influence from predictability of melodic structure via expressive performance timing to perceived musical tension. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594881

  4. An Investigation of Student Expectation, Perceived Performance and Satisfaction of E-textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, George C.; Moon, Soo-Young

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the use of e-textbooks in a college level introductory information systems course using an empirical study that gave students the option to buy electronic or print versions of the same textbook. The study measured and analyzed student expectations prior to purchase, perceived performance and satisfaction after use, intention to…

  5. An Investigation of Student Expectation, Perceived Performance and Satisfaction of E-textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, George C.; Moon, Soo-Young

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the use of e-textbooks in a college level introductory information systems course using an empirical study that gave students the option to buy electronic or print versions of the same textbook. The study measured and analyzed student expectations prior to purchase, perceived performance and satisfaction after use, intention to

  6. Vicarious and Persuasive Influences on Efficacy Expectations and Intentions To Perform Breast Self-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    Tests the impact of symbolic modeling and persuasive efficacy information on self-efficacy beliefs and intentions to perform breast self-examinations among 147 undergraduate students. Assesses the effects of these modes of efficacy induction on fear arousal and response-outcome expectations. Finds symbolic modeling engendered greater efficacy…

  7. Virginia's College and Career Ready Initiative Grade 12 English Capstone Course Content and Performance Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Virginia's "College and Career Ready English Performance Expectations" grade 12 capstone course contains high-interest contextualized content designed to give certain students an additional boost for competent and successful entry into college and careers. The course will add to students' preparation for critical reading, college and workplace

  8. Performance evolution and expectations management: lessons from Tevatron and other machines

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-02-01

    We review the LHC luminosity progress in 2010, discuss the luminosity evolution of the Tevatron collider at different stages of the Collider Runs, emphasize general dynamics of the process, compare with the performance of the other colliders analyze planned and delivered luminosity integrals, and discuss the expectation management lessons.

  9. Migration Expectations and Performances of Open-Country Young Adults: A Longitudinal Study, 1948-1956.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoesting, Dean R.; Bohlen, Joe M.

    This paper discusses the migration expectations of a sample of 152 respondents interviewed while high school seniors in 1948 and reinterviewed in 1956 concerning their migration performances. The research was designed to test the general hypothesis that a relationship exists between certain social and personal characteristics and migration…

  10. How Students Build Their Performance Expectancies: The Importance of Need for Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in need for cognition (NFC) have been found to correspond with differences in information processing. Individuals with lower NFC process information using a peripheral route compared to individuals higher in NFC. These differences may effect the formation of performance expectancies. Based on previous work demonstrating that…

  11. Motivated or Paralyzed? Individuals' Beliefs about Intelligence Influence Performance Outcome of Expecting Rapid Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Jie; Vance, Kaleigh

    2013-01-01

    The current research examines whether and how beliefs about intelligence moderate the effects of expecting rapid feedback on exam performance. Thirty-six undergraduates participated in a field experiment with two between-subjects independent variables: anticipated feedback proximity and beliefs about intelligence. The results show that expecting…

  12. Shoe collar height effect on athletic performance, ankle joint kinematics and kinetics during unanticipated maximum-effort side-cutting performance.

    PubMed

    Lam, Gilbert Wing Kai; Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man

    2015-01-01

    Side-step cutting manoeuvres comprise the coordination between planting and non-planting legs. Increased shoe collar height is expected to influence ankle biomechanics of both legs and possibly respective cutting performance. This study examined the shoe collar height effect on kinematics and kinetics of planting and non-planting legs during an unanticipated side-step cutting. Fifteen university basketball players performed maximum-effort side-step cutting to the left 45° direction or a straight ahead run in response to a random light signal. Seven successful cutting trials were collected for each condition. Athletic performance, ground reaction force, ankle kinematics and kinetics of both legs were analysed using paired t-tests. Results indicated that high-collar shoes resulted in less ankle inversion and external rotation during initial contact for the planting leg. The high-collar shoes also exhibited a smaller ankle range of motion in the sagittal and transverse planes for both legs, respectively. However, no collar effect was found for ankle moments and performance indicators including cutting performance time, ground contact time, propulsion ground reaction forces and impulses. These findings indicated that high-collar shoes altered ankle positioning and restricted ankle joint freedom movements in both legs, while no negative effect was found for athletic cutting performance. PMID:25671398

  13. On the evaluation of expected performance cost for partially observed closed-loop stochastic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, D. S.; Eslami, M.

    1985-01-01

    New methods are presented for evaluating the expected performance cost of partially observed closed-loop stochastic systems. When the variances of the process statistics are small, a linearized model of the closed-loop stochastic system is defined for which the expected cost can be evaluated by recursion on a set of purely deterministic difference equations. When the variances of the process statistics are large, the linearized model can be used in the control variate method of variance reduction for reducing the number of sample paths required for effective Monte Carlo estimation.

  14. Autonomy Support and Intrinsic Goal Progress Expectancy and Its Links to Longitudinal Study Effort and Subjective Wellbeing: The Differential Mediating Effect of Intrinsic and Identified Regulations and the Moderator Effects of Effort and Intrinsic Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waaler, Rune; Halvari, Halgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) process model of subjective wellbeing among students at Norwegian Folk High Schools. In this model the authors hypothesized that students' intrinsic goal progress expectancy in the chosen study activity and perceived autonomy support from teachers would be positively…

  15. Autonomy Support and Intrinsic Goal Progress Expectancy and Its Links to Longitudinal Study Effort and Subjective Wellbeing: The Differential Mediating Effect of Intrinsic and Identified Regulations and the Moderator Effects of Effort and Intrinsic Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waaler, Rune; Halvari, Halgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) process model of subjective wellbeing among students at Norwegian Folk High Schools. In this model the authors hypothesized that students' intrinsic goal progress expectancy in the chosen study activity and perceived autonomy support from teachers would be positively

  16. A Study of Performance and Effort Expectancy Factors among Generational and Gender Groups to Predict Enterprise Social Software Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sunil S.

    2013-01-01

    Social software technology has gained considerable popularity over the last decade and has had a great impact on hundreds of millions of people across the globe. Businesses have also expressed their interest in leveraging its use in business contexts. As a result, software vendors and business consumers have invested billions of dollars to use

  17. A Study of Performance and Effort Expectancy Factors among Generational and Gender Groups to Predict Enterprise Social Software Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sunil S.

    2013-01-01

    Social software technology has gained considerable popularity over the last decade and has had a great impact on hundreds of millions of people across the globe. Businesses have also expressed their interest in leveraging its use in business contexts. As a result, software vendors and business consumers have invested billions of dollars to use…

  18. Predicting performance expectations from affective impressions: linking affect control theory and status characteristics theory.

    PubMed

    Dippong, Joseph; Kalkhoff, Will

    2015-03-01

    Affect control theory (ACT) and status characteristics theory (SCT) offer separate and distinct explanations for how individuals interpret and process status- and power-relevant information about interaction partners. Existing research within affect control theory offers evidence that status and power are related to the affective impressions that individuals form of others along the dimensions of evaluation and potency, respectively. Alternately, status characteristics theory suggests that status and power influence interaction through the mediating cognitive construct of performance expectations. Although both theories have amassed an impressive amount of empirical support, research has yet to articulate theoretical and empirical connections between affective impressions and performance expectations. The purpose of our study is to address this gap. Elaborating a link between ACT and SCT in terms of their central concepts can serve as a stepping stone to improving the explanatory capacity of both theories, while providing a potential bridge by which they can be employed jointly. PMID:25592917

  19. Promoting professional nursing practice: linking a professional practice model to performance expectations.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Marcia; Hinch, Barbara; Llewellyn, Jane; Dillon, Paula J; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    Professional practice models (PPMs) provide the conceptual framework for establishing professional nursing practice. Integrating a PPM requires complex organizational change. One strategy for integrating a PPM is to directly link the PPM with performance expectations to ensure that underlying beliefs are integrated into everyday practice. This article describes the development, implementation, and successful outcomes of a clinical advancement system that was aligned with a PPM. PMID:21320662

  20. Motivational profiles of medical students: Association with study effort, academic performance and exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Students enter the medical study with internally generated motives like genuine interest (intrinsic motivation) and/or externally generated motives like parental pressure or desire for status or prestige (controlled motivation). According to Self-determination theory (SDT), students could differ in their study effort, academic performance and adjustment to the study depending on the endorsement of intrinsic motivation versus controlled motivation. The objectives of this study were to generate motivational profiles of medical students using combinations of high or low intrinsic and controlled motivation and test whether different motivational profiles are associated with different study outcomes. Methods Participating students (N = 844) from University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands, were classified to different subgroups through K-means cluster analysis using intrinsic and controlled motivation scores. Cluster membership was used as an independent variable to assess differences in study strategies, self-study hours, academic performance and exhaustion from study. Results Four clusters were obtained: High Intrinsic High Controlled (HIHC), Low Intrinsic High Controlled (LIHC), High Intrinsic Low Controlled (HILC), and Low Intrinsic Low Controlled (LILC). HIHC profile, including the students who are interest + status motivated, constituted 25.2% of the population (N = 213). HILC profile, including interest-motivated students, constituted 26.1% of the population (N = 220). LIHC profile, including status-motivated students, constituted 31.8% of the population (N = 268). LILC profile, including students who have a low-motivation and are neither interest nor status motivated, constituted 16.9% of the population (N = 143). Interest-motivated students (HILC) had significantly more deep study strategy (p < 0.001) and self-study hours (p < 0.05), higher GPAs (p < 0.001) and lower exhaustion (p < 0.001) than status-motivated (LIHC) and low-motivation (LILC) students. Conclusions The interest-motivated profile of medical students (HILC) is associated with good study hours, deep study strategy, good academic performance and low exhaustion from study. The interest + status motivated profile (HIHC) was also found to be associated with a good learning profile, except that students with this profile showed higher surface strategy. Low-motivation (LILC) and status-motivated profiles (LIHC) were associated with the least desirable learning behaviours. PMID:23782767

  1. Cloudy with a Chance of Sarcasm or Sunny with High Expectations: Using Best Practice Language to Strengthen Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloman, Hal; Yates, Peggy H.

    2013-01-01

    What's the forecast in your classroom? Are you forecasting cloudy with a chance of sarcasm or sunny with high expectations? A teacher's Language of Practice holds the key to creating a climate of mutual respect in our schools. This article will explore the power and promise of "teacher language," and how it can be used to…

  2. Expectancy of stress-reducing aromatherapy effect and performance on a stress-sensitive cognitive task.

    PubMed

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG) task performance and event related potentials (ERP) components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma groups (active experimental, detectable, and undetectable placebo) and 2 prime subgroups (prime suggesting stress-reducing aroma effects or no-prime). GNG performance, ERPs, subjective expected aroma effects, and stress ratings were assessed at baseline and poststress. Results. No specific aroma effects on stress or cognition were observed. However, regardless of experienced aroma, people receiving a prime displayed faster poststress median reaction times than those receiving no prime. A significant interaction for N200 amplitude indicated divergent ERP patterns between baseline and poststress for go and no-go stimuli depending on the prime subgroup. Furthermore, trends for beneficial prime effects were shown on poststress no-go N200/P300 latencies and N200 amplitude. Conclusion. While there were no aroma-specific effects on stress or cognition, these results highlight the role of expectancy for poststress response inhibition and attention. PMID:25802539

  3. Expectancy of Stress-Reducing Aromatherapy Effect and Performance on a Stress-Sensitive Cognitive Task

    PubMed Central

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG) task performance and event related potentials (ERP) components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma groups (active experimental, detectable, and undetectable placebo) and 2 prime subgroups (prime suggesting stress-reducing aroma effects or no-prime). GNG performance, ERPs, subjective expected aroma effects, and stress ratings were assessed at baseline and poststress. Results. No specific aroma effects on stress or cognition were observed. However, regardless of experienced aroma, people receiving a prime displayed faster poststress median reaction times than those receiving no prime. A significant interaction for N200 amplitude indicated divergent ERP patterns between baseline and poststress for go and no-go stimuli depending on the prime subgroup. Furthermore, trends for beneficial prime effects were shown on poststress no-go N200/P300 latencies and N200 amplitude. Conclusion. While there were no aroma-specific effects on stress or cognition, these results highlight the role of expectancy for poststress response inhibition and attention. PMID:25802539

  4. Effort test performance in clinical acute brain injury, community brain injury, and epilepsy populations.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Natalie E; Kemp, Steven; Coughlan, Anthony K; Moulin, Chris J A; Bhakta, Bipin B

    2014-01-01

    Effort tests have become commonplace within medico-legal and forensic contexts and their use is rising within clinical settings. It is recognized that some patients may fail effort tests due to cognitive impairment and not because of poor effort. However, investigation of the base rate of failure among clinical populations other than dementia is limited. Forty-seven clinical participants were recruited and comprised three subgroups: acute brain injury (N = 11), community brain injury (N = 20), and intractable epilepsy (N = 16). Base rates of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT; Green, 2003 ) and six other less well-validated measures were investigated. A significant minority of patients failed effort tests according to standard cutoff scores, particularly patients with severe traumatic brain injury and marked frontal-executive features. The WMT was able to identify failures associated with significant cognitive impairment through the application of profile analysis and/or lowered cutoff levels. Implications for clinical assessment, effort test interpretation, and future research are discussed. PMID:25084843

  5. Mood impact on effort-related cardiovascular reactivity depends on task context: evidence from a task with an unfixed performance standard.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Knappe, Katja

    2014-08-01

    Gendolla and colleagues have consistently found that negative mood leads to higher effort-related cardiovascular reactivity than positive mood if performers can choose their own performance standard (Gendolla et al., 2001; Gendolla and Krüsken, 2001a, 2002a,b). However, an integration of motivational intensity theory with the mood literature suggests that the impact of mood on cardiovascular activity should vary with task context. In a 2 (task context: demand vs. reward)×2 (mood valence: negative vs. positive) between-persons design, participants performed a memory task without a fixed performance standard. The results showed the expected interaction. Positive mood led to higher effort mobilization-reflected by increased pre-ejection period and heart rate reactivity-than negative mood if participants had answered questions about task reward before performing the task. If participants had responded to questions about task demand, the pattern was reversed. These results extend and add to preceding research that has demonstrated that mood impact on effort-related cardiovascular activity is not stable but depends on task context. PMID:24814934

  6. Understanding Internet Searching Performance in a Heterogeneous Portal for K-12 Students: Search Success, Search Time, Strategy, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin; Robins, David; Holmes, Jason; Salaba, Athena

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to better understand search performance using an online portal containing a collection of heterogeneous library resources for K-12 students. Search performance is examined in terms of search success, search time, strategy, and effort. This study revealed unsuccessful searches tended to take longer than successful searches;…

  7. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits: An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating…

  8. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Margaret; Spurlock, C. Anna; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  9. Expected Performance of the CoRoT Planet Search from Light Curve Beauty Contests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutou, C.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Barge, P.; Blouin, D.; Borde, P.; Cabrera, J.; Carone, L.; Cautain, R.; Deeg, H.; Erikson, A.; Fressin, F.; Guis, V.; Leger, A.; Guterman, P.; Irwin, M.; Kabath, P.; Lanza, A.; Maceroni, C.; Mazeh, T.; Ollivier, M.; Pont, F.; Paetzold, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Schneider, J.; Tamuz, O.; Voss, H.; Zucker, S.

    2007-07-01

    The CoRoT space mission, scheduled for launch in December 2006, has two primary science goals: asteroseismology and the detection of planetary transits, the latter being the subject of this contribution. Given its expected photometric performance and its 150 day observing window, CoRoT will detect planets with periods up to 75 days and radii down to 2 Earth radii. To prepare for the data analysis and evaluate the detection limits of the mission, a number of blind exercises to detect planets in simulated light curves have been carried out within the CoRoT exoplanet community, and their results to date are summarized here.

  10. Middle School Students' Perceptions of Teachers' Expectations as They Relate to the Academic Performance of African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDorn, Daphne N.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher expectations and their effects on student academic performance began with the work of Robert Rosenthal (1968). His work led to a plethora of studies by researchers investigating teacher behaviors with high and low expectations of students. However, there are few studies on how students' perceptions of teacher expectations influence…

  11. Use of Groundwater Lifetime Expectancy for the Performance Assessment of Deep Geologic Radioactive Waste Repositories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaton, F.; Park, Y.; Normani, S.; Sudicky, E.; Sykes, J.

    2005-12-01

    Long-term solutions for the disposal of toxic wastes usually involve isolation of the wastes in a deep subsurface geologic environment. In the case of spent nuclear fuel, the safety of the host repository depends on two main barriers: the engineered barrier and the natural geological barrier. If radionuclide leakage occurs from the engineered barrier, the geological medium represents the ultimate barrier that is relied upon to ensure safety. Consequently, an evaluation of radionuclide travel times from the repository to the biosphere is critically important in a performance assessment analysis. In this study, we develop a travel time framework based on the concept of groundwater lifetime expectancy as a safety indicator. Lifetime expectancy characterizes the time radionuclides will spend in the subsurface after their release from the repository and prior to discharging into the biosphere. The probability density function of lifetime expectancy is computed throughout the host rock by solving the backward-in-time solute transport equation subject to a properly posed set of boundary conditions. It can then be used to define optimal repository locations. In a second step, the risk associated with selected sites can be evaluated by simulating an appropriate contaminant release history. The proposed methodology is applied in the context of a typical Canadian Shield environment. Based on a statistically-generated three-dimension network of fracture zones embedded in the granitic host rock, the sensitivity and the uncertainty of lifetime expectancy to the hydraulic and dispersive properties of the fracture network, including the impact of conditioning via their surface expressions, is computed in order to demonstrate the utility of the methodology.

  12. NICMOS in the Cryo-Cooler Era: Expectations for On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, E. J.; Schneider, G.; Ferro, A. J.; Hubbard, W. P.; Barg, M. I.; Stobie, E. B.; Thompson, R. I.; Boeker, Torsten; Holfeltz, S. T.; Petro, L. D.

    2000-12-01

    During Servicing Mission 3B for the Hubble Space Telescope, a reverse-Brayton cycle turbine cooler will be installed in conjunction with a new external radiator to recool the Near Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrometer's (NICMOS) MgCdTe focal plane arrays to operational temperatures of approximately 75K. The new NICMOS Cooling System (NCS) will circulate cold Neon gas through the cooling coils in the NICMOS cryostat (originally used to freeze out the now depleted solid Nitrogen cryogen). Today, NICMOS remains passively functional, and should return to full usability with all observing modes intact with the advent of the NCS. Here, we report on the expectations for the performance of NICMOS once integrated with and cooled by the NCS based on an extensive series of flight and ground experiments and our experience with flight spare detectors operated at these temperatures. We discuss the results from the shuttle-born HOST mission, laboratory experiments at the Steward Observatory NICMOS detector Laboratory emulating the on-orbit warm-up of the detectors, and system level and electro-magnetic susceptibility and interference tests at the Goddard Space Flight Center. From these, and our experience with the NICMOS both during its pre-launch testing and calibration, and on-orbit use during HST Cycle 7, we re-evaluate expectations for systemic read-noise, dark currents, thermal backgrounds, quantum efficiencies, and optical and mechanical stability of the instrument platform. We discuss the expected changes in these characteristics, with respect to HST Cycle 7, both in terms of established performance metrics and their effects on the formulation and conduction of effective observational strategies for conducting NICMOS science observations. This work is supported, in part, by NASA grant NAG5-3042 to the NICMOS Instrument Definition Team.

  13. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    PubMed Central

    Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

  14. Multistage selection strategies: simulating the effects on adverse impact and expected performance for various predictor combinations.

    PubMed

    Finch, David M; Edwards, Bryan D; Wallace, J Craig

    2009-03-01

    Examination of the trade-off between mean performance and adverse impact has received empirical attention for single-stage selection strategies; however, research for multistage selection strategies is almost nonexistent. The authors used Monte Carlo simulation to explore the trade-off between expected mean performance and minority hiring in multistage selection strategies and to identify those strategies most effective in balancing the trade-off. In total, 43 different multistage selection strategies were modeled; they reflected combinations of predictors with a wide range of validity, subgroup differences, and predictor intercorrelations. These selection models were examined across a variety of net and stage-specific selection ratios. Though it was still the case that an increase in minority hiring was associated with a decrease in predicted performance for many scenarios, the current results revealed that certain multistage strategies are much more effective than others for managing the performance and adverse impact trade-offs. The current study identified several multistage strategies that are clearly more desirable than those strategies previously suggested in the literature for practitioners who seek a practical selection system that will yield a high-performing and highly representative workforce. PMID:19271793

  15. The Relationship between Levels of Expertise, Task Difficulty, Perceived Self-Efficacy, and Mental Effort Investment in Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsin-Ning

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of different levels of task difficulty and expertise on self-efficacy judgments. In addition, the study examines how self-efficacy judgments affect the amount of mental effort investment and task performance under different levels of task difficulty and expertise. Results from this study are used to build a…

  16. Effects of Imagery Training on Cognitive Performance and Use of Physiological Measures as an Assessment Tool of Mental Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadelis, Christos; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Albani, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of motor imagery training on cognitive performance was examined and the physiological mechanisms involved in the contribution of mental practice to motor learning were considered. The subject's mental effort during motor imagery was assessed by using psychophysiological measures and particularly eye blink activity as an…

  17. Attributional Bias Instrument (ABI): Validation of a Measure to Assess Ability and Effort Explanations for Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope P.; Quezada, Stephanie A.; Rincones, Rodolfo; Strobach, E. Natalia; Gutierrez, Maria Armida Estrada

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the validation of a newly developed instrument, the attributional bias instrument, based on achievement attribution theories that distinguish between effort and ability explanations of behavior. The instrument further incorporates the distinction between explanations for success versus failure in academic performance.…

  18. The Interactive Effects of Conscientiousness, Work Effort, and Psychological Climate on Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Zinta S.; Stoner, Jason; Thompson, Kenneth R.; Hochwarter, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Historically, conscientiousness-performance relationships have been modest, suggesting the need to examine theoretically-relevant moderating variables. Based on theory and empirical research suggesting that performance variance is maximally predicted in the presence of person and situation variables, we examined the moderating potential of work…

  19. Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdian, David C.

    2012-10-01

    Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for targeted advertisement of student resources such as tutoring services. The students who are identified in the over-performing student population received higher grades than their fellow students, but spent less time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for honors programs, independent research projects, and peer-tutoring programs. Incorporating these evaluation criteria to online homework systems will allow instructors to quickly identify students in these academic student populations.

  20. Benchmarks and performance indicators: two tools for evaluating organizational results and continuous quality improvement efforts.

    PubMed

    McKeon, T

    1996-04-01

    Benchmarks are tools that can be compared across companies and industries to measure process output. The key to benchmarking is understanding the composition of the benchmark and whether the benchmarks consist of homogeneous groupings. Performance measures expand the concept of benchmarking and cross organizational boundaries to include factors that are strategically important to organizational success. Incorporating performance measures into a balanced score card will provide a comprehensive tool to evaluate organizational results. PMID:8634466

  1. Effects of Motivational Prompts on Motivation, Effort, and Performance on a Low-Stakes Standardized Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Katrice A.; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana; Suh, Yonghee

    2015-01-01

    Increased demands for accountability have placed an emphasis on assessment of student learning outcomes. At the post-secondary level, many of the assessments are considered low-stakes, as student performance is linked to few, if any, individual consequences. Given the prevalence of low-stakes assessment of student learning, research that…

  2. A Memory Game to Demonstrate the Power of Collaborative Efforts to Improve Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buche, Mari W.

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration is an important aspect of information systems (IS) education since work is typically performed in teams. However, IS students often do not fully appreciate the value of group work in their business courses. This teaching tip describes an activity that will objectively demonstrate the value of collaboration and diversity of…

  3. Federal Efforts to Improve the Lowest-Performing Schools: District Views on School Improvement Grant Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

    2011-01-01

    As Congress considers legislation to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965, one topic of debate is the program of school improvement grants (SIGs) authorized by section 1003(g) of Title I. SIGs are intended to help to turn around low-performing schools and are part of the larger ESEA Title I program to improve…

  4. Reflective Thinking, Effort, Persistence, Disorganization and Academic Performance: A Mediational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This article reports on a two-phase study that was conducted looking at study processing strategies, reflective thinking practice, and academic performance. Phase I is a mediational analysis of conceptual model that we have developed involving examination of direct and mediating effects between the four phases of reflection (habitual…

  5. Contribution to hospital performance: market orientation vs. marketing effort and lack of competition.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Marketing is still viewed with some skepticism by some hospital administrators who wonder if marketing is needed when the hospital is in a benign competitive environment. This research seeks to investigate the contribution of a marketing orientation to hospital performance beyond what can be achieved by merely spending money on promotion or not facing stiff competition. Findings reveal that having an authentic market orientation makes a significant contribution to a hospital's success above what can be achieved through promotional budgets and lack of competition. PMID:12569991

  6. How NOAA/DSCOVR Will Perform during Extreme Space Weather and Why Lead Time Exceeds Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesecker, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The NOAA/DSCOVR satellite is expected to launch in January, 2015 and replace the NASA/ACE satellite as the L1 Sentinel in early Summer, 2015. Having relied on ACE to provide critical warnings of geomagnetic storms since 1998, it is important for the space weather community to understand how DSCOVR will perform relative to ACE in real-time operations. The WIND/SWE instrument is sufficiently similar to the DSCOVR Faraday Cup that it can be used as a proxy for DSCOVR, with some caveats. We compare the ACE/SWEPAM and WIND/SWE observations for all geomagnetic storm events meeting the criteria of severe or extreme. We also examine time periods where ACE data were compromised by solar energetic particles. We find that DSCOVR will provide a more robust data stream than was provided by ACE during solar cycle 23. We will briefly address the magnetometer, supra-thermal particle measurements, and relativistic proton measurements provided by ACE, of which only the magnetometer is retained on DSCOVR. We also demonstrate that lead time for geomagnetic storm notifications to customers far exceeds the L1 to Earth delay time.

  7. Performance expectations of the associate degree nurse graduate within the first six months.

    PubMed

    Diede, N; McNish, G; Coose, C

    2000-10-01

    The Oklahoma Associate Degree Nursing Directors Council was determined to be proactive in defining the role of the associate degree registered nurse (ADN) within the evolving health care delivery system. A task force was formed by the Council to design and implement strategies for defining the emerging roles. Strategies included surveying health care employers on the performance expectations of the ADN graduates within the first six months of employment. The employers were asked to determine the importance of various functions and abilities that the ADN graduates may or may not possess. Surveys returned were representative of a variety of rural and urban agencies throughout the state and bordering areas. Responses were grouped into 21 categories. Ranked highest was the ability to demonstrate verbal and written communication effectively with accountability to the employer and personal attributes such as open-mindedness, flexibility, and receptiveness to criticism ranked second and third. The lowest rankings received were for competency with fiscal management. The results of the survey highlight the continued need to stress strong communication skills, as well as professional accountability throughout the educational process. PMID:11052652

  8. Modeling the expected performance of the REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, Niraj K.; Binzel, Richard P.; Hong, Jae Sub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-09-01

    OSIRIS-REx is the third spacecraft in the NASA New Frontiers Program and is planned for launch in 2016. OSIRIS-REx will orbit the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, characterize it, and return a sample of the asteroid's regolith back to Earth. The Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is an instrument on OSIRIS-REx designed and built by students at MIT and Harvard. The purpose of REXIS is to collect and image sun-induced fluorescent X-rays emitted by Bennu, thereby providing spectroscopic information related to the elemental makeup of the asteroid regolith and the distribution of features over its surface. Telescopic reflectance spectra suggest a CI or CM chondrite analog meteorite class for Bennu, where this primitive nature strongly motivates its study. A number of factors, however, will influence the generation, measurement, and interpretation of the X-ray spectra measured by REXIS. These include: the compositional nature and heterogeneity of Bennu, the time-variable solar state, X-ray detector characteristics, and geometric parameters for the observations. In this paper, we will explore how these variables influence the precision to which REXIS can measure Bennu's surface composition. By modeling the aforementioned factors, we place bounds on the expected performance of REXIS and its ability to ultimately place Bennu in an analog meteorite class.

  9. Efforts to achieve high-performance long-pulse operations in the EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Baonian; EAST Team; Collaborators

    2016-01-01

    To achieve long-pulse tokamak operation, sufficient current drive and self-generated current are required, with the challenges of the exhaust of the heat from the divertor plates. Experiments have proven that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can broaden the divertor power footprint and cause the splitting of the strike point current and hence reduce the peak heat flux on the divertors. Edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation can be realized by supersonic molecule beam injection (SMBI), modulated LHCD, lithium granule and aerosol injection, as well as resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). Enhanced transport by an electrostatic edge coherent mode at the pedestal region is observed in the ELM mitigated plasmas by LHCD. Long-pulse H-mode plasmas in the small ELMy regime have been demonstrated by a combination of ELM mitigation techniques and the optimization of the plasma confinement performance. These newly achieved H-mode scenarios by using features of LHCD in the control of steady-state peak heat flux and transient heat flux due to ELMs may offer a promising regime for further EAST long-pulse high-performance operation and be applicable to ITER.

  10. Comparison of Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of Virginia's mathematics performance expectations with the common core state standards for mathematics. The comparison focuses on number and quantity, algebra, functions, geometry, and statistics and probability. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  11. FY13 High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort - Training Data Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Charvat, Jacqueline; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    From the time hand-intensive tasks were first created for EVAs, discomforts and injuries have been noted.. There have been numerous versions of EVA gloves for US crew over the past 50 years, yet pain and injuries persist. The investigation team was tasked with assisting in a glove injury assessment for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project.center dot To aid in this assessment, the team was asked to complete the following objectives: - First, to develop the best current understanding of what glove-related injuries have occurred to date, and when possible, identify the specific mechanisms that caused those injuries - Second, to create a standardized method for comparison of glove injury potential from one glove to another. center dot The overall goal of the gloved hand injury assessment is to utilize ergonomics in understanding how these glove injuries are occurring, and to propose mitigations to current designs or design changes in the next generation of EVA gloves.

  12. Athlome Project Consortium: a concerted effort to discover genomic and other "omic" markers of athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Tanaka, Masashi; Eynon, Nir; Bouchard, Claude; North, Kathryn N; Williams, Alun G; Collins, Malcolm; Moran, Colin N; Britton, Steven L; Fuku, Noriyuki; Ashley, Euan A; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Ahmetov, Ildus I; de Geus, Eco; Alsayrafi, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, injury predisposition, and elite/world-class athletic status, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies predominantly focusing on genotyping a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms or the insertion/deletion variants in small, often heterogeneous cohorts (i.e., made up of athletes of quite different sport specialties) have not generated the kind of results that could offer solid opportunities to bridge the gap between basic research in exercise sciences and deliverables in biomedicine. A retrospective view of genetic association studies with complex disease traits indicates that transition to hypothesis-free genome-wide approaches will be more fruitful. In studies of complex disease, it is well recognized that the magnitude of genetic association is often smaller than initially anticipated, and, as such, large sample sizes are required to identify the gene effects robustly. A symposium was held in Athens and on the Greek island of Santorini from 14-17 May 2015 to review the main findings in exercise genetics and genomics and to explore promising trends and possibilities. The symposium also offered a forum for the development of a position stand (the Santorini Declaration). Among the participants, many were involved in ongoing collaborative studies (e.g., ELITE, GAMES, Gene SMART, GENESIS, and POWERGENE). A consensus emerged among participants that it would be advantageous to bring together all current studies and those recently launched into one new large collaborative initiative, which was subsequently named the Athlome Project Consortium. PMID:26715623

  13. Expectation to receive methylphenidate enhances subjective arousal but not cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2013-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription stimulant medication such as methylphenidate (MPH) has increased among college students over the past several years. Common motivations for use include enhancements in cognition and subjective arousal. As it is unclear whether stimulant medication exerts the same effect on healthy individuals as for those with ADHD, it is possible that many reported effects of prescription stimulants by healthy individuals may stem from placebo effects, which may be an important mechanism underlying initiation and maintenance of nonmedical use. This study examined whether placebo effects influence reports of subjective mood and cognitive performance among college students who endorsed several risk factors for prescription stimulant misuse (i.e., low GPA, fraternity/sorority involvement, binge drinking, cannabis use). Ninety-six subjects (60% male) completed a battery of cognitive tests and questionnaires assessing present mood state on two occasions. Forty-seven participants were randomized to an experimental condition and orally ingested what they believed to be MPH, though actually placebo, on one visit and received no medication on the other visit. The control group received no medication on either visit. During the administration visit, experimental participants reported feeling significantly more high and stimulated compared to the non-administration visit and to the control subjects. However, cognitive enhancement differences were not generally seen between visits or groups. This research demonstrates that placebo effects for prescription stimulants do influence subjective mood and may be implicated in nonmedical stimulant use. This knowledge may be useful in challenging prescription stimulant-related expectancies to decrease the prevalence of use among college students. PMID:21875224

  14. Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported. Detailed consideration of the effects of both the natural and induced ionizing radiation environment during ISS design, development, and flight operations has produced a safe, efficient manned space platform that is largely immune to deleterious effects of the LEO ionizing radiation environment. The assumption of a small shielding mass for purposes of design and verification has been shown to be a valid worst-case approximation approach to design for reliability, though predicted dependences of single event effect (SEE) effects on latitude, longitude, SEP events, and spacecraft structural shielding mass are not observed. The Figure of Merit (FOM) method over predicts the rate for median shielding masses of about 10g/cm(exp 2) by only a factor of 3, while the Scott Effective Flux Approach (SEFA) method overestimated by about one order of magnitude as expected. The Integral Rectangular Parallelepiped (IRPP), SEFA, and FOM methods for estimating on-orbit (Single Event Upsets) SEU rates all utilize some version of the CREME-96 treatment of energetic particle interaction with structural shielding, which has been shown to underestimate the production of secondary particles in heavily shielded manned spacecraft. The need for more work directed to development of a practical understanding of secondary particle production in massive structural shielding for SEE design and verification is indicated. In contrast, total dose estimates using CAD based shielding mass distributions functions and the Shieldose Code provided a reasonable accurate estimate of accumulated dose in Grays internal to the ISS pressurized elements, albeit as a result of using worst-on-worst case assumptions (500 km altitude x 2) that compensate for ignoring both GCR and secondary particle production in massive structural shielding.

  15. Performance Expectations of the Associate Degree Nurse Graduate within the First Six Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diede, Nancy; McNish, Gayle; Coose, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 174 health care employers identified their expectations of entry-level associate degree nursing graduates. Verbal/written communication, accountability, flexibility, and open mindedness ranked highest. Fiscal management competence ranked lowest. (SK)

  16. Beam dynamics and expected RHIC performance with 56MHz RF upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov,A.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2009-05-04

    An upgrade of the RHIC storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was recently proposed. This upgrade will provide a significant increase in the acceptance of the RHIC 197 MHz storage RF bucket. This paper summarizes simulations of beam evolution due to intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvements are shown for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and protons at 250 GeV.

  17. Effort testing in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: validity indicator profile and test of memory malingering performance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sandra; Root, James C; Bascetta, Brittany Lynn

    2014-03-01

    While the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) and the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) are designed to limit the influence of actual cognitive impairment on successful performance, the extent to which cognitive dysfunction does play a role in the assessment of effort should be verified in distinct clinical groups. To date, little research has been conducted on VIP performance in individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. Fifty-four patients with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered the VIP, TOMM, Short Test of Mental Status, and the Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest. Specificity rates were compared between tests, with normative data, and with published specificity rates in psychiatric samples. Results indicate that the use of the VIP with psychotic-disordered individuals will generate increased invalid performance profiles, whereas the TOMM is more resilient in this population. Significantly, mental status and estimated intellectual ability were predictive of classifications on the VIP Verbal subtest and the TOMM. PMID:24002172

  18. Expectations and Outcomes of Reserve Network Performance following Re-zoning of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.

    PubMed

    Emslie, Michael J; Logan, Murray; Williamson, David H; Ayling, Anthony M; MacNeil, M Aaron; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Cheal, Alistair J; Evans, Richard D; Johns, Kerryn A; Jonker, Michelle J; Miller, Ian R; Osborne, Kate; Russ, Garry R; Sweatman, Hugh P A

    2015-04-20

    Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are widely advocated for preserving exploited fish stocks and for conserving biodiversity. We used underwater visual surveys of coral reef fish and benthic communities to quantify the short- to medium-term (5 to 30 years) ecological effects of the establishment of NTMRs within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). The density, mean length, and biomass of principal fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp., Variola spp.), were consistently greater in NTMRs than on fished reefs over both the short and medium term. However, there were no clear or consistent differences in the structure of fish or benthic assemblages, non-target fish density, fish species richness, or coral cover between NTMR and fished reefs. There was no indication that the displacement and concentration of fishing effort reduced coral trout populations on fished reefs. A severe tropical cyclone impacted many survey reefs during the study, causing similar declines in coral cover and fish density on both NTMR and fished reefs. However, coral trout biomass declined only on fished reefs after the cyclone. The GBRMP is performing as expected in terms of the protection of fished stocks and biodiversity for a developed country in which fishing is not excessive and targets a narrow range of species. NTMRs cannot protect coral reefs directly from acute regional-scale disturbance but, after a strong tropical cyclone, impacted NTMR reefs supported higher biomass of key fishery-targeted species and so should provide valuable sources of larvae to enhance population recovery and long-term persistence. PMID:25819564

  19. Science objectives and Expected performances of NOMAD, an ExoMars TGO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Séverine; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Thomas, Ian; Daerden, Frank; Depiesse, Cédric; Drummond, Rachel; Neary, Lori; Willame, Yannick; Lopez-Moreno, José Juan; Rodriguez-Gomez, Julio; Patel, Manish R.; Bellucci, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    NOMAD, the "Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery" spectrometer suite will be part of the payload of the 2016 ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Mission. This instrument suite will measure the atmosphere of Mars in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions covering 0.2 - 0.65 and 2.2 - 4.3 μm. It is composed of three channels: a solar occultation only channel (SO) operating in the infrared wavelength domain, a second infrared channel capable of doing nadir, but also solar occultation and limb observations (LNO), and an ultraviolet/visible channel (UVIS) that can work in all observation modes. Thanks to its very high spectral resolution and multiple observational modes, NOMAD will be able to detect a wide range of atmospheric trace gases, many of which are important markers of geophysical and/or biogenic activity. While the instrument is being assembled and tested, scientific preparations have begun. ASIMUT-ALVL, a line-by-line radiative transfer code developed at IASB-BIRA, is used to simulate spectra in the infrared range (0.7 ' 4.5 μm) as would be measured by the instrument and under various atmospheric conditions obtained from the IASB-BIRA GCM, GEM-Mars. Random noise has then been added to the simulated spectra to match the real instrument characteristics of each channel: SNRs have been derived using a model that simulates the real instrument (e.g. transmission properties of optical components, expected in-flight instrument temperatures, detector responsivities, etc.). After NOMAD has been calibrated and tested, these values will be amended to match the ground-calibration results. ASIMUT-ALVL has then been used to perform retrievals on the noisy spectra. In order to establish detection limits of trace gas and key isotopologues such as CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, H2CO, H2S, H2O, HDO, CO, HCl, HCN, N2O, NO2, O3, OCS, SO2, or NH3 we had to define the best spectral ranges (both in the UV and IR) to be studied for each molecule and each observation mode. These results will be presented.

  20. The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first…

  1. Different aspects of performance feedback engage different brain areas: disentangling valence and expectancy in feedback processing.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Nicola K; Opitz, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the positive and negative outcomes of our behaviour is important for action selection and learning. Such reinforcement learning has been shown to engage a specific neural circuitry including the mesencephalic dopamine system and its target areas, the striatum and medial frontal cortex, especially the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). An intensively pursued debate regards the prevailing influence of feedback expectancy and feedback valence on the engagement of these two brain regions in reinforcement learning and their respective roles are far from being understood. To this end, we used a time estimation task with three different types of feedback that allows disentangling the effect of feedback valence and expectancy using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results show greater ACC activation after unexpected positive and unexpected negative feedback than after expected feedback and by this sensitivity to unexpected events in general irrespective of their valence. PMID:25100234

  2. Student Expectations and Labour Market Performance: The Case of the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; Sanyal, Bikas

    1981-01-01

    Data on higher education students and graduates in the Philippines in 1977 is used to assess the ex ante student perceptions of the labor market against actual labor market outcomes. A comparison of expected and actual earnings by sample characteristics reveals a high degree of realism from the students. (Author/MLW)

  3. Expectancy Work Motivation, Central Life Interests, Voluntarism, Organizational Situation, Job Satisfaction, and Perceived Teaching Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; And Others

    This study tested the hypotheses that expectancy work motivation, individual attitudes toward work, and structural and environmental components are predictions of teacher job satisfaction and effectiveness. Samples were selected from junior high school and higher education faculties. Subjects responded to open-ended questionnaires, and results…

  4. Health care expenditure and life expectancy in Australia: how well do we perform?

    PubMed

    Taylor, R; Salkeld, G

    1996-06-01

    The Australian health care system consists of mixed public and private financing underpinned by Medicare, a universal government-run insurance scheme paid through taxation (and levy) on income. Australia has improved its ranking for life expectancy (at birth) since 1960, and in 1990 ranked ninth and seventh of 24 countries for females and males respectively; this is ahead of the United States and United Kingdom, and approximately equal to Canada. Australian hospital bed supply and utilisation are average, after deletion of day-only cases. The proportion of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on health, in relation to GDP per capita (adjusted for purchasing power), in Australia in 1990 was average, and the prices for health care from 1975 to 1990 did not increase when adjusted for inflation. Although 68 per cent of health expenditure emanates from public sources in Australia, this is lower than in the majority of European countries and Canada. Some countries are doing poorly (such as the United States, with lower than average life expectancy and higher than predicted health expenditure) and some countries are doing well (with higher than average life expectancy and lower than predicted health expenditure; for example, Japan). Australia has higher than average life expectancy and only slightly higher than predicted health expenditure per capita. Although the Australian system could be improved, there are no indications that radical changes are required. The relatively high life expectancy in Australia can be attributed to favourable social and economic conditions, successful public health programs, and the availability of universal quality health care. PMID:8768411

  5. Effects of imagery training on cognitive performance and use of physiological measures as an assessment tool of mental effort.

    PubMed

    Papadelis, Christos; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Albani, Maria

    2007-06-01

    The effectiveness of motor imagery training on cognitive performance was examined and the physiological mechanisms involved in the contribution of mental practice to motor learning were considered. The subject's mental effort during motor imagery was assessed by using psychophysiological measures and particularly eye blink activity as an 'indirect' measurement of subjects' attention. An electronic flight simulation program (Multiple Attribute Task Battery--MATB) was used to assess performance. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the study divided in two groups: the control group and the imagery-training group. The subjects of the imagery group were asked for additional imagery training. The subjects of the actual performing group were asked additionally to passively observe the task in order to have equal time of exposure to the task. Performance scores and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, eye blinking activity and muscular activity were recorded during all sessions. The results revealed significantly higher performance level of the imagery-training group than the control group. Heart rate and respiratory rate significantly increased during imagery sessions compared to rest. A slight electromyographic activity was observed during the imagination of movement. Our findings support the notion that mental practice improves motor performance in a task where spatiotemporal or dynamic control of the action is highly required. The effects of mental practice on motor performance could be explained by the existence of a top-down mechanism based on the activation of a central representation of the movements, since the vegetative activation during motor imagery seems to be centrally controlled. PMID:17335950

  6. General and Specific Self-Efficacy in the Context of a Training Intervention to Enhance Performance Expectancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwoerer, Catherine E.; May, Douglas R.; Hollensbe, Elaine C.; Mencl, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A pretest-posttest field study investigated self-efficacy, both general and specific, in an intensive training experience to prepare new recruits for their work assignments. Specific issues addressed include (1) the effects of the training experience on general self-efficacy (GSE), work-specific selfefficacy (SSE), and performance expectancy; (2)…

  7. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  8. A Study of an Information Retrieval Performance Measure: Expected Search Length as a Function of File Size and Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Donald R.; Kraft, Donald H.

    A framework is developed to evaluate expected search length, an important measure of an information storage and retrieval system's performance, as a function of the size of the information file and its organization in terms of indexing search structure. Previous research pertaining to search length by W.S. Cooper and others is surveyed and…

  9. General and Specific Self-Efficacy in the Context of a Training Intervention to Enhance Performance Expectancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwoerer, Catherine E.; May, Douglas R.; Hollensbe, Elaine C.; Mencl, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A pretest-posttest field study investigated self-efficacy, both general and specific, in an intensive training experience to prepare new recruits for their work assignments. Specific issues addressed include (1) the effects of the training experience on general self-efficacy (GSE), work-specific selfefficacy (SSE), and performance expectancy; (2)

  10. Expecting Success: A Study of Five High Performing, High Poverty Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Mary A.; Clubine, Betsy; Constable, Deborah; Smith, Pamela A.

    This report identifies and describes practices that support the achievement of students enrolled in five high performing, high poverty elementary schools. Findings indicate that despite variations, the school share many similarities in terms of the strategies they employ to strengthen academic performance: (1) the schools embrace the belief that

  11. Expectancy and the Menstrual Cycle: Effects on Performance and Self-Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altenhaus, Amy L.

    The impact of false information concerning the effect of the menstrual cycle on test performance and subjects' perception of the adequacy of that performance were investigated. Women (N=65) were studied either during the premenstrual or midcycle phase. Subjects were given one of three interpretations: (1) they should do well because of their…

  12. A liquid xenon imaging telescope for gamma ray astrophysics: Design and expected performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Chen, D.; Bolotnikov, A.

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution telescope for imaging cosmic x ray sources in the MeV region, with an angular resolution better than 0.5 deg is being developed as balloon-borne payload. The instrument consists of a 3-D liquid xenon TPC as x ray detector, coupled with a coded aperture at a distance of 1 meter. A study of the actual source distribution of the 1.809 MeV line from the decay of Al-26 and the 511 keV positron-electron annihilation line is among the scientific objectives, along with a search for new x ray sources. The telescope design parameters and expected minimum flux sensitivity to line and continuum radiation are presented. The unique capablity of the LXe-TPC as a Compton Polarimeter is also discussed.

  13. Clustering performance comparison using K-means and expectation maximization algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yong Gyu; Kang, Min Soo; Heo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is an important means of data mining based on separating data categories by similar features. Unlike the classification algorithm, clustering belongs to the unsupervised type of algorithms. Two representatives of the clustering algorithms are the K-means and the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Linear regression analysis was extended to the category-type dependent variable, while logistic regression was achieved using a linear combination of independent variables. To predict the possibility of occurrence of an event, a statistical approach is used. However, the classification of all data by means of logistic regression analysis cannot guarantee the accuracy of the results. In this paper, the logistic regression analysis is applied to EM clusters and the K-means clustering method for quality assessment of red wine, and a method is proposed for ensuring the accuracy of the classification results. PMID:26019610

  14. IBS and expected luminosity performance for RHIC beams at top energy with 56 MHz SRF cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov,A.

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of RF system in RHIC is to capture injected bunches, accelerate them to the top energy, and store bunches at the top energy for many hours. The accelerating RF system operates at harmonic number h=360 of the particle revolution frequency f=78.196 kHz, which corresponds to 28.15MHz. The storage RF system accepts the shortened bunches at top energy and provides longitudinal focusing to keep these bunches short during the store time (collision mode). The storage system operates at harmonic number h=7x360=2520, which corresponds to an RF frequency of 197.05 MHz [1]. Recently, an upgrade of storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was proposed [2]. This upgrade will provide significant increase in the acceptance of storage RF bucket. Presently, the short bunch length for collisions is obtained via RF gymnastics with bunch rotation (called re-bucketing), because the length of 197MHz bucket of 5 nsec is too short to accommodate long bunches otherwise. However, due to bucket non-linearity and hardware complications some increase in the longitudinal emittance occurs during re-bucketing. The 56MHz cavity will produce sufficiently short bunches which would allow one to operate without re-bucketing procedure. This Note summarizes simulation of beam evolution due to Intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvement is shown both for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and for protons at 250 GeV.

  15. Planck pre-launch status: Low Frequency Instrument calibration and expected scientific performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennella, A.; Bersanelli, M.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Davis, R. J.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; Gregorio, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lowe, S. R.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Meinhold, P.; Mendes, L.; Morgante, G.; Sandri, M.; Stringhetti, L.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Valenziano, L.; Villa, F.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.; Balasini, M.; Franceschet, C.; Battaglia, P.; Lapolla, P. M.; Leutenegger, P.; Miccolis, M.; Pagan, L.; Silvestri, R.; Aja, B.; Artal, E.; Baldan, G.; Bastia, P.; Bernardino, T.; Boschini, L.; Cafagna, G.; Cappellini, B.; Cavaliere, F.; Colombo, F.; de La Fuente, L.; Edgeley, J.; Falvella, M. C.; Ferrari, F.; Fogliani, S.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.; Gomez, F.; Herreros, J. M.; Hildebrandt, S.; Hoyland, R.; Hughes, N.; Jukkala, P.; Kettle, D.; Laaninen, M.; Lawson, D.; Leahy, P.; Levin, S.; Lilje, P. B.; Maino, D.; Malaspina, M.; Manzato, P.; Marti-Canales, J.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Mediavilla, A.; Pasian, F.; Pascual, J. P.; Pecora, M.; Peres-Cuevas, L.; Platania, P.; Pospieszalsky, M.; Poutanen, T.; Rebolo, R.; Roddis, N.; Salmon, M.; Seiffert, M.; Simonetto, A.; Sozzi, C.; Tauber, J.; Tuovinen, J.; Varis, J.; Wilkinson, A.; Winder, F.

    2010-09-01

    We present the calibration and scientific performance parameters of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) measured during the ground cryogenic test campaign. These parameters characterise the instrument response and constitute our optimal pre-launch knowledge of the LFI scientific performance. The LFI shows excellent 1/f stability and rejection of instrumental systematic effects; its measured noise performance shows that LFI is the most sensitive instrument of its kind. The calibration parameters will be updated during flight operations until the end of the mission.

  16. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  17. Performance Expectations for Future Moderate Resolution Visible and Infrared Space Instruments Based on AIRS and MODIS In-Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Broberg, Steven E.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Baron, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Lessons learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) projects highlight areas where further technology development is needed to address future land, ocean and atmospheric measurement needs. Although not established as requirements at this time, it is anticipated that scientists will expect improvements in the areas of spatial, spectral, radiometric, polarimetric, temporal and calibration performance for future sensors. This paper addresses each of these performance areas and provides lessons learned from MODIS and AIRS. We also present expectations in performance of the system based on information from NASA Instrument Incubator Program and industry reports. Tradeoffs are presented vs orbit altitude (LEO, ME0 and GEO) and provide a 'systems' perspective to future measurement concepts.

  18. Leadership Styles and School Performance: Is There a Gender Difference in Expectations for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Iris Denise

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the research on the perceptions of gender differences in leadership styles is explored. The study also attempts to determine whether there are differences in overall school performance for male versus female school principals. The methodology involved a mixed-model ANOVA analysis of findings from 31 principals and 236 teachers…

  19. Leadership Styles and School Performance: Is There a Gender Difference in Expectations for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Iris Denise

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the research on the perceptions of gender differences in leadership styles is explored. The study also attempts to determine whether there are differences in overall school performance for male versus female school principals. The methodology involved a mixed-model ANOVA analysis of findings from 31 principals and 236 teachers

  20. The Threat of Living up to Expectations: Analyzing the Performance of Hispanic Students on Standardized Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrguez, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines whether the recognition of stereotypes undermines the academic performance of Hispanic students, a phenomenon known as "stereotype threat." With regard to race, stereotype threat has been examined predominately between African American and White students, yet limited research has investigated how Hispanic

  1. The Threat of Living up to Expectations: Analyzing the Performance of Hispanic Students on Standardized Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines whether the recognition of stereotypes undermines the academic performance of Hispanic students, a phenomenon known as "stereotype threat." With regard to race, stereotype threat has been examined predominately between African American and White students, yet limited research has investigated how Hispanic…

  2. Site Effect and Expected Seismic Performance of Buildings in Palestine- Case Study: Nablus City

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    2008-07-08

    The effects of local geology on ground-motion amplification and building damage were studied in Palestine-West Bank. Nakamura's method of microtremor analysis was applied in this study. The measurements showed significantly higher amplification in the frequency range of building vulnerability in different parts of Nablus city. This finding is consistent with the distribution of the earthquake damage grades in the urban areas struck by the 11 February 2004 earthquake (ML = 5.2) with a focal depth of 17 km beneath the northeastern part of the Dead Sea Basin. Quite large differences in amplification between around 1 and 9 were computed between the eastern and western rims of the city. The downtown built in the central part of the city on soft clay, marl and valley deposits, whereas the northern and southern parts of urban areas in Nablus city lying on mountains consist of consolidated carbonates bedrock. In the central part of the city and at the rims, where the thickness of fluvial deposits and soft formations is about 15 m, amplifications between 6.74 and 8.67 for dominant natural period range of 0.8-1.1 sec were obtained. On the southern and northern mountains, which are located on limestone rocks covered with a thin layer of soil, the amplification in the same frequency range was low. Calculating the natural period of the existing common buildings (T{sub b}) in the studied area (buildings with 10-12 stories), by using the dynamic analysis method. The values of T{sub b} obtained were much closed to the site dominant natural period (Ts). The findings of this study indicate that the expected differences in damage grades for urban areas in Nablus city could be attributed to variations in the thickness and physical properties of Tertiary-Quaternary sediments, which appear to be rather heterogeneous.

  3. Site Effect and Expected Seismic Performance of Buildings in Palestine- Case Study: Nablus City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    2008-07-01

    The effects of local geology on ground-motion amplification and building damage were studied in Palestine-West Bank. Nakamura's method of microtremor analysis was applied in this study. The measurements showed significantly higher amplification in the frequency range of building vulnerability in different parts of Nablus city. This finding is consistent with the distribution of the earthquake damage grades in the urban areas struck by the 11 February 2004 earthquake (ML = 5.2) with a focal depth of 17 km beneath the northeastern part of the Dead Sea Basin. Quite large differences in amplification between around 1 and 9 were computed between the eastern and western rims of the city. The downtown built in the central part of the city on soft clay, marl and valley deposits, whereas the northern and southern parts of urban areas in Nablus city lying on mountains consist of consolidated carbonates bedrock. In the central part of the city and at the rims, where the thickness of fluvial deposits and soft formations is about 15 m, amplifications between 6.74 and 8.67 for dominant natural period range of 0.8-1.1 sec were obtained. On the southern and northern mountains, which are located on limestone rocks covered with a thin layer of soil, the amplification in the same frequency range was low. Calculating the natural period of the existing common buildings (Tb) in the studied area (buildings with 10-12 stories), by using the dynamic analysis method. The values of Tb obtained were much closed to the site dominant natural period (Ts). The findings of this study indicate that the expected differences in damage grades for urban areas in Nablus city could be attributed to variations in the thickness and physical properties of Tertiary-Quaternary sediments, which appear to be rather heterogeneous.

  4. Federated or cached searches: providing expected performance from multiple invasive species databases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Newman, Gregory J.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are a universal global problem, but the information to identify them, manage them, and prevent invasions is stored around the globe in a variety of formats. The Global Invasive Species Information Network is a consortium of organizations working toward providing seamless access to these disparate databases via the Internet. A distributed network of databases can be created using the Internet and a standard web service protocol. There are two options to provide this integration. First, federated searches are being proposed to allow users to search “deep” web documents such as databases for invasive species. A second method is to create a cache of data from the databases for searching. We compare these two methods, and show that federated searches will not provide the performance and flexibility required from users and a central cache of the datum are required to improve performance.

  5. Federated or cached searches: Providing expected performance from multiple invasive species databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Newman, Gregory J.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2011-06-01

    Invasive species are a universal global problem, but the information to identify them, manage them, and prevent invasions is stored around the globe in a variety of formats. The Global Invasive Species Information Network is a consortium of organizations working toward providing seamless access to these disparate databases via the Internet. A distributed network of databases can be created using the Internet and a standard web service protocol. There are two options to provide this integration. First, federated searches are being proposed to allow users to search "deep" web documents such as databases for invasive species. A second method is to create a cache of data from the databases for searching. We compare these two methods, and show that federated searches will not provide the performance and flexibility required from users and a central cache of the datum are required to improve performance.

  6. Adaptive self-regulation: meeting others' expectations of leadership and performance.

    PubMed

    Sosik, John J; Potosky, Denise; Jung, Dong I

    2002-04-01

    The authors used longitudinal multisource field data to examine core aspects of the adaptive self-regulation model (A. S. Tsui & S. J. Ashford, 1994) in terms of linkages between self-monitoring, discrepancy in manager match-to-position, 5 measures of leadership, and manager performance. At Time 1, 64 superiors of focal managers rated the managers' matches to their positions within the organization; at Time 3, they rated the managers' performance. At Time 2, the 64 focal managers completed a measure of self-monitoring, and 192 subordinates rated the focal managers' leadership behaviors. Results of partial least squares analysis revealed that discrepancy in manager match-to-position was associated with reductions in laissez faire and passive management-by-exception behaviors and increases in transformational leadership behavior. Self-monitoring was positively associated with all 5 leadership behaviors. Performance was related positively to transformational leadership behavior and negatively to passive management-by-exception and contingent-reward behaviors PMID:11999873

  7. Absorption of scintillation light in a 100 l liquid xenon ?-ray detector and expected detector performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Doke, T.; Grassi, M.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K.; Kikuchi, J.; Maki, A.; Mashimo, T.; Mihara, S.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mori, T.; Nicol, D.; Nishiguchi, H.; Ootani, W.; Ozone, K.; Papa, A.; Pazzi, R.; Ritt, S.; Sawada, R.; Sergiampietri, F.; Signorelli, G.; Suzuki, S.; Terasawa, K.; Yamashita, M.; Yamashita, S.; Yoshimura, T.; Yuri, Yu.

    2005-06-01

    An 800 l liquid xenon scintillation ?-ray detector is being developed for the MEG experiment which will search for ?+?e+? decay at the Paul Scherrer Institut. Absorption of scintillation light of xenon by impurities might possibly limit the performance of such a detector. We used a 100 l prototype with an active volume of 372372496 mm3 to study the scintillation light absorption. We have developed a method to evaluate the light absorption, separately from elastic scattering of light, by measuring cosmic rays and ? sources. By using a suitable purification technique, an absorption length longer than 100 cm has been achieved. The effects of the light absorption on the energy resolution are estimated by Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. Investigating Assessment Bias for Constructed Response Explanation Tasks: Implications for Evaluating Performance Expectations for Scientific Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federer, Meghan Rector

    Assessment is a key element in the process of science education teaching and research. Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment is a major challenge for science education reforms. Prior research has documented several limitations of instrument types on the measurement of students' scientific knowledge (Liu et al., 2011; Messick, 1995; Popham, 2010). Furthermore, a large body of work has been devoted to reducing assessment biases that distort inferences about students' science understanding, particularly in multiple-choice [MC] instruments. Despite the above documented biases, much has yet to be determined for constructed response [CR] assessments in biology and their use for evaluating students' conceptual understanding of scientific practices (such as explanation). Understanding differences in science achievement provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Using the integrative framework put forth by the National Research Council (2012), this dissertation aimed to explore whether assessment biases occur for assessment practices intended to measure students' conceptual understanding and proficiency in scientific practices. Using a large corpus of undergraduate biology students' explanations, three studies were conducted to examine whether known biases of MC instruments were also apparent in a CR instrument designed to assess students' explanatory practice and understanding of evolutionary change (ACORNS: Assessment of COntextual Reasoning about Natural Selection). The first study investigated the challenge of interpreting and scoring lexically ambiguous language in CR answers. The incorporation of 'multivalent' terms into scientific discourse practices often results in statements or explanations that are difficult to interpret and can produce faulty inferences about student knowledge. The results of this study indicate that many undergraduate biology majors frequently incorporate multivalent concepts into explanations of change, resulting in explanatory practices that were scientifically non-normative. However, use of follow-up question approaches was found to resolve this source of bias and thereby increase the validity of inferences about student understanding. The second study focused on issues of item and instrument structure, specifically item feature effects and item position effects, which have been shown to influence measures of student performance across assessment tasks. Results indicated that, along the instrument item sequence, items with similar surface features produced greater sequencing effects than sequences of items with dissimilar surface features. This bias could be addressed by use of a counterbalanced design (i.e., Latin Square) at the population level of analysis. Explanation scores were also highly correlated with student verbosity, despite verbosity being an intrinsically trivial aspect of explanation quality. Attempting to standardize student response length was one proposed solution to the verbosity bias. The third study explored gender differences in students' performance on constructed-response explanation tasks using impact (i.e., mean raw scores) and differential item function (i.e., item difficulties) patterns. While prior research in science education has suggested that females tend to perform better on constructed-response items, the results of this study revealed no overall differences in gender achievement. However, evaluation of specific item features patterns suggested that female respondents have a slight advantage on unfamiliar explanation tasks. That is, male students tended to incorporate fewer scientifically normative concepts (i.e., key concepts) than females for unfamiliar taxa. Conversely, females tended to incorporate more scientifically non-normative ideas (i.e., naive ideas) than males for familiar taxa. Together these results indicate that gender achievement differences for this CR instrument may be a result of differences in how males and females interpret and respond to combinations of item features. Overall, the results presented in the subsequent chapters suggest that as science education shifts toward the evaluation of fused scientific knowledge and practice (e.g., explanation), it is essential that educators and researchers investigate potential sources of bias inherent to specific assessment practices. This dissertation revealed significant sources of CR assessment bias, and provided solutions to address these problems.

  9. Thermal Performance Expectations of the Advanced Stirling Convertor Over a Range of Operating Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Terry V.; Dyson, Rodger W.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) will enable various missions such as small body sample return, atmospheric missions around Venus, as well as long - duration deep space missions. Analysis of the temperature distributions are performed on an Advanced Stirling Convertor, and the results are compared with available experimental measurements. This analysis includes applied environmental conditions that are similar to those that will be experienced while the convertor is in operation. The applied conditions represent a potential mission profile including pre-takeoff sterilization, launch, transit, and return. The results focus on the anticipated peak temperatures of the magnets in the linear alternator. These results confirm that the ASC can support future missions to deep space targets, extreme environment landers, as well as more conventional goals.

  10. Use of groundwater lifetime expectancy for the performance assessment of a deep geologic waste repository: 1. Theory, illustrations, and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaton, F. J.; Park, Y.-J.; Normani, S. D.; Sudicky, E. A.; Sykes, J. F.

    2008-04-01

    Long-term solutions for the disposal of toxic wastes usually involve isolation of the wastes in a deep subsurface geologic environment. In the case of spent nuclear fuel, if radionuclide leakage occurs from the engineered barrier, the geological medium represents the ultimate barrier that is relied upon to ensure safety. Consequently, an evaluation of radionuclide travel times from a repository to the biosphere is critically important in a performance assessment analysis. In this study, we develop a travel time framework based on the concept of groundwater lifetime expectancy as a safety indicator. Lifetime expectancy characterizes the time that radionuclides will spend in the subsurface after their release from the repository and prior to discharging into the biosphere. The probability density function of lifetime expectancy is computed throughout the host rock by solving the backward-in-time solute transport adjoint equation subject to a properly posed set of boundary conditions. It can then be used to define optimal repository locations. The risk associated with selected sites can be evaluated by simulating an appropriate contaminant release history. The utility of the method is illustrated by means of analytical and numerical examples, which focus on the effect of fracture networks on the uncertainty of evaluated lifetime expectancy.

  11. The SEIS Experiment for the InSight mission: status and performance expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, David; Lognonne, Philippe; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Laudet, Philippe; De Raucourt, Sébastien; IJpelaan, Frans; Kerjean, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Pont, Gabriel; Sylvestre-Baron, Annick; verdier, Nicolas; Denise, Robert; Feldman, Jason; Hurst, Ken; Klein, Kerry; Giardini, Domenico; Zweifel, Peter; Pike, W. Tom; Calcutt, Simon; Bramanti, Christina

    2015-04-01

    The Insight NASA Discovery mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, will deploy in September 2016 a very broadband seismometer on the Mars surface, SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure). It is a hybrid 3-axes instrument, which encloses 3 very broadband oblique sensors and 3 short period sensors. The sensor assembly and its wind and thermal shield will by deployed on the Mars surface from the Phoenix-like spacecraft by a robotic arm (IDS). The acquisition system will be hosted in the spacecraft warm electronics box, and connected to the deployed sensor assembly by a tether. The SEIS experiment is provided by CNES, the French Space Agency that makes the coordination of a wide consortium including IPGP of Paris (SEIS PI Institution), Imperial College of London, Oxford University, MPS of Göttingen, ETH of Zürich, ISAE from Toulouse and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Pasadena. In addition to the seismometer, the Insight payload will also include a suite of instruments complementary to the seismometer, such as a precision temperature sensor, a micro-barometer, a magnetometer and a wind sensor, making it the first geophysical multi-parameter station on another planet. A heat flow sensor and geodetic measurements will provide additional science measurements, in order to constrain the internal structure of Mars. Several challenges have been overcome to design and realize the planetary seismometer, which will exhibit a noise of about 10-9 m/s2/sqrt(Hz) in its seismic bandwidth bandwidth (0.01-1 Hz) for the very broadband component. These challenges include a very efficient insulation from the external temperature variations, and a finely crafted mechanical design to keep the extreme sensitivity of the seismometer, while allowing enough robustness for the harsh mechanical environment encountered during the launch and landing sequences. Also, specific attention has been paid to understanding the various environment contributions to the noise figure. A discussion will be presented, on how to understand the seismometer performance figure in a changing environment, and how to secure the mission science goals in the challenging environment of the Mars surface.

  12. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    PubMed

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades. PMID:26847254

  13. Performance in a Computerized Self-Control Task by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca Mulatta"): The Combined Influence of Effort and Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    The variables of delay and effort have been found to influence self-control predictably and in similar fashion when tested independently, but it is unclear how they influence self-control interactively. In the present study, I tested these two variables simultaneously to gain better understanding of their combined influence on self-control. A

  14. Performance Standards and Employee Effort: Evidence from Teacher Absences. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 15-217

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased accountability pressure in U.S. public schools by threatening to impose sanctions on Title 1 schools that failed to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) in consecutive years. Difference-in-difference estimates of the effect of failing AYP in the first year of NCLB on teacher effort in the…

  15. Performance in a Computerized Self-Control Task by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca Mulatta"): The Combined Influence of Effort and Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    The variables of delay and effort have been found to influence self-control predictably and in similar fashion when tested independently, but it is unclear how they influence self-control interactively. In the present study, I tested these two variables simultaneously to gain better understanding of their combined influence on self-control. A…

  16. Modeling and Evaluating Pilot Performance in NextGen: Review of and Recommendations Regarding Pilot Modeling Efforts, Architectures, and Validation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Keller, John; Peters, Steve; Small, Ronald; Hutchins, Shaun; Algarin, Liana; Gore, Brian Francis; Hooey, Becky Lee; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen operations are associated with a variety of changes to the national airspace system (NAS) including changes to the allocation of roles and responsibilities among operators and automation, the use of new technologies and automation, additional information presented on the flight deck, and the entire concept of operations (ConOps). In the transition to NextGen airspace, aviation and air operations designers need to consider the implications of design or system changes on human performance and the potential for error. To ensure continued safety of the NAS, it will be necessary for researchers to evaluate design concepts and potential NextGen scenarios well before implementation. One approach for such evaluations is through human performance modeling. Human performance models (HPMs) provide effective tools for predicting and evaluating operator performance in systems. HPMs offer significant advantages over empirical, human-in-the-loop testing in that (1) they allow detailed analyses of systems that have not yet been built, (2) they offer great flexibility for extensive data collection, (3) they do not require experimental participants, and thus can offer cost and time savings. HPMs differ in their ability to predict performance and safety with NextGen procedures, equipment and ConOps. Models also vary in terms of how they approach human performance (e.g., some focus on cognitive processing, others focus on discrete tasks performed by a human, while others consider perceptual processes), and in terms of their associated validation efforts. The objectives of this research effort were to support the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in identifying HPMs that are appropriate for predicting pilot performance in NextGen operations, to provide guidance on how to evaluate the quality of different models, and to identify gaps in pilot performance modeling research, that could guide future research opportunities. This research effort is intended to help the FAA evaluate pilot modeling efforts and select the appropriate tools for future modeling efforts to predict pilot performance in NextGen operations.

  17. The Influences of Course Effort, Mastery and Performance Goals, Grade Expectancies, and Earned Course Grades on Student Ratings of Course Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svanum, Soren; Aigner, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The positive relation between course grades and student ratings of course satisfaction is well established but controversy continues concerning the magnitude, interpretation, and implications of this association. Aims: This study examined the within course relations of a set of variables often implicated as potential contributors to…

  18. A New Appraisal- Lessons from the History of Efforts to Value Green and High-Performance Home Attributes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2015-10-21

    Rigorous consideration of green and high-performance (“green/HP”) features is rarely included in the property valuation process._ To help illuminate why this is the case, this report takes stock of the history of efforts to improve practices, and identifies barriers that have emerged and opportunities for overcoming them. Particular emphasis is placed on what energy and environmental policymakers and other stakeholders outside the appraisal community can contribute to the broader effort to advance professional practices. The history has unfolded in parallel with turbulent periods in the housing market for which appraisers and their customers are deemed to share responsibility, followed by cycles of regulations, siloing of appraisers in the name of professional integrity, and commoditization of the valuation process itself. This pattern has important ramifications for aspirations that appraisers engage more fully in identifying and valuing the green/HP characteristics of homes. On the one hand, it is legally and ethically incumbent on appraisers to do so, yet on the other hand it is perceived as a risky avenue to follow. Risks arise where findings can be challenged as either over- or under-stating value, together with a market environment in which the complexity of their assignments increases despite downward pressure on appraiser fees. While efforts to address green/HP considerations date back to the early 1980s, the vast majority of activity has taken place within the past five years. Many players have engaged in the efforts to promote improved valuation practices. These include the Appraisal Foundation, The Appraisal Institute, Colorado Energy Office, Earth Advantage, EcoBroker, Elevate Energy, Fannie Mae, Federal Housing Administration, Home Innovation Research Labs, The Institute for Market Transformation, Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, National Association of Homebuilders, National Association of State Energy Officials, National Association of Appraisers, RESNET, USEPA, USDOE and its National Laboratories, the U.S. Green Buildings Council, and the Vermont Green Homes Alliance. Many activities have resulted, ranging from trainings, to data-gathering instruments, and the emergence of a literature attempting to statistically isolate the effects of green/HP characteristics on home values. In some cases, the results of studies have been overgeneralized and oversold, and embodied flawed methods. Although the green/HP community has encouraged appraisers to focus on exemplary buildings (e.g., LEED or ENERGY STAR Certified), any level of green or energy performance can in fact influence value, including below-average performance (a.k.a. “brown discount”), irrespective of whether or not the building has been formally rated. This overly narrow focus represents a significant missed opportunity. Other surmountable challenges include limitations to non-appraisers’ understanding of the appraisal process (and practical constraints therein). A byproduct of this can be unrealistic expectations of what appraisers can and will do in the marketplace. These challenges notwithstanding, the environment for moving forward has improved. There is better data today (a critical need); expanded efforts to disclose energy use information (characteristics, consumption, bills); improved and more pervasive building energy codes, building rating and labeling initiatives; and a host of federal, state, and local policies that have collectively brought green/HP practices much more into the mainstream. Meanwhile, a renewed focus on professional standards of care and competency for assessing green/HP homes make it increasingly important for appraisers to consider these factors in their assignments. Despite the past four decades of studies, there is little if any discernible uptake of these practices by the appraisal practice at large. It would behoove interested parties to step back and consider what new strategies might be productive. A key element of any new plan should be to reset the nature of interactions with the industry, with the goal a more collaborative, two-way discussion to help improve outsiders’ understanding of the valuation process. It is not only the appraiser that needs to be engaged and could benefit from awareness raising. Homeowners, builders, lenders, utilities, insurance companies should also provide input on how green/HP factors impact property valuations and ways to accurately reflect these considerations in appraisals and real estate transactions more broadly. Given extensive inertia within the appraisal industry and a mixed history of interactions with the non-appraisal stakeholders, it is unlikely that the status quo will achieve much unless followed with more coordinated and persistent efforts. Workshops, studies, and memoranda of understanding will not on their own have much impact, and do not address deeper structural issues. Expectations are often unrealistic and not attentive to real-world constraints faced by appraisers. The report identifies key barriers impeding more thorough consideration of green/HP factors in residential real estate appraisals, and solutions for mitigating them. Barriers • Although industry standards of practice caution against bias of any sort, a skeptical predisposition towards “green” is reinforced by information deficiencies. • Information deficiencies result from the lack or difficulty of obtaining usable data on green/HP features in subject properties as well as valid sales comparisons or cashflow analyses. • Competency deficiencies, such as lack of conversancy in relevant technical topics, leads to oversights, and disjointed treatment of relevant information. • Time/cost pressure and process commoditization (e.g., template-based approaches) result from highly constrained budgets, quick turn-around times expected of appraisers, and standardized practices that were not developed with green/HP considerations in mind. • Professional differences between appraisers and sustainability professionals include divergent objectives, the former being market observers and the latter market influencers. • Risk aversion arises from multiple concerns including veracity, accuracy, and persistence of energy data, impacts of operational choices, new sources of appraiser liability associated with green/HP assessments, industry pressures not to over-value buildings or suggestion of bias, and concern about spending non-billable time on complex assignments. • A public policy vacuum has been created by disjointed and uncoordinated efforts from public-sector stakeholders, insufficient efforts to discuss and understand the appraisal industry and process, and a perception by some valuation professionals that green/HP is oversold. Opportunities • Elevating the competency of appraisers can be achieved through a combination of improved industry standards of care and equal-access training and professional development offerings. • Development of better information resources must focus on building-level information that provides robust documentation as well as aggregate sales-comparison data and other contextual information such as local codes, typical upgrade costs, energy prices, etc. • Improved energy benchmarking and rating tools could provide appraisers with information more well-adapted to their particular needs, which differ from those of typical audiences such as energy managers. • Better characterizing and managing risk will enable appraisers to cope with uncertainties in performance information, and help identify where risks may be introduced or mitigated by green/HP features, including higher costs or obsolescence of poorly-performing buildings. • Integrating disaster resilience and sustainability in appraisals would recognize important synergisms among these features, including durability and ability of green/HP buildings to better withstand external hazards. • Mitigating the problem of additional time/cost for performing assignments is an essential need that can be addressed by providing easier access to information and analytic procedures, perhaps coupled with new resources to defray the associated costs. • Enhancing demand for improved appraisals is a fundamental need, and depends on owners, developers, lenders, and others soliciting competent appraisers to perform scopes that expressly call out green/HP considerations, and to critically review the work product for compliance before acceptance. • Engaging new market participants, such as energy utilities and insurance companies can ensure fuller representation and participation of market stakeholders already engaged in green/HP activities and capable of furnishing valuable data and managing associated risks. Cutting across these individual activities, there is a need for outside stakeholders to formulate and follow a roadmap instead of piecemeal initiatives, bridging the professional/cultural divide between appraisers and green/HP communities, and tracking progress in order to know what is working. A more coherent communication and training strategy is needed, as the appraisal industry is highly fragmented, with two-thirds of appraisers opting out of membership in trade associations. In sum, while there is no silver bullet for advancing the practice of valuing green/HP features, there are concrete opportunities. Parties seeking solutions must identify barriers they wish to address and select from among potential initiatives that map to those barriers. Close collaboration with the appraisal community is critical, as non-appraisers have historically obtained limited traction with this industry due to lack of understanding of the nuances involved in the valuation profession. Large organizations and agencies should have a united approach; the perception or reality of a fragmented and uncoordinated strategy is unsettling for prospective partners in the appraisal industry. This requires improved communication and education within and among these communities.

  19. Special Report on the "Department of Energy's Efforts to Meet Accountability and Performance Reporting Objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in health and science, and invest in the Nation's energy future. The Department of Energy will receive an unprecedented $38 billion in Recovery Act funding to support a variety of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. The Recovery Act requires transparency and accountability over these funds. To this end, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued guidance requiring the Department to compile and report a wide variety of funding, accounting, and performance information. The Department plans to leverage existing information systems to develop accounting and performance information that will be used by program managers and ultimately reported to Recovery.gov, the government-wide source of Recovery Act information, and to OMB. The Department's iManage iPortal, a system that aggregates information from a number of corporate systems, will serve as the main reporting gateway for accounting information. In addition, the Department plans to implement a methodology or system that will permit it to monitor information reported directly to OMB by prime funding recipients. Furthermore, performance measures or metrics that outline expected outcomes are being developed, with results ultimately to be reported in a recently developed Department-wide system. Because of the significance of funds provided and their importance to strengthening the Nation's economy, we initiated this review to determine whether the Department had taken the steps necessary to ensure that Recovery Act funds can be appropriately tracked and are transparent to the public, and whether the benefits of the expenditures can be properly measured and reported clearly, accurately, and in a timely manner. Although not yet fully mature, we found that the Department's efforts to develop, refine, and apply the control structure needed to ensure accurate, timely, and reliable reporting to be both proactive and positive. We did, however, identify certain issues relating to Recovery Act performance management, accounting and reporting accuracy, and timeliness that should be addressed and resolved. In particular, at the time of our review: (1) Program officials had not yet determined whether existing information systems will be able to process anticipated transaction increases associated with the Recovery Act; (2) System modifications made to the Department's performance management system to accommodate Recovery Act performance measures had not yet been fully tested and verified; (3) The ability of prime and sub-recipients to properly segregate and report both accounting and performance information had not been determined; (4) There was a lack of coordination between Headquarters organizations related to aspects of Recovery Act reporting. For example, we observed that the Offices of Fossil Energy and Program, Analysis and Evaluation were both involved in developing job creation estimates that could yield significantly different results; and, (5) A significant portion (91 of 142, or 64 percent) of the performance measures developed for the Recovery Act activities were not quantifiable. In some instances, Project Operating Plans had not been finalized and we were not able to verify that all needed performance measures had been developed. Furthermore, the Department had not developed specific metrics to measure federal and contractor jobs creation and retention, an essential Recovery Act objective. The Department had devoted a great deal of time and resources to identifying and mitigating Recovery Act-related risks. For example, the Department developed a risk assessment tool that is intended to assist programs in identifying risks that can prevent its Recovery Act projects from meeting their intended goals. We also found that program staff and management officials at multiple levels were actively engaged in designing Recovery Act-related control and accountability programs. These efforts ranged from updating existing information systems to developing matrices designed to ensure that all required reporting and performance elements were addressed. Each of these activities required substantial effort and was accomplished within a relatively short period. Further, we noted that the Office of the Chief Financial Officer had been instrumental in helping impacted program elements identify issues that could adversely affect the Department's ability to execute its accounting, reporting, and performance monitoring responsibilities. While much has been done, additional work is necessary if the Department is to successfully manage Recovery Act-related risks. For example, as previously noted, OMB has issued guidance establishing Recovery Act monitoring and reporting requirements.

  20. Feedback associated with expectation for larger-reward improves visuospatial working memory performances in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Rubi; Tennekoon, Michael; Cooke, Gillian E; Gayda, Jessica; Stein, Mark A; Booth, James R

    2015-08-01

    We tested the interactive effect of feedback and reward on visuospatial working memory in children with ADHD. Seventeen boys with ADHD and 17 Normal Control (NC) boys underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing four visuospatial 2-back tasks that required monitoring the spatial location of letters presented on a display. Tasks varied in reward size (large; small) and feedback availability (no-feedback; feedback). While the performance of NC boys was high in all conditions, boys with ADHD exhibited higher performance (similar to those of NC boys) only when they received feedback associated with large-reward. Performance pattern in both groups was mirrored by neural activity in an executive function neural network comprised of few distinct frontal brain regions. Specifically, neural activity in the left and right middle frontal gyri of boys with ADHD became normal-like only when feedback was available, mainly when feedback was associated with large-reward. When feedback was associated with small-reward, or when large-reward was expected but feedback was not available, boys with ADHD exhibited altered neural activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. This suggests that contextual support normalizes activity in executive brain regions in children with ADHD, which results in improved working memory. PMID:26142072

  1. Performance Expectations of Closed-Brayton-Cycle Heat Exchangers in 100-kWe Nuclear Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Performance expectations of closed-Brayton-cycle heat exchangers to be used in 100-k We nuclear space power systems were forecast. Proposed cycle state points for a system supporting a mission to three of Jupiter's moons required effectiveness values for the heat-source exchanger, recuperator and rejection exchanger (gas cooler) of 0.98, 0.95, and 0.97, respectively. Performance parameters such as number of thermal units (Ntu), equivalent thermal conductance (UA), and entropy generation numbers (Ns) varied from 11 to 19, 23 to 39 kW/K, and 0.019 to 0.023 for some standard heat exchanger configurations. Pressure-loss contributions to entropy generation were significant; the largest frictional contribution was 114% of the heat transfer irreversibility. Using conventional recuperator designs, the 0.95 effectiveness proved difficult to achieve without exceeding other performance targets; a metallic, plate-fin counterflow solution called for 15% more mass and 33% higher pressure-loss than the target values. Two types of gas-coolers showed promise. Single-pass counterflow and multipass cross-counterflow arrangements both met the 0.97 effectiveness requirement. Potential reliability-related advantages of the cross-counterflow design were noted. Cycle modifications, enhanced heat transfer techniques and incorporation of advanced materials were suggested options to reduce system development risk. Carbon-carbon sheeting or foam proved an attractive option to improve overall performance.

  2. Performance Expectations of Closed-Brayton-Cycle Heat Exchangers in 100-kWe Nuclear Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Performance expectations of closed-Brayton-cycle heat exchangers to be used in 100-kWe nuclear space power systems were forecast. Proposed cycle state points for a system supporting a mission to three of Jupiter s moons required effectiveness values for the heat-source exchanger, recuperator and rejection exchanger (gas cooler) of 0.98,0.95 and 0.97, respectively. Performance parameters such as number of thermal units (Nm), equivalent thermal conductance (UA), and entropy generation numbers (Ns) varied from 11 to 19,23 to 39 kWK, and 0.019 to 0.023 for some standard heat exchanger configurations. Pressure-loss contributions to entropy generation were significant; the largest frictional contribution was 114% of the heat-transfer irreversibility. Using conventional recuperator designs, the 0.95 effectiveness proved difficult to achieve without exceeding other performance targets; a metallic, plate-fin counterflow solution called for 15% more mass and 33% higher pressure-loss than the target values. Two types of gas-coolers showed promise. Single-pass counterflow and multipass cross-counterflow arrangements both met the 0.97 effectiveness requirement. Potential reliability-related advantages of the cross-countefflow design were noted. Cycle modifications, enhanced heat transfer techniques and incorporation of advanced materials were suggested options to reduce system development risk. Carbon-carbon sheeting or foam proved an attractive option to improve overall performance.

  3. The role of effort in influencing the effect of anxiety on performance: testing the conflicting predictions of processing efficiency theory and the conscious processing hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark; Smith, Nickolas C; Holmes, Paul S

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the conflicting predictions of processing efficiency theory (PET) and the conscious processing hypothesis (CPH) regarding effort's role in influencing the effects of anxiety on a golf putting task. Mid-handicap golfers made a series of putts to target holes under two counterbalanced conditions designed to manipulate the level of anxiety experienced. The effort exerted on each putting task was assessed though self-report, psychophysiological (heart rate variability) and behavioural (pre-putt time and glances at the target) measures. Performance was assessed by putting error. Results were generally more supportive of the predictions of PET rather than the CPH as performance was maintained for some performers despite increased state anxiety and a reduction in processing efficiency. The findings of this study support previous research suggesting that both theories offer useful theoretical frameworks for examining the relationship between anxiety and performance in sport. PMID:17705939

  4. Management Practices. U.S. Companies Improve Performance through Quality Efforts. Report to the Honorable Donald Ritter, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. National Security and International Affairs Div.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined the impact of formal total quality management (TQM) practices on the performance of 20 selected U.S. companies that were among the highest-scoring applicants in 1988 and 1989 for the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. Several key indicators used by companies to measure performance were analyzed.…

  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories Perspective on Code Development and High Performance Computing Resources in Support of the National HED/ICF Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Clouse, C. J.; Edwards, M. J.; McCoy, M. G.; Marinak, M. M.; Verdon, C. P.

    2015-07-07

    Through its Advanced Scientific Computing (ASC) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) code development efforts, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides a world leading numerical simulation capability for the National HED/ICF program in support of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP). In addition the ASC effort provides high performance computing platform capabilities upon which these codes are run. LLNL remains committed to, and will work with, the national HED/ICF program community to help insure numerical simulation needs are met and to make those capabilities available, consistent with programmatic priorities and available resources.

  6. First manufactured diamond AGPM vector vortex for the L- and N-bands: metrology and expected performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacroix, C.; Forsberg, P.; Karlsson, M.; Mawet, D.; Lenaerts, C.; Habraken, S.; Absil, O.; Hanot, C.; Surdej, J.

    2010-10-01

    The AGPM (Annular Groove Phase Mask, Mawet et al. 2005) is an optical vectorial vortex coronagraph (or vector vortex) synthesized by a circular subwavelength grating, that is a grating with a period smaller than λ/n (λ being the observed wavelength and n the refractive index of the grating substrate). Since it is a phase mask, it allows to reach a high contrast with a small working angle. Moreover, its subwavelength structure provides a good achromatization over wide spectral bands. Recently, we have manufactured and measured our first N-band prototypes that allowed us to validate the reproducibility of the microfabrication process. Here, we present newly produced mid-IR diamond AGPMs in the N-band (˜10 μm), and in the most wanted L-band (˜3.5 μm). We first give an extrapolation of the expected coronagraph performances. We then present the manufacturing and measurement results, using diamond-optimized microfabrication techniques such as nano-imprint lithography (NIL) and reactive ion etching (RIE). Finally, the subwavelength grating profile metrology combines surface metrology (scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, white light interferometry) with diffractometry on an optical polarimetric bench and cross correlation with theoretical simulations using rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA).

  7. Expected performance and recent results from the X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer on the W7-X stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablant, Novimir A.; Langenberg, Andreas; Bitter, Manfred; Delgado-Aparicio, Luis; Gates, David A.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Mardenfeld, Michael; Neilson, George H.

    2015-11-01

    A new high resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer diagnostic (XICS) has recently been installed on W7-X stellarator. This diagnostic will contribute to the study of ion and electron thermal transport and the evolution of the radial electric field by providing high resolution temperature and rotation measurements. The XICS diagnostic will provide spatially resolved profile measurements of the ion temperature (Ti), electron temperature (Te), poloidal flow velocity (VP) and impurity ion density for the Ar16+, Ar17+ and Fe24+ charge states. This system will have a maximum time resolution of 5ms, a spatial resolution of 2cm, and spatial coverage from the core to a normalized minor radius of ρ ~ 0 . 8 . The system is fully installed and will be in operation for the initial W7-X experimental campaign (OP1.1). For this initial experimental campaign the XICS diagnostic will be the primary diagnostic for measurement of the core ion temperature and poloidal rotation. The design, expected performance and analysis techniques will be presented, along with any recent measurement results. Research supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 with Princeton University.

  8. Structured self-reflection as a tool to enhance perceived performance and maintain effort in adult recreational salsa dancers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of structured self-reflection in community dance classes would influence achievement goal orientations, levels of intrinsic motivation, or perceived dance performance. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic...

  9. The effect of breathing an ambient low‐density, hyperoxic gas on the perceived effort of breathing and maximal performance of exercise in well‐trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ansley, L; Petersen, D; Thomas, A; Gibson, A St Clair; Robson‐Ansley, P; Noakes, T D

    2007-01-01

    Background The role of the perception of breathing effort in the regulation of performance of maximal exercise remains unclear. Aims To determine whether the perceived effort of ventilation is altered through substituting a less dense gas for normal ambient air and whether this substitution affects performance of maximal incremental exercise in trained athletes. Methods Eight highly trained cyclists (mean SD) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) = 69.9 (7.9) (mlO2/kg/min) performed two randomised maximal tests in a hyperbaric chamber breathing ambient air composed of either 35% O2/65% N2 (nitrox) or 35% O2/65% He (heliox). A ramp protocol was used in which power output was incremented at 0.5 W/s. The trials were separated by at least 48 h. The perceived effort of breathing was obtained via Borg Category Ratio Scales at 3‐min intervals and at fatigue. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and minute ventilation (VE) were monitored continuously. Results Breathing heliox did not change the sensation of dyspnoea: there were no differences between trials for the Borg scales at any time point. Exercise performance was not different between the nitrox and heliox trials (peak power output = 451 (58) and 453 (56) W), nor was VO2max (4.96 (0.61) and 4.88 (0.65) l/min) or maximal VE (157 (24) and 163 (22) l/min). Between‐trial variability in peak power output was less than either VO2max or maximal VE. Conclusion Breathing a less dense gas does not improve maximal performance of exercise or reduce the perception of breathing effort in highly trained athletes, although an attenuated submaximal tidal volume and VE with a concomitant reduction in VO2 suggests an improved gas exchange and reduced O2 cost of ventilation when breathing heliox. PMID:17062658

  10. The Interactive Effects of Consonant and Dissonant Teacher Expectancy and Feedback Communication on Student Performance in a Natural School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Virginia; And Others

    1979-01-01

    High, neutral, and low statements of success expectancy were paired with positive and negative success feedback statements in a reading comprehension experiment. Incongruent combinations such as high success expectancy--negative feedback produced higher comprehension than congruent combinations. Results were interpreted by arousal and attribution

  11. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (-3.0% ± 1.3% and -2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  12. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this loading period, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mgkg?1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (?3.9% 1.6% and ?4.0% 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (?3.0% 1.3% and ?2.7% 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  13. Exceeding Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, John

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of expectations is so important in the facilities business. The author's experiences has taught him that it is essential to understand how expectations impact people's lives as well as those for whom they provide services for every day. This article presents examples and ideas that will provide insight and ideas to help educators…

  14. Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in acute improvements in mood and cognitive performance during sustained mental effort.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Andrew B; French, Stephen J; Morris, Penelope J; Kennedy, David O; Milne, Anthea L; Haskell, Crystal F

    2010-10-01

    Cocoa flavanols (CF) positively influence physiological processes in ways that suggest their consumption may improve aspects of cognitive function. This study investigated the acute cognitive and subjective effects of CF consumption during sustained mental demand. In this randomized, controlled, double-blinded, balanced, three period crossover trial 30 healthy adults consumed drinks containing 520 mg, 994 mg CF and a matched control, with a three-day washout between drinks. Assessments included the state anxiety inventory and repeated 10-min cycles of a Cognitive Demand Battery comprising of two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Serial Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task and a 'mental fatigue' scale, over the course of 1 h. Consumption of both 520 mg and 994 mg CF significantly improved Serial Threes performance. The 994 mg CF beverage significantly speeded RVIP responses but also resulted in more errors during Serial Sevens. Increases in self-reported 'mental fatigue' were significantly attenuated by the consumption of the 520 mg CF beverage only. This is the first report of acute cognitive improvements following CF consumption in healthy adults. While the mechanisms underlying the effects are unknown they may be related to known effects of CF on endothelial function and blood flow. PMID:19942640

  15. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  16. Grade Expectations: Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miley, William M.; Gonsalves, Sonia

    2004-01-01

    We surveyed undergraduate students taking upper level psychology courses about their course and grade expectations as an extension of the work of Gaultney and Cann (2001) with introductory psychology students. More students believed success in a course was measured by good grades rather than by mastery of new material. They wanted effort to play a…

  17. Great Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1993-01-01

    Inside one Washington, DC, elementary school, Principal John Pannell has high hopes for his students and an expansive school vision. Malcolm X School compensates for disorder outside by clearly inculcating rules and behavior expectations. Children in school uniforms daily repeat a motto promoting Malcolm X as a school of love allowing no hitting,…

  18. Current Calibration Efforts and Performance of the HST Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph: Echelle Flux Calibration, the BAR5 Occulter, and Lamp Lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Debes, John H.; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Lockwood, Sean A.; Peeples, Molly S.; Proffitt, Charles R.; Riley, Allyssa; Walborn, Nolan R.

    2016-06-01

    The variety of operating modes of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continues to allow STIS users to obtain unique, high quality observations and cutting-edge results 19 years after its installation on HST. STIS is currently the only instrument available to the astronomy community that allows high spectral and spatial resolution spectroscopy in the FUV and NUV, including echelle modes. STIS also supports solar-blind imaging in the FUV. In the optical, STIS provides long-slit, first-order spectra that take advantage of HST's superb spatial resolution, as well as several unique unfiltered coronagraphic modes, which continue to benefit the exoplanet and debris-disk communities. The STIS instrument team monitors the instrument’s health and performance over time to characterize the effects of radiation damage and continued use of the detectors and optical elements. Additionally, the STIS team continues to improve the quality of data products for the user community. We present updates on efforts to improve the echelle flux calibration of overlapping spectral orders due to changes in the grating blaze function since HST Servicing Mission 4, and efforts to push the contrast limit and smallest inner working angle attainable with the coronagraphic BAR5 occulter. We also provide updates on the performance of the STIS calibration lamps, including work to maintain the accuracy of the wavelength calibration for all modes.

  19. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the model. Motivation variables did account for a portion of the variance in performance, but not in the ways predicted. Increasing the number of subjects in each group and adding the following variables to the model would clarify the role that motivation plays in performance: realistic self-appraisal; perceived competition; and elaboration, organization, and rehearsal strategies. Based on results, the following interventions were recommended to increase undergraduate science performance: assessment in realistic self-appraisal of science skills; instruction in elaboration and organization strategies; and encouragement of intrinsic interest in science.

  20. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception–action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication. PMID:25400601

  1. The Analysis of the Relation between Eight-Grade Students' Estimation Performance in Triangles with Their Teaching Style Expectations and Sources of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altunkaya, Bülent; Aytekin, Cahit; Doruk, Bekir Kürsat; Özçakir, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    In this study, eight-grade students' estimation achievements in triangles were analysed according to motivation types and knowledge type expectations. Three hundred and thirty-seven students from three different elementary schools attended in this study. In order to determine the students' estimation performances, an estimation test in…

  2. An Application of the Expectancy-Value Model to Understand Adolescents' Performance and Engagement in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Kokkonen, Juha

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of motivation in students' performance and engagement in elementary and middle school physical education. Cross-lagged relationships between performance and engagement were investigated across Grades 6-9. A total of 763 (365 girls, 398 boys) Finnish school students (11- to 12-year old) were followed across three…

  3. Performance of p-bulk microstrip sensors under 60Co γ irradiation at rates expected at the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Hara, K.; Kim, S.; Ikegami, Y.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.; Mitsui, S.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    We are developing p-bulk microstrip sensors for the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC accelerator, HL-LHC. The stability of FZ (float zone) wafers available to Hamamatsu Photonics was examined by irradiating them at rates expected at the HL-LHC. They show degradation in the operational voltage at low dose but recover after the dose is accumulated. The instability is dependent on the bias voltage and dose rate, and also on the irradiation history. We have characterized the instability and attributed the cause to the charge concentration at the electrode edge. The strip isolation, which is degraded while in irradiation, is shown not to induce any practical problem for the operation.

  4. Teacher Reactions to the Performance-Based Bonus Program: How the Expectancy Theory Works in the South Korean School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Bong-Woon; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine how and to what extent the implementation of the performance-based bonus program in South Korean schools has motivated teachers to improve their behavior, as well as to identify any other positive or negative effects of the program. Interviews with teachers indicated that a large percentage of teachers

  5. Teacher Reactions to the Performance-Based Bonus Program: How the Expectancy Theory Works in the South Korean School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Bong-Woon; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine how and to what extent the implementation of the performance-based bonus program in South Korean schools has motivated teachers to improve their behavior, as well as to identify any other positive or negative effects of the program. Interviews with teachers indicated that a large percentage of teachers…

  6. Mexican American Achievement Performance: Linking the Effects of School and Family Expectations to Benefit the Bi-lingual Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Lawrence G.

    Attempts to explain poor academic performance of Mexican American bilingual students have relied primarily on two causative models: home and school. Both models were evaluated with data from a matched sample of public school bilingual Mexican American children from grades 1-8, in a medium sized South-Central Texas community. The control group…

  7. Perceived Autonomy-Support, Expectancy, Value, Metacognitive Strategies and Performance in Chemistry: A Structural Equation Model in Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González, Antonio; Paoloni, Paola-Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Research in chemistry education has highlighted a number of variables that predict learning and performance, such as teacher-student interactions, academic motivation and metacognition. Most of this chemistry research has examined these variables by identifying dyadic relationships through bivariate correlations. The main purpose of this study was…

  8. 1985 Interpretive Panel Results: Educators Set Performance Expectations. Assessment Report 13: An Update on the Alaska Statewide Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Evaluation, Assessment and Research.

    In 1985, reading and mathematics achievement tests were administered to nearly 15,000 fourth and eighth graders in Alaska. Educators comprising the Interpretive Panel developed a minimum and a desired level of performance. Scores below the minimum indicated a weakness; scores above it, a strength, and scores between, satisfactory achievement. The…

  9. Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health workers’ motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers’ experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers’ motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers attesting to the importance of the salary for motivation. Lessons learned from OPRAS can be utilized in the implementation of P4P and can enhance our knowledge on motivation and performance in the health services in low-income contexts such as Tanzania. PMID:22963317

  10. Adaptive optics at short wavelengths. Expected performance and sky coverage of the FLAO system going toward visible wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapito, Guido; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Quirs-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, Simone

    2014-11-01

    The First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system has been successfully commissioned at the Large Binocular Telescope. It delivers extreme adaptive optics performance using bright natural guide stars reaching 90 % Strehl Ratios in H-band. Observations with current adaptive optics systems are limited to the near infrared wavelengths, in these bands the diffraction limited resolution of the largest ground-based telescopes (8-10 meter class) is comparable to the one of the much smaller Hubble Space Telescope that observes in the visible bands. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of an adaptive optics system designed to achieve very high order correction at visible wavelengths (0.5 to 0.8 ? m) with significant sky coverage. Upgrading the FLAO design with a low noise CCD relaxes the reference magnitude limit needed to achieve greater performance. In particular, we demonstrate that a gain of 1-2 magnitudes is possible by upgrading the wavefront sensor with a very low read out noise CCD. For future AO systems, in addition to low noise CCDs, deformable (secondary) mirrors with a higher actuator density will be able to move the high order correction capability from the near infrared to the visible wavelengths (Strehl Ratio of 80 % in R (0.7 ? m), 60 % in V (0.5 ? m)). We investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the gain in imaging performance obtained at Near Infrared, Visible, and UV wavelengths. The results of these simulations have been used to derive the empirical relation between Strehl Ratio and magnitude of the reference star and we then use this relationship to perform a detailed sky coverage analysis based on astronomical catalog data. The detailed simulations of the Point Spread Functions allow us to compute Ensquared Energy and Strehl Ratio for the magnitude working range of such an Adaptive Optics system. We present the results of the instrumental isoplanatic angle determination. We then used these values to compute the relationship between correction level and the off-axis angle from the reference star. The Strehl Ratio relationship with the reference magnitude and the angular distance provides the information needed to perform the sky-coverage analysis, which demonstrates that the designed system is able to provide V and R bands correction on a not negligible few percent of the sky.

  11. Simulation of the Expected Performance of a Seamless Scanner for Brain PET Based on Highly Pixelated CdTe Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Mikhaylova, Ekaterina; De Lorenzo, Gianluca; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Kolstein, Machiel; Cañadas, Mario; Arce, Pedro; Calderón, Yonatan; Uzun, Dilber; Ariño, Gerard; Macias-Montero, José Gabriel; Martinez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles; Cabruja, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of the design for a nonconventional PET scanner, the voxel imaging PET (VIP), based on pixelated room-temperature CdTe detectors yielding a true 3-D impact point with a density of 450 channels cm3, for a total 6 336 000 channels in a seamless ring shaped volume. The system is simulated and evaluated following the prescriptions of the NEMA NU 2-2001 and the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results show that the excellent energy resolution of the CdTe detectors (1.6% for 511 keV photons), together with the small voxel pitch (1×1×2 mm3), and the crack-free ring geometry, give the design the potential to overcome the current limitations of PET scanners and to approach the intrinsic image resolution limits set by physics. The VIP is expected to reach a competitive sensitivity and a superior signal purity with respect to values commonly quoted for state-of-the-art scintillating crystal PETs. The system can provide 14 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 3.95% and 21 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 0.73% according to NEMA NU 2-2001 and NEMA NU 4-2008, respectively. The calculated NEC curve has a peak value of 122 kcps at 5.3 kBq/mL for NEMA NU 2-2001 and 908 kcps at 1.6 MBq/mL for NEMA NU 4-2008. The proposed scanner can achieve an image resolution of ~ 1 mm full-width at half-maximum in all directions. The virtually noise-free data sample leads to direct positive impact on the quality of the reconstructed images. As a consequence, high-quality high-resolution images can be obtained with significantly lower number of events compared to conventional scanners. Overall, simulation results suggest the VIP scanner can be operated either at normal dose for fast scanning and high patient throughput, or at low dose to decrease the patient radioactivity exposure. The design evaluation presented in this work is driving the development and the optimization of a fully operative prototype to prove the feasibility of the VIP concept. PMID:24108750

  12. The New Horizons Radio Science Experiment: Expected Performance in Measurements of Pluto's Atmospheric Structure, Surface Pressure, and Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinson, D. P.; Linscott, I.; Woods, W. W.; Tyler, G. L.; Bird, M. K.; Paetzold, M.; Strobel, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    The New Horizons (NH) payload includes a Radio Science Experiment (REX) for investigating key characteristics of Pluto and Charon during the upcoming flyby in July 2015. REX flight equipment augments the NH radio transceiver used for spacecraft communications and tracking. The REX hardware implementation requires 1.6 W and 160 g. This presentation will focus on the final design and the predicted performance of two high-priority observations. First, REX will receive signals from a pair of 70-m antennas on Earth - each transmitting 20 kW at 4.2-cm wavelength - during a diametric radio occultation by Pluto. The data recorded by REX will reveal the surface pressure, the temperature structure of the lower atmosphere, and the surface radius. Second, REX will measure the thermal emission from Pluto at 4.2-cm wavelength during two linear scans across the disk at close range when both the dayside and the nightside are visible, allowing the surface temperature and its spatial variations to be determined. Both scans extend from limb to limb with a resolution of about 10 pixels; one bisects Pluto whereas the second crosses the winter pole. We will illustrate the capabilities of REX by reviewing the method of analysis and the precision achieved in a lunar occultation observed by New Horizons in May 2011. Re-analysis of radio occultation measurements by Voyager 2 at Triton is also under way. More generally, REX objectives include a radio occultation search for Pluto's ionosphere; examination of Charon through both radio occultation and radiometry; a search for a radar echo from Pluto's surface; and improved knowledge of the Pluto system mass and the Pluto-Charon mass ratio from a combination of two-way and one-way Doppler frequency measurements.

  13. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the Cassini launch, JHU/APL's on-station real-time launch contingency activities were implemented. Live news from NASA Select TV of a successful Cassini launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The Cassini launch contingency effort contributed to mission safety and demonstrated successful cooperation between several agencies. .

  14. Predicting Student Achievement for Low Stakes Tests with Effort and Task Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, James S.; Bergin, David A.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated motivation for taking low stakes tests. Based on expectancy-value theory, we expected that the effect of student perceptions of three task values (interest, usefulness, and importance) on low stakes test performance would be mediated by the student's reported effort. We hypothesized that all three task value components would play a…

  15. Participation Performance and Behavioral Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    The value of student participation in class discussion is considered. An approach is suggested for college teachers to help them better motivate and evaluate students who participate in classroom discussion. Reliable, accurate, and meaningful assessment of students' participation in classroom discussion can be achieved if an instructor bases the…

  16. Role of information systems in controlling costs: the electronic medical record (EMR) and the high-performance computing and communications (HPCC) efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1994-12-01

    On October 18, 1991, the IEEE-USA produced an entity statement which endorsed the vital importance of the High Performance Computer and Communications Act of 1991 (HPCC) and called for the rapid implementation of all its elements. Efforts are now underway to develop a Computer Based Patient Record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the HPCC, and the so-called `Patient Card'. Multiple legislative initiatives which address these and related information technology issues are pending in Congress. Clearly, a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public. Timely and reliable information represents a critical element in any initiative to reform the health care system as well as to protect and improve the health of every person. Appropriately used, information technologies offer a vital means of improving the quality of patient care, increasing access to universal care and lowering overall costs within a national health care program. Health care reform legislation should reflect increased budgetary support and a legal mandate for the creation of a national health care information system by: (1) constructing a National Information Infrastructure; (2) building a Computer Based Patient Record System; (3) bringing the collective resources of our National Laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; and (4) utilizing Government (e.g. DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues.

  17. Inequity responses of monkeys modified by effort.

    PubMed

    van Wolkenten, Megan; Brosnan, Sarah F; de Waal, Frans B M

    2007-11-20

    Without joint benefits, joint actions could never have evolved. Cooperative animals need to monitor closely how large a share they receive relative to their investment toward collective goals. This work documents the sensitivity to reward division in brown, or tufted, capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). In addition to confirming previous results with a larger subject pool, this work rules out several alternative explanations and adds data on effort sensitivity. Thirteen adult monkeys exchanged tokens for rewards, showing negative reactions to receiving a less-favored reward than their partner. Because their negative reaction could not be attributed to the mere visibility of better rewards (greed hypothesis) nor to having received such rewards in the immediate past (frustration hypothesis), it must have been caused by seeing their partner obtain the better reward. Effort had a major effect in that by far the lowest level of performance in the entire study occurred in subjects required to expend a large effort while at the same time seeing their partner receive a better reward. It is unclear whether this effort-effect was based on comparisons with the partner, but it added significantly to the intensity of the inequity response. These effects are as expected if the inequity response evolved in the context of cooperative survival strategies. PMID:18000045

  18. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  19. An Unusual Cooperative Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallard, A. R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This article depicts two cooperative efforts between Southwest Texas State University and public school systems. Results of these efforts illustrate how resources available to higher education institutions can be used to help all involved. (DF)

  20. Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Non-Clinical Children: Relationships with Self-Report and Performance-Based Measures of Attention and Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; van der Pennen, Els; Sigmond, Rianne; Mayer, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control, and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8-12 years. For this purpose, children completed self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological…

  1. Behavior, Expectations and Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

    2010-01-01

    We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

  2. Psychological components of effort sense.

    PubMed

    Morgan, W P

    1994-09-01

    The perception of effort is multidimensional and it is governed by many physiological, psychological, and experiential factors. This paper deals with a discussion of selected psychological states and traits that are known to be correlated with the expression of effort sense. It has been shown that anxiety, somatic perception, depression, and neuroticism are associated with perceived exertion. Extroversion has been found to be inversely correlated with perceived exertion, and positively correlated with preferred exercise intensity. These empirical findings are congruent with theoretical expectations in each case. It has also been found that perception of effort can be increased and decreased in a systematic manner with various psychological interventions such as hypnotic suggestion, dissociative cognitive strategies, and imagery. Changes in effort sense can also be systematically modified by titrating exercise volume (e.g., overtraining, tapering), and this exercise-induced alteration in perception covaries with affective changes. The research reviewed in this paper supports the conclusion that effort sense is best conceptualized as a complex psychobiological construct as originally proposed by Borg three decades ago. PMID:7808238

  3. Inefficient effort allocation and negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Julie M; Treadway, Michael T; Bennett, Melanie E; Blanchard, Jack J

    2016-02-01

    Negative symptoms like avolition and anhedonia are thought to involve difficulties with reward processing and motivation. The current study aimed to replicate and extend prior findings that individuals with schizophrenia display reduced willingness to expend effort for rewards and that such reduced effort is associated with negative symptoms, poor functioning, and cognitive impairment. The present study compared the effortful decision making of individuals with schizophrenia (n=48) and healthy controls (n=27) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Individuals with schizophrenia chose a smaller proportion of hard tasks than healthy controls across all probability and reward levels with the exception of trials with a 12% probability and low or medium reward magnitude wherein both groups chose similarly few hard tasks. Contrary to expectations, in individuals with schizophrenia, greater negative symptoms were associated with making more effortful choices. Effortful decision making was unrelated to positive symptoms, depression, cognition, and functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. Our results are consistent with prior findings that revealed a pattern of inefficient decision making in individuals with schizophrenia relative to healthy controls. However the results did not support the hypothesized association of negative symptoms and reduced effort in schizophrenia and highlight prior inconsistencies in this literature. Future research is needed to understand what factors may be related to diminished effortful decision making in schizophrenia and the clinical significance of such performance deficits. PMID:26763628

  4. NASA Efforts on Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the field of nanotechnology within the theme of "New efforts in Nanotechnology Research," will be presented. NASA's interest, requirements and current efforts in this emerging field will be discussed. In particular, NASA efforts to develop nanoelectronic devices, fuel cells, and other applications of interest using this novel technology by collaborating with academia will be addressed. Progress on current collaborations in this area with the University of Puerto Rico will be highlighted.

  5. The Influence of Stimulus Material on Attention and Performance in the Visual Expectation Paradigm: A Longitudinal Study with 3- And 6-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teubert, Manuel; Lohaus, Arnold; Fassbender, Ina; Vierhaus, Marc; Spangler, Sibylle; Borchert, Sonja; Freitag, Claudia; Goertz, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Gudi, Helene; Kolling, Thorsten; Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of stimulus material on attention and expectation learning in the visual expectation paradigm. Female faces were used as attention-attracting stimuli, and non-meaningful visual stimuli of comparable complexity (Greebles) were used as low attention-attracting stimuli. Expectation learning performance…

  6. The Transition from Business as Usual to Funding for Results: State Efforts To Integrate Performance Measures in the Higher Education Budgetary Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brenda Norman

    This report describes a 1997 survey which examined performance funding in higher education and offers guidelines for states' and institutions' explorations of performance-based funding. Among highlights of the survey are: 32 states are planning or using performance measures in the state budget process; legislatively mandated initiatives are…

  7. Simulation of the expected performance of INSERT: A new multi-modality SPECT/MRI system for preclinical and clinical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busca, P.; Fiorini, C.; Butt, A. D.; Occhipinti, M.; Peloso, R.; Quaglia, R.; Schembari, F.; Trigilio, P.; Nemeth, G.; Major, P.; Erlandsson, K.; Hutton, B. F.

    2014-01-01

    A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (INtegrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus, that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems such as 3 T MRI with 59 cm bore diameter. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes will be developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging, the second one dedicated to clinical imaging. The basic building block of the SPECT detector ring is a small 5 cm×5 cm gamma camera, based on the well-established Anger architecture with a continuous scintillator readout by an array of silicon photodetectors. Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) and Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM) are being considered as possible scintillator readout, considering that the detector choice plays a predominant role for the final performance of the system, such as energy and spatial resolution, as well as the useful field of view of the camera. Both solutions are therefore under study to evaluate their performances in terms of field of view (FOV), spatial and energy resolution. Preliminary simulations for both the preclinical and clinical systems have been carried out to evaluate resolution and sensitivity.

  8. Just What Do You Expect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Philip R.

    1990-01-01

    Boards should clearly establish what is expected of the university president, including the six elements of good leadership: tolerance of freedom, tolerance of uncertainty, the ability to integrate motives and efforts into a meaningful aggregate, the ability to persuade, the ability to represent the institution, and influence with superiors. (MSE)

  9. Dopamine D1 Receptors in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Regulate Effort-Based Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweimer, Judith; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in encoding whether or not an action is worth performing in view of the expected benefit and the cost of performing the action. Dopamine input to the ACC may be critical for this form of effort-based decision making; however, the role of distinct ACC dopamine receptors is yet unknown.…

  10. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the

  11. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  12. DETECTION OF TRANSITING JOVIAN EXOPLANETS BY GAIA PHOTOMETRY-EXPECTED YIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Dzigan, Yifat; Zucker, Shay E-mail: shayz@post.tau.ac.il

    2012-07-01

    Several attempts have been made in the past to assess the expected number of exoplanetary transits that the Gaia space mission will detect. In this Letter, we use the updated design of Gaia and its expected performance and apply recent empirical statistical procedures to provide a new assessment. Depending on the extent of the follow-up effort that will be devoted, we expect Gaia to detect from a few hundreds to a few thousands of transiting exoplanets.

  13. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the Breckinridge Project and summarizes the results achieved during the development phase of the project performed under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy. The Breckinridge Project provides for the design, construction and operation of a 50,000 barrel per day coal liquefaction facility in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. The development of the basic technology used in the Breckinridge Project dates back to the late 1950's and the invention by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., (HRI) of the ebullated-bed reactor and the H-OIL process. The H-COAL process is based on the H-OIL technology. This coal liquefaction process produces clean low-sulfur petroleum substitutes suitable for most types of hydrocarbon-based fuel and chemical uses regardless of the sulfur content of the coal. A large H-COAL Pilot Plant in operation at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, is converting 220 tons of coal per day into 600 barrels of distillate products by catalytic hydrogenation. The estimated capital cost of the commercial facility is $3.17 billion, and the associated out-of-pocket operating cost is $18 per barrel, both in January 1981 dollars. Financial analysis shows the project to be an attractive investment under certain leveraged conditions which are possible through the assistance of the Synthetic Fuels Corporation. Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. is currently working with the Synthetic Fuels Corporation and potential partners to develop financing for the commercial venture. Critical permits are being obtained and an Environmental Impact Statement is being prepared pursuant to initiating site preparation in early 1983. Commercial operations are expected to start up in early 1988.

  14. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko

    2015-07-01

    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of "action values," which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke. PMID:25948869

  15. High Performance Computing and Communications: New Program Direction Would Benefit from a More Focused Effort. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Information Management Div.

    The House Armed Services Committee asked the GAO (General Accounting Office) to examine the HPCC (High Performance Computing and Communications) program in terms of: (1) the effectiveness of the program's management structure in setting goals and measuring progress, and (2) how extensively private industry has been involved in the planning and

  16. Design and expected performances of the SCAO-WFS module of SIMPLE, the high-resolution near-infrared spectrometer for E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozzi, A.; Oliva, E.; Le Louarn, M.; Origlia, L.

    2010-07-01

    We present and discuss the design and expected performances of the SCAO-WFS module of SIMPLE, the highsd resolution near-infrared spectrometer for the E-ELT which is designed to operate in the wavelengths range 0.84-2.5μm with an entrance slit width of 27mas which yields a spectral resolving power of R=130,000. We analyze both pyramid and SH wave-front sensors operating at near-infrared wavelengths (1-2 μm). The main results can be summarized as follows. - Good levels of AO correction can only be achieved within a few arc-sec of the reference star. The primary applications of SCAO correction are therefore observations where the science object is compact and bright enough to be used as reference star, feeding the WFS via a beam-splitter. We concentrate on a WFS operating at nearinfrared wavelengths because many of the scientific targets of SIMPLE are intrinsically very red. - The pyramid WFS provides better performances than the SH, because it is less affected by aliasing errors. - The quality of AO correction is almost independent on the wavelength at which the wave-front is sensed. Therefore, we simplify the design the WFS module by not including the K-band, i.e. operating in the 1.0-2.1μm range. Extension to shorter wavelengths is also possible but requires exchanging the atmospheric dispersion compensator. - Using a pyramid WFS with 84x84 sub-apertures one can achieve remarkably high values of light-concentration in the slit, i.e. ~70% in K and ~40% at 0.9μm. - The limiting magnitude for the 84×84 WFS is about 13.5+2.5•log(η), where η is the fraction of stellar light sent to the WFS by the beam-splitter. - Somewhat fainter limits, i.e. magnitudes ~14.0+2.5•log(η), can be achieved by changing the camera optics of the WFS and sampling 42×42 sub-apertures.

  17. The Ideal Promotion Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward L.

    The ideal promotional effort for an educational television (ETV) station is dependent on a professional approach to the problem. This means that each ETV station should employ a public relations manager and should keep him informed about all major station decisions. The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) has a campaign of its own to bring attention…

  18. Measuring Cycling Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the basic mechanics of cycling with a simple reckoning of how much effort is needed from the cyclist. The work done by the cyclist is quantified when the ride is on the flat and also when pedaling uphill. Proves that by making use of the available gears on a mountain bike, cycling uphill can be accomplished without pain. (Author/ASK)

  19. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  20. International aerospaceplane efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    Although the U.S. began the first reusable space booster effort in the late 1950's, it is no longer an exclusive field. All of the technologically advanced nations, and several groups of nations, have one or more reusable booster efforts in progress. A listing of the entries in the field is presented. The list is somewhat misleading, because it includes both fully reusable and partially reusable boosters, both manned and unmanned, and both flight test and operational proposals. Additionally, not all of the projects are funded, and only a few of the projects will survive. The most likely candidates are the following: France/ESA, Germany/ESA, Great Britain/ESA/(USSR), USSR(past), and Japan. A discussion of the preceding projects is provided.

  1. The population problem and family planning effort.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, A C

    1972-12-01

    A discussion of any aspect of family planning must include an evaluation of the current demographic situation and the prospects for the future. With the rate of population growth in developing countries between 2-5% per annum and the drastic reduction in mortality accepted as a positive goal under any circumstances, it becomes evident that the only way to contain the population growth is by fertility control. It was the recognition of this need to contain the population by controlling their fertility which brought about India's adoption of family planning as an officially sponsored program as early as 1951. The goals and efforts have increased in each Five Year Plan. The initial emphasis on the "clinical approach" which expected the people to visit the clinics and avail themselves of the family planning services changed to the "extension approach" in 1963 which brought the advice and services to the people. The program now aims at promoting voluntary acceptance by individuals of 1 or more methods of contraception through a process of education and motivation. Regarding the national perspective, a comprehensive Bill liberalizing abortion has already been passed by the Parliament, and efforts are being made to raise the legal age of marriage from 16 to 18 for women. Concerning performance, 9.11 million sterilizations and 3.94 million IUD insertions have been performed since August 1971. A rise in the use of conventional contraceptives has also been noted. The current pressing problem is one of motivating and educating the millions of illiterate rural people towards family planning. Even if this were possible, the subsequent problem of providing them with the family planning services is formidable. Other problems are the continuation of social and psychological barriers which block the efforts of those promoting family planning, and the fact that 2 often conflicting facets of the family planning effort, the national good and the interest of the individual, need to be reconciled. Emphasis must be given to educating and motivating young couples toward birth spacing well before they marry. Voluntary organizations can help in motivating the public, and this help is needed for success depends on how best and how soon the individual can be motivated towards the common goal. PMID:12179385

  2. Moderation of Stimulus Material on the Prediction of IQ with Infants' Performance in the Visual Expectation Paradigm: Do Greebles Make the Task More Challenging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teubert, Manuel; Lohaus, Arnold; Fassbender, Ina; Vöhringer, Isabel A.; Suhrke, Janina; Poloczek, Sonja; Freitag, Claudia; Lamm, Bettina; Teiser, Johanna; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the role of the stimulus material for the prediction of later IQ by early learning measures in the Visual Expectation Paradigm (VExP). The VExP was assessed at 9?months using two types of stimuli, Greebles and human faces. Greebles were assumed to be associated with a higher load on working memory in…

  3. Effects of Affect Induction on Expectancies for Serendipitous Positive Events, Success on Task Performance, and Beliefs in Internal or External Control of Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, John C.; Furman, Wyndol

    This study explored the relationship between young children's affective states and general expectancies for rewarding or punishing events. Subjects were 24 children, ages 4 and 5, from middle-class families. Positive, neutral, or negative affect was induced by having the children think happy, neutral, or sad thoughts for a short period. Two tasks…

  4. What Do Hispanic Students Want in a Mentor? A Model of Protégé Cultural Orientation, Mentorship Expectations, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Cody B.; Yang, Yan; Dicke-Bohmann, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of the effects of cultural factors on Hispanic protégés' expectations for and experiences with their mentors. Specifically, the proposed model posits that cultural orientation predicts the mentorship functions protégés desire, and the positive impact of these mentorship functions…

  5. Dissociations between Expectancy and Performance in Simple and Two-Choice Reaction-Time Tasks: A Test of Associative and Nonassociative Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Louise C.; Livesey, Evan J.

    2010-01-01

    Perruchet, Cleeremans, and Destrebecqz (2006) reported a striking dissociation between trends in the conscious expectancy of an event and the speed of a response that is cued by that event. They argued that this indicates the operation of independent processes in human associative learning. However, there remains a strong possibility that this…

  6. Expectation and conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Adelle C. F.; Alstrm, Preben

    2001-02-01

    We present a dynamical model that embodies both classical and instrumental conditioning paradigms in the same framework. The model is based on the formation of expectations of stimuli and of rewards. The expectations of stimuli are formed in a recurrent process called expectation learning in which one activity pattern evokes another. The expectation of rewards or punishments (motivation) is modelled using reinforcement learning.

  7. Overlapping Neural Systems Represent Cognitive Effort and Reward Anticipation

    PubMed Central

    Vassena, Eliana; Silvetti, Massimo; Boehler, Carsten N.; Achten, Eric; Fias, Wim; Verguts, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Anticipating a potential benefit and how difficult it will be to obtain it are valuable skills in a constantly changing environment. In the human brain, the anticipation of reward is encoded by the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and Striatum. Naturally, potential rewards have an incentive quality, resulting in a motivational effect improving performance. Recently it has been proposed that an upcoming task requiring effort induces a similar anticipation mechanism as reward, relying on the same cortico-limbic network. However, this overlapping anticipatory activity for reward and effort has only been investigated in a perceptual task. Whether this generalizes to high-level cognitive tasks remains to be investigated. To this end, an fMRI experiment was designed to investigate anticipation of reward and effort in cognitive tasks. A mental arithmetic task was implemented, manipulating effort (difficulty), reward, and delay in reward delivery to control for temporal confounds. The goal was to test for the motivational effect induced by the expectation of bigger reward and higher effort. The results showed that the activation elicited by an upcoming difficult task overlapped with higher reward prospect in the ACC and in the striatum, thus highlighting a pivotal role of this circuit in sustaining motivated behavior. PMID:24608867

  8. Navy superconductivity efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  9. Illustration of sampling-based approaches to the calculation of expected dose in performance assessments for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD.

    2007-04-01

    A deep geologic repository for high level radioactive waste is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. As mandated in the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated public health and safety standards (i.e., 40 CFR Part 197) for the YM repository, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has promulgated licensing standards (i.e., 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc.) consistent with 40 CFR Part 197 that the DOE must establish are met in order for the YM repository to be licensed for operation. Important requirements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. relate to the determination of expected (i.e., mean) dose to a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) and the incorporation of uncertainty into this determination. This presentation describes and illustrates how general and typically nonquantitive statements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. can be given a formal mathematical structure that facilitates both the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI and the appropriate separation in this calculation of aleatory uncertainty (i.e., randomness in the properties of future occurrences such as igneous and seismic events) and epistemic uncertainty (i.e., lack of knowledge about quantities that are poorly known but assumed to have constant values in the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI).

  10. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action. PMID:21734862

  11. Attitudes and expectations of producers to the use of a microcomputer-based management information system to monitor dairy herd performance

    PubMed Central

    Lissemore, Kerry D.; Leslie, Ken E.; Martin, S. Wayne; Menzies, Paula I.; Meek, Alan H.

    1992-01-01

    The attitudes and expectations of producers toward the use of a microcomputer-based herd management information system were assessed. The study was conducted over a two-year period, beginning in January 1986, and was operated as a bureau service. The implementation and use of the program are described elsewhere. Pre- and posttrial questionnaires were administered to assess producer attitudes. We found that the monthly analysis reports were used in the management of the dairy farms and were found to be a useful management tool. The majority of producers indicated a willingness to pay, on average, $6.86/cow/year for such a service. PMID:17423946

  12. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed

  13. The Power of Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Neal

    2008-01-01

    Principals want teachers to do more than profess high expectations for their students. Principals want teachers to have the knowledge and skills to realize their expectations for students by using strategies that increase students' attention to their achievement and responsibilities for learning. Current expectancy literature states that teachers…

  14. Expecting the Best

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaula, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational expectations are psychological constructs that change over time and can be altered or influenced by various factors. The concept of educational expectations refers to how much schooling students realistically believe that they will complete. These expectations are eventually raised or lowered as students see others like themselves…

  15. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Motivation of Mental Versus Physical Effort

    PubMed Central

    Daunizeau, Jean; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Mental and physical efforts, such as paying attention and lifting weights, have been shown to involve different brain systems. These cognitive and motor systems, respectively, include cortical networks (prefronto-parietal and precentral regions) as well as subregions of the dorsal basal ganglia (caudate and putamen). Both systems appeared sensitive to incentive motivation: their activity increases when we work for higher rewards. Another brain system, including the ventral prefrontal cortex and the ventral basal ganglia, has been implicated in encoding expected rewards. How this motivational system drives the cognitive and motor systems remains poorly understood. More specifically, it is unclear whether cognitive and motor systems can be driven by a common motivational center or if they are driven by distinct, dedicated motivational modules. To address this issue, we used functional MRI to scan healthy participants while performing a task in which incentive motivation, cognitive, and motor demands were varied independently. We reasoned that a common motivational node should (1) represent the reward expected from effort exertion, (2) correlate with the performance attained, and (3) switch effective connectivity between cognitive and motor regions depending on task demand. The ventral striatum fulfilled all three criteria and therefore qualified as a common motivational node capable of driving both cognitive and motor regions of the dorsal striatum. Thus, we suggest that the interaction between a common motivational system and the different task-specific systems underpinning behavioral performance might occur within the basal ganglia. PMID:22363208

  16. Gender Differences in Self-Attributions: Relationship of Gender to Attributional Consistency, Style, and Expectations for Performance in a College Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, John W.; Campbell, Constance R.

    1999-01-01

    Examined gender differences in the consistency of attributions over time, general attributional style, and explanations for performance in a college course. Student surveys showed no differences in general attributional style by gender, nor interactions between gender and accuracy in predicting course performance on participants' perceptions of…

  17. Implementation of the Performance Management System (PMS) in Senior Secondary Schools in Botswana: An Investigation of Senior Management Team's Expected Benefits of the PMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulawa, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Different forms of the performance management system have been implemented in many countries for some years. As in other countries, in 1999 the government of Botswana took a decision to implement a performance management system (PMS) across the entire public service including schools. The government explained the purpose for which this reform was…

  18. Preparing for TESS: What to Expect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.

    2015-08-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will launch in 2017 as a NASA Explorer mission, and will discover hundreds of new small planets transiting nearby, bright stars. As has been the case with Kepler, understanding and limiting systematic noise sources will be key to squeezing the best photometric precision out of the TESS instrument. I will describe our efforts at MIT to minimize such systematics, speaking both generally and in regard to one very specific challenge: mitigating the scourge of cosmic rays passing through TESS's thick CCD detectors. I will present the current data collection strategy and its expected performance in light of these known error sources, and I will share detailed simulations of what the TESS survey data will be like. Harnessing the unique opportunity offered by this focus meeting, I hope to solicit feedback from the ExoStats community on what additional lessons from Kepler should be considered in advance of the launch of TESS.

  19. UV RESEARCH - FUNDED AND IN HOUSE EFFORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management research Laboratory (NRMRL) has performed or funded limited in-house and extramural research on the disinfection of CCL listed organisms using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In addition, multiple extramural efforts have been funded to assess operation...

  20. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because smokers need to be aware of the dangers of smoking. Health education projects and public information should address the hazards of smoking and discourage smoking from becoming the social norm. PMID:12314496

  1. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  2. Relationships between Causal Attributions and Expectancy of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahan, Ian D.

    1973-01-01

    A model of achievement behavior incorporates the findings that attributions to ability and task were associated with high expectancies following success and low expectancies following failure, and that attributions to effort and luck were associated with low expectancies following success and high expectancies following failure. (Author/KM)

  3. Is Effort Praise Motivational? The Role of Beliefs in the Effort-Ability Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Ng, Yee-lam

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how beliefs in the effort-ability relationship moderated the effects of effort praise on student motivation. Study 1 showed that the more the participants believed that effort and ability were related positively (the positive rule) versus related negatively (the inverse rule), the more they would have positive

  4. Expectancy, Value, and Motivation for Test Taking When Optimism Declines: A Continuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicker, Frank W.; Turner, Jeannine E.; Reed, JoyLynn H.; McCann, Erin J.; Do, Seung Lee

    Consistent with prior research, expected performance on a midterm examination decreased for 48 college students as the test approached in time, as did grade-level goal and perceived adequacy of effort, although indices of goal value and of motivation to achieve the goal remained constant. Changes were generally monotonic across three occasions.…

  5. Operating the EOSDIS at the Land Processes DAAC Managing Expectations, Requirements, and Performance Across Agencies, Missions, Instruments, Systems, and User Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.

    2002-09-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990's. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990's changed as each community had its say -- first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC -- particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) -- are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  6. Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalvelage, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  7. A Superintendent's High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

  8. Reflections on Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santini, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf…

  9. Modeling the Surface Composition of 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Expected Performance of the VIRTIS-M Spectrometer Onboard the Rosetta Spacecraft.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raponi, A.; Ciarniello, M.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft will encounter comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in the second half of 2014. The present study investigates the capabilities of the VIRTIS-M imaging spectrometer onboard Rosetta to detect and characterize the cometary nucleus surface composition; this is one of the major scientific objectives of the spectrometer that covers the range 0.25-5 μm. A radiative transfer model is applied to mixtures of plausible endmembers to determine the spectral radiance as a function of the observing conditions. We simulated surfaces composed of different types of ices mixtures assuming areal or intimate mixing. For the time being, we have assumed mixtures including water ice, carbon dioxide ice and methanol, but a wide range organics and other compounds (of known optical constants) can be used to generate mixtures. The ices are mixed with a dark opaque featureless component, having a spectral reflectance derived from the dark terrains of Tempel 1 as detected from HRII aboard Deep Impact. The I/F spectra for the areal and intimate mixing are calculated using Hapke's model. The VIRTIS-M Simulator is an essential tool to calculate the instrumental signal / noise ratio (S/N) for different input signals and different observing conditions in which the spectrometer will operate during the mission. Its main aim is to obtain the optimal integration time, which allows to reach the best S/N while avoiding the saturation. Given a radiance in input, the simulator's output is the retrieved error on the signal. Moreover, given the heliocentric distance, it calculates the reflectance with its error.. Detection criteria for the various icy components are based on the evaluation of the error on the band area of diagnostic absorption features. As expected, factors that increase the detectability of a spectral feature for a given endmember are: 1) longer integration time; 2) larger endmember abundance; 3) areal mixing with the dark terrain; 4) shorter heliocentric distance. On the other hand, if the signal is too high there is the possibility to reach saturation. Therefore, the simulator, allows to identify the optimal integration time for balancing the other factors. Finally, we plan to use the simulator to identify detection limits for the various components of the surface during the various phases of the mission.

  10. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  11. Reward expectations in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The study of expectations of reward helps to understand rules controlling goal-directed behavior as well as decision making and planning. I shall review a series of recent studies focusing on how the food gathering behavior of honeybees depends upon reward expectations. These studies document that free-flying honeybees develop long-term expectations of reward and use them to regulate their investment of energy/time during foraging. Also, they present a laboratory procedure suitable for analysis of neural substrates of reward expectations in the honeybee brain. I discuss these findings in the context of individual and collective foraging, on the one hand, and neurobiology of learning and memory of reward. PMID:20585498

  12. From Effort to Value: Preschool Children's Alternative to Effort Justification.

    PubMed

    Benozio, Avi; Diesendruck, Gil

    2015-09-01

    In the current studies, we addressed the development of effort-based object valuation. Four- and 6-year-olds invested either great or little effort in order to obtain attractive or unattractive rewards. Children were allowed to allocate these rewards to an unfamiliar recipient (dictator game). Investing great effort to obtain attractive rewards (a consonant situation) led 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, to enhance the value of the rewards and thus distribute fewer of them to others. After investing effort to attain unattractive rewards (a dissonant situation), 6-year-olds cognitively reduced the dissonance between effort and reward quality by reappraising the value of the rewards and thus distributing fewer of them. In contrast, 4-year-olds reduced the dissonance behaviorally by discarding the rewards. These findings provide evidence for the emergence of an effort-value link and underline possible mechanisms underlying the primacy of cognitive versus behavioral solutions to dissonance reduction. PMID:26209529

  13. THE ROLE OF LOW COGNITIVE EFFORT AND NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Morra, Lindsay F.; Sullivan, Sara K.; Gold, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two experiments were conducted to examine whether insufficient effort, negative symptoms (e.g., avolition, anhedonia), and psychological variables (e.g., anhedonia and perception of low cognitive resources) predict generalized neurocognitive impairment in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). Method In Experiment 1, participants included 97 individuals with SZ and 63 healthy controls (CN) who completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), and self-report anhedonia questionnaires. In Experiment 2, participants included 46 individuals with SZ and 33 CN who completed Green’s Word Memory Test (WMT), the MCCB, and self-reports of anhedonia, defeatist performance beliefs, and negative expectancy appraisals. Results Results indicated that a low proportion of individuals with SZ failed effort testing (1.0% Experiment 1; 15.2% Experiment 2); however, global neurocognitive impairment was significantly predicted by low effort and negative symptoms. Conclusions Findings indicate that low effort does not threaten the validity of neuropsychological test results in the majority of individuals with schizophrenia; however, effort testing may be useful in SZ patients with severe negative symptoms who may be more likely to put forth insufficient effort due to motivational problems. Although the base rate of failure is relatively low, it may be beneficial to screen for insufficient effort in SZ and exclude individuals who fail effort testing from pharmacological or cognitive remediation trials. PMID:25000322

  14. Expected Performance of the GLAST Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles; Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert; Briggs, Michael; Bhat, Narayana; Connaughton, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; vonKienlin, Andreas; Diehl, Roland; Steinle, Helmut; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Kippen, R. Marc

    2007-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage from the LAT threshold down to approx. 8 kev, and will provide a trigger for re-orienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from selected bursts outside the LAT field of view. GBM consists of twelve NaI scintillation detectors operating in the 8 kev to 1 MeV energy range and two BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 150 keV to 30 MeV energy range. Detector resolution, effective area, and angular response have been determined by calibrations. Analyses indicate that the on-board burst threshold will be approx. 0.7 photon/cm2/s and the on-board burst localization accuracy will typically be better than 8 degrees.

  15. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  16. Parenting with High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

    2014-01-01

    In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

  17. Maintaining High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  18. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  19. Patient Expectations and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Surgery: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Jennifer; McGlinn, Evan P.; Sears, Erika Davis; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent events in healthcare reform have brought national attention to integrating patient experiences and expectations into quality metrics. Few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effect of patient expectations on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following surgery. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the available literature describing the relationship between patient expectations and postoperative PROs. Methods We performed a search of the literature published prior to November 1, 2012. Articles were included in the review if 1) primary data were presented 2) patient expectations regarding a surgical procedure were measured 3) PROs were measured, and 4) the relationship between patient expectations and PROs was specifically examined. PROs were categorized into five subgroups: satisfaction, quality of life (QOL), disability, mood disorder, and pain. We examined each study to determine the relationship between patient expectations and PROs as well as study quality. Results From the initial literature search yielding 1,708 studies, 60 articles were included. Fulfillment of expectations was associated with improved PROs among 24 studies. Positive expectations were correlated with improved PROs for 28 (47%) studies, and poorer PROs for 9 (15%) studies. Eighteen studies reported that fulfillment of expectations was correlated with improved patient satisfaction, and 10 studies identified that positive expectations were correlated with improved postoperative QOL. Finally, patients with positive preoperative expectations reported less pain (8 studies) and disability (15 studies) compared with patients with negative preoperative expectations. Conclusions Patient expectations are inconsistently correlated with PROs following surgery, and there is no accepted method to capture perioperative expectations. Future efforts to rigorously measure expectations and explore their influence on postoperative outcomes can inform clinicians and policy-makers seeking to integrate PROs into measures of surgical quality. PMID:24787107

  20. Genetic enhancements and expectations.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, K

    2009-07-01

    Some argue that genetic enhancements and environmental enhancements are not importantly different: environmental enhancements such as private schools and chess lessons are simply the old-school way to have a designer baby. I argue that there is an important distinction between the two practices--a distinction that makes state restrictions on genetic enhancements more justifiable than state restrictions on environmental enhancements. The difference is that parents have no settled expectations about genetic enhancements. PMID:19567693

  1. Shared Expectations for Protection of Identifiable Health Care Information

    PubMed Central

    Wynia, Matthew K; Coughlin, Steven S; Alpert, Sheri; Cummins, Deborah S; Emanuel, Linda L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Ethical Force Program is a collaborative effort to create performance measures for ethics in health care. This report lays out areas of consensus that may be amenable to performance measurement on protecting the privacy, confidentiality and security of identifiable health information. DESIGN Iterative consensus development process. PARTICIPANTS The program's oversight body and its expert panel on privacy include national leaders representing the perspectives of physicians, patients, purchasers, health plans, hospitals, and medical ethicists as well as public health, law, and medical informatics experts. METHODS AND MAIN RESULTS The oversight body appointed a national Expert Advisory Panel on Privacy and Confidentiality in September 1998. This group compiled and reviewed existing norms, including governmental reports and legal standards, professional association policies, private organization statements and policies, accreditation standards, and ethical opinions. A set of specific and assessable expectations for ethical conduct in this domain was then drafted and refined through 7 meetings over 16 months. In the final 2 iterations, each expectation was graded on a scale of 1 to 10 by each oversight body member on whether it was: (1) important, (2) universally applicable, (3) feasible to measure, and (4) realistic to implement. The expectations that did not score more than 7 (mean) on all 4 scales were reconsidered and retained only if the entire oversight body agreed that they should be used as potential subjects for performance measurement. Consensus was achieved on 34 specific expectations. The expectations fell into 8 content areas, addressing the need for transparency of policies and practices, consent for use and disclosure of identifiable information, limitations on information that can be collected and by whom, individual access to one's own health records, security requirements for storage and transfer of information, provisions to ensure ongoing data quality, limitations on how identifiable information may be used, and provisions for meaningful accountability. CONCLUSIONS This process established consensus on 34 measurable ethical expectations for the protection of privacy and confidentiality in health care. These expectations should apply to any organization with access to personally identifiable health information, including managed care organizations, physician groups, hospitals, other provider organizations, and purchasers. Performance measurement on these expectations may improve accountability across the health care system. PMID:11251761

  2. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    PubMed

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. PMID:25973773

  3. Sandbagging efforts in Fargo, ND

    Volunteer sandbagging efforts, used to build levees in Fargo, ND during historic flooding. The height of these levees are built based on flood predictions, made by the National Weather Service using USGS streamflow information. ...

  4. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  5. An investigation of gender and grade-level differences in middle school students' attitudes about science, in science process skills ability, and in parental expectations of their children's science performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Terri Renee'

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine different variables (i.e. science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation for their children in science, which may impinge on science education differently for males and females in grades five, seven, and nine. The research question addressed by the study was: What are the differences between science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation in science on the academic success of fifth, seventh, and ninth graders in science and do effects differ according to gender and grade level? The subjects included fifth, seven, and ninth grade students ( n = 543) and their parents (n = 474) from six rural, public elementary schools and two rural, public middle schools in Southern Mississippi. A two-way (grade x gender) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences in science process skill abilities of females and males in grade five, seven, and nine. An additional separate two-way multivariate analysis of variance (grade x gender) was also used to determine the differences in science attitudes of males and females in grade five, seven, and nine. A separate analysis of variance (PPSEX [parent's gender]) with the effects being parents' gender was used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. An additional separate analysis of variance (SSEX [student's gender]) with the effects being the gender of the student was also used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. Results of the analyses indicated significant main effects for grade level (p < .001) and gender (p < .001) on the TIPS II. There was no significant grade by gender interaction on the TIPS II. Results for the TOSRA also indicated a significant main effect for grade (p < .001) and the interaction of grade by sex ( p < .001). On variable ATT 5 (enjoyment of science lessons), males' attitudes toward science decreased across the grade levels; whereas, females decreased from grade five to seven, but showed a significant increase from grade seven to nine. Results from the analysis of variance with the parent's gender as the main effect showed no significant difference. The analysis of variance with student's gender as the main effect showed no significant difference.

  6. Dynamics with Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glance, Natalie Sandrine

    The study of dynamics with expectations is relevant whenever the entities or "agents" comprising a complex system take into account possible future states when making decisions in the present. Goal-seeking agents form plans to achieve their ends based on their knowledge of causes, their memory of the past, their predictions for the future, as well as on their biases and their beliefs. A dynamical formulation of agent interactions requires a different approach when the behavior of the entities depends on their beliefs and knowledge as well as on the rules governing the evolution of the system. The agents' predictions for the future must enter explicitly into the dynamical rules governing the evolution of the system. This thesis examines the behavior of two dynamical systems in particular. The first, referred to as a computational ecosystem, is composed of a collection of processes, or agents, that compete among themselves for limited resources. The analytical tools of nonlinear dynamics and the modern-day aid of numerical integration via computer are employed to map out the behavioral regimes of the system first when the external environment changes over time, and second when the individual agents incorporate expectations about the future into their decisions. In the second part, a system composed of interacting agents whose individual goals conflict with the overall good of the group is studied both analytically and through computer simulations. It is shown how spontaneous cooperation can be achieved if the agents take into account their expectations about the future when making their choices in the present. Further, the system can remain trapped in a metastable state for long periods of time; eventually, rare large fluctuations occur due to uncertain information that can cause a transition to the global equilibrium. The effects of ultrametric group structure and diversity on the dynamics of cooperation are also elucidated. Specifically, it is seen how the interplay between evolving group structure and the number of agents cooperating introduces new dynamical pathways to cooperation.

  7. A Comparison of Two Methods for Measuring Listening Effort As Part of an Audiologic Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingjing; Cox, Robyn; Pendergraft, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated 2 measures of listening effort (a self-report measure and a word recall measure) regarding their suitability for inclusion in a comprehensive audiologic testing protocol. The relationship between the 2 measures was explored, and both measures were examined with regard to validity, sensitivity, and effect on speech intelligibility performance. Method Thirty adults with normal hearing participated. Speech intelligibility performance was evaluated at 4 signal-to-noise ratios by using keywords embedded in both high- and low-context sentences. Listening effort was evaluated at set intervals throughout the speech intelligibility task. Results Results obtained with the 2 measures were consistent with expected changes in listening effort. However, data obtained with the self-report method demonstrated greater sensitivity to these changes. The 2 measures were uncorrelated. Under certain conditions, speech intelligibility performance was more negatively affected when the word recall measure was used. Exploration of additional theoretical and practical considerations supported a conclusion that the self-report measure was preferable for measuring listening effort simultaneously with speech intelligibility. Conclusion The results of this study provide a rationale for preferring the self-report measure of listening effort over the word recall measure when testing audiologic outcomes. PMID:25996680

  8. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  9. Dopamine, Behavioral Economics, and Effort

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M.; Nunes, Eric J.; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  10. Are moods motivational states? A study on effort-related cardiovascular response.

    PubMed

    de Burgo, Joana; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2009-12-01

    Based on the mood-behavior-model (Gendolla, 2000), this study tested the idea that moods only have effects on effort mobilization in settings that directly call for this and in which people can thus use their moods as task-relevant information. Fifty university students were randomly assigned to a 2 (Mood: negative vs. positive) x 2 (Memorizing: intentional vs. incidental) x 2 (Time: mood induction vs. task performance) mixed model design. Effort mobilization was operationalized as systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity. As expected, in the intentional-memorizing condition, SBP reactivity was stronger in a negative mood than in a positive mood. Mood had no impact in the incidental-memorizing condition, which did not call for effort mobilization. PMID:20001132

  11. Beyond my wildest expectations.

    PubMed

    Nester, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    With support from my parents, I fulfilled their and my expectations of graduating from college and becoming a scientist. My scientific career has focused on two organisms, Bacillus subtilis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and two experimental systems, aromatic amino acid synthesis and DNA transfer in bacteria and plants. Studies on B. subtilis emphasized the genetics and biochemistry of aromatic amino acid synthesis and the characterization of competence in DNA transformation. I carried out both as a postdoc at Stanford with Josh Lederberg. At the University of Washington, I continued these studies and then investigated how Agrobacterium transforms plant cells. In collaboration, Milt Gordon, Mary-Dell Chilton, and I found that this bacterium could transfer a piece of its plasmid into plant cells and thereby modify their properties. This discovery opened up a host of intriguing questions that we have tried to answer over the last 35 years. PMID:25208299

  12. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  13. Peer Victimization and Effortful Control

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Roopa V.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thompson, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    The relations among peer victimization, effortful control, school engagement, and academic achievement were examined in a group of 390 (212 boys and 178 girls) racially diverse (38.20% Latino and 46.70% White) 6- to 10-year-old children. Specifically, a multimethod, multi-informant approach was used in which data were gathered using self-report, peer-report, and teacher-report questionnaires at three points in time: twice during the initial year of the study when children were in first and third grades and once in the fall of their second-grade and fourth-grade years, respectively. Findings showed that peer victimization was negatively correlated with effortful control; however, longitudinal analyses conducted to examine causal priority were inconclusive. Results from structural equation modeling were consistent with the hypotheses that school engagement mediated the relations between peer victimization and academic achievement, as well as between effortful control and academic achievement. PMID:23105166

  14. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  15. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  16. Global efforts in structural genomics.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R C; Yokoyama, S; Wilson, I A

    2001-10-01

    A worldwide initiative in structural genomics aims to capitalize on the recent successes of the genome projects. Substantial new investments in structural genomics in the past 2 years indicate the high level of support for these international efforts. Already, enormous progress has been made on high-throughput methodologies and technologies that will speed up macromolecular structure determinations. Recent international meetings have resulted in the formation of an International Structural Genomics Organization to formulate policy and foster cooperation between the public and private efforts. PMID:11588249

  17. Effects of Naturally Induced Teacher Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaver, W. Burleigh

    1973-01-01

    A natural experiment is examined as a test of the teacher expectancy hypothesis. It was hypothesized that pupils taught by the same teacher as their older siblings would perform better than those taught by a different teacher. (Author/KM)

  18. Great expectations: what do patients expect and how can expectations be managed?

    PubMed

    Newton, J T; Cunningham, S J

    2013-06-01

    Patients' expectations of their treatment are a key determinant in their satisfaction with treatment. Expectations may encompass not only notions of the outcome of treatment, but also the process of treatment. This article explores the processes by which expectations are formed, differences in expectations across patient groups, and the psychopathology of individuals with unrealistic expectations of treatment manifest in body dysmorphic disorder. PMID:23794691

  19. High School to Community College: New Efforts to Build Shared Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosin, Matthew; Wilson, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Although K-12 schools and community colleges share responsibility for the futures of a vast number of young Californians, and both are under pressure to improve student academic achievement, the groups operate under separate governance systems, pursue distinct missions, gauge success based on different measures, and are seldom looked at together.…

  20. Agentic extraversion as a predictor of effort-related cardiovascular response.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Christoph J; Leue, Anja; Wacker, Jan; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Hennighausen, Erwin; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2008-05-01

    The present study examined an extraversion-based extension of the integrative model of cardiovascular effort regulation by Wright and Kirby [Wright, R.A., Kirby, L.D., 2001. Effort determination of cardiovascular response: an integrative analysis with applications in social psychology. In: Zanna, M.P. (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 255-307.]. This model explains cardiovascular effort reactivity in terms of task difficulty, ability appraisal, and success importance. Aggregate measures of cardiovascular variables (alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and cholinergic activation components) were used to measure extraversion-based differences in effort. Subjects performed a sequential letter task (n-back verbal working memory task) with four levels of difficulty. Agentic extraverts (n=10) appraised their ability and happiness as significantly higher than introverts (n=10). Introverts showed the expected shark-fin shaped pattern of effort-related cardiovascular reactivity for the alpha-adrenergic and cholinergic activation components. Effort decreased after the moderately difficult 2-back task. Results provide first evidence for an extraversion-based extension of the model and are discussed with regard to mood and resource allocation as possible mechanisms. PMID:18400356

  1. Great Expectations: Examining the Discrepancy between Expectations and Experiences on College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleitz, Jacob D.; MacDougall, Alexandra E.; Terry, Robert A.; Buckley, M. Ronald; Campbell, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build upon previous efforts evaluating the degree to which the discrepancy between student expectations and experiences can result in greater rates of attrition in education. Data were collected from 225 students at a large Midwestern public university and analyzed to assess the discrepancy between expectations…

  2. Megascience efforts and the brain.

    PubMed

    Grillner, Sten

    2014-06-18

    Several recent megascale neuroscience efforts in the U.S. and Europe are concerned with developing infrastructure for tools, modeling, or neuroinformatics. It may seem surprising that they are not instead focused directly on gaining fundamental new insights into brain function. PMID:24945766

  3. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs. PMID:25994710

  4. New standard exceeds expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.J. )

    1993-08-01

    The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.

  5. Sociology of Low Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Gabrielle; Williams, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have drawn attention to the role of hype and optimistic visions of the future in providing momentum to biomedical innovation projects by encouraging innovation alliances. In this article, we show how less optimistic, uncertain, and modest visions of the future can also provide innovation projects with momentum. Scholars have highlighted the need for clinicians to carefully manage the expectations of their prospective patients. Using the example of a pioneering clinical team providing deep brain stimulation to children and young people with movement disorders, we show how clinicians confront this requirement by drawing on their professional knowledge and clinical expertise to construct visions of the future with their prospective patients; visions which are personalized, modest, and tainted with uncertainty. We refer to this vision-constructing work as recalibration, and we argue that recalibration enables clinicians to manage the tension between the highly optimistic and hyped visions of the future that surround novel biomedical interventions, and the exigencies of delivering those interventions in a clinical setting. Drawing on work from science and technology studies, we suggest that recalibration enrolls patients in an innovation alliance by creating a shared understanding of how the “effectiveness” of an innovation shall be judged. PMID:26527846

  6. Does software design complexity affect maintenance effort?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epping, Andreas; Lott, Christopher M.

    1994-01-01

    The design complexity of a software system may be characterized within a refinement level (e.g., data flow among modules), or between refinement levels (e.g., traceability between the specification and the design). We analyzed an existing set of data from NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory to test whether changing software modules with high design complexity requires more personnel effort than changing modules with low design complexity. By analyzing variables singly, we identified strong correlations between software design complexity and change effort for error corrections performed during the maintenance phase. By analyzing variables in combination, we found patterns which identify modules in which error corrections were costly to perform during the acceptance test phase.

  7. Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

  8. Preventing Marketing Efforts That Bomb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    In a marketplace overwhelmed with messages, too many institutions waste money on ineffective marketing. Highlights five common marketing errors: limited definition of marketing; unwillingness to address strategic issues; no supporting data; fuzzy goals and directions; and unrealistic expectations, time lines, and budgets. Though trustees are not

  9. Preventing Marketing Efforts That Bomb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    In a marketplace overwhelmed with messages, too many institutions waste money on ineffective marketing. Highlights five common marketing errors: limited definition of marketing; unwillingness to address strategic issues; no supporting data; fuzzy goals and directions; and unrealistic expectations, time lines, and budgets. Though trustees are not…

  10. The AstroHDF Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, J.; Alexov, A.; Folk, M.; Hanisch, R.; Heber, G.; Wise, M.

    2012-09-01

    Here we update the astronomy community on our effort to deal with the demands of ever-increasing astronomical data size and complexity, using the Hierarchical Data Format, version 5 (HDF5) format (Wise et al. 2011). NRAO, LOFAR and VAO have joined forces with The HDF Group to write an NSF grant, requesting funding to assist in the effort. This paper briefly summarizes our motivation for the proposed project, an outline of the project itself, and some of the material discussed at the ADASS Birds of a Feather (BoF) discussion. Topics of discussion included: community experiences with HDF5 and other file formats; toolsets which exist and/or can be adapted for HDF5; a call for development towards visualizing large (> 1 TB) image cubes; and, general lessons learned from working with large and complex data.

  11. STAKEHOLDERS’ OPINIONS AND EXPECTATIONS OF THE GLOBAL FUND AND THEIR POTENTIAL ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Galárraga, Omar; Bertozzi, Stefano M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze stakeholder opinions and expectations of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, and to discuss their potential economic and financial implications. Design The Global Fund commissioned an independent study, the “360° Stakeholder Assessment,” to canvas feedback on the organization’s reputation and performance with an on-line survey of 909 respondents representing major stakeholders worldwide. We created a proxy for expectations based on categorical responses for specific Global Fund attributes’ importance to the stakeholders, and current perceived performance. Methods Using multivariate regression, we analyzed 23 unfulfilled expectations related to: resource mobilization; impact measurement; harmonization and inclusion; effectiveness of the Global Fund partner environment; and portfolio characteristics. The independent variables are personal- and regional-level characteristics that affect expectations. Results The largest unfulfilled expectations relate to: mobilization of private sector resources; efficiency in disbursing funds; and assurance that people affected by the three diseases are reached. Stakeholders involved with the Fund through the Country Coordinating Mechanisms, those working in multilateral organizations, and persons living with HIV are more likely to have unfulfilled expectations. In contrast, higher levels of involvement with the Fund correlate with fulfilled expectations. Stakeholders living in sub-Saharan Africa were less likely to have their expectations met. Conclusions Stakeholders unfulfilled expectations result largely from factors external to them, but also from factors over which they have influence. In particular, attributes related to partnership score poorly even though stakeholders have influence in that area. Joint efforts to address perceived performance gaps may improve future performance, and positively influence investment levels and economic viability. PMID:18664957

  12. Vaccine research efforts for filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Hart, Mary Kate

    2003-05-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses belong to the family Filoviridae, and cause acute, frequently fatal, haemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. No vaccines are available for human use. This review describes the status of research efforts to develop vaccines for these viruses and to identify the immune mechanisms of protection. The vaccine approaches discussed include DNA-based vaccines, and subunit vaccines vectored by adenovirus, alphavirus replicons, and vaccinia virus. PMID:12782057

  13. German COIL efforts: status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2002-05-01

    Historically, COIL research in Germany has started with microwave excitation of an oxygen flow. But soon all efforts have been devoted to the chemical generation of excited singlet oxygen and have eventually given rise to a supersonic 10 kW class rotating disk driven device. A diode based diagnostic provides data of small signal gain and cavity temperature which emphasize the role of iodine injection for different penetration conditions. Heat release can lead to substantially higher temperatures as expected from adiabatic expansion. Power extraction is found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Alternatively, small scale liquid jet generator experiments show encouraging 60 percent efficiency. Besides air defense related applications and a study on space debris removal, results are given which are pertinent to the decommissioning of nuclear installations. In particular, laser cutting of concrete at 1.3 micrometers is demonstrated and theoretically scaled up to relevant power levels.

  14. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper describes JHU/APL's roles and responsibilities in the launch contingency effort, and the specific tasks to fulfill those responsibilities. The overall effort contributed to mission safety and demonstrated successful cooperation between several agencies.

  15. Shuttle operational expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of orbital flight tests (OFT) of the Space Shuttle are reviewed, and modifications planned for upcoming operational flights are discussed. The performance of the solid rocket boosters, external tank, main engines, structural system, propulsion system, reaction control system, electric power system, heat rejection system, hydraulic system, avionics, and other systems is described and evaluated as generally highly satisfactory. Payload servicing and deployment were also successfully demonstrated by OFT. Additional facilities planned for the operational flights are briefly described, and improvements that will make the Challenger spacecraft lighter than Columbia, provide it with more thrust, and give it a larger payload are summarized. Some software modifications being introduced are also mentioned.

  16. Noradrenaline and dopamine neurons in the reward/effort trade-off: a direct electrophysiological comparison in behaving monkeys.

    PubMed

    Varazzani, Chiara; San-Galli, Aurore; Gilardeau, Sophie; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-05-20

    Motivation determines multiple aspects of behavior, including action selection and energization of behavior. Several components of the underlying neural systems have been examined closely, but the specific role of the different neuromodulatory systems in motivation remains unclear. Here, we compare directly the activity of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta and noradrenergic neurons from the locus coeruleus in monkeys performing a task manipulating the reward/effort trade-off. Consistent with previous reports, dopaminergic neurons encoded the expected reward, but we found that they also anticipated the upcoming effort cost in connection with its negative influence on action selection. Conversely, the firing of noradrenergic neurons increased with both pupil dilation and effort production in relation to the energization of behavior. Therefore, this work underlines the contribution of dopamine to effort-based decision making and uncovers a specific role of noradrenaline in energizing behavior to face challenges. PMID:25995472

  17. Anger and effortful control moderate aggressogenic thought-behaviour associations.

    PubMed

    Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V E; Peets, Kätlin; Salmivalli, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The effects of anger and effortful control on aggressogenic thought-behaviour associations were investigated among a total of 311 Finnish fifth and sixth graders (mean age = 11.9 years). Self-reported aggressive cognitions (i.e., normative- and self-efficacy beliefs about aggression) were expected to be associated with higher peer-reported aggressive behaviour. Teacher reported anger and effortful control were hypothesised, and found, to moderate the effects of aggressive cognitions on aggression, such that the effects were strongest for children who were high in anger and low in effortful control, as compared to other conditions. Furthermore, under the conditions of high anger and high effortful control, self-efficacy was negatively related to aggression. Thus, aggression is a result of a complex, hierarchically organised motivational system, being jointly influenced by aggressive cognitions, anger and effortful control. The findings support the importance of examining cognitive and emotional structures jointly when predicting children's aggressive behaviour. PMID:26042460

  18. Does cleanliness influence moral judgments? Response effort moderates the effect of cleanliness priming on moral judgments

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Whether cleanliness influences moral judgments has recently become a topic of debate in the psychological literature. After the initial report that activating the notion of physical purity can result in less severe moral judgments (Schnall et al., 2008a), a direct replication (Johnson et al., 2014a) with much larger sample sizes failed to yield similar findings. The current paper examines the possibility that only non-conscious activation of the cleanliness concept, as achieved in participants with low response effort on priming materials, can produce the expected effect. An online replication (Study 1, N = 214) provided evidence that, when participants exerted low (yet still acceptable) levels of response effort to the experimental material, cleanliness priming led to more lenient moral judgments than neutral priming. An online experiment (Study 2, N = 440; replicated in Study 2a, N = 436) manipulating participants’ effort on the priming task (low vs. high) supported the hypothesized mechanism. Specifically, respondents in the low response effort group were instructed to complete the priming task as quickly as possible without too much attention, and the cleanliness priming resulted in less extreme moral judgments than the neutral condition as expected. In contrast, respondents in the high response effort group were instructed to perform to the best of their ability on the priming task, with a non-significant difference on moral ratings between cleanliness and neutral conditions. In addition to helping resolve the controversy regarding the cleanliness hypothesis, the current paper calls into attention the role of response effort in the execution and replication of priming studies. PMID:25414690

  19. Cognitive effort avoidance and detection in people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gold, James M; Kool, Wouter; Botvinick, Matthew M; Hubzin, Leeka; August, Sharon; Waltz, James A

    2015-03-01

    Many people with schizophrenia exhibit avolition, a difficulty initiating and maintaining goal-directed behavior, considered to be a key negative symptom of the disorder. Recent evidence indicates that patients with higher levels of negative symptoms differ from healthy controls in showing an exaggerated cost of the physical effort needed to obtain a potential reward. We examined whether patients show an exaggerated avoidance of cognitive effort, using the demand selection task developed by Kool, McGuire, Rosen, and Botvinick (Journal of Experimental Psychology. General, 139, 665-682, 2010). A total of 83 people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 71 healthy volunteers participated in three experiments where instructions varied. In the standard task (Experiment 1), neither controls nor patients showed expected cognitive demand avoidance. With enhanced instructions (Experiment 2), controls demonstrated greater demand avoidance than patients. In Experiment 3, patients showed nonsignificant reductions in demand avoidance, relative to controls. In a control experiment, patients showed significantly reduced ability to detect the effort demands associated with different response alternatives. In both groups, the ability to detect effort demands was associated with increased effort avoidance. In both groups, increased cognitive effort avoidance was associated with higher IQ and general neuropsychological ability. No significant correlations between demand avoidance and negative symptom severity were observed. Thus, it appears that individual differences in general intellectual ability and effort detection are related to cognitive effort avoidance and likely account for the subtle reduction in effort avoidance observed in schizophrenia. PMID:24957405

  20. Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

  1. Enhanced expectancies improve movement efficiency in runners.

    PubMed

    Stoate, Isabelle; Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We followed up on recent findings demonstrating that enhancing performers' expectancies can improve their performance. Specifically, we examined whether providing experienced runners with positive feedback regarding their movement efficiency would increase running efficiency. Two groups of experienced runners ran on a treadmill at 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) for 10 min. One group (enhanced expectancy) was provided with (fabricated) feedback about the efficiency of their running style every 2 min. A control group was not given feedback. Oxygen consumption decreased in the enhanced expectancy group across measurement times (every 2 min for 10 min), but remained the same in the control group. In addition, performance perceptions changed only in the enhanced expectancy group, indicating a perception of greater ease of running and reduced fatigue when assessed after compared with before running. Finally, positive affect increased from a pre- to a post-test in the enhanced expectancy group, in contrast to the control group. Our findings show that enhanced expectancies can have a positive effect on movement efficiency and running experience. They add to the accumulating evidence for the social-cognitive-affective-motor nature of motor performance. PMID:22439657

  2. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  3. Sensors and Data Acquisition Development Efforts at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes efforts at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to develop spacecraft sensors and instruments which meet the expected needs of potential clients on a budget. Sensors are profiled, and the topics covered include systems health monitoring, smart structures, software algorithms, and testing.

  4. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  5. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

    2010-11-29

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  6. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  7. Motivation and effort in individuals with social anhedonia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Julie M; Treadway, Michael T; Blanchard, Jack J

    2015-06-01

    It has been proposed that anhedonia may, in part, reflect difficulties in reward processing and effortful decision making. The current study aimed to replicate previous findings of effortful decision making deficits associated with elevated anhedonia and expand upon these findings by investigating whether these decision making deficits are specific to elevated social anhedonia or are also associated with elevated positive schizotypy characteristics. The current study compared controls (n=40) to individuals elevated on social anhedonia (n=30), and individuals elevated on perceptual aberration/magical ideation (n=30) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Across groups, participants chose a higher proportion of hard tasks with increasing probability of reward and reward magnitude, demonstrating sensitivity to probability and reward values. Contrary to our expectations, when the probability of reward was most uncertain (50% probability), at low and medium reward values, the social anhedonia group demonstrated more effortful decision making than either individuals high in positive schizotypy or controls. The positive schizotypy group only differed from controls (making less effortful choices than controls) when reward probability was lowest (12%) and the magnitude of reward was the smallest. Our results suggest that social anhedonia is related to intact motivation and effort for monetary rewards, but that individuals with this characteristic display a unique and perhaps inefficient pattern of effort allocation when the probability of reward is most uncertain. Future research is needed to better understand effortful decision making and the processing of reward across a range of individual difference characteristics. PMID:25888337

  8. Dopamine D1 receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex regulate effort-based decision making

    PubMed Central

    Schweimer, Judith; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in encoding whether or not an action is worth performing in view of the expected benefit and the cost of performing the action. Dopamine input to the ACC may be critical for this form of effort-based decision making; however, the role of distinct ACC dopamine receptors is yet unknown. Therefore, we examined in rats the effects of an intra-ACC D1 and D2 receptor blockade on effort-based decision making tested in a T-maze cost-benefit task. In this task, subjects could either choose to climb a barrier to obtain a high reward in one arm or a low reward in the other arm without a barrier. Unlike vehicle-treated rats, rats with intra-ACC infusion of the D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 exhibited a reduced preference for the high-cost– high-reward response option when having the choice to obtain a low reward with little effort. In contrast, in rats with intra-ACC infusion of the D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride, the preference for the high-cost–high-reward response option was not altered relative to vehicle-treated rats. These data provide the first evidence that D1 receptors in the ACC regulate effort-based decision making. PMID:17142306

  9. Does Effort Still Count?: More on What Makes the Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Tracy E.; Magnotti, John F.; Marchuk, Kimberly; Schultz, Bridget S.; Luther, Andrew; Varfolomeeva, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has examined differences between students and faculty regarding the weight of effort in assigning grades. Here, students and faculty responded to questions regarding the relative weight of performance and effort on final grades and what letter grades faculty should assign across different types of courses. The authors asked these…

  10. Student Perception of Academic Grading: Personality, Academic Orientation, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippin, Gregory K.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.; Page, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Factors influencing student perceptions of academic grading were examined, with an emphasis on furthering understanding of the relevance of effort to students' conceptualization of grading. Students demonstrated a conceptualization of grading where effort should be weighted comparably to actual performance in importance to the composition of a…

  11. Effort, anhedonia, and function in schizophrenia: reduced effort allocation predicts amotivation and functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Barch, Deanna M; Treadway, Michael T; Schoen, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    One of the most debilitating aspects of schizophrenia is an apparent interest in or ability to exert effort for rewards. Such "negative symptoms" may prevent individuals from obtaining potentially beneficial outcomes in educational, occupational, or social domains. In animal models, dopamine abnormalities decrease willingness to work for rewards, implicating dopamine (DA) function as a candidate substrate for negative symptoms given that schizophrenia involves dysregulation of the dopamine system. We used the effort-expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT) to assess the degree to which individuals with schizophrenia were wiling to exert increased effort for either larger magnitude rewards or for rewards that were more probable. Fifty-nine individuals with schizophrenia and 39 demographically similar controls performed the EEfRT task, which involves making choices between "easy" and "hard" tasks to earn potential rewards. Individuals with schizophrenia showed less of an increase in effort allocation as either reward magnitude or probability increased. In controls, the frequency of choosing the hard task in high reward magnitude and probability conditions was negatively correlated with depression severity and anhedonia. In schizophrenia, fewer hard task choices were associated with more severe negative symptoms and worse community and work function as assessed by a caretaker. Consistent with patterns of disrupted dopamine functioning observed in animal models of schizophrenia, these results suggest that 1 mechanism contributing to impaired function and motivational drive in schizophrenia may be a reduced allocation of greater effort for higher magnitude or higher probability rewards. PMID:24886012

  12. [Vaccines against livestock parasites: expectations and reality].

    PubMed

    Strube, Christina; Daugschies, Arwid

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic infections in livestock are of major economic importance. However, increasing resistance against antiparasitic drugs, which is particularly prevalent among parasitic helminths and poultry coccidia, might sooner or later call the economic viability of certain livestock branches into question. Thus, there is a need to develop new efficient parasite control tools. In addition to efforts to discover new antiparasitic compounds or to implement targeted selective treatment strategies, development of vaccines would be a future-orientated alternative. The current review elucidates to what extend antiparasitic livestock vaccines are reality or still expectations. PMID:26697710

  13. Tonal expectations influence early pitch processing.

    PubMed

    Marmel, Frédéric; Perrin, Fabien; Tillmann, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the ERP correlates of the influence of tonal expectations on pitch processing. Participants performed a pitch discrimination task between penultimate and final tones of melodies. These last two tones were a repetition of the same musical note, but penultimate tones were always in tune whereas final tones were slightly out of tune in half of the trials. The pitch discrimination task allowed us to investigate the influence of tonal expectations in attentive listening and, for penultimate tones, without being confounded by decisional processes (occurring on final tones). Tonal expectations were manipulated by a tone change in the first half of the melodies that changed their tonality, hence changing the tonal expectedness of penultimate and final tones without modifying them acoustically. Manipulating tonal expectations with minimal acoustic changes allowed us to focus on the cognitive expectations based on listeners' knowledge of tonal structures. For penultimate tones, tonal expectations modulated processing within the first 100 msec after onset resulting in an Nb/P1 complex that differed in amplitude between tonally related and less related conditions. For final tones, out-of-tune tones elicited an N2/P3 complex and, on in-tune tones only, tonal manipulation elicited an ERAN/RATN-like negativity overlapping with the N2. Our results suggest that cognitive tonal expectations can influence pitch perception at several steps of processing, starting with early attentional selection of pitch. PMID:21265601

  14. DarkLight Invisibles Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantarians, Narbe

    2015-04-01

    The DarkLight (Detecting A Resonance Kinematically with eLectrons Incident on a Gaseous Hydrogen Target) experiment at Jefferson Lab intends to study the process e- p -->e- pA' , with A' being a hidden gauge boson decaying to e-e+ . DarkLight will explore the A' mass region 10-100 MeV with sensitivity to couplings as low as α' /αEM ~10-7 with 1 ab-1 of data. The complete kinematic information provided by the DarkLight detector also permits a search for an invisibly decaying A'. In contrast to the numerous visible decay searches, both attempted and planned, there is considerably less data for the invisible decay. Furthermore, the limited data for invisibles' searches is from beam-dump and indirect decays, making this a unique measurement. This talk will focus on the invisibles effort for DarkLight, covering both the related physics and necessary instrumentation. DOE DE-SC0003884.

  15. Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…

  16. Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their

  17. Expectancy effects in caffeine research.

    PubMed

    Christensen, L; White, B; Krietsch, K; Steele, G

    1990-01-01

    The impact of expectancy on the experience of caffeine-related symptoms was investigated by randomly assigning subjects to an expectancy or nonexpectancy instructional condition. Subjects were administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and a Symptom Questionnaire prior to and 45 minutes after receiving their designated instructional set and ingesting a cellulose-filled gelatin capsule which ostensibly was filled with caffeine. Results revealed that a significant expectancy effect existed on five Symptom Questionnaire items. PMID:2341204

  18. Effort analysis of gender differences in cardiovascular response: Further evidence involving a traditionally feminine incentive.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Patricia; Wright, Rex A; Krubinski, Kimberlee; Molzof, Hylton; Hur, Jinwoo

    2015-07-01

    Participants were presented a moderately- or impossibly difficult cumulative mental addition task with instructions that they could win a traditionally feminine- or masculine incentive if they achieved a 90% success rate. When the incentive was feminine, systolic blood pressure responses during the task period were stronger under moderately difficult conditions among women, but low irrespective of difficulty among men - creating a gender difference only when difficulty was moderate. By contrast, when the incentive was masculine, systolic-, mean arterial- and, to a lesser degree, diastolic blood pressure responses during the task period were stronger under moderately difficult conditions irrespective of gender. The former finding confirmed expectations and adds substantively to the body of evidence favoring a recent effort analysis of gender influence on CV response to performance challenge. The latter findings conflict with what was first expected, but can be understood in terms of post hoc reasoning extended in light of participants' ratings of the masculine incentive. PMID:26032868

  19. Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

  20. Making Your High Expectations Stick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Every teacher starts the school year with great expectations for an orderly classroom. An experienced educator has probably tried various approaches to maintain order and create a classroom environment where every student feels comfortable contributing. To let the students know how much is really expected of them, teachers should not simply state…

  1. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  2. Effects of Evaluation Expectation on Artistic Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    Conditions are examined under which the imposition of an extrinsic constraint upon performance of an activity can lead to decrements in creativity. Female college students worked on an art activity either with or without the expectation of external evaluation. In addition, subjects were asked to focus upon either the creative or the technical…

  3. Did the LHC detectors meet our expectations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikenberg, Giora

    2013-12-01

    By showing comparisons between the achieved performance and the expected one from the various sub-detectors of the large LHC Experiments at conditions that exceed the original design, it will be shown that the first answer is yes, BUT. The BUT will be dedicated to various problems encountered with industrial orders and design mistakes, and what lessons one should learn from these issues.

  4. Diversity in Literary Response: Revisiting Gender Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendler, Beth M.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on and reexamining theories on gender and literacy, derived from research performed between 1974 and 2002, this qualitative study explored the gender assumptions and expectations of Language Arts teachers in a graduate level adolescent literature course at a university in the Midwestern United States. The theoretical framework was…

  5. Defining Expectations: The Essay Test Made Simpler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Philip E.

    Impromptu writing on tests is a useful way to evaluate student comprehension and encourage students to use critical thinking skills. Students' performance on essay tests can improve, and teachers' time required for grading can decrease through the use of an adapted holistic grading scale that clearly states expectations. First, a carefully written…

  6. NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

  7. Feedback and the rationing of time and effort among competing tasks.

    PubMed

    Northcraft, Gregory B; Schmidt, Aaron M; Ashford, Susan J

    2011-09-01

    The study described here tested a model of how characteristics of the feedback environment influence the allocation of resources (time and effort) among competing tasks. Results demonstrated that performers invest more resources on tasks for which higher quality (more timely and more specific) feedback is available; this effect was partially mediated by task salience and task expectancies. Feedback timing and feedback specificity demonstrated both main and interaction effects on resource allocations. Results also demonstrated that performers do better on tasks for which higher quality feedback is available; this effect was mediated by resources allocated to tasks. The practical and theoretical implications of the role of the feedback environment in managing performance are discussed. PMID:21463017

  8. Effects of Effortful Swallow on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lívia M S; Silva, Roberta G; Melo, Monique; Silva, Nayra N; Vanderlei, Franciele M; Garner, David M; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-04-01

    Swallowing-induced changes in heart rate have been recently reported. However, it is not apparent the responses of heart rate variability (HRV) elicited by effortful swallow maneuver. We investigated the acute effects of effortful swallowing maneuver on HRV. This study was performed on 34 healthy women between 18 and 35 years old. We assessed heart rate variability in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50) and frequency (HF, LF, and LF/HF ratio) domains and, visual analysis through the Poincaré plot. The subjects remained at rest for 5 min during spontaneous swallowing and then performed effortful swallowing for 5 min. HRV was analyzed during spontaneous and effortful swallowing. We found no significant differences for SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, HF in absolute units (ms(2)). There is a trend for increase of LF in absolute (p = 0.05) and normalized (p = 0.08) units during effortful swallowing. HF in normalized units reduced (p = 0.02) during effortful swallowing and LF/HF ratio (p = 0.03) increased during effortful swallowing. In conclusion effortful swallow maneuver in healthy women increased sympathetic cardiac modulation, indicating a cardiac overload. PMID:26650792

  9. Expectancies and Attributions for Hyperactive and Medicated Hyperactive Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirkhan, James

    1982-01-01

    Eighty students and 15 teachers provided expectancies and attributions for the academic performance of hypothetical medicated and nonmedicated hyperactive children. Both teachers and peers had higher expectancies for the medicated than for the nonmedicated child. Data suggested that these differential expectancies may arise from different…

  10. Patient expectations of dental services. Image affects expectations, and expectations affect perceived service quality.

    PubMed

    Clow, K E; Fischer, A K; O'Bryan, D

    1995-01-01

    The authors construct a theoretical model of the antecedents of expectations for dental services by analyzing survey responses from 240 dental patients. The patients' image of the dentist, tangible cues, situational factors, and patient satisfaction with prior service encounters have the greatest influence on expectations of service, whereas marketing variables, such as price and advertising, appear to have no effect. PMID:10152791

  11. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  12. What Employers Expect of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roberts T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the expectations held by employers for graduates in a world of global competition and rapid change, and discusses why preparation for work and for higher education now require the same academic standards. (EV)

  13. Pain Expectancies, Pain, and Functional Self-Efficacy Expectancies as Determinants of Disability in Patients with Chronic Low Back Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested the predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities, expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back pain patients. Before assessment of function, patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks--functional self-efficacy (FSE)--and the likelihood working would…

  14. Combined expectancies: electrophysiological evidence for the adjustment of expectancy effects

    PubMed Central

    Mattler, Uwe; van der Lugt, Arie; Münte, Thomas F

    2006-01-01

    Background When subjects use cues to prepare for a likely stimulus or a likely response, reaction times are facilitated by valid cues but prolonged by invalid cues. In studies on combined expectancy effects, two cues can independently give information regarding two dimensions of the forthcoming task. In certain situations, cueing effects on one dimension are reduced when the cue on the other dimension is invalid. According to the Adjusted Expectancy Model, cues affect different processing levels and a mechanism is presumed which is sensitive to the validity of early level cues and leads to online adjustment of expectancy effects at later levels. To examine the predictions of this model cueing of stimulus modality was combined with response cueing. Results Behavioral measures showed the interaction of cueing effects. Electrophysiological measures of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) and the N200 amplitude confirmed the predictions of the model. The LRP showed larger effects of response cues on response activation when modality cues were valid rather than invalid. N200 amplitude was largest with valid modality cues and invalid response cues, medium with invalid modality cues, and smallest with two valid cues. Conclusion Findings support the view that the validity of early level expectancies modulates the effects of late level expectancies, which included response activation and response conflict in the present study. PMID:16674805

  15. Social Baseline Theory: The Social Regulation of Risk and Effort

    PubMed Central

    Coan, James A.; Sbarra, David A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe Social Baseline Theory (SBT), a perspective that integrates the study of social relationships with principles of attachment, behavioral ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and perception science. SBT suggests the human brain expects access to social relationships that mitigate risk and diminish the level of effort needed to meet a variety of goals. This is accomplished in part by incorporating relational partners into neural representations of the self. By contrast, decreased access to relational partners increases cognitive and physiological effort. Relationship disruptions entail re-defining the self as independent, which implies greater risk, increased effort, and diminished well being. The ungrafting of the self and other may mediate recovery from relationship loss. PMID:25825706

  16. Control of robotic assistance using poststroke residual voluntary effort.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Nathaniel S; Knutson, Jayme S; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick E

    2015-03-01

    Poststroke hemiparesis limits the ability to reach, in part due to involuntary muscle co-activation (synergies). Robotic approaches are being developed for both therapeutic benefit and continuous assistance during activities of daily living. Robotic assistance may enable participants to exert less effort, thereby reducing expression of the abnormal co-activation patterns, which could allow participants to reach further. This study evaluated how well participants could perform a reaching task with robotic assistance that was either provided independent of effort in the vertical direction or in the sagittal plane in proportion to voluntary effort estimated from electromyograms (EMG) on the affected side. Participants who could not reach targets without assistance were enabled to reach further with assistance. Constant anti-gravity force assistance that was independent of voluntary effort did not reduce the quality of reach and enabled participants to exert less effort while maintaining different target locations. Force assistance that was proportional to voluntary effort on the affected side enabled participants to exert less effort and could be controlled to successfully reach targets, but participants had increased difficulty maintaining a stable position. These results suggest that residual effort on the affected side can produce an effective command signal for poststroke assistive devices. PMID:25373107

  17. Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

  18. Achieving Common Expectations for Overall Goals amid Diversity among Cooperative Extension Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Barbara

    As a part of the initial phase of a strategic planning effort for the development of Florida's 1988 through 1991 long-range cooperative extension program, an effort was initiated to achieve common expectations for overall organizational mission and purpose among diverse cooperative extension faculty. The unification effort included the following…

  19. Desettling Expectations in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, M.; Warren, B.; Rosebery, A. S.; Medin, D.

    2012-01-01

    Calls for the improvement of science education in the USA continue unabated, with particular concern for the quality of learning opportunities for students from historically nondominant communities. Despite many and varied efforts, the field continues to struggle to create robust, meaningful forms of science education. We argue that "settled…

  20. Desettling Expectations in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, M.; Warren, B.; Rosebery, A. S.; Medin, D.

    2012-01-01

    Calls for the improvement of science education in the USA continue unabated, with particular concern for the quality of learning opportunities for students from historically nondominant communities. Despite many and varied efforts, the field continues to struggle to create robust, meaningful forms of science education. We argue that "settled

  1. First Things First: What Americans Expect from the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean; Immerwahr, John

    Efforts to reform and improve the nation's schools have encountered serious roadblocks, often in the form of parental opposition. This document describes findings of a study that investigated parents' expectations of America's public schools. Data were derived from a national telephone survey with over 1,100 Americans, including 550 White,…

  2. The Case of Effort Variables in Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Mary O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Tests the existence of a structural shift between above- and below-average students in the econometric models that explain students' grades in principles of economics classes. Identifies a structural shift and estimates separate models for above- and below-average students. Concludes that separate models as well as educational policies are…

  3. RBANS embedded measures of suboptimal effort in dementia: effort scale has a lower failure rate than the effort index.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rachel L; Enright, Joe; O'Connell, Megan E; Lanting, Shawnda; Morgan, Debra

    2015-02-01

    The importance of evaluating effort in neuropsychological assessments has been widely acknowledged, but measuring effort in the context of dementia remains challenging due to the impact of dementia severity on effort measure scores. Two embedded measures have been developed for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS; Randolph, C., Tierney, M. C., Mohr, E., & Chase, T. N. (1998). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS): Preliminary clinical validity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20 (3), 310-319): the Effort Index (EI; Silverberg, N. D., Wertheimer, J. C., & Fichtenberg, N. L. (2007). An effort index for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21 (5), 841-854) and the Effort Scale (ES; Novitski, J., Steele, S., Karantzoulis, S., & Randolph, C. (2012). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status effort scale. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27 (2), 190-195). We explored failure rates on these effort measures in a non-litigating mixed dementia sample (N = 145). Failure rate on the EI was high (48%) and associated with dementia severity. In contrast, failure on the ES was 14% but differed based on type of dementia. ES failure was low (4%) when dementia was due to Alzheimer disease (AD), but high (31%) for non-AD dementias. These data raise concerns about use of the RBANS embedded effort measures in dementia evaluations. PMID:25472686

  4. PLATO Simulator: Realistic simulations of expected observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos-Arenal, P.; Zima, W.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; Huygen, R.; Samadi, R.; Green, J.; Piotto, G.; Salmon, S.; Catala, C.; Rauer, H.

    2015-06-01

    PLATO Simulator is an end-to-end simulation software tool designed for the performance of realistic simulations of the expected observations of the PLATO mission but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. It models and simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources.

  5. Pupil size variations correlate with physical effort perception

    PubMed Central

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    It has long been established that the pupil diameter increases during mental activities in proportion to the difficulty of the task at hand. However, it is still unclear whether this relationship between the pupil size and effort applies also to physical effort. In order to address this issue, we asked healthy volunteers to perform a power grip task, at varied intensity, while evaluating their effort both implicitly and explicitly, and while concurrently monitoring their pupil size. Each trial started with a contraction of imposed intensity, under the control of a continuous visual feedback. Upon completion of the contraction, participants had to choose whether to replicate, without feedback, the first contraction for a variable monetary reward, or whether to skip this step and go directly to the next trial. The rate of acceptance of effort replication and the amount of force exerted during the replication were used as implicit measures of the perception of the effort exerted during the first contraction. In addition, the participants were asked to rate on an analog scale, their explicit perception of the effort for each intensity condition. We found that pupil diameter increased during physical effort and that the magnitude of this response reflected not only the actual intensity of the contraction but also the subjects' perception of the effort. This finding indicates that the pupil size signals the level of effort invested in a task, irrespective of whether it is physical or mental. It also helps refining the potential brain circuits involved since the results of the current study imply a convergence of mental and physical effort information at some level along this pathway. PMID:25202247

  6. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    PubMed

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed. PMID:24404807

  7. Effect of Partner's Effort and Ability on Liking for Partner After Failure on a Cooperative Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjosvold, Dean; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Determined that perceived effort and ability of a low-performing group member had an impact on the other members' liking for the low-performing member. Results indicated that when future contact in work or social settings was assumed, group members expressed greater attraction to high-effort than to low-effort partners. (Author/DB)

  8. Great Expectations and New Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family

  9. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant secondary metabolites (e.g., phenolics) are important for human health, in addition to the organoleptic properties they impart to fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions. Thorough identification of phenolic com...

  10. Children's Judgments of Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.

    1994-01-01

    Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…

  11. Career Expectations of Accounting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…

  12. Undergraduates' Perceptions of Employer Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Carrie; Williams, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) indicates that employers across industries seek similar skills in job applicants; yet employers often report finding these desired skills lacking in new hires. This study closes the gap in understanding between employer expectations and student perceptions regarding…

  13. Great Expectations and New Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

  14. Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

    1996-01-01

    Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

  15. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  16. The Mobile Browsing Behaviors and Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the…

  17. What a_____ thing to do! Formally characterizing actions by their expected effects.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dustin; Tov, William; Costello, Cory

    2015-06-01

    A number of personality frameworks assume traits describe central tendencies of action--for instance, calling someone assertive indicates they have a tendency to perform assertive actions. But what makes it appropriate to characterize an action by terms like assertive, kind, or honest? We propose that actions are characterized by such terms in large part by having expected effects on the environment which match particular conceptual templates. In the present studies, we attempt to better identify the expected effect dimensions perceivers seem to utilize to make action characterizations related to the Big Five and HEXACO personality dimensions. To do so, a set of 150 situation-action scenarios were generated from actions suggestive of conscientiousness-related characteristics (Study 1), and of characteristics in other HEXACO domains (Study 2). Participants then characterized each action on a range of bipolar dimensions (e.g., assertive vs. submissive). A separate group of raters coded the expected effects of performing these actions on 21 different outcomes (e.g., effort expenditure; achievement of career goals). Action characterizations were highly predicted by expected effect dimensions in ways that matched provisional hypotheses and were consistent across studies. Furthermore, actions characterizations tended to be highly diagnostic of self-reported individual differences in the same characteristics. We discuss implications for a range of phenomena, such as understanding the relations between behaviors and traits, integrating trait models and decision-making models, and understanding the effect of situational features on personality traits. PMID:25621857

  18. The effects of sleep loss on capacity and effort

    PubMed Central

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy

    2014-01-01

    Sleep loss appears to affect the capacity for performance and access to energetic resources. This paper reviews research examining the physical substrates referred to as resource capacity, the role of sleep in protecting that capacity and the reaction of the system as it attempts to respond with effort to overcome the limitations on capacity caused by sleep loss. Effort is the extent to which an organism will exert itself beyond basic levels of functioning or attempt alternative strategies to maintain performance. The purpose of this review is to bring together research across sleep disciplines to clarify the substrates that constitute and influence capacity for performance, consider how the loss of sleep influences access to those resources, examine cortical, physiological, perceptual, behavioral and subjective effort responses and consider how these responses reflect a system reacting to changes in the resource environment. When sleep deprived, the ability to perform tasks that require additional energy is impaired and the ability of the system to overcome the deficiencies caused by sleep loss is limited. Taking on tasks that require effort including school work, meal preparation, pulling off the road to nap when driving drowsy appear to be more challenging during sleep loss. Sleep loss impacts the effort-related choices we make and those choices may influence our health and safety. PMID:26483932

  19. VO2max during successive maximal efforts.

    PubMed

    Foster, Carl; Kuffel, Erin; Bradley, Nicole; Battista, Rebecca A; Wright, Glenn; Porcari, John P; Lucia, Alejandro; deKoning, Jos J

    2007-12-01

    The concept of VO(2)max has been a defining paradigm in exercise physiology for >75 years. Within the last decade, this concept has been both challenged and defended. The purpose of this study was to test the concept of VO(2)max by comparing VO(2) during a second exercise bout following a preliminary maximal effort exercise bout. The study had two parts. In Study #1, physically active non-athletes performed incremental cycle exercise. After 1-min recovery, a second bout was performed at a higher power output. In Study #2, competitive runners performed incremental treadmill exercise and, after 3-min recovery, a second bout at a higher speed. In Study #1 the highest VO(2) (bout 1 vs. bout 2) was not significantly different (3.95 +/- 0.75 vs. 4.06 +/- 0.75 l min(-1)). Maximal heart rate was not different (179 +/- 14 vs. 180 +/- 13 bpm) although maximal V(E) was higher in the second bout (141 +/- 36 vs. 151 +/- 34 l min(-1)). In Study #2 the highest VO(2) (bout 1 vs. bout 2) was not significantly different (4.09 +/- 0.97 vs. 4.03 +/- 1.16 l min(-1)), nor was maximal heart rate (184 + 6 vs. 181 +/- 10 bpm) or maximal V(E) (126 +/- 29 vs. 126 +/- 34 l min(-1)). The results support the concept that the highest VO(2) during a maximal incremental exercise bout is unlikely to change during a subsequent exercise bout, despite higher muscular power output. As such, the results support the "classical" view of VO(2)max. PMID:17891414

  20. Software Faults Fixing Effort: Analysis and Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Maggie; Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Software developers spend significant amount of their time fixing faults. However, not many papers have addressed the effort needed to fix software faults. This paper is focused on comprehensive analysis of the fix implementation effort and factors that affect it, as well as on predicting the level of effort based on information recorded in software change requests. The work is based on data related to 1200 failures, extracted from the change tracking system of a large NASA mission. Our results show that (1) 83% of the total fix implementation effort was associated with only 20% of failures. (2) Both safety critical failures and post-release failures required three times more effort to fix compared to non-critical and pre-release counterparts, respectively. (3) Failures with fixes spread across multiple components and/or across multiple types of software artifacts required more effort. The spread across artifacts was more costly than spread across components. (4) Surprisingly, some types of faults associated with later life-cycle did not require significant effort, especially if only one type of artifact was fixed. (5) The level of fix implementation effort was predicted with 73% accuracy. The medium level fix implementation effort was classified more successfully than both low and high levels.

  1. The expected value of control: An integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function

    PubMed Central

    Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M.; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function. PMID:23889930

  2. The expected value of control: an integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function.

    PubMed

    Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2013-07-24

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function. PMID:23889930

  3. The Role of Ability Beliefs and Incentives in Middle School Students' Intention, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken R.; Zhang, Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study uncovers the predictive relationship of middle school students' ability beliefs (self-efficacy and expectancy-related beliefs) and incentives (outcome expectancy, importance, interest, and usefulness) to intention, cardiovascular fitness, and teacher-rated effort in physical education. Participants (N = 252; 118 boys, 134 girls)…

  4. Spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia - A measure of mental effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Craig Thornton, D.; Moray, Neville

    1987-01-01

    The validity of the spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia as a measure of mental effort was investigated using a computer simulation of a hovercraft piloted along a river as the experimental task. Strong correlation was observed between the subjective effort-ratings and the heart-rate variability (HRV) power spectrum between 0.06 and 0.14 Hz. Significant correlations were observed not only between subjects but, more importantly, within subjects as well, indicating that the spectral analysis of HRV is an accurate measure of the amount of effort being invested by a subject. Results also indicate that the intensity of effort invested by subjects cannot be inferred from the objective ratings of task difficulty or from performance.

  5. Treatment expectancy among psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Collins, J; Hyer, L

    1986-07-01

    Treatment expectation (TE) is an important variable in treatment outcome. This study addressed two issues: The relationship of TE to treatment outcome and an identification of background and treatment variables most related to TE. As part of a cooperative study at 18 Veterans Administration Medical Centers on 79 general psychiatric wards, psychiatric inpatients were given the Veterans Adjustment Scale (VETS), and a significant other was mailed a Personal Adjustment and Role Skills Scale (PARS) at admission and 3 months after discharge. A Treatment Expectation measure was obtained from the VETS Scale at admission. Background and treatment factors also were obtained. Selected analyses controlled for the effects of patient input characteristics allowing for better outcome measures. Analyses also were cross validated. Results show that TE is related to treatment outcome and that a coterie of background and treatment variables are related to TE. Three factors especially influence TE-age, high vigor, and less alienation. PMID:3745453

  6. Falling behind: life expectancy in US counties from 2000 to 2007 in an international context

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The United States health care debate has focused on the nation's uniquely high rates of lack of insurance and poor health outcomes relative to other high-income countries. Large disparities in health outcomes are well-documented in the US, but the most recent assessment of county disparities in mortality is from 1999. It is critical to tracking progress of health reform legislation to have an up-to-date assessment of disparities in life expectancy across counties. US disparities can be seen more clearly in the context of how progress in each county compares to international trends. Methods We use newly released mortality data by age, sex, and county for the US from 2000 to 2007 to compute life tables separately for each sex, for all races combined, for whites, and for blacks. We propose, validate, and apply novel methods to estimate recent life tables for small areas to generate up-to-date estimates. Life expectancy rates and changes in life expectancy for counties are compared to the life expectancies across nations in 2000 and 2007. We calculate the number of calendar years behind each county is in 2000 and 2007 compared to an international life expectancy time series. Results Across US counties, life expectancy in 2007 ranged from 65.9 to 81.1 years for men and 73.5 to 86.0 years for women. When compared against a time series of life expectancy in the 10 nations with the lowest mortality, US counties range from being 15 calendar years ahead to over 50 calendar years behind for men and 16 calendar years ahead to over 50 calendar years behind for women. County life expectancy for black men ranges from 59.4 to 77.2 years, with counties ranging from seven to over 50 calendar years behind the international frontier; for black women, the range is 69.6 to 82.6 years, with counties ranging from eight to over 50 calendar years behind. Between 2000 and 2007, 80% (men) and 91% (women) of American counties fell in standing against this international life expectancy standard. Conclusions The US has extremely large geographic and racial disparities, with some communities having life expectancies already well behind those of the best-performing nations. At the same time, relative performance for most communities continues to drop. Efforts to address these issues will need to tackle the leading preventable causes of death. PMID:21672269

  7. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying

  8. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  9. Patterns of Research Effort in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Between species differences in research effort can lead to biases in our global view of evolution, ecology and conservation. The increase in meta-taxonomic comparative analyses on birds underlines the need to better address how research effort is distributed in this class. Methods have been developed to choose which species should be studied to obtain unbiased comparative data sets, but a precise and global knowledge of research effort is required to be able to properly apply them. We address this issue by providing a data set of research effort (number of papers from 1978 to 2008 in the Zoological Record database) estimates for the 10 064 species of birds. We then test whether research effort is associated with phylogeny, geography and eleven different life history and ecological traits. We show that phylogeny accounts for a large proportion of the variance, while geographic range and all the tested traits are also significant contributors to research effort variance. We identify avian taxa that are under- and overstudied and address the importance of research effort biases in evaluating vulnerability to extinction, with non-threatened species studied twice as much as threatened ones. Our research effort data set covering the entire class Aves provides a tool for researchers to incorporate this potential confounding variable in comparative analyses. PMID:24587149

  10. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  11. Mental Effort and Elaboration: A Developmental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Daniel W.; Davies, Leslie

    1988-01-01

    Dual task procedures (finger tapping and associative memory) were used to examine developmental differences in the amount of mental effort required to deploy rehearsal and elaboration. Sixth-grade and college students participated. Some evidence for a developmental difference in mental effort was found. (TJH)

  12. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  13. NASA cryogenic fluid management space experiment efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    A history of technological development for subcritical cryogenic fluid management (CFM) through space experiments is given for the period 1960 to 1990. Space experiments with liquid hydrogen were conducted in the early 1960s. Efforts since then have consisted of studies and designs of potential space experiments. A chronology of CFM space experiments and design efforts is included.

  14. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  15. Listener Effort for Highly Intelligible Tracheoesophageal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Kathy F.; Eadie, Tanya L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether: (a) inexperienced listeners can reliably judge listener effort and (b) whether listener effort provides unique information beyond speech intelligibility or acceptability in tracheoesophageal speech. Twenty inexperienced listeners made judgments of speech acceptability and amount of effort…

  16. The Role of Effort Justification in Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axsom, Danny; Cooper, Joel

    The possible influence of cognitive dissonance in psychotherapy was examined by conceptualizing therapy as an effort justification process. It was predicted that freely choosing to undergo a highly effortful procedure would aid in positive therapeutic change. Subjects (N=52) participated in a weight-reduction experiment in which the degree of…

  17. Parental Effort, School Resources, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtenville, Andrew J.; Conway, Karen Smith

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates an important factor in student achievement--parental involvement. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), we estimate a value-added education production function that includes parental effort as an input. Parental effort equations are also estimated as a function of child, parent, household, and…

  18. Athletes' expectations with regard to officiating competence.

    PubMed

    Dosseville, Fabrice; Laborde, Sylvain; Bernier, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the cues upon which athletes rely when developing their expectations with regard to the competence of sports officials and to examine the sources of information, which are given priority in different kinds of sport (i.e. team, racquet and fighting sports). A questionnaire - the Athlete Perception of Sports Officials Questionnaire (APSO-Q) - was developed in which athletes (N=472) were asked to indicate the influence of 32 cues on their impressions of sports officials. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) yielded a four-factor model (i.e. static cues, psychological, communicational and performance cues). Athletes mostly rely on psychological and personal communication attributes when evaluating officiating competence. Moreover, team players perceived that static cues were more influential when forming their expectations of sports officials than racquet players and fighting contestants. Such findings may have implications for athlete-official relationships and training of sports officials. PMID:24444240

  19. Plotting the differences between data and expectation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudalakis, G.; Casadei, D.

    2012-02-01

    This article proposes a way to improve the presentation of histograms where data are compared to expectation. Sometimes, it is difficult to judge by eye whether the difference between the bin content and the theoretical expectation (provided by either a fitting function or another histogram) is just due to statistical fluctuations. More importantly, there could be statistically significant deviations which are completely invisible in the plot. We propose to add a small inset at the bottom of the plot, in which the statistical significance of the deviation observed in each bin is shown. Even though the numerical routines which we developed have only illustration purposes, it comes out that they are based on formulae which could be used to perform statistical inference in a proper way.

  20. Helping effort and future fitness in cooperation animal societies.

    PubMed

    Cant, M A; Field, J

    2001-09-22

    Little attention has been paid to a conspicuous and universal feature of animal societies: the variation between individuals in helping effort. Here, we develop a multiplayer kin-selection model that assumes that subordinates face a trade-off because current investment in help reduces their own future reproductive success. The model makes two predictions: (i) subordinates will work less hard the closer they are to inheriting breeding status; and (ii) for a given dominance rank, subordinates will work less hard in larger groups. The second prediction reflects the larger pay-off from inheriting a larger group. Both predictions were tested through a field experiment on the paper wasp Polistes dominulus. First, we measured an index of helping effort among subordinates, then we removed successive dominants to reveal the inheritance ranks of the subordinates: their positions in the queue to inherit dominance. We found that both inheritance rank and group size had significant effects on helping effort, in the manner predicted by our model. The close match between our theoretical and empirical results suggests that individuals adjust their helping effort according to their expected future reproductive success. This relationship has probably remained hidden in previous studies that have focused on variation in genetic relatedness. PMID:11564355

  1. These Shoes Are Made for Walking: Sensitivity Performance Evaluation of Commercial Activity Monitors under the Expected Conditions and Circumstances Required to Achieve the International Daily Step Goal of 10,000 Steps

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Kelly, Lisa; Murphy, Elaine; Beirne, Sorcha; Burke, Niall; Kilgannon, Orlaith; Quinlan, Leo R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a vitally important part of a healthy lifestyle, and is of major benefit to both physical and mental health. A daily step count of 10,000 steps is recommended globally to achieve an appropriate level of physical activity. Accurate quantification of physical activity during conditions reflecting those needed to achieve the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps is essential. As such, we aimed to assess four commercial activity monitors for their sensitivity/accuracy in a prescribed walking route that reflects a range of surfaces that would typically be used to achieve the recommended daily step count, in two types of footwear expected to be used throughout the day when aiming to achieve the recommended daily step count, and in a timeframe required to do so. Methods Four commercial activity monitors were worn simultaneously by participants (n = 15) during a prescribed walking route reflective of surfaces typically encountered while achieving the daily recommended 10,000 steps. Activity monitors tested were the Garmin Vivofit ™, New Lifestyles’ NL-2000 ™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2) ™, and Fitbit One ™. Results All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection over the variety of different surfaces tested (natural lawn grass, gravel, ceramic tile, tarmacadam/asphalt, linoleum), when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes. Conclusion All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection sensitivity and are valid monitors for physical activity quantification over the variety of different surfaces tested, when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes, and over a timeframe necessary for accumulating the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps. However, it is important to consider the accuracy of activity monitors, particularly when physical activity in the form of stepping activities is prescribed as an intervention in the treatment or prevention of a disease state. PMID:27167121

  2. Expectations for computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassberg, John C.

    2005-11-01

    This article presents a sampling of the author's expectations for the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the areas of research, development and application. The primary focus of the discussion herein is related to the non-linear transonic flow regime, and more specifically, for calculations about commercial transport aircraft. However, many of these topics are pertinent to all flow field regimes and aircraft designs. The underlying goal is to enable the automation of multi-disciplinary design processes, which utilize state-of-the-art numerical simulation methods. These include issues pertaining to accuracy, robustness, efficiency, ease-of-use, uncertainty requirements and other challenges.

  3. Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.

    PubMed

    Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2010-10-20

    Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level. PMID:20962229

  4. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roo...

  5. Origins of Effortful Control: Infant and Parent Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Bridgett, David J.; Young, Brandi N.; Panksepp, Jaak; Power, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) refers to the ability to inhibit a dominant response to perform a subdominant one and has been shown as protective against a myriad of difficulties. Research examining precursors of EC has been limited to date, and in this study, infancy contributors to toddler EC were examined. Specifically, parent/family background…

  6. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPAs Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

  7. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

  8. Coordinating a Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Retailer and Effort Dependent Demand

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

  9. Coordinating a supply chain with a loss-averse retailer and effort dependent demand.

    PubMed

    Li, Liying; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

  10. Spatial habit competes with effort to determine human spatial organization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mona J H; Risko, Evan F

    2016-07-01

    Despite the important role that the physical environment plays in shaping human cognition, few studies have endeavoured to experimentally examine the principles underlying how individuals organize objects in their space. The current investigation examines the idea that humans organize objects in their space in order to minimize effort or maximize performance. We devised a novel spatial organization task whereby participants freely arranged objects in the context of a writing task. Critically, we manipulated the frequency with which each object was used and assessed participants' spontaneous placements. In the first set of experiments, participants showed a counterintuitive tendency to match pen pairs with their initial placements rather than placing pens in the less effortful configuration. However, in Experiment 2, where the difference in physical effort between different locations was increased, participants were more likely to reorganize the pens into the less effortful configuration. We begin developing a theory of human spatial organization wherein the observed initial bias may represent a kind of spatial habit formation that competes with effort/performance considerations to shape future spatial organization. PMID:26912422

  11. When is Deceptive Message Production More Effortful than Truth-Telling? A Baker's Dozen of Moderators.

    PubMed

    Burgoon, Judee K

    2015-01-01

    Deception is thought to be more effortful than telling the truth. Empirical evidence from many quarters supports this general proposition. However, there are many factors that qualify and even reverse this pattern. Guided by a communication perspective, I present a baker's dozen of moderators that may alter the degree of cognitive difficulty associated with producing deceptive messages. Among sender-related factors are memory processes, motivation, incentives, and consequences. Lying increases activation of a network of brain regions related to executive memory, suppression of unwanted behaviors, and task switching that is not observed with truth-telling. High motivation coupled with strong incentives or the risk of adverse consequences also prompts more cognitive exertion-for truth-tellers and deceivers alike-to appear credible, with associated effects on performance and message production effort, depending on the magnitude of effort, communicator skill, and experience. Factors related to message and communication context include discourse genre, type of prevarication, expected response length, communication medium, preparation, and recency of target event/issue. These factors can attenuate the degree of cognitive taxation on senders so that truth-telling and deceiving are similarly effortful. Factors related to the interpersonal relationship among interlocutors include whether sender and receiver are cooperative or adversarial and how well-acquainted they are with one another. A final consideration is whether the unit of analysis is the utterance, turn at talk, episode, entire interaction, or series of interactions. Taking these factors into account should produce a more nuanced answer to the question of when deception is more difficult than truth-telling. PMID:26733932

  12. Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

  13. Adaptive and qualitative changes in encoding strategy with experience: evidence from the test-expectancy paradigm.

    PubMed

    Finley, Jason R; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners' abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study-test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study-test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants' metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests. PMID:22103783

  14. Adaptive and Qualitative Changes in Encoding Strategy With Experience: Evidence From the Test-Expectancy Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Jason R.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners’ abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study–test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study–test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants’ metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests. PMID:22103783

  15. Teachers' Expectations and Causal Attributions for Students' Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth M. P.; de Jesus, Denise M.

    The purpose of this study was to identify teachers' expectations of schooling and their causal attributions regarding the academic performance of their students. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to 451 elementary school teachers. Analyses led to the following conclusions: (1) teachers hold high expectations of schooling…

  16. Employer Expectations of Newly-Hired Communication Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, D. F.; Treadwell, Jill B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines employers' expectations and perceptions of communication new hires at three points in the school-to-work transition. Focuses on writing and related conceptual abilities. Concludes that broad generalizations about communication abilities of communication new hires may be unwarranted because performance expectations and the level and types…

  17. Stockholder expectations should temper aggressive strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Lowell, W

    1995-04-14

    Too often, healthcare organizations make strategic plans with performance targets that don't justify the company's stock price. The result: They never really know if those plans will create value--even if they are fully achieved. In the race to provide superior returns to shareholders, companies must instead keep one eye on the competitive marketplace and the other on equity market expectations. In this article, Wayne Lowell, CFO of PacifiCare Health System, explains how his organization learned to do just that. PMID:10152418

  18. Cataloging Practices in India: Efforts for Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikku, Upinder Kumar

    1984-01-01

    Surveys current cataloging practices in Indian libraries and discusses standardization in cataloging, types of catalogs, cataloging codes (Anglo-American and Ranganathan), subject headings, descriptive cataloging, and standardization efforts (international, United States, USSR, Great Britain, India). Footnotes are included. (EJS)

  19. USGS Shoots Video of Flooding Efforts

    USGS public affairs specialist, Jennifer LaVista prepares to shoot video of USGS efforts during historic flooding in Fargo, ND. The videos can be viewed at http://www.usgs.gov/homepage/science_features/flooding_march09.asp...

  20. Facets of job effort in bus driver health: deconstructing "effort" in the effort-reward imbalance model.

    PubMed

    Tse, John L M; Flin, Rhona; Mearns, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to test the relative value of developing and using job-specific facets of effort and testing them using J. Siegrist's (1996) effort-reward imbalance (ERI) theory to extend understanding of how one might determine job strain in urban bus driving. In addition, the interactive effects of the ERI model are further investigated to address the lack of research into the relationships of the model's constructs. Using focus groups and published papers, a measure of bus driver effort was created, which was subsequently completed by 186 male U.K. bus drivers as part of a questionnaire study. The results were factor analyzed to create 4 facets of effort, which demonstrated additional variance in predicting strain, above and beyond J. Siegrist's original effort construct. One facet, workload and fatigue, was observed to be a particularly important contributor to strain. The analyses further indicated that the ERI model's assumptions that ERI creates job strain could not be completely upheld, although poorer levels of reward and higher levels of overcommitment were strong main predictors of job strain. Research and applied implications are considered. PMID:17257066

  1. The Martyrdom Effect: When Pain and Effort Increase Prosocial Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Olivola, Christopher Y; Shafir, Eldar

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of motivation and behavior (and lay intuitions alike) consider pain and effort to be deterrents. In contrast to this widely held view, we provide evidence that the prospect of enduring pain and exerting effort for a prosocial cause can promote contributions to the cause. Specifically, we show that willingness to contribute to a charitable or collective cause increases when the contribution process is expected to be painful and effortful rather than easy and enjoyable. Across five experiments, we document this “martyrdom effect,” show that the observed patterns defy standard economic and psychological accounts, and identify a mediator and moderator of the effect. Experiment 1 showed that people are willing to donate more to charity when they anticipate having to suffer to raise money. Experiment 2 extended these findings to a non-charity laboratory context that involved real money and actual pain. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the martyrdom effect is not the result of an attribute substitution strategy (whereby people use the amount of pain and effort involved in fundraising to determine donation worthiness). Experiment 4 showed that perceptions of meaningfulness partially mediate the martyrdom effect. Finally, Experiment 5 demonstrated that the nature of the prosocial cause moderates the martyrdom effect: the effect is strongest for causes associated with human suffering. We propose that anticipated pain and effort lead people to ascribe greater meaning to their contributions and to the experience of contributing, thereby motivating higher prosocial contributions. We conclude by considering some implications of this puzzling phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23559692

  2. A Test of Expectancy Work Motivation Theory in Educational Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Expectancy work motivation, central life interests, voluntarism, and selected personal and environmental characteristics were strongly related to job satisfaction of secondary and higher education teachers but only mildly related to job performance as perceived by principals and department heads. (IRT)

  3. Occupational Aspiration-Expectation Discrepancies Among High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogie, Donald W.

    1976-01-01

    High School seniors reporting discrepancies between occupational "aspirations" and "expectations" are analyzed in relation to family socioeconomic status, intelligence test scores, scholastic performance, and socioeconomic area of residence. (Author)

  4. The future of life expectancy and life expectancy inequalities in England and Wales: Bayesian spatiotemporal forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James E; Li, Guangquan; Foreman, Kyle; Best, Nicky; Kontis, Vasilis; Pearson, Clare; Hambly, Peter; Ezzati, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To plan for pensions and health and social services, future mortality and life expectancy need to be forecast. Consistent forecasts for all subnational units within a country are very rare. Our aim was to forecast mortality and life expectancy for England and Wales' districts. Methods We developed Bayesian spatiotemporal models for forecasting of age-specific mortality and life expectancy at a local, small-area level. The models included components that accounted for mortality in relation to age, birth cohort, time, and space. We used geocoded mortality and population data between 1981 and 2012 from the Office for National Statistics together with the model with the smallest error to forecast age-specific death rates and life expectancy to 2030 for 375 of England and Wales' 376 districts. We measured model performance by withholding recent data and comparing forecasts with this withheld data. Findings Life expectancy at birth in England and Wales was 79·5 years (95% credible interval 79·5–79·6) for men and 83·3 years (83·3–83·4) for women in 2012. District life expectancies ranged between 75·2 years (74·9–75·6) and 83·4 years (82·1–84·8) for men and between 80·2 years (79·8–80·5) and 87·3 years (86·0–88·8) for women. Between 1981 and 2012, life expectancy increased by 8·2 years for men and 6·0 years for women, closing the female–male gap from 6·0 to 3·8 years. National life expectancy in 2030 is expected to reach 85·7 (84·2–87·4) years for men and 87·6 (86·7–88·9) years for women, further reducing the female advantage to 1·9 years. Life expectancy will reach or surpass 81·4 years for men and reach or surpass 84·5 years for women in every district by 2030. Longevity inequality across districts, measured as the difference between the 1st and 99th percentiles of district life expectancies, has risen since 1981, and is forecast to rise steadily to 8·3 years (6·8–9·7) for men and 8·3 years (7·1–9·4) for women by 2030. Interpretation Present forecasts underestimate the expected rise in life expectancy, especially for men, and hence the need to provide improved health and social services and pensions for elderly people in England and Wales. Health and social policies are needed to curb widening life expectancy inequalities, help deprived districts catch up in longevity gains, and avoid a so-called grand divergence in health and longevity. Funding UK Medical Research Council and Public Health England. PMID:25935825

  5. Systemic Efforts in Georgia to Improve Education Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Research points to links between school and school district leadership and student achievement. Local and national education reform has created rising expectations for student performance. Education leadership is both complex and high stakes. Key stakeholders in Georgia have developed a solution to improve factors in the work, workplace, and…

  6. Systemic Efforts in Georgia to Improve Education Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Research points to links between school and school district leadership and student achievement. Local and national education reform has created rising expectations for student performance. Education leadership is both complex and high stakes. Key stakeholders in Georgia have developed a solution to improve factors in the work, workplace, and

  7. Evaluation criteria of the hyperthyroid patients' adaptability to effort.

    PubMed

    Tulea, E; Schneider, F; Lungu, G; Stefănigă, P; Petroiu, A

    1983-01-01

    The submaximal triangular-type test was used for studying the adaptive capacity, on an ergometric bicycle. It was performed continuously, starting from O W, with a load increment of 10 watts/min up to optimal maximum heart rate (fmo). The heart rate, arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram, CO2 output and O2 consumption computed maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max, ml/kg/min) (Astrand) were predicted, also taking into consideration the subjective sensations linked to effort, measured on a modified Borg scale. The capacity to effort was expressed by the "adaptability coefficient" (AC) according to formula: AC = W' divided by 2 + (W' --f). 40 hyperthyroid patients, compared to a lot of normal thyroid subjects were examined, both at the beginning and after the treatment at certain intervals of time. A decrease of the effort capacity before the treatment and its increase after was noticed in hyperthyroid patients. PMID:6417692

  8. Rising Expectations: Access to Biomedical Information

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, D. A. B.; Humphreys, B. L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective To provide an overview of the expansion in public access to electronic biomedical information over the past two decades, with an emphasis on developments to which the U.S. National Library of Medicine contributed. Methods Review of the increasingly broad spectrum of web-accessible genomic data, biomedical literature, consumer health information, clinical trials data, and images. Results The amount of publicly available electronic biomedical information has increased dramatically over the past twenty years. Rising expectations regarding access to biomedical information were stimulated by the spread of the Internet, the World Wide Web, advanced searching and linking techniques. These informatics advances simplified and improved access to electronic information and reduced costs, which enabled inter-organizational collaborations to build and maintain large international information resources and also aided outreach and education efforts The demonstrated benefits of free access to electronic biomedical information encouraged the development of public policies that further increase the amount of information available. Conclusions Continuing rapid growth of publicly accessible electronic biomedical information presents tremendous opportunities and challenges, including the need to ensure uninterrupted access during disasters or emergencies and to manage digital resources so they remain available for future generations. PMID:18587496

  9. Asymmetry in the disconfirmation of expectations for natural yogurt.

    PubMed

    Schifferstein, H N; Kole, A P; Mojet, J

    1999-06-01

    Effects of expectations conveyed by a product description or an empty package on the evaluation of four types of natural yogurt were studied in a laboratory setting. Hedonic and perceptual responses for the correctly or incorrectly identified products generally showed assimilation: they fell between the responses to the unlabelled products and the responses for the expected properties evoked by presenting only product descriptions or empty packages. Hedonic judgments remained close to the expectation when the product performed better than expected, whereas they were relatively close to the evaluation for the unlabelled product when the product performed worse than expected. The asymmetry was largest for the buying intentions of subjects who received product packages. This is in accordance with the theory that positive disconfirmations are regarded as "gains" and negative disconfirmations as "losses". The asymmetry is likely to be more important in actual buying behaviour than in the experimental settings generally studied, as here. PMID:10336791

  10. The effect of sleep loss on next day effort.

    PubMed

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy; Riela, Suzanne; Golan, Rama; Ventuneac, Ana M; Davis, Christine M; Jefferson, Angela D; Major, Donna

    2003-06-01

    The study had two primary objectives. The first was to determine whether sleep loss results in a preference for tasks demanding minimal effort. The second was to evaluate the quality of performance when participants, under conditions of sleep loss, have control over task demands. In experiment 1, using a repeated-measures design, 50 undergraduate college students were evaluated, following one night of no sleep loss and one night of sleep loss. The Math Effort Task (MET) presented addition problems via computer. Participants were able to select additions at one of five levels of difficulty. Less-demanding problems were selected and more additions were solved correctly when the participants were subject to sleep loss. In experiment 2, 58 undergraduate college students were randomly assigned to a no sleep deprivation or a sleep deprivation condition. Sleep-deprived participants selected less-demanding problems on the MET. Percentage correct on the MET was equivalent for both the non-sleep-deprived and sleep-deprived groups. On a task selection question, the sleep-deprived participants also selected significantly less-demanding non-academic tasks. Increased sleepiness, fatigue, and reaction time were associated with the selection of less difficult tasks. Both groups of participants reported equivalent effort expenditures; sleep-deprived participants did not perceive a reduction in effort. These studies demonstrate that sleep loss results in the choice of low-effort behavior that helps maintain accurate responding. PMID:12753348

  11. WHO expectation and industry goals.

    PubMed

    Vandersmissen, W

    2001-02-01

    It is expected the world's vaccine market will show a robust growth over the next few years, yet this growth will predominantly come from introduction of new vaccines in industrialised countries. Economic market forces will increasingly direct vaccine sales and vaccine development towards the needs of markets with effective purchasing power. Yet the scientific and technological progress that drives the development of such innovative vaccines holds the promise of applicability for vaccines that are highly desirable for developing countries. Corrective measures that take into account economic and industrial reality must be considered to span the widening gap between richer and poorer countries in terms of availability and general use of current and recent vaccines. Such measures must help developing countries to get access to future vaccines for diseases that predominantly or exclusively affect them, but for which the poor economic prospects do not provide a basis for the vaccine industry to undertake costly research and development programmes. Recent initiatives such as GAVI, including the establishment of a reliable, guaranteed purchase fund, could provide a solution to the problem. PMID:11166883

  12. β-adrenergic impact underlies the effect of mood and hedonic instrumentality on effort-related cardiovascular response.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, Nicolas; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2011-05-01

    After habituation, participants were first induced into negative vs. positive moods and performed then an attention task with either low vs. high hedonic instrumentality of success. In the high-instrumentality condition participants expected to see a funny movie after success and an unpleasant movie after failure; in the low-instrumentality condition participants expected an unpleasant movie after success and a pleasant movie after failure. Effort-related cardiovascular response (ICG, blood pressure) was assessed during mood inductions and task performance. As predicted by the mood-behavior-model (Gendolla, 2000), responses of cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and systolic blood pressure were stronger in the high-instrumentality/negative-mood condition than in the other three cells. Here the high hedonic instrumentality of success justified the high effort that was perceived as necessary in a negative mood. Moreover, the PEP effects indicate that cardiovascular response was driven by beta-adrenergic impact on the heart rather than by vascular adjustments. PMID:21382436

  13. The evaluation of insufficient cognitive effort in schizophrenia in light of low IQ scores.

    PubMed

    Whearty, Kayla M; Allen, Daniel N; Lee, Bern G; Strauss, Gregory P

    2015-09-01

    Low IQ has recently been shown to predict neuropsychological effort test failure in healthy and neurological populations. Although low IQ is common in schizophrenia (SZ), its effect on effort test performance remains unclear in this population. The current study examined the role of IQ in effort test performance in a sample of 60 outpatients with SZ and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (CN). Participants were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, and insufficient effort was calculated using two embedded effort indices: the Reliable Digit Span Effort Index and the Finger Tapping Effort Index. Results indicated that 16.1% of SZ patients and 0% CN failed both effort measures and that 32.1% of SZ and 3.3% of CN failed one measure. In SZ, IQ in the <70 or 70-79 range was associated with the highest rates of falling below the effort cut-off scores; however, patients with IQs in the low-average or higher range (>80) did not fall below effort cut-offs. Findings suggest that low IQ is a significant predictor of insufficient effort during neuropsychological test performance in schizophrenia, calling into question the validity of neuropsychological effort testing in SZ patients with low IQ. PMID:26026486

  14. Human parental effort and environmental risk

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Parental investment decisions depend on multiple factors, including the extent that parental care benefits offspring. Humans should show reduced parental effort in environments where parenting cannot improve offspring survival. Data from the standard cross-cultural sample are used to test this prediction. The results show that maternal care was inversely associated with famine and warfare, and also showed a quadratic association with pathogen stress, increasing as pathogen stress increased to moderate levels, but decreasing at higher levels. Age at weaning showed a similar quadratic relation with pathogens. The curvilinear associations between parental effort and pathogen stress may reflect that the saturation point of parental care is a function of environmental hazards. Paternal involvement was also inversely related to pathogen stress. The association between pathogens and paternal involvement was partially mediated by polygyny. In sum, maternal and paternal care appears to have somewhat different relations with environmental hazards, presumably owing to sex-specific tradeoffs in reproductive effort. PMID:17134996

  15. The special effort processing of FGGE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The basic FGGE level IIb data set was enhanced. It focused on removing deficiencies in the objective methods of quality assurance, removing efficiencies in certain types of operationally produced satellite soundings, and removing deficiencies in certain types of operationally produced cloud tracked winds. The Special Effort was a joint NASA-NOAA-University of Wisconsin effort. The University of Wisconsin installed an interactive McIDAS capability on the Amdahl computer at the Goddard Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) with one interactive video terminal at Goddard and the other at the World Weather Building. With this interactive capability a joint processing effort was undertaken to reprocess certain FGGE data sets. NOAA produced a specially edited data set for the special observing periods (SOPs) of FGGE. NASA produced an enhanced satellite sounding data set for the SOPs while the University of Wisconsin produced an enhanced cloud tracked wind set from the Japanese geostationary satellite images.

  16. Impaired effort allocation in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Treadway, Michael T; Peterman, Joel S; Zald, David H; Park, Sohee

    2015-02-01

    A hallmark of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is reduced motivation and goal directed behavior. While preclinical models suggest that blunted striatal dopamine levels can produce such reductions, this mechanism is inconsistent with evidence for enhanced striatal dopamine levels in schizophrenia. In seeking to reconcile this discrepancy, one possibility is that negative symptoms reflect a failure of striatal motivational systems to mobilize appropriately in response to reward-related information. In the present study, we used a laboratory effort-based decision-making task in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls to examine allocation of effort in exchange for varying levels of monetary reward. We found that patients and controls did not differ in the overall amount of effort expenditure, but patients made significantly less optimal choices in terms of maximizing rewards. These results provide further evidence for a selective deficit in the ability of schizophrenia patients to utilize environmental cues to guide reward-seeking behavior. PMID:25487699

  17. Faculty Expectations for College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, J. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the norms espoused by the professoriate regarding the role performance of academe presidents resulting with eight inviolable and five admonitory normative structures. The findings showed institutional and individual faculty characteristics do promote a level of influence on the degree of indignation registered on various…

  18. Changing expectancies: cognitive mechanisms and context effects.

    PubMed

    Wiers, Reinout W; Wood, Mark D; Darkes, Jack; Corbin, William R; Jones, Barry T; Sher, Kenneth J

    2003-02-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco, organized by Reinout W. Wiers and Mark D. Wood. The symposium combined two topics of recent interest in studies of alcohol expectancies: cognitive mechanisms in expectancy challenge studies, and context-related changes of expectancies. With increasing recognition of the substantial role played by alcohol expectancies in drinking, investigators have begun to develop and evaluate expectancy challenge procedures as a potentially promising new prevention strategy. The two major issues addressed in the symposium were whether expectancy challenges result in changes in expectancies that mediate intervention (outcome relations), and the influence of simulated bar environments ("bar labs," in which challenges are usually done) on expectancies. The presentations were (1) An introduction, by Jack Darkes; (2) Investigating the utility of alcohol expectancy challenge with heavy drinking college students, by Mark D. Wood; (3) Effects of an expectancy challenge on implicit and explicit expectancies and drinking, by Reinout W. Wiers; (4) Effects of graphic feedback and simulated bar assessments on alcohol expectancies and consumption, by William R. Corbin; (5) Implicit alcohol associations and context, by Barry T Jones; and (6) A discussion by Kenneth J. Sher, who pointed out that it is important not only to study changes of expectancies in the paradigm of an expectancy challenge but also to consider the role of changing expectancies in natural development and in treatments not explicitly aimed at changing expectancies. PMID:12605068

  19. Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.

    Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of

  20. High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemci, Emrah

    2011-09-21

    This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

  1. Effort thrombosis: recognition and management while underway.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, P B; MacGillivray, D C; Almond, M D

    1991-10-01

    Effort thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins is an uncommon cause of upper extremity swelling. Prompt recognition and treatment of this disorder is important in order to minimize the complications of pulmonary embolism and postphlebitic syndrome that can occur with this condition. This can be very challenging while underway or in the field. A sailor who developed effort vein thrombosis while underway on board the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln is presented to review the presentation and management of this disorder, particularly as it applies to active duty military personnel. PMID:1749504

  2. Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strati, Virginia; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Mantovani, Fabio; McDonough, William F.; Ricci, Barbara; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-12-01

    Constraints on the Earth's composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) neutrino experiment, designed as a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector, will be built in an underground laboratory in South China about 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants, each one having a planned thermal power of approximately 18 GW. Given the large detector mass and the intense reactor antineutrino flux, JUNO aims not only to collect high statistics antineutrino signals from reactors but also to address the challenge of discriminating the geoneutrino signal from the reactor background. The predicted geoneutrino signal at JUNO is terrestrial neutrino unit (TNU), based on the existing reference Earth model, with the dominant source of uncertainty coming from the modeling of the compositional variability in the local upper crust that surrounds (out to approximately 500 km) the detector. A special focus is dedicated to the 6° × 4° local crust surrounding the detector which is estimated to contribute for the 44% of the signal. On the basis of a worldwide reference model for reactor antineutrinos, the ratio between reactor antineutrino and geoneutrino signals in the geoneutrino energy window is estimated to be 0.7 considering reactors operating in year 2013 and reaches a value of 8.9 by adding the contribution of the future nuclear power plants. In order to extract useful information about the mantle's composition, a refinement of the abundance and distribution of U and Th in the local crust is required, with particular attention to the geochemical characterization of the accessible upper crust where 47% of the expected geoneutrino signal originates and this region contributes the major source of uncertainty.

  3. Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strati, Virginia; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Mantovani, Fabio; McDonough, William F.; Ricci, Barbara; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-12-01

    Constraints on the Earth's composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) neutrino experiment, designed as a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector, will be built in an underground laboratory in South China about 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants, each one having a planned thermal power of approximately 18 GW. Given the large detector mass and the intense reactor antineutrino flux, JUNO aims not only to collect high statistics antineutrino signals from reactors but also to address the challenge of discriminating the geoneutrino signal from the reactor background. The predicted geoneutrino signal at JUNO is terrestrial neutrino unit (TNU), based on the existing reference Earth model, with the dominant source of uncertainty coming from the modeling of the compositional variability in the local upper crust that surrounds (out to approximately 500 km) the detector. A special focus is dedicated to the 6 4 local crust surrounding the detector which is estimated to contribute for the 44% of the signal. On the basis of a worldwide reference model for reactor antineutrinos, the ratio between reactor antineutrino and geoneutrino signals in the geoneutrino energy window is estimated to be 0.7 considering reactors operating in year 2013 and reaches a value of 8.9 by adding the contribution of the future nuclear power plants. In order to extract useful information about the mantle's composition, a refinement of the abundance and distribution of U and Th in the local crust is required, with particular attention to the geochemical characterization of the accessible upper crust where 47% of the expected geoneutrino signal originates and this region contributes the major source of uncertainty.

  4. Work more, then feel more: the influence of effort on affective predictions.

    PubMed

    Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M; Toma, Claudia; Corneille, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined how effort invested in a task shapes the affective predictions related to potential success in that task, and the mechanism underlying this relationship. In Study 1, PhD students awaiting an editorial decision about a submitted manuscript estimated the effort they had invested in preparing that manuscript for submission and how happy they would feel if it were accepted. Subjective estimates of effort were positively related to participants' anticipated happiness, an effect mediated by the higher perceived quality of one's work. In other words, the more effort one though having invested, the happier one expected to feel if it were accepted, because one expected a higher quality manuscript. We replicated this effect and its underlying mediation in Study 2, this time using an experimental manipulation of effort in the context of creating an advertising slogan. Study 2 further showed that participants mistakenly thought their extra efforts invested in the task had improved the quality of their work, while independent judges had found no objective differences in quality between the outcomes of the high- and low-effort groups. We discuss the implications of the relationship between effort and anticipated emotions and the conditions under which such relationship might be functional. PMID:25028961

  5. Work More, Then Feel More: The Influence of Effort on Affective Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M.; Toma, Claudia; Corneille, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined how effort invested in a task shapes the affective predictions related to potential success in that task, and the mechanism underlying this relationship. In Study 1, PhD students awaiting an editorial decision about a submitted manuscript estimated the effort they had invested in preparing that manuscript for submission and how happy they would feel if it were accepted. Subjective estimates of effort were positively related to participants' anticipated happiness, an effect mediated by the higher perceived quality of one's work. In other words, the more effort one though having invested, the happier one expected to feel if it were accepted, because one expected a higher quality manuscript. We replicated this effect and its underlying mediation in Study 2, this time using an experimental manipulation of effort in the context of creating an advertising slogan. Study 2 further showed that participants mistakenly thought their extra efforts invested in the task had improved the quality of their work, while independent judges had found no objective differences in quality between the outcomes of the high- and low-effort groups. We discuss the implications of the relationship between effort and anticipated emotions and the conditions under which such relationship might be functional. PMID:25028961

  6. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  7. Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

  8. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  9. Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

  10. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels' speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  11. Economic Woes May Hurt Colleges' Green Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Recent events on Wall Street raise a complicated question: Will the financial crisis help or hurt colleges' sustainability efforts? Both are possible. In this article, the author discusses how the Wall Street meltdown may hurt colleges' green initiatives. However, advocates of sustainability see an opportunity to change the conversation. A…

  12. ME3 = Minority Engineering Education Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senhouse, Lionel S.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the objectives and activities carried out by the Minority Engineering Education Effort Task Force, including summer program planning and production and distribution of guidance literature and audio-visual aids. Contained is a list of the Task Force members. (CC)

  13. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  14. Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1975-01-01

    The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

  15. Current CFD efforts in projectile aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nietubicz, Charles J.

    1987-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts in projectile aerodynamics. Topics covered include spinning projectiles, fin stabilized projectiles, model geometry, the variation of base drag with base bleed, the variation of normal force with Mach number, and chordwise pressure distribution.

  16. Economic Woes May Hurt Colleges' Green Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Recent events on Wall Street raise a complicated question: Will the financial crisis help or hurt colleges' sustainability efforts? Both are possible. In this article, the author discusses how the Wall Street meltdown may hurt colleges' green initiatives. However, advocates of sustainability see an opportunity to change the conversation. A

  17. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  18. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort.

    PubMed

    Friman, P C

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  19. Disrupting the supplementary motor area makes physical effort appear less effortful.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2015-06-10

    The perception of physical effort is relatively unaffected by the suppression of sensory afferences, indicating that this function relies mostly on the processing of the central motor command. Neural signals in the supplementary motor area (SMA) correlate with the intensity of effort, suggesting that the motor signal involved in effort perception could originate from this area, but experimental evidence supporting this view is still lacking. Here, we tested this hypothesis by disrupting neural activity in SMA, in primary motor cortex (M1), or in a control site by means of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, while measuring effort perception during grip forces of different intensities. After each grip force exertion, participants had the opportunity to either accept or refuse to replicate the same effort for varying amounts of reward. In addition to the subjective rating of perceived exertion, effort perception was estimated on the basis of the acceptance rate, the effort replication accuracy, the influence of the effort exerted in trial t on trial t+1, and pupil dilation. We found that disruption of SMA activity, but not of M1, led to a consistent decrease in effort perception, whatever the measure used to assess it. Accordingly, we modeled effort perception in a structural equation model and found that only SMA disruption led to a significant alteration of effort perception. These findings indicate that effort perception relies on the processing of a signal originating from motor-related neural circuits upstream of M1 and that SMA is a key node of this network. PMID:26063908

  20. Brain and effort: brain activation and effort-related working memory in healthy participants and patients with working memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Engström, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Karlsson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Despite the interest in the neuroimaging of working memory, little is still known about the neurobiology of complex working memory in tasks that require simultaneous manipulation and storage of information. In addition to the central executive network, we assumed that the recently described salience network [involving the anterior insular cortex (AIC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)] might be of particular importance to working memory tasks that require complex, effortful processing. Method: Healthy participants (n = 26) and participants suffering from working memory problems related to the Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) (a specific form of periodic idiopathic hypersomnia; n = 18) participated in the study. Participants were further divided into a high- and low-capacity group, according to performance on a working memory task (listening span). In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants were administered the reading span complex working memory task tapping cognitive effort. Principal findings: The fMRI-derived blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was modulated by (1) effort in both the central executive and the salience network and (2) capacity in the salience network in that high performers evidenced a weaker BOLD signal than low performers. In the salience network there was a dichotomy between the left and the right hemisphere; the right hemisphere elicited a steeper increase of the BOLD signal as a function of increasing effort. There was also a stronger functional connectivity within the central executive network because of increased task difficulty. Conclusion: The ability to allocate cognitive effort in complex working memory is contingent upon focused resources in the executive and in particular the salience network. Individual capacity during the complex working memory task is related to activity in the salience (but not the executive) network so that high-capacity participants evidence a lower signal and possibly hence a larger dynamic response. PMID:23616756

  1. The Effects of Education Compatibility and Technological Expectancy on E-Learning Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jian-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Discerning what influences a student's acceptance of e-learning is still unclear and has not been well investigated. On the basis of the expectancy-value theory, much effort has been put into identifying the effectual factors regarding the technological expectancy of students. However, aside from technological usage, the adoption of an e-learning…

  2. Ethnicity, Teachers' Expectations, and Students' Performances in Ontario Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Rodney A.; Bulcock, Jeffrey W.

    Within Canada, the examination of stratification and mobility has traditionally been related to both class and ethnicity. Previous research has not examined the theory that educational institutions may be, in part, perpetuating the vertical mosaic, because teachers assume that children from certain ethnic groups can learn more and faster than…

  3. Social-Performance Expectations of Professionals for Behaviorally Disordered Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloss, Patrick J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of surveys administered to 151 special and regular educators, ancillary school personnel, administrators, and mental health personnel revealed behavioral clusters most likely to impede transitions from a mental health to educational setting. Survey responses further identified factors in ancillary support and classroom-related services…

  4. Articulating Performance Expectations for Scholarship at an Australian Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crookes, Patrick A.; Smith, Kylie M.; Else, Fabienne C.; Crookes, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    With an academic workforce undergoing transformation, it is vital that universities rethink how they define and value scholarship through their processes for academic promotion. A key part of this rethink is to review and refine existing documentation about promotion to reflect changing conceptions of scholarly work, in a way that enables scholars…

  5. Expected orbit determination performance for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. S.; Putney, Barbara H.; Marshall, J. A.; Lerch, Francis J.; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Klosko, Steven M.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Patel, Girish B.; Williamson, Ronald G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.

    1993-01-01

    Each of the components required for the computation of precise orbits for the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) spacecraft - gravity field modeling, nonconservative force modeling, and satellite tracking technologies - is examined. The research conducted in the Space Geodesy Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center in preparation for meeting the 13-cm radial orbit accuracy requirement for the T/P mission is outlined. New developments in modeling the earth's gravitational field and modeling the complex nonconservative forces acting on T/P are highlighted. The T/P error budget is reviewed, and a prelaunch assessment of the predicted orbit determination accuracies is summarized.

  6. Social-Performance Expectations of Professionals for Behaviorally Disordered Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloss, Patrick J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of surveys administered to 151 special and regular educators, ancillary school personnel, administrators, and mental health personnel revealed behavioral clusters most likely to impede transitions from a mental health to educational setting. Survey responses further identified factors in ancillary support and classroom-related services

  7. The Academic Researcher Role: Enhancing Expectations and Improved Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2013-01-01

    This article distinguishes between six tasks related to the academic researcher role: (1) networking; (2) collaboration; (3) managing research; (4) doing research; (5) publishing research; and (6) evaluation of research. Data drawn from surveys of academic staff, conducted in Norwegian universities over three decades, provide evidence that the…

  8. Conflict and expectancies interact to predict sexual behavior under the influence among gay and bisexual men

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    As the mechanisms of the associations between substance use and risky sex remain unclear, this study investigates the interactive roles of conflicts about casual sex and condom use and expectancies of the sexual effects of substances in those associations among gay men. Conflict interacted with expectancies to predict sexual behavior under the influence; low casual sex conflict coupled with high expectancies predicted the highest number of casual partners, and high condom use conflict and high expectancies predicted the highest number of unprotected sex acts. Results have implications for intervention efforts that aim to improve sexual decision-making and reduce sexual expectancies. PMID:23584507

  9. American lifelines alliance efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishenko, S.P.; Savage, W.U.; Honegger, D.G.; McLane, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    A study was performed on American Lifelines Alliance (ALA) efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability. ALA is a public-private partnership project, with the goal of reducing risks to lifelines from natural hazards and human threat events. The mechanism used by ALA for developing national guidelines for lifeline systems is dependent upon using existing Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as means to achieve national consensus.

  10. Narrowed expectancies under degraded speech: revisiting the N400.

    PubMed

    Strauß, Antje; Kotz, Sonja A; Obleser, Jonas

    2013-08-01

    Under adverse listening conditions, speech comprehension profits from the expectancies that listeners derive from the semantic context. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms of this semantic benefit are unclear: How are expectancies formed from context and adjusted as a sentence unfolds over time under various degrees of acoustic degradation? In an EEG study, we modified auditory signal degradation by applying noise-vocoding (severely degraded: four-band, moderately degraded: eight-band, and clear speech). Orthogonal to that, we manipulated the extent of expectancy: strong or weak semantic context (±con) and context-based typicality of the sentence-last word (high or low: ±typ). This allowed calculation of two distinct effects of expectancy on the N400 component of the evoked potential. The sentence-final N400 effect was taken as an index of the neural effort of automatic word-into-context integration; it varied in peak amplitude and latency with signal degradation and was not reliably observed in response to severely degraded speech. Under clear speech conditions in a strong context, typical and untypical sentence completions seemed to fulfill the neural prediction, as indicated by N400 reductions. In response to moderately degraded signal quality, however, the formed expectancies appeared more specific: Only typical (+con +typ), but not the less typical (+con -typ) context-word combinations led to a decrease in the N400 amplitude. The results show that adverse listening "narrows," rather than broadens, the expectancies about the perceived speech signal: limiting the perceptual evidence forces the neural system to rely on signal-driven expectancies, rather than more abstract expectancies, while a sentence unfolds over time. PMID:23489145

  11. [Expectations and patient satisfaction in hospitals: construction and application of an expectation-based experience typology and its use in the management of quality and expectations].

    PubMed

    Gehrlach, Christoph; Güntert, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction (PS) surveys are frequently used evaluation methods to show performance from the customer's view. This approach has some fundamental deficits, especially with respect to theory, methodology and usage. Because of the significant theoretical value of the expectation confirmation/disconfirmation concept in the development of PS, an expectation-based experience typology has been developed and tested to check whether this approach could be a theoretical and practical alternative to the survey of PS. Due to the mainly cognitive-rational process of comparison between expectations and expectation fulfilment, it is easier to make changes in this stage of the process than in the subsequent stage of the development of PS that is mainly based on emotional-affective processes. The paper contains a literature review of the common concept of PS and its causal and influencing factors. Based on the theoretical part of this study, an expectation-based experience typology was developed. In the next step, the typology was subjected to exploratory testing, based on two patient surveys. In some parts of the tested typology explorative differences could be found between hospitals. Despite this rather more complex and unusual approach to expectation-based experience typology, this concept offers the chance to change conditions not only retrospectively (based on data), but also in a prospective way in terms of a "management of expectations". PMID:26704820

  12. Contrasting responses of male and female foraging effort to year-round wind conditions.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sue; Phillips, Richard A; Burthe, Sarah J; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis

    2015-11-01

    There is growing interest in the effects of wind on wild animals, given evidence that wind speeds are increasing and becoming more variable in some regions, particularly at temperate latitudes. Wind may alter movement patterns or foraging ability, with consequences for energy budgets and, ultimately, demographic rates. These effects are expected to vary among individuals due to intrinsic factors such as sex, age or feeding proficiency. Furthermore, this variation is predicted to become more marked as wind conditions deteriorate, which may have profound consequences for population dynamics as the climate changes. However, the interaction between wind and intrinsic effects has not been comprehensively tested. In many species, in particular those showing sexual size dimorphism, males and females vary in foraging performance. Here, we undertook year-round deployments of data loggers to test for interactions between sex and wind speed and direction on foraging effort in adult European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis, a pursuit-diving seabird in which males are c. 18% heavier. We found that foraging time was lower at high wind speeds but higher during easterly (onshore) winds. Furthermore, there was an interaction between sex and wind conditions on foraging effort, such that females foraged for longer than males when winds were of greater strength (9% difference at high wind speeds vs. 1% at low wind speeds) and when winds were easterly compared with westerly (7% and 4% difference, respectively). The results supported our prediction that sex-specific differences in foraging effort would become more marked as wind conditions worsen. Since foraging time is linked to demographic rates in this species, our findings are likely to have important consequences for population dynamics by amplifying sex-specific differences in survival rates. PMID:26283625

  13. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  14. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  15. Establishing Realistic Patient Expectations Following Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Husain, Adeel; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 20% of patients are dissatisfied following well-performed total knee arthroplasty with good functional outcomes. Surgeons must understand the drivers of dissatisfaction to minimize the number of unhappy patients following surgery. Several studies have shown that unfulfilled expectations are a principal source of patient dissatisfaction. Patients contemplating total knee arthroplasty expect pain relief, improved walking ability, return to sports, and improvement in psychological well-being and social interactions. However, patients are typically overly optimistic with regard to expected outcomes following surgery. Patient expectations and satisfaction can be influenced by age, socioeconomic factors, sex, and race. The interplay of these factors can be complex and specific to each person. Published data on clinical and functional outcomes show that persistence of symptoms, such as pain, stiffness, and failure to return to preoperative levels of function, are common and normal. Therefore, the surgeon needs to help the patient to establish realistic expectations. PMID:26493969

  16. Seismic Modeling on a GPU with Modest Programming Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unat, D.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate an effective approach to porting a production code of anelastic wave propagation using a directive-based programming model, called Mint. Mint generated code realized about 80% of the performance of hand-coded CUDA on the Nvidia 200 and 400 series of GPUs. We think this performance gap is reasonable in light of the simplified programming model enjoyed by Mint's pragma-based model. Compared with writing CUDA by hand, Mint provides the flexibility to explore different performance variants of the same program through annotations and compiler options which saves considerable amount of programming effort. In this talk, we discuss how Mint enables the programmer to tune performance at a high level and evaluate various performance programming strategies realized by Mint programs and translator optimization options.

  17. Clinical expectations: what facilitators expect from ESL students on clinical placement.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2012-03-01

    Many nursing students for whom English is a second language (ESL) face challenges related to communication on clinical placement and although clinical facilitators are not usually trained language assessors, they are often in a position of needing to assess ESL students' clinical language performance. Little is known, however, about the particular areas of clinical performance facilitators focus on when they are assessing ESL students. This paper discusses the results of a study of facilitators' written assessment comments about the clinical performance of a small group of ESL nursing students over a two and a half year period. These comments were documented on students' clinical assessment forms at the end of each placement. The results provide a more detailed insight into facilitators' expectations of students' language performance and the particular challenges faced by ESL students and indicate that facilitators have clear expectations of ESL students regarding communication, learning styles and professional demeanour. These findings may help both ESL students and their facilitators better prepare for clinical placement. PMID:22079570

  18. What your leader expects of you.

    PubMed

    Bossidy, Larry

    2007-04-01

    The success of an executive team depends heavily on the relationships the boss has with his or her direct reports. Yet the leadership literature has had little to say about what is expected in those relationships-on either side. Larry Bossidy, formerly the chairman and CEO of Honeywell, and before that of AlliedSignal, shares what he calls "the CEO compact," detailing the behaviors a leader should look for in subordinates and what they should be able to expect in return. A CEO's best people, he says, know when a situation calls for them to get involved. They generate ideas-remembering that some of the best ones may sound crazy at first. They are willing to collaborate, putting the long-term good of the company above short-term goals of their divisions. They step up to lead initiatives, even if the outcome is uncertain. They develop leaders among their people, especially through direct involvement in performance appraisals. They stay current on world events and anticipate how those events may affect the company and its competition. They drive their own growth by exposing themselves to new people and ideas and by accepting demanding assignments. And they sustain these behaviors in bad times as well as good. On the other side of the compact, the boss should provide clarity of direction; set goals and objectives; give frequent, specific, and immediate feedback; be decisive and timely; demonstrate honesty and candor; and offer an equitable compensation plan. Executives who aren't lucky enough to have such a boss can create a compact with their own subordinates, Bossidy says, and demonstrate by example. The result will be to improve team and company performance and accelerate individual growth. PMID:17432153

  19. Final Report on the NCAR VTMX Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, David; Pinto, James; Brown, William; Cohen, Stephen; Morley, Bruce

    2007-02-13

    The NCAR effort is primarily focused on the analysis of a diverse suite of measurements taken at the southern end of the Salt Lake City Valley within the Jordan Narrows. These measurements include wind profiler, surface, lidar, radiosonde, multi-layered tether-sonde and sodar measurements. We are also collaborating with other VTMX investigators through linking our measurements within the Jordan Narrows with their investigations. The instrumentation was provided to interested VTMX investigators and was used extensively. Thus the NCAR data set played a large role in the results of the overall experiment. Our work under this proposal includes analysis of the observations, mesoscale modeling efforts in support of our VTMX analysis and general instrumentation development aimed at improving the measurement of vertical transport and mixing under stable conditions. This report is subdivided by research objectives.

  20. Impaired Effort Allocation in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Treadway, Michael T.; Peterman, Joel S.; Zald, David H.; Park, Sohee

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is reduced motivation and goal directed behavior. While preclinical models suggest that blunted striatal dopamine levels can result in reduced motivation and goal-directed behavior, this mechanism is inconsistent with evidence for enhanced striatal dopamine levels in schizophrenia. In seeking to reconcile this discrepancy, one possibility is that negative symptoms reflect a failure of striatal motivational systems to mobilize appropriately in response to rewardrelated information. In the present study, we used a laboratory effort-based decision-making task in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We found that patients and controls did not differ in the overall amount of effort expenditure, but patients made significantly less optimal choices in terms of maximizing rewards. These results provide further evidence for a selective deficit in the ability of schizophrenia patients to utilize environmental cues to guide reward-seeking behavior. PMID:25487699