Science.gov

Sample records for performance expectancy effort

  1. Increasing Expectations for Student Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Karen Maitland; Schilling, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    States that few higher education institutions have publicly articulated clear expectations of the knowledge and skills students are to attain. Describes gap between student and faculty expectations for academic effort. Reports that what is required in students' first semester appears to play a strong role in shaping the time investments made in…

  2. Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…

  3. Are We Expecting Enough Effort from Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    A recent study comparing Asian and American students identified three factors that contribute to superior performance of elementary school children. These are: (1) amount of class time devoted to academics and direct instruction; (2) parent support of academic activities; and (3) student effort. The study and its findings are discussed. (MT)

  4. Performance expectation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  5. Children's Expectancy of Criticism for Classroom Achievement Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Ellen F.

    An expectancy of criticism scale was devised in order to measure children's expectations of giving criticism to and receiving criticism from different agents for public achievement efforts in class. Scores on the Children's Social Desirability Scale (CSD) and teacher ratings of amount of criticism the children received and of their participation…

  6. Mere effort and stereotype threat performance effects.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2007-10-01

    Although the fact that stereotype threat impacts performance is well established, the underlying process(es) is(are) not clear. Recently, T. Schmader and M. Johns (2003) argued for a working memory interference account, which proposes that performance suffers because cognitive resources are expended on processing information associated with negative stereotypes. The antisaccade task provides a vehicle to test this account because optimal performance requires working memory resources to inhibit the tendency to look at an irrelevant, peripheral cue (the prepotent response) and to generate volitional saccades to the target. If stereotype threat occupies working memory resources, then the ability to inhibit the prepotent response and to launch volitional saccades will be impaired, and performance will suffer. In contrast, S. Harkins's (2006) mere effort account argues that stereotype threat participants are motivated to perform well, which potentiates the prepotent response, but also leads to efforts to counter this tendency if participants recognize that the response is incorrect, know the correct response, and have the opportunity to make it. Results from 4 experiments support the mere effort but not the working memory interference account. PMID:17892331

  7. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    PubMed

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success. PMID:19743655

  8. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  9. Expected performance of m-solution backtracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper derives upper bounds on the expected number of search tree nodes visited during an m-solution backtracking search, a search which terminates after some preselected number m problem solutions are found. The search behavior is assumed to have a general probabilistic structure. The results are stated in terms of node expansion and contraction. A visited search tree node is said to be expanding if the mean number of its children visited by the search exceeds 1 and is contracting otherwise. It is shown that if every node expands, or if every node contracts, then the number of search tree nodes visited by a search has an upper bound which is linear in the depth of the tree, in the mean number of children a node has, and in the number of solutions sought. Also derived are bounds linear in the depth of the tree in some situations where an upper portion of the tree contracts (expands), while the lower portion expands (contracts). While previous analyses of 1-solution backtracking have concluded that the expected performance is always linear in the tree depth, the model allows superlinear expected performance.

  10. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    PubMed

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance. PMID:27374255

  11. VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien

    2014-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

  12. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Expected Instrument Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.; Markham, Brian L.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Storey, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is scheduled for a December 2012 launch date. LDCM is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In order to provide the necessary spectral coverage of the visible through shortwave-infrared (SWIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR), the satellite will carry two sensors. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine visible to shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will collect coincident image data for two TIR bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it's manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space F!ight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite instrument systems, present pre-launch performance data for OLI and TIRS, and present simulated images to highlight notable features and expected imaging performance.

  13. Focusing Your E-Recruitment Efforts to Meet the Expectations of College-Bound Students. E-Expectations 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early in 2010, the E-Expectations research group surveyed more than 1,000 college-bound high school students, polling them on their online behaviors and expectations, as well as other key enrollment-related topics. Highlights of the study include: (1) 1 in 4 students reported removing a school from their prospective list because of a bad…

  14. Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

  15. SMAP Radar Processing and Expected Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation will describe the processing algorithms being developed for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radar data and the expected characteristics of the measured backscattering cross sections. The SMAP radar combines some unique features such as a conically scanned antenna with SAR processing of the data. The rapidly varying squint angle gives the measurements variable resolution and noise characteristics and poses a challenge to the processor to maintain accuracy around the wide (1000 km) swath. Rapid variation of Doppler around the scan leads to a time domain azimuth correlation algorithm, and variation of the Doppler geometry will likely require varying the processing bandwidth to manage ambiguity contamination errors. The basic accuracy requirement is 1-dB (one-sigma) in the backscatter measurements at a resolution of 3 km. The main error contributions come from speckle noise, calibration uncertainty, and radio frequency interference (RFI). Speckle noise is determined by system design parameters and details of the processing algorithms. The calibration of the backscatter measurements will be based on pre-launch characterization of the radar components which allow corrections for short term (~1 month) variations in performance. Longer term variations and biases will be removed using measurements of stable reference targets such as parts of the Amazon rain forest, and possibly the oceans and ice sheets. RFI survey measurements will be included to measure the extent of RFI around the world. The SMAP radar is designed to be able to hop the operating frequency within the 80 MHz allocated band to avoid the worst RFI emitters. Data processing will detect and discard further RFI contaminated measurements. This work is supported by the SMAP project at JPL - CalTech. The SMAP mission has not been formally approved by NASA. The decision to proceed with the mission will not occur until the completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process

  16. Status Valued Goal Objects and Performance Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hysom, Stuart J.

    2009-01-01

    I designed an experiment to test predictions, derived from expectation states theories, that the unequal allocation of social rewards among collective task-focused actors will affect the actors' rates of power and prestige behavior. Past research shows that allocations of exchangeable resources can have these effects. The prediction, however, is…

  17. Changes in student effort and grade expectation in the course of a term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikian, C. S.; Guillaume, D. W.; Pham, T. K.

    2011-12-01

    Students were surveyed and asked to self-evaluate their performance and time-on-task in six engineering courses (eight sections). Surveys were conducted four times over the course of a 10-week quarter. Students with the highest grade point averages (GPAs) (2.88 mean; 4.00 mode) indicated 'no change' while students with lower GPAs (2.67 mean; 1.83 mode) indicated a 'negative change' in grade expectations by the end of the quarter, indicating that better performing students are better self-evaluators. Students reduced time-on-task 2-4 hours/week, especially early in the quarter. Students who changed their time-on-task during each survey had a GPA mode of 4.00, indicating that 'master' students readily adapt to course demands. This study shows that most students over-predict their grades and their level of commitment to a course and lose confidence in their abilities as the term progresses. It is suggested that instructors obtain student grade predictions and use them to provide timely and appropriate feedback.

  18. Early Antecedents to Students' Expected Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garger, John; Thomas, Michael; Jacques, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to confirm the predictive validity of several antecedents to students' early perceptions of future performance in collegiate courses. Design/methodology/approach: A non-experimental design was used to test a proposed model based on a review of relevant literature. Students completed surveys capturing the…

  19. Standards of Performance--Expectations and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The APU was set up in 1975 in England to conduct national surveys of science performance and to make the findings available to a variety of audiences. The research reported here was carried out from 1979 to 1982 to investigate how people make judgments about the APU science results. (RM)

  20. An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance

    PubMed Central

    Kurzban, Robert; Duckworth, Angela; Kable, Joseph W.; Myers, Justus

    2013-01-01

    Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternate explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost – that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternate explanations both for the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across subdisciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternate models might be empirically distinguished. PMID:24304775

  1. Optical telecommunications: expected performance of the beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Michel; Gollier, Jacques; Dobie, Paul J.; Heinrichs, Theo; Sobeczko, Andre

    1994-09-01

    The beacon is a powerful non-coherent CW laser source which is developed in the frame of the Semi-conductor Inter-satellite Link Experiment (SILEX). Its functionality is to provide a high divergence beam during the first tracking sequence. It is made up of 19 laser diodes coupled into one multi-mode fiber, the exit face of that fiber being integrated at the focal plane of a collimator. A breadboarding phase has been conducted at the beginning of the phase C/D in order to demonstrate that the requirement of 8 KW/Sr within a divergence of 11.75 mRd will be achieved. That phase is now completed and the overall breadboard performance is discussed in this paper with respect to the SILEX requirements.

  2. Team Cohesion, Player Attitude, and Performance Expectations in Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, William J.; Faria, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship of team cohesion, participant attitude, and performance expectations to actual performance results in a simulation competition. Findings indicate a strong relationship between beginning team cohesion and performance expectations and final game performance, but little relationship between beginning participant attitudes…

  3. Predictors of Neuropsychological Effort Test Performance in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Lindsay F.; Gold, James M.; Sullivan, Sara K.; Strauss, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence that insufficient effort may be common in schizophrenia, posing significant threats to the validity of neuropsychological test results. Low effort may account for a significant proportion of variance in neuropsychological test scores and the generalized cognitive deficit that characterizes the disorder. The current study evaluated clinical predictors of insufficient effort in schizophrenia using an embedded effort measure, the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Effort Index (EI). Participants were 330 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or another psychotic disorder who received a battery of neuropsychological tests, including: Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), and RBANS. Clinical assessments designed to measure functional outcome, symptoms, and premorbid adjustment were also obtained. Results indicated that 9.4% of patients failed the EI. Patients who failed had lower full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ, as well as poorer performance on RBANS domains not included in the EI (immediate memory, language, and visuospatial/construction). Patients who failed the EI also displayed poorer community-based vocational outcome, greater likelihood of having “deficit schizophrenia” (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms), and increased severity of positive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that insufficient effort was most significantly predicted by a combination of low IQ, negative symptoms, and positive symptoms. Findings suggest that although insufficient effort may be relatively uncommon in schizophrenia, it is associated with important clinical outcomes. The RBANS EI may be a useful tool in evaluating insufficient effort in schizophrenia. PMID:25583248

  4. The Link between Educational Expectations and Effort in the College-for-All Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie; Farkas, George

    2011-01-01

    From the Wisconsin status attainment model to rational choice, classical sociological, social-psychological, and economic theories of student educational transitions have assumed that students' expectations are positively related to their ultimate attainment. However, the growth of the college-for-all ethos raises questions about that assumption.…

  5. Academic Expectations and Actual Achievements: The Roles of Hope and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Uzi; Einav, Michal; Ziv, Orit; Raskind, Ilana; Margalit, Malka

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to extend the research on adolescents' hope, academic expectations, and average grades. The hope theory (Snyder, "Psychological Inquiry" 13(4):249-275, 2002), the salutogenic paradigm (with a focus on sense of coherence (SOC) (Antonovsky 1987)), and Bandura's ("Journal of Management" 38(1):9-44,…

  6. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and communicating performance expectations. (a) Performance expectations must align with and support the DHS...

  7. Mating system, feeding type and ex situ conservation effort determine life expectancy in captive ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dennis W H; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W Jürgen; Fickel, Jörns; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2011-07-01

    Zoo animal husbandry aims at constantly improving husbandry, reproductive success and ultimately animal welfare. Nevertheless, analyses to determine factors influencing husbandry of different species are rare. The relative life expectancy (rLE; life expectancy (LE) as proportion of longevity) describes husbandry success of captive populations. Correlating rLE with biological characteristics of different species, reasons for variation in rLE can be detected. We analysed data of 166 901 animals representing 78 ruminant species kept in 850 facilities. The rLE of females correlated with the percentage of grass in a species' natural diet, suggesting that needs of species adapted to grass can be more easily accommodated than the needs of those adapted to browse. Males of monogamous species demonstrate higher rLE than polygamous males, which matches observed differences of sexual bias in LE in free-living populations and thus supports the ecological theory that the mating system influences LE. The third interesting finding was that rLE was higher in species managed by international studbooks when compared with species not managed in this way. Our method facilitates the identification of biological characteristics of species that are relevant for their husbandry success, and they also support ecological theory. Translating these findings into feeding recommendations, our approach can help to improve animal husbandry. PMID:21147792

  8. Measures of Expected Online Catalog Performance for Public Access Terminals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Raymond G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the power of queuing models as a source of detailed, expected performance measures for online catalogs. An illustration of such a performance analysis is provided, and its value to library administrators is discussed. (9 notes with references) (CLB)

  9. 5 CFR 9901.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and communicating performance... DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.406 Setting and...' performance. (e) Performance expectations include— (1) Goals or objectives that set general or...

  10. Teacher Expectancy Related to Student Performance in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Himanshu S.

    A study was designed (1) to discover the effect of teacher expectation on student performance in the cognitive and in the psychomotor skills, and (2) to analyze students' attitudes toward teachers because of teacher expectations. The study utilized two different instructional units. The quality milk production unit was used to teach cognitive…

  11. Parental Expectations and Children's Academic Performance in Sociocultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Yoko; Holloway, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we review research on parental expectations and their effects on student achievement within and across diverse racial and ethnic groups. Our review suggests that the level of parental expectations varies by racial/ethnic group, and that students' previous academic performance is a less influential determinant of parental…

  12. Student Expectations and Graduate Market Performance in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; Sanyal, Bikas

    1982-01-01

    Student expectations and actual labor market performance of a sample of Egypt's university graduates in 1978 are compared. It was found that economic rewards followed supply and demand, especially with regard to specialization. Expected or actual unemployment after graduation was found to be of short duration. (MSE)

  13. Ankle moment generation and maximum-effort curved sprinting performance.

    PubMed

    Luo, Geng; Stefanyshyn, Darren

    2012-11-15

    Turning at high speed along acute curves is crucial for athletic performance. One determinant of curved sprinting speed is the ground reaction force that can be created by the supporting limb; the moment generated at the ankle joint may influence such force generation. Body lean associated with curved sprints positions the ankle joints in extreme in-/eversion, and may hinder the ankle moment generation. To examine the influence of ankle moment generation on curved sprinting performance, 17 male subjects performed maximum-effort curved sprints in footwear with and without a wedge. The wedged footwear was constructed with the intention to align the ankle joints closer to their neutral frontal-plane configuration during counter-clockwise curved sprints so greater joint moments might be generated. We found, with the wedged footwear, the average eversion angle of the inside leg ankle was reduced, and the plantarflexion moment generation increased significantly. Meanwhile, the knee extension moment remained unchanged. With the wedged footwear, stance-average centripetal ground reaction force increased significantly while no difference in the vertical ground reaction force was detected. The subjects created a greater centripetal ground reaction impulse in the wedged footwear despite a shortened stance phase when compared to the control. Stance-average curved sprinting speed improved by 4.3% with the wedged footwear. The changes in ankle moment and curved sprinting speed observed in the current study supports the notion that the moment generation at the ankle joint may be a performance constraint for curved sprinting. PMID:23022207

  14. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... expectations. 9701.406 Section 9701.406 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and... and its strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans,...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... expectations. 9701.406 Section 9701.406 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and... and its strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans,...

  16. Boon and Bane of Being Sure: The Effect of Performance Certainty and Expectancy on Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested certainty to be an important factor when investigating effects of level of expectancies on future behavior. With the present study, we addressed the interplay of expectancy certainty and level of expectancies regarding task performance. We assumed that certain performance expectancies provide a better basis for the…

  17. Expectations developed over multiple timescales facilitate visual search performance

    PubMed Central

    Gekas, Nikos; Seitz, Aaron R.; Seriès, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our perception of the world is strongly influenced by our expectations, and a question of key importance is how the visual system develops and updates its expectations through interaction with the environment. We used a visual search task to investigate how expectations of different timescales (from the last few trials to hours to long-term statistics of natural scenes) interact to alter perception. We presented human observers with low-contrast white dots at 12 possible locations equally spaced on a circle, and we asked them to simultaneously identify the presence and location of the dots while manipulating their expectations by presenting stimuli at some locations more frequently than others. Our findings suggest that there are strong acuity differences between absolute target locations (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical) and preexisting long-term biases influencing observers' detection and localization performance, respectively. On top of these, subjects quickly learned about the stimulus distribution, which improved their detection performance but caused increased false alarms at the most frequently presented stimulus locations. Recent exposure to a stimulus resulted in significantly improved detection performance and significantly more false alarms but only at locations at which it was more probable that a stimulus would be presented. Our results can be modeled and understood within a Bayesian framework in terms of a near-optimal integration of sensory evidence with rapidly learned statistical priors, which are skewed toward the very recent history of trials and may help understanding the time scale of developing expectations at the neural level. PMID:26200891

  18. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... expectations. 9701.406 Section 9701.406 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting...

  19. 5 CFR 9901.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting and communicating performance expectations. 9901.406 Section 9901.406 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT...

  20. Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Mathematics Performance Expectations (MPE) define the content and level of achievement students must reach to be academically prepared for success in entry-level, credit-bearing mathematics courses in college or career training. They were developed through a process that involved faculty from Virginia's two- and four-year colleges and…

  1. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... expectations. 9701.406 Section 9701.406 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting...

  2. Self-consistent MPI-IO performance requirements and expectations.

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W. D.; Kimpe, D.; Ross, R.; Thakur, R.; Traff, J. L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Illinois; Katholieke Univ. Leuven; NEC Laboratories Europe

    2008-01-01

    We recently introduced the idea of self-consistent performance requirements for MPI communication. Such requirements provide a means to ensure consistent behavior of an MPI library, thereby ensuring a degree of performance portability by making it unnecessary for a user to perform implementation-dependent optimizations by hand. For the collective operations in particular, a large number of such rules could sensibly be formulated, without making hidden assumptions about the underlying communication system or otherwise constraining the MPI implementation. In this paper, we extend this idea to the realm of parallel I/O (MPI-IO), where the issues are far more subtle. In particular, it is not always possible to specify performance requirements without making assumptions about the implementation or without a priori knowledge of the I/O access pattern. For such cases, we introduce the notion of performance expectations, which specify the desired behavior for good implementations of MPI-IO. I/O performance requirements as well as expectations could be automatically checked by an appropriate benchmarking tool.

  3. Performance Standards and Employee Effort: Evidence from Teacher Absences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Seth

    2016-01-01

    The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased accountability pressure in U.S. public schools by threatening to impose sanctions on Title-1 schools that failed to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) in consecutive years. Difference-in-difference estimates of the effect of failing AYP in the first year of NCLB on teacher effort in the…

  4. Teacher Expectancy Related to Student Performance in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Samuel M.; Pandya, Himanshu S.

    1980-01-01

    This experiment explored the effect of teacher expectations on vocational students' cognitive and psychomotor skills and on attitudes. Although teachers' expectations changed student attitudes toward teachers and subjects, neither expectations nor attitude change had an effect on student achievement. (SK)

  5. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from

  6. Student Effort Expectations and Their Learning in First-Year Introductory Physics: A Case Study in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wutchana, U.; Emarat, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) survey was designed to probe students' expectations about their understanding of the process of learning physics and the structure of physics knowledge--cognitive expectations. This survey was administered to first-year university students in Thailand in the first semester of an introductory calculus-based…

  7. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  8. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  9. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  10. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  11. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington /Athens U. /Natl. Tech. U., Athens /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /Belgrade U. /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Humboldt U., Berlin /Bern U., LHEP /Birmingham U. /Bogazici U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U.

    2011-11-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV mass scale where groundbreaking discoveries are expected. In the focus are the investigation of the electroweak symmetry breaking and linked to this the search for the Higgs boson as well as the search for Physics beyond the Standard Model. In this report a detailed examination of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector is provided, with a major aim being to investigate the experimental sensitivity to a wide range of measurements and potential observations of new physical processes. An earlier summary of the expected capabilities of ATLAS was compiled in 1999 [1]. A survey of physics capabilities of the CMS detector was published in [2]. The design of the ATLAS detector has now been finalised, and its construction and installation have been completed [3]. An extensive test-beam programme was undertaken. Furthermore, the simulation and reconstruction software code and frameworks have been completely rewritten. Revisions incorporated reflect improved detector modelling as well as major technical changes to the software technology. Greatly improved understanding of calibration and alignment techniques, and their practical impact on performance, is now in place. The studies reported here are based on full simulations of the ATLAS detector response. A variety of event generators were employed. The simulation and reconstruction of these large event samples thus provided an important operational test of the new ATLAS software system. In addition, the processing was distributed world-wide over the ATLAS Grid facilities and hence provided an important test of the ATLAS computing system - this is the origin of

  12. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon experiment: expected performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk; Adams, James H.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Dudnik, Alexey V.; Fazely, Ali R.; Garcia, L.; Grigorov, Naum L.; Guzik, T. Gregory; Inderhees, Susan E.; Isbert, Joachim; Jung, H. C.; Khein, L.; Kim, Sun-Kee; Kroeger, Richard A.; McDonald, Frank B.; Panasyuk, Mikhail I.; Park, Choong-Soo; Schmidt, Wolfgang K.; Dion-Schwartz, C.; Senchishin, V. G.; Wang, J. Z.; Wefel, John P.; Zatsepin, Viktor I.; Zinn, S. Y.

    1996-10-01

    An advanced thin ionization calorimeter (ATIC) will be used to investigate the charge composition and energy spectra of ultrahigh energy primary cosmic rays in a series of long- duration balloon flights. While obtaining new high priority scientific results, this balloon payload can also serve as a proof of concept for a BGO calorimeter-based instrument on the International Space Station. The ATIC technical details are presented in a companion paper at this conference. Here we discuss the expected performance of the instrument based on a GEANT code developed for simulating nuclear- electromagnetic cascades initiated by protons. For simulations of helium and heavy nuclei, a nucleus-nucleus interaction event generator LUCIAE was linked to the GEANT based program. Using these models, the design of the ATIC detector system has been optimized by simulating the instrument response to particles of different charges over the energy range to be covered. Results of these simulations are presented and discussed.

  13. Social loafing and social compensation: the effects of expectations of co-worker performance.

    PubMed

    Williams, K D; Karau, S J

    1991-10-01

    Previous research has suggested that people tend to engage in social loafing when working collectively. The present research tested the social compensation hypothesis, which states that people will work harder collectively than individually when they expect their co-workers to perform poorly on a meaningful task. In 3 experiments, participants worked either collectively or coactively on an idea generation task. Expectations of co-worker performance were either inferred from participants' interpersonal trust scores (Experiment 1) or were directly manipulated by a confederate coworker's statement of either his intended effort (Experiment 2) or his ability at the task (Experiment 3). All 3 studies supported the social compensation hypothesis. Additionally, Experiment 3 supported the hypothesis that participants would not socially compensate for a poorly performing co-worker when working on a task that was low in meaningfulness. PMID:1960649

  14. Expectations Lead to Performance: The Transformative Power of High Expectations in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ye; Engler, Karen S.; Oetting, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the preschool program at Missouri State University where deaf and hard of hearing children with all communication modalities and all styles of personal assistive listening devices are served. The job of the early intervention providers is to model for parents what high expectations look like and how to translate those…

  15. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend interventions where possible that could be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigation focused on the discomforts and injuries of U.S. crewmembers who had worn the pressurized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit and experienced 4000 Series or Phase VI glove related incidents during 1981 to 2010 for either EVA ground training or in-orbit flight. We conducted an observational retrospective case-control investigation using 1) a literature review of known injuries, 2) data mining of crew injury, glove sizing, and hand anthropometry databases, 3) descriptive statistical analyses, and finally 4) statistical risk correlation and predictor analyses to better understand injury prevalence and potential causation. Specific predictor statistical analyses included use of principal component analyses (PCA), multiple logistic regression, and survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards regression). Results of these analyses were computed risk variables in the forms of odds ratios (likelihood of an injury occurring given the magnitude of a risk variable) and hazard ratios (likelihood of time to injury occurrence). Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, we selected predictor variables significant at p=0.15. RESULTS: Through 2010, there have been a total of 330 NASA crewmembers, from which 96 crewmembers performed 322 EVAs during 1981-2010, resulting in 50 crewmembers being injured inflight and 44

  16. Principal Leadership and Teacher Expectancy in Low-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnigan, Kara S.

    2005-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between principal leadership and teacher expectancy within Chicago's accountability context. Current school accountability policies assume that the threat of sanctions will motivate teachers to improve. The study uses expectancy theory, which suggests that any impact on motivation will be constrained by…

  17. The Expected Performance from the NASA OCO-2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, D.; Eldering, A.; Gunson, M. R.; Pollock, H.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) will be launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on a Delta-II 7320 launch vehicle as early as 1 July 2014. Once deployed in the 705-km Afternoon Constellation (A-Train), it will collect the measurements needed to estimate the column-averaged, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction (XCO2) with improved precision, resolution, and coverage. The OCO-2 spacecraft carries and points a 3-channel, imaging, grating spectrometer that collects high resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the 765 nm O2 A-band and in the CO2 bands centered near 1610 and 2060 nm. These spectral ranges overlap those used by the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) TANSO-FTS, the current standard in space-based XCO2 measurements. The OCO-2 instrument performance was extensively characterized during pre-launch testing, facilitating comparisons with the TANSO-FTS. OCO-2 has slightly lower spectral resolution, but the far wings of its instrument line shape functions decay more rapidly, such that it yields similar spectral contrast within O2 and CO2 bands. The instruments have similar continuum signal to noise ratios (SNR) for bright scenes, but the OCO-2 instrument has higher SNR at low light levels associated with absorption lines or dark surfaces. The OCO-2 spectrometers will collect 24 soundings per second, yielding up to a million soundings per day over the sunlit hemisphere. For routine operations, the OCO-2 instrument boresight will be pointed at the local nadir or at the 'glint spot,' where sunlight is specularly reflected from the surface. Nadir observations provide the best spatial resolution and are expected to yield more cloud-free soundings. Glint observations will have much better SNR over dark, ocean surfaces. The nominal plan is to alternate between glint and nadir observations on successive 16-day ground-track repeat cycles, so that the entire sunlit hemisphere is sampled in both modes at 32-day

  18. Achievement Goals in a Presentation Task: Performance Expectancy, Achievement Goals, State Anxiety, and Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Ayumi; Takehara, Takuma; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test the linkages between achievement goals to task performance, as mediated by state anxiety arousal. Performance expectancy was also examined as antecedents of achievement goals. A presentation task in a computer practice class was used as achievement task. Fifty-three undergraduates (37 females and 16 males) were…

  19. Outcome Expectancies of People Who Conduct Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Nancy K.; Latham, Gary P.

    1986-01-01

    Examined outcome expectancies of people who conduct appraisals. Interviews with 32 appraisers in the newsprint industry showed that appraisers perceived no consequences to them of conducting appraisals. Questionnaires completed by 39 appraisers in the banking industry provided moderate support for alternate hypothesis that appraisers perceive…

  20. The Effects of Instructor Expectation and Performance on Child Comprehension and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Hagan, Margaret S.

    To investigate the influence of instructional behaviors and adult expectations on children's task performance, 48 boys either 5 to 6 or 8 to 9 years of age individually viewed instructional videotapes and participated in a delay of gratification task. In the first phase of the study, videotapes were produced in which instructors were told to…

  1. Stereotype Threat in Middle School: The Effects of Prior Performance on Expectancy and Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Keith E.; Anderson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Stereotype threat research has demonstrated how presenting situational cues in a testing environment, such as raising the salience of negative stereotypes, can adversely affect test performance (Perry, Steele, & Hilliard, 2003; Steele & Aronson, 1995) and expectancy (Cadinu, Maass, Frigerio, Impagliazzo, & Latinotti, 2003; Stangor, Carr, & Kiang,…

  2. Supercomputer and cluster performance modeling and analysis efforts:2004-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Sturtevant, Judith E.; Ganti, Anand; Meyer, Harold Edward; Stevenson, Joel O.; Benner, Robert E., Jr.; Goudy, Susan Phelps; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Taylor, Mark A.; Malins, Robert Joseph; Scott, Ryan T.; Barnette, Daniel Wayne; Rajan, Mahesh; Ang, James Alfred; Black, Amalia Rebecca; Laub, Thomas William; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas; Franke, Brian Claude

    2007-02-01

    This report describes efforts by the Performance Modeling and Analysis Team to investigate performance characteristics of Sandia's engineering and scientific applications on the ASC capability and advanced architecture supercomputers, and Sandia's capacity Linux clusters. Efforts to model various aspects of these computers are also discussed. The goals of these efforts are to quantify and compare Sandia's supercomputer and cluster performance characteristics; to reveal strengths and weaknesses in such systems; and to predict performance characteristics of, and provide guidelines for, future acquisitions and follow-on systems. Described herein are the results obtained from running benchmarks and applications to extract performance characteristics and comparisons, as well as modeling efforts, obtained during the time period 2004-2006. The format of the report, with hypertext links to numerous additional documents, purposefully minimizes the document size needed to disseminate the extensive results from our research.

  3. The Effects of Response Effort on Safe Performance by Therapists at an Autism Treatment Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casella, Sarah E.; Wilder, David A.; Neidert, Pamela; Rey, Catalina; Compton, Megan; Chong, Ivy

    2010-01-01

    The effects of response effort on safe behaviors (i.e., glove wearing, hand sanitizing, and electrical outlet replacement) exhibited by therapists at an autism treatment center were examined. Participants were exposed to 2 or 3 levels of effort (i.e., high, medium, low) for each dependent variable. Results showed increased safe performance during…

  4. Sustainability of Teacher Expectation Bias Effects on Long-Term Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Hester; Bosker, Roel J.; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we address the relationship between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics, its effect on long-term student performance, and the development of this effect over time. Expectation bias was defined as the difference between observed and predicted teacher expectation. These predicted expectations were estimated from a…

  5. Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorhagen, Nicole S.

    2013-01-01

    This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student…

  6. Testing the mere effort account of the evaluation-performance relationship.

    PubMed

    McFall, Sametria R; Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2009-01-01

    Research traditions in psychology in which the evaluation-performance relationship was examined do not show agreement on the mediating process, nor is there any compelling evidence that favors one account over the others. On the basis of a molecular analysis of performance on the Remote Associates Test (RAT), Harkins (2006) argued that the potential for evaluation motivates participants to perform well, which potentiates prepotent responses. If the prepotent response is correct, performance is facilitated. If the prepotent response is incorrect, and participants do not know, or if they lack the knowledge or time required for correction, performance is debilitated. The present research pits this mere effort account against 4 other potential explanations (withdrawal of effort, processing interference, focus of attention, and drive) on 3 tasks that were specifically selected for this purpose (anagram solution, the Stroop Color-Word task, and the antisaccade task). In each case, the results are consistent with the mere effort account. PMID:19210071

  7. Caffeine increases psychomotor performance on the effort expenditure for rewards task

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Margaret C.; Treadway, Michael T.; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that cost/benefit decision-making involves interactions between adenosine and dopamine (DA). In rats, DA depletion decreases willingness to incur effort costs, while adenosine antagonism reverses these effects, likely by increasing DA transmission. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist commonly used to facilitate effortful tasks, and thus may affect decisions involving effort costs in humans. The current study examined acute effects of 200 mg of caffeine on willingness to exert effort for monetary rewards at varying levels of reward value and reward probability, in young adult light caffeine users. Based on previous findings with amphetamine, we predicted that caffeine would increase willingness to exert effort. At separate sessions, 23 healthy normal adults received placebo or 200 mg caffeine under counterbalanced double-blind conditions, then completed the effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT). Measures of subjective and cardiovascular effects were obtained at regular intervals. Caffeine produced small but significant subjective and cardiovascular effects, and sped psychomotor performance on the EEfRT. Caffeine did not alter willingness to exert effort, except in high cardiovascular responders to caffeine, in whom it decreased willingness to exert effort. These results were contrary to our predictions, but consistent with rodent studies suggesting that moderate doses of caffeine alone do not affect effort, but rather only influence effort in the context of DA antagonism. Our results demonstrate that psychomotor speeding and decisional effects on the EEfRT are dissociable, providing additional evidence for the EEfRT as a specific measure of effort-based decision-making. This study provides a starting point for exploring contributions of the adenosine system to motivation in humans. PMID:22750066

  8. Including Performance Assessments in Accountability Systems: A Review of Scale-Up Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tung, Rosann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature and field review is to understand previous efforts at scaling up performance assessments for use across districts and states. Performance assessments benefit students and teachers by providing more opportunities for students to demonstrate their knowledge and complex skills, by providing teachers with better…

  9. Memory Self-Efficacy, Aging, and Memory Performance: The Roles of Effort and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gregory D.; Esopenko, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of mental effort, as indicated by strategy use, and persistence as potential mediators of the memory self-efficacy (MSE)/memory performance relationship was investigated within a sample of 26 adults aged 65 years and older. It was found that persistence but not strategy use was predictive of performance on a free-recall…

  10. The Prediction of College Student Academic Performance and Retention: Application of Expectancy and Goal Setting Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.

    2010-01-01

    Student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educators, students, and the nation facing critical professional labor shortages. Expectancy and goal setting theories were used to predict academic performance and college student retention. Students' academic expectancy motivation at the start of the college…

  11. Children's School Performance and Their Parents' Causal Attributions to Ability and Effort: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Katja; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the cross-lagged associations between parents' attributions of ability and effort concerning their children's success and failure, and children's academic performance in kindergarten and primary school. Two hundred seven children and their parents were followed over three years. The parents completed a questionnaire…

  12. Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

  13. Attributional Gender Bias: Teachers' Ability and Effort Explanations for Students' Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students' performance in math. Whereas boys' successes in math are attributed to ability, girls' successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys' failures in math are attributed to a…

  14. Effortful Control in "Hot" and "Cool" Tasks Differentially Predicts Children's Behavior Problems and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sanghag; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children's adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer…

  15. Additive benefits of external focus and enhanced performance expectancy for motor learning.

    PubMed

    Pascua, Luigi A M; Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the individual and combined influences of 2 factors that have been shown to benefit motor learning: an external focus of attention and enhanced performance expectancies. Another purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying these variables. In a factorial design, participants learning a novel motor skill (i.e., throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not given external focus instructions, and were or were not provided bogus positive social-comparative feedback to enhance their expectancies. This resulted in 4 groups: external focus, enhanced expectancy, external focus/enhanced expectancy and control. External focus instructions and enhanced expectancies had additive benefits for learning: the external focus/enhanced expectancy group demonstrated the greatest throwing accuracy on both retention and transfer tests, while the accuracy scores of the external focus and enhanced expectancy groups were lower, but higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, self-efficacy was increased by both external focus and enhanced expectancy, and predicted retention and transfer performance. Positive affect was heightened in the enhanced expectancy and external focus/enhanced expectancy groups after practice and predicted transfer performance. The findings suggest that the learning benefits of an external focus and enhanced expectancies mediate learning through partially different mechanisms. PMID:24875153

  16. Pressing Obligations or Inspiring Potentials? The Influence of the Ought vs. Expected Selves on Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Waclaw; Ciastek, Slawomir; Michalczuk, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of activating expected self as compared to the effects of activating the ought self. The expected self is a component of self-knowledge that pertains to the perception of one’s capabilities and potentials. Two experimental studies compared participants’ task performance after manipulating the momentary accessibility of the expected self vs. the ought self. In Study 1, contrary to expectations, the activation of the expected self resulted in poorer outcomes when the task required sustained attention. However, an interesting mood difference was revealed, which led us to hypothesise that activating the expected self results in slower (i.e., less hasty) work while performing the task. This hypothesis was confirmed in the second study. PMID:27247662

  17. Mental simulation and experience as determinants of performance expectancies in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Huddy, Vyv; Drake, Gareth; Wykes, Til

    2016-03-30

    People with schizophrenia demonstrate both impairment in mental time travel and reduced expectancies of performance on future tasks. We aimed to reconcile these findings within the Kahneman and Tversky (1982) simulation heuristic framework by testing a key prediction that impaired future simulation would be associated with reduced performance expectancies in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SZSPEC). A total of 54 individuals (30 people with SZSPEC and 24 healthy controls) generated mental simulations of everyday scenarios; after each response they rated performance expectations, distress and the similarity of the scenario to experience. Independent raters coded the coherence of responses. We found that people with SZSPEC had, compared to healthy controls, lower performance expectations and greater anticipated distress when imaging everyday scenarios. Lower performance expectancies were associated with lower experience of similar scenarios, greater negative symptoms and social withdrawal in the SZSPEC group. The current study confirmed previous findings of both impaired mental simulation and abnormal performance expectations in people with SZSPEC, together with the association of the latter with negative symptoms. Experience with social or occupational activities plays a more important role in determining performance expectancies in people with SS than the ability to mentally simulate scenarios. PMID:26921059

  18. Interactive effects of visual and auditory intervention on physical performance and perceived effort.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ju-Han; Lu, Frank Jing-Horng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using different types of media on physical performance and perceived exertion. This study was divided into two parts. In Part 1, we examined the effects of different combination of audio and video interventions on physical performance and rating of perceived effort (RPE). We recruited 20 collegiate students who performed a 12-minute cycling task (where they were asked to bike as hard as possible) under 4 conditions (music, video, music and video, and control) in a randomized order. Results indicated participants in the 2 media groups (music & audio) reported a significantly lower score for RPE. In addition, there was also an effect of media type where participants in music condition perceived less effort on the cycling task compared to the video condition. Part 2 examined how music preference influenced physical performance, but used a running task (where they were asked to run as hard as possible), and by recruiting a much larger sample. Seventy-five students were assigned into 5 groups (high preference and high motivation, high preference and low motivation, low preference and low motivation, low preference and high motivation, and control) based on responses on the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI. Results showed that music preference, but not its motivational quality, had a significant effect on physical performance. Overall, these results show that listening to music, and in particular preferred music increases physical performance and reduces perceived effort. Key PointsAmong different sensory stimulations, music can enhance physical performance more strongly than video.In addition to the motivational level of the music, music preference can also influence the physical performance of aerobic exercise participants. PMID:24149142

  19. Interactive Effects of Visual and Auditory Intervention on Physical Performance and Perceived Effort

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ju-Han; Lu, Frank Jing-Horng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using different types of media on physical performance and perceived exertion. This study was divided into two parts. In Part 1, we examined the effects of different combination of audio and video interventions on physical performance and rating of perceived effort (RPE). We recruited 20 collegiate students who performed a 12-minute cycling task (where they were asked to bike as hard as possible) under 4 conditions (music, video, music and video, and control) in a randomized order. Results indicated participants in the 2 media groups (music & audio) reported a significantly lower score for RPE. In addition, there was also an effect of media type where participants in music condition perceived less effort on the cycling task compared to the video condition. Part 2 examined how music preference influenced physical performance, but used a running task (where they were asked to run as hard as possible), and by recruiting a much larger sample. Seventy-five students were assigned into 5 groups (high preference and high motivation, high preference and low motivation, low preference and low motivation, low preference and high motivation, and control) based on responses on the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI. Results showed that music preference, but not its motivational quality, had a significant effect on physical performance. Overall, these results show that listening to music, and in particular preferred music increases physical performance and reduces perceived effort. Key Points Among different sensory stimulations, music can enhance physical performance more strongly than video. In addition to the motivational level of the music, music preference can also influence the physical performance of aerobic exercise participants. PMID:24149142

  20. Caffeine Consumption, Expectancies of Caffeine-Enhanced Performance, and Caffeinism Symptoms among University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, John R.; Petree, Allen

    1990-01-01

    Gathered self-report data on college students' (n=797) expectations of caffeine-enhanced performance, level of beverage caffeine consumed daily, and caffeinism signs experienced after consumption of caffeinated beverages. Results supported extending the expectancies model of substance use motivation from alcohol to caffeine. (Author/ABL)

  1. Predicting Pilot Error in Nextgen: Pilot Performance Modeling and Validation Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Gore, Brian; Hooey, Becky

    2012-01-01

    We review 25 articles presenting 5 general classes of computational models to predict pilot error. This more targeted review is placed within the context of the broader review of computational models of pilot cognition and performance, including such aspects as models of situation awareness or pilot-automation interaction. Particular emphasis is placed on the degree of validation of such models against empirical pilot data, and the relevance of the modeling and validation efforts to Next Gen technology and procedures.

  2. Linking immigrant parents' educational expectations and aspirations to their children's school performance.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Lee, Daphnee H L

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of parental expectations and aspirations for their children's educational attainment to children's academic performance in school among 783 immigrant-origin children aged 5-18 years in Canada. The results of hierarchical regression analyses, after accounting for student and family background characteristics, indicated that immigrant parents' expectations and aspirations for their children's educational attainment were positively linked to immigrant-origin children's academic performance in school. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed. PMID:24796154

  3. Effort, symptom validity testing, performance validity testing and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, Erin D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: To understand the neurocognitive effects of brain injury, valid neuropsychological test findings are paramount. Review: This review examines the research on what has been referred to a symptom validity testing (SVT). Above a designated cut-score signifies a ‘passing’ SVT performance which is likely the best indicator of valid neuropsychological test findings. Likewise, substantially below cut-point performance that nears chance or is at chance signifies invalid test performance. Significantly below chance is the sine qua non neuropsychological indicator for malingering. However, the interpretative problems with SVT performance below the cut-point yet far above chance are substantial, as pointed out in this review. This intermediate, border-zone performance on SVT measures is where substantial interpretative challenges exist. Case studies are used to highlight the many areas where additional research is needed. Historical perspectives are reviewed along with the neurobiology of effort. Reasons why performance validity testing (PVT) may be better than the SVT term are reviewed. Conclusions: Advances in neuroimaging techniques may be key in better understanding the meaning of border zone SVT failure. The review demonstrates the problems with rigidity in interpretation with established cut-scores. A better understanding of how certain types of neurological, neuropsychiatric and/or even test conditions may affect SVT performance is needed. PMID:25215453

  4. Evaluating Faculty Work: Expectations and Standards of Faculty Performance in Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia; Cox, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Expectations and the way they are communicated can influence employees' motivation and performance. Previous research has demonstrated individual effects of workplace climate and individual differences on faculty productivity. The present study focused on the characteristics of institutional performance standards, evaluation processes and…

  5. 5 CFR 9901.410 - Addressing performance that does not meet expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addressing performance that does not meet expectations. 9901.410 Section 9901.410 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES... range of options available to address the performance deficiency, including remedial...

  6. Type 2 diabetes exaggerates exercise effort and impairs exercise performance in older women

    PubMed Central

    Huebschmann, A G; Kohrt, W M; Herlache, L; Wolfe, P; Daugherty, S; Reusch, J EB; Bauer, T A; Regensteiner, J G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with high levels of disability and mortality. Regular exercise prevents premature disability and mortality, but people with T2DM are generally sedentary for reasons that are not fully established. We previously observed that premenopausal women with T2DM report greater effort during exercise than their counterparts without diabetes, as measured by the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale. We hypothesized that RPE is greater in older women with T2DM versus no T2DM. Research design and methods We enrolled overweight, sedentary women aged 50–75 years with (n=26) or without T2DM (n=28). Participants performed submaximal cycle ergometer exercise at 30 W and 35% of individually-measured peak oxygen consumption (35% VO2peak). We assessed exercise effort by RPE (self-report) and plasma lactate concentration. Results VO2peak was lower in T2DM versus controls (p=0.003). RPE was not significantly greater in T2DM versus controls (30 W: Control, 10.4±3.2, T2DM, 11.7±2.3, p=0.08; 35% VO2peak: Control, 11.1±0.5, T2DM, 12.1±0.5, p=0.21). However, lactate was greater in T2DM versus controls (p=0.004 at 30 W; p<0.05 at 35% VO2peak). Greater RPE was associated with higher lactate, higher heart rate, and a hypertension diagnosis (p<0.05 at 30 W and 35% VO2peak). Conclusions Taken together, physiological measures of exercise effort were greater in older women with T2DM than controls. Exercise effort is a modifiable and thereby targetable end point. In order to facilitate regular exercise, methods to reduce exercise effort in T2DM should be sought. Trial number NCT00785005. PMID:26464803

  7. The benefit of expecting no conflict--Stronger influence of self-generated than cue-induced conflict expectations on Stroop performance.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Maike; Gaschler, Robert; Schwager, Sabine; Schubert, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The role of expectations in sequential adaptation to cognitive conflict has been debated controversially in prior studies. On the one hand, a sequential congruency effect (SCE) has been reported for trials in which participants expect a repetition of conflict level. On the other hand, conflict level expectations vs. the SCE have been shown to develop differentially across runs of trials with the same conflict level, arguing against the theory that the SCE is purely driven by expectation. The current verbal Stroop experiment addresses this controversy by two means. First, we tested which specific type of expectation (cue-induced expectations vs. self-generated predictions) might affect the SCE. Second, we assessed the impact of expectation on the SCE as well as the development of SCE and expectation with congruency level run length in one design. We observed a dissociation between expectations and SCE, demonstrating that the SCE is not exclusively driven by expectations. At the same time, we found evidence that (self-generated) expectations do have an impact on the SCE. Our data document especially high performance for one specific combination of task events: congruent trial accompanied by congruent prediction and conflict level repetition. Our results are in line with theories attributing conflict adaptation effects to the "adaption to the lack of conflict". We discuss our results in a broader context of theories about conflict monitoring. PMID:26649453

  8. Great Expectations, Mixed Results: Standards and Performance in Denver's New Public Schools, 2007-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the Denver Plan instituted in 2005, Denver Public Schools (DPS) has embarked upon a consistent strategy of opening new schools in an effort to improve overall academic performance. DPS has pursued this strategy under several different paths: an annual request for proposals from charter school applicants; allowing current…

  9. Unfinished tasks foster rumination and impair sleeping - particularly if leaders have high performance expectations.

    PubMed

    Syrek, Christine J; Antoni, Conny H

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between time pressure and unfinished tasks as work stressors on employee well-being. Relatively little is known about the effect of unfinished tasks on well-being. Specifically, excluding the impact of time pressure, we examined whether the feeling of not having finished the week's tasks fosters perseverative cognitions and impairs sleep. Additionally, we proposed that leader performance expectations moderate these relationships. In more detail, we expected the detrimental effect of unfinished tasks on both rumination and sleep would be enhanced if leader expectations were perceived to be high. In total, 89 employees filled out online diary surveys both before and after the weekend over a 5-week period. Multilevel growth modeling revealed that time pressure and unfinished tasks impacted rumination and sleep on the weekend. Further, our results supported our hypothesis that unfinished tasks explain unique variance in the dependent variables above and beyond the influence of time pressure. Moreover, we found the relationship between unfinished tasks and both rumination and sleep was moderated by leader performance expectations. Our results emphasize the importance of unfinished tasks as a stressor and highlight that leadership, specifically in the form of performance expectations, contributes significantly to the strength of this relationship. PMID:24933596

  10. Linking melodic expectation to expressive performance timing and perceived musical tension.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Pearce, Marcus T; Goodchild, Meghan; Dean, Roger T; Wiggins, Geraint; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    This research explored the relations between the predictability of musical structure, expressive timing in performance, and listeners' perceived musical tension. Studies analyzing the influence of expressive timing on listeners' affective responses have been constrained by the fact that, in most pieces, the notated durations limit performers' interpretive freedom. To circumvent this issue, we focused on the unmeasured prelude, a semi-improvisatory genre without notated durations. In Experiment 1, 12 professional harpsichordists recorded an unmeasured prelude on a harpsichord equipped with a MIDI console. Melodic expectation was assessed using a probabilistic model (IDyOM [Information Dynamics of Music]) whose expectations have been previously shown to match closely those of human listeners. Performance timing information was extracted from the MIDI data using a score-performance matching algorithm. Time-series analyses showed that, in a piece with unspecified note durations, the predictability of melodic structure measurably influenced tempo fluctuations in performance. In Experiment 2, another 10 harpsichordists, 20 nonharpsichordist musicians, and 20 nonmusicians listened to the recordings from Experiment 1 and rated the perceived tension continuously. Granger causality analyses were conducted to investigate predictive relations among melodic expectation, expressive timing, and perceived tension. Although melodic expectation, as modeled by IDyOM, modestly predicted perceived tension for all participant groups, neither of its components, information content or entropy, was Granger causal. In contrast, expressive timing was a strong predictor and was Granger causal. However, because melodic expectation was also predictive of expressive timing, our results outline a complete chain of influence from predictability of melodic structure via expressive performance timing to perceived musical tension. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594881

  11. An Investigation of Student Expectation, Perceived Performance and Satisfaction of E-textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, George C.; Moon, Soo-Young

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the use of e-textbooks in a college level introductory information systems course using an empirical study that gave students the option to buy electronic or print versions of the same textbook. The study measured and analyzed student expectations prior to purchase, perceived performance and satisfaction after use, intention to…

  12. Performance evolution and expectations management: lessons from Tevatron and other machines

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-02-01

    We review the LHC luminosity progress in 2010, discuss the luminosity evolution of the Tevatron collider at different stages of the Collider Runs, emphasize general dynamics of the process, compare with the performance of the other colliders analyze planned and delivered luminosity integrals, and discuss the expectation management lessons.

  13. Vicarious and Persuasive Influences on Efficacy Expectations and Intentions To Perform Breast Self-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    Tests the impact of symbolic modeling and persuasive efficacy information on self-efficacy beliefs and intentions to perform breast self-examinations among 147 undergraduate students. Assesses the effects of these modes of efficacy induction on fear arousal and response-outcome expectations. Finds symbolic modeling engendered greater efficacy…

  14. Motivated or Paralyzed? Individuals' Beliefs about Intelligence Influence Performance Outcome of Expecting Rapid Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Jie; Vance, Kaleigh

    2013-01-01

    The current research examines whether and how beliefs about intelligence moderate the effects of expecting rapid feedback on exam performance. Thirty-six undergraduates participated in a field experiment with two between-subjects independent variables: anticipated feedback proximity and beliefs about intelligence. The results show that expecting…

  15. Density, Expectation, and Extended Task Performance: An Experiment in the Natural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Joel B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The effects of density and expectation on academic performance and ratings of spatial and social satisfaction were investigated. Grade point averages and satisfaction measures compiled during the academic quarter were significantly negatively affected by exposure to density, demonstrating that density led to both greater dissatisfaction and more…

  16. Shoe collar height effect on athletic performance, ankle joint kinematics and kinetics during unanticipated maximum-effort side-cutting performance.

    PubMed

    Lam, Gilbert Wing Kai; Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man

    2015-01-01

    Side-step cutting manoeuvres comprise the coordination between planting and non-planting legs. Increased shoe collar height is expected to influence ankle biomechanics of both legs and possibly respective cutting performance. This study examined the shoe collar height effect on kinematics and kinetics of planting and non-planting legs during an unanticipated side-step cutting. Fifteen university basketball players performed maximum-effort side-step cutting to the left 45° direction or a straight ahead run in response to a random light signal. Seven successful cutting trials were collected for each condition. Athletic performance, ground reaction force, ankle kinematics and kinetics of both legs were analysed using paired t-tests. Results indicated that high-collar shoes resulted in less ankle inversion and external rotation during initial contact for the planting leg. The high-collar shoes also exhibited a smaller ankle range of motion in the sagittal and transverse planes for both legs, respectively. However, no collar effect was found for ankle moments and performance indicators including cutting performance time, ground contact time, propulsion ground reaction forces and impulses. These findings indicated that high-collar shoes altered ankle positioning and restricted ankle joint freedom movements in both legs, while no negative effect was found for athletic cutting performance. PMID:25671398

  17. Motivated to do well: an examination of the relationships between motivation, effort, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Foussias, G; Siddiqui, I; Fervaha, G; Mann, S; McDonald, K; Agid, O; Zakzanis, K K; Remington, G

    2015-08-01

    The uncertain relationship between negative symptoms, and specifically motivational deficits, with cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is in need of further elucidation as it pertains to the interpretation of cognitive test results. Findings to date have suggested a possible mediating role of motivational deficits on cognitive test measures, although findings from formal examinations of effort using performance validity measures have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between motivation, effort exerted during cognitive testing, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Sixty-nine outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were evaluated for psychopathology, severity of motivational deficits, effort exerted during cognitive testing, and cognitive performance. Motivation and degree of effort exerted during cognitive testing were significantly related to cognitive performance, specifically verbal fluency, verbal and working memory, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. Further, effort accounted for 15% of the variance in cognitive performance, and partially mediated the relationship between motivation and cognitive performance. Examining cognitive performance profiles for individuals exerting normal or reduced effort revealed significant differences in global cognition, as well as attention/processing speed and reasoning and problem solving. These findings suggest that cognitive domains may be differentially affected by impairments in motivation and effort, and highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between motivation and cognitive performance deficits, which may guide the appropriate selection of symptom targets for promoting recovery in patients. PMID:26008882

  18. "Of Course I Will ...": The Combined Effect of Certainty and Level of Expectancies on Persistence and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Englert, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The importance of performance expectancies for the prediction of regulation of behavior and actual performance has long been established. Building on theories from the field of social cognition, we suggest that the level of performance expectancies, as well as the certainty of the expectancy, have a joint influence on an individual's beliefs and…

  19. Effort, performance, and motivation: insights from robot-assisted training of human golf putting and rat grip strength.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Jaime E; Gebrekristos, Berkenesh; Perez, Sergi; Rowe, Justin B; Sharp, Kelli; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Robotic devices can modulate success rates and required effort levels during motor training, but it is unclear how this affects performance gains and motivation. Here we present results from training unimpaired humans in a virtual golf-putting task, and training spinal cord injured (SCI) rats in a grip strength task using robotically modulated success rates and effort levels. Robotic assistance in golf practice increased trainees feelings of competence, and, paradoxically, increased their sense effort, even though it had mixed effects on learning. Reducing effort during a grip strength training task led rats with SCI to practice the task more frequently. However, the more frequent practice of these rats did not cause them to exceed the strength gains achieved by rats that exercised less often at higher required effort levels. These results show that increasing success and decreasing effort with robots increases motivation, but has mixed effects on performance gains. PMID:24187278

  20. On the evaluation of expected performance cost for partially observed closed-loop stochastic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, D. S.; Eslami, M.

    1985-01-01

    New methods are presented for evaluating the expected performance cost of partially observed closed-loop stochastic systems. When the variances of the process statistics are small, a linearized model of the closed-loop stochastic system is defined for which the expected cost can be evaluated by recursion on a set of purely deterministic difference equations. When the variances of the process statistics are large, the linearized model can be used in the control variate method of variance reduction for reducing the number of sample paths required for effective Monte Carlo estimation.

  1. Prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during reaction time performance

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Krystal L.; Alberico, Stephanie L.; Miller, Adam D.; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.

    2013-01-01

    Responses during a simple reaction time task are influenced by temporal expectation, or the ability to anticipate when a stimulus occurs in time. Here, we test the hypothesis that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during simple reaction time task performance. We depleted dopamine projections to the medial prefrontal circuits by infusing 6-hydroxidopamine, a selective neurotoxin, into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats, and studied their performance on a simple reaction time task with two delays. VTA dopamine depletion did not change movements or learning of the reaction time task. However, VTA dopamine-depleted animals did not develop delay-dependent speeding of reaction times, suggesting that mesocortical dopamine signaling is required for temporal expectation. Next, we manipulated dopamine signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex using local pharmacology. We found that SCH23390, a D1-type dopamine receptor antagonist, specifically attenuated delay-dependent speeding, while sulpiride, a D2-type receptor antagonist, did not. These data suggest that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during performance of a simple reaction time task. Our findings provide insight into temporal processing of the prefrontal cortex, and how dopamine signaling influences prefrontal circuits that guide goal-directed behavior. PMID:24120554

  2. Prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during reaction time performance.

    PubMed

    Parker, K L; Alberico, S L; Miller, A D; Narayanan, N S

    2013-01-01

    Responses during a simple reaction time task are influenced by temporal expectation, or the ability to anticipate when a stimulus occurs in time. Here, we test the hypothesis that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during simple reaction time task performance. We depleted dopamine projections to the medial prefrontal circuits by infusing 6-hydroxidopamine, a selective neurotoxin, into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats, and studied their performance on a simple reaction time task with two delays. VTA dopamine depletion did not change movements or learning of the reaction time task. However, VTA dopamine-depleted animals did not develop delay-dependent speeding of reaction times, suggesting that mesocortical dopamine signaling is required for temporal expectation. Next, we manipulated dopamine signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex using local pharmacology. We found that SCH23390, a D1-type dopamine receptor antagonist, specifically attenuated delay-dependent speeding, while sulpiride, a D2-type receptor antagonist, did not. These data suggest that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during performance of a simple reaction time task. Our findings provide insight into temporal processing of the prefrontal cortex, and how dopamine signaling influences prefrontal circuits that guide goal-directed behavior. PMID:24120554

  3. Autonomy Support and Intrinsic Goal Progress Expectancy and Its Links to Longitudinal Study Effort and Subjective Wellbeing: The Differential Mediating Effect of Intrinsic and Identified Regulations and the Moderator Effects of Effort and Intrinsic Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waaler, Rune; Halvari, Halgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) process model of subjective wellbeing among students at Norwegian Folk High Schools. In this model the authors hypothesized that students' intrinsic goal progress expectancy in the chosen study activity and perceived autonomy support from teachers would be positively…

  4. A Study of Performance and Effort Expectancy Factors among Generational and Gender Groups to Predict Enterprise Social Software Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sunil S.

    2013-01-01

    Social software technology has gained considerable popularity over the last decade and has had a great impact on hundreds of millions of people across the globe. Businesses have also expressed their interest in leveraging its use in business contexts. As a result, software vendors and business consumers have invested billions of dollars to use…

  5. Promoting professional nursing practice: linking a professional practice model to performance expectations.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Marcia; Hinch, Barbara; Llewellyn, Jane; Dillon, Paula J; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    Professional practice models (PPMs) provide the conceptual framework for establishing professional nursing practice. Integrating a PPM requires complex organizational change. One strategy for integrating a PPM is to directly link the PPM with performance expectations to ensure that underlying beliefs are integrated into everyday practice. This article describes the development, implementation, and successful outcomes of a clinical advancement system that was aligned with a PPM. PMID:21320662

  6. Expectancy of Stress-Reducing Aromatherapy Effect and Performance on a Stress-Sensitive Cognitive Task

    PubMed Central

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG) task performance and event related potentials (ERP) components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma groups (active experimental, detectable, and undetectable placebo) and 2 prime subgroups (prime suggesting stress-reducing aroma effects or no-prime). GNG performance, ERPs, subjective expected aroma effects, and stress ratings were assessed at baseline and poststress. Results. No specific aroma effects on stress or cognition were observed. However, regardless of experienced aroma, people receiving a prime displayed faster poststress median reaction times than those receiving no prime. A significant interaction for N200 amplitude indicated divergent ERP patterns between baseline and poststress for go and no-go stimuli depending on the prime subgroup. Furthermore, trends for beneficial prime effects were shown on poststress no-go N200/P300 latencies and N200 amplitude. Conclusion. While there were no aroma-specific effects on stress or cognition, these results highlight the role of expectancy for poststress response inhibition and attention. PMID:25802539

  7. Expectancy of stress-reducing aromatherapy effect and performance on a stress-sensitive cognitive task.

    PubMed

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG) task performance and event related potentials (ERP) components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma groups (active experimental, detectable, and undetectable placebo) and 2 prime subgroups (prime suggesting stress-reducing aroma effects or no-prime). GNG performance, ERPs, subjective expected aroma effects, and stress ratings were assessed at baseline and poststress. Results. No specific aroma effects on stress or cognition were observed. However, regardless of experienced aroma, people receiving a prime displayed faster poststress median reaction times than those receiving no prime. A significant interaction for N200 amplitude indicated divergent ERP patterns between baseline and poststress for go and no-go stimuli depending on the prime subgroup. Furthermore, trends for beneficial prime effects were shown on poststress no-go N200/P300 latencies and N200 amplitude. Conclusion. While there were no aroma-specific effects on stress or cognition, these results highlight the role of expectancy for poststress response inhibition and attention. PMID:25802539

  8. Cloudy with a Chance of Sarcasm or Sunny with High Expectations: Using Best Practice Language to Strengthen Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloman, Hal; Yates, Peggy H.

    2013-01-01

    What's the forecast in your classroom? Are you forecasting cloudy with a chance of sarcasm or sunny with high expectations? A teacher's Language of Practice holds the key to creating a climate of mutual respect in our schools. This article will explore the power and promise of "teacher language," and how it can be used to…

  9. Motivational profiles of medical students: Association with study effort, academic performance and exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Students enter the medical study with internally generated motives like genuine interest (intrinsic motivation) and/or externally generated motives like parental pressure or desire for status or prestige (controlled motivation). According to Self-determination theory (SDT), students could differ in their study effort, academic performance and adjustment to the study depending on the endorsement of intrinsic motivation versus controlled motivation. The objectives of this study were to generate motivational profiles of medical students using combinations of high or low intrinsic and controlled motivation and test whether different motivational profiles are associated with different study outcomes. Methods Participating students (N = 844) from University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands, were classified to different subgroups through K-means cluster analysis using intrinsic and controlled motivation scores. Cluster membership was used as an independent variable to assess differences in study strategies, self-study hours, academic performance and exhaustion from study. Results Four clusters were obtained: High Intrinsic High Controlled (HIHC), Low Intrinsic High Controlled (LIHC), High Intrinsic Low Controlled (HILC), and Low Intrinsic Low Controlled (LILC). HIHC profile, including the students who are interest + status motivated, constituted 25.2% of the population (N = 213). HILC profile, including interest-motivated students, constituted 26.1% of the population (N = 220). LIHC profile, including status-motivated students, constituted 31.8% of the population (N = 268). LILC profile, including students who have a low-motivation and are neither interest nor status motivated, constituted 16.9% of the population (N = 143). Interest-motivated students (HILC) had significantly more deep study strategy (p < 0.001) and self-study hours (p < 0.05), higher GPAs (p < 0.001) and lower exhaustion (p < 0.001) than status

  10. Examination of the Role of Expectancies on Task Performance in College Students Concerned about ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wei, Christina; Suhr, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that performance on cognitive tasks can be influenced by expectations (Smith & Sullivan, 2003 ; Suhr & Gunstad, 2002 , 2005 ). The current study examined whether cuing a belief about the diagnostic saliency of a cognitive task among young adults who expressed concern about having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) influenced task performance. Participants were randomly assigned to either receive neutral directions or be cued to a belief that the task had diagnostic saliency prior to completing a working-memory task. Supporting our hypothesis, college students with higher prestudy report of ADHD symptoms who were cued with a belief about the diagnostic saliency of the task performed worse compared with students who received neutral instructions. As many researchers and clinicians currently rely exclusively on self-reported symptoms and neuropsychological tests to diagnose ADHD, our findings highlight the importance of comprehensive assessment for provision of appropriate clinical services to adults presenting with ADHD concerns. PMID:25255846

  11. Effort test performance in clinical acute brain injury, community brain injury, and epilepsy populations.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Natalie E; Kemp, Steven; Coughlan, Anthony K; Moulin, Chris J A; Bhakta, Bipin B

    2014-01-01

    Effort tests have become commonplace within medico-legal and forensic contexts and their use is rising within clinical settings. It is recognized that some patients may fail effort tests due to cognitive impairment and not because of poor effort. However, investigation of the base rate of failure among clinical populations other than dementia is limited. Forty-seven clinical participants were recruited and comprised three subgroups: acute brain injury (N = 11), community brain injury (N = 20), and intractable epilepsy (N = 16). Base rates of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT; Green, 2003 ) and six other less well-validated measures were investigated. A significant minority of patients failed effort tests according to standard cutoff scores, particularly patients with severe traumatic brain injury and marked frontal-executive features. The WMT was able to identify failures associated with significant cognitive impairment through the application of profile analysis and/or lowered cutoff levels. Implications for clinical assessment, effort test interpretation, and future research are discussed. PMID:25084843

  12. Expected performance of the ASTRI mini-array in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pierro, F.; Bigongiari, C.; Stamerra, A.; Vallania, P.; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium, the

    2016-05-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory is a world-wide project for the ground-based study of the sources of the highest energy photons. By adopting telescopes of three different size categories it will cover the wide energy range from tens of GeV up to hundreds of TeV, limited only by the source physical properties and the gamma absorption by the extragalactic background light. The full sky coverage will be assured by two arrays, one in each hemisphere. An array of small size telescopes (SSTs), covering the highest energy region (3-100 TeV), the region most flux limited for current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, is planned to be deployed at the southern CTA site in the first phase of the CTA project. The ASTRI collaboration has developed a prototype of a dual mirror SST equipped with a SiPM-based focal plane (ASTRI SST-2M) and has proposed to install a mini-array of nine of such telescopes at the CTA southern site (the ASTRI mini-array). In order to study the expected performance and the scientific capabilities of different telescope configurations, full Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the shower development in the atmosphere for both gammas and hadronic background have been performed, followed by detailed simulations of the telescopes. In this work the expected performance of the ASTRI mini-array in terms of sensitivity, angular and energy resolution are presented and discussed.

  13. Expected Performance of the CoRoT Planet Search from Light Curve Beauty Contests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutou, C.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Barge, P.; Blouin, D.; Borde, P.; Cabrera, J.; Carone, L.; Cautain, R.; Deeg, H.; Erikson, A.; Fressin, F.; Guis, V.; Leger, A.; Guterman, P.; Irwin, M.; Kabath, P.; Lanza, A.; Maceroni, C.; Mazeh, T.; Ollivier, M.; Pont, F.; Paetzold, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Schneider, J.; Tamuz, O.; Voss, H.; Zucker, S.

    2007-07-01

    The CoRoT space mission, scheduled for launch in December 2006, has two primary science goals: asteroseismology and the detection of planetary transits, the latter being the subject of this contribution. Given its expected photometric performance and its 150 day observing window, CoRoT will detect planets with periods up to 75 days and radii down to 2 Earth radii. To prepare for the data analysis and evaluate the detection limits of the mission, a number of blind exercises to detect planets in simulated light curves have been carried out within the CoRoT exoplanet community, and their results to date are summarized here.

  14. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Margaret; Spurlock, C. Anna; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  15. Middle School Students' Perceptions of Teachers' Expectations as They Relate to the Academic Performance of African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDorn, Daphne N.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher expectations and their effects on student academic performance began with the work of Robert Rosenthal (1968). His work led to a plethora of studies by researchers investigating teacher behaviors with high and low expectations of students. However, there are few studies on how students' perceptions of teacher expectations influence…

  16. Understanding Internet Searching Performance in a Heterogeneous Portal for K-12 Students: Search Success, Search Time, Strategy, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin; Robins, David; Holmes, Jason; Salaba, Athena

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to better understand search performance using an online portal containing a collection of heterogeneous library resources for K-12 students. Search performance is examined in terms of search success, search time, strategy, and effort. This study revealed unsuccessful searches tended to take longer than successful searches;…

  17. NICMOS in the Cryo-Cooler Era: Expectations for On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, E. J.; Schneider, G.; Ferro, A. J.; Hubbard, W. P.; Barg, M. I.; Stobie, E. B.; Thompson, R. I.; Boeker, Torsten; Holfeltz, S. T.; Petro, L. D.

    2000-12-01

    During Servicing Mission 3B for the Hubble Space Telescope, a reverse-Brayton cycle turbine cooler will be installed in conjunction with a new external radiator to recool the Near Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrometer's (NICMOS) MgCdTe focal plane arrays to operational temperatures of approximately 75K. The new NICMOS Cooling System (NCS) will circulate cold Neon gas through the cooling coils in the NICMOS cryostat (originally used to freeze out the now depleted solid Nitrogen cryogen). Today, NICMOS remains passively functional, and should return to full usability with all observing modes intact with the advent of the NCS. Here, we report on the expectations for the performance of NICMOS once integrated with and cooled by the NCS based on an extensive series of flight and ground experiments and our experience with flight spare detectors operated at these temperatures. We discuss the results from the shuttle-born HOST mission, laboratory experiments at the Steward Observatory NICMOS detector Laboratory emulating the on-orbit warm-up of the detectors, and system level and electro-magnetic susceptibility and interference tests at the Goddard Space Flight Center. From these, and our experience with the NICMOS both during its pre-launch testing and calibration, and on-orbit use during HST Cycle 7, we re-evaluate expectations for systemic read-noise, dark currents, thermal backgrounds, quantum efficiencies, and optical and mechanical stability of the instrument platform. We discuss the expected changes in these characteristics, with respect to HST Cycle 7, both in terms of established performance metrics and their effects on the formulation and conduction of effective observational strategies for conducting NICMOS science observations. This work is supported, in part, by NASA grant NAG5-3042 to the NICMOS Instrument Definition Team.

  18. Design and expected performance of a fast neutron attenuation probe for light element density measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sweany, M.; Marleau, P.

    2016-07-08

    In this paper, we present the design and expected performance of a proof-of-concept 32 channel material identification system. Our system is based on the energy-dependent attenuation of fast neutrons for four elements: hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. We describe a new approach to obtaining a broad range of neutron energies to probe a sample, as well as our technique for reconstructing the molar densities within a sample. The system's performance as a function of time-of-flight energy resolution is explored using a Geant4-based Monte Carlo. Our results indicate that, with the expected detector response of our system, we will be ablemore » to determine the molar density of all four elements to within a 20–30% accuracy in a two hour scan time. In many cases this error is systematically low, thus the ratio between elements is more accurate. This degree of accuracy is enough to distinguish, for example, a sample of water from a sample of pure hydrogen peroxide: the ratio of oxygen to hydrogen is reconstructed to within 8±0.5% of the true value. Lastly, with future algorithm development that accounts for backgrounds caused by scattering within the sample itself, the accuracy of molar densities, not ratios, may improve to the 5–10% level for a two hour scan time.« less

  19. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    PubMed Central

    Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

  20. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits. An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2009-07-01

    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating and representing cognitive efficiency in different chemistry categories at both the student-level and classroom-level is described. In addition, explanation of the information available and potential benefits to each of the target populations is discussed with respect to instrument use.

  1. Expected performance of a hard X-ray polarimeter (POLAR) by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shaolin; Produit, Nicolas; Wu, Bobing

    2009-07-01

    Polarization measurements of the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can provide diagnostic information for understanding the nature of the central engine. POLAR is a compact polarimeter dedicated to the polarization measurement of GRBs between 50 and 300 keV and is scheduled to be launched aboard the Chinese Space Laboratory around the year 2012. A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation has been accomplished to model the expected performance of POLAR while a prototype of POLAR is being constructed. The modulation factor, efficiency and effective area, background rates and minimum detectable polarization (MDP) were calculated for different detector configurations and trigger strategies. With the optimized detector configuration and trigger strategy and the total weight constraint of less than 30 kg, the primary science goal to determine whether most GRBs are strongly polarized can be achieved, and about 9 GRBs/yr can be detected with an MDP<10% for the conservative detector configuration.

  2. Optimizing performance in a self-conducted {open_quotes}Rightsizing{close_quotes} effort

    SciTech Connect

    Annon, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    The differentiation among {open_quotes}rightsizing,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}downsizing,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}reengineering{close_quotes} has been lost by many organizations. Also, unfortunately of late, the approaches to improved competitiveness and worker productivity are being viewed, by many companies, as neither worth the effort nor achieving the desired results. In some cases, the effort may actually create more negative results. This type of negative perception has been documented in a variety of sources that include the following: (1) less than half the companies reporting improvements in operating profits after the cuts were made, (2) the processes resulting in significantly degraded morale among more than 75% of the employees, (3) less than one-third of organizations reporting improvements in worker productivity, and (4) even Michael Hammer (the reengineering {open_quotes}guru{close_quotes}) believing that more than 50% and maybe as much as 70% of the organizations do not achieve the intended results. This paper describes an integrated organizational review process that was applied within a nuclear utility that did achieve the desired results.

  3. Attributional Bias Instrument (ABI): Validation of a Measure to Assess Ability and Effort Explanations for Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope P.; Quezada, Stephanie A.; Rincones, Rodolfo; Strobach, E. Natalia; Gutierrez, Maria Armida Estrada

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the validation of a newly developed instrument, the attributional bias instrument, based on achievement attribution theories that distinguish between effort and ability explanations of behavior. The instrument further incorporates the distinction between explanations for success versus failure in academic performance.…

  4. Effects of Imagery Training on Cognitive Performance and Use of Physiological Measures as an Assessment Tool of Mental Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadelis, Christos; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Albani, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of motor imagery training on cognitive performance was examined and the physiological mechanisms involved in the contribution of mental practice to motor learning were considered. The subject's mental effort during motor imagery was assessed by using psychophysiological measures and particularly eye blink activity as an…

  5. The Relationship between Levels of Expertise, Task Difficulty, Perceived Self-Efficacy, and Mental Effort Investment in Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsin-Ning

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of different levels of task difficulty and expertise on self-efficacy judgments. In addition, the study examines how self-efficacy judgments affect the amount of mental effort investment and task performance under different levels of task difficulty and expertise. Results from this study are used to build a…

  6. Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdian, David C.

    2012-10-01

    Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for targeted advertisement of student resources such as tutoring services. The students who are identified in the over-performing student population received higher grades than their fellow students, but spent less time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for honors programs, independent research projects, and peer-tutoring programs. Incorporating these evaluation criteria to online homework systems will allow instructors to quickly identify students in these academic student populations.

  7. Benchmarks and performance indicators: two tools for evaluating organizational results and continuous quality improvement efforts.

    PubMed

    McKeon, T

    1996-04-01

    Benchmarks are tools that can be compared across companies and industries to measure process output. The key to benchmarking is understanding the composition of the benchmark and whether the benchmarks consist of homogeneous groupings. Performance measures expand the concept of benchmarking and cross organizational boundaries to include factors that are strategically important to organizational success. Incorporating performance measures into a balanced score card will provide a comprehensive tool to evaluate organizational results. PMID:8634466

  8. Effects of cues in a binary categorization task on dual-task performance, mental workload, and effort.

    PubMed

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael

    2016-09-01

    Binary cues help operators perform binary categorization tasks, such as monitoring for system failures. They may also allow them to attend to other tasks they concurrently perform. If the time saved by using cues is allocated to other concurrent tasks, users' overall effort may remain unchanged. In 2 experiments, participants performed a simulated quality control task, together with a tracking task. In half the experimental blocks cues were available, and participants could use them in their decisions about the quality of products (intact or faulty). In Experiment 1, the difficulty of tracking was constant, while in Experiment 2, tracking difficulty differed in the 2 halves of the experiment. In both experiments, participants reported on the NASA Task Load Index that cues improved their performance and reduced their frustration. Consequently, their overall score on mental workload (MWL) was lower with cues. They also reported, however, that cues did not reduce their effort. We conclude that cues and other forms of automation may support task performance and reduce overall MWL, but this will not necessarily mean that users will work less hard. Thus, effort and overall MWL should be evaluated separately, if one wants to obtain a full picture of the effects of automation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505049

  9. The problem of what to expect when you are expecting regional change -- Different evaluation strategies of regional prediction and projection performance in the NCPP framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Ensembles of climate model experiments together with means and trends in instrumental records generally build the basis for evaluation of predictions and projections of regional climate change. Most are drawn from mean climatological changes and trends, and some describe how changes in modes of variability are simulated. But how good are these regional and/or mode changes from models? It is clear that at the regional scale also internal variability needs to be taken into account. This is the case for identifying the forced changes in the real world, but it is also critical when evaluating a model-based prediction or projection. The key question is about what part of the observed variability and change we can, and should, expect models to reproduce. This problem is not trivial and requires a host of conditional considerations covering different time scales. Next to the instrumental reference observations, even paleoclimatic information from well-dated and verified reconstructions can be of use for important elements of this evaluation, including a more complete representation of the full range of variability as well as potential information of systematic structural response in the climate system to radiative perturbations. This presentation provides an overview of how the National Climate Predictions and Projections platform is currently developing a catalog of strategies to evaluate performance in regional climate outlooks across seasonal to decadal and centennial time scales, and how new research can enrich and extend the tools for a scientifically sound evaluation of what to expect when one is expecting regional climate change.

  10. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wage levels. Further, the occasional or sporadic performance of an activity which may require extra... completes his part of it, and places it on a waiting pallet. In such a situation, a wage rate differential... required to spend part of his time carrying out heavy packages or replacing stock involving the lifting...

  11. Federal Efforts to Improve the Lowest-Performing Schools: District Views on School Improvement Grant Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

    2011-01-01

    As Congress considers legislation to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965, one topic of debate is the program of school improvement grants (SIGs) authorized by section 1003(g) of Title I. SIGs are intended to help to turn around low-performing schools and are part of the larger ESEA Title I program to improve…

  12. Effort Allocation in Tournaments: The Effect of Gender on Academic Performance in Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    We consider the academic performance of Italian university graduates and their labor market position 3 years after graduation. Our data confirm the common finding that female students outperform male students in academia but are overcome in the labor market. Assuming that academic competition is fair and that individual talent is equally…

  13. Modeling the expected performance of the REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, Niraj K.; Binzel, Richard P.; Hong, Jae Sub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-09-01

    OSIRIS-REx is the third spacecraft in the NASA New Frontiers Program and is planned for launch in 2016. OSIRIS-REx will orbit the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, characterize it, and return a sample of the asteroid's regolith back to Earth. The Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is an instrument on OSIRIS-REx designed and built by students at MIT and Harvard. The purpose of REXIS is to collect and image sun-induced fluorescent X-rays emitted by Bennu, thereby providing spectroscopic information related to the elemental makeup of the asteroid regolith and the distribution of features over its surface. Telescopic reflectance spectra suggest a CI or CM chondrite analog meteorite class for Bennu, where this primitive nature strongly motivates its study. A number of factors, however, will influence the generation, measurement, and interpretation of the X-ray spectra measured by REXIS. These include: the compositional nature and heterogeneity of Bennu, the time-variable solar state, X-ray detector characteristics, and geometric parameters for the observations. In this paper, we will explore how these variables influence the precision to which REXIS can measure Bennu's surface composition. By modeling the aforementioned factors, we place bounds on the expected performance of REXIS and its ability to ultimately place Bennu in an analog meteorite class.

  14. Performance expectations of the associate degree nurse graduate within the first six months.

    PubMed

    Diede, N; McNish, G; Coose, C

    2000-10-01

    The Oklahoma Associate Degree Nursing Directors Council was determined to be proactive in defining the role of the associate degree registered nurse (ADN) within the evolving health care delivery system. A task force was formed by the Council to design and implement strategies for defining the emerging roles. Strategies included surveying health care employers on the performance expectations of the ADN graduates within the first six months of employment. The employers were asked to determine the importance of various functions and abilities that the ADN graduates may or may not possess. Surveys returned were representative of a variety of rural and urban agencies throughout the state and bordering areas. Responses were grouped into 21 categories. Ranked highest was the ability to demonstrate verbal and written communication effectively with accountability to the employer and personal attributes such as open-mindedness, flexibility, and receptiveness to criticism ranked second and third. The lowest rankings received were for competency with fiscal management. The results of the survey highlight the continued need to stress strong communication skills, as well as professional accountability throughout the educational process. PMID:11052652

  15. Expected performance of the stereo camera on board the BepiColombo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonese, Gabriele; Capria, Maria Teresa; da Deppo, Vania; Forlani, Gianfranco; Forni, Olivier; Langevin, Yves; Massironi, Matteo; Naletto, Giampiero; Simioni, Emanuele; Debei, Stefano; Flamini, Enrico; Sgavetti, Maria; Giacomini, Lorenza; Martellato, Elena

    The stereo camera (STC) is one of the channels of SIMBIOSYS, the remote sensing instrument that will be on board the BepiColombo, and it will provide the global mapping of Mercury and Digital Terrain Model of the entire surface. The maximum spatial resolution will be of 50 m per pixel at the periherm (400 km from the surface) and the vertical accuracy will be about 84 m. The grid size of the DTM is depending even from the stereo reconstruction software will apply, and according to our new algorithm we may achieve 1-2 pixels. In this work we will show the expected performance of STC, the observing strategy and the simulations of what the camera will provide for the geological analysis. Some stereo pairs obtained by space missions, on other Solar System bodies, will be used for the simulations after having applied our new algorithm for the stereo reconstruction. On all the images we will evaluate the impact of the compression software in terms of DTM accuracy.

  16. How NOAA/DSCOVR Will Perform during Extreme Space Weather and Why Lead Time Exceeds Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesecker, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The NOAA/DSCOVR satellite is expected to launch in January, 2015 and replace the NASA/ACE satellite as the L1 Sentinel in early Summer, 2015. Having relied on ACE to provide critical warnings of geomagnetic storms since 1998, it is important for the space weather community to understand how DSCOVR will perform relative to ACE in real-time operations. The WIND/SWE instrument is sufficiently similar to the DSCOVR Faraday Cup that it can be used as a proxy for DSCOVR, with some caveats. We compare the ACE/SWEPAM and WIND/SWE observations for all geomagnetic storm events meeting the criteria of severe or extreme. We also examine time periods where ACE data were compromised by solar energetic particles. We find that DSCOVR will provide a more robust data stream than was provided by ACE during solar cycle 23. We will briefly address the magnetometer, supra-thermal particle measurements, and relativistic proton measurements provided by ACE, of which only the magnetometer is retained on DSCOVR. We also demonstrate that lead time for geomagnetic storm notifications to customers far exceeds the L1 to Earth delay time.

  17. Comparison of Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of Virginia's mathematics performance expectations with the common core state standards for mathematics. The comparison focuses on number and quantity, algebra, functions, geometry, and statistics and probability. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  18. Effects of Test Expectation on Multiple-Choice Performance and Subjective Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduates studied the definitions of 16 psychology terms, expecting either a multiple-choice (n = 132) or short-answer (n = 122) test. All students then received the same multiple-choice test, requiring them to recognize the definitions as well as novel examples of the terms. Compared to students expecting a multiple-choice test, those…

  19. Examination of Faculty Expectations of Technical College Administrators as an Important Factor in High Performing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Phyllis A.

    2009-01-01

    Popular thought supports the notion that faculty expectations of technical college administrators appear to be linked to the success or failure of an institution at accomplishing its mission. These expectations provide the basis for the development of relationships that foster the growth of technical training and thus the growth of a skilled…

  20. Contribution to hospital performance: market orientation vs. marketing effort and lack of competition.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Marketing is still viewed with some skepticism by some hospital administrators who wonder if marketing is needed when the hospital is in a benign competitive environment. This research seeks to investigate the contribution of a marketing orientation to hospital performance beyond what can be achieved by merely spending money on promotion or not facing stiff competition. Findings reveal that having an authentic market orientation makes a significant contribution to a hospital's success above what can be achieved through promotional budgets and lack of competition. PMID:12569991

  1. The relationship between psychological differentiation and performance expectation in alcoholics and normals.

    PubMed

    Shelley-McIntyre, B; Lapidus, L B

    1989-05-01

    Sixty subjects (20 alcoholic inpatients, 20 outpatient alcoholics, and 20 surgical controls from two Veterans Administration hospitals) were tested on field independence-dependence (measured by the Rod-and-Frame Test), realistic/unrealistic self-expectations (on the Level of Aspiration Board), and degree of alcohol dependence (on the Alcohol Dependence Scale). Response bias and current intelligence were controlled. As predicted, alcoholic inpatients were more alcohol dependent than outpatients, both groups of alcoholics were found to be more field dependent and more unrealistic in their self-expectations than controls, and field dependence was related to unrealistic expectations. Patterns of differentiation and expectation were similar in both alcoholic groups. Results support the consistency of differentiation levels within clinical groups and the relationship between field dependence and unrealistic self-expectation. PMID:2745735

  2. Efforts to achieve high-performance long-pulse operations in the EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Baonian; EAST Team; Collaborators

    2016-01-01

    To achieve long-pulse tokamak operation, sufficient current drive and self-generated current are required, with the challenges of the exhaust of the heat from the divertor plates. Experiments have proven that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can broaden the divertor power footprint and cause the splitting of the strike point current and hence reduce the peak heat flux on the divertors. Edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation can be realized by supersonic molecule beam injection (SMBI), modulated LHCD, lithium granule and aerosol injection, as well as resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). Enhanced transport by an electrostatic edge coherent mode at the pedestal region is observed in the ELM mitigated plasmas by LHCD. Long-pulse H-mode plasmas in the small ELMy regime have been demonstrated by a combination of ELM mitigation techniques and the optimization of the plasma confinement performance. These newly achieved H-mode scenarios by using features of LHCD in the control of steady-state peak heat flux and transient heat flux due to ELMs may offer a promising regime for further EAST long-pulse high-performance operation and be applicable to ITER.

  3. FY13 High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort - Training Data Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Charvat, Jacqueline; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    From the time hand-intensive tasks were first created for EVAs, discomforts and injuries have been noted.. There have been numerous versions of EVA gloves for US crew over the past 50 years, yet pain and injuries persist. The investigation team was tasked with assisting in a glove injury assessment for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project.center dot To aid in this assessment, the team was asked to complete the following objectives: - First, to develop the best current understanding of what glove-related injuries have occurred to date, and when possible, identify the specific mechanisms that caused those injuries - Second, to create a standardized method for comparison of glove injury potential from one glove to another. center dot The overall goal of the gloved hand injury assessment is to utilize ergonomics in understanding how these glove injuries are occurring, and to propose mitigations to current designs or design changes in the next generation of EVA gloves.

  4. Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported. Detailed consideration of the effects of both the natural and induced ionizing radiation environment during ISS design, development, and flight operations has produced a safe, efficient manned space platform that is largely immune to deleterious effects of the LEO ionizing radiation environment. The assumption of a small shielding mass for purposes of design and verification has been shown to be a valid worst-case approximation approach to design for reliability, though predicted dependences of single event effect (SEE) effects on latitude, longitude, SEP events, and spacecraft structural shielding mass are not observed. The Figure of Merit (FOM) method over predicts the rate for median shielding masses of about 10g/cm(exp 2) by only a factor of 3, while the Scott Effective Flux Approach (SEFA) method overestimated by about one order of magnitude as expected. The Integral Rectangular Parallelepiped (IRPP), SEFA, and FOM methods for estimating on-orbit (Single Event Upsets) SEU rates all utilize some version of the CREME-96 treatment of energetic particle interaction with structural shielding, which has been shown to underestimate the production of secondary particles in heavily shielded manned spacecraft. The need for more work directed to development of a practical understanding of secondary particle production in massive structural shielding for SEE design and verification is indicated. In contrast, total dose estimates using CAD based shielding mass distributions functions and the Shieldose Code provided a reasonable accurate estimate of accumulated dose in Grays internal to the ISS pressurized elements, albeit as a result of using worst-on-worst case assumptions (500 km altitude x 2) that compensate for ignoring both GCR and secondary particle

  5. Performance of the ITER ICRH system as expected from TOPICA and ANTITER II modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messiaen, A.; Koch, R.; Weynants, R. R.; Dumortier, P.; Louche, F.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.

    2010-02-01

    The performance on plasma of the antennas of the proposed ITER ICRF system is evaluated by means of the antenna 24 × 24 impedance matrix provided by the TOPICA code and confirmed and interpreted by the semi-analytical code ANTITER II (summarized in an appendix). From this analysis the following system characteristics can be derived: (1) a roughly constant power capability in the entire 40-55 MHz frequency band with the same maximum voltage in the eight feeding lines is obtained for all the considered heating and current drive phasings on account of the broadbanding effect of service stubs. (2) The power capability of the array significantly depends on the distance of the antenna to the separatrix, the density profile in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and on the strap current toroidal and poloidal phasings. The dependence on phasing is stronger for wider SOL. (3) To exceed a radiated power capability of 20 MW per antenna array in the upper part of the frequency band, with a separatrix-wall distance of 17 cm and a conservative short decay plasma edge density profile, the system voltage stand-off must be 45 kV and well chosen combinations of toroidal and poloidal phasing are needed. (4) On account of the plasma gyrotropy and of poloidal magnetic field, special care must be taken in choosing the optimal toroidal current drive and poloidal phasings. The ANTITER II analysis shows furthermore that important coaxial and surface mode excitation can only be expected in the monopole toroidal phasing, that strong wave reflection from a steep density profile significantly reduces the coupling even if the separatrix is closer to the antenna and that the part of the edge density profile having a density lower than the cut-off density pertaining to the considered phasing does not significantly contribute to the coupling.

  6. Athlome Project Consortium: a concerted effort to discover genomic and other "omic" markers of athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Tanaka, Masashi; Eynon, Nir; Bouchard, Claude; North, Kathryn N; Williams, Alun G; Collins, Malcolm; Moran, Colin N; Britton, Steven L; Fuku, Noriyuki; Ashley, Euan A; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Ahmetov, Ildus I; de Geus, Eco; Alsayrafi, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, injury predisposition, and elite/world-class athletic status, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies predominantly focusing on genotyping a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms or the insertion/deletion variants in small, often heterogeneous cohorts (i.e., made up of athletes of quite different sport specialties) have not generated the kind of results that could offer solid opportunities to bridge the gap between basic research in exercise sciences and deliverables in biomedicine. A retrospective view of genetic association studies with complex disease traits indicates that transition to hypothesis-free genome-wide approaches will be more fruitful. In studies of complex disease, it is well recognized that the magnitude of genetic association is often smaller than initially anticipated, and, as such, large sample sizes are required to identify the gene effects robustly. A symposium was held in Athens and on the Greek island of Santorini from 14-17 May 2015 to review the main findings in exercise genetics and genomics and to explore promising trends and possibilities. The symposium also offered a forum for the development of a position stand (the Santorini Declaration). Among the participants, many were involved in ongoing collaborative studies (e.g., ELITE, GAMES, Gene SMART, GENESIS, and POWERGENE). A consensus emerged among participants that it would be advantageous to bring together all current studies and those recently launched into one new large collaborative initiative, which was subsequently named the Athlome Project Consortium. PMID:26715623

  7. Performance Expectations of the Associate Degree Nurse Graduate within the First Six Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diede, Nancy; McNish, Gayle; Coose, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 174 health care employers identified their expectations of entry-level associate degree nursing graduates. Verbal/written communication, accountability, flexibility, and open mindedness ranked highest. Fiscal management competence ranked lowest. (SK)

  8. Beam dynamics and expected RHIC performance with 56MHz RF upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov,A.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2009-05-04

    An upgrade of the RHIC storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was recently proposed. This upgrade will provide a significant increase in the acceptance of the RHIC 197 MHz storage RF bucket. This paper summarizes simulations of beam evolution due to intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvements are shown for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and protons at 250 GeV.

  9. Productive and ineffective efforts: how student effort in high school mathematics relates to college calculus success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, M. D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the commonly expected benefits, the latter is associated with negative consequences. Time spent reading the course text in US high schools was negatively related to college calculus performance. Daily study time, however, was found to be either a productive or an ineffective effort, depending on the level of high school mathematics course and the student's performance in it.

  10. Expectations and Outcomes of Reserve Network Performance following Re-zoning of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.

    PubMed

    Emslie, Michael J; Logan, Murray; Williamson, David H; Ayling, Anthony M; MacNeil, M Aaron; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Cheal, Alistair J; Evans, Richard D; Johns, Kerryn A; Jonker, Michelle J; Miller, Ian R; Osborne, Kate; Russ, Garry R; Sweatman, Hugh P A

    2015-04-20

    Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are widely advocated for preserving exploited fish stocks and for conserving biodiversity. We used underwater visual surveys of coral reef fish and benthic communities to quantify the short- to medium-term (5 to 30 years) ecological effects of the establishment of NTMRs within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). The density, mean length, and biomass of principal fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp., Variola spp.), were consistently greater in NTMRs than on fished reefs over both the short and medium term. However, there were no clear or consistent differences in the structure of fish or benthic assemblages, non-target fish density, fish species richness, or coral cover between NTMR and fished reefs. There was no indication that the displacement and concentration of fishing effort reduced coral trout populations on fished reefs. A severe tropical cyclone impacted many survey reefs during the study, causing similar declines in coral cover and fish density on both NTMR and fished reefs. However, coral trout biomass declined only on fished reefs after the cyclone. The GBRMP is performing as expected in terms of the protection of fished stocks and biodiversity for a developed country in which fishing is not excessive and targets a narrow range of species. NTMRs cannot protect coral reefs directly from acute regional-scale disturbance but, after a strong tropical cyclone, impacted NTMR reefs supported higher biomass of key fishery-targeted species and so should provide valuable sources of larvae to enhance population recovery and long-term persistence. PMID:25819564

  11. Description and expected performance of flight-model, 12-gigahertz, output stage tube for the communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chomos, G. J.; Curren, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    The flight model output stage tube for the Communications Technology Satellite is described. The output stage tube is a 12-GHz, 200-W, coupled cavity traveling wave tube. The tube has a multistage depressed collector for efficiency enhancement. Collector cooling is accomplished by direct radiation to space. Expected rf performance and factors affecting on orbit performance and life are discussed.

  12. The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first…

  13. Science objectives and Expected performances of NOMAD, an ExoMars TGO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Séverine; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Thomas, Ian; Daerden, Frank; Depiesse, Cédric; Drummond, Rachel; Neary, Lori; Willame, Yannick; Lopez-Moreno, José Juan; Rodriguez-Gomez, Julio; Patel, Manish R.; Bellucci, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    NOMAD, the "Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery" spectrometer suite will be part of the payload of the 2016 ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Mission. This instrument suite will measure the atmosphere of Mars in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions covering 0.2 - 0.65 and 2.2 - 4.3 μm. It is composed of three channels: a solar occultation only channel (SO) operating in the infrared wavelength domain, a second infrared channel capable of doing nadir, but also solar occultation and limb observations (LNO), and an ultraviolet/visible channel (UVIS) that can work in all observation modes. Thanks to its very high spectral resolution and multiple observational modes, NOMAD will be able to detect a wide range of atmospheric trace gases, many of which are important markers of geophysical and/or biogenic activity. While the instrument is being assembled and tested, scientific preparations have begun. ASIMUT-ALVL, a line-by-line radiative transfer code developed at IASB-BIRA, is used to simulate spectra in the infrared range (0.7 ' 4.5 μm) as would be measured by the instrument and under various atmospheric conditions obtained from the IASB-BIRA GCM, GEM-Mars. Random noise has then been added to the simulated spectra to match the real instrument characteristics of each channel: SNRs have been derived using a model that simulates the real instrument (e.g. transmission properties of optical components, expected in-flight instrument temperatures, detector responsivities, etc.). After NOMAD has been calibrated and tested, these values will be amended to match the ground-calibration results. ASIMUT-ALVL has then been used to perform retrievals on the noisy spectra. In order to establish detection limits of trace gas and key isotopologues such as CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, H2CO, H2S, H2O, HDO, CO, HCl, HCN, N2O, NO2, O3, OCS, SO2, or NH3 we had to define the best spectral ranges (both in the UV and IR) to be studied for each molecule and each observation mode. These results

  14. The Effects of Child Age and Label on Instructor Expectation and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Hagan, Margaret S.

    The present study explored the dynamics of expectancy effects. The process by which labels about children provided to adults (but not to the children themselves) achieve their outcomes was investigated. Forty-eight undergraduate females were provided with information about children whom they were to instruct; each undergraduate was then…

  15. Expectancy Work Motivation, Central Life Interests, Voluntarism, Organizational Situation, Job Satisfaction, and Perceived Teaching Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; And Others

    This study tested the hypotheses that expectancy work motivation, individual attitudes toward work, and structural and environmental components are predictions of teacher job satisfaction and effectiveness. Samples were selected from junior high school and higher education faculties. Subjects responded to open-ended questionnaires, and results…

  16. Effect of Test-Expectancy and Word Bank Availability on Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Laura A.; Clause, Christopher B.; Kreiner, David S.

    2007-01-01

    We examined test-expectancy as it applies to fill-in-the-blank tests. We randomly assigned 60 college students to take a fill-in-the-blank vocabulary test in one of three conditions. Two groups took the test with a word bank available; we told one group but not the other that they would have a word bank. The third group took the test with no word…

  17. General and Specific Self-Efficacy in the Context of a Training Intervention to Enhance Performance Expectancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwoerer, Catherine E.; May, Douglas R.; Hollensbe, Elaine C.; Mencl, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A pretest-posttest field study investigated self-efficacy, both general and specific, in an intensive training experience to prepare new recruits for their work assignments. Specific issues addressed include (1) the effects of the training experience on general self-efficacy (GSE), work-specific selfefficacy (SSE), and performance expectancy; (2)…

  18. Children's Achievement Expectations and Performance as a Function of Two Consecutive Reinforcement Experiences, Sex of Subject, and Sex of Experimenter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanelli, Dale Soderman; Hill, Kennedy T.

    1969-01-01

    Presents research patterned on two earlier studies by the Crandalls 1963, 1964 on the effects of praise, criticism, and nonreaction on 10-year-old children involved in a marble-dropping task. The subjects tended to increase in performance and decrease in achievement expectancy when criticized. Table, graphs, and bibliography. (RW)

  19. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  20. Expectancy and the Menstrual Cycle: Effects on Performance and Self-Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altenhaus, Amy L.

    The impact of false information concerning the effect of the menstrual cycle on test performance and subjects' perception of the adequacy of that performance were investigated. Women (N=65) were studied either during the premenstrual or midcycle phase. Subjects were given one of three interpretations: (1) they should do well because of their…

  1. Clustering performance comparison using K-means and expectation maximization algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yong Gyu; Kang, Min Soo; Heo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is an important means of data mining based on separating data categories by similar features. Unlike the classification algorithm, clustering belongs to the unsupervised type of algorithms. Two representatives of the clustering algorithms are the K-means and the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Linear regression analysis was extended to the category-type dependent variable, while logistic regression was achieved using a linear combination of independent variables. To predict the possibility of occurrence of an event, a statistical approach is used. However, the classification of all data by means of logistic regression analysis cannot guarantee the accuracy of the results. In this paper, the logistic regression analysis is applied to EM clusters and the K-means clustering method for quality assessment of red wine, and a method is proposed for ensuring the accuracy of the classification results. PMID:26019610

  2. A liquid xenon imaging telescope for gamma ray astrophysics: Design and expected performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Chen, D.; Bolotnikov, A.

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution telescope for imaging cosmic x ray sources in the MeV region, with an angular resolution better than 0.5 deg is being developed as balloon-borne payload. The instrument consists of a 3-D liquid xenon TPC as x ray detector, coupled with a coded aperture at a distance of 1 meter. A study of the actual source distribution of the 1.809 MeV line from the decay of Al-26 and the 511 keV positron-electron annihilation line is among the scientific objectives, along with a search for new x ray sources. The telescope design parameters and expected minimum flux sensitivity to line and continuum radiation are presented. The unique capablity of the LXe-TPC as a Compton Polarimeter is also discussed.

  3. IBS and expected luminosity performance for RHIC beams at top energy with 56 MHz SRF cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov,A.

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of RF system in RHIC is to capture injected bunches, accelerate them to the top energy, and store bunches at the top energy for many hours. The accelerating RF system operates at harmonic number h=360 of the particle revolution frequency f=78.196 kHz, which corresponds to 28.15MHz. The storage RF system accepts the shortened bunches at top energy and provides longitudinal focusing to keep these bunches short during the store time (collision mode). The storage system operates at harmonic number h=7x360=2520, which corresponds to an RF frequency of 197.05 MHz [1]. Recently, an upgrade of storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was proposed [2]. This upgrade will provide significant increase in the acceptance of storage RF bucket. Presently, the short bunch length for collisions is obtained via RF gymnastics with bunch rotation (called re-bucketing), because the length of 197MHz bucket of 5 nsec is too short to accommodate long bunches otherwise. However, due to bucket non-linearity and hardware complications some increase in the longitudinal emittance occurs during re-bucketing. The 56MHz cavity will produce sufficiently short bunches which would allow one to operate without re-bucketing procedure. This Note summarizes simulation of beam evolution due to Intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvement is shown both for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and for protons at 250 GeV.

  4. Planck pre-launch status: Low Frequency Instrument calibration and expected scientific performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennella, A.; Bersanelli, M.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Davis, R. J.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; Gregorio, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lowe, S. R.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Meinhold, P.; Mendes, L.; Morgante, G.; Sandri, M.; Stringhetti, L.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Valenziano, L.; Villa, F.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.; Balasini, M.; Franceschet, C.; Battaglia, P.; Lapolla, P. M.; Leutenegger, P.; Miccolis, M.; Pagan, L.; Silvestri, R.; Aja, B.; Artal, E.; Baldan, G.; Bastia, P.; Bernardino, T.; Boschini, L.; Cafagna, G.; Cappellini, B.; Cavaliere, F.; Colombo, F.; de La Fuente, L.; Edgeley, J.; Falvella, M. C.; Ferrari, F.; Fogliani, S.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.; Gomez, F.; Herreros, J. M.; Hildebrandt, S.; Hoyland, R.; Hughes, N.; Jukkala, P.; Kettle, D.; Laaninen, M.; Lawson, D.; Leahy, P.; Levin, S.; Lilje, P. B.; Maino, D.; Malaspina, M.; Manzato, P.; Marti-Canales, J.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Mediavilla, A.; Pasian, F.; Pascual, J. P.; Pecora, M.; Peres-Cuevas, L.; Platania, P.; Pospieszalsky, M.; Poutanen, T.; Rebolo, R.; Roddis, N.; Salmon, M.; Seiffert, M.; Simonetto, A.; Sozzi, C.; Tauber, J.; Tuovinen, J.; Varis, J.; Wilkinson, A.; Winder, F.

    2010-09-01

    We present the calibration and scientific performance parameters of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) measured during the ground cryogenic test campaign. These parameters characterise the instrument response and constitute our optimal pre-launch knowledge of the LFI scientific performance. The LFI shows excellent 1/f stability and rejection of instrumental systematic effects; its measured noise performance shows that LFI is the most sensitive instrument of its kind. The calibration parameters will be updated during flight operations until the end of the mission.

  5. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  6. Performance Expectations for Future Moderate Resolution Visible and Infrared Space Instruments Based on AIRS and MODIS In-Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Broberg, Steven E.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Baron, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Lessons learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) projects highlight areas where further technology development is needed to address future land, ocean and atmospheric measurement needs. Although not established as requirements at this time, it is anticipated that scientists will expect improvements in the areas of spatial, spectral, radiometric, polarimetric, temporal and calibration performance for future sensors. This paper addresses each of these performance areas and provides lessons learned from MODIS and AIRS. We also present expectations in performance of the system based on information from NASA Instrument Incubator Program and industry reports. Tradeoffs are presented vs orbit altitude (LEO, ME0 and GEO) and provide a 'systems' perspective to future measurement concepts.

  7. Performance expectations for future moderate resolution visible and infrared space instruments based on AIRS and MODIS in-flight experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Broberg, Steven E.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Baron, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Lessons learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) projects highlight areas where further technology development is needed to address future land, ocean and atmospheric measurement needs. Although not established as requirements at this time, it is anticipated that scientists will expect improvements in the areas of spatial, spectral, radiometric, polarimetric, temporal and calibration performance for future instruments. This paper addresses each of these performance areas and provides lessons learned from MODIS and AIRS. We also present expectations in performance of a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) Infrared Imaging Spectrometer based on information from the NASA Instrument Incubator Program and industry reports. Tradeoffs are presented vs orbit altitude (LEO, MEO and GEO) and provide a "systems" perspective to future measurement concepts.

  8. Expectations, observations, and the cognitive processes that bind them: expert assessment of examinee performance.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Christina; Chamberland, Martine; Lévesque, Annie; Varpio, Lara

    2016-08-01

    Performance-based assessment (PBA) is a valued assessment approach in medical education, be it in a clerkship, residency, or practice context. Raters are intrinsic to PBA and the increased use of PBA has lead to an increased interest in rater cognition. Although several researchers have tackled factors that may influence the variability in rater judgment, the critical examination of rater observation of performance and the translation of that data into judgements are being investigated. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate the cognitive processes of raters, and to create a framework that conceptualizes those processes when raters assess a complex performance. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 faculty members (nominated as excellent assessors) from a Department of Medicine to investigate how raters observe, interpret, and translate performance into judgments. The transcribed verbal protocols were analyzed using Constructivist Grounded Theory in order to develop a theoretical model of raters' assessment processes. Several themes emerged from the data and were grouped according to three macro-level themes describing how the raters balance two sources of data [(1) external sources of information and (2) internal/personal sources of information] by relying on specific cognitive processes to assess an examinee performance. The results from our study demonstrate that assessment is a difficult cognitive task that involves nuance using specific cognitive processes to weigh external and internal data against each other. Our data clearly draws attention to the constant struggle between objectivity and subjectivity that is observed in assessment as illustrated by the importance given to nuancing the examinee's observed performance. PMID:26620923

  9. The Threat of Living up to Expectations: Analyzing the Performance of Hispanic Students on Standardized Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines whether the recognition of stereotypes undermines the academic performance of Hispanic students, a phenomenon known as "stereotype threat." With regard to race, stereotype threat has been examined predominately between African American and White students, yet limited research has investigated how Hispanic…

  10. Leadership Styles and School Performance: Is There a Gender Difference in Expectations for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Iris Denise

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the research on the perceptions of gender differences in leadership styles is explored. The study also attempts to determine whether there are differences in overall school performance for male versus female school principals. The methodology involved a mixed-model ANOVA analysis of findings from 31 principals and 236 teachers…

  11. Expectations, Observations, and the Cognitive Processes That Bind Them: Expert Assessment of Examinee Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Onge, Christina; Chamberland, Martine; Lévesque, Annie; Varpio, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Performance-based assessment (PBA) is a valued assessment approach in medical education, be it in a clerkship, residency, or practice context. Raters are intrinsic to PBA and the increased use of PBA has lead to an increased interest in rater cognition. Although several researchers have tackled factors that may influence the variability in rater…

  12. Case Study of Expected Seismic Performance of an Instrumented Steel Moment Frame Building

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Enzo D'; Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

    2008-07-08

    A relevant number of modern welded steel structures suffered unexpected damage during the January 1994 Northridge earthquake. The damage of welded special moment resisting frames (W-SMRJF) typically involved the brittle fracture in the welded girder to column connection areas. In the aftermath of the Northridge earthquake the research and structural engineering communities addressed the issue of the seismic safety of damaged and undamaged W-SMRF's. However, even though seismic design codes in the United States were significantly revised after the Northridge quake, still there are hundreds of existing W-Serf's in the US and in other countries, designed and detailed according to pre-Northridge criteria. This work is a case study on seismic response of a W-SMRF instrumented by the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) which was shaken during the 1987 Whittier, 1991 Sierra Madre and 1994 Northridge earthquakes. A detailed finite element model of the structure is developed to analyze the building dynamic response during recorded strong motions. Model accuracy was assessed by comparing prediction of the analytical model with actual CSMIP response records. In order to assess its vulnerability in response to future and possibly stronger earthquakes, nonlinear analyses were conducted subjecting the model to the Newhall and Sylmar records of the 1994 Northridge and to the 1995 Kobe earthquakes. Analysis results show that the structure behaved linearly during these earthquakes. The predicted response to larger and more severe ground motions show that plastic deformation occur at many column ends and inelastic deformation demands exceed the expected capacity of the welded pre-Northridge beam-to-column connections.

  13. Site Effect and Expected Seismic Performance of Buildings in Palestine- Case Study: Nablus City

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    2008-07-08

    The effects of local geology on ground-motion amplification and building damage were studied in Palestine-West Bank. Nakamura's method of microtremor analysis was applied in this study. The measurements showed significantly higher amplification in the frequency range of building vulnerability in different parts of Nablus city. This finding is consistent with the distribution of the earthquake damage grades in the urban areas struck by the 11 February 2004 earthquake (ML = 5.2) with a focal depth of 17 km beneath the northeastern part of the Dead Sea Basin. Quite large differences in amplification between around 1 and 9 were computed between the eastern and western rims of the city. The downtown built in the central part of the city on soft clay, marl and valley deposits, whereas the northern and southern parts of urban areas in Nablus city lying on mountains consist of consolidated carbonates bedrock. In the central part of the city and at the rims, where the thickness of fluvial deposits and soft formations is about 15 m, amplifications between 6.74 and 8.67 for dominant natural period range of 0.8-1.1 sec were obtained. On the southern and northern mountains, which are located on limestone rocks covered with a thin layer of soil, the amplification in the same frequency range was low. Calculating the natural period of the existing common buildings (T{sub b}) in the studied area (buildings with 10-12 stories), by using the dynamic analysis method. The values of T{sub b} obtained were much closed to the site dominant natural period (Ts). The findings of this study indicate that the expected differences in damage grades for urban areas in Nablus city could be attributed to variations in the thickness and physical properties of Tertiary-Quaternary sediments, which appear to be rather heterogeneous.

  14. Federated or cached searches: Providing expected performance from multiple invasive species databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Newman, Gregory J.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2011-06-01

    Invasive species are a universal global problem, but the information to identify them, manage them, and prevent invasions is stored around the globe in a variety of formats. The Global Invasive Species Information Network is a consortium of organizations working toward providing seamless access to these disparate databases via the Internet. A distributed network of databases can be created using the Internet and a standard web service protocol. There are two options to provide this integration. First, federated searches are being proposed to allow users to search "deep" web documents such as databases for invasive species. A second method is to create a cache of data from the databases for searching. We compare these two methods, and show that federated searches will not provide the performance and flexibility required from users and a central cache of the datum are required to improve performance.

  15. The Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI): Expected Results at Titan and Performance Verification in Terrestrial Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Colombatti, G.; Stoppato, P. F. Lion; Zarnecki, J. C.; Harri, A. M.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Hamelin, M.; Flamini, E.; Bianchini, G.; Angrilli, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Huygens ASI is a multi-sensor package resulting from an international cooperation, it has been designed to measure the physical quantities characterizing Titan's atmosphere during the Huygens probe mission. On 14th January, 2005, HASI will measure acceleration, pressure, temperature and electrical properties all along the Huygens probe descent on Titan in order to study Titan s atmospheric structure, dynamics and electric properties. Monitoring axial and normal accelerations and providing direct pressure and temperature measurements during the descent, HASI will mainly contribute to the Huygens probe entry and trajectory reconstruction. In order to simulate the Huygens probe descent and verify HASI sensors performance in terrestrial environment, stratospheric balloon flight experiment campaigns have been performed, in collaboration with the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The results of flight experiments have allowed to determine the atmospheric vertical profiles and to obtain a set of data for the analysis of probe trajectory and attitude reconstruction.

  16. Federated or cached searches: providing expected performance from multiple invasive species databases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Newman, Gregory J.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are a universal global problem, but the information to identify them, manage them, and prevent invasions is stored around the globe in a variety of formats. The Global Invasive Species Information Network is a consortium of organizations working toward providing seamless access to these disparate databases via the Internet. A distributed network of databases can be created using the Internet and a standard web service protocol. There are two options to provide this integration. First, federated searches are being proposed to allow users to search “deep” web documents such as databases for invasive species. A second method is to create a cache of data from the databases for searching. We compare these two methods, and show that federated searches will not provide the performance and flexibility required from users and a central cache of the datum are required to improve performance.

  17. College Students' Ratings of Student Effort, Student Ability and Teacher Input as Correlates of Student Performance on Multiple-Choice Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert L.; Clark, Lloyd

    2004-01-01

    In the class session following feedback regarding their scores on multiple-choice exams, undergraduate students in a large human development course rated the strength of possible contributors to their exam performance. Students rated items related to their personal effort in preparing for the exam (identified as student effort in the paper), their…

  18. Thermal Performance Expectations of the Advanced Stirling Convertor Over a Range of Operating Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Terry V.; Dyson, Rodger W.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) will enable various missions such as small body sample return, atmospheric missions around Venus, as well as long - duration deep space missions. Analysis of the temperature distributions are performed on an Advanced Stirling Convertor, and the results are compared with available experimental measurements. This analysis includes applied environmental conditions that are similar to those that will be experienced while the convertor is in operation. The applied conditions represent a potential mission profile including pre-takeoff sterilization, launch, transit, and return. The results focus on the anticipated peak temperatures of the magnets in the linear alternator. These results confirm that the ASC can support future missions to deep space targets, extreme environment landers, as well as more conventional goals.

  19. Investigating Assessment Bias for Constructed Response Explanation Tasks: Implications for Evaluating Performance Expectations for Scientific Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federer, Meghan Rector

    Assessment is a key element in the process of science education teaching and research. Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment is a major challenge for science education reforms. Prior research has documented several limitations of instrument types on the measurement of students' scientific knowledge (Liu et al., 2011; Messick, 1995; Popham, 2010). Furthermore, a large body of work has been devoted to reducing assessment biases that distort inferences about students' science understanding, particularly in multiple-choice [MC] instruments. Despite the above documented biases, much has yet to be determined for constructed response [CR] assessments in biology and their use for evaluating students' conceptual understanding of scientific practices (such as explanation). Understanding differences in science achievement provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Using the integrative framework put forth by the National Research Council (2012), this dissertation aimed to explore whether assessment biases occur for assessment practices intended to measure students' conceptual understanding and proficiency in scientific practices. Using a large corpus of undergraduate biology students' explanations, three studies were conducted to examine whether known biases of MC instruments were also apparent in a CR instrument designed to assess students' explanatory practice and understanding of evolutionary change (ACORNS: Assessment of COntextual Reasoning about Natural Selection). The first study investigated the challenge of interpreting and scoring lexically ambiguous language in CR answers. The incorporation of 'multivalent' terms into scientific discourse practices often results in statements or explanations that are difficult to interpret and can produce faulty inferences about student knowledge. The results of this study indicate that many undergraduate biology majors

  20. Use of groundwater lifetime expectancy for the performance assessment of a deep geologic waste repository: 1. Theory, illustrations, and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaton, F. J.; Park, Y.-J.; Normani, S. D.; Sudicky, E. A.; Sykes, J. F.

    2008-04-01

    Long-term solutions for the disposal of toxic wastes usually involve isolation of the wastes in a deep subsurface geologic environment. In the case of spent nuclear fuel, if radionuclide leakage occurs from the engineered barrier, the geological medium represents the ultimate barrier that is relied upon to ensure safety. Consequently, an evaluation of radionuclide travel times from a repository to the biosphere is critically important in a performance assessment analysis. In this study, we develop a travel time framework based on the concept of groundwater lifetime expectancy as a safety indicator. Lifetime expectancy characterizes the time that radionuclides will spend in the subsurface after their release from the repository and prior to discharging into the biosphere. The probability density function of lifetime expectancy is computed throughout the host rock by solving the backward-in-time solute transport adjoint equation subject to a properly posed set of boundary conditions. It can then be used to define optimal repository locations. The risk associated with selected sites can be evaluated by simulating an appropriate contaminant release history. The utility of the method is illustrated by means of analytical and numerical examples, which focus on the effect of fracture networks on the uncertainty of evaluated lifetime expectancy.

  1. Expected performance of an ideal liquid argon neutrino detector with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorel, M.

    2014-10-01

    Scintillation light is used in liquid argon (LAr) neutrino detectors to provide a trigger signal, veto information against cosmic rays, and absolute event timing. In this work, we discuss additional opportunities offered by detectors with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light, that is with light collection efficiencies of about 10-3. We focus on two key detector performance indicators for neutrino oscillation physics: calorimetric neutrino energy reconstruction and neutrino/antineutrino separation in a non-magnetized detector. Our results are based on detailed simulations, with neutrino interactions modelled according to the GENIE event generator, while the charge and light responses of a large LAr ideal detector are described by the Geant4 and NEST simulation tools. A neutrino energy resolution as good as 3.3% RMS for 4 GeV electron neutrino charged-current interactions can in principle be obtained in a large detector of this type, by using both charge and light information. By exploiting muon capture in argon and scintillation light information to veto muon decay electrons, we also obtain muon neutrino identification efficiencies of about 50%, and muon antineutrino misidentification rates at the few percent level, for few-GeV neutrino interactions that are fully contained. We argue that the construction of large LAr detectors with sufficiently high light collection efficiencies is in principle possible.

  2. Performance of the ITER ICRF Antenna plug as expected from TOPICA matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messiaen, A.; Koch, R.; Dumortier, P.; Louche, F.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.; Weynants, R.

    2009-11-01

    The performances of the present ICRF antenna plug design is evaluated by means of the TOPICA 24×24 matrix for plasma loading supplemented by 4-port junction (4PJ) matrices. For their interpretation these results are compared with a cruder modeling by the semi-analytical code ANTITER II. From this analysis we conclude: (1) The broadbanding effect of the service stub on the response of the 4PJ made for one triplet is maintained for the complete array for all the heating and current drive phasings. (2) For a given maximum voltage of the 8 feeding lines the radiated power capability is roughly constant in the entire frequency band. (3) The power capability of the array is significantly dependent on the distance of the antenna to the Last Closed Flux Surface, the density profile in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and on the toroidal and poloidal phasings. The dependence on phasing is stronger for wider SOL (4) For a not too optimistic plasma density profile (Sc2 shortl7) a power capability exceeding 20 MW is only obtained for the 00 ππ heating toroidal phasing and for the co-current drive phasing in the upper part of the frequency band for a maximum voltage in the complete system of 45 kV. (5), On account of the plasma gyrotropy the quadrature poloidal phasing introduced by hybrid feeding must excite waves propagating upwards in the ITER configuration to obtain the best coupling, (6) The large power capability difference between opposite current drive phasings is attributed to the coupling between the toroidal and poloidal phasings induced by the poloidal steady magnetic field.

  3. The SEIS Experiment for the InSight mission: status and performance expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, David; Lognonne, Philippe; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Laudet, Philippe; De Raucourt, Sébastien; IJpelaan, Frans; Kerjean, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Pont, Gabriel; Sylvestre-Baron, Annick; verdier, Nicolas; Denise, Robert; Feldman, Jason; Hurst, Ken; Klein, Kerry; Giardini, Domenico; Zweifel, Peter; Pike, W. Tom; Calcutt, Simon; Bramanti, Christina

    2015-04-01

    discussion will be presented, on how to understand the seismometer performance figure in a changing environment, and how to secure the mission science goals in the challenging environment of the Mars surface.

  4. Performance in a computerized self-control task by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): The combined influence of effort and delay

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    The variables of delay and effort have been found to influence self-control predictably and in similar fashion when tested independently, but it is unclear how they influence self-control interactively. In the present study, I tested these 2 variables simultaneously to gain better understanding of their combined influence on self-control. A computerized task was employed in which monkey participants could sequence 1 or more digital images before “cashing-out,” after which they would receive their accumulated rewards. Delay was manipulated by adjusting the speed of the cursor used to select images. Cognitive effort was manipulated by presenting image sets that appeared in either a constant or a randomized configuration. For most monkeys, an interaction was found between the effects of delay and effort on the number of images selected before cashing-out. The results suggest that, when combined, these 2 variables have a complex influence on self-control. PMID:18701940

  5. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    PubMed

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades. PMID:26847254

  6. Performance in a Computerized Self-Control Task by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca Mulatta"): The Combined Influence of Effort and Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    The variables of delay and effort have been found to influence self-control predictably and in similar fashion when tested independently, but it is unclear how they influence self-control interactively. In the present study, I tested these two variables simultaneously to gain better understanding of their combined influence on self-control. A…

  7. Performance Standards and Employee Effort: Evidence from Teacher Absences. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 15-217

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased accountability pressure in U.S. public schools by threatening to impose sanctions on Title 1 schools that failed to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) in consecutive years. Difference-in-difference estimates of the effect of failing AYP in the first year of NCLB on teacher effort in the…

  8. Modeling and Evaluating Pilot Performance in NextGen: Review of and Recommendations Regarding Pilot Modeling Efforts, Architectures, and Validation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Keller, John; Peters, Steve; Small, Ronald; Hutchins, Shaun; Algarin, Liana; Gore, Brian Francis; Hooey, Becky Lee; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen operations are associated with a variety of changes to the national airspace system (NAS) including changes to the allocation of roles and responsibilities among operators and automation, the use of new technologies and automation, additional information presented on the flight deck, and the entire concept of operations (ConOps). In the transition to NextGen airspace, aviation and air operations designers need to consider the implications of design or system changes on human performance and the potential for error. To ensure continued safety of the NAS, it will be necessary for researchers to evaluate design concepts and potential NextGen scenarios well before implementation. One approach for such evaluations is through human performance modeling. Human performance models (HPMs) provide effective tools for predicting and evaluating operator performance in systems. HPMs offer significant advantages over empirical, human-in-the-loop testing in that (1) they allow detailed analyses of systems that have not yet been built, (2) they offer great flexibility for extensive data collection, (3) they do not require experimental participants, and thus can offer cost and time savings. HPMs differ in their ability to predict performance and safety with NextGen procedures, equipment and ConOps. Models also vary in terms of how they approach human performance (e.g., some focus on cognitive processing, others focus on discrete tasks performed by a human, while others consider perceptual processes), and in terms of their associated validation efforts. The objectives of this research effort were to support the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in identifying HPMs that are appropriate for predicting pilot performance in NextGen operations, to provide guidance on how to evaluate the quality of different models, and to identify gaps in pilot performance modeling research, that could guide future research opportunities. This research effort is intended to help the FAA

  9. A New Appraisal- Lessons from the History of Efforts to Value Green and High-Performance Home Attributes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2015-10-21

    Appraisers, RESNET, USEPA, USDOE and its National Laboratories, the U.S. Green Buildings Council, and the Vermont Green Homes Alliance. Many activities have resulted, ranging from trainings, to data-gathering instruments, and the emergence of a literature attempting to statistically isolate the effects of green/HP characteristics on home values. In some cases, the results of studies have been overgeneralized and oversold, and embodied flawed methods. Although the green/HP community has encouraged appraisers to focus on exemplary buildings (e.g., LEED or ENERGY STAR Certified), any level of green or energy performance can in fact influence value, including below-average performance (a.k.a. “brown discount”), irrespective of whether or not the building has been formally rated. This overly narrow focus represents a significant missed opportunity. Other surmountable challenges include limitations to non-appraisers’ understanding of the appraisal process (and practical constraints therein). A byproduct of this can be unrealistic expectations of what appraisers can and will do in the marketplace. These challenges notwithstanding, the environment for moving forward has improved. There is better data today (a critical need); expanded efforts to disclose energy use information (characteristics, consumption, bills); improved and more pervasive building energy codes, building rating and labeling initiatives; and a host of federal, state, and local policies that have collectively brought green/HP practices much more into the mainstream. Meanwhile, a renewed focus on professional standards of care and competency for assessing green/HP homes make it increasingly important for appraisers to consider these factors in their assignments. Despite the past four decades of studies, there is little if any discernible uptake of these practices by the appraisal practice at large. It would behoove interested parties to step back and consider what new strategies might be productive. A key

  10. Feedback associated with expectation for larger-reward improves visuospatial working memory performances in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Rubi; Tennekoon, Michael; Cooke, Gillian E; Gayda, Jessica; Stein, Mark A; Booth, James R

    2015-08-01

    We tested the interactive effect of feedback and reward on visuospatial working memory in children with ADHD. Seventeen boys with ADHD and 17 Normal Control (NC) boys underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing four visuospatial 2-back tasks that required monitoring the spatial location of letters presented on a display. Tasks varied in reward size (large; small) and feedback availability (no-feedback; feedback). While the performance of NC boys was high in all conditions, boys with ADHD exhibited higher performance (similar to those of NC boys) only when they received feedback associated with large-reward. Performance pattern in both groups was mirrored by neural activity in an executive function neural network comprised of few distinct frontal brain regions. Specifically, neural activity in the left and right middle frontal gyri of boys with ADHD became normal-like only when feedback was available, mainly when feedback was associated with large-reward. When feedback was associated with small-reward, or when large-reward was expected but feedback was not available, boys with ADHD exhibited altered neural activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. This suggests that contextual support normalizes activity in executive brain regions in children with ADHD, which results in improved working memory. PMID:26142072

  11. Performance Expectations of Closed-Brayton-Cycle Heat Exchangers in 100-kWe Nuclear Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Performance expectations of closed-Brayton-cycle heat exchangers to be used in 100-kWe nuclear space power systems were forecast. Proposed cycle state points for a system supporting a mission to three of Jupiter s moons required effectiveness values for the heat-source exchanger, recuperator and rejection exchanger (gas cooler) of 0.98,0.95 and 0.97, respectively. Performance parameters such as number of thermal units (Nm), equivalent thermal conductance (UA), and entropy generation numbers (Ns) varied from 11 to 19,23 to 39 kWK, and 0.019 to 0.023 for some standard heat exchanger configurations. Pressure-loss contributions to entropy generation were significant; the largest frictional contribution was 114% of the heat-transfer irreversibility. Using conventional recuperator designs, the 0.95 effectiveness proved difficult to achieve without exceeding other performance targets; a metallic, plate-fin counterflow solution called for 15% more mass and 33% higher pressure-loss than the target values. Two types of gas-coolers showed promise. Single-pass counterflow and multipass cross-counterflow arrangements both met the 0.97 effectiveness requirement. Potential reliability-related advantages of the cross-countefflow design were noted. Cycle modifications, enhanced heat transfer techniques and incorporation of advanced materials were suggested options to reduce system development risk. Carbon-carbon sheeting or foam proved an attractive option to improve overall performance.

  12. Performance Expectations of Closed-Brayton-Cycle Heat Exchangers in 100-kWe Nuclear Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Performance expectations of closed-Brayton-cycle heat exchangers to be used in 100-k We nuclear space power systems were forecast. Proposed cycle state points for a system supporting a mission to three of Jupiter's moons required effectiveness values for the heat-source exchanger, recuperator and rejection exchanger (gas cooler) of 0.98, 0.95, and 0.97, respectively. Performance parameters such as number of thermal units (Ntu), equivalent thermal conductance (UA), and entropy generation numbers (Ns) varied from 11 to 19, 23 to 39 kW/K, and 0.019 to 0.023 for some standard heat exchanger configurations. Pressure-loss contributions to entropy generation were significant; the largest frictional contribution was 114% of the heat transfer irreversibility. Using conventional recuperator designs, the 0.95 effectiveness proved difficult to achieve without exceeding other performance targets; a metallic, plate-fin counterflow solution called for 15% more mass and 33% higher pressure-loss than the target values. Two types of gas-coolers showed promise. Single-pass counterflow and multipass cross-counterflow arrangements both met the 0.97 effectiveness requirement. Potential reliability-related advantages of the cross-counterflow design were noted. Cycle modifications, enhanced heat transfer techniques and incorporation of advanced materials were suggested options to reduce system development risk. Carbon-carbon sheeting or foam proved an attractive option to improve overall performance.

  13. Special Report on the "Department of Energy's Efforts to Meet Accountability and Performance Reporting Objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in health and science, and invest in the Nation's energy future. The Department of Energy will receive an unprecedented $38 billion in Recovery Act funding to support a variety of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. The Recovery Act requires transparency and accountability over these funds. To this end, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued guidance requiring the Department to compile and report a wide variety of funding, accounting, and performance information. The Department plans to leverage existing information systems to develop accounting and performance information that will be used by program managers and ultimately reported to Recovery.gov, the government-wide source of Recovery Act information, and to OMB. The Department's iManage iPortal, a system that aggregates information from a number of corporate systems, will serve as the main reporting gateway for accounting information. In addition, the Department plans to implement a methodology or system that will permit it to monitor information reported directly to OMB by prime funding recipients. Furthermore, performance measures or metrics that outline expected outcomes are being developed, with results ultimately to be reported in a recently developed Department-wide system. Because of the significance of funds provided and their importance to strengthening the Nation's economy, we initiated this review to determine whether the Department had taken the steps necessary to ensure that Recovery Act funds can be appropriately tracked and are transparent to the public, and whether the benefits of the expenditures can be properly measured and reported clearly, accurately, and in a timely manner. Although not yet fully mature, we found that the Department's efforts to develop, refine, and apply the control structure

  14. Clinical utility of the Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II to detect poor effort in U.S. military personnel following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L; Brickell, Tracey A; Staver, Tara; Pancholi, Sonal; Bhagwat, Aditya; French, Louis M

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the clinical utility of the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II) as an embedded marker of poor effort in military personnel undergoing neuropsychological evaluations following traumatic brain injury. Participants were 158 U.S. military service members divided into 3 groups on the basis of brain injury severity and performance (pass/fail) on 2 symptom validity tests: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI)-Pass (n = 87), MTBI-Fail (n = 42), and severe traumatic brain injury (STBI)-Pass (n = 29). The MTBI-Fail group performed worse on the majority of CPT-II measures compared with both the MTBI-Pass and STBI-Pass groups. When comparing the MTBI-Fail group and MTBI-Pass groups, the most accurate measure for identifying poor effort was the Commission T score. When selected measures were combined (i.e., Omissions, Commissions, and Perseverations), there was a very small increase in sensitivity (from .26 to .29). When comparing the MTBI-Fail group and STBI-Pass groups, the most accurate measure for identifying poor effort was the Omission and Commissions T score. When selected measures were combined, sensitivity again increased (from .24 to .45). Overall, these results suggest that individual CPT-II measures can be useful for identifying people who are suspected of providing poor effort from those who have provided adequate effort. However, due to low sensitivity and modest negative predictive power values, this measure cannot be used in isolation to detect poor effort, and is largely useful as a test to "rule in," not "rule out" poor effort. PMID:23244641

  15. A Reputation for Success (or Failure): The Association of Peer Academic Reputations With Academic Self-Concept, Effort, and Performance Across the Upper Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Davidson, Alice J.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2008-01-01

    The associations between children's academic reputations among peers and their academic self-concept, effort, and performance were examined in a longitudinal study of 427 students initially enrolled in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Assessments were completed in the fall and spring of 2 consecutive school years and in the fall of a 3rd school year. Peer…

  16. The role of effort in influencing the effect of anxiety on performance: testing the conflicting predictions of processing efficiency theory and the conscious processing hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark; Smith, Nickolas C; Holmes, Paul S

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the conflicting predictions of processing efficiency theory (PET) and the conscious processing hypothesis (CPH) regarding effort's role in influencing the effects of anxiety on a golf putting task. Mid-handicap golfers made a series of putts to target holes under two counterbalanced conditions designed to manipulate the level of anxiety experienced. The effort exerted on each putting task was assessed though self-report, psychophysiological (heart rate variability) and behavioural (pre-putt time and glances at the target) measures. Performance was assessed by putting error. Results were generally more supportive of the predictions of PET rather than the CPH as performance was maintained for some performers despite increased state anxiety and a reduction in processing efficiency. The findings of this study support previous research suggesting that both theories offer useful theoretical frameworks for examining the relationship between anxiety and performance in sport. PMID:17705939

  17. Great Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Parents must learn to transmit a sense of high expectations to their children (related to behavior and accomplishments) without crushing them with too much pressure. This means setting realistic expectations based on their children's special abilities, listening to their children's feelings about the expectations, and understanding what…

  18. Management Practices. U.S. Companies Improve Performance through Quality Efforts. Report to the Honorable Donald Ritter, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. National Security and International Affairs Div.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined the impact of formal total quality management (TQM) practices on the performance of 20 selected U.S. companies that were among the highest-scoring applicants in 1988 and 1989 for the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. Several key indicators used by companies to measure performance were analyzed.…

  19. An account of Sandia's research booth at Supercomputing '92: A collaborative effort in high-performance computing and networking

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, A.; Vahle, M.O.

    1993-03-01

    Supercomputing '92, a high-performance computing and communications conference was held, November 16--20, 1992 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. This paper documents the applications and technologies that were showcased in Sandia's research booth at that conference. In particular the demonstrations in high-performance networking, audio-visual applications in engineering, virtual reality, and supercomputing applications are all described.

  20. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories Perspective on Code Development and High Performance Computing Resources in Support of the National HED/ICF Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Clouse, C. J.; Edwards, M. J.; McCoy, M. G.; Marinak, M. M.; Verdon, C. P.

    2015-07-07

    Through its Advanced Scientific Computing (ASC) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) code development efforts, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides a world leading numerical simulation capability for the National HED/ICF program in support of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP). In addition the ASC effort provides high performance computing platform capabilities upon which these codes are run. LLNL remains committed to, and will work with, the national HED/ICF program community to help insure numerical simulation needs are met and to make those capabilities available, consistent with programmatic priorities and available resources.

  1. Expected performance and recent results from the X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer on the W7-X stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablant, Novimir A.; Langenberg, Andreas; Bitter, Manfred; Delgado-Aparicio, Luis; Gates, David A.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Mardenfeld, Michael; Neilson, George H.

    2015-11-01

    A new high resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer diagnostic (XICS) has recently been installed on W7-X stellarator. This diagnostic will contribute to the study of ion and electron thermal transport and the evolution of the radial electric field by providing high resolution temperature and rotation measurements. The XICS diagnostic will provide spatially resolved profile measurements of the ion temperature (Ti), electron temperature (Te), poloidal flow velocity (VP) and impurity ion density for the Ar16+, Ar17+ and Fe24+ charge states. This system will have a maximum time resolution of 5ms, a spatial resolution of 2cm, and spatial coverage from the core to a normalized minor radius of ρ ~ 0 . 8 . The system is fully installed and will be in operation for the initial W7-X experimental campaign (OP1.1). For this initial experimental campaign the XICS diagnostic will be the primary diagnostic for measurement of the core ion temperature and poloidal rotation. The design, expected performance and analysis techniques will be presented, along with any recent measurement results. Research supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 with Princeton University.

  2. Structured self-reflection as a tool to enhance perceived performance and maintain effort in adult recreational salsa dancers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of structured self-reflection in community dance classes would influence achievement goal orientations, levels of intrinsic motivation, or perceived dance performance. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic...

  3. A longitudinal multilevel model analysis of the within-person and between-person effect of effortful engagement and academic self-efficacy on academic performance.

    PubMed

    Galla, Brian M; Wood, Jeffrey J; Tsukayama, Eli; Har, Kim; Chiu, Angela W; Langer, David A

    2014-06-01

    Using data from an accelerated longitudinal study, we examined the within-person and between-person effect of effortful engagement and academic self-efficacy on academic performance across students (N=135) in elementary school. Teachers assessed participants' effortful engagement and participants rated their academic self-efficacy once per year for 3 years. Academic performance was assessed through standardized test scores in reading and math. Multilevel models indicated that within-person change in Effortful Engagement and Academic Self-Efficacy scores significantly predicted concomitant within-person change in reading test scores, B=2.71, p=.043, Pseudo-R2=.02 and B=4.72, p=.005, Pseudo-R2=.04, respectively. Participants with higher between-person levels of Effortful Engagement had higher initial reading test scores, B=10.03, p=.001, Pseudo-R2=.09, and math test scores, B=11.20, p<.001, Pseudo-R2=.15, whereas participants with higher between-person levels of Academic Self-Efficacy showed a faster rate of increase in math test scores across elementary school, B=10.21, p=.036, Pseudo-R2=.25. At the between-person level, Effortful Engagement mediated the association between Academic Self-Efficacy and both reading and math test scores, although no support was found for mediation at the within-person level. Collectively, results suggest that trait-level psychological factors can vary meaningfully within school-aged children and that both within-person change and between-person individual differences in these traits have important consequences for academic performance. PMID:24930821

  4. The effect of breathing an ambient low‐density, hyperoxic gas on the perceived effort of breathing and maximal performance of exercise in well‐trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ansley, L; Petersen, D; Thomas, A; Gibson, A St Clair; Robson‐Ansley, P; Noakes, T D

    2007-01-01

    Background The role of the perception of breathing effort in the regulation of performance of maximal exercise remains unclear. Aims To determine whether the perceived effort of ventilation is altered through substituting a less dense gas for normal ambient air and whether this substitution affects performance of maximal incremental exercise in trained athletes. Methods Eight highly trained cyclists (mean SD) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) = 69.9 (7.9) (mlO2/kg/min) performed two randomised maximal tests in a hyperbaric chamber breathing ambient air composed of either 35% O2/65% N2 (nitrox) or 35% O2/65% He (heliox). A ramp protocol was used in which power output was incremented at 0.5 W/s. The trials were separated by at least 48 h. The perceived effort of breathing was obtained via Borg Category Ratio Scales at 3‐min intervals and at fatigue. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and minute ventilation (VE) were monitored continuously. Results Breathing heliox did not change the sensation of dyspnoea: there were no differences between trials for the Borg scales at any time point. Exercise performance was not different between the nitrox and heliox trials (peak power output = 451 (58) and 453 (56) W), nor was VO2max (4.96 (0.61) and 4.88 (0.65) l/min) or maximal VE (157 (24) and 163 (22) l/min). Between‐trial variability in peak power output was less than either VO2max or maximal VE. Conclusion Breathing a less dense gas does not improve maximal performance of exercise or reduce the perception of breathing effort in highly trained athletes, although an attenuated submaximal tidal volume and VE with a concomitant reduction in VO2 suggests an improved gas exchange and reduced O2 cost of ventilation when breathing heliox. PMID:17062658

  5. Buoyancy under Control: Underwater Locomotor Performance in a Deep Diving Seabird Suggests Respiratory Strategies for Reducing Foraging Effort

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Timothée R.; Kato, Akiko; Tanaka, Hideji; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Bost, Charles-André

    2010-01-01

    Background Because they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag) and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth. Methodology/Principal Findings Using accelerometers, we show that during both the descent and ascent phases of dives, shags modelled their acceleration and stroking activity on the natural variation of buoyancy with depth. For example, during the descent phase, birds increased swim speed with depth. But in parallel, and with a decay constant similar to the one in the equation explaining the decrease of buoyancy with depth, they decreased foot-stroke frequency exponentially, a behaviour that enables birds to reduce oxygen consumption. During ascent, birds also reduced locomotor cost by ascending passively. We considered the depth at which they started gliding as a proxy to their depth of neutral buoyancy. This depth increased with maximum dive depth. As an explanation for this, we propose that shags adjust their buoyancy to depth by varying the amount of respiratory air they dive with. Conclusions/Significance Calculations based on known values of stored body oxygen volumes and on deep-diving metabolic rates in avian divers suggest that the variations of volume of respiratory oxygen associated with a respiration mediated buoyancy control only influence aerobic dive duration moderately. Therefore, we propose that an advantage in cormorants - as in other families of diving seabirds - of respiratory air volume adjustment upon diving could be related less to increasing time of submergence, through an increased volume of body oxygen stores, than to reducing the locomotor costs of buoyancy control. PMID:20352122

  6. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  7. Exceeding Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, John

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of expectations is so important in the facilities business. The author's experiences has taught him that it is essential to understand how expectations impact people's lives as well as those for whom they provide services for every day. This article presents examples and ideas that will provide insight and ideas to help educators…

  8. Communicating more than diversity: The effect of institutional diversity statements on expectations and performance as a function of race and gender.

    PubMed

    Wilton, Leigh S; Good, Jessica J; Moss-Racusin, Corinne A; Sanchez, Diana T

    2015-07-01

    The present studies examined whether colorblind diversity messages, relative to multicultural diversity messages, serve as an identity threat that undermines performance-related outcomes for individuals at the intersections of race and gender. We exposed racial/ethnic majority and minority women and men to either a colorblind or multicultural diversity statement and then measured their expectations about overall diversity, anticipated bias, and group task performance (Study 1, N = 211), as well as their expectations about distinct race and gender diversity and their actual performance on a math test (Study 2, N = 328). Participants expected more bias (Study 1) and less race and gender diversity (Study 2) after exposure to a colorblind versus a multicultural message. However, the colorblind message was particularly damaging for women of color, prompting them to expect the least diversity overall and to perform worse (Study 1), as well as to actually perform worse on a math test (Study 2) than the multicultural message. White women demonstrated the opposite pattern, performing better on the math test in the colorblind versus the multicultural condition, whereas racial minority and majority men's performances were not affected by different messages about diversity. We discuss the importance of examining psychological processes that underscore performance-related outcomes at the junction of race and gender. PMID:25313429

  9. Social Learning versus Attributional Interpretations: The Effect of Task Familiarity on Task Performance Perceptions and Future Success Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triplet, Rodney G.; Cohn, Ellen S.

    1984-01-01

    Attempts to assess whether social learning or attributional theory best accounts for expectancies of future success in college students (N=159) with a modification of a task used by Weiner and Kukla (1970). Results indicated partial support for elements of both the social learning and attribution theories. (LLL)

  10. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  11. Current Calibration Efforts and Performance of the HST Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph: Echelle Flux Calibration, the BAR5 Occulter, and Lamp Lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Debes, John H.; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Lockwood, Sean A.; Peeples, Molly S.; Proffitt, Charles R.; Riley, Allyssa; Walborn, Nolan R.

    2016-06-01

    The variety of operating modes of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continues to allow STIS users to obtain unique, high quality observations and cutting-edge results 19 years after its installation on HST. STIS is currently the only instrument available to the astronomy community that allows high spectral and spatial resolution spectroscopy in the FUV and NUV, including echelle modes. STIS also supports solar-blind imaging in the FUV. In the optical, STIS provides long-slit, first-order spectra that take advantage of HST's superb spatial resolution, as well as several unique unfiltered coronagraphic modes, which continue to benefit the exoplanet and debris-disk communities. The STIS instrument team monitors the instrument’s health and performance over time to characterize the effects of radiation damage and continued use of the detectors and optical elements. Additionally, the STIS team continues to improve the quality of data products for the user community. We present updates on efforts to improve the echelle flux calibration of overlapping spectral orders due to changes in the grating blaze function since HST Servicing Mission 4, and efforts to push the contrast limit and smallest inner working angle attainable with the coronagraphic BAR5 occulter. We also provide updates on the performance of the STIS calibration lamps, including work to maintain the accuracy of the wavelength calibration for all modes.

  12. Development of hydration strategies to optimize performance for athletes in high-intensity sports and in sports with repeated intense efforts.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Shirreffs, S M

    2010-10-01

    Hypohydration - if sufficiently severe - adversely affects athletic performance and poses a risk to health. Strength and power events are generally less affected than endurance events, but performance in team sports that involve repeated intense efforts will be impaired. Mild hypohydration is not harmful, but many athletes begin exercise already hypohydrated. Athletes are encouraged to begin exercise well hydrated and - where opportunities exist - to consume fluid during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. In high-intensity efforts, there is no need, and may be no opportunity, to drink during competition. Most team sports players do not drink enough to match sweat losses, but some drink too much and a few may develop hyponatremia because of excessive fluid intake. Athletes should assess their hydration status and develop a personalized hydration strategy that takes account of exercise, environment and individual needs. Pre-exercise hydration status can be assessed from urine markers. Short-term changes in hydration can be estimated from the change in body mass. Sweat salt losses can be determined by collection and analysis of sweat samples. An appropriate drinking strategy will take account of pre-exercise hydration status and of fluid, electrolyte and substrate needs before, during and after exercise. PMID:20840563

  13. Parental Expectations of Educational and Personal-Social Performance and Childrearing Patterns as a Function of Attractiveness, Sex, and Conduct of Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gerald R.; LaVoie, Joseph C.

    The influence of a child's sex, physical attractiveness, and conduct on parental expectancies of academic and social performance as well as socialization practices of the child's parents were assessed by comparing parental responses on these measures after reading a child's report card. Parents of elementary-age school children were asked to read…

  14. The Analysis of the Relation between Eight-Grade Students' Estimation Performance in Triangles with Their Teaching Style Expectations and Sources of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altunkaya, Bülent; Aytekin, Cahit; Doruk, Bekir Kürsat; Özçakir, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    In this study, eight-grade students' estimation achievements in triangles were analysed according to motivation types and knowledge type expectations. Three hundred and thirty-seven students from three different elementary schools attended in this study. In order to determine the students' estimation performances, an estimation test in…

  15. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the

  16. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception–action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication. PMID

  17. An Application of the Expectancy-Value Model to Understand Adolescents' Performance and Engagement in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Kokkonen, Juha

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of motivation in students' performance and engagement in elementary and middle school physical education. Cross-lagged relationships between performance and engagement were investigated across Grades 6-9. A total of 763 (365 girls, 398 boys) Finnish school students (11- to 12-year old) were followed across three…

  18. Near real-time expectation-maximization algorithm: computational performance and passive millimeter-wave imaging field test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, William R.; Talcott, Denise; Hilgers, John W.

    2002-07-01

    A new iterative algorithm (EMLS) via the expectation maximization method is derived for extrapolating a non- negative object function from noisy, diffraction blurred image data. The algorithm has the following desirable attributes; fast convergence is attained for high frequency object components, is less sensitive to constraint parameters, and will accommodate randomly missing data. Speed and convergence results are presented. Field test imagery was obtained with a passive millimeter wave imaging sensor having a 30.5 cm aperture. The algorithm was implemented and tested in near real time using field test imagery. Theoretical results and experimental results using the field test imagery will be compared using an effective aperture measure of resolution increase. The effective aperture measure, based on examination of the edge-spread function, will be detailed.

  19. An Expressive Bodily Movement Repertoire for Marimba Performance, Revealed through Observers' Laban Effort-Shape Analyses, and Allied Musical Features: Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2016-01-01

    Musicians' expressive bodily movements can influence observers' perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers' music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies—one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers' perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players' bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the types and locations of actions

  20. Perceived Autonomy-Support, Expectancy, Value, Metacognitive Strategies and Performance in Chemistry: A Structural Equation Model in Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González, Antonio; Paoloni, Paola-Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Research in chemistry education has highlighted a number of variables that predict learning and performance, such as teacher-student interactions, academic motivation and metacognition. Most of this chemistry research has examined these variables by identifying dyadic relationships through bivariate correlations. The main purpose of this study was…

  1. Teacher Reactions to the Performance-Based Bonus Program: How the Expectancy Theory Works in the South Korean School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Bong-Woon; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine how and to what extent the implementation of the performance-based bonus program in South Korean schools has motivated teachers to improve their behavior, as well as to identify any other positive or negative effects of the program. Interviews with teachers indicated that a large percentage of teachers…

  2. Clinical education and cultural diversity in physical therapy: clinical performance of minority student physical therapists and the expectations of clinical instructors.

    PubMed

    Clouten, Norene; Homma, Midori; Shimada, Rie

    2006-01-01

    Clinical education is an integral part of preparation for the profession of physical therapy and the role of the clinical instructor is critical. The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical instructors' expectations of student physical therapists with different ethnic backgrounds and the clinical performance of the students as assessed using a modification of the Generic Abilities Assessment. For this study, individuals with a Caucasian ethnic background who were raised in the United States were considered as the majority. The remaining individuals (minority) were subdivided into five groups: African American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, Caucasian from outside the United States, and Other. Clinical instructors reported their experiences with students from different ethnic backgrounds, their expectation of students' performance, and recollections of specific weaknesses in performance. From the 216 surveys distributed, 192 clinical instructors responded. Fifty-seven percent had supervised a minority student, with a mean of three students each. While 4% reported that they expected a higher standard from majority students, 17% noted a difference in performance between majority and minority students. Results from this study suggest that minority students would benefit from further preparation in communication and interpersonal skills but they are stronger than majority students in stress management and the effective use of time and resources. PMID:16573242

  3. Simulation of the Expected Performance of a Seamless Scanner for Brain PET Based on Highly Pixelated CdTe Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Mikhaylova, Ekaterina; De Lorenzo, Gianluca; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Kolstein, Machiel; Cañadas, Mario; Arce, Pedro; Calderón, Yonatan; Uzun, Dilber; Ariño, Gerard; Macias-Montero, José Gabriel; Martinez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles; Cabruja, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of the design for a nonconventional PET scanner, the voxel imaging PET (VIP), based on pixelated room-temperature CdTe detectors yielding a true 3-D impact point with a density of 450 channels cm3, for a total 6 336 000 channels in a seamless ring shaped volume. The system is simulated and evaluated following the prescriptions of the NEMA NU 2-2001 and the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results show that the excellent energy resolution of the CdTe detectors (1.6% for 511 keV photons), together with the small voxel pitch (1×1×2 mm3), and the crack-free ring geometry, give the design the potential to overcome the current limitations of PET scanners and to approach the intrinsic image resolution limits set by physics. The VIP is expected to reach a competitive sensitivity and a superior signal purity with respect to values commonly quoted for state-of-the-art scintillating crystal PETs. The system can provide 14 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 3.95% and 21 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 0.73% according to NEMA NU 2-2001 and NEMA NU 4-2008, respectively. The calculated NEC curve has a peak value of 122 kcps at 5.3 kBq/mL for NEMA NU 2-2001 and 908 kcps at 1.6 MBq/mL for NEMA NU 4-2008. The proposed scanner can achieve an image resolution of ~ 1 mm full-width at half-maximum in all directions. The virtually noise-free data sample leads to direct positive impact on the quality of the reconstructed images. As a consequence, high-quality high-resolution images can be obtained with significantly lower number of events compared to conventional scanners. Overall, simulation results suggest the VIP scanner can be operated either at normal dose for fast scanning and high patient throughput, or at low dose to decrease the patient radioactivity exposure. The design evaluation presented in this work is driving the development and the optimization of a fully operative prototype to prove the feasibility of the VIP concept. PMID:24108750

  4. The New Horizons Radio Science Experiment: Expected Performance in Measurements of Pluto's Atmospheric Structure, Surface Pressure, and Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinson, D. P.; Linscott, I.; Woods, W. W.; Tyler, G. L.; Bird, M. K.; Paetzold, M.; Strobel, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    The New Horizons (NH) payload includes a Radio Science Experiment (REX) for investigating key characteristics of Pluto and Charon during the upcoming flyby in July 2015. REX flight equipment augments the NH radio transceiver used for spacecraft communications and tracking. The REX hardware implementation requires 1.6 W and 160 g. This presentation will focus on the final design and the predicted performance of two high-priority observations. First, REX will receive signals from a pair of 70-m antennas on Earth - each transmitting 20 kW at 4.2-cm wavelength - during a diametric radio occultation by Pluto. The data recorded by REX will reveal the surface pressure, the temperature structure of the lower atmosphere, and the surface radius. Second, REX will measure the thermal emission from Pluto at 4.2-cm wavelength during two linear scans across the disk at close range when both the dayside and the nightside are visible, allowing the surface temperature and its spatial variations to be determined. Both scans extend from limb to limb with a resolution of about 10 pixels; one bisects Pluto whereas the second crosses the winter pole. We will illustrate the capabilities of REX by reviewing the method of analysis and the precision achieved in a lunar occultation observed by New Horizons in May 2011. Re-analysis of radio occultation measurements by Voyager 2 at Triton is also under way. More generally, REX objectives include a radio occultation search for Pluto's ionosphere; examination of Charon through both radio occultation and radiometry; a search for a radar echo from Pluto's surface; and improved knowledge of the Pluto system mass and the Pluto-Charon mass ratio from a combination of two-way and one-way Doppler frequency measurements.

  5. Comparing the performance of FOCE and different expectation-maximization methods in handling complex population physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Wang, Yuhuan

    2016-08-01

    For the purpose of population pharmacometric modeling, a variety of mathematic algorithms are implemented in major modeling software packages to facilitate the maximum likelihood modeling, such as FO, FOCE, Laplace, ITS and EM. These methods are all designed to estimate the set of parameters that maximize the joint likelihood of observations in a given problem. While FOCE is still currently the most widely used method in population modeling, EM methods are getting more popular as the current-generation methods of choice because of their robustness with more complex models and sparse data structures. There are several versions of EM method implementation that are available in public modeling software packages. Although there have been several studies and reviews comparing the performance of different methods in handling relatively simple models, there has not been a dedicated study to compare different versions of EM algorithms in solving complex PBPK models. This study took everolimus as a model drug and simulated PK data based on published results. Three most popular EM methods (SAEM, IMP and QRPEM) and FOCE (as a benchmark reference) were evaluated for their estimation accuracy and converging speed when solving models of increased complexity. Both sparse and rich sampling data structure were tested. We concluded that FOCE was superior to EM methods for simple structured models. For more complex models and/ or sparse data, EM methods are much more robust. While the estimation accuracy was very close across EM methods, the general ranking of speed (fastest to slowest) was: QRPEM, IMP and SAEM. IMP gave the most realistic estimation of parameter standard errors, while under- and over- estimation of standard errors were observed in SAEM and QRPEM methods. PMID:27215925

  6. Participation Performance and Behavioral Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    The value of student participation in class discussion is considered. An approach is suggested for college teachers to help them better motivate and evaluate students who participate in classroom discussion. Reliable, accurate, and meaningful assessment of students' participation in classroom discussion can be achieved if an instructor bases the…

  7. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  8. Role of information systems in controlling costs: the electronic medical record (EMR) and the high-performance computing and communications (HPCC) efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1994-12-01

    On October 18, 1991, the IEEE-USA produced an entity statement which endorsed the vital importance of the High Performance Computer and Communications Act of 1991 (HPCC) and called for the rapid implementation of all its elements. Efforts are now underway to develop a Computer Based Patient Record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the HPCC, and the so-called `Patient Card'. Multiple legislative initiatives which address these and related information technology issues are pending in Congress. Clearly, a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public. Timely and reliable information represents a critical element in any initiative to reform the health care system as well as to protect and improve the health of every person. Appropriately used, information technologies offer a vital means of improving the quality of patient care, increasing access to universal care and lowering overall costs within a national health care program. Health care reform legislation should reflect increased budgetary support and a legal mandate for the creation of a national health care information system by: (1) constructing a National Information Infrastructure; (2) building a Computer Based Patient Record System; (3) bringing the collective resources of our National Laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; and (4) utilizing Government (e.g. DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues.

  9. Feedforward consequences of isometric contractions: effort and ventilation.

    PubMed

    Luu, Billy L; Smith, Janette L; Martin, Peter G; McBain, Rachel A; Taylor, Janet L; Butler, Jane E

    2016-08-01

    The onset of voluntary muscle contractions causes rapid increases in ventilation and is accompanied by a sensation of effort. Both the ventilatory response and perception of effort are proportional to contraction intensity, but these behaviors have been generalized from contractions of a single muscle group. Our aim was to determine how these relationships are affected by simultaneous contractions of multiple muscle groups. We examined the ventilatory response and perceived effort of contraction during separate and simultaneous isometric contractions of the contralateral elbow flexors and of an ipsilateral elbow flexor and knee extensor. Subjects made 10-sec contractions at 25, 50, and 100% of maximum during normocapnia and hypercapnia. For simultaneous contractions, both muscle groups were activated at the same intensities. Ventilation was measured continuously and subjects rated the effort required to produce each contraction. As expected, ventilation and perceived effort increased proportionally with contraction intensity during individual contractions. However, during simultaneous contractions, neither ventilation nor effort reflected the combined muscle output. Rather, the ventilatory response was similar to when contractions were performed separately, and effort ratings showed a small but significant increase for simultaneous contractions. Hypercapnia at rest doubled baseline ventilation, but did not affect the difference in perceived effort between separate and simultaneous contractions. The ventilatory response and the sense of effort at the onset of muscle activity are not related to the total output of the motor pathways, or the working muscles, but arise from cortical regions upstream from the motor cortex. PMID:27482074

  10. GOES-R Space Environment In-Situ Suite: instruments overview, calibration results, and data processing algorithms, and expected on-orbit performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galica, G. E.; Dichter, B. K.; Tsui, S.; Golightly, M. J.; Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    The space weather instruments (Space Environment In-Situ Suite - SEISS) on the soon to be launched, NOAA GOES-R series spacecraft offer significant space weather measurement performance advances over the previous GOES N-P series instruments. The specifications require that the instruments ensure proper operation under the most stressful high flux conditions corresponding to the largest solar particle event expected during the program, while maintaining high sensitivity at low flux levels. Since the performance of remote sensing instruments is sensitive to local space weather conditions, the SEISS data will be of be of use to a broad community of users. The SEISS suite comprises five individual sensors and a data processing unit: Magnetospheric Particle Sensor-Low (0.03-30 keV electrons and ions), Magnetospheric Particle Sensor-High (0.05-4 MeV electrons, 0.08-12 MeV protons), two Solar And Galactic Proton Sensors (1 to >500 MeV protons), and the Energetic Heavy ion Sensor (10-200 MeV for H, H to Fe with single element resolution). We present comparisons between the enhanced GOES-R instruments and the current GOES space weather measurement capabilities. We provide an overview of the sensor configurations and performance. Results of extensive sensor modeling with GEANT, FLUKA and SIMION are compared with calibration data measured over nearly the entire energy range of the instruments. Combination of the calibration results and model are used to calculate the geometric factors of the various energy channels. The calibrated geometric factors and typical and extreme space weather environments are used to calculate the expected on-orbit performance.

  11. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  12. Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Non-Clinical Children: Relationships with Self-Report and Performance-Based Measures of Attention and Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; van der Pennen, Els; Sigmond, Rianne; Mayer, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control, and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8-12 years. For this purpose, children completed self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological…

  13. Voices inside Schools: Capturing Authenticity, Transforming Perception--One Teacher's Efforts to Improve Her Students' Performance by Challenging Their Impressions of Self and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinell, William H.

    2008-01-01

    In this Voices Inside Schools essay, William Marinell describes the efforts of a public school teacher to improve her students' writing by attempting to increase their connectivity to their community. By designing photojournalism projects that prompt students to capture their authentic experiences, the teacher hopes to challenge the students'…

  14. Inefficient effort allocation and negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Julie M; Treadway, Michael T; Bennett, Melanie E; Blanchard, Jack J

    2016-02-01

    Negative symptoms like avolition and anhedonia are thought to involve difficulties with reward processing and motivation. The current study aimed to replicate and extend prior findings that individuals with schizophrenia display reduced willingness to expend effort for rewards and that such reduced effort is associated with negative symptoms, poor functioning, and cognitive impairment. The present study compared the effortful decision making of individuals with schizophrenia (n=48) and healthy controls (n=27) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Individuals with schizophrenia chose a smaller proportion of hard tasks than healthy controls across all probability and reward levels with the exception of trials with a 12% probability and low or medium reward magnitude wherein both groups chose similarly few hard tasks. Contrary to expectations, in individuals with schizophrenia, greater negative symptoms were associated with making more effortful choices. Effortful decision making was unrelated to positive symptoms, depression, cognition, and functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. Our results are consistent with prior findings that revealed a pattern of inefficient decision making in individuals with schizophrenia relative to healthy controls. However the results did not support the hypothesized association of negative symptoms and reduced effort in schizophrenia and highlight prior inconsistencies in this literature. Future research is needed to understand what factors may be related to diminished effortful decision making in schizophrenia and the clinical significance of such performance deficits. PMID:26763628

  15. The Influence of Stimulus Material on Attention and Performance in the Visual Expectation Paradigm: A Longitudinal Study with 3- And 6-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teubert, Manuel; Lohaus, Arnold; Fassbender, Ina; Vierhaus, Marc; Spangler, Sibylle; Borchert, Sonja; Freitag, Claudia; Goertz, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Gudi, Helene; Kolling, Thorsten; Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of stimulus material on attention and expectation learning in the visual expectation paradigm. Female faces were used as attention-attracting stimuli, and non-meaningful visual stimuli of comparable complexity (Greebles) were used as low attention-attracting stimuli. Expectation learning performance…

  16. Intervening in Expectation Communication: The "Alterability" of Teacher Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Harris M.

    Theoretical and practical implications of the proposition that teachers' differential behavior toward high and low expectation students serves a control function were tested. As predicted, initial performance expectations were found related to later perceptions of control over performance, even when the initial relationship between expectations…

  17. NASA Efforts on Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the field of nanotechnology within the theme of "New efforts in Nanotechnology Research," will be presented. NASA's interest, requirements and current efforts in this emerging field will be discussed. In particular, NASA efforts to develop nanoelectronic devices, fuel cells, and other applications of interest using this novel technology by collaborating with academia will be addressed. Progress on current collaborations in this area with the University of Puerto Rico will be highlighted.

  18. Simulation of the expected performance of INSERT: A new multi-modality SPECT/MRI system for preclinical and clinical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busca, P.; Fiorini, C.; Butt, A. D.; Occhipinti, M.; Peloso, R.; Quaglia, R.; Schembari, F.; Trigilio, P.; Nemeth, G.; Major, P.; Erlandsson, K.; Hutton, B. F.

    2014-01-01

    A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (INtegrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus, that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems such as 3 T MRI with 59 cm bore diameter. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes will be developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging, the second one dedicated to clinical imaging. The basic building block of the SPECT detector ring is a small 5 cm×5 cm gamma camera, based on the well-established Anger architecture with a continuous scintillator readout by an array of silicon photodetectors. Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) and Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM) are being considered as possible scintillator readout, considering that the detector choice plays a predominant role for the final performance of the system, such as energy and spatial resolution, as well as the useful field of view of the camera. Both solutions are therefore under study to evaluate their performances in terms of field of view (FOV), spatial and energy resolution. Preliminary simulations for both the preclinical and clinical systems have been carried out to evaluate resolution and sensitivity.

  19. The Transition from Business as Usual to Funding for Results: State Efforts To Integrate Performance Measures in the Higher Education Budgetary Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brenda Norman

    This report describes a 1997 survey which examined performance funding in higher education and offers guidelines for states' and institutions' explorations of performance-based funding. Among highlights of the survey are: 32 states are planning or using performance measures in the state budget process; legislatively mandated initiatives are…

  20. Dopamine D1 Receptors in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Regulate Effort-Based Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweimer, Judith; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in encoding whether or not an action is worth performing in view of the expected benefit and the cost of performing the action. Dopamine input to the ACC may be critical for this form of effort-based decision making; however, the role of distinct ACC dopamine receptors is yet unknown.…

  1. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  2. High Performance Computing and Communications: New Program Direction Would Benefit from a More Focused Effort. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Information Management Div.

    The House Armed Services Committee asked the GAO (General Accounting Office) to examine the HPCC (High Performance Computing and Communications) program in terms of: (1) the effectiveness of the program's management structure in setting goals and measuring progress, and (2) how extensively private industry has been involved in the planning and…

  3. The Relation of High School Academic Performance and Student Effort to Language Use and Recenty of Migration among Asian- and Pacific-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornbusch, Sanford M.; And Others

    This report, part of a larger study of the impact of family structures and processes on the social and academic performance of American high school students, focuses on Asian- and Pacific-American high school achievement. The following findings are reported: (1) Asian-Americans and Pacific-Americans exhibit very different patterns in school…

  4. Student Expectations of Grade Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, R. Eric

    1999-01-01

    College students completed evaluation-of-teaching surveys in five different courses to develop an evaluation instrument that would provide results concerning faculty performance. Two questions examined students' expectations regarding grades. Results indicated a significant degree of expected grade inflation. Large proportions of students doing…

  5. Measuring Cycling Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the basic mechanics of cycling with a simple reckoning of how much effort is needed from the cyclist. The work done by the cyclist is quantified when the ride is on the flat and also when pedaling uphill. Proves that by making use of the available gears on a mountain bike, cycling uphill can be accomplished without pain. (Author/ASK)

  6. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  7. International aerospaceplane efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    Although the U.S. began the first reusable space booster effort in the late 1950's, it is no longer an exclusive field. All of the technologically advanced nations, and several groups of nations, have one or more reusable booster efforts in progress. A listing of the entries in the field is presented. The list is somewhat misleading, because it includes both fully reusable and partially reusable boosters, both manned and unmanned, and both flight test and operational proposals. Additionally, not all of the projects are funded, and only a few of the projects will survive. The most likely candidates are the following: France/ESA, Germany/ESA, Great Britain/ESA/(USSR), USSR(past), and Japan. A discussion of the preceding projects is provided.

  8. What Do Hispanic Students Want in a Mentor? A Model of Protégé Cultural Orientation, Mentorship Expectations, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Cody B.; Yang, Yan; Dicke-Bohmann, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of the effects of cultural factors on Hispanic protégés' expectations for and experiences with their mentors. Specifically, the proposed model posits that cultural orientation predicts the mentorship functions protégés desire, and the positive impact of these mentorship functions…

  9. Moderation of Stimulus Material on the Prediction of IQ with Infants' Performance in the Visual Expectation Paradigm: Do Greebles Make the Task More Challenging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teubert, Manuel; Lohaus, Arnold; Fassbender, Ina; Vöhringer, Isabel A.; Suhrke, Janina; Poloczek, Sonja; Freitag, Claudia; Lamm, Bettina; Teiser, Johanna; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the role of the stimulus material for the prediction of later IQ by early learning measures in the Visual Expectation Paradigm (VExP). The VExP was assessed at 9?months using two types of stimuli, Greebles and human faces. Greebles were assumed to be associated with a higher load on working memory in…

  10. Dissociations between Expectancy and Performance in Simple and Two-Choice Reaction-Time Tasks: A Test of Associative and Nonassociative Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Louise C.; Livesey, Evan J.

    2010-01-01

    Perruchet, Cleeremans, and Destrebecqz (2006) reported a striking dissociation between trends in the conscious expectancy of an event and the speed of a response that is cued by that event. They argued that this indicates the operation of independent processes in human associative learning. However, there remains a strong possibility that this…

  11. Personal effort in social relationships across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lang, Frieder R; Wagner, Jenny; Wrzus, Cornelia; Neyer, Franz J

    2013-06-01

    We explored age differences in the amount of personal effort that people put forth to maintain relationships across adulthood in diverse family-life contexts. More specifically, we examined how personal effort in social relationships is age-differently related to emotional closeness and perceptions of reciprocity. A total of 658 early-midlife (37 years) and old-age adults (73 years) from three life contexts (biological parents, parents from blended families with at least one stepchild, childless individuals) completed a questionnaire assessing ego-centered social networks, relationship quality, perceived conflict, and personal characteristics. As expected, perceived relationship effort was more pronounced and more strongly associated with emotional closeness in old age than in early midlife. In both age groups, perceived effort was comparably associated with reciprocity and conflict. Such associations were similar across the different life contexts. The findings suggest that perceived personal effort in social relationships contributes to the proactive shaping of social worlds across adulthood. PMID:23586359

  12. Performance.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    High performance is difficult to maintain because it is dynamic and not well understood. Based on a synthesis of many sources, a model is proposed where performance is a function of the balance between capacity and challenge. Too much challenge produces coping (or a crash); excess capacity results in boredom. Over time, peak performance drifts toward boredom. Performance can be managed by adjusting our level of ability, our effort, the opportunity to perform, and the challenge we agree to take on. Coping, substandard but acceptable performance, is common among professionals and its long-term side effects can be debilitating. A crash occurs when coping mechanisms fail. PMID:17020177

  13. Illustration of sampling-based approaches to the calculation of expected dose in performance assessments for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD.

    2007-04-01

    A deep geologic repository for high level radioactive waste is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. As mandated in the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated public health and safety standards (i.e., 40 CFR Part 197) for the YM repository, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has promulgated licensing standards (i.e., 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc.) consistent with 40 CFR Part 197 that the DOE must establish are met in order for the YM repository to be licensed for operation. Important requirements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. relate to the determination of expected (i.e., mean) dose to a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) and the incorporation of uncertainty into this determination. This presentation describes and illustrates how general and typically nonquantitive statements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. can be given a formal mathematical structure that facilitates both the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI and the appropriate separation in this calculation of aleatory uncertainty (i.e., randomness in the properties of future occurrences such as igneous and seismic events) and epistemic uncertainty (i.e., lack of knowledge about quantities that are poorly known but assumed to have constant values in the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI).

  14. Navy superconductivity efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  15. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action. PMID:21734862

  16. The implicit "go": masked action cues directly mobilize mental effort.

    PubMed

    Gendolla, Guido H E; Silvestrini, Nicolas

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that masked general action and inaction cues that are processed during a cognitive task directly mobilize effort exerted during the task. Participants were randomly assigned to an action-prime condition, an inaction-prime condition, or a control condition and performed a Sternberg short-term memory task. The intensity of effort the participants exerted during the task was estimated by measuring their heart responses (cardiac preejection period, PEP) during task performance. As expected, exposure to masked action cues resulted in stronger PEP reactivity than exposure to masked inaction cues. PEP reactivity in the control group fell in between reactivity when action cues were used and reactivity when inaction cues were used. Participants' task performance revealed a corresponding pattern: Reaction times were the shortest in the action-prime condition, increased in the control condition, and increased further in the inaction-prime condition. These results show that masked action cues and inaction cues directly influence the intensity of effort exerted in the performance of a task. PMID:20861511

  17. Attitudes and expectations of producers to the use of a microcomputer-based management information system to monitor dairy herd performance

    PubMed Central

    Lissemore, Kerry D.; Leslie, Ken E.; Martin, S. Wayne; Menzies, Paula I.; Meek, Alan H.

    1992-01-01

    The attitudes and expectations of producers toward the use of a microcomputer-based herd management information system were assessed. The study was conducted over a two-year period, beginning in January 1986, and was operated as a bureau service. The implementation and use of the program are described elsewhere. Pre- and posttrial questionnaires were administered to assess producer attitudes. We found that the monthly analysis reports were used in the management of the dairy farms and were found to be a useful management tool. The majority of producers indicated a willingness to pay, on average, $6.86/cow/year for such a service. PMID:17423946

  18. Preparing for TESS: What to Expect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.

    2015-08-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will launch in 2017 as a NASA Explorer mission, and will discover hundreds of new small planets transiting nearby, bright stars. As has been the case with Kepler, understanding and limiting systematic noise sources will be key to squeezing the best photometric precision out of the TESS instrument. I will describe our efforts at MIT to minimize such systematics, speaking both generally and in regard to one very specific challenge: mitigating the scourge of cosmic rays passing through TESS's thick CCD detectors. I will present the current data collection strategy and its expected performance in light of these known error sources, and I will share detailed simulations of what the TESS survey data will be like. Harnessing the unique opportunity offered by this focus meeting, I hope to solicit feedback from the ExoStats community on what additional lessons from Kepler should be considered in advance of the launch of TESS.

  19. Implementation of the Performance Management System (PMS) in Senior Secondary Schools in Botswana: An Investigation of Senior Management Team's Expected Benefits of the PMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulawa, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Different forms of the performance management system have been implemented in many countries for some years. As in other countries, in 1999 the government of Botswana took a decision to implement a performance management system (PMS) across the entire public service including schools. The government explained the purpose for which this reform was…

  20. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  1. User Expectations: Nurses' Perspective.

    PubMed

    Gürsel, Güney

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare is a technology-intensive industry. Although all healthcare staff needs qualified computer support, physicians and nurses need more. As nursing practice is an information intensive issue, understanding nurses' expectations from healthcare information systems (HCIS) is a must issue to meet their needs and help them in a better way. In this study perceived importance of nurses' expectations from HCIS is investigated, and two HCIS is evaluated for meeting the expectations of nurses by using fuzzy logic methodologies. PMID:27332398

  2. Operating the EOSDIS at the Land Processes DAAC Managing Expectations, Requirements, and Performance Across Agencies, Missions, Instruments, Systems, and User Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.

    2002-09-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990's. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990's changed as each community had its say -- first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC -- particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) -- are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  3. Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalvelage, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  4. Is Effort Praise Motivational? The Role of Beliefs in the Effort-Ability Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Ng, Yee-lam

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how beliefs in the effort-ability relationship moderated the effects of effort praise on student motivation. Study 1 showed that the more the participants believed that effort and ability were related positively (the positive rule) versus related negatively (the inverse rule), the more they would have positive…

  5. A Rational Expectations Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Norris A.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a simple classroom simulation of the Lucas supply curve mechanism with rational expectations. Concludes that the exercise has proved very useful as an introduction to the concepts of rational and adaptive expectations, the Lucas supply curve, the natural rate hypothesis, and random supply shocks. (DB)

  6. An Unexpected Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)

  7. Reflections on Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santini, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf…

  8. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  9. Patient expectations of fair complaint handling in hospitals: empirical data

    PubMed Central

    Friele, Roland D; Sluijs, Emmy M

    2006-01-01

    Background A common finding in several studies is patients' dissatisfaction with complaint handling in health care. The reasons why are for the greater part unknown. The key to an answer may be found in a better understanding of patients' expectations. We investigated patients' expectations of complaint handling in hospitals. Methods Subjects were patients who had lodged a complaint at the complaint committees of 74 hospitals in the Netherlands. A total of 424 patients (response 75%) completed a written questionnaire at the start of the complaint procedures. Derived from justice theory, we asked what they expected from fair procedures, fair communication and fair outcome of complaint handling. Results The predominant reason for complainants to lodge a complaint was to prevent the incident from happening again. Complainants expected fair procedures from the complaint committee, in particular an impartial position. This was most important to 87% of the complainants. They also expected to be treated respectfully. Furthermore, they expected the hospital and the professional involved to respond to their complaint. A change in hospital performances was the most wanted outcome of complaint handling, according to 79% of the complainants. They also expected disclosure from the professionals. Professionals should admit a mistake when it had occurred. More complainants (65%) considered it most important to get an explanation than an apology (41%). Only 32% of complainants expected the professional to make an effort to restore the doctor-patient relationship. A minority of complainants (7%) wanted financial compensation. Conclusion Nearly all complainants want to prevent the incident from happening again, not out of pure altruism, but in order to restore their sense of justice. We conclude that complaint handling that does not allow for change is unlikely to meet patients' expectations. Secondly, complaint handling should not be left exclusively to complaint committees, the

  10. Retrospective CMORPH Reprocessing Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarosh, Y.; Joyce, R.; Xie, P.

    2008-05-01

    The Climate Prediction Center morphing method (CMORPH) uses motion vectors derived from half-hourly interval geostationary satellite IR imagery to propagate the relatively high quality precipitation estimates derived from passive microwave (PMW) data to define high-resolution precipitation estimates over the globe (Joyce et al. 2004). Precipitation estimates from all available PMW sensors are merged for each 30-minute period, and calibrated to the TRMM TMI 2A12 rainfall estimates before propagation. Currently PMW precipitation estimates from nine instruments are used (TRMM TMI, AQUA AMSR-E, two DMSP SSM/I, four NOAA AMSU, and METOP-A MHS). Infrared (IR) data from five geostationary meteorological satellites are used to infer the movement of precipitation features that have been identified by the PMW information by performing spatial lag correlations on IR imagery that are 30 minutes apart in time. Essentially, the IR data are used to determine cloud motion, and that motion is applied to the PMW-derived rainfall. The shape and intensity of the PMW derived rainfall patterns are modified by "morphing". This is accomplished by doing a linear interpolation (in time) between rainfall features propagated forward in time, i.e. from the previous PMW overpass to the most current scan, and rainfall propagated backward in time, i.e. from the most current overpass to the previous scan. Currently the CMORPH archive is slightly longer than five years initiating in December 2002, corresponding to the methodology conception date. A project is underway at NOAA/CPC to extend the CMORPH satellite estimates back to 2000. PMW rainfall estimates from the NOAA-17 AMSU and AQUA AMSR-E are available from mid-2002, NOAA-16 AMSU from late 2000, NOAA-15 AMSU from early 2000, DMSP-15 SSMI since late 1999, TRMM TMI since December 1997, DMSP-14 since mid-1997, and DMSP-13 since mid-1995. Thus while PMW sampling previous to the December 2002 CMORPH inception is sparse relative to the current PMW

  11. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  12. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  13. From Effort to Value: Preschool Children's Alternative to Effort Justification.

    PubMed

    Benozio, Avi; Diesendruck, Gil

    2015-09-01

    In the current studies, we addressed the development of effort-based object valuation. Four- and 6-year-olds invested either great or little effort in order to obtain attractive or unattractive rewards. Children were allowed to allocate these rewards to an unfamiliar recipient (dictator game). Investing great effort to obtain attractive rewards (a consonant situation) led 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, to enhance the value of the rewards and thus distribute fewer of them to others. After investing effort to attain unattractive rewards (a dissonant situation), 6-year-olds cognitively reduced the dissonance between effort and reward quality by reappraising the value of the rewards and thus distributing fewer of them. In contrast, 4-year-olds reduced the dissonance behaviorally by discarding the rewards. These findings provide evidence for the emergence of an effort-value link and underline possible mechanisms underlying the primacy of cognitive versus behavioral solutions to dissonance reduction. PMID:26209529

  14. THE ROLE OF LOW COGNITIVE EFFORT AND NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Morra, Lindsay F.; Sullivan, Sara K.; Gold, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two experiments were conducted to examine whether insufficient effort, negative symptoms (e.g., avolition, anhedonia), and psychological variables (e.g., anhedonia and perception of low cognitive resources) predict generalized neurocognitive impairment in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). Method In Experiment 1, participants included 97 individuals with SZ and 63 healthy controls (CN) who completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), and self-report anhedonia questionnaires. In Experiment 2, participants included 46 individuals with SZ and 33 CN who completed Green’s Word Memory Test (WMT), the MCCB, and self-reports of anhedonia, defeatist performance beliefs, and negative expectancy appraisals. Results Results indicated that a low proportion of individuals with SZ failed effort testing (1.0% Experiment 1; 15.2% Experiment 2); however, global neurocognitive impairment was significantly predicted by low effort and negative symptoms. Conclusions Findings indicate that low effort does not threaten the validity of neuropsychological test results in the majority of individuals with schizophrenia; however, effort testing may be useful in SZ patients with severe negative symptoms who may be more likely to put forth insufficient effort due to motivational problems. Although the base rate of failure is relatively low, it may be beneficial to screen for insufficient effort in SZ and exclude individuals who fail effort testing from pharmacological or cognitive remediation trials. PMID:25000322

  15. 20 CFR 327.15 - Reasonable efforts to obtain work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.15 Reasonable efforts to obtain work. (a) Requirement. A claimant may... not covered by the act, who may reasonably be expected to have openings in work suitable for him; (4... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable efforts to obtain work....

  16. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  17. Raising Expectations To Improve Student Learning. Urban Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamburg, Jerry D.

    The issue of low teacher expectations of students is addressed, bearing in mind that any effort to address low teacher expectations for students that does not address the broader issue of school change will fail. The first section of the monograph explores the relationship between teacher expectations and student achievement. The second section…

  18. Maintaining High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  19. Parenting with High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

    2014-01-01

    In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

  20. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  1. Heterogeneity in expected longevities.

    PubMed

    Pijoan-Mas, Josep; Ríos-Rull, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    We develop a new methodology to compute differences in the expected longevity of individuals of a given cohort who are in different socioeconomic groups at a certain age. We address the two main problems associated with the standard use of life expectancy: (1) that people's socioeconomic characteristics change, and (2) that mortality has decreased over time. Our methodology uncovers substantial heterogeneity in expected longevities, yet much less heterogeneity than what arises from the naive application of life expectancy formulae. We decompose the longevity differences into differences in health at age 50, differences in the evolution of health with age, and differences in mortality conditional on health. Remarkably, education, wealth, and income are health-protecting but have very little impact on two-year mortality rates conditional on health. Married people and nonsmokers, however, benefit directly in their immediate mortality. Finally, we document an increasing time trend of the socioeconomic gradient of longevity in the period 1992-2008, and we predict an increase in the socioeconomic gradient of mortality rates for the coming years. PMID:25391225

  2. Expected Performance of the GLAST Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles; Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert; Briggs, Michael; Bhat, Narayana; Connaughton, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; vonKienlin, Andreas; Diehl, Roland; Steinle, Helmut; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Kippen, R. Marc

    2007-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage from the LAT threshold down to approx. 8 kev, and will provide a trigger for re-orienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from selected bursts outside the LAT field of view. GBM consists of twelve NaI scintillation detectors operating in the 8 kev to 1 MeV energy range and two BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 150 keV to 30 MeV energy range. Detector resolution, effective area, and angular response have been determined by calibrations. Analyses indicate that the on-board burst threshold will be approx. 0.7 photon/cm2/s and the on-board burst localization accuracy will typically be better than 8 degrees.

  3. Expected Performance of the GLAST Burst Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Meegan, Charles; Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Kienlin, Andreas von; Lichti, Giselher; Steinle, Helmut; Kippen, R. Marc

    2008-05-22

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage from the LAT threshold down to {approx}8 keV, and will provide a trigger for re-orienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from selected bursts outside the LAT field of view. GBM consists of twelve NaI scintillation detectors operating in the 8 keV to 1 MeV energy range and two BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 150 keV to 30 MeV energy range. Detector resolution, effective area, and angular response have been determined by calibrations. Analyses indicate that the on-board burst threshold will be {approx}0.7 photons cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the on-board burst localization accuracy will typically be better than 8 deg.

  4. Techniques of Assessing Mental Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cennamo, Katherine S.

    The search for techniques to increase the effort that learners invest in video-based instruction has been hindered by the limitations of the instruments used to assess the construct of mental effort. Several researchers have noted the confusion of terms in the field that refer to the cognitive resources devoted to processing the stimulus. In this…

  5. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  6. Shared Expectations for Protection of Identifiable Health Care Information

    PubMed Central

    Wynia, Matthew K; Coughlin, Steven S; Alpert, Sheri; Cummins, Deborah S; Emanuel, Linda L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Ethical Force Program is a collaborative effort to create performance measures for ethics in health care. This report lays out areas of consensus that may be amenable to performance measurement on protecting the privacy, confidentiality and security of identifiable health information. DESIGN Iterative consensus development process. PARTICIPANTS The program's oversight body and its expert panel on privacy include national leaders representing the perspectives of physicians, patients, purchasers, health plans, hospitals, and medical ethicists as well as public health, law, and medical informatics experts. METHODS AND MAIN RESULTS The oversight body appointed a national Expert Advisory Panel on Privacy and Confidentiality in September 1998. This group compiled and reviewed existing norms, including governmental reports and legal standards, professional association policies, private organization statements and policies, accreditation standards, and ethical opinions. A set of specific and assessable expectations for ethical conduct in this domain was then drafted and refined through 7 meetings over 16 months. In the final 2 iterations, each expectation was graded on a scale of 1 to 10 by each oversight body member on whether it was: (1) important, (2) universally applicable, (3) feasible to measure, and (4) realistic to implement. The expectations that did not score more than 7 (mean) on all 4 scales were reconsidered and retained only if the entire oversight body agreed that they should be used as potential subjects for performance measurement. Consensus was achieved on 34 specific expectations. The expectations fell into 8 content areas, addressing the need for transparency of policies and practices, consent for use and disclosure of identifiable information, limitations on information that can be collected and by whom, individual access to one's own health records, security requirements for storage and transfer of information, provisions to ensure

  7. Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-08

    This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

  8. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  9. An investigation of gender and grade-level differences in middle school students' attitudes about science, in science process skills ability, and in parental expectations of their children's science performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Terri Renee'

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine different variables (i.e. science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation for their children in science, which may impinge on science education differently for males and females in grades five, seven, and nine. The research question addressed by the study was: What are the differences between science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation in science on the academic success of fifth, seventh, and ninth graders in science and do effects differ according to gender and grade level? The subjects included fifth, seven, and ninth grade students ( n = 543) and their parents (n = 474) from six rural, public elementary schools and two rural, public middle schools in Southern Mississippi. A two-way (grade x gender) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences in science process skill abilities of females and males in grade five, seven, and nine. An additional separate two-way multivariate analysis of variance (grade x gender) was also used to determine the differences in science attitudes of males and females in grade five, seven, and nine. A separate analysis of variance (PPSEX [parent's gender]) with the effects being parents' gender was used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. An additional separate analysis of variance (SSEX [student's gender]) with the effects being the gender of the student was also used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. Results of the analyses indicated significant main effects for grade level (p < .001) and gender (p < .001) on the TIPS II. There was no significant grade by gender interaction on the TIPS II. Results for the TOSRA also indicated a significant main effect for grade (p < .001) and the interaction of grade by sex ( p < .001). On variable ATT 5

  10. Classical subjective expected utility

    PubMed Central

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  11. Classical subjective expected utility.

    PubMed

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-04-23

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  12. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  13. A Comparison of Two Methods for Measuring Listening Effort As Part of an Audiologic Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingjing; Cox, Robyn; Pendergraft, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated 2 measures of listening effort (a self-report measure and a word recall measure) regarding their suitability for inclusion in a comprehensive audiologic testing protocol. The relationship between the 2 measures was explored, and both measures were examined with regard to validity, sensitivity, and effect on speech intelligibility performance. Method Thirty adults with normal hearing participated. Speech intelligibility performance was evaluated at 4 signal-to-noise ratios by using keywords embedded in both high- and low-context sentences. Listening effort was evaluated at set intervals throughout the speech intelligibility task. Results Results obtained with the 2 measures were consistent with expected changes in listening effort. However, data obtained with the self-report method demonstrated greater sensitivity to these changes. The 2 measures were uncorrelated. Under certain conditions, speech intelligibility performance was more negatively affected when the word recall measure was used. Exploration of additional theoretical and practical considerations supported a conclusion that the self-report measure was preferable for measuring listening effort simultaneously with speech intelligibility. Conclusion The results of this study provide a rationale for preferring the self-report measure of listening effort over the word recall measure when testing audiologic outcomes. PMID:25996680

  14. Critique of ``Expected Value`` models

    SciTech Connect

    May, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    There are a number of models in the defense community which use a methodology referred to as ``Expected Value`` to perform sequential calculations of unit attritions or expenditures. The methodology applied to two-sided, dependent, sequential events can result in an incorrect model. An example of such an incorrect model is offered to show that these models may yield results which deviate significantly from a stochastic or Markov process approach. The example was derived from an informal discussion at the Center for Naval Analyses.

  15. Dialysis centers - what to expect

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment. Many people have dialysis in a treatment center. This article focuses on hemodialysis at a treatment center. ... Artificial kidneys - dialysis centers - what to expect; Dialysis - what to expect; Renal replacement therapy - dialysis centers - what to expect

  16. Detailed Description of the GOES-R Space Weather Medium- and High-Energy Particle Instruments and Their Data Processing Algorithms with Applications to Expected On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dichter, B. K.; Galica, G. E.; Tsui, S.; Golightly, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The space weather instruments (Space Environment In-Situ Suite - SEISS) on the soon to be launched, NOAA GOES-R spacecraft offer significant performance advances over the previous GOES N-O series instruments. The medium- and high-energy particle instruments, MPS-HI and SGPS, measure differential proton spectra from 80 keV to 500 MeV in a total of 21 logarithmically spaced channels and electrons from 50 keV to 10 MeV in 10 logarithmically spaced channels. These instruments use solid state silicon detectors as sensor. Their designs feature multi-detector coincidence telescopes, combined with degrader material, tungsten shielding and data processing algorithms to optimize the signal to noise ratio. Details of the mechanical and electronic design will be presented. Key aspects of data processing including background subtraction techniques and a novel method to distinguish high energy rear entry particles from front entry ones will be described. Results of extensive modeling with GEANT4 will be compared with calibration data measured over nearly the entire energy range of the instruments. Combination of the two will be used to calculate the geometric factors of the various energy channels. A listing of the channels and their properties will be presented. The calibrated geometric factors and typical and extreme space weather environments will be used to calculate the expected on-orbit performance. The specifications that the instruments met ensure proper operation under the most stressful high flux conditions corresponding to the largest solar particle event expected during the program and high sensitivity at low flux levels. Comparisons will be made between the enhanced GOES-R instruments and the current GOES space weather measurement capabilities.

  17. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  18. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  19. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  20. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  1. Great Expectations: Examining the Discrepancy between Expectations and Experiences on College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleitz, Jacob D.; MacDougall, Alexandra E.; Terry, Robert A.; Buckley, M. Ronald; Campbell, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build upon previous efforts evaluating the degree to which the discrepancy between student expectations and experiences can result in greater rates of attrition in education. Data were collected from 225 students at a large Midwestern public university and analyzed to assess the discrepancy between expectations…

  2. Global efforts in structural genomics.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R C; Yokoyama, S; Wilson, I A

    2001-10-01

    A worldwide initiative in structural genomics aims to capitalize on the recent successes of the genome projects. Substantial new investments in structural genomics in the past 2 years indicate the high level of support for these international efforts. Already, enormous progress has been made on high-throughput methodologies and technologies that will speed up macromolecular structure determinations. Recent international meetings have resulted in the formation of an International Structural Genomics Organization to formulate policy and foster cooperation between the public and private efforts. PMID:11588249

  3. High School to Community College: New Efforts to Build Shared Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosin, Matthew; Wilson, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Although K-12 schools and community colleges share responsibility for the futures of a vast number of young Californians, and both are under pressure to improve student academic achievement, the groups operate under separate governance systems, pursue distinct missions, gauge success based on different measures, and are seldom looked at together.…

  4. New standard exceeds expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.J. )

    1993-08-01

    The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.

  5. Sociology of Low Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Gabrielle; Williams, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have drawn attention to the role of hype and optimistic visions of the future in providing momentum to biomedical innovation projects by encouraging innovation alliances. In this article, we show how less optimistic, uncertain, and modest visions of the future can also provide innovation projects with momentum. Scholars have highlighted the need for clinicians to carefully manage the expectations of their prospective patients. Using the example of a pioneering clinical team providing deep brain stimulation to children and young people with movement disorders, we show how clinicians confront this requirement by drawing on their professional knowledge and clinical expertise to construct visions of the future with their prospective patients; visions which are personalized, modest, and tainted with uncertainty. We refer to this vision-constructing work as recalibration, and we argue that recalibration enables clinicians to manage the tension between the highly optimistic and hyped visions of the future that surround novel biomedical interventions, and the exigencies of delivering those interventions in a clinical setting. Drawing on work from science and technology studies, we suggest that recalibration enrolls patients in an innovation alliance by creating a shared understanding of how the “effectiveness” of an innovation shall be judged. PMID:26527846

  6. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs. PMID:25994710

  7. Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

  8. Does software design complexity affect maintenance effort?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epping, Andreas; Lott, Christopher M.

    1994-01-01

    The design complexity of a software system may be characterized within a refinement level (e.g., data flow among modules), or between refinement levels (e.g., traceability between the specification and the design). We analyzed an existing set of data from NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory to test whether changing software modules with high design complexity requires more personnel effort than changing modules with low design complexity. By analyzing variables singly, we identified strong correlations between software design complexity and change effort for error corrections performed during the maintenance phase. By analyzing variables in combination, we found patterns which identify modules in which error corrections were costly to perform during the acceptance test phase.

  9. Bilateral asymmetries in max effort single-leg vertical jumps.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Thomas M; Lawson, Brooke R; Reiser, Raoul F

    2005-01-01

    While asymmetries in the lower extremity during jumping may have implications during rehabilitation, it is not clear if healthy subjects should be expected to jump equivalently on each leg. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if asymmetries exist in maximal effort single-leg vertical jumps. After obtaining university-approved informed consent, 13 men and 12 women with competitive volleyball playing experience and no injuries of the lower-extremity that would predispose them to asymmetries participated. After thorough warm-up, five maximal effort vertical jumps with countermovement were performed on each leg (random order) with ground reaction forces and lower extremity kinematics recorded. The best three jumps from each leg were analyzed, assigning the leg with the highest jump height average as the dominant side. Asymmetry was assessed by determining statistical significance in the dominant versus non-dominant sides (p < 0.05). A significant interaction existed between side and gender for thigh length and peak vertical ground reaction force. Women had a significantly shorter thigh and men a greater peak vertical ground reaction force on their dominant side. All other parameters were assessed as whole group. Jumps were significantly greater off the dominant leg (2.8 cm on average). No other differences between sides were observed. Significant differences in magnitude (p < 0.05) existed between the men and women in jump height, several anthropometric parameters, minimum ankle and hip angles, and vertical ground reaction forces (peak and average). In conclusion, though a person may jump slightly higher on one leg relative to the other, and women may jump slightly differently than men, the magnitude of the difference should be relatively small and due to the multi-factorial nature of jump performance, individual parameters related to performance may not be consistently different. PMID:15850125

  10. 48 CFR 1352.231-71 - Duplication of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Duplication of effort. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1331.205-70, insert the following clause: Duplication of Effort (APR 2010) The contractor hereby certifies that costs for work to be performed under this contract and... that any and all work performed under this contract shall be directly and exclusively for the use...

  11. A Study of Expectations and the Marital Quality of Participants of a Marital Enrichment Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Lee J.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Frousakis, Nikki N.; Schumm, Jeremiah A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the effects of expectations of effort of self and spouse on the marital quality of marital enrichment seminar participants. Self-report measures of marital quality, expectations regarding effort put into implementing what was learned during the seminar, amount of perceived effort, and satisfaction with effort…

  12. Preventing Marketing Efforts That Bomb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    In a marketplace overwhelmed with messages, too many institutions waste money on ineffective marketing. Highlights five common marketing errors: limited definition of marketing; unwillingness to address strategic issues; no supporting data; fuzzy goals and directions; and unrealistic expectations, time lines, and budgets. Though trustees are not…

  13. Shuttle operational expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of orbital flight tests (OFT) of the Space Shuttle are reviewed, and modifications planned for upcoming operational flights are discussed. The performance of the solid rocket boosters, external tank, main engines, structural system, propulsion system, reaction control system, electric power system, heat rejection system, hydraulic system, avionics, and other systems is described and evaluated as generally highly satisfactory. Payload servicing and deployment were also successfully demonstrated by OFT. Additional facilities planned for the operational flights are briefly described, and improvements that will make the Challenger spacecraft lighter than Columbia, provide it with more thrust, and give it a larger payload are summarized. Some software modifications being introduced are also mentioned.

  14. The AstroHDF Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, J.; Alexov, A.; Folk, M.; Hanisch, R.; Heber, G.; Wise, M.

    2012-09-01

    Here we update the astronomy community on our effort to deal with the demands of ever-increasing astronomical data size and complexity, using the Hierarchical Data Format, version 5 (HDF5) format (Wise et al. 2011). NRAO, LOFAR and VAO have joined forces with The HDF Group to write an NSF grant, requesting funding to assist in the effort. This paper briefly summarizes our motivation for the proposed project, an outline of the project itself, and some of the material discussed at the ADASS Birds of a Feather (BoF) discussion. Topics of discussion included: community experiences with HDF5 and other file formats; toolsets which exist and/or can be adapted for HDF5; a call for development towards visualizing large (> 1 TB) image cubes; and, general lessons learned from working with large and complex data.

  15. Noradrenaline and dopamine neurons in the reward/effort trade-off: a direct electrophysiological comparison in behaving monkeys.

    PubMed

    Varazzani, Chiara; San-Galli, Aurore; Gilardeau, Sophie; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-05-20

    Motivation determines multiple aspects of behavior, including action selection and energization of behavior. Several components of the underlying neural systems have been examined closely, but the specific role of the different neuromodulatory systems in motivation remains unclear. Here, we compare directly the activity of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta and noradrenergic neurons from the locus coeruleus in monkeys performing a task manipulating the reward/effort trade-off. Consistent with previous reports, dopaminergic neurons encoded the expected reward, but we found that they also anticipated the upcoming effort cost in connection with its negative influence on action selection. Conversely, the firing of noradrenergic neurons increased with both pupil dilation and effort production in relation to the energization of behavior. Therefore, this work underlines the contribution of dopamine to effort-based decision making and uncovers a specific role of noradrenaline in energizing behavior to face challenges. PMID:25995472

  16. Unidata's International Efforts and Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, Mohan

    2010-05-01

    Increasingly, the conduct of science requires strong international scientific partnerships and the sharing of data, information, knowledge and other assets. This is particularly true in the geosciences where the highly coupled nature of the Earth system and the need to understand global environmental processes and their regional linkages have heightened the importance of international collaborations. As geoscience studies become a team effort involving networked scientists and data providers, it is crucial that there is full, open, reliable and timely access to and sharing of earth system science data. Unidata, which is funded by the United States National Science Foundation, recognizes the benefits of international scientific partnerships and the value of networked communities, as institutions and people exchange data, knowledge and other resources. Unidata's international data sharing activities began modestly as the MeteoForum project in Latin America in 2001, but have since grown to include several projects and collaborations in many countries. Unidata's growing portfolio of international activities are conducted in close collaboration with academic, research, and operational institutions worldwide. Specific emphasis of those efforts is on sharing data, and provision of software, support, and training. Real-time atmospheric science data delivered have helped to initiate teaching innovations in universities, advanced research, and facilitated operational forecasting. In this talk, an overview of Unidata's approach to gradual but organic international broadening will be presented, along with examples of specific collaborations and activities via myriad internationally-linked efforts and projects. In addition to describing these efforts, the talk will summarize some of the lessons learned in developing, implementing, and supporting those activities.

  17. Does cleanliness influence moral judgments? Response effort moderates the effect of cleanliness priming on moral judgments

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Whether cleanliness influences moral judgments has recently become a topic of debate in the psychological literature. After the initial report that activating the notion of physical purity can result in less severe moral judgments (Schnall et al., 2008a), a direct replication (Johnson et al., 2014a) with much larger sample sizes failed to yield similar findings. The current paper examines the possibility that only non-conscious activation of the cleanliness concept, as achieved in participants with low response effort on priming materials, can produce the expected effect. An online replication (Study 1, N = 214) provided evidence that, when participants exerted low (yet still acceptable) levels of response effort to the experimental material, cleanliness priming led to more lenient moral judgments than neutral priming. An online experiment (Study 2, N = 440; replicated in Study 2a, N = 436) manipulating participants’ effort on the priming task (low vs. high) supported the hypothesized mechanism. Specifically, respondents in the low response effort group were instructed to complete the priming task as quickly as possible without too much attention, and the cleanliness priming resulted in less extreme moral judgments than the neutral condition as expected. In contrast, respondents in the high response effort group were instructed to perform to the best of their ability on the priming task, with a non-significant difference on moral ratings between cleanliness and neutral conditions. In addition to helping resolve the controversy regarding the cleanliness hypothesis, the current paper calls into attention the role of response effort in the execution and replication of priming studies. PMID:25414690

  18. Anger and effortful control moderate aggressogenic thought-behaviour associations.

    PubMed

    Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V E; Peets, Kätlin; Salmivalli, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The effects of anger and effortful control on aggressogenic thought-behaviour associations were investigated among a total of 311 Finnish fifth and sixth graders (mean age = 11.9 years). Self-reported aggressive cognitions (i.e., normative- and self-efficacy beliefs about aggression) were expected to be associated with higher peer-reported aggressive behaviour. Teacher reported anger and effortful control were hypothesised, and found, to moderate the effects of aggressive cognitions on aggression, such that the effects were strongest for children who were high in anger and low in effortful control, as compared to other conditions. Furthermore, under the conditions of high anger and high effortful control, self-efficacy was negatively related to aggression. Thus, aggression is a result of a complex, hierarchically organised motivational system, being jointly influenced by aggressive cognitions, anger and effortful control. The findings support the importance of examining cognitive and emotional structures jointly when predicting children's aggressive behaviour. PMID:26042460

  19. Expecting the Best for Students: Teacher Expectations and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubie-Davies, Christine; Hattie, John; Hamilton, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research into teacher expectations has shown that these have an effect on student achievement. Some researchers have explored the impact of various student characteristics on teachers' expectations. One attribute of interest is ethnicity. Aims: This study aimed to explore differences in teachers' expectations and judgments of student…

  20. Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

  1. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  2. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  3. Summary of process research analysis efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of solar-cell process research analysis efforts was presented. Process design and cell design are interactive efforts where technology from integrated circuit processes and other processes are blended. The primary factors that control cell efficiency are: (1) the bulk parameters of the available sheet material, (2) the retention and enhancement of these bulk parameters, and (3) the cell design and the cost to produce versus the finished cells performance. The process sequences need to be tailored to be compatible with the sheet form, the cell shape form, and the processing equipment. New process options that require further evaluation and utilization are lasers, robotics, thermal pulse techniques, and new materials. There are numerous process control techniques that can be adapted and used that will improve product uniformity and reduced costs. Two factors that can lead to longer life modules are the use of solar cell diffusion barriers and improved encapsulation.

  4. Sensors and Data Acquisition Development Efforts at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes efforts at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to develop spacecraft sensors and instruments which meet the expected needs of potential clients on a budget. Sensors are profiled, and the topics covered include systems health monitoring, smart structures, software algorithms, and testing.

  5. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  6. Expect the unexpected: ability, attitude, and responsiveness to hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Benham, Grant; Woody, Erik Z; Wilson, K Shannon; Nash, Michael R

    2006-08-01

    Participants' expectancies and hypnotic performance throughout the course of a standardized, individually administered hypnotic protocol were analyzed with a structural equation model that integrated underlying ability, expectancy, and hypnotic response. The model examined expectancies and ability as simultaneous predictors of hypnotic responses as well as hypnotic responses as an influence on subsequent expectancies. Results of the proposed model, which fit very well, supported each of the 4 major hypothesized effects: Expectancies showed significant stability across the course of the hypnosis protocol; expectancies influenced subsequent hypnotic responses, controlling for latent ability; hypnotic responses, in turn, affected subsequent expectancies; and a latent trait underlay hypnotic responses, controlling for expectancies. Although expectancies had a significant effect on hypnotic responsiveness, there was an abundance of variance in hypnotic performance unexplained by the direct or indirect influence of expectation and compatible with the presence of an underlying cognitive ability. PMID:16881769

  7. Self-Efficacy Expectancy and Outcome Expectancy: Their Relationship and Their Effects on Behavioral Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, James E.; And Others

    Self-efficacy theory maintains that self-efficacy expectancy, a belief about one's ability to perform a behavior successfully, is independent of outcome expectancy, a belief about the likelihood of the behavior leading to a specific outcome. To examine this hypothesis, subjects (N=95) read communications that differed in descriptions of the…

  8. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

    2010-11-29

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  9. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  10. Patient (customer) expectations in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Sedat; Acuner, Taner; Yilmaz, Gökhan

    2007-06-01

    The expectations of patient are one of the determining factors of healthcare service. The purpose of this study is to measure the Patients' Expectations, based on Patient's Rights. This study was done with Likert-Survey in Trabzon population. The analyses showed that the level of the expectations of the patient was high on the factor of receiving information and at an acceptable level on the other factors. Statistical meaningfulness was determined between age, sex, education, health insurance, and the income of the family and the expectations of the patients (p<0.05). According to this study, the current legal regulations have higher standards than the expectations of the patients. The reason that the satisfaction of the patients high level is interpreted due to the fact that the level of the expectation is low. It is suggested that the educational and public awareness studies on the patients' rights must be done in order to increase the expectations of the patients. PMID:17028043

  11. Patient expectation: what is comprehensive health care?

    PubMed

    Starr, G C; Norris, R; Patil, K D; Young, P R

    1979-01-01

    A patient expectation survey was developed and implemented in order to define the spectrum of health care activities expected from the University of Nebraska Family Health Centers. The hypothesis underlying the survey is that patient expectations or opinions vary considerably among the members of any given population. High expectation is present for office visits, emergency services, yearly physical examination, and performance of chest x-ray, blood test, proctoscopy, and eye examination. Psychiatric services, marital counseling, youth counseling, nursing home care, and health education are indicated as not necessary by a plurality of the respondents. Examination of the responses by age, sex, and payment status through canonical correlation reveals a number of strong correlations of specific subgroups and expectations. Factor analysis revealed three independent factors or clusters representating health care issues as perceived by the patient. This study and further similar studies will be helpful in aiding the family physician's understanding of what patients expect. Through a better understanding of patient expectation, patient satisfaction and compliance may be improved. PMID:759540

  12. Student Perception of Academic Grading: Personality, Academic Orientation, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippin, Gregory K.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.; Page, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Factors influencing student perceptions of academic grading were examined, with an emphasis on furthering understanding of the relevance of effort to students' conceptualization of grading. Students demonstrated a conceptualization of grading where effort should be weighted comparably to actual performance in importance to the composition of a…

  13. Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…

  14. Effort analysis of gender differences in cardiovascular response: Further evidence involving a traditionally feminine incentive.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Patricia; Wright, Rex A; Krubinski, Kimberlee; Molzof, Hylton; Hur, Jinwoo

    2015-07-01

    Participants were presented a moderately- or impossibly difficult cumulative mental addition task with instructions that they could win a traditionally feminine- or masculine incentive if they achieved a 90% success rate. When the incentive was feminine, systolic blood pressure responses during the task period were stronger under moderately difficult conditions among women, but low irrespective of difficulty among men - creating a gender difference only when difficulty was moderate. By contrast, when the incentive was masculine, systolic-, mean arterial- and, to a lesser degree, diastolic blood pressure responses during the task period were stronger under moderately difficult conditions irrespective of gender. The former finding confirmed expectations and adds substantively to the body of evidence favoring a recent effort analysis of gender influence on CV response to performance challenge. The latter findings conflict with what was first expected, but can be understood in terms of post hoc reasoning extended in light of participants' ratings of the masculine incentive. PMID:26032868

  15. Differentiating between types and levels of isokinetic knee musculature efforts.

    PubMed

    Almosnino, Sivan; Stevenson, Joan M; Day, Andrew G; Bardana, Davide D; Diaconescu, Elena D; Dvir, Zeevi

    2011-12-01

    This investigation assessed whether a measure of moment curve shape similarity, and a measure quantifying curve magnitude differences, enables differentiation between types (sincere vs. feigned) and levels (maximal vs. submaximal) of effort exerted during isokinetic testing of the knee. Healthy participants (n=37) performed four sets of six concentric knee extension-flexion repetitions on two occasions. The sets consisted of: (1) maximal effort; (2) self-perceived 75% of maximal effort; (3) self-perceived 50% of maximal effort; and (4) a set attempting to feign injury. Average cross-correlation and percent root mean square difference values were computed between moment curves in each direction. Logistic regression was used to derive decision rules for differentiating between maximal and submaximal effort levels; and between sincere and feigned effort types. Using a cutoff criteria corresponding to 100% specificity, maximal effort production could be ascertained with 96% sensitivity within the sample. Feigned efforts, however, could be ascertained with only 31% sensitivity due to overlap with sincere submaximal effort. Using the proposed models, clinicians may be able to ascertain whether maximal efforts were produced during isokinetic knee musculature testing. Additionally, evidence regarding participant's intentions with regard to influencing test results may be gauged, although to a lesser extent. PMID:21925901

  16. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  17. Expectations of Garland [Junior College].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland Junior Coll., Boston, MA.

    A survey was conducted at Garland Junior College to determine the educational expectations of 69 new students, 122 parents, and 22 college faculty and administrators. Each group in this private women's college was asked to rank, in terms of expectations they held, the following items: learn job skills, mature in relations with others, become more…

  18. Institutional Differences: Expectations and Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harold

    1982-01-01

    The history of higher education has paid scant attention to the attitudes and expectations of its customers, students, and employers of graduates. Recent research on student and employer attitudes toward higher education sectors has not taken into account these expectations in the context of recent higher education history. (Author/MSE)

  19. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  20. NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

  1. Diversity in Literary Response: Revisiting Gender Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendler, Beth M.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on and reexamining theories on gender and literacy, derived from research performed between 1974 and 2002, this qualitative study explored the gender assumptions and expectations of Language Arts teachers in a graduate level adolescent literature course at a university in the Midwestern United States. The theoretical framework was…

  2. Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

  3. Make It a Team Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2001-01-01

    Describes how one school district transformed its cleaning program to increase efficiency, improve performance, and reduce errors and training time. Equipment cost savings and other benefits experienced from the new cleaning program are revealed, as is how the district overcame worker resistance to change. (GR)

  4. Effects of Effortful Swallow on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lívia M S; Silva, Roberta G; Melo, Monique; Silva, Nayra N; Vanderlei, Franciele M; Garner, David M; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-04-01

    Swallowing-induced changes in heart rate have been recently reported. However, it is not apparent the responses of heart rate variability (HRV) elicited by effortful swallow maneuver. We investigated the acute effects of effortful swallowing maneuver on HRV. This study was performed on 34 healthy women between 18 and 35 years old. We assessed heart rate variability in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50) and frequency (HF, LF, and LF/HF ratio) domains and, visual analysis through the Poincaré plot. The subjects remained at rest for 5 min during spontaneous swallowing and then performed effortful swallowing for 5 min. HRV was analyzed during spontaneous and effortful swallowing. We found no significant differences for SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, HF in absolute units (ms(2)). There is a trend for increase of LF in absolute (p = 0.05) and normalized (p = 0.08) units during effortful swallowing. HF in normalized units reduced (p = 0.02) during effortful swallowing and LF/HF ratio (p = 0.03) increased during effortful swallowing. In conclusion effortful swallow maneuver in healthy women increased sympathetic cardiac modulation, indicating a cardiac overload. PMID:26650792

  5. Pain Expectancies, Pain, and Functional Self-Efficacy Expectancies as Determinants of Disability in Patients with Chronic Low Back Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested the predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities, expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back pain patients. Before assessment of function, patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks--functional self-efficacy (FSE)--and the likelihood working would…

  6. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  7. Dialysis centers - what to expect

    MedlinePlus

    ... what to expect; Renal replacement therapy - dialysis centers; End-stage renal disease - dialysis centers; Kidney failure - dialysis ... swells and the hand on that side feels cold Your hand gets cold, numb, or weak Also ...

  8. Maternal Competence, Expectation, and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Douglas H.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a study of maternal competence, expectations and involvement in child rearing decisions in relation to paternal personality and marital characteristics. Subjects were 45 thirty-year-old mothers. (BD)

  9. Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Rogers, Richard G; Krueger, Patrick M

    2008-07-17

    OBJECTIVE: We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. METHODS: We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. RESULTS: Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  10. Major League Baseball Players’ Life Expectancies*

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  11. Great Expectations: Expectation Based Reasoning in Medical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Paul R.; Miller, Perry L.; Swett, Henry A.

    1988-01-01

    Several different approaches to knowledge representation for medical expert systems have been explored. We suggest that a modified version of the script formalism, which we term “expectation-based reasoning”, may offer an additional knowledge representation for medical information, addressing certain shortcomings of previous approaches. This representation can drive expert system analysis for diagnosis and workup advice. The script formalism structures the knowledge base around a set of temporally sequenced event frames, each containing a list of default expectations. This model, we believe, allows straightforward knowledge generation from a domain expert, since it may closely parallel a central aspect of human clinical decision-making: that of projecting assumptions for a “hypothesize-and-test” inference mechanism. A prototype expectation-based expert system, OSCAR, is under development to explore this approach.

  12. National Virtual Observatory Efforts at SAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresitello-Dittmar, M.; Deponte, J.; Evans, I.; Harris, M.; Lowe, S.; McDowell, J. C.; Noble, M. S.

    The National Virtual Observatory (NVO) project is an effort to federate astronomical resources, to provide seamless access to heterogeneous data at various centers throughout the world, and make them appear to the user as a homogeneous set. The NVO will reduce the user's need to obtain, recall and manage details such as passwords, band coverage, instrument specificity and access methodologies for each archive site in order to get and analyze data. The project will employ Grid technology and distributed computing techniques to manage enormous data volumes and processing needs. At the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), we are developing a small scale prototype implementation of the NVO paradigm. This demonstration will illustrate the directions being pursued toward this goal by allowing a user to request data from various resources, display the returned data, and interactively perform analysis on that data.

  13. Social Baseline Theory: The Social Regulation of Risk and Effort

    PubMed Central

    Coan, James A.; Sbarra, David A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe Social Baseline Theory (SBT), a perspective that integrates the study of social relationships with principles of attachment, behavioral ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and perception science. SBT suggests the human brain expects access to social relationships that mitigate risk and diminish the level of effort needed to meet a variety of goals. This is accomplished in part by incorporating relational partners into neural representations of the self. By contrast, decreased access to relational partners increases cognitive and physiological effort. Relationship disruptions entail re-defining the self as independent, which implies greater risk, increased effort, and diminished well being. The ungrafting of the self and other may mediate recovery from relationship loss. PMID:25825706

  14. The ethics of life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Small, Robin

    2002-08-01

    Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive--our expectation of further life--and the other negative--the loss of potential life brought about by death. The most common method of determining this loss, by counting only the period of time between death and some particular age, implies that those who die at ages not far from that one are regarded as losing very little potential life, while those who die at greater ages are regarded as losing none at all. This approach has methodological advantages but ethical disadvantages, in that it fails to correspond to our strong belief that anyone who dies is losing some period of life that he or she would otherwise have had. The normative role of life expectancy expressed in the 'fair innings' attitude arises from a particular historical situation: not the increase of life expectancy in modern societies, but a related narrowing in the distribution of projected life spans. Since life expectancy is really a representation of existing patterns of mortality, which in turn are determined by many influences, including the present allocation of health resources, it should not be taken as a prediction, and still less as a statement of entitlement. PMID:12956176

  15. Achieving Common Expectations for Overall Goals amid Diversity among Cooperative Extension Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Barbara

    As a part of the initial phase of a strategic planning effort for the development of Florida's 1988 through 1991 long-range cooperative extension program, an effort was initiated to achieve common expectations for overall organizational mission and purpose among diverse cooperative extension faculty. The unification effort included the following…

  16. Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

  17. Control of robotic assistance using poststroke residual voluntary effort.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Nathaniel S; Knutson, Jayme S; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick E

    2015-03-01

    Poststroke hemiparesis limits the ability to reach, in part due to involuntary muscle co-activation (synergies). Robotic approaches are being developed for both therapeutic benefit and continuous assistance during activities of daily living. Robotic assistance may enable participants to exert less effort, thereby reducing expression of the abnormal co-activation patterns, which could allow participants to reach further. This study evaluated how well participants could perform a reaching task with robotic assistance that was either provided independent of effort in the vertical direction or in the sagittal plane in proportion to voluntary effort estimated from electromyograms (EMG) on the affected side. Participants who could not reach targets without assistance were enabled to reach further with assistance. Constant anti-gravity force assistance that was independent of voluntary effort did not reduce the quality of reach and enabled participants to exert less effort while maintaining different target locations. Force assistance that was proportional to voluntary effort on the affected side enabled participants to exert less effort and could be controlled to successfully reach targets, but participants had increased difficulty maintaining a stable position. These results suggest that residual effort on the affected side can produce an effective command signal for poststroke assistive devices. PMID:25373107

  18. Acute LED irradiation does not change the anaerobic capacity and time to exhaustion during a high-intensity running effort: a double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled study : Effects of LED irradiation on anaerobic capacity and performance in running.

    PubMed

    Malta, Elvis De Souza; De Poli, Rodrigo Araujo Bonetti; Brisola, Gabriel Motta Pinheiro; Milioni, Fabio; Miyagi, Willian Eiji; Machado, Fabiana Andrade; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of photobiomodulation therapy using cluster light-emitting diodes (LEDT; 104 diodes) (wavelength 660 and 850 nm; energy density 1.5 and 4.5 J/cm(2); energy 60 J at each point; total energy delivered 600 J) on alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT) and time to exhaustion, during a high-intensity running effort. Fifteen moderately active and healthy males (age 25.1 ± 4.4 years) underwent a graded exercise test and two supramaximal exhaustive efforts at 115 % of the intensity associated with maximal oxygen uptake performed after acute LEDT or placebo irradiation in a double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled study design. The MAODALT was assumed as the sum of both oxygen equivalents estimated from the glycolytic and phosphagen metabolism pathways during each supramaximal effort. For the statistical analysis, a paired t test was used to determine differences between the treatments. The significance level was assumed as 95 %. In addition, a qualitative analysis was used to determine the magnitude of differences between groups. No significant differences were found for the values of oxygen equivalents from each energetic metabolism (P ≥ 0.28), for MAODALT values between the LEDT and placebo conditions (P ≥ 0.27), or for time to exhaustion (P = 0.80), except for the respiratory exchange ratio (P = 0.01). The magnitude-based inference of effect size reported only a possibly negative effect of photobiomodulation on MAODALT when expressed in units relative to body mass and on the glycolysis pathway (26 %). In summary, LEDT after a high-intensity running effort did not alter the MAODALT, metabolic energy pathways, or high-intensity running performance. PMID:27384042

  19. Expectant Fathers: Changes and Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    The author conducted a compreshensive literature review on expectant fatherhood to determine the needs of men participating in the childbearing cycle. A sparse but growing body of knowledge exists about this population. A number of authors reported distinct changes and concerns. Most of the study subjects were participatns in prenatal classes, a factor which suggests that the findings may not reflect the needs of all expectant fathers. All partners were experiencing a normal pregnancy. This precluded the anxiety of a high-risk situation as a confounding variable. Most information given to expectant fathers was intended to assist them to support their partners. There was little evidence that men received much professional guidance to prepare them for fatherhood. PMID:21249006

  20. TRENDS IN SENESCENT LIFE EXPECTANCY

    PubMed Central

    Bongaarts, John

    2009-01-01

    The distinction between senescent and non-senescent mortality proves to be very valuable for describing and analyzing age patterns of death rates. Unfortunately, standard methods for estimating these mortality components are lacking. The first part of this study discusses alternative methods for estimating background and senescent mortality among adults and proposes a simple approach based on death rates by causes of death. The second part examines trends in senescent life expectancy (i.e. the life expectancy implied by senescent mortality) and compares them with trends in conventional longevity indicators between 1960 and 2000 in a group of 17 developed countries with low mortality. Senescent life expectancy for females rises at an average rate of 1.54 years per decade between 1960 and 2000 in these countries. The shape of the distribution of senescent deaths by age remains relatively invariant while the entire distribution shifts over time to higher ages as longevity rose. PMID:19851933

  1. Kidney Failure: What to Expect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Griffin Rodgers, Director of the NIDDK Clinical Trials Current research studies and how you can volunteer Community Outreach and Health Fairs Science-based information and tips for planning an outreach effort or community event For Health Care Professionals Patient and provider resources ...

  2. Desettling Expectations in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, M.; Warren, B.; Rosebery, A. S.; Medin, D.

    2012-01-01

    Calls for the improvement of science education in the USA continue unabated, with particular concern for the quality of learning opportunities for students from historically nondominant communities. Despite many and varied efforts, the field continues to struggle to create robust, meaningful forms of science education. We argue that "settled…

  3. PLATO Simulator: Realistic simulations of expected observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos-Arenal, P.; Zima, W.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; Huygen, R.; Samadi, R.; Green, J.; Piotto, G.; Salmon, S.; Catala, C.; Rauer, H.

    2015-06-01

    PLATO Simulator is an end-to-end simulation software tool designed for the performance of realistic simulations of the expected observations of the PLATO mission but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. It models and simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources.

  4. The Mobile Browsing Behaviors and Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the…

  5. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant secondary metabolites (e.g., phenolics) are important for human health, in addition to the organoleptic properties they impart to fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions. Thorough identification of phenolic com...

  6. Career Expectations of Accounting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…

  7. Reasonable Expectation of Adult Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todaro, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses staff behavioral problems that prove difficult for successful library management. Suggests that reasonable expectations for behavior need to be established in such areas as common courtesies, environmental issues such as temperature and noise levels, work relationships and values, diverse work styles and ways of communicating, and…

  8. Great Expectations and New Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

  9. Undergraduates' Perceptions of Employer Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Carrie; Williams, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) indicates that employers across industries seek similar skills in job applicants; yet employers often report finding these desired skills lacking in new hires. This study closes the gap in understanding between employer expectations and student perceptions regarding…

  10. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  11. Corporate diversification: expectations and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Clement, J P

    1988-01-01

    A review of the research concerning the diversification experience of firms in other industries shows that expectations of higher profit rates and lower risk are not entirely realistic. However, there are many ways in which the probability of financially successful diversification may be increased. PMID:3384656

  12. Supervising Prerelease Offenders: Clarifying Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benekos, Peter J.

    1986-01-01

    Presents and discusses a conceptual model of the concerns of prerelease offenders and community supervisors. The conceptualization suggests that "perceptual differences" of the concerns of prerelease status is one alternative for examining the supervisorial relationship. Attempts to identify and confront the different expectations of supervisors…

  13. Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

    1996-01-01

    Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

  14. Differentiated Staffing: Expectations and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbee, Don

    Once a differentiated staffing pattern has been adopted--with the understanding that it is not a panacea--staff members have an obligation to minimize distinctions of rank and prevent organizational rigidity by contributing in role areas other than their own and sharing in decisionmaking. Teacher aides are not expected to be substitutes for…

  15. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  16. Education: Expectation and the Unexpected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers concepts of expectation and responsibility, and how these drive dialogic interactions between tutor and student in an age of marketised Higher Education. In thinking about such interactions in terms of different forms of exchange, the paper considers the philosophy of Martin Buber and Emmanuel Levinas on dialogic…

  17. Expectation Effects in Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Albert S.

    1974-01-01

    The experiment reported here was conducted during a 12-month period at four plants owned by the same company. Managers were given artificial reports about previous findings obtained in implementing job enlargement and job rotation programs. Led to expect higher productivity as a result of these organizational innovations, the managers increased…

  18. FastStats: Life Expectancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... years of age by sex, race and Hispanic origin Health, United States 2015, table 15 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, by sex: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries Health, United States 2015, table 14 [PDF - 9. ...

  19. What a_____ thing to do! Formally characterizing actions by their expected effects.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dustin; Tov, William; Costello, Cory

    2015-06-01

    A number of personality frameworks assume traits describe central tendencies of action--for instance, calling someone assertive indicates they have a tendency to perform assertive actions. But what makes it appropriate to characterize an action by terms like assertive, kind, or honest? We propose that actions are characterized by such terms in large part by having expected effects on the environment which match particular conceptual templates. In the present studies, we attempt to better identify the expected effect dimensions perceivers seem to utilize to make action characterizations related to the Big Five and HEXACO personality dimensions. To do so, a set of 150 situation-action scenarios were generated from actions suggestive of conscientiousness-related characteristics (Study 1), and of characteristics in other HEXACO domains (Study 2). Participants then characterized each action on a range of bipolar dimensions (e.g., assertive vs. submissive). A separate group of raters coded the expected effects of performing these actions on 21 different outcomes (e.g., effort expenditure; achievement of career goals). Action characterizations were highly predicted by expected effect dimensions in ways that matched provisional hypotheses and were consistent across studies. Furthermore, actions characterizations tended to be highly diagnostic of self-reported individual differences in the same characteristics. We discuss implications for a range of phenomena, such as understanding the relations between behaviors and traits, integrating trait models and decision-making models, and understanding the effect of situational features on personality traits. PMID:25621857

  20. Prioritizing earthquake and tsunami alerting efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local tsunami. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and tsunami-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and tsunami inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a warning. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to tsunami inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to warn of the shaking hazard, but also the local tsunami inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.

  1. The Case of Effort Variables in Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Mary O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Tests the existence of a structural shift between above- and below-average students in the econometric models that explain students' grades in principles of economics classes. Identifies a structural shift and estimates separate models for above- and below-average students. Concludes that separate models as well as educational policies are…

  2. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    PubMed

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed. PMID:24404807

  3. The expected value of control: An integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function

    PubMed Central

    Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M.; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function. PMID:23889930

  4. The expected value of control: an integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function.

    PubMed

    Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2013-07-24

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function. PMID:23889930

  5. The effects of sleep loss on capacity and effort

    PubMed Central

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy

    2014-01-01

    Sleep loss appears to affect the capacity for performance and access to energetic resources. This paper reviews research examining the physical substrates referred to as resource capacity, the role of sleep in protecting that capacity and the reaction of the system as it attempts to respond with effort to overcome the limitations on capacity caused by sleep loss. Effort is the extent to which an organism will exert itself beyond basic levels of functioning or attempt alternative strategies to maintain performance. The purpose of this review is to bring together research across sleep disciplines to clarify the substrates that constitute and influence capacity for performance, consider how the loss of sleep influences access to those resources, examine cortical, physiological, perceptual, behavioral and subjective effort responses and consider how these responses reflect a system reacting to changes in the resource environment. When sleep deprived, the ability to perform tasks that require additional energy is impaired and the ability of the system to overcome the deficiencies caused by sleep loss is limited. Taking on tasks that require effort including school work, meal preparation, pulling off the road to nap when driving drowsy appear to be more challenging during sleep loss. Sleep loss impacts the effort-related choices we make and those choices may influence our health and safety. PMID:26483932

  6. The effects of sleep loss on capacity and effort.

    PubMed

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy

    2014-12-01

    Sleep loss appears to affect the capacity for performance and access to energetic resources. This paper reviews research examining the physical substrates referred to as resource capacity, the role of sleep in protecting that capacity and the reaction of the system as it attempts to respond with effort to overcome the limitations on capacity caused by sleep loss. Effort is the extent to which an organism will exert itself beyond basic levels of functioning or attempt alternative strategies to maintain performance. The purpose of this review is to bring together research across sleep disciplines to clarify the substrates that constitute and influence capacity for performance, consider how the loss of sleep influences access to those resources, examine cortical, physiological, perceptual, behavioral and subjective effort responses and consider how these responses reflect a system reacting to changes in the resource environment. When sleep deprived, the ability to perform tasks that require additional energy is impaired and the ability of the system to overcome the deficiencies caused by sleep loss is limited. Taking on tasks that require effort including school work, meal preparation, pulling off the road to nap when driving drowsy appear to be more challenging during sleep loss. Sleep loss impacts the effort-related choices we make and those choices may influence our health and safety. PMID:26483932

  7. The Role of Ability Beliefs and Incentives in Middle School Students' Intention, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken R.; Zhang, Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study uncovers the predictive relationship of middle school students' ability beliefs (self-efficacy and expectancy-related beliefs) and incentives (outcome expectancy, importance, interest, and usefulness) to intention, cardiovascular fitness, and teacher-rated effort in physical education. Participants (N = 252; 118 boys, 134 girls)…

  8. 75 FR 69096 - Public Meetings of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Reform Effort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Public Meetings of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Reform Effort AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Announcement of public meetings... Effort. In performing its mission, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) believes it...

  9. Spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia - A measure of mental effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Craig Thornton, D.; Moray, Neville

    1987-01-01

    The validity of the spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia as a measure of mental effort was investigated using a computer simulation of a hovercraft piloted along a river as the experimental task. Strong correlation was observed between the subjective effort-ratings and the heart-rate variability (HRV) power spectrum between 0.06 and 0.14 Hz. Significant correlations were observed not only between subjects but, more importantly, within subjects as well, indicating that the spectral analysis of HRV is an accurate measure of the amount of effort being invested by a subject. Results also indicate that the intensity of effort invested by subjects cannot be inferred from the objective ratings of task difficulty or from performance.

  10. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  11. Mental Effort and Elaboration: A Developmental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Daniel W.; Davies, Leslie

    1988-01-01

    Dual task procedures (finger tapping and associative memory) were used to examine developmental differences in the amount of mental effort required to deploy rehearsal and elaboration. Sixth-grade and college students participated. Some evidence for a developmental difference in mental effort was found. (TJH)

  12. Patterns of Research Effort in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Between species differences in research effort can lead to biases in our global view of evolution, ecology and conservation. The increase in meta-taxonomic comparative analyses on birds underlines the need to better address how research effort is distributed in this class. Methods have been developed to choose which species should be studied to obtain unbiased comparative data sets, but a precise and global knowledge of research effort is required to be able to properly apply them. We address this issue by providing a data set of research effort (number of papers from 1978 to 2008 in the Zoological Record database) estimates for the 10 064 species of birds. We then test whether research effort is associated with phylogeny, geography and eleven different life history and ecological traits. We show that phylogeny accounts for a large proportion of the variance, while geographic range and all the tested traits are also significant contributors to research effort variance. We identify avian taxa that are under- and overstudied and address the importance of research effort biases in evaluating vulnerability to extinction, with non-threatened species studied twice as much as threatened ones. Our research effort data set covering the entire class Aves provides a tool for researchers to incorporate this potential confounding variable in comparative analyses. PMID:24587149

  13. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  14. How Sixth Graders Perceive Effort and Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, Mary Lou; Compagnone, Nick

    1995-01-01

    The study described here examined whether using formative assessment would affect middle school physical education students' self-perceptions of effort and skill. Students completed questionnaires about effort and skill following assessment in various activities. Formative assessment did not affect students' self-perceptions. Students believed…

  15. Parental Effort, School Resources, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtenville, Andrew J.; Conway, Karen Smith

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates an important factor in student achievement--parental involvement. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), we estimate a value-added education production function that includes parental effort as an input. Parental effort equations are also estimated as a function of child, parent, household, and…

  16. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  17. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  18. Overview of NASA's Propulsion 21 Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long-Davis, Mary Jo

    2006-01-01

    Propulsion 21 technologies contribute to reducing CO2 and NO(x) emissions and noise. Integrated Government/Industry/University research efforts have produced promising initial technical results. Graduate students from 5 partnering universities will benefit from this collaborative research--> educating the future engineering workforce. Phase 2 Efforts scheduled to be completed 3QFY06.

  19. These Shoes Are Made for Walking: Sensitivity Performance Evaluation of Commercial Activity Monitors under the Expected Conditions and Circumstances Required to Achieve the International Daily Step Goal of 10,000 Steps

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Kelly, Lisa; Murphy, Elaine; Beirne, Sorcha; Burke, Niall; Kilgannon, Orlaith; Quinlan, Leo R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a vitally important part of a healthy lifestyle, and is of major benefit to both physical and mental health. A daily step count of 10,000 steps is recommended globally to achieve an appropriate level of physical activity. Accurate quantification of physical activity during conditions reflecting those needed to achieve the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps is essential. As such, we aimed to assess four commercial activity monitors for their sensitivity/accuracy in a prescribed walking route that reflects a range of surfaces that would typically be used to achieve the recommended daily step count, in two types of footwear expected to be used throughout the day when aiming to achieve the recommended daily step count, and in a timeframe required to do so. Methods Four commercial activity monitors were worn simultaneously by participants (n = 15) during a prescribed walking route reflective of surfaces typically encountered while achieving the daily recommended 10,000 steps. Activity monitors tested were the Garmin Vivofit ™, New Lifestyles’ NL-2000 ™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2) ™, and Fitbit One ™. Results All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection over the variety of different surfaces tested (natural lawn grass, gravel, ceramic tile, tarmacadam/asphalt, linoleum), when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes. Conclusion All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection sensitivity and are valid monitors for physical activity quantification over the variety of different surfaces tested, when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes, and over a timeframe necessary for accumulating the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps. However, it is important to consider the accuracy of activity monitors, particularly when physical activity in the form of stepping activities is prescribed as an intervention in the

  20. Effortful retrieval reduces hippocampal activity and impairs incidental encoding.

    PubMed

    Reas, Emilie T; Brewer, James B

    2013-05-01

    Functional imaging studies frequently report that the hippocampus is engaged by successful episodic memory retrieval. However, considering that concurrent encoding of the background environment occurs during retrieval and influences medial temporal lobe activity, it is plausible that hippocampal encoding functions are reduced with increased attentional engagement during effortful retrieval. Expanding upon evidence that retrieval efforts suppress activity in hippocampal regions implicated in encoding, this study examines the influence of retrieval effort on encoding performance and the interactive effects of encoding and retrieval on hippocampal and neocortical activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while subjects performed a word recognition task with incidental picture encoding. Both lower memory strength and increased search duration were associated with encoding failure and reduced hippocampal and default network activity. Activity in the anterior hippocampus tracked encoding, which was more strongly deactivated when incidental encoding was unsuccessful. These findings highlight potential contributions from background encoding processes to hippocampal activations during neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval. PMID:23378272

  1. Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.

    PubMed

    Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2010-10-20

    Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level. PMID:20962229

  2. Adaptive and qualitative changes in encoding strategy with experience: evidence from the test-expectancy paradigm.

    PubMed

    Finley, Jason R; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners' abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study-test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study-test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants' metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests. PMID:22103783

  3. Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

  4. The Effects of Organizational Context on Teacher Expectancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn J.; Finnigan, Kara

    2003-01-01

    Examines factors affecting teacher expectancy through hierarchical linear modeling of data from two large-scale surveys of teachers working in schools with high-stakes accountability programs. Finds following significant predictors of teacher expectancy: Teacher perceptions of program fairness, student performance feedback, lack of goal conflict,…

  5. Coordinating a Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Retailer and Effort Dependent Demand

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

  6. Coordinating a supply chain with a loss-averse retailer and effort dependent demand.

    PubMed

    Li, Liying; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

  7. Effortful control and executive attention in typical and atypical development: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Samyn, Vicky; Wiersema, Jan R; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roeyers, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Executive attention and its relationship with effortful control (EC) were investigated in children with ADHD (n=24), autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n=20), and controls (n=21). Executive attention measures included flanker-performance and event-related potentials (N2, P3, and ERN). EC was assessed using questionnaires. Only the ERN was found to be robustly related to EC across groups. N2 did not differ between groups and only children with ADHD+ODD showed diminished executive attention as expressed in RT and P3. In ADHD, monitoring of incorrect (ERN) and correct (CRN) responses was diminished. Overall, the link between EC and executive attention was less strong as expected and varied depending on group and measure considered. All groups were able to detect conflict (N2) and all but ADHD+ODD were able to allocate extra attention in order to respond correctly (P3). Findings indicate a general reduced response monitoring in ADHD. PMID:24686073

  8. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

  9. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roo...

  10. Origins of Effortful Control: Infant and Parent Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Bridgett, David J.; Young, Brandi N.; Panksepp, Jaak; Power, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) refers to the ability to inhibit a dominant response to perform a subdominant one and has been shown as protective against a myriad of difficulties. Research examining precursors of EC has been limited to date, and in this study, infancy contributors to toddler EC were examined. Specifically, parent/family background…

  11. When is Deceptive Message Production More Effortful than Truth-Telling? A Baker's Dozen of Moderators.

    PubMed

    Burgoon, Judee K

    2015-01-01

    Deception is thought to be more effortful than telling the truth. Empirical evidence from many quarters supports this general proposition. However, there are many factors that qualify and even reverse this pattern. Guided by a communication perspective, I present a baker's dozen of moderators that may alter the degree of cognitive difficulty associated with producing deceptive messages. Among sender-related factors are memory processes, motivation, incentives, and consequences. Lying increases activation of a network of brain regions related to executive memory, suppression of unwanted behaviors, and task switching that is not observed with truth-telling. High motivation coupled with strong incentives or the risk of adverse consequences also prompts more cognitive exertion-for truth-tellers and deceivers alike-to appear credible, with associated effects on performance and message production effort, depending on the magnitude of effort, communicator skill, and experience. Factors related to message and communication context include discourse genre, type of prevarication, expected response length, communication medium, preparation, and recency of target event/issue. These factors can attenuate the degree of cognitive taxation on senders so that truth-telling and deceiving are similarly effortful. Factors related to the interpersonal relationship among interlocutors include whether sender and receiver are cooperative or adversarial and how well-acquainted they are with one another. A final consideration is whether the unit of analysis is the utterance, turn at talk, episode, entire interaction, or series of interactions. Taking these factors into account should produce a more nuanced answer to the question of when deception is more difficult than truth-telling. PMID:26733932

  12. Spatial habit competes with effort to determine human spatial organization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mona J H; Risko, Evan F

    2016-07-01

    Despite the important role that the physical environment plays in shaping human cognition, few studies have endeavoured to experimentally examine the principles underlying how individuals organize objects in their space. The current investigation examines the idea that humans organize objects in their space in order to minimize effort or maximize performance. We devised a novel spatial organization task whereby participants freely arranged objects in the context of a writing task. Critically, we manipulated the frequency with which each object was used and assessed participants' spontaneous placements. In the first set of experiments, participants showed a counterintuitive tendency to match pen pairs with their initial placements rather than placing pens in the less effortful configuration. However, in Experiment 2, where the difference in physical effort between different locations was increased, participants were more likely to reorganize the pens into the less effortful configuration. We begin developing a theory of human spatial organization wherein the observed initial bias may represent a kind of spatial habit formation that competes with effort/performance considerations to shape future spatial organization. PMID:26912422

  13. Perceived listening effort for a tonal task with contralateral competing signals

    PubMed Central

    Bologna, William J.; Chatterjee, Monita; Dubno, Judy R.

    2013-01-01

    Perceived listening effort was assessed for a monaural irregular-rhythm detection task while competing signals were presented to the contralateral ear. When speech was the competing signal, listeners reported greater listening effort compared to either contralateral steady-state noise or no competing signal. Behavioral thresholds for irregular-rhythm detection were unaffected by competing speech, indicating that listeners compensated for this competing signal with effortful listening. These results suggest that perceived listening effort may be associated with suppression of task-irrelevant information, even for conditions where informational masking and competition for linguistic processing resources would not be expected. PMID:24116542

  14. Information Management System for Site Remediation Efforts.

    PubMed

    Laha; Mukherjee; Nebhrajani

    2000-05-01

    / Environmental regulatory agencies are responsible for protecting human health and the environment in their constituencies. Their responsibilities include the identification, evaluation, and cleanup of contaminated sites. Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) constitute a major source of subsurface and groundwater contamination. A significant portion of a regulatory body's efforts may be directed toward the management of UST-contaminated sites. In order to manage remedial sites effectively, vast quantities of information must be maintained, including analytical dataon chemical contaminants, remedial design features, and performance details. Currently, most regulatory agencies maintain such information manually. This makes it difficult to manage the data effectively. Some agencies have introduced automated record-keeping systems. However, the ad hoc approach in these endeavors makes it difficult to efficiently analyze, disseminate, and utilize the data. This paper identifies the information requirements for UST-contaminated site management at the Waste Cleanup Section of the Department of Environmental Resources Management in Dade County, Florida. It presents a viable design for an information management system to meet these requirements. The proposed solution is based on a back-end relational database management system with relevant tools for sophisticated data analysis and data mining. The database is designed with all tables in the third normal form to ensure data integrity, flexible access, and efficient query processing. In addition to all standard reports required by the agency, the system provides answers to ad hoc queries that are typically difficult to answer under the existing system. The database also serves as a repository of information for a decision support system to aid engineering design and risk analysis. The system may be integrated with a geographic information system for effective presentation and dissemination of spatial data. PMID:10742478

  15. Cataloging Practices in India: Efforts for Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikku, Upinder Kumar

    1984-01-01

    Surveys current cataloging practices in Indian libraries and discusses standardization in cataloging, types of catalogs, cataloging codes (Anglo-American and Ranganathan), subject headings, descriptive cataloging, and standardization efforts (international, United States, USSR, Great Britain, India). Footnotes are included. (EJS)

  16. Occupational Aspiration-Expectation Discrepancies Among High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogie, Donald W.

    1976-01-01

    High School seniors reporting discrepancies between occupational "aspirations" and "expectations" are analyzed in relation to family socioeconomic status, intelligence test scores, scholastic performance, and socioeconomic area of residence. (Author)

  17. Children's expectations about training the approximate number system.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Moira R; Pires, Ana C; Hyde, Daniel C; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2015-11-01

    Humans possess a developmentally precocious and evolutionarily ancient approximate number system (ANS) whose sensitivity correlates with uniquely human symbolic arithmetic skills. Recent studies suggest that ANS training improves symbolic arithmetic, but such studies may engender performance expectations in their participants that in turn produce the improvement. Here, we assessed 6- to 8-year-old children's expectations about the effects of numerical and non-numerical magnitude training, as well as states of satiety and restfulness, in the context of a study linking children's ANS practice to their improved symbolic arithmetic. We found that children did not expect gains in symbolic arithmetic after exercising the ANS, although they did expect gains in ANS acuity after training on any magnitude task. Moreover, children expected gains in symbolic arithmetic after a good night's sleep and their favourite breakfast. Thus, children's improved symbolic arithmetic after ANS training cannot be explained by their expectations about that training. PMID:26399713

  18. The future of life expectancy and life expectancy inequalities in England and Wales: Bayesian spatiotemporal forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James E; Li, Guangquan; Foreman, Kyle; Best, Nicky; Kontis, Vasilis; Pearson, Clare; Hambly, Peter; Ezzati, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To plan for pensions and health and social services, future mortality and life expectancy need to be forecast. Consistent forecasts for all subnational units within a country are very rare. Our aim was to forecast mortality and life expectancy for England and Wales' districts. Methods We developed Bayesian spatiotemporal models for forecasting of age-specific mortality and life expectancy at a local, small-area level. The models included components that accounted for mortality in relation to age, birth cohort, time, and space. We used geocoded mortality and population data between 1981 and 2012 from the Office for National Statistics together with the model with the smallest error to forecast age-specific death rates and life expectancy to 2030 for 375 of England and Wales' 376 districts. We measured model performance by withholding recent data and comparing forecasts with this withheld data. Findings Life expectancy at birth in England and Wales was 79·5 years (95% credible interval 79·5–79·6) for men and 83·3 years (83·3–83·4) for women in 2012. District life expectancies ranged between 75·2 years (74·9–75·6) and 83·4 years (82·1–84·8) for men and between 80·2 years (79·8–80·5) and 87·3 years (86·0–88·8) for women. Between 1981 and 2012, life expectancy increased by 8·2 years for men and 6·0 years for women, closing the female–male gap from 6·0 to 3·8 years. National life expectancy in 2030 is expected to reach 85·7 (84·2–87·4) years for men and 87·6 (86·7–88·9) years for women, further reducing the female advantage to 1·9 years. Life expectancy will reach or surpass 81·4 years for men and reach or surpass 84·5 years for women in every district by 2030. Longevity inequality across districts, measured as the difference between the 1st and 99th percentiles of district life expectancies, has risen since 1981, and is forecast to rise steadily to 8·3 years (6·8–9·7) for men and 8·3 years (7·1

  19. The Martyrdom Effect: When Pain and Effort Increase Prosocial Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Olivola, Christopher Y; Shafir, Eldar

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of motivation and behavior (and lay intuitions alike) consider pain and effort to be deterrents. In contrast to this widely held view, we provide evidence that the prospect of enduring pain and exerting effort for a prosocial cause can promote contributions to the cause. Specifically, we show that willingness to contribute to a charitable or collective cause increases when the contribution process is expected to be painful and effortful rather than easy and enjoyable. Across five experiments, we document this “martyrdom effect,” show that the observed patterns defy standard economic and psychological accounts, and identify a mediator and moderator of the effect. Experiment 1 showed that people are willing to donate more to charity when they anticipate having to suffer to raise money. Experiment 2 extended these findings to a non-charity laboratory context that involved real money and actual pain. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the martyrdom effect is not the result of an attribute substitution strategy (whereby people use the amount of pain and effort involved in fundraising to determine donation worthiness). Experiment 4 showed that perceptions of meaningfulness partially mediate the martyrdom effect. Finally, Experiment 5 demonstrated that the nature of the prosocial cause moderates the martyrdom effect: the effect is strongest for causes associated with human suffering. We propose that anticipated pain and effort lead people to ascribe greater meaning to their contributions and to the experience of contributing, thereby motivating higher prosocial contributions. We conclude by considering some implications of this puzzling phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23559692

  20. Facets of job effort in bus driver health: deconstructing "effort" in the effort-reward imbalance model.

    PubMed

    Tse, John L M; Flin, Rhona; Mearns, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to test the relative value of developing and using job-specific facets of effort and testing them using J. Siegrist's (1996) effort-reward imbalance (ERI) theory to extend understanding of how one might determine job strain in urban bus driving. In addition, the interactive effects of the ERI model are further investigated to address the lack of research into the relationships of the model's constructs. Using focus groups and published papers, a measure of bus driver effort was created, which was subsequently completed by 186 male U.K. bus drivers as part of a questionnaire study. The results were factor analyzed to create 4 facets of effort, which demonstrated additional variance in predicting strain, above and beyond J. Siegrist's original effort construct. One facet, workload and fatigue, was observed to be a particularly important contributor to strain. The analyses further indicated that the ERI model's assumptions that ERI creates job strain could not be completely upheld, although poorer levels of reward and higher levels of overcommitment were strong main predictors of job strain. Research and applied implications are considered. PMID:17257066

  1. Asymmetry in the disconfirmation of expectations for natural yogurt.

    PubMed

    Schifferstein, H N; Kole, A P; Mojet, J

    1999-06-01

    Effects of expectations conveyed by a product description or an empty package on the evaluation of four types of natural yogurt were studied in a laboratory setting. Hedonic and perceptual responses for the correctly or incorrectly identified products generally showed assimilation: they fell between the responses to the unlabelled products and the responses for the expected properties evoked by presenting only product descriptions or empty packages. Hedonic judgments remained close to the expectation when the product performed better than expected, whereas they were relatively close to the evaluation for the unlabelled product when the product performed worse than expected. The asymmetry was largest for the buying intentions of subjects who received product packages. This is in accordance with the theory that positive disconfirmations are regarded as "gains" and negative disconfirmations as "losses". The asymmetry is likely to be more important in actual buying behaviour than in the experimental settings generally studied, as here. PMID:10336791

  2. Gender Bias in Mothers' Expectations about Infant Crawling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondschein, Emily R.; Adolph, Karen E.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Examined influence of child's sex on mothers' expectations about their 11-month-olds' motor development. Found that mothers of girls underestimated their performance on the novel task of crawling down steep and shallow slopes and mothers of boys overestimated their performance. Girls and boys exhibited identical levels of motor performance during…

  3. 20 CFR 416.1017 - Reasonable efforts to obtain review by a qualified psychiatrist or psychologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Responsibilities for Performing the Disability Determination Function § 416.1017 Reasonable efforts to...

  4. 20 CFR 416.1017 - Reasonable efforts to obtain review by a qualified psychiatrist or psychologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Responsibilities for Performing the Disability Determination Function § 416.1017 Reasonable efforts to...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1017 - Reasonable efforts to obtain review by a qualified psychiatrist or psychologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Responsibilities for Performing the Disability Determination Function § 416.1017 Reasonable efforts to...

  6. 20 CFR 416.1017 - Reasonable efforts to obtain review by a qualified psychiatrist or psychologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Responsibilities for Performing the Disability Determination Function § 416.1017 Reasonable efforts to...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1017 - Reasonable efforts to obtain review by a qualified psychiatrist or psychologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Responsibilities for Performing the Disability Determination Function § 416.1017 Reasonable efforts to...

  8. Rising Expectations: Access to Biomedical Information

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, D. A. B.; Humphreys, B. L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective To provide an overview of the expansion in public access to electronic biomedical information over the past two decades, with an emphasis on developments to which the U.S. National Library of Medicine contributed. Methods Review of the increasingly broad spectrum of web-accessible genomic data, biomedical literature, consumer health information, clinical trials data, and images. Results The amount of publicly available electronic biomedical information has increased dramatically over the past twenty years. Rising expectations regarding access to biomedical information were stimulated by the spread of the Internet, the World Wide Web, advanced searching and linking techniques. These informatics advances simplified and improved access to electronic information and reduced costs, which enabled inter-organizational collaborations to build and maintain large international information resources and also aided outreach and education efforts The demonstrated benefits of free access to electronic biomedical information encouraged the development of public policies that further increase the amount of information available. Conclusions Continuing rapid growth of publicly accessible electronic biomedical information presents tremendous opportunities and challenges, including the need to ensure uninterrupted access during disasters or emergencies and to manage digital resources so they remain available for future generations. PMID:18587496

  9. Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions

    PubMed Central

    Holec, Victoria; Pirot, Heather L.; Euston, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., “courage”). As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm (HRA) but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the HRA. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain tasks. PMID:24478659

  10. Systemic Efforts in Georgia to Improve Education Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Research points to links between school and school district leadership and student achievement. Local and national education reform has created rising expectations for student performance. Education leadership is both complex and high stakes. Key stakeholders in Georgia have developed a solution to improve factors in the work, workplace, and…

  11. WHO expectation and industry goals.

    PubMed

    Vandersmissen, W

    2001-02-01

    It is expected the world's vaccine market will show a robust growth over the next few years, yet this growth will predominantly come from introduction of new vaccines in industrialised countries. Economic market forces will increasingly direct vaccine sales and vaccine development towards the needs of markets with effective purchasing power. Yet the scientific and technological progress that drives the development of such innovative vaccines holds the promise of applicability for vaccines that are highly desirable for developing countries. Corrective measures that take into account economic and industrial reality must be considered to span the widening gap between richer and poorer countries in terms of availability and general use of current and recent vaccines. Such measures must help developing countries to get access to future vaccines for diseases that predominantly or exclusively affect them, but for which the poor economic prospects do not provide a basis for the vaccine industry to undertake costly research and development programmes. Recent initiatives such as GAVI, including the establishment of a reliable, guaranteed purchase fund, could provide a solution to the problem. PMID:11166883

  12. Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.

    Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of…

  13. Changing expectancies: cognitive mechanisms and context effects.

    PubMed

    Wiers, Reinout W; Wood, Mark D; Darkes, Jack; Corbin, William R; Jones, Barry T; Sher, Kenneth J

    2003-02-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco, organized by Reinout W. Wiers and Mark D. Wood. The symposium combined two topics of recent interest in studies of alcohol expectancies: cognitive mechanisms in expectancy challenge studies, and context-related changes of expectancies. With increasing recognition of the substantial role played by alcohol expectancies in drinking, investigators have begun to develop and evaluate expectancy challenge procedures as a potentially promising new prevention strategy. The two major issues addressed in the symposium were whether expectancy challenges result in changes in expectancies that mediate intervention (outcome relations), and the influence of simulated bar environments ("bar labs," in which challenges are usually done) on expectancies. The presentations were (1) An introduction, by Jack Darkes; (2) Investigating the utility of alcohol expectancy challenge with heavy drinking college students, by Mark D. Wood; (3) Effects of an expectancy challenge on implicit and explicit expectancies and drinking, by Reinout W. Wiers; (4) Effects of graphic feedback and simulated bar assessments on alcohol expectancies and consumption, by William R. Corbin; (5) Implicit alcohol associations and context, by Barry T Jones; and (6) A discussion by Kenneth J. Sher, who pointed out that it is important not only to study changes of expectancies in the paradigm of an expectancy challenge but also to consider the role of changing expectancies in natural development and in treatments not explicitly aimed at changing expectancies. PMID:12605068

  14. Anticipated effort in imagined self-rotation.

    PubMed

    Macramalla, Steven; Bridgeman, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Chronometric studies provide strong support that mental imagery recruits perceptual processes [Shepard and Cooper, 1982 Mental Images and Their Transformations (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press)]. Recent studies suggest that anticipated effort influences perception (Proffitt et al, 2003 Psychological Science 14 106-112). If anticipated effort influences perception and perception supports imagery, then anticipated effort may influence imagery. To examine the role of effort in mental imagery, participants in experiment 1 imagined self-rotation across two conditions of distance. Simulated rotation took 156 ms longer in larger settings, even though the amount of imagined angular rotation was the same in both settings. This finding suggests the start-to-goal arc is incorporated when imagining rotation through a given angle. Experiment 2 replicated the distance effect (232 ms) and added a variable for load. Simulated rotation took 167 ms longer with imaginary heavy loads. The results suggest that both spatial metrics and anticipated effort may play a role in the coding of mental imagery. PMID:19323138

  15. The effect of sleep loss on next day effort.

    PubMed

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy; Riela, Suzanne; Golan, Rama; Ventuneac, Ana M; Davis, Christine M; Jefferson, Angela D; Major, Donna

    2003-06-01

    The study had two primary objectives. The first was to determine whether sleep loss results in a preference for tasks demanding minimal effort. The second was to evaluate the quality of performance when participants, under conditions of sleep loss, have control over task demands. In experiment 1, using a repeated-measures design, 50 undergraduate college students were evaluated, following one night of no sleep loss and one night of sleep loss. The Math Effort Task (MET) presented addition problems via computer. Participants were able to select additions at one of five levels of difficulty. Less-demanding problems were selected and more additions were solved correctly when the participants were subject to sleep loss. In experiment 2, 58 undergraduate college students were randomly assigned to a no sleep deprivation or a sleep deprivation condition. Sleep-deprived participants selected less-demanding problems on the MET. Percentage correct on the MET was equivalent for both the non-sleep-deprived and sleep-deprived groups. On a task selection question, the sleep-deprived participants also selected significantly less-demanding non-academic tasks. Increased sleepiness, fatigue, and reaction time were associated with the selection of less difficult tasks. Both groups of participants reported equivalent effort expenditures; sleep-deprived participants did not perceive a reduction in effort. These studies demonstrate that sleep loss results in the choice of low-effort behavior that helps maintain accurate responding. PMID:12753348

  16. The evaluation of insufficient cognitive effort in schizophrenia in light of low IQ scores.

    PubMed

    Whearty, Kayla M; Allen, Daniel N; Lee, Bern G; Strauss, Gregory P

    2015-09-01

    Low IQ has recently been shown to predict neuropsychological effort test failure in healthy and neurological populations. Although low IQ is common in schizophrenia (SZ), its effect on effort test performance remains unclear in this population. The current study examined the role of IQ in effort test performance in a sample of 60 outpatients with SZ and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (CN). Participants were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, and insufficient effort was calculated using two embedded effort indices: the Reliable Digit Span Effort Index and the Finger Tapping Effort Index. Results indicated that 16.1% of SZ patients and 0% CN failed both effort measures and that 32.1% of SZ and 3.3% of CN failed one measure. In SZ, IQ in the <70 or 70-79 range was associated with the highest rates of falling below the effort cut-off scores; however, patients with IQs in the low-average or higher range (>80) did not fall below effort cut-offs. Findings suggest that low IQ is a significant predictor of insufficient effort during neuropsychological test performance in schizophrenia, calling into question the validity of neuropsychological effort testing in SZ patients with low IQ. PMID:26026486

  17. Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strati, Virginia; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Mantovani, Fabio; McDonough, William F.; Ricci, Barbara; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-12-01

    Constraints on the Earth's composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) neutrino experiment, designed as a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector, will be built in an underground laboratory in South China about 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants, each one having a planned thermal power of approximately 18 GW. Given the large detector mass and the intense reactor antineutrino flux, JUNO aims not only to collect high statistics antineutrino signals from reactors but also to address the challenge of discriminating the geoneutrino signal from the reactor background. The predicted geoneutrino signal at JUNO is terrestrial neutrino unit (TNU), based on the existing reference Earth model, with the dominant source of uncertainty coming from the modeling of the compositional variability in the local upper crust that surrounds (out to approximately 500 km) the detector. A special focus is dedicated to the 6° × 4° local crust surrounding the detector which is estimated to contribute for the 44% of the signal. On the basis of a worldwide reference model for reactor antineutrinos, the ratio between reactor antineutrino and geoneutrino signals in the geoneutrino energy window is estimated to be 0.7 considering reactors operating in year 2013 and reaches a value of 8.9 by adding the contribution of the future nuclear power plants. In order to extract useful information about the mantle's composition, a refinement of the abundance and distribution of U and Th in the local crust is required, with particular attention to the geochemical characterization of the accessible upper crust where 47% of the expected geoneutrino signal originates and this region contributes

  18. The expected results method for data verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monday, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The credibility of United States Army analytical experiments using distributed simulation depends on the quality of the simulation, the pedigree of the input data, and the appropriateness of the simulation system to the problem. The second of these factors is best met by using classified performance data from the Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA) for essential battlefield behaviors, like sensors, weapon fire, and damage assessment. Until recently, using classified data has been a time-consuming and expensive endeavor: it requires significant technical expertise to load, and it is difficult to verify that it works correctly. Fortunately, new capabilities, tools, and processes are available that greatly reduce these costs. This paper will discuss these developments, a new method to verify that all of the components are configured and operate properly, and the application to recent Army Capabilities Integration Center (ARCIC) experiments. Recent developments have focused improving the process to load the data. OneSAF has redesigned their input data file formats and structures so that they correspond exactly with the Standard File Format (SFF) defined by AMSAA, ARCIC developed a library of supporting configurations that correlate directly to the AMSAA nomenclature, and the Entity Validation Tool was designed to quickly execute the essential models with a test-jig approach to identify problems with the loaded data. The missing part of the process is provided by the new Expected Results Method. Instead of the usual subjective assessment of quality, e.g., "It looks about right to me", this new approach compares the performance of a combat model with authoritative expectations to quickly verify that the model, data, and simulation are all working correctly. Integrated together, these developments now make it possible to use AMSAA classified performance data with minimal time and maximum assurance that the experiment's analytical results will be of the highest

  19. Effort thrombosis: recognition and management while underway.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, P B; MacGillivray, D C; Almond, M D

    1991-10-01

    Effort thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins is an uncommon cause of upper extremity swelling. Prompt recognition and treatment of this disorder is important in order to minimize the complications of pulmonary embolism and postphlebitic syndrome that can occur with this condition. This can be very challenging while underway or in the field. A sailor who developed effort vein thrombosis while underway on board the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln is presented to review the presentation and management of this disorder, particularly as it applies to active duty military personnel. PMID:1749504

  20. High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemci, Emrah

    2011-09-21

    This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

  1. Effects of Response Effort on Resurgence.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alyssa N; Glassford, Tyler S; Koerkenmeier, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined response effort during resurgence tests. Six children were trained to place balls in baskets that were placed either close (.0254 m) or far away (1.829 m or .9 m). Resurgence was assessed using a linear strip design, where responses were reinforced on a variable-interval 10-s schedule or put on extinction. During resurgence tests, minimal to low rates of resurgence associated with the greater response effort (i.e., placing a ball in the basket further way) were observed across all six participants, regardless of distance. PMID:27606253

  2. Work More, Then Feel More: The Influence of Effort on Affective Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M.; Toma, Claudia; Corneille, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined how effort invested in a task shapes the affective predictions related to potential success in that task, and the mechanism underlying this relationship. In Study 1, PhD students awaiting an editorial decision about a submitted manuscript estimated the effort they had invested in preparing that manuscript for submission and how happy they would feel if it were accepted. Subjective estimates of effort were positively related to participants' anticipated happiness, an effect mediated by the higher perceived quality of one's work. In other words, the more effort one though having invested, the happier one expected to feel if it were accepted, because one expected a higher quality manuscript. We replicated this effect and its underlying mediation in Study 2, this time using an experimental manipulation of effort in the context of creating an advertising slogan. Study 2 further showed that participants mistakenly thought their extra efforts invested in the task had improved the quality of their work, while independent judges had found no objective differences in quality between the outcomes of the high- and low-effort groups. We discuss the implications of the relationship between effort and anticipated emotions and the conditions under which such relationship might be functional. PMID:25028961

  3. Work more, then feel more: the influence of effort on affective predictions.

    PubMed

    Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M; Toma, Claudia; Corneille, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined how effort invested in a task shapes the affective predictions related to potential success in that task, and the mechanism underlying this relationship. In Study 1, PhD students awaiting an editorial decision about a submitted manuscript estimated the effort they had invested in preparing that manuscript for submission and how happy they would feel if it were accepted. Subjective estimates of effort were positively related to participants' anticipated happiness, an effect mediated by the higher perceived quality of one's work. In other words, the more effort one though having invested, the happier one expected to feel if it were accepted, because one expected a higher quality manuscript. We replicated this effect and its underlying mediation in Study 2, this time using an experimental manipulation of effort in the context of creating an advertising slogan. Study 2 further showed that participants mistakenly thought their extra efforts invested in the task had improved the quality of their work, while independent judges had found no objective differences in quality between the outcomes of the high- and low-effort groups. We discuss the implications of the relationship between effort and anticipated emotions and the conditions under which such relationship might be functional. PMID:25028961

  4. The Effects of Education Compatibility and Technological Expectancy on E-Learning Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jian-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Discerning what influences a student's acceptance of e-learning is still unclear and has not been well investigated. On the basis of the expectancy-value theory, much effort has been put into identifying the effectual factors regarding the technological expectancy of students. However, aside from technological usage, the adoption of an e-learning…

  5. Conflict and expectancies interact to predict sexual behavior under the influence among gay and bisexual men

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    As the mechanisms of the associations between substance use and risky sex remain unclear, this study investigates the interactive roles of conflicts about casual sex and condom use and expectancies of the sexual effects of substances in those associations among gay men. Conflict interacted with expectancies to predict sexual behavior under the influence; low casual sex conflict coupled with high expectancies predicted the highest number of casual partners, and high condom use conflict and high expectancies predicted the highest number of unprotected sex acts. Results have implications for intervention efforts that aim to improve sexual decision-making and reduce sexual expectancies. PMID:23584507

  6. Current Environmental Efforts in Ohio School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Timothy Alan

    In an effort to better describe the environmental education needs of the secondary schools in the State of Ohio, this thesis sought to determine whether or not Ohio high schools were incorporating environmental education into their curricula. Educators from 100 randomly selected high schools were administered questionnaires in 1982-83, and again…

  7. Restructuring Schooling: Learning from Ongoing Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Hallinger, Philip, Ed.

    Popular demands for school restructuring are increasingly common. This book is designed for diverse audiences who are interested in school improvement. Chapter 1, "Restructuring: In Search of a Movement" (Joseph Murphy), provides a historical and conceptual framework of restructuring efforts. Chapter 2, "Feeling the Ripples, Riding the Waves"…

  8. Workplace High Tech Spurs Retraining Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dwight B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses who should provide training for displaced workers who need new skills. Areas examined include: (1) the need for retraining; (2) current corporate efforts; (3) agreements in the automotive industry; (4) job quality; (5) the federal government's role; and (6) federal legislation related to the problem. (JN)

  9. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  10. Economic Woes May Hurt Colleges' Green Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Recent events on Wall Street raise a complicated question: Will the financial crisis help or hurt colleges' sustainability efforts? Both are possible. In this article, the author discusses how the Wall Street meltdown may hurt colleges' green initiatives. However, advocates of sustainability see an opportunity to change the conversation. A…

  11. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    PubMed

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs. PMID:1324990

  12. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels' speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  13. Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

  14. Phase transitions in least-effort communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopenko, Mikhail; Ay, Nihat; Obst, Oliver; Polani, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    We critically examine a model that attempts to explain the emergence of power laws (e.g., Zipf's law) in human language. The model is based on the principle of least effort in communications—specifically, the overall effort is balanced between the speaker effort and listener effort, with some trade-off. It has been shown that an information-theoretic interpretation of this principle is sufficiently rich to explain the emergence of Zipf's law in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems (one signal for all referable objects) and indexical reference systems (one signal per object). The phase transition is defined in the space of communication accuracy (information content) expressed in terms of the trade-off parameter. Our study explicitly solves the continuous optimization problem, subsuming a recent, more specific result obtained within a discrete space. The obtained results contrast Zipf's law found by heuristic search (that attained only local minima) in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems and indexical reference systems, with an inverse-factorial (sub-logarithmic) law found at the transition that corresponds to global minima. The inverse-factorial law is observed to be the most representative frequency distribution among optimal solutions.

  15. Ten Ways to Improve NIE Development Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, James R.

    The National Institute of Education (NIE) should consider the following observations when implementing curriculum development projects: (1) NIE should support curriculum development in the areas of national need, but more effort should be directed to improving existing instructional materials; (2) NIE-supported materials have not been widely…

  16. Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

  17. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  18. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  19. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  20. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort.

    PubMed

    Friman, P C

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  1. Design and expected performance of a fast scintillator hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Ghosh, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    A typical pulse from the 807 calorimeter is shown. This was generated by 4 GeV electrons but the pulses from hadrons and at different energies are not significantly different. The width and shape of this pulse comes from the convolution of a number of sources: (a) The time spread of energy deposition by a shower including time of flight of slow protons and neutrons, (b) scintillator phosphor rise and decay times, (c) shifter rise and decay times, (d) phototube response, (e) time delays in the light collection from different parts of the calorimeter and time dispersion in transmission. The objective of the first phase of this study was to isolate these spearate contributions, estimate how they could be speeded up and find what costs are involved. In the second phase we constructed an extremely crude calorimeter whose pulses should have the same characteristic as in a real device. With this we have observed signals whose mean width was 7 nsec and whose width at 10% of maximum height was 15 nsec. Clipping could reduce these widths to 6 and 12 nsec respectively. We conclude that gate times of less than 20 nsec would be appropriate for such a calorimeter.

  2. The Academic Researcher Role: Enhancing Expectations and Improved Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2013-01-01

    This article distinguishes between six tasks related to the academic researcher role: (1) networking; (2) collaboration; (3) managing research; (4) doing research; (5) publishing research; and (6) evaluation of research. Data drawn from surveys of academic staff, conducted in Norwegian universities over three decades, provide evidence that the…

  3. Social-Performance Expectations of Professionals for Behaviorally Disordered Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloss, Patrick J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of surveys administered to 151 special and regular educators, ancillary school personnel, administrators, and mental health personnel revealed behavioral clusters most likely to impede transitions from a mental health to educational setting. Survey responses further identified factors in ancillary support and classroom-related services…

  4. Teacher Expectations, Children's Perceived Powerfulness and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagler, Sylvain; Hoffnung, Robert

    The Children's Perceived Powerfulness Scale (CPPS) was administered to 1200 suburban elementary grade school children. At each of four grade levels, three classes were designated as High Powerful (HP) and three as Low Powerful (LP). Results indicate that children in HP classes were viewed more favorably by their teachers, obtained higher scores on…

  5. Articulating Performance Expectations for Scholarship at an Australian Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crookes, Patrick A.; Smith, Kylie M.; Else, Fabienne C.; Crookes, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    With an academic workforce undergoing transformation, it is vital that universities rethink how they define and value scholarship through their processes for academic promotion. A key part of this rethink is to review and refine existing documentation about promotion to reflect changing conceptions of scholarly work, in a way that enables scholars…

  6. Physical Education Curriculum Guide: Performance Expectations, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1980

    The purpose of this guide was to unify physical education programs in several school districts through the development of common objectives. Curricular content was developed according to levels of learning in attitudes, concepts, and skills, recognizing skills in a sequential developmental and spiral arrangement. Nine areas of motor skill…

  7. Disrupting the supplementary motor area makes physical effort appear less effortful.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2015-06-10

    The perception of physical effort is relatively unaffected by the suppression of sensory afferences, indicating that this function relies mostly on the processing of the central motor command. Neural signals in the supplementary motor area (SMA) correlate with the intensity of effort, suggesting that the motor signal involved in effort perception could originate from this area, but experimental evidence supporting this view is still lacking. Here, we tested this hypothesis by disrupting neural activity in SMA, in primary motor cortex (M1), or in a control site by means of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, while measuring effort perception during grip forces of different intensities. After each grip force exertion, participants had the opportunity to either accept or refuse to replicate the same effort for varying amounts of reward. In addition to the subjective rating of perceived exertion, effort perception was estimated on the basis of the acceptance rate, the effort replication accuracy, the influence of the effort exerted in trial t on trial t+1, and pupil dilation. We found that disruption of SMA activity, but not of M1, led to a consistent decrease in effort perception, whatever the measure used to assess it. Accordingly, we modeled effort perception in a structural equation model and found that only SMA disruption led to a significant alteration of effort perception. These findings indicate that effort perception relies on the processing of a signal originating from motor-related neural circuits upstream of M1 and that SMA is a key node of this network. PMID:26063908

  8. Multicultural Differences in Women's Expectations of Birth.

    PubMed

    Moore, Marianne F

    2016-01-01

    This review surveyed qualitative and quantitative studies to explore the expectations around birth that are held by women from different cultures. These studies are grouped according to expectations of personal control expectations of support from partner/others/family; expectations of carel behavior from providers such as nurses, doctors, and/or midwives; expectations about the health of the baby; and expectations about pain in childbirth. Discussed are the findings and the role that Western culture in medicine, power and privilege are noted in providing care to these women. PMID:27263233

  9. Contrasting responses of male and female foraging effort to year-round wind conditions.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sue; Phillips, Richard A; Burthe, Sarah J; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis

    2015-11-01

    There is growing interest in the effects of wind on wild animals, given evidence that wind speeds are increasing and becoming more variable in some regions, particularly at temperate latitudes. Wind may alter movement patterns or foraging ability, with consequences for energy budgets and, ultimately, demographic rates. These effects are expected to vary among individuals due to intrinsic factors such as sex, age or feeding proficiency. Furthermore, this variation is predicted to become more marked as wind conditions deteriorate, which may have profound consequences for population dynamics as the climate changes. However, the interaction between wind and intrinsic effects has not been comprehensively tested. In many species, in particular those showing sexual size dimorphism, males and females vary in foraging performance. Here, we undertook year-round deployments of data loggers to test for interactions between sex and wind speed and direction on foraging effort in adult European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis, a pursuit-diving seabird in which males are c. 18% heavier. We found that foraging time was lower at high wind speeds but higher during easterly (onshore) winds. Furthermore, there was an interaction between sex and wind conditions on foraging effort, such that females foraged for longer than males when winds were of greater strength (9% difference at high wind speeds vs. 1% at low wind speeds) and when winds were easterly compared with westerly (7% and 4% difference, respectively). The results supported our prediction that sex-specific differences in foraging effort would become more marked as wind conditions worsen. Since foraging time is linked to demographic rates in this species, our findings are likely to have important consequences for population dynamics by amplifying sex-specific differences in survival rates. PMID:26283625

  10. American lifelines alliance efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishenko, S.P.; Savage, W.U.; Honegger, D.G.; McLane, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    A study was performed on American Lifelines Alliance (ALA) efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability. ALA is a public-private partnership project, with the goal of reducing risks to lifelines from natural hazards and human threat events. The mechanism used by ALA for developing national guidelines for lifeline systems is dependent upon using existing Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as means to achieve national consensus.

  11. Clinical expectations: what facilitators expect from ESL students on clinical placement.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2012-03-01

    Many nursing students for whom English is a second language (ESL) face challenges related to communication on clinical placement and although clinical facilitators are not usually trained language assessors, they are often in a position of needing to assess ESL students' clinical language performance. Little is known, however, about the particular areas of clinical performance facilitators focus on when they are assessing ESL students. This paper discusses the results of a study of facilitators' written assessment comments about the clinical performance of a small group of ESL nursing students over a two and a half year period. These comments were documented on students' clinical assessment forms at the end of each placement. The results provide a more detailed insight into facilitators' expectations of students' language performance and the particular challenges faced by ESL students and indicate that facilitators have clear expectations of ESL students regarding communication, learning styles and professional demeanour. These findings may help both ESL students and their facilitators better prepare for clinical placement. PMID:22079570

  12. What your leader expects of you.

    PubMed

    Bossidy, Larry

    2007-04-01

    The success of an executive team depends heavily on the relationships the boss has with his or her direct reports. Yet the leadership literature has had little to say about what is expected in those relationships-on either side. Larry Bossidy, formerly the chairman and CEO of Honeywell, and before that of AlliedSignal, shares what he calls "the CEO compact," detailing the behaviors a leader should look for in subordinates and what they should be able to expect in return. A CEO's best people, he says, know when a situation calls for them to get involved. They generate ideas-remembering that some of the best ones may sound crazy at first. They are willing to collaborate, putting the long-term good of the company above short-term goals of their divisions. They step up to lead initiatives, even if the outcome is uncertain. They develop leaders among their people, especially through direct involvement in performance appraisals. They stay current on world events and anticipate how those events may affect the company and its competition. They drive their own growth by exposing themselves to new people and ideas and by accepting demanding assignments. And they sustain these behaviors in bad times as well as good. On the other side of the compact, the boss should provide clarity of direction; set goals and objectives; give frequent, specific, and immediate feedback; be decisive and timely; demonstrate honesty and candor; and offer an equitable compensation plan. Executives who aren't lucky enough to have such a boss can create a compact with their own subordinates, Bossidy says, and demonstrate by example. The result will be to improve team and company performance and accelerate individual growth. PMID:17432153

  13. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  14. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  15. Students' Perceptions of Peer Evaluation: An Expectancy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yining; Lou, Hao

    2004-01-01

    Because of the difficulty of evaluating uneven performance among group members, many researchers suggest incorporating peer evaluations in a grading system that permits an instructor to evaluate and grade individual performance more equitably within a group. In this study, the authors employ expectancy theory to assess key factors that may…

  16. Seismic Modeling on a GPU with Modest Programming Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unat, D.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate an effective approach to porting a production code of anelastic wave propagation using a directive-based programming model, called Mint. Mint generated code realized about 80% of the performance of hand-coded CUDA on the Nvidia 200 and 400 series of GPUs. We think this performance gap is reasonable in light of the simplified programming model enjoyed by Mint's pragma-based model. Compared with writing CUDA by hand, Mint provides the flexibility to explore different performance variants of the same program through annotations and compiler options which saves considerable amount of programming effort. In this talk, we discuss how Mint enables the programmer to tune performance at a high level and evaluate various performance programming strategies realized by Mint programs and translator optimization options.

  17. Nursing students' expectations of the college experience.

    PubMed

    Zysberg, Leehu; Zisberg, Anna

    2008-09-01

    Nursing students' expectations of college have not received much attention in the empirical literature. These expectations may be important in better understanding nurses' motivations, role acquisition, and academic and professional success. The first study discussed in this article examined the reliability and construct validity of an instrument designed to assess students' (N = 95) expectations of their college experience. The results indicate good reliability and validity. The second study discussed in this article examined differences in expectations, comparing nursing and non-nursing students (N = 160) in an urban college setting. The results suggest expectations emphasizing practical and professional aspects (i.e., acquiring a profession, earning more money), followed by self-betterment and social life expectations. Nursing students differed from non-nursing students by reporting higher self-betterment and professional expectations but lower academic expectations. Implications for application and further research are discussed. PMID:18792705

  18. Interaction of memories and expectancies as mediators of choice behavior.

    PubMed

    Linwick, D; Overmier, J B; Peterson, G B; Mertens, M

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of food-based memories and food-event outcome expectancies in pigeons was assessed using a simultaneous, delayed-symbolic-matching-to-sample procedure. The components of the compound sample were presented in sequence, and consisted of a food-based event (food or no-food) followed by a color cue (red or green). Choice of a pattern of horizontal lines was "correct" following presentation of the red cue, while choice of a vertical line pattern was "correct" after green. In all but a control condition, the food-based event with which a trial began, or the food-event outcome with which a trial concluded, or both, were also correlated with the correct pattern. Of particular interest was the relative accuracy of two groups for whom both memories and expectancies were correlated with the correct choice-pattern. For one group, the memories and expectancies corresponding to the pre- and postchoice food-related events were similar, whereas for the other they were dissimilar. Outcome expectancies supported a higher level of performance than food-based memories, and subjects with both outcome expectancies and food-based memories chose more accurately than those with memories or expectancies only. In addition, subjects with dissimilar food-based memories and outcome expectancies chose more accurately than those with similar memories and expectancies. The implications of the above findings for the nature of event representation in pigeons are discussed. PMID:3177698

  19. Ni-cd Battery Life Expectancy in Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using nickel cadmium batteries as an alternate if flight qualified NiH2 batteries are not available is explored. Battery life expectancy data being a key element of power system design, an attempt is made to review the literature, life test data and in orbit performance data to develop an up to date estimate of life expectancy for NiCd batteries in a geosynchronous orbit.

  20. Autonomic Nervous System Responses During Perception of Masked Speech may Reflect Constructs other than Subjective Listening Effort.

    PubMed

    Francis, Alexander L; MacPherson, Megan K; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Alvar, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Typically, understanding speech seems effortless and automatic. However, a variety of factors may, independently or interactively, make listening more effortful. Physiological measures may help to distinguish between the application of different cognitive mechanisms whose operation is perceived as effortful. In the present study, physiological and behavioral measures associated with task demand were collected along with behavioral measures of performance while participants listened to and repeated sentences. The goal was to measure psychophysiological reactivity associated with three degraded listening conditions, each of which differed in terms of the source of the difficulty (distortion, energetic masking, and informational masking), and therefore were expected to engage different cognitive mechanisms. These conditions were chosen to be matched for overall performance (keywords correct), and were compared to listening to unmasked speech produced by a natural voice. The three degraded conditions were: (1) Unmasked speech produced by a computer speech synthesizer, (2) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked byspeech-shaped noise and (3) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked by two-talker babble. Masked conditions were both presented at a -8 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR), a level shown in previous research to result in comparable levels of performance for these stimuli and maskers. Performance was measured in terms of proportion of key words identified correctly, and task demand or effort was quantified subjectively by self-report. Measures of psychophysiological reactivity included electrodermal (skin conductance) response frequency and amplitude, blood pulse amplitude and pulse rate. Results suggest that the two masked conditions evoked stronger psychophysiological reactivity than did the two unmasked conditions even when behavioral measures of listening performance and listeners' subjective perception of task demand were comparable across the three

  1. Autonomic Nervous System Responses During Perception of Masked Speech may Reflect Constructs other than Subjective Listening Effort

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Alexander L.; MacPherson, Megan K.; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Alvar, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Typically, understanding speech seems effortless and automatic. However, a variety of factors may, independently or interactively, make listening more effortful. Physiological measures may help to distinguish between the application of different cognitive mechanisms whose operation is perceived as effortful. In the present study, physiological and behavioral measures associated with task demand were collected along with behavioral measures of performance while participants listened to and repeated sentences. The goal was to measure psychophysiological reactivity associated with three degraded listening conditions, each of which differed in terms of the source of the difficulty (distortion, energetic masking, and informational masking), and therefore were expected to engage different cognitive mechanisms. These conditions were chosen to be matched for overall performance (keywords correct), and were compared to listening to unmasked speech produced by a natural voice. The three degraded conditions were: (1) Unmasked speech produced by a computer speech synthesizer, (2) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked byspeech-shaped noise and (3) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked by two-talker babble. Masked conditions were both presented at a -8 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR), a level shown in previous research to result in comparable levels of performance for these stimuli and maskers. Performance was measured in terms of proportion of key words identified correctly, and task demand or effort was quantified subjectively by self-report. Measures of psychophysiological reactivity included electrodermal (skin conductance) response frequency and amplitude, blood pulse amplitude and pulse rate. Results suggest that the two masked conditions evoked stronger psychophysiological reactivity than did the two unmasked conditions even when behavioral measures of listening performance and listeners’ subjective perception of task demand were comparable across the

  2. Micromechanical Modeling Efforts for Advanced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA Lewis Research Center's in-house efforts in analytical modeling for advanced composites have yielded several computational predictive tools. These are, in general, based on simplified micromechanics equations. During the last 3 years, our efforts have been directed primarily toward developing prediction tools for high temperature ceramic matrix composite (CMC's) materials. These materials are being considered for High Speed Research program applications, specifically for combustor liners. In comparison to conventional materials, CMC's offer several advantages: high specific stiffness and strength, and higher toughness and nonbrittle failure in comparison to monolithic ceramics, as well as environmental stability and wear resistance for both roomtemperature and elevated-temperature applications. Under the sponsorship of the High Temperature Engine Materials Program (HITEMP), CMC analytical modeling has resulted in the computational tool Ceramic Matrix Composites Analyzer (CEMCAN).

  3. Final Report on the NCAR VTMX Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, David; Pinto, James; Brown, William; Cohen, Stephen; Morley, Bruce

    2007-02-13

    The NCAR effort is primarily focused on the analysis of a diverse suite of measurements taken at the southern end of the Salt Lake City Valley within the Jordan Narrows. These measurements include wind profiler, surface, lidar, radiosonde, multi-layered tether-sonde and sodar measurements. We are also collaborating with other VTMX investigators through linking our measurements within the Jordan Narrows with their investigations. The instrumentation was provided to interested VTMX investigators and was used extensively. Thus the NCAR data set played a large role in the results of the overall experiment. Our work under this proposal includes analysis of the observations, mesoscale modeling efforts in support of our VTMX analysis and general instrumentation development aimed at improving the measurement of vertical transport and mixing under stable conditions. This report is subdivided by research objectives.

  4. Measures of Effortful Regulation for Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget M.

    2005-01-01

    Emotion-related regulation is a topic of increasing interest among researchers, yet there is little agreement on ways to measure emotion regulation in young children. In this paper, we first consider important conceptual distinctions in regard to the different types of emotion-related regulation and control. Next, we describe a number of ways researchers have assessed children’s regulation. We also present data from the Toddler Emotional Development project, in which laboratory-based measures of effortful regulation were used. In this section, we highlight the measures that show promise (and those that did not work well). Future directions for research on the measurement of effortful regulation are presented. PMID:18066395

  5. Defining Active and Reasonable Efforts: Reasonable Efforts to Prevent Placement and Preserve Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunner, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes development of guidelines to expand understanding of and compliance with both the reasonable efforts requirement of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act 1980 (P.L. 96-272) and active efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act 1978 (P.L. 95-608) to help keep Indian families together. (Author/BB)

  6. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  7. NRC; Smog control efforts off mark

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-06

    This paper reports that the National Research Council says the U.S. regulatory programs to control smog may have been misdirected the past 20 years, and more emphasis needs to be placed on limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. An NRC study the ozone control efforts have focused mainly on controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. However, in many parts of the country controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides would be more effective, it the, noting VOCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of ozone.

  8. Blowout control efforts continue off Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-12

    This paper reports that Greenhill Petroleum Corp., Houston, last week stepped up efforts to control a workover blowout in Timbalier Bay field off Lafourche Parish, La. The blowout occurred as Blake Drilling and Workover Co., Belle Chasse, La., was deepening the Gulf of Mexico well. Plans called for abandoning Miocene D-4 sand perforations at 8,683-86 ft and 8,696-8,706 ft and recompleting in Miocene D-6 sand at 8,802-28 ft.

  9. Qualitative Evaluation of Health Information Exchange Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Guappone, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    Because most health information exchange (HIE) initiatives are as yet immature, formative evaluation is recommended so that what is learned through evaluation can be immediately applied to assist in HIE development efforts. Qualitative methods can be especially useful for formative evaluation because they can guide ongoing HIE growth while taking context into consideration. This paper describes important HIE-related research questions and outlines appropriate qualitative research techniques for addressing them. PMID:17904914

  10. Business-led efforts to control costs.

    PubMed

    Kenkel, P J

    1991-07-29

    Business-led initiatives to compare medical quality and prices are becoming commonplace as employers seek ways to cap medical expenses. But employers are meeting with varying degrees of cooperation from hospitals. The tale of two cities' efforts to pry open the secrets of controlling costs provides a vivid contrast in the way purchasers have tried to solve the cost-containment puzzle. PMID:10111874

  11. Materials characterization on efforts for ablative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytula, Thomas P.; Schad, Kristin C.; Swann, Myles H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental efforts to develop a new procedure to measure char depth in carbon phenolic nozzle material are described. Using a Shor Type D Durometer, hardness profiles were mapped across post fired sample blocks and specimens from a fired rocket nozzle. Linear regression was used to estimate the char depth. Results are compared to those obtained from computed tomography in a comparative experiment. There was no significant difference in the depth estimates obtained by the two methods.

  12. Quality Improvement Efforts in Pediatric Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man Wai

    2016-04-01

    Quality improvement (QI) and measurement are increasingly used in health care to improve patient care and outcomes. Despite current barriers in oral health measurement, there are nascent QI and measurement efforts emerging. This paper describes the role that QI and measurement can play in improving oral health care delivery in clinical practice by presenting a QI initiative that aimed to test and implement a chronic disease management approach to address early childhood caries. PMID:27265978

  13. Community Expectations of College Completion and Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derden, Michael Wade

    2011-01-01

    Communities relay expectations of behavior that influence residents' decision making processes. The study's purpose was to define and identify social, cultural, and human capital variables relevant to understanding community expectations of postsecondary attainment. The study sought an operational model of community expectancy that would allow…

  14. 7 CFR 760.636 - Expected revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expected revenue. 760.636 Section 760.636 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program § 760.636 Expected revenue. The expected revenue for each crop on a farm is: (a) For each insurable crop,...

  15. Multidimensional Scaling for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rather, Bruce; And Others

    Although expectancies for alcohol have been shown to influence drinking behavior, current expectancy questionnaires do not lend themselves to the study of how expectancies are represented in memory. Two studies were conducted which utilized multidimensional scaling techniques designed to produce hypothesized representations of cognitive…

  16. Parental Expectations of Their Adolescents' Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe; Horenczyk, Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    Examines parental expectations of their children's teachers through use of the Expectations of Teachers questionnaire. Participating parents (N=765) reported greater expectations for help and assistance, followed by teaching competence and fairness on the part of the teacher. Mothers were found to hold higher fairness, help, and assistance…

  17. Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure…

  18. Employer Expectations from a Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakaya, Fahri; Karakaya, Fera

    1996-01-01

    In a survey, 80 businesses, mostly small, ranked 13 educational attributes expected of college students with a business education. Factor analysis shows four distinct skill areas expected from an ideal business education program: research, interpersonal, basic, and quantitative skills. In general, employers expect to hire well-rounded students,…

  19. Summary results of the DOE flywheel development effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olszewski, M.; Martin, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    The technology and applications evaluation task focuses on defining performance and cost requirements for flywheels in the various areas of application. To date the DOE program has focused on automotive applications. The composite materials effort entails the testing of new commercial composites to determine their engineering properties. The rotor and containment development work uses data from these program elements to design and fabricate flywheels. The flywheels are then tested at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory and their performance is evaluated to indicate possible areas for improvement. Once a rotor has been fully developed it is transferred to the private sector.

  20. V and V Efforts of Auroral Precipitation Models: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Rastaetter, Lutz; Hesse, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Auroral precipitation models have been valuable both in terms of space weather applications and space science research. Yet very limited testing has been performed regarding model performance. A variety of auroral models are available, including empirical models that are parameterized by geomagnetic indices or upstream solar wind conditions, now casting models that are based on satellite observations, or those derived from physics-based, coupled global models. In this presentation, we will show our preliminary results regarding V&V efforts of some of the models.