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1

Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.

1998-09-04

2

Dementia and effort test performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the performance of patients with dementia on tests of effort is particularly limited. We examined archival data from 214 non-litigating patients with dementia on 18 effort indices derived from 12 tests (WAIS-III\\/WAIS-R Digit Span and Vocabulary, Dot Counting Test, Warrington Recognition Memory Test–Words, WMS-III Logical Memory, Rey Word Recognition Memory Test, Finger Tapping, b-Test, Rey 15-Item, Test of

Andy C. Dean; Tara L. Victor; Kyle B. Boone; Linda M. Philpott; Ryan A. Hess

2009-01-01

3

Dementia and effort test performance.  

PubMed

Research on the performance of patients with dementia on tests of effort is particularly limited. We examined archival data from 214 non-litigating patients with dementia on 18 effort indices derived from 12 tests (WAIS-III/WAIS-R Digit Span and Vocabulary, Dot Counting Test, Warrington Recognition Memory Test-Words, WMS-III Logical Memory, Rey Word Recognition Memory Test, Finger Tapping, b-Test, Rey 15-Item, Test of Memory Malingering, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Rey Complex Figure Test). Results indicated that recommended cut-offs for Digit Span indicators (Vocabulary Minus Digit Span and four-digit forward span time score) provided > or =90% specificity across participants, while the majority of other effort tests displayed specificities in the 30-70% range. Analyses of test specificity as a function of Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score and specific dementia diagnosis are provided, as well as adjustments to cut-offs to maintain specificity where feasible. PMID:18609332

Dean, Andy C; Victor, Tara L; Boone, Kyle B; Philpott, Linda M; Hess, Ryan A

2009-01-01

4

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS SETTING EXPECTATIONS, FEEDBACK & APPRAISAL  

E-print Network

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS SETTING EXPECTATIONS, FEEDBACK & APPRAISAL PMP EMPLOYEE FORM Name: Period Covered: Job Title: Department: Division: Supervisor: EXPECTATION SETTING MEETING HELD AND JOB and excellent work are widely recognized. Performance consistently exceeds all defined expectations, producing

Adali, Tulay

5

Energetical bases of extraversion: effort, arousal, EEG, and performance.  

PubMed

This study investigates an extension of H.J. Eysenck's [Eysenck, H.J., 1967. The Biological Basis of Personality. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL] arousal theory of extraversion, incorporating an effort system as a control system for different aspects of arousal. Extraverts were expected to have lower levels of reticocortical arousal than introverts, to invest more effort, and to have lower task performance in a monotonous vigilance task. In a 40-min vigilance task, participants had to react to the shorter of two 1 kHz tones presented binaurally at an event rate of 200 per 10 min. Spontaneous EEG, event-related potential, and performance data of 40 extremely introverted and 41 extremely extraverted students were available for statistical analysis. A tendency for lower arousal levels of extraverts (alpha 2 band), the expected higher effort investment (P300) and a lower performance (hits) of extraverts were found. PMID:16426692

Beauducel, André; Brocke, Burkhard; Leue, Anja

2006-11-01

6

Reducing Annotation Effort using Generalized Expectation Criteria Gregory Druck, Gideon Mann, Andrew McCallum  

E-print Network

are often costly to obtain. Semi-supervised learning methods are an appealing solution for reducing labeling-world data. Instead, we want a simple, robust method that can help reduce annotation effort. We argueReducing Annotation Effort using Generalized Expectation Criteria Gregory Druck, Gideon Mann

McCallum, Andrew

7

Expectations for Achievement and Performance: Assessing Student Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schools are moving toward high expectations for student achievement, a collaborative culture among teachers and students, and greater accountability for student performance. Everyone must focus on the same high expectations and work together to achieve success. The prin cipal is in a prime position to align those efforts.You are a writer for a documentary film about a 21-year-old who emigrated

Barbara stripling

1999-01-01

8

5 CFR 9901.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.406 Setting and communicating performance expectations. (a) Performance...sole and exclusive discretion of management. (h) Performance expectations are subject...

2011-01-01

9

Assessing effort: differentiating performance and symptom validity.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to clarify the relationship among the constructs involved in neuropsychological assessment, including cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. Participants consisted of 120 consecutively evaluated individuals from a veteran's hospital with mixed referral sources. Measures included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Full Scale IQ (WAIS-IV FSIQ), California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B), Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT), WAIS-IV Reliable Digit Span (RDS), Post-traumatic Check List-Military Version (PCL-M), MMPI-2 F scale, MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale (FBS), MMPI-2 Response Bias Scale (RBS), and the Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (PCSQ). Six different models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine the factor model describing the relationships between cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. The strongest and most parsimonious model was a three-factor model in which cognitive performance, performance validity, and self-reported symptoms (including both standard and symptom validity measures) were separate factors. The findings suggest failure in one validity domain does not necessarily invalidate the other domain. Thus, performance validity and symptom validity should be evaluated separately. PMID:24028487

Van Dyke, Sarah A; Millis, Scott R; Axelrod, Bradley N; Hanks, Robin A

2013-01-01

10

California's Teaching Performance Expectations The Teaching Performance Expectations describe the set of knowledge, skills, and abilities that  

E-print Network

California's Teaching Performance Expectations The Teaching Performance Expectations describe the set of knowledge, skills, and abilities that California expects of each candidate for a Multiple Expectations through successful completion of the Teaching Performance Assessment. The full text of the TPEs

de Lijser, Peter

11

Expected performance of m-solution backtracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper derives upper bounds on the expected number of search tree nodes visited during an m-solution backtracking search, a search which terminates after some preselected number m problem solutions are found. The search behavior is assumed to have a general probabilistic structure. The results are stated in terms of node expansion and contraction. A visited search tree node is said to be expanding if the mean number of its children visited by the search exceeds 1 and is contracting otherwise. It is shown that if every node expands, or if every node contracts, then the number of search tree nodes visited by a search has an upper bound which is linear in the depth of the tree, in the mean number of children a node has, and in the number of solutions sought. Also derived are bounds linear in the depth of the tree in some situations where an upper portion of the tree contracts (expands), while the lower portion expands (contracts). While previous analyses of 1-solution backtracking have concluded that the expected performance is always linear in the tree depth, the model allows superlinear expected performance.

Nicol, D. M.

1986-01-01

12

VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien

2014-07-01

13

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and communicating performance expectations. (a) Performance expectations must align with and...

2013-01-01

14

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and communicating performance expectations. (a) Performance expectations must align with and...

2012-01-01

15

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and communicating performance expectations. (a) Performance expectations must align with and...

2014-01-01

16

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and communicating performance expectations. (a) Performance expectations must align with and...

2011-01-01

17

Focusing Your E-Recruitment Efforts to Meet the Expectations of College-Bound Students. E-Expectations 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early in 2010, the E-Expectations research group surveyed more than 1,000 college-bound high school students, polling them on their online behaviors and expectations, as well as other key enrollment-related topics. Highlights of the study include: (1) 1 in 4 students reported removing a school from their prospective list because of a bad…

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010

2010-01-01

18

Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

2012-01-01

19

The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance.  

PubMed

The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving. PMID:22664690

Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

2012-09-01

20

Academic Expectations and Actual Achievements: The Roles of Hope and Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to extend the research on adolescents' hope, academic expectations, and average grades. The hope theory (Snyder, "Psychological Inquiry" 13(4):249-275, 2002), the salutogenic paradigm (with a focus on sense of coherence (SOC) (Antonovsky 1987)), and Bandura's ("Journal of Management" 38(1):9-44,…

Levi, Uzi; Einav, Michal; Ziv, Orit; Raskind, Ilana; Margalit, Malka

2014-01-01

21

Optical telecommunications: expected performance of the beacon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beacon is a powerful non-coherent CW laser source which is developed in the frame of the Semi-conductor Inter-satellite Link Experiment (SILEX). Its functionality is to provide a high divergence beam during the first tracking sequence. It is made up of 19 laser diodes coupled into one multi-mode fiber, the exit face of that fiber being integrated at the focal plane of a collimator. A breadboarding phase has been conducted at the beginning of the phase C/D in order to demonstrate that the requirement of 8 KW/Sr within a divergence of 11.75 mRd will be achieved. That phase is now completed and the overall breadboard performance is discussed in this paper with respect to the SILEX requirements.

Renard, Michel; Gollier, Jacques; Dobie, Paul J.; Heinrichs, Theo; Sobeczko, Andre

1994-09-01

22

Teacher Cognitive Style, Expectations, and Attributions for Student Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that race, social class, and gender influence teacher expectations of student performance. To investigate teacher expectations for the academic performance and future occupational status of white and Asian elementary school children, and the teacher attributions for their performance, 25 white elementary school teachers (23…

Tom, David Y. H.

23

Mating system, feeding type and ex situ conservation effort determine life expectancy in captive ruminants.  

PubMed

Zoo animal husbandry aims at constantly improving husbandry, reproductive success and ultimately animal welfare. Nevertheless, analyses to determine factors influencing husbandry of different species are rare. The relative life expectancy (rLE; life expectancy (LE) as proportion of longevity) describes husbandry success of captive populations. Correlating rLE with biological characteristics of different species, reasons for variation in rLE can be detected. We analysed data of 166 901 animals representing 78 ruminant species kept in 850 facilities. The rLE of females correlated with the percentage of grass in a species' natural diet, suggesting that needs of species adapted to grass can be more easily accommodated than the needs of those adapted to browse. Males of monogamous species demonstrate higher rLE than polygamous males, which matches observed differences of sexual bias in LE in free-living populations and thus supports the ecological theory that the mating system influences LE. The third interesting finding was that rLE was higher in species managed by international studbooks when compared with species not managed in this way. Our method facilitates the identification of biological characteristics of species that are relevant for their husbandry success, and they also support ecological theory. Translating these findings into feeding recommendations, our approach can help to improve animal husbandry. PMID:21147792

Müller, Dennis W H; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W Jürgen; Fickel, Jörns; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

2011-07-01

24

Mating system, feeding type and ex situ conservation effort determine life expectancy in captive ruminants  

PubMed Central

Zoo animal husbandry aims at constantly improving husbandry, reproductive success and ultimately animal welfare. Nevertheless, analyses to determine factors influencing husbandry of different species are rare. The relative life expectancy (rLE; life expectancy (LE) as proportion of longevity) describes husbandry success of captive populations. Correlating rLE with biological characteristics of different species, reasons for variation in rLE can be detected. We analysed data of 166 901 animals representing 78 ruminant species kept in 850 facilities. The rLE of females correlated with the percentage of grass in a species' natural diet, suggesting that needs of species adapted to grass can be more easily accommodated than the needs of those adapted to browse. Males of monogamous species demonstrate higher rLE than polygamous males, which matches observed differences of sexual bias in LE in free-living populations and thus supports the ecological theory that the mating system influences LE. The third interesting finding was that rLE was higher in species managed by international studbooks when compared with species not managed in this way. Our method facilitates the identification of biological characteristics of species that are relevant for their husbandry success, and they also support ecological theory. Translating these findings into feeding recommendations, our approach can help to improve animal husbandry. PMID:21147792

Muller, Dennis W. H.; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W. Jurgen; Fickel, Jorns; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

2011-01-01

25

ASDAILY DIARY STUDY OF GOAL STRIVING: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOAL DISTANCE, GOAL VELOCITY, AFFECT, EXPECTANCIES, AND EFFORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A daily diary study was used to examine the relationships between goal distance, goal velocity, aSfect, expectancies, and effort from the perspec- tive of Carver and Scheier's (1998) control theory of self-regulation. Fifteen social workers completed a diary at the end of each working day for four weeks. Multi-level analysis found little support for the precice predictions of Carver and

David J. Holman; Peter Totterdell; Steven G. Rogelberg

26

Parental Expectations and Children's Academic Performance in Sociocultural Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review research on parental expectations and their effects on student achievement within and across diverse\\u000a racial and ethnic groups. Our review suggests that the level of parental expectations varies by racial\\/ethnic group, and that\\u000a students' previous academic performance is a less influential determinant of parental expectations among racial\\/ethnic minority\\u000a parents than among European American parents. To

Yoko Yamamoto; Susan D. Holloway

2010-01-01

27

Page 1 of 6 Guidelines on Expectations of Faculty Performance  

E-print Network

and women to be leaders in technology and society and that contributes to the well- being of our citizensPage 1 of 6 Guidelines on Expectations of Faculty Performance School of Engineering and Applied Science University of Virginia July 5, 2007 This document presents guidelines on expectations of faculty

Robins, Gabriel

28

Parental Expectations and Children's Academic Performance in Sociocultural Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we review research on parental expectations and their effects on student achievement within and across diverse racial and ethnic groups. Our review suggests that the level of parental expectations varies by racial/ethnic group, and that students' previous academic performance is a less influential determinant of parental…

Yamamoto, Yoko; Holloway, Susan D.

2010-01-01

29

Next Generation Science Standards -Performance Expectations The Next Generation Science  

E-print Network

other materials for fully addressing these performance expectations. MS-PS3-3. Apply scientific. · MS-PS3-4. Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type

30

High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from thirties to fifties, the age category most affected was in the forties range. Incident rate calculations (incidents per 100 training runs) revealed that the 2002, 2003, and 2004 time periods registered the highest reported incident rate levels (3.4, 6.1, and 4.1 respectively) when compared to the following years (all = 1.0). In addition to general hand-arm discomfort being the highest reported result from training, specific types of hand injuries or symptoms included erythema, fingernail delamination, abrasions, muscle soreness/fatigue, paresthesia, bruising, blanching, and edema. Specific body locations most affected by hand injuries included the metacarpophalangeal joints, fingernails, finger crotches, fingers in general, interphalangeal joints, and fingertips. Causes of injuries reported in the LSAH data were primarily attributed to the forces that the gloved hands were exposed to due to hand intensive tasks and/or poor glove sizing. DISCUSSION: Although the age data indicate that most injuries are reported by male crewmembers in their forties, that is also the dominant gender and age range of most EVA crew therefore it is not an unexpected finding. Age and gender analysis will continue as more details on the uninjured population is accrued. While there is a reasonable mechanism to link training quantity to injury, the results were inconsistent and point to the need for a consistent method of suit-related injury screening and documentation. For instance, the high-incident rate levels for the years 2002 to 2004 could be attributed to a comprehensive medical review of crewmembers post-NBL EVA training that occurred from July 19, 2002 to January 16, 2004. Furthermore, there could have been increased awareness from an investigation at the NBL. These investigations may have temporarily increased the fidelity of reported injuries and discomforts during these dates as compared to surrounding years, when injury signs and symptom were no longer actively being investigated but rather voluntarily reported. Data mining for possible mechanistic factors continues and include

Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

2014-01-01

31

Social Loafing in Interactive Groups: The Effects of Identifiability on Effort and Individual Performance in Floorball  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether effort and performance in interactive teams are influenced by identifiability of individual motivation and effort. The subjects participated in a floorball tournament under conditions of non-identifiability and identifiability. Measures of self-reported effort, heart rate, individual performance and perceived social loafing were collected. The results indicated that, under identifiability conditions, the participants improved their performance, subjective feelings

Rune Høigaard; Rolf P. Ingvaldsen

2006-01-01

32

Expectation of having consumed caffeine can improve performance and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored whether caffeine, and expectation of having consumed caffeine, affects attention, reward responsivity and mood using double-blinded methodology. 88 participants were randomly allocated to ‘drink-type’ (caffeinated\\/decaffeinated coffee) and ‘expectancy’ (told caffeinated\\/told decaffeinated coffee) manipulations. Both caffeine and expectation of having consumed caffeine improved attention and psychomotor speed. Expectation enhanced self-reported vigour and reward responsivity. Self-reported depression increased at post-drink

Lynne Dawkins; Fatima-Zahra Shahzad; Suada S. Ahmed; Caroline J. Edmonds

2011-01-01

33

Expectations Lead to Performance: The Transformative Power of High Expectations in Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the preschool program at Missouri State University where deaf and hard of hearing children with all communication modalities and all styles of personal assistive listening devices are served. The job of the early intervention providers is to model for parents what high expectations look like and how to translate those…

Wang, Ye; Engler, Karen S.; Oetting, Tara L.

2014-01-01

34

Unmet Expectations: Why Is There Such a Difference between Student Expectations and Classroom Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past studies indicate that students are frequently poor judges of their likely academic performance in the classroom. The difficulty a student faces in accurately predicting performance on a classroom exam may be due to unrealistic optimism or may be due to an inability to self-evaluate academic performance, but the resulting disconnect between…

Stinson, Terrye A.; Zhao, Xiaofeng

2008-01-01

35

The Expected Performance from the NASA OCO-2 Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) will be launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on a Delta-II 7320 launch vehicle as early as 1 July 2014. Once deployed in the 705-km Afternoon Constellation (A-Train), it will collect the measurements needed to estimate the column-averaged, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction (XCO2) with improved precision, resolution, and coverage. The OCO-2 spacecraft carries and points a 3-channel, imaging, grating spectrometer that collects high resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the 765 nm O2 A-band and in the CO2 bands centered near 1610 and 2060 nm. These spectral ranges overlap those used by the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) TANSO-FTS, the current standard in space-based XCO2 measurements. The OCO-2 instrument performance was extensively characterized during pre-launch testing, facilitating comparisons with the TANSO-FTS. OCO-2 has slightly lower spectral resolution, but the far wings of its instrument line shape functions decay more rapidly, such that it yields similar spectral contrast within O2 and CO2 bands. The instruments have similar continuum signal to noise ratios (SNR) for bright scenes, but the OCO-2 instrument has higher SNR at low light levels associated with absorption lines or dark surfaces. The OCO-2 spectrometers will collect 24 soundings per second, yielding up to a million soundings per day over the sunlit hemisphere. For routine operations, the OCO-2 instrument boresight will be pointed at the local nadir or at the 'glint spot,' where sunlight is specularly reflected from the surface. Nadir observations provide the best spatial resolution and are expected to yield more cloud-free soundings. Glint observations will have much better SNR over dark, ocean surfaces. The nominal plan is to alternate between glint and nadir observations on successive 16-day ground-track repeat cycles, so that the entire sunlit hemisphere is sampled in both modes at 32-day intervals. The instrument's rapid sampling, small (< 3 km2) sounding footprint, and high SNR, combined with the spacecraft's ability to point the instrument's aperture toward the glint spot over the entire sunlit hemisphere, are expected to provide more complete coverage of the ocean, cloudy regions, and high latitude continents. While the OCO-2 measurement capabilities provide opportunities to improve the XCO2 precision, resolution, and coverage, they also pose some formidable challenges for calibration, retrieval, and validation. To fully exploit this instrument's capabilities, the 24,000 spectral/spatial channels must be cross-calibrated to within a fraction of 1%. Substantial increases in algorithm speed and more efficient data screening techniques are needed to fully utilize the much larger data volume. Finally, a comprehensive validation program will be needed to ensure the accuracy of the retrieved XCO2 estimates. This presentation will summarize the OCO-2 measurement capabilities and observation strategies, and the methods adopted to address these challenges.

Crisp, D.; Eldering, A.; Gunson, M. R.; Pollock, H.

2013-12-01

36

The effect of achievement goals on enjoyment, effort, satisfaction and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of achievement goals and achievement emotions on sport satisfaction, performance and effort among competitive athletes. Participants were 200 athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of mastery-approach goals on satisfaction with sport experience and performance, the direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and effort, the direct effect of performance-approach and

Rogelio Puente-Díaz

2012-01-01

37

The effect of achievement goals on enjoyment, effort, satisfaction and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of achievement goals and achievement emotions on sport satisfaction, performance and effort among competitive athletes. Participants were 200 athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of mastery-approach goals on satisfaction with sport experience and performance, the direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and effort, the direct effect of performance-approach and

Rogelio Puente-Díaz

2011-01-01

38

Supercomputer and cluster performance modeling and analysis efforts:2004-2006.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes efforts by the Performance Modeling and Analysis Team to investigate performance characteristics of Sandia's engineering and scientific applications on the ASC capability and advanced architecture supercomputers, and Sandia's capacity Linux clusters. Efforts to model various aspects of these computers are also discussed. The goals of these efforts are to quantify and compare Sandia's supercomputer and cluster performance characteristics; to reveal strengths and weaknesses in such systems; and to predict performance characteristics of, and provide guidelines for, future acquisitions and follow-on systems. Described herein are the results obtained from running benchmarks and applications to extract performance characteristics and comparisons, as well as modeling efforts, obtained during the time period 2004-2006. The format of the report, with hypertext links to numerous additional documents, purposefully minimizes the document size needed to disseminate the extensive results from our research.

Sturtevant, Judith E.; Ganti, Anand; Meyer, Harold (Hal) Edward; Stevenson, Joel O.; Benner, Robert E., Jr. (.,; .); Goudy, Susan Phelps; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Taylor, Mark A.; Malins, Robert Joseph; Scott, Ryan T.; Barnette, Daniel Wayne; Rajan, Mahesh; Ang, James Alfred; Black, Amalia Rebecca; Laub, Thomas William; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas; Franke, Brian Claude

2007-02-01

39

Emotions correlate with perceived mental effort and concentration disruption in adult sport performers.  

PubMed

Two studies explored the relationship between emotions, perceived mental effort and concentration disruption in adult sport performers. In Study 1, semi-professional association football players completed questionnaire measures before and after a competitive match. In Study 2, student athletes completed questionnaire measures for two performance scenarios: one in which they were performing above their normal level and one in which they were performing below their normal level. Findings demonstrated that cognitive trait anxiety was associated with greater disruptions in concentration but was unrelated to mental effort. For state measures, athletes reported greater levels of concentration disruption when experiencing high levels of anxiety or high levels of happiness, and fewer disruptions in concentration when experiencing high levels of excitement. Findings also showed that excitement was associated with low levels of mental effort during good performances and high levels of mental effort during poor performances; anxiety and happiness were associated with high levels of mental effort during good performances and low levels of mental effort during poor performances. Taken together, these studies point towards potential benefits accompanying high levels of excitement and potential disadvantages accompanying high levels of anxiety and happiness. PMID:24251748

Allen, Mark S; Jones, Marc; McCarthy, Paul J; Sheehan-Mansfield, Sam; Sheffield, David

2013-01-01

40

Averaging Model Analyses of Teacher Expectations of Performance from Students Varying in Motivation and Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there have been numerous studies of the impact of teacher expectation on student performance, the manner in which expectations are formed has remained unexplored. The present research tested the hypothesis that teachers develop expectation of student performance by averaging information about his or her motivation and ability. In two experiements on prediction of performance in nonacademic contests (n =

Singh Ramadhar; Shoba Sneh

41

5 CFR 9901.410 - Addressing performance that does not meet expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.410 Addressing performance that does not meet expectations....

2011-01-01

42

Sustainability of Teacher Expectation Bias Effects on Long-Term Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we address the relationship between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics, its effect on long-term student performance, and the development of this effect over time. Expectation bias was defined as the difference between observed and predicted teacher expectation. These predicted expectations were estimated from a…

de Boer, Hester; Bosker, Roel J.; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

2010-01-01

43

Wilsons Dam: Design expectations compared with measured performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foundation conditions raised a number of issues for the design of the dam, including seepage; construction stability; settlement; seismic stability; and liquefaction. These were addressed by a range of design provisions that included: wick drains, cement-bentonite slurry cut-off wall, wide berms on the upstream and downstream shoulders, highly plastic core, staged construction, and instrumented monitoring of foundation performance. Construction

Simon Weston; Andrew Hurley; Steven Woods; Don Preston; Ian Carter

44

Caffeine increases psychomotor performance on the effort expenditure for rewards task.  

PubMed

Preclinical studies suggest that cost/benefit decision-making involves interactions between adenosine and dopamine (DA). In rats, DA depletion decreases willingness to incur effort costs, while adenosine antagonism reverses these effects, likely by increasing DA transmission. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist commonly used to facilitate effortful tasks, and thus may affect decisions involving effort costs in humans. The current study examined acute effects of 200 mg of caffeine on willingness to exert effort for monetary rewards at varying levels of reward value and reward probability, in young adult light caffeine users. Based on previous findings with amphetamine, we predicted that caffeine would increase willingness to exert effort. At separate sessions, 23 healthy normal adults received placebo or 200 mg caffeine under counterbalanced double-blind conditions, then completed the effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT). Measures of subjective and cardiovascular effects were obtained at regular intervals. Caffeine produced small but significant subjective and cardiovascular effects, and sped psychomotor performance on the EEfRT. Caffeine did not alter willingness to exert effort, except in high cardiovascular responders to caffeine, in whom it decreased willingness to exert effort. These results were contrary to our predictions, but consistent with rodent studies suggesting that moderate doses of caffeine alone do not affect effort, but rather only influence effort in the context of DA antagonism. Our results demonstrate that psychomotor speeding and decisional effects on the EEfRT are dissociable, providing additional evidence for the EEfRT as a specific measure of effort-based decision-making. This study provides a starting point for exploring contributions of the adenosine system to motivation in humans. PMID:22750066

Wardle, Margaret C; Treadway, Michael T; de Wit, Harriet

2012-10-01

45

Caffeine increases psychomotor performance on the effort expenditure for rewards task  

PubMed Central

Preclinical studies suggest that cost/benefit decision-making involves interactions between adenosine and dopamine (DA). In rats, DA depletion decreases willingness to incur effort costs, while adenosine antagonism reverses these effects, likely by increasing DA transmission. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist commonly used to facilitate effortful tasks, and thus may affect decisions involving effort costs in humans. The current study examined acute effects of 200 mg of caffeine on willingness to exert effort for monetary rewards at varying levels of reward value and reward probability, in young adult light caffeine users. Based on previous findings with amphetamine, we predicted that caffeine would increase willingness to exert effort. At separate sessions, 23 healthy normal adults received placebo or 200 mg caffeine under counterbalanced double-blind conditions, then completed the effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT). Measures of subjective and cardiovascular effects were obtained at regular intervals. Caffeine produced small but significant subjective and cardiovascular effects, and sped psychomotor performance on the EEfRT. Caffeine did not alter willingness to exert effort, except in high cardiovascular responders to caffeine, in whom it decreased willingness to exert effort. These results were contrary to our predictions, but consistent with rodent studies suggesting that moderate doses of caffeine alone do not affect effort, but rather only influence effort in the context of DA antagonism. Our results demonstrate that psychomotor speeding and decisional effects on the EEfRT are dissociable, providing additional evidence for the EEfRT as a specific measure of effort-based decision-making. This study provides a starting point for exploring contributions of the adenosine system to motivation in humans. PMID:22750066

Wardle, Margaret C.; Treadway, Michael T.; de Wit, Harriet

2013-01-01

46

The Interplay among Stereotypes, Performance-Avoidance Goals, and Women's Math Performance Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was designed to examine whether and how achievement goals contribute to the effect of gender stereotypes on women's\\u000a low expectancies for success on math tasks. Study 1 confirmed predictions from the Stereotyped Task Engagement Process (STEP)\\u000a model (Smith, 2004) by demonstrating that, compared to a counter-stereotype situation, women reminded of the gender-stereotype\\u000a endorsed performance-avoidance goals. Study 2 tested

Jessi L. Smith

2006-01-01

47

Including Performance Assessments in Accountability Systems: A Review of Scale-Up Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this literature and field review is to understand previous efforts at scaling up performance assessments for use across districts and states. Performance assessments benefit students and teachers by providing more opportunities for students to demonstrate their knowledge and complex skills, by providing teachers with better…

Tung, Rosann

2010-01-01

48

MAINTAINING DATA QUALITY IN THE PERFORMANCE OF A LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED MONITORING EFFORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Macauley, John M. and Linda C. Harwell. In press. Maintaining Data Quality in the Performance of a Large Scale Integrated Monitoring Effort (Abstract). To be presented at EMAP Symposium 2004: Integrated Monitoring and Assessment for Effective Water Quality Management, 3-7 May 200...

49

Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

2010-01-01

50

The Impact of Effort and Strategy Use on Academic Performance: Student and Teacher Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the perceptions of 308 adolescents with learning disabilities, 355 average achievers, and their 57 teachers on student level of effort, strategy use, and academic performance. Findings indicated that the students with learning disabilities demonstrated positive academic self-concepts, whereas teachers' judgments were…

Meltzer, Lynn; Katzir-Cohen, Tamar; Miller, Lynne; Roditi, Bethany

2001-01-01

51

Attributional Gender Bias: Teachers' Ability and Effort Explanations for Students' Math Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students' performance in math. Whereas boys' successes in math are attributed to ability, girls' successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys' failures in math are attributed to a…

Espinoza, Penelope; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.

2014-01-01

52

41 CFR 102-117.275 - What performance must I expect from a TSP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01...2012-01-01 false What performance must I expect from...Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION...117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance §...

2012-01-01

53

41 CFR 102-117.275 - What performance must I expect from a TSP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01...2013-07-01 false What performance must I expect from...Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION...117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance §...

2013-07-01

54

41 CFR 102-117.275 - What performance must I expect from a TSP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01...2011-01-01 false What performance must I expect from...Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION...117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance §...

2011-01-01

55

The influence of effort on neuropsychological performance in children: is performance on the TOMM indicative of neuropsychological ability?  

PubMed

The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but is being increasingly used with children, though it is not yet entirely clear what suboptimal TOMM performance means in terms of neuropsychological test scores. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether performance on the TOMM can be used as a predictive marker for neuropsychological performance in children. Participants (N = 75) completed the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), Children's Memory Test, and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trails. Results revealed significant correlations between age, education level, IQ, and many of the neuropsychological measures administered, indicating that as children's TOMM scores increase, so do their cognitive performances. Children were subsequently divided into two groups: optimal effort and suboptimal effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Results suggest significant differences in IQ performance and WCST Failure to Maintain Set; however, there were no differences in regard to any other neuropsychological measures administered. It was also found that a larger proportion of the younger children (aged 6 to 10 years old) scored below the TOMM cutoff compared with older children. This study illustrates that although correlations exist, suboptimal effort on the TOMM may not predict poorer performance on a neuropsychological evaluation in children as has been reported in other studies. PMID:24236939

Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R

2014-01-01

56

Need for cognition, task difficulty, and the formation of performance expectancies.  

PubMed

In the present article, the authors analyze how performance expectancies are generated and how they affect actual performance. The authors predicted that task difficulty would affect performance expectancies only when cognitive motivation (i.e., need for cognition [NFC]) and cognitive capacity are high. This should be the case because analyzing task difficulty is a process requiring cognitive capacity as well as cognitive motivation. The findings supported the expected NFC x Difficulty interaction for the formation of performance expectancies (Study 1, Study 2), but only when cognitive capacity was high (Study 2). The authors also predicted that expectancies would affect actual performance only if the task is difficult and if task difficulty is taken into account when the expectancy is generated. This hypothesis was supported: Significant relations between performance expectancies and actual performance were found only for difficult tasks and for participants higher in NFC. Studies 5 and 6 showed clear evidence that the NFC x Difficulty interaction could not be explained by differences in the use of task-specific self-concepts. The findings were robust across academic, social, and physical tasks. PMID:19379036

Reinhard, Marc-André; Dickhäuser, Oliver

2009-05-01

57

Expectancy-value motivation in the context of a music performance examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectancy-value theory is a well-established cognitive approach to motivational re.search that focuses on belief systems. specifically. learners' expectations and valuing of activities in which they are engaged. Investigating this area in music we sampled 723 instrumental music learners aged 9 to 19 to determine their expectations for succeeding on a graded music performance examination. The students completed a questionnaire on

J. McCormick; G. E. McPherson

2007-01-01

58

Negative mood regulation expectancies and sports performance: an investigation involving professional cricketers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To test whether the performance of professional sports competitors is related to their expectancy of improving an unpleasant mood.Method: Two related studies of professional cricketers were conducted. In Study One, 46 players completed a battery of questionnaire scales, including a measure of negative mood regulation (NMR) expectancy. In Study Two, 19 participants from Study One took part in a

P Totterdell; D Leach

2001-01-01

59

Aleksandar KOSTADINOV: Expected performance of Orbit Determination of the GALILEO Satellites  

E-print Network

Aleksandar KOSTADINOV: Expected performance of Orbit Determination of the GALILEO Satellites (completed Jänner 2003) In March 2002 the European Union decided to finance the GALILEO orbits (MEOs) at 23600 km altitude. The launch of the first GALILEO satellites can be expected

Schuh, Harald

60

Caffeine Consumption, Expectancies of Caffeine-Enhanced Performance, and Caffeinism Symptoms among University Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gathered self-report data on college students' (n=797) expectations of caffeine-enhanced performance, level of beverage caffeine consumed daily, and caffeinism signs experienced after consumption of caffeinated beverages. Results supported extending the expectancies model of substance use motivation from alcohol to caffeine. (Author/ABL)

Bradley, John R.; Petree, Allen

1990-01-01

61

Motivated or Paralyzed? Individuals' Beliefs about Intelligence Influence Performance Outcome of Expecting Rapid Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current research examines whether and how beliefs about intelligence moderate the effects of expecting rapid feedback on exam performance. Thirty-six undergraduates participated in a field experiment with two between-subjects independent variables: anticipated feedback proximity and beliefs about intelligence. The results show that expecting

Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Jie; Vance, Kaleigh

2013-01-01

62

Teacher trait anxiety, student evaluation apprehension and teacher expectancy for student performance: a possible arousal effect  

E-print Network

TEACHER TRAIT ANXIETY, STUDENT EVALUATION APPREHENSION AND TEACHER EXPECTANCY FOR STUDENT PERFORMANCE: A POSSIBLE AROUSAL EFFECT A Thesis by JAMES SHEPHERD GRINNAN JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject: Educational Psychology TEACHER TRAIT ANXIETY, STUDENT EVALUATION APPREHENSION AND TEACHER EXPECTANCY FOR STUDENT PERFORMANCE: A POSSIBLE AROUSAL EFFECT A...

Grinnan, James Shepherd

2012-06-07

63

Evaluating Faculty Work: Expectations and Standards of Faculty Performance in Research Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectations and the way they are communicated can influence employees' motivation and performance. Previous research has demonstrated individual effects of workplace climate and individual differences on faculty productivity. The present study focused on the characteristics of institutional performance standards, evaluation processes and…

Hardre, Patricia; Cox, Michelle

2009-01-01

64

Great Expectations, Mixed Results: Standards and Performance in Denver's New Public Schools, 2007-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In conjunction with the Denver Plan instituted in 2005, Denver Public Schools (DPS) has embarked upon a consistent strategy of opening new schools in an effort to improve overall academic performance. DPS has pursued this strategy under several different paths: an annual request for proposals from charter school applicants; allowing current…

Ooms, Alexander

2012-01-01

65

Expectancy and heart rate as predictors of the speech performance of stutterers.  

PubMed

Three adult stutterers who displayed a preexperimental pattern of consistent expectation and occurrence of stuttering were studied in a single-subject design. Multiple linear regression analyses led to the conclusion that cognitive (signalled) expectancy was predictive of stuttering for two of the subjects. The third subject evidenced essentially no relationship between signalled expectancy and disfluent performance. For two subjects, neither mean heart rate nor heart rate variability was predictive of speech performance. For the third subject, mean heart rate was predictive but heart rate variability was not. For two subjects, there was essentially no relationship between the measured physiologic variables and cognitive expectancy. However, for the third subject both mean heart rate and heart rate variability were significantly predictive of cognitive expectancy. These results suggest that adult stutterers should not be viewed as a homogeneous group with respect to preutterance activity that is either cognitive or physiologic. The relationship between preutterance heart rate, heart rate variability, and expectancy responses and between these preutterance variables and subsequent stuttering appears to be individualistic. PMID:6645463

Baumgartner, J M; Brutten, G J

1983-09-01

66

Effort, performance, and motivation: insights from robot-assisted training of human golf putting and rat grip strength.  

PubMed

Robotic devices can modulate success rates and required effort levels during motor training, but it is unclear how this affects performance gains and motivation. Here we present results from training unimpaired humans in a virtual golf-putting task, and training spinal cord injured (SCI) rats in a grip strength task using robotically modulated success rates and effort levels. Robotic assistance in golf practice increased trainees feelings of competence, and, paradoxically, increased their sense effort, even though it had mixed effects on learning. Reducing effort during a grip strength training task led rats with SCI to practice the task more frequently. However, the more frequent practice of these rats did not cause them to exceed the strength gains achieved by rats that exercised less often at higher required effort levels. These results show that increasing success and decreasing effort with robots increases motivation, but has mixed effects on performance gains. PMID:24187278

Duarte, Jaime E; Gebrekristos, Berkenesh; Perez, Sergi; Rowe, Justin B; Sharp, Kelli; Reinkensmeyer, David J

2013-06-01

67

Unfinished tasks foster rumination and impair sleeping-Particularly if leaders have high performance expectations.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationship between time pressure and unfinished tasks as work stressors on employee well-being. Relatively little is known about the effect of unfinished tasks on well-being. Specifically, excluding the impact of time pressure, we examined whether the feeling of not having finished the week's tasks fosters perseverative cognitions and impairs sleep. Additionally, we proposed that leader performance expectations moderate these relationships. In more detail, we expected the detrimental effect of unfinished tasks on both rumination and sleep would be enhanced if leader expectations were perceived to be high. In total, 89 employees filled out online diary surveys both before and after the weekend over a 5-week period. Multilevel growth modeling revealed that time pressure and unfinished tasks impacted rumination and sleep on the weekend. Further, our results supported our hypothesis that unfinished tasks explain unique variance in the dependent variables above and beyond the influence of time pressure. Moreover, we found the relationship between unfinished tasks and both rumination and sleep was moderated by leader performance expectations. Our results emphasize the importance of unfinished tasks as a stressor and highlight that leadership, specifically in the form of performance expectations, contributes significantly to the strength of this relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24933596

Syrek, Christine J; Antoni, Conny H

2014-10-01

68

Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. [Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)  

SciTech Connect

The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This multilateral'' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250{degree}C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

1992-05-31

69

Gender Differences in Math and Verbal Self-Concept, Performance Expectations, and Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in mathematics and verbal self-concept, performance expectations, intrinsic motivation, and goal orientation were examined in 4 samples of Norwegian students. A total of 907 students in 6th grade (n = 277), 9th grade (n = 239), 11th grade (n = 264), and adult students enrolled in first year of senior high school (n = 127) participated in the

Sidsel Skaalvik; Einar M. Skaalvik

2004-01-01

70

Department of Geosciences Performance Expectations for the Position of Graduate Teaching  

E-print Network

(GTA) Listed below are minimum performance expectations required for successful continuation in the position of graduate teaching assistant (GTA) in the Department of Geosciences at Virginia Tech. 1. Attend the 3-half day Graduate School GTA workshop convened the week prior to the beginning of fall term

Zhou, Ying

71

Improving performance expectancies in stereotypic domains: task relevance and the reduction of stereotype threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiments presented here extend previous research on reducing stereotype threat, along with examining the mediating role of performance expectancies. Women who generated shared academic characteristics between men and women predicted higher scores for themselves on a math test compared to the baseline and those who generated shared non-academic characteristics or shared physical characteristics. No effects were found for male

Harriet E. S. Rosenthal; Richard J. Crisp; Mein-Woei Suen

2007-01-01

72

Approach and avoidance coping during task performance in young men: The role of goal attainment expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated approach and avoidance coping strategies as a function of goal attainment expectancies in young men. Twenty-four male students participated in an experiment consisting of two rowing tests. After the initial test, participants were divided into two experimental groups and were assigned to conditions of attainable and unattainable goals for the final test, depending on performance in

Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis

2006-01-01

73

Performance evolution and expectations management: lessons from Tevatron and other machines  

SciTech Connect

We review the LHC luminosity progress in 2010, discuss the luminosity evolution of the Tevatron collider at different stages of the Collider Runs, emphasize general dynamics of the process, compare with the performance of the other colliders analyze planned and delivered luminosity integrals, and discuss the expectation management lessons.

Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

2011-02-01

74

The influence of subordinate age, work experience, and performance level on supervisor expectations and actions  

E-print Network

to this area (e. g. , Rhodes, 1983; Rosen s Jerdee, 1985; Sonnenfeld, 1978; Stewman, 1981). LITERATURE REVIEW Research targeted at these specific concerns about employee age and its influence on various employment decisions is relatively new. The early... to old employees (mean=195. 83), and the lowest amount of money to middle age employees (mean=100. 00). Expectation of Future Performance No significant effect was found in the results of the four questions concerning the specific performance criteria...

Wu, Beverly Hui-Jun

2012-06-07

75

Cloudy with a Chance of Sarcasm or Sunny with High Expectations: Using Best Practice Language to Strengthen Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What's the forecast in your classroom? Are you forecasting cloudy with a chance of sarcasm or sunny with high expectations? A teacher's Language of Practice holds the key to creating a climate of mutual respect in our schools. This article will explore the power and promise of "teacher language," and how it can be used to…

Holloman, Hal; Yates, Peggy H.

2013-01-01

76

Motivational profiles of medical students: Association with study effort, academic performance and exhaustion  

PubMed Central

Background Students enter the medical study with internally generated motives like genuine interest (intrinsic motivation) and/or externally generated motives like parental pressure or desire for status or prestige (controlled motivation). According to Self-determination theory (SDT), students could differ in their study effort, academic performance and adjustment to the study depending on the endorsement of intrinsic motivation versus controlled motivation. The objectives of this study were to generate motivational profiles of medical students using combinations of high or low intrinsic and controlled motivation and test whether different motivational profiles are associated with different study outcomes. Methods Participating students (N?=?844) from University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands, were classified to different subgroups through K-means cluster analysis using intrinsic and controlled motivation scores. Cluster membership was used as an independent variable to assess differences in study strategies, self-study hours, academic performance and exhaustion from study. Results Four clusters were obtained: High Intrinsic High Controlled (HIHC), Low Intrinsic High Controlled (LIHC), High Intrinsic Low Controlled (HILC), and Low Intrinsic Low Controlled (LILC). HIHC profile, including the students who are interest?+?status motivated, constituted 25.2% of the population (N?=?213). HILC profile, including interest-motivated students, constituted 26.1% of the population (N?=?220). LIHC profile, including status-motivated students, constituted 31.8% of the population (N?=?268). LILC profile, including students who have a low-motivation and are neither interest nor status motivated, constituted 16.9% of the population (N?=?143). Interest-motivated students (HILC) had significantly more deep study strategy (p?performance and low exhaustion from study. The interest?+?status motivated profile (HIHC) was also found to be associated with a good learning profile, except that students with this profile showed higher surface strategy. Low-motivation (LILC) and status-motivated profiles (LIHC) were associated with the least desirable learning behaviours. PMID:23782767

2013-01-01

77

Performance Appraisal Use this form two, three or four times per year to clarify performance expectations, set challenging goals, rate how well the employee  

E-print Network

expectations, set challenging goals, rate how well the employee performed, and develop an action plan for job % of job Monitor by Expectation ­ Performance is completely acceptable when.... Excellence ­ Performance is excellent when... 2. Responsibility % of job Monitor by Expectation ­ Performance is completely acceptable

Amin, S. Massoud

78

Using Utility Bills and Average Daily Energy Consumption to Target Commissioning Efforts and Track Building Performance  

E-print Network

This paper discusses using basic utility data that is readily available from utility bills to focus targeted retrocommissioning efforts. It also discusses how to use this information to spot emerging problems related to how the building is using...

Sellers, D.

2001-01-01

79

Improved detection of submaximum effort in upper extremity strength and strength-endurance performance testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was a continuation of 2 investigations into methods used to help discriminate between maximum and submaximum effort\\u000a in maximal power grip (strength), and repeated maximal power grip (strength-endurance). The purpose was to identify valid\\u000a discriminator variables, which in combination would improve the detection of submaximum effort over single discriminator variables.\\u000a Three discriminator variables were identified for power grip

Loarn D. Robertson; Gary R. Brodowicz; Albert R. Swafford

1997-01-01

80

Role of Social–Cognitive Expectations in High School Students' Mathematics-Related Interest and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested path models of academic interest and performance that were derived from social–cognitive theory. Two samples of high school students took part in the study: 151 geometry students and 145 advanced algebra students. Measures of objective math ability, perceived sources of efficacy information, outcome expectations, course-specific self-efficacy, interest in mathematics and science activities, and math course grades were

Frederick G. Lopez; Robert W. Lent; Steven D. Brown; Paul A. Gore

1997-01-01

81

Effort test performance in clinical acute brain injury, community brain injury, and epilepsy populations.  

PubMed

Effort tests have become commonplace within medico-legal and forensic contexts and their use is rising within clinical settings. It is recognized that some patients may fail effort tests due to cognitive impairment and not because of poor effort. However, investigation of the base rate of failure among clinical populations other than dementia is limited. Forty-seven clinical participants were recruited and comprised three subgroups: acute brain injury (N = 11), community brain injury (N = 20), and intractable epilepsy (N = 16). Base rates of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT; Green, 2003 ) and six other less well-validated measures were investigated. A significant minority of patients failed effort tests according to standard cutoff scores, particularly patients with severe traumatic brain injury and marked frontal-executive features. The WMT was able to identify failures associated with significant cognitive impairment through the application of profile analysis and/or lowered cutoff levels. Implications for clinical assessment, effort test interpretation, and future research are discussed. PMID:25084843

Hampson, Natalie E; Kemp, Steven; Coughlan, Anthony K; Moulin, Chris J A; Bhakta, Bipin B

2014-01-01

82

Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions  

E-print Network

Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the lunar environment.

T. E Girish; S Aranya

2010-12-03

83

District health executives in Midlands province, Zimbabwe: are they performing as expected?  

PubMed Central

Background The cornerstone of the health system in Zimbabwe, the district health system has been under the responsibility of the district health executive since 1984. Preliminary information obtained from some provincial health managers in Midlands Province suggested a poor performance by most district health executives. We therefore investigated the reasons for this poor performance. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted. Structured interviewer administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from district health managers of five randomly selected districts in the province. Checklists were used to assess resource availability, staffing levels and proxy indicators to effective district health executive function. Data were analysed using Epi Info statistical package. Results Thirty district health managers were interviewed. Almost half of the participants could not list at least five functions of district health executives. Twenty nine managers reported having inadequate management skills requiring training. District health executives failed to meet their targets on expected activities in the year 2010 such as conducting monthly district health executive meetings, conducting quarterly supervision to health centres and submitting quarterly district health reports to the provincial level. Conclusion Poor knowledge on expected functions could have resulted in poor performance. Without adequate management training district health managers are likely to underperform their duties. DHE guidelines were therefore distributed to all districts. Management trainings were conducted to all district health executives throughout the country from November 2011. PMID:22998682

2012-01-01

84

The Performance of Individuals with Mental Retardation on Cognitive Tests Assessing Effort and Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine which tests of effort and motivation would be appropriate for use with patients with mental retardation when feigning of cognitive deficits is suspected. The seven measures evaluated included the WMS-III Rarely Missed Index Test, forced-choice recognition portion of the California Verbal Learning Test-II, Reliable Digit Span test, Rey 15-Item Test, Rey Dot

Paul Marshall; Maggie Happe

2007-01-01

85

Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing…

Perdian, David C.

2013-01-01

86

NICMOS in the Cryo-Cooler Era: Expectations for On-Orbit Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Servicing Mission 3B for the Hubble Space Telescope, a reverse-Brayton cycle turbine cooler will be installed in conjunction with a new external radiator to recool the Near Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrometer's (NICMOS) MgCdTe focal plane arrays to operational temperatures of approximately 75K. The new NICMOS Cooling System (NCS) will circulate cold Neon gas through the cooling coils in the NICMOS cryostat (originally used to freeze out the now depleted solid Nitrogen cryogen). Today, NICMOS remains passively functional, and should return to full usability with all observing modes intact with the advent of the NCS. Here, we report on the expectations for the performance of NICMOS once integrated with and cooled by the NCS based on an extensive series of flight and ground experiments and our experience with flight spare detectors operated at these temperatures. We discuss the results from the shuttle-born HOST mission, laboratory experiments at the Steward Observatory NICMOS detector Laboratory emulating the on-orbit warm-up of the detectors, and system level and electro-magnetic susceptibility and interference tests at the Goddard Space Flight Center. From these, and our experience with the NICMOS both during its pre-launch testing and calibration, and on-orbit use during HST Cycle 7, we re-evaluate expectations for systemic read-noise, dark currents, thermal backgrounds, quantum efficiencies, and optical and mechanical stability of the instrument platform. We discuss the expected changes in these characteristics, with respect to HST Cycle 7, both in terms of established performance metrics and their effects on the formulation and conduction of effective observational strategies for conducting NICMOS science observations. This work is supported, in part, by NASA grant NAG5-3042 to the NICMOS Instrument Definition Team.

O'Neil, E. J.; Schneider, G.; Ferro, A. J.; Hubbard, W. P.; Barg, M. I.; Stobie, E. B.; Thompson, R. I.; Boeker, Torsten; Holfeltz, S. T.; Petro, L. D.

2000-12-01

87

Expected Performance of the ATLAS Detector in GMSB Models with Tau Final States  

E-print Network

Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (GMSB) models provide a possible mechanism to mediate Supersymmetry to the visible sector. In these models the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is usually the gravitino, while the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP) is either a neutralino or a slepton. In the case of a stau NLSP events with large missing transverse energy, highly energetic jets and up to four $\\tau$ leptons are expected in $pp$-collisions at the LHC. A study of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector in GMSB scenarios with a stau NLSP for a LHC center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 10 TeV is presented. A cut-based selection has been optimised using a typical GMSB scenario and a scan of the GMSB parameter space has been performed to determine the discovery reach as a function of the integrated luminosity. In addition, the invariant mass distribution of two $\\tau$ leptons has been used to study the measurement of masses of supersymmetric particles with larger event samples.

Dorthe Ludwig; for the ATLAS collaboration

2010-02-04

88

Learner Involvement in Instruction on a Complex Cognitive Task: Application of a Composite Measure of Performance and Mental Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an application of a measure of learner involvement developed by Paas, Tuovinen, van Merrienboer, and Darabi (2005). These authors combined learners' performance scores with their perceived mental effort invested in instruction and used it to assess learner involvement in instructional conditions. The present study examines the…

Darabi, A. Aubteen; Nelson, David W.; Paas, Fred

2007-01-01

89

Attributional Bias Instrument (ABI): Validation of a Measure to Assess Ability and Effort Explanations for Math Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present work investigates the validation of a newly developed instrument, the attributional bias instrument, based on achievement attribution theories that distinguish between effort and ability explanations of behavior. The instrument further incorporates the distinction between explanations for success versus failure in academic performance.…

Espinoza, Penelope P.; Quezada, Stephanie A.; Rincones, Rodolfo; Strobach, E. Natalia; Gutierrez, Maria Armida Estrada

2012-01-01

90

Psychological Disturbance, Incomplete Effort, and Compensation-Seeking Status as Predictors of Neuropsychological Test Performance in Head Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indices from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) representing cognitive and emotional disturbance as well as incomplete effort on the Recognition Memory Test (RMT; Warrington, 1984) were examined as predictors of performance on the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery (HRB; Reitan & Wolfson, 1993). In the current study, which included a large sample (N

Scott R. Ross; Steven H. Putnam; Kenneth M. Adams

2006-01-01

91

Optimizing performance in a self-conducted {open_quotes}Rightsizing{close_quotes} effort  

SciTech Connect

The differentiation among {open_quotes}rightsizing,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}downsizing,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}reengineering{close_quotes} has been lost by many organizations. Also, unfortunately of late, the approaches to improved competitiveness and worker productivity are being viewed, by many companies, as neither worth the effort nor achieving the desired results. In some cases, the effort may actually create more negative results. This type of negative perception has been documented in a variety of sources that include the following: (1) less than half the companies reporting improvements in operating profits after the cuts were made, (2) the processes resulting in significantly degraded morale among more than 75% of the employees, (3) less than one-third of organizations reporting improvements in worker productivity, and (4) even Michael Hammer (the reengineering {open_quotes}guru{close_quotes}) believing that more than 50% and maybe as much as 70% of the organizations do not achieve the intended results. This paper describes an integrated organizational review process that was applied within a nuclear utility that did achieve the desired results.

Annon, M.C. [I& C Engineering Associates, Waterford, CT (United States)

1996-12-31

92

The neural coding of expected and unexpected monetary performance outcomes: dissociations between active and observational learning.  

PubMed

Successful adaptation to the environment requires the learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations. Such associations can be learned actively by trial and error or by observing the behaviour and accompanying outcomes in other persons. The present study investigated similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of active and observational learning from monetary feedback using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two groups of 15 subjects each - active and observational learners - participated in the experiment. On every trial, active learners chose between two stimuli and received monetary feedback. Each observational learner observed the choices and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance as assessed via active test trials without feedback was comparable between groups. Different activation patterns were observed for the processing of unexpected vs. expected monetary feedback in active and observational learners, particularly for positive outcomes. Activity for unexpected vs. expected reward was stronger in the right striatum in active learning, while activity in the hippocampus was bilaterally enhanced in observational and reduced in active learning. Modulation of activity by prediction error (PE) magnitude was observed in the right putamen in both types of learning, whereas PE related activations in the right anterior caudate nucleus and in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were stronger for active learning. The striatum and orbitofrontal cortex thus appear to link reward stimuli to own behavioural reactions and are less strongly involved when the behavioural outcome refers to another person's action. Alternative explanations such as differences in reward value between active and observational learning are also discussed. PMID:22074898

Bellebaum, C; Jokisch, D; Gizewski, E R; Forsting, M; Daum, I

2012-02-01

93

Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for targeted advertisement of student resources such as tutoring services. The students who are identified in the over-performing student population received higher grades than their fellow students, but spent less time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for honors programs, independent research projects, and peer-tutoring programs. Incorporating these evaluation criteria to online homework systems will allow instructors to quickly identify students in these academic student populations.

Perdian, David C.

2012-10-01

94

The effect of effort on baseline neuropsychological test scores in high school football athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePoor effort on baseline neuropsychological tests is expected to influence interpretation of post-concussion assessment scores. Our study examined effort in an athletic population to determine if poor effort effects neuropsychological test performance.

Tamerah N. Hunt; Michael S. Ferrara; L. Stephen Miller; Stephen Macciocchi

2007-01-01

95

Benchmarks and performance indicators: two tools for evaluating organizational results and continuous quality improvement efforts.  

PubMed

Benchmarks are tools that can be compared across companies and industries to measure process output. The key to benchmarking is understanding the composition of the benchmark and whether the benchmarks consist of homogeneous groupings. Performance measures expand the concept of benchmarking and cross organizational boundaries to include factors that are strategically important to organizational success. Incorporating performance measures into a balanced score card will provide a comprehensive tool to evaluate organizational results. PMID:8634466

McKeon, T

1996-04-01

96

Leader performance evaluations and role congruity expectations in a community college setting  

E-print Network

Expectations, Attitudes, and Gender The results of this study support the argument that many opportunity inequalities between women andattitudes, attributions, stereotypes, biases, and role congruity expectations maintained by the men and women

Trickey, Edward

2011-01-01

97

Effort Allocation in Tournaments: The Effect of Gender on Academic Performance in Italian Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We consider the academic performance of Italian university graduates and their labor market position 3 years after graduation. Our data confirm the common finding that female students outperform male students in academia but are overcome in the labor market. Assuming that academic competition is fair and that individual talent is equally…

Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa

2009-01-01

98

Federal Efforts to Improve the Lowest-Performing Schools: District Views on School Improvement Grant Requirements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Congress considers legislation to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965, one topic of debate is the program of school improvement grants (SIGs) authorized by section 1003(g) of Title I. SIGs are intended to help to turn around low-performing schools and are part of the larger ESEA Title I program to improve…

Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

2011-01-01

99

Reflective Thinking, Effort, Persistence, Disorganization and Academic Performance: A Mediational Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This article reports on a two-phase study that was conducted looking at study processing strategies, reflective thinking practice, and academic performance. Phase I is a mediational analysis of conceptual model that we have developed involving examination of direct and mediating effects between the four phases of reflection (habitual…

Phan, Huy P.

2009-01-01

100

Using the Networked Fire Chief for ego-depletion research: measuring dynamic decision-making effort and performance.  

PubMed

This study replicated ego-depletion predictions from the self-control literature in a computer simulation task that requires ongoing decision-making in relation to constantly changing environmental information: the Network Fire Chief (NFC). Ego-depletion led to decreased self-regulatory effort, but not performance, on the NFC task. These effects were also buffered by task enjoyment so that individuals who enjoyed the dynamic decision-making task did not experience ego-depletion effects. These findings confirm that past ego-depletion effects on decision-making are not limited to static or isolated decision-making tasks and can be extended to dynamic, naturalistic decision-making processes more common to naturalistic settings. Furthermore, the NFC simulation provides a methodological mechanism for independently measuring effort and performance when studying ego-depletion. PMID:25175988

Barber, Larissa K; Smit, Brandon W

2014-01-01

101

FY13 High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort - Training Data Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the time hand-intensive tasks were first created for EVAs, discomforts and injuries have been noted.. There have been numerous versions of EVA gloves for US crew over the past 50 years, yet pain and injuries persist. The investigation team was tasked with assisting in a glove injury assessment for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project.center dot To aid in this assessment, the team was asked to complete the following objectives: - First, to develop the best current understanding of what glove-related injuries have occurred to date, and when possible, identify the specific mechanisms that caused those injuries - Second, to create a standardized method for comparison of glove injury potential from one glove to another. center dot The overall goal of the gloved hand injury assessment is to utilize ergonomics in understanding how these glove injuries are occurring, and to propose mitigations to current designs or design changes in the next generation of EVA gloves.

Reid, Christopher; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Charvat, Jacqueline; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

102

Decreased capacity for mental effort after single supratentorial lacunar infarct may affect performance in everyday life  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—The long term outcome after a single symptomatic lacunar infarct may be less favourable than is generally assumed. Patients often present with complaints such as fatigue or "being different from before the stroke", for which there are no obvious physical explanations. Although cognitive functioning is considered normal in most patients with lacunar infarction in the internal capsule or corona radiata, a study was carried out to determine if subclinical changes in mental or emotional function can explain these vague complaints characteristic for their disablement.?METHODS— Sixteen patients, each with a single symptomatic supratentorial lacunar infarct, and 16 matched healthy controls were examined with an extensive neuropsychological screening battery and a standardised questionnaire aimed at emotional problems. The mean number of correct responses was calculated for each subject and averaged within each group.?RESULTS—Although, on the whole, there were no differences in performance, patients' results on the following tasks in different modalities showed evidence for decreased performance under relatively more demanding conditions: line orientation task (mean difference (MD) 261 ms; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 94 to 428), Rey-Osterrieth delayed recall (MD?3.8, 95% CI ?7.5 to 0.0), visual elevator subtest of the everyday attention task (EAT) (MD ?0.7, 95% CI ?1.5 to 0.1), lottery subtest of the EAT (MD ?0.6, 95% CI ?1.3 to 0.1) and WAIS similarities (MD ?3.2 95% CI ?6.3 to 0.1). Patients also more often had emotional disturbances than controls.?CONCLUSION—Both subtle cognitive impairments and emotional disturbances may play a part in the decreased competence in everyday life of patients with a supratentorial lacunar infarct.?? PMID:9810940

Van Zandvoort, M J E; Kappelle, L; Algra, A; De Haan, E H F

1998-01-01

103

Expected performance of the stereo camera on board the BepiColombo mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stereo camera (STC) is one of the channels of SIMBIOSYS, the remote sensing instrument that will be on board the BepiColombo, and it will provide the global mapping of Mercury and Digital Terrain Model of the entire surface. The maximum spatial resolution will be of 50 m per pixel at the periherm (400 km from the surface) and the vertical accuracy will be about 84 m. The grid size of the DTM is depending even from the stereo reconstruction software will apply, and according to our new algorithm we may achieve 1-2 pixels. In this work we will show the expected performance of STC, the observing strategy and the simulations of what the camera will provide for the geological analysis. Some stereo pairs obtained by space missions, on other Solar System bodies, will be used for the simulations after having applied our new algorithm for the stereo reconstruction. On all the images we will evaluate the impact of the compression software in terms of DTM accuracy.

Cremonese, Gabriele; Capria, Maria Teresa; da Deppo, Vania; Forlani, Gianfranco; Forni, Olivier; Langevin, Yves; Massironi, Matteo; Naletto, Giampiero; Simioni, Emanuele; Debei, Stefano; Flamini, Enrico; Sgavetti, Maria; Giacomini, Lorenza; Martellato, Elena

104

Modeling the expected performance of the REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OSIRIS-REx is the third spacecraft in the NASA New Frontiers Program and is planned for launch in 2016. OSIRIS-REx will orbit the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, characterize it, and return a sample of the asteroid's regolith back to Earth. The Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is an instrument on OSIRIS-REx designed and built by students at MIT and Harvard. The purpose of REXIS is to collect and image sun-induced fluorescent X-rays emitted by Bennu, thereby providing spectroscopic information related to the elemental makeup of the asteroid regolith and the distribution of features over its surface. Telescopic reflectance spectra suggest a CI or CM chondrite analog meteorite class for Bennu, where this primitive nature strongly motivates its study. A number of factors, however, will influence the generation, measurement, and interpretation of the X-ray spectra measured by REXIS. These include: the compositional nature and heterogeneity of Bennu, the time-variable solar state, X-ray detector characteristics, and geometric parameters for the observations. In this paper, we will explore how these variables influence the precision to which REXIS can measure Bennu's surface composition. By modeling the aforementioned factors, we place bounds on the expected performance of REXIS and its ability to ultimately place Bennu in an analog meteorite class.

Inamdar, Niraj K.; Binzel, Richard P.; Hong, Jae Sub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan; Masterson, Rebecca A.

2014-09-01

105

Examination of Faculty Expectations of Technical College Administrators as an Important Factor in High Performing Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular thought supports the notion that faculty expectations of technical college administrators appear to be linked to the success or failure of an institution at accomplishing its mission. These expectations provide the basis for the development of relationships that foster the growth of technical training and thus the growth of a skilled…

Dupuis, Phyllis A.

2009-01-01

106

Student Labor Evaluation Form Performance Expectations Evaluation Scale Score **Supervisor Comments  

E-print Network

, facilities, materials, and work environment. 0 10 TEAMWORK 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 Demonstrates a willingness to work in communication and conduct Superior professional communication and conduct Little effort given to maximize

Baltisberger, Jay H.

107

Expectation to receive methylphenidate enhances subjective arousal but not cognitive performance  

PubMed Central

Nonmedical use of prescription stimulant medication such as methylphenidate (MPH) has increased among college students over the past several years. Common motivations for use include enhancements in cognition and subjective arousal. As it is unclear whether stimulant medication exerts the same effect on healthy individuals as for those with ADHD, it is possible that many reported effects of prescription stimulants by healthy individuals may stem from placebo effects, which may be an important mechanism underlying initiation and maintenance of nonmedical use. This study examined whether placebo effects influence reports of subjective mood and cognitive performance among college students who endorsed several risk factors for prescription stimulant misuse (i.e., low GPA, fraternity/sorority involvement, binge drinking, cannabis use). Ninety-six subjects (60% male) completed a battery of cognitive tests and questionnaires assessing present mood state on two occasions. Forty-seven participants were randomized to an experimental condition and orally ingested what they believed to be MPH, though actually placebo, on one visit and received no medication on the other visit. The control group received no medication on either visit. During the administration visit, experimental participants reported feeling significantly more high and stimulated compared to the non-administration visit and to the control subjects. However, cognitive enhancement differences were not generally seen between visits or groups. This research demonstrates that placebo effects for prescription stimulants do influence subjective mood and may be implicated in nonmedical stimulant use. This knowledge may be useful in challenging prescription stimulant-related expectancies to decrease the prevalence of use among college students. PMID:21875224

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2013-01-01

108

Effort testing in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: validity indicator profile and test of memory malingering performance characteristics.  

PubMed

While the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) and the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) are designed to limit the influence of actual cognitive impairment on successful performance, the extent to which cognitive dysfunction does play a role in the assessment of effort should be verified in distinct clinical groups. To date, little research has been conducted on VIP performance in individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. Fifty-four patients with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered the VIP, TOMM, Short Test of Mental Status, and the Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest. Specificity rates were compared between tests, with normative data, and with published specificity rates in psychiatric samples. Results indicate that the use of the VIP with psychotic-disordered individuals will generate increased invalid performance profiles, whereas the TOMM is more resilient in this population. Significantly, mental status and estimated intellectual ability were predictive of classifications on the VIP Verbal subtest and the TOMM. PMID:24002172

Hunt, Sandra; Root, James C; Bascetta, Brittany Lynn

2014-03-01

109

JEL classification: C91 D83 D84 J24 Rational Expectations of Own Performance  

E-print Network

their risks and overestimate their abilities relative to others. We test for such optimistic bias which expectations can be compared. Fischoff et al. (2000) compare teenagers' current probability point

Hickman, Mark

110

Beam dynamics and expected RHIC performance with 56MHz RF upgrade  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade of the RHIC storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was recently proposed. This upgrade will provide a significant increase in the acceptance of the RHIC 197 MHz storage RF bucket. This paper summarizes simulations of beam evolution due to intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvements are shown for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and protons at 250 GeV.

Fedotov,A.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.

2009-05-04

111

The Imaging and Slitless Spectroscopy Instrument for Surveys (ISSIS): expected radiometric performance, operation modes and data handling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISSIS is the instrument for imaging and slitless spectroscopy on-board WSO-UV. In this article, a detailed comparison between ISSIS expected radiometric performance and other ultraviolet instruments is shown. In addition, we present preliminary information on the performance verification tests and on the foreseen procedures for in-flight operation and data handling.

Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Belén Perea, G.; Sánchez, Néstor; Santiago, Javier López; Chirivella, Jóse; Seijas, Juan

2014-11-01

112

The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first…

Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

2013-01-01

113

Expectancy effect: Impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectancy or placebo effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. To determine the effect of taking pills on cognitive function, 40 participants were randomly assigned to a pill or no-pill condition. Healthy seniors who took a 2-week supply of methylcellulose pills, which they were told was an experimental cognitive enhancer, were compared to seniors not taking any pills.

Barry S. Oken; Kristin Flegal; Daniel Zajdel; Shirley Kishiyama; Mitchell Haas; Dawn Peters

2008-01-01

114

College students' ratings of student effort, student ability and teacher input as correlates of student performance on multiple-choice exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the class session following feedback regarding their scores on multiple-choice exams, undergraduate students in a large human development course rated the strength of possible contributors to their exam performance. Students rated items related to their personal effort in preparing for the exam (identified as student effort in the paper), their ability to perform well on the exams (identified as

Robert L. Williams; Lloyd Clark

2004-01-01

115

Expectancy effect: impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors.  

PubMed

Expectancy or placebo effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. To determine the effect of taking pills on cognitive function, 40 participants were randomly assigned to a pill or no-pill condition. Healthy seniors who took a 2-week supply of methylcellulose pills, which they were told was an experimental cognitive enhancer, were compared to seniors not taking any pills. There were 2 primary outcome measures defined prior to the study-Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word List delayed recall and Stroop color word task time-as well as 7 other cognitive outcome measures. There was a significant effect of pill taking on the 2 primary outcome measures. There was also an effect of pill taking on choice reaction time and Word List immediate recall but not on the other 5 secondary cognitive outcome measures. In an exploratory analysis of potential predictors of the expectancy effect, perceived stress and self-efficacy but not personality traits interacted with the pill-taking effect on cognitive function. Further characterizing and understanding this observed expectancy effect is important to maximize cognitive health and improve clinical trial design. PMID:18165936

Oken, Barry S; Flegal, Kristin; Zajdel, Daniel; Kishiyama, Shirley; Haas, Mitchell; Peters, Dawn

2008-01-01

116

Effects of Methylphenidate and Expectancy on ADHD Children's Performance, Self-Evaluations, Persistence, and Attributions on a Cognitive Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 0.3 mg\\/kg methylphenidate (MPH) and expectancy regarding medication on the performance and task persistence of 60 boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were investigated. In a balanced-placebo design, boys in 4 groups (received placebo\\/drug crossed with told placebo\\/drug) completed the task in success and failure conditions. Medication improved participants' task persistence following failure. Participants' task performance

William E. Pelham; Betsy Hoza; Heidi L. Kipp; Elizabeth M. Gnagy; Sarah T. Trane

1997-01-01

117

Audit Expectation?Performance Gap Revisited: Evidence from New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Part 1: The Gap in New Zealand and the United Kingdom in 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criticism of auditors and loss of confidence in their work result from auditors not meeting society's expectations of them; that is, from the audit expectation?performance gap. Prior research found this gap has three components: a reasonableness, deficient standards and deficient performance gap. In 2008, research was conducted to identify differences in the audit expectation?performance gap in the United Kingdom (UK)

Brenda Porter; Ciaran Ó hÓgartaigh; Rachel Baskerville

2012-01-01

118

India's performance in the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games – expected or otherwise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews India's performance in the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games measured using four performance indicators?–?gold medals, total medals, total points (three for gold, two for silver and one for bronze) and market share (points won as a percentage of points awarded). It is argued that India over-achieved in 2010 on all four of these measures relative to what its

Girish Ramchandani; Darryl Wilson

2012-01-01

119

Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. Final report, July 1, 1986--May 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This ``multilateral`` project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250{degree}C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

Winston, R.; O`Gallagher, J.J.

1992-05-31

120

IBS and expected luminosity performance for RHIC beams at top energy with 56 MHz SRF cavity  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of RF system in RHIC is to capture injected bunches, accelerate them to the top energy, and store bunches at the top energy for many hours. The accelerating RF system operates at harmonic number h=360 of the particle revolution frequency f=78.196 kHz, which corresponds to 28.15MHz. The storage RF system accepts the shortened bunches at top energy and provides longitudinal focusing to keep these bunches short during the store time (collision mode). The storage system operates at harmonic number h=7x360=2520, which corresponds to an RF frequency of 197.05 MHz [1]. Recently, an upgrade of storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was proposed [2]. This upgrade will provide significant increase in the acceptance of storage RF bucket. Presently, the short bunch length for collisions is obtained via RF gymnastics with bunch rotation (called re-bucketing), because the length of 197MHz bucket of 5 nsec is too short to accommodate long bunches otherwise. However, due to bucket non-linearity and hardware complications some increase in the longitudinal emittance occurs during re-bucketing. The 56MHz cavity will produce sufficiently short bunches which would allow one to operate without re-bucketing procedure. This Note summarizes simulation of beam evolution due to Intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvement is shown both for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and for protons at 250 GeV.

Fedotov,A.

2008-10-01

121

Planck pre-launch status: Low Frequency Instrument calibration and expected scientific performance  

E-print Network

We give the calibration and scientific performance parameters of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) measured during the ground cryogenic test campaign. These parameters characterise the instrument response and constitute our best pre-launch knowledge of the LFI scientific performance. The LFI shows excellent $1/f$ stability and rejection of instrumental systematic effects; measured noise performance shows that LFI is the most sensitive instrument of its kind. The set of measured calibration parameters will be updated during flight operations through the end of the mission.

Mennella, A; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; D'Arcangelo, O; Davis, R J; Frailis, M; Galeotta, S; Gregorio, A; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lowe, S R; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Meinhold, P; Mendes, L; Morgante, G; Sandri, M; Stringhetti, L; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Valenziano, L; Villa, F; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A; Balasini, M; Franceschet, C; Battaglia, P; Lapolla, P M; Leutenegger, P; Miccolis, M; Pagan, L; Silvestri, R; Aja, B; Artal, E; Baldan, G; Bastia, P; Bernardino, T; Boschini, L; Cafagna, G; Cappellini, B; Cavaliere, F; Colombo, F; de La Fuente, L; Edgeley, J; Falvella, M C; Ferrari, F; Fogliani, S; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T; Gomez, F; Herreros, J M; Hildebrandt, S; Hoyland, R; Hughes, N; Jukkala, P; Kettle, D; Laaninen, M; Lawson, D; Leahy, P; Levin, S; Lilje, P B; Maino, D; Malaspina, M; Manzato, P; Marti-Canales, J; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Mediavilla, A; Pasian, F; Pascual, J P; Pecora, M; Peres-Cuevas, L; Platania, P; Pospieszalsky, M; Poutanen, T; Rebolo, R; Roddis, N; Salmon, M; Seiffert, M; Simonetto, A; Sozzi, C; Tauber, J; Tuovinen, J; Varis, J; Wilkinson, A; Winder, F

2010-01-01

122

The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

2005-01-01

123

The First-Level Trigger of the HERA-B experiment: performance and expectations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HERA-B is a fixed target spectrometer which uses 920 GeV protons incident on various target materials. The experiment is aimed to study various aspects of beauty and charm physics. The detector is designed to operate at high interaction rates with an average of 4-5 interactions per event. The First-Level Trigger (FLT) is required to reduce the input rate by more than two orders of magnitude while keeping high efficiency for beauty and charm channels. The trigger performs online track reconstruction and takes decisions based on particle momenta or pair masses. A pipeline architecture is implemented on about 100 pipelined hardware processors to perform this job. The working principle and first results of the FLT performance based on the data acquired during the run in the year 2000 are described.

Balagura, V.; Bruinsma, M.; Fleckenstein, H.; Flammer, J.; Gläss, J.; Männer, R.; Michetti, A.; Nörenberg, M.; Pernack, R.; Popov, V.; Ressing, D.; Riu, I.; Sbrizzi, A.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Somov, A.; Uwer, U.; Wahlberg, H.; Wurz, A.

2002-11-01

124

Managing Performance in the Forensic Sciences: Expectations in Light of Limited Budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

For forensic service providers worldwide, the demand for high-quality services greatly outpaces available resources to meet those requests. The gap between the demand for services and the resource-restricted supply of those services has implications for managing performance: the effectiveness and efficiency of forensic science. The effectiveness of forensic science is directly related to the quality of the scientific analysis and

Hilton Kobus; Max Houck; Paul Speaker; Richard Riley; Tom Witt

2011-01-01

125

The Threat of Living up to Expectations: Analyzing the Performance of Hispanic Students on Standardized Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines whether the recognition of stereotypes undermines the academic performance of Hispanic students, a phenomenon known as "stereotype threat." With regard to race, stereotype threat has been examined predominately between African American and White students, yet limited research has investigated how Hispanic…

Rodríguez, Bryan A.

2014-01-01

126

School performance of international adoptees better than expected from cognitive test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate school performance of international adoptees in relation to their cognitive competence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  From the population of all male Swedish residents born 1973–1976, registered in the census 1985 and with complete test scores\\u000a from military conscription, the following study groups were identified: Korean adoptees (n = 320), non-Korean adoptees (n = 1,125), siblings (children born by adoptive parents, n = 190) and Swedish majority comparisons (n = 142,024).

Frank Lindblad; Monica Dalen; Finn Rasmussen; Bo Vinnerljung; Anders Hjern

2009-01-01

127

Irradiation tests and expected performance of readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap calorimeter for the HL-LHC  

E-print Network

The readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter (HEC) will have to withstand an about 3-5 times larger radiation environment at the future high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) compared to the LHC design values. The radiation damages of the front-end electronics made in GaAs technology could significantly affect the HEC performance. Recent measurements of characteristics neutron and proton irradiated ASICs at room and LAr temperatures are reported, which allow an improved assessment of the expected degradation in HL-LHC conditions. These measurements are furthermore applied to simulations of the calorimeter performance. Results from replacement technologies, like Si CMOS, are also presented.

Ahmadov, F; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

128

Expected performance of an ideal liquid argon neutrino detector with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillation light is used in liquid argon (LAr) neutrino detectors to provide a trigger signal, veto information against cosmic rays, and absolute event timing. In this work, we discuss additional opportunities offered by detectors with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light, that is with light collection efficiencies of about 10-3. We focus on two key detector performance indicators for neutrino oscillation physics: calorimetric neutrino energy reconstruction and neutrino/antineutrino separation in a non-magnetized detector. Our results are based on detailed simulations, with neutrino interactions modelled according to the GENIE event generator, while the charge and light responses of a large LAr ideal detector are described by the Geant4 and NEST simulation tools. A neutrino energy resolution as good as 3.3% RMS for 4 GeV electron neutrino charged-current interactions can in principle be obtained in a large detector of this type, by using both charge and light information. By exploiting muon capture in argon and scintillation light information to veto muon decay electrons, we also obtain muon neutrino identification efficiencies of about 50%, and muon antineutrino misidentification rates at the few percent level, for few-GeV neutrino interactions that are fully contained. We argue that the construction of large LAr detectors with sufficiently high light collection efficiencies is in principle possible.

Sorel, M.

2014-10-01

129

Expected performance of an ideal liquid argon neutrino detector with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light  

E-print Network

Scintillation light is used in liquid argon (LAr) neutrino detectors to provide a trigger signal, veto information against cosmic rays, and absolute event timing. In this work, we discuss additional opportunities offered by detectors with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light, that is with light collection efficiencies of about $10^{-3}$. We focus on two key detector performance indicators for neutrino oscillation physics: calorimetric neutrino energy reconstruction and neutrino/antineutrino separation in a non-magnetized detector. Our results are based on detailed simulations, with neutrino interactions modelled according to the GENIE event generator, while the charge and light responses of a large LAr ideal detector are described by the Geant4 and NEST simulation tools. A neutrino energy resolution as good as 3.3\\% RMS for 4 GeV electron neutrino charged-current interactions can in principle be obtained in a large detector of this type, by using both charge and light information. By exploiting muon capture in argon and scintillation light information to veto muon decay electrons, we also obtain muon neutrino identification efficiencies of about 50\\%, and muon antineutrino misidentification rates at the few percent level, for few-GeV neutrino interactions that are fully contained. We argue that the construction of large LAr detectors with sufficiently high light collection efficiencies is in principle possible.

M. Sorel

2014-05-05

130

Performance in a computerized self-control task by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): The combined influence of effort and delay  

PubMed Central

The variables of delay and effort have been found to influence self-control predictably and in similar fashion when tested independently, but it is unclear how they influence self-control interactively. In the present study, I tested these 2 variables simultaneously to gain better understanding of their combined influence on self-control. A computerized task was employed in which monkey participants could sequence 1 or more digital images before “cashing-out,” after which they would receive their accumulated rewards. Delay was manipulated by adjusting the speed of the cursor used to select images. Cognitive effort was manipulated by presenting image sets that appeared in either a constant or a randomized configuration. For most monkeys, an interaction was found between the effects of delay and effort on the number of images selected before cashing-out. The results suggest that, when combined, these 2 variables have a complex influence on self-control. PMID:18701940

Evans, Theodore A.

2007-01-01

131

The Influence of Stimulus Material on Attention and Performance in the Visual Expectation Paradigm: A Longitudinal Study with 3- And 6-Month-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the influence of stimulus material on attention and expectation learning in the visual expectation paradigm. Female faces were used as attention-attracting stimuli, and non-meaningful visual stimuli of comparable complexity (Greebles) were used as low attention-attracting stimuli. Expectation learning performance

Teubert, Manuel; Lohaus, Arnold; Fassbender, Ina; Vierhaus, Marc; Spangler, Sibylle; Borchert, Sonja; Freitag, Claudia; Goertz, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Gudi, Helene; Kolling, Thorsten; Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2012-01-01

132

Self- and Teacher Expectancy Effects on Academic Performance of College Students Enrolled in an Academic Reinforcement Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self- and teacher expectancy effects on the academic achievement of black college freshmen in an academic reinforcement program were investigated. Results indicated more significant self-expectancy effects than teacher expectancy effects on achievement. (Author/DWH)

Haynes, Norris M.; Johnson, Sylvia T.

1983-01-01

133

Student perception of academic grading: Personality, academic orientation, and effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing student perceptions of academic grading were examined, with an emphasis on furthering understanding of the relevance of effort to students’ conceptualization of grading. Students demonstrated a conceptualization of grading where effort should be weighted comparably to actual performance in importance to the composition of a grade, with the expectation that grade allocation should reflect this perception. Students suggested

Gregory K. Tippin; Kathryn D. Lafreniere; Stewart Page

2012-01-01

134

The Influences of Course Effort, Mastery and Performance Goals, Grade Expectancies, and Earned Course Grades on Student Ratings of Course Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The positive relation between course grades and student ratings of course satisfaction is well established but controversy continues concerning the magnitude, interpretation, and implications of this association. Aims: This study examined the within course relations of a set of variables often implicated as potential contributors to…

Svanum, Soren; Aigner, Carrie

2011-01-01

135

Performance Expectations of Closed-Brayton-Cycle Heat Exchangers in 100-kWe Nuclear Space Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance expectations of closed-Brayton-cycle heat exchangers to be used in 100-kWe nuclear space power systems were forecast. Proposed cycle state points for a system supporting a mission to three of Jupiter s moons required effectiveness values for the heat-source exchanger, recuperator and rejection exchanger (gas cooler) of 0.98,0.95 and 0.97, respectively. Performance parameters such as number of thermal units (Nm), equivalent thermal conductance (UA), and entropy generation numbers (Ns) varied from 11 to 19,23 to 39 kWK, and 0.019 to 0.023 for some standard heat exchanger configurations. Pressure-loss contributions to entropy generation were significant; the largest frictional contribution was 114% of the heat-transfer irreversibility. Using conventional recuperator designs, the 0.95 effectiveness proved difficult to achieve without exceeding other performance targets; a metallic, plate-fin counterflow solution called for 15% more mass and 33% higher pressure-loss than the target values. Two types of gas-coolers showed promise. Single-pass counterflow and multipass cross-counterflow arrangements both met the 0.97 effectiveness requirement. Potential reliability-related advantages of the cross-countefflow design were noted. Cycle modifications, enhanced heat transfer techniques and incorporation of advanced materials were suggested options to reduce system development risk. Carbon-carbon sheeting or foam proved an attractive option to improve overall performance.

Barrett, Michael J.

2003-01-01

136

Performance Expectations of Closed-Brayton-Cycle Heat Exchangers in 100-kWe Nuclear Space Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance expectations of closed-Brayton-cycle heat exchangers to be used in 100-k We nuclear space power systems were forecast. Proposed cycle state points for a system supporting a mission to three of Jupiter's moons required effectiveness values for the heat-source exchanger, recuperator and rejection exchanger (gas cooler) of 0.98, 0.95, and 0.97, respectively. Performance parameters such as number of thermal units (Ntu), equivalent thermal conductance (UA), and entropy generation numbers (Ns) varied from 11 to 19, 23 to 39 kW/K, and 0.019 to 0.023 for some standard heat exchanger configurations. Pressure-loss contributions to entropy generation were significant; the largest frictional contribution was 114% of the heat transfer irreversibility. Using conventional recuperator designs, the 0.95 effectiveness proved difficult to achieve without exceeding other performance targets; a metallic, plate-fin counterflow solution called for 15% more mass and 33% higher pressure-loss than the target values. Two types of gas-coolers showed promise. Single-pass counterflow and multipass cross-counterflow arrangements both met the 0.97 effectiveness requirement. Potential reliability-related advantages of the cross-counterflow design were noted. Cycle modifications, enhanced heat transfer techniques and incorporation of advanced materials were suggested options to reduce system development risk. Carbon-carbon sheeting or foam proved an attractive option to improve overall performance.

Barrett, Michael J.

2003-01-01

137

A Reputation for Success (or Failure): The Association of Peer Academic Reputations With Academic Self-Concept, Effort, and Performance Across the Upper Elementary Grades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations between children's academic reputations among peers and their academic self-concept, effort, and performance were examined in a longitudinal study of 427 students initially enrolled in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Assessments were completed in the fall and spring of 2 consecutive school years and in the fall of a 3rd school year. Peer academic reputation (PAR) correlated moderately

Scott D. Gest; Kelly L. Rulison; Alice J. Davidson; Janet A. Welsh

2008-01-01

138

Positive and Negative Self-Perceptions: Is There a Cyclical Relationship between Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Effort, Strategy Use, and Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was part of a larger research program designed to investigate how effort interacts with strategy use to mediate the academic performance of successful students with learning disabilities (LD) and how teachers' and students' perceptions influence these relationships. The sample consisted of 46 students with LD and 46 matched students…

Meltzer, Lynn; Reddy, Ranjini; Pollica, Laura Sales; Roditi, Bethany; Sayer, Julie; Theokas, Christina

2004-01-01

139

Positive and Negative Self-Perceptions: Is There a Cyclical Relationship Between Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Effort, Strategy Use, and Academic Performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was part of a larger research program designed to investigate how effort interacts with strategy use to mediate the academic performance of successful students with learning disabilities (LD) and how teachers' and students' perceptions influence these relationships. The sample consisted of 46 students with LD and 46 matched students without LD and their seven teachers from Grades 6-8.

Lynn Meltzer; Ranjini Reddy; Laura Sales Pollica; Bethany Roditi; Julie Sayer; Christina Theokas

2004-01-01

140

Detecting Suboptimal Cognitive Effort: Classification Accuracy of the Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II, Brief Test of Attention, and Trail Making Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many cognitive measures have been studied for their ability to detect suboptimal cognitive effort; however, attention measures have not been extensively researched. The current study evaluated the classification accuracy of commonly used attention\\/concentration measures, the Brief Test of Attention (BTA), Trail Making Test (TMT), and the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II). Participants included 413 consecutive patients who completed a comprehensive

Michelle Busse; Douglas Whiteside

2012-01-01

141

Cause or Effect? A Longitudinal Study of Immigrant Latino Parents' Aspirations and Expectations, and Their Children's School Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

How much formal schooling for their children do immigrant Latino parents aspire to and expect? Do parents' aspirations or expectations influence children's school achievement? Do aspirations or expectations diminish the longer parents are in the U.S. or if they experience discrimination? Using quantitative and qualitative methods, we address these questions in a longitudinal study (kindergarten to sixth grade) of 81

Claude Goldenberg; Ronald Gallimore; Leslie Reese; Helen Garnier

2001-01-01

142

An account of Sandia's research booth at Supercomputing '92: A collaborative effort in high-performance computing and networking  

SciTech Connect

Supercomputing '92, a high-performance computing and communications conference was held, November 16--20, 1992 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. This paper documents the applications and technologies that were showcased in Sandia's research booth at that conference. In particular the demonstrations in high-performance networking, audio-visual applications in engineering, virtual reality, and supercomputing applications are all described.

Breckenridge, A.; Vahle, M.O.

1993-03-01

143

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.

Siegrist, Kyle

2008-12-24

144

A longitudinal multilevel model analysis of the within-person and between-person effect of effortful engagement and academic self-efficacy on academic performance.  

PubMed

Using data from an accelerated longitudinal study, we examined the within-person and between-person effect of effortful engagement and academic self-efficacy on academic performance across students (N=135) in elementary school. Teachers assessed participants' effortful engagement and participants rated their academic self-efficacy once per year for 3 years. Academic performance was assessed through standardized test scores in reading and math. Multilevel models indicated that within-person change in Effortful Engagement and Academic Self-Efficacy scores significantly predicted concomitant within-person change in reading test scores, B=2.71, p=.043, Pseudo-R2=.02 and B=4.72, p=.005, Pseudo-R2=.04, respectively. Participants with higher between-person levels of Effortful Engagement had higher initial reading test scores, B=10.03, p=.001, Pseudo-R2=.09, and math test scores, B=11.20, p<.001, Pseudo-R2=.15, whereas participants with higher between-person levels of Academic Self-Efficacy showed a faster rate of increase in math test scores across elementary school, B=10.21, p=.036, Pseudo-R2=.25. At the between-person level, Effortful Engagement mediated the association between Academic Self-Efficacy and both reading and math test scores, although no support was found for mediation at the within-person level. Collectively, results suggest that trait-level psychological factors can vary meaningfully within school-aged children and that both within-person change and between-person individual differences in these traits have important consequences for academic performance. PMID:24930821

Galla, Brian M; Wood, Jeffrey J; Tsukayama, Eli; Har, Kim; Chiu, Angela W; Langer, David A

2014-06-01

145

The effect of breathing an ambient low-density, hyperoxic gas on the perceived effort of breathing and maximal performance of exercise in well-trained athletes  

PubMed Central

Background The role of the perception of breathing effort in the regulation of performance of maximal exercise remains unclear. Aims To determine whether the perceived effort of ventilation is altered through substituting a less dense gas for normal ambient air and whether this substitution affects performance of maximal incremental exercise in trained athletes. Methods Eight highly trained cyclists (mean SD) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)?=?69.9 (7.9) (mlO2/kg/min) performed two randomised maximal tests in a hyperbaric chamber breathing ambient air composed of either 35% O2/65% N2 (nitrox) or 35% O2/65% He (heliox). A ramp protocol was used in which power output was incremented at 0.5?W/s. The trials were separated by at least 48?h. The perceived effort of breathing was obtained via Borg Category Ratio Scales at 3?min intervals and at fatigue. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and minute ventilation (VE) were monitored continuously. Results Breathing heliox did not change the sensation of dyspnoea: there were no differences between trials for the Borg scales at any time point. Exercise performance was not different between the nitrox and heliox trials (peak power output?=?451 (58) and 453 (56)?W), nor was VO2max (4.96 (0.61) and 4.88 (0.65)?l/min) or maximal VE (157 (24) and 163 (22)?l/min). Between?trial variability in peak power output was less than either VO2max or maximal VE. Conclusion Breathing a less dense gas does not improve maximal performance of exercise or reduce the perception of breathing effort in highly trained athletes, although an attenuated submaximal tidal volume and VE with a concomitant reduction in VO2 suggests an improved gas exchange and reduced O2 cost of ventilation when breathing heliox. PMID:17062658

Ansley, L; Petersen, D; Thomas, A; Gibson, A St Clair; Robson-Ansley, P; Noakes, T D

2007-01-01

146

Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics  

PubMed Central

This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies.

Hu, Tony Y.

2014-01-01

147

Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg?1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (?3.9% ± 1.6% and ?4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (?3.0% ± 1.3% and ?2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

2014-01-01

148

The Role of Teachers' Expectations in the Association between Children's SES and Performance in Kindergarten: A Moderated Mediation Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study examines the role of teachers' expectations in the association between children's socio-economic background and achievement outcomes. Furthermore, the role of children's ethnicity in moderating this mediated relation is investigated. In the present study, 3,948 children from kindergarten are examined. Data are analysed by means of structural equation modeling. First, results show that teachers' expectations mediate the relation between children's SES and their later language and math achievement, after controlling for children's ethnicity, prior achievement and gender. This result indicates that teachers may exacerbate individual differences between children. Second, children's ethnicity moderates the mediation effect of teachers' expectations with respect to math outcomes. The role of teachers' expectations in mediating the relation between SES and math outcomes is stronger for majority children than for minority children. PMID:22506023

Speybroeck, Sara; Kuppens, Sofie; Van Damme, Jan; Van Petegem, Peter; Lamote, Carl; Boonen, Tinneke; de Bilde, Jerissa

2012-01-01

149

An Olympic Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe their efforts to improve the performance of their middle school students on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA). As middle level educators, they knew that in addition to addressing the curriculum, they also had to address the psychological needs of their students. To administer a standardized…

O'Neill, Noreen; Donaghy, Pete; Perekupka, Joan

2005-01-01

150

Survey Expectations  

E-print Network

that are quadratic in forecast errors and does not hold in more general settings where the loss function is non-quadratic or asymmetric. Properties of optimal forecasts under general loss functions are discussed in Patton & Timmermann (2004) where new testable... Expectations formation is an integral part of the decision making process by households, firms, as well as the private and public institutions. At the theoretical level the rational expectations hypothesis as advanced by Muth (1961) has gained general...

Pesaran, M Hashem; Weale, Martin

2006-03-14

151

Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach  

PubMed Central

Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception–action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication. PMID:25400601

Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

2014-01-01

152

Rational Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rational Expectations was set up by Ralph Lazar, former strategist and economist for Goldman Sachs, Barings & Credit Suisse First Boston, as a "resource for anyone interested in [emerging markets] economics -- students, teachers, lecturers, journalists, professionals, or just the curious." A fully comprehensive guide to the people, places, and events of the economics world, Rational Expectations includes an searchable database of over 1,000 organizations and institutions in OECD countries and emerging markets, a conference calendar, and job listings. The site also links to academic, professional, and government organizations, as well as a huge suggested publication list and macroeconomic and financial market data. Rational Expectations will be a welcome resource for anyone interested in emerging markets economics.

Lazar, Ralph.

153

What Do Hispanic Students Want in a Mentor? A Model of Protégé Cultural Orientation, Mentorship Expectations, and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of the effects of cultural factors on Hispanic protégés' expectations for and experiences with their mentors. Specifically, the proposed model posits that cultural orientation predicts the mentorship functions protégés desire, and the positive impact of these mentorship functions…

Cox, Cody B.; Yang, Yan; Dicke-Bohmann, Amy K.

2014-01-01

154

Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians' Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach.  

PubMed

Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians' expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers' effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians' perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis - proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes - of a marimbists' expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer's expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants' individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants' attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception-action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication. PMID:25400601

Broughton, Mary C; Davidson, Jane W

2014-01-01

155

The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the model. Motivation variables did account for a portion of the variance in performance, but not in the ways predicted. Increasing the number of subjects in each group and adding the following variables to the model would clarify the role that motivation plays in performance: realistic self-appraisal; perceived competition; and elaboration, organization, and rehearsal strategies. Based on results, the following interventions were recommended to increase undergraduate science performance: assessment in realistic self-appraisal of science skills; instruction in elaboration and organization strategies; and encouragement of intrinsic interest in science.

Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

156

Dopamine Modulates Reward Expectancy During Performance of a Slot Machine Task in Rats: Evidence for a ‘Near-miss’ Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive accounts of gambling suggest that the experience of almost winning—so-called ‘near-misses’—encourage continued play and accelerate the development of pathological gambling (PG) in vulnerable individuals. One explanation for this effect is that near-misses signal imminent winning outcomes and heighten reward expectancy, galvanizing further play. Determining the neurochemical processes underlying the drive to gamble could facilitate the development of more effective

Catharine A Winstanley; Paul J Cocker; Robert D Rogers

2011-01-01

157

Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions and ways to…

Ridley, Cheryl

158

Adaptive optics at short wavelengths. Expected performance and sky coverage of the FLAO system going toward visible wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system has been successfully commissioned at the Large Binocular Telescope. It delivers extreme adaptive optics performance using bright natural guide stars reaching 90 % Strehl Ratios in H-band. Observations with current adaptive optics systems are limited to the near infrared wavelengths, in these bands the diffraction limited resolution of the largest ground-based telescopes (8-10 meter class) is comparable to the one of the much smaller Hubble Space Telescope that observes in the visible bands. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of an adaptive optics system designed to achieve very high order correction at visible wavelengths (0.5 to 0.8 ? m) with significant sky coverage. Upgrading the FLAO design with a low noise CCD relaxes the reference magnitude limit needed to achieve greater performance. In particular, we demonstrate that a gain of 1-2 magnitudes is possible by upgrading the wavefront sensor with a very low read out noise CCD. For future AO systems, in addition to low noise CCDs, deformable (secondary) mirrors with a higher actuator density will be able to move the high order correction capability from the near infrared to the visible wavelengths (Strehl Ratio of 80 % in R (0.7 ? m), 60 % in V (0.5 ? m)). We investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the gain in imaging performance obtained at Near Infrared, Visible, and UV wavelengths. The results of these simulations have been used to derive the empirical relation between Strehl Ratio and magnitude of the reference star and we then use this relationship to perform a detailed sky coverage analysis based on astronomical catalog data. The detailed simulations of the Point Spread Functions allow us to compute Ensquared Energy and Strehl Ratio for the magnitude working range of such an Adaptive Optics system. We present the results of the instrumental isoplanatic angle determination. We then used these values to compute the relationship between correction level and the off-axis angle from the reference star. The Strehl Ratio relationship with the reference magnitude and the angular distance provides the information needed to perform the sky-coverage analysis, which demonstrates that the designed system is able to provide V and R bands correction on a not negligible few percent of the sky.

Agapito, Guido; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, Simone

2014-11-01

159

Predicting student achievement for low stakes tests with effort and task value  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated motivation for taking low stakes tests. Based on expectancy-value theory, we expected that the effect of student perceptions of three task values (interest, usefulness, and importance) on low stakes test performance would be mediated by the student’s reported effort. We hypothesized that all three task value components would play a significant role in predicting test-taking effort, and that

James S. Cole; David A. Bergin; Tiffany A. Whittaker

2008-01-01

160

Simulation of the Expected Performance of a Seamless Scanner for Brain PET Based on Highly Pixelated CdTe Detectors  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is the evaluation of the design for a nonconventional PET scanner, the voxel imaging PET (VIP), based on pixelated room-temperature CdTe detectors yielding a true 3-D impact point with a density of 450 channels cm3, for a total 6 336 000 channels in a seamless ring shaped volume. The system is simulated and evaluated following the prescriptions of the NEMA NU 2-2001 and the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results show that the excellent energy resolution of the CdTe detectors (1.6% for 511 keV photons), together with the small voxel pitch (1×1×2 mm3), and the crack-free ring geometry, give the design the potential to overcome the current limitations of PET scanners and to approach the intrinsic image resolution limits set by physics. The VIP is expected to reach a competitive sensitivity and a superior signal purity with respect to values commonly quoted for state-of-the-art scintillating crystal PETs. The system can provide 14 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 3.95% and 21 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 0.73% according to NEMA NU 2-2001 and NEMA NU 4-2008, respectively. The calculated NEC curve has a peak value of 122 kcps at 5.3 kBq/mL for NEMA NU 2-2001 and 908 kcps at 1.6 MBq/mL for NEMA NU 4-2008. The proposed scanner can achieve an image resolution of ~ 1 mm full-width at half-maximum in all directions. The virtually noise-free data sample leads to direct positive impact on the quality of the reconstructed images. As a consequence, high-quality high-resolution images can be obtained with significantly lower number of events compared to conventional scanners. Overall, simulation results suggest the VIP scanner can be operated either at normal dose for fast scanning and high patient throughput, or at low dose to decrease the patient radioactivity exposure. The design evaluation presented in this work is driving the development and the optimization of a fully operative prototype to prove the feasibility of the VIP concept. PMID:24108750

Mikhaylova, Ekaterina; De Lorenzo, Gianluca; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Kolstein, Machiel; Cañadas, Mario; Arce, Pedro; Calderón, Yonatan; Uzun, Dilber; Ariño, Gerard; Macias-Montero, José Gabriel; Martinez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles; Cabruja, Enric

2014-01-01

161

Performance Monitoring in the Anterior Cingulate is Not All Error Related: Expectancy Deviation and the Representation of Action-Outcome Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several converging lines of evidence suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is selectively involved in error detection or evaluation of poor performance. Here we chal- lenge this notion by presenting event-related potential (ERP) evidence that the feedback-elicited error-related negativity, an ERP component attributed to the ACC, can be elicited by pos- itive feedback when a person is expecting negative

Flavio T. P. Oliveira; John J. Mcdonald; David Goodman

2007-01-01

162

Expectancy Climate and School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two questionnaire surveys of 89 Kansas public elementary and secondary schools examined, first, the relationship between school expectancy climate--teachers' expectations that their efforts would lead to positive student results--and school effectiveness, and, second, the change in that relationship through the school year. School effectiveness…

Miskel, Cecil; Bloom, Susan

163

Teacher Race and Expectations for Student Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether the race of elementary school teachers in black schools was associated with teachers' expectations for student achievement and perceptions of effort was investigated. Evidence suggested that teacher race was associated only with expectations for college success. (Author/GK)

Beady, Charles H., Jr.; Hansell, Stephen

1981-01-01

164

Because Effort Matters!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project effort is critical for the success of software development projects. It has a major impact on whether constraints\\u000a in time and budget can be complied with. But although requirements affect project effort, requirements engineering (RE) methods\\u000a are not capable of assessing project effort.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In this paper, we present our mapping model for assessing project effort (MMAPE). MMAPE incorporates into

Frank Zickert; Roman Beck

2010-01-01

165

NASA Efforts on Nanotechnology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the field of nanotechnology within the theme of "New efforts in Nanotechnology Research," will be presented. NASA's interest, requirements and current efforts in this emerging field will be discussed. In particular, NASA efforts to develop nanoelectronic devices, fuel cells, and other applications of interest using this novel technology by collaborating with academia will be addressed. Progress on current collaborations in this area with the University of Puerto Rico will be highlighted.

Miranda, Felix A.

2003-01-01

166

Expectancy theory and nascent entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation is an important factor that distinguishes those nascent entrepreneurs who make progress towards an operating venture\\u000a from those who do not. Based on Vroom’s (Work and motivation, 1964) expectancy theory, we predict that startup-specific instrumentality, valence and expectancy are key components of entrepreneurial\\u000a motivation and closely related to those intentions, efforts, and behaviors that will eventually lead to operating

Maija RenkoK; K. Galen Kroeck; Amanda Bullough

167

Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

2014-01-01

168

DETECTION OF TRANSITING JOVIAN EXOPLANETS BY GAIA PHOTOMETRY-EXPECTED YIELD  

SciTech Connect

Several attempts have been made in the past to assess the expected number of exoplanetary transits that the Gaia space mission will detect. In this Letter, we use the updated design of Gaia and its expected performance and apply recent empirical statistical procedures to provide a new assessment. Depending on the extent of the follow-up effort that will be devoted, we expect Gaia to detect from a few hundreds to a few thousands of transiting exoplanets.

Dzigan, Yifat; Zucker, Shay, E-mail: yifatdzigan@gmail.com, E-mail: shayz@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Geophysical, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2012-07-01

169

An account of Sandia`s research booth at Supercomputing `92: A collaborative effort in high-performance computing and networking  

SciTech Connect

Supercomputing `92, a high-performance computing and communications conference was held, November 16--20, 1992 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. This paper documents the applications and technologies that were showcased in Sandia`s research booth at that conference. In particular the demonstrations in high-performance networking, audio-visual applications in engineering, virtual reality, and supercomputing applications are all described.

Breckenridge, A.; Vahle, M.O.

1993-03-01

170

High versus low contextual interference in simulation-based training of troubleshooting skills: effects on transfer performance and invested mental effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of contextual interference on practice behavior, transfer performance, and cognitive load for learning troubleshooting skills were studied. A low contextual interference (LCI) condition, in which subjects practiced to diagnose system failures in a blocked schedule, was compared with a high contextual interference (HCI) condition, in which failures were practiced in a random schedule. The following hypotheses are stated.

Marcel B. M de Croock; Jeroen J. G van Merriënboer; Fred G. W. C. Paas

1998-01-01

171

Effort Gap Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Biological Resources Research Center (BRRC) at the University of Nevada, Reno, the Effort Gap Database organizes information on biological research efforts in the Great Basin. Users may search the database (by multiple topics) for current and past projects, or they may add new information to the database. Typical returns provide information such as project title, scientific goals, available data, Principal Investigators, temporal and spatial scale of research, habitats in study area, types of organisms, source of funding, and finished products. Designed as an interactive Web application to allow and encourage researchers to share research foci and learn about other conservation biology projects in Nevada, this database is an excellent example of how to facilitate collaboration across multiple ecological scales and agencies.

172

International aerospaceplane efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the U.S. began the first reusable space booster effort in the late 1950's, it is no longer an exclusive field. All of the technologically advanced nations, and several groups of nations, have one or more reusable booster efforts in progress. A listing of the entries in the field is presented. The list is somewhat misleading, because it includes both fully reusable and partially reusable boosters, both manned and unmanned, and both flight test and operational proposals. Additionally, not all of the projects are funded, and only a few of the projects will survive. The most likely candidates are the following: France/ESA, Germany/ESA, Great Britain/ESA/(USSR), USSR(past), and Japan. A discussion of the preceding projects is provided.

Lindley, Charles A.

1992-01-01

173

Personal effort in social relationships across adulthood.  

PubMed

We explored age differences in the amount of personal effort that people put forth to maintain relationships across adulthood in diverse family-life contexts. More specifically, we examined how personal effort in social relationships is age-differently related to emotional closeness and perceptions of reciprocity. A total of 658 early-midlife (37 years) and old-age adults (73 years) from three life contexts (biological parents, parents from blended families with at least one stepchild, childless individuals) completed a questionnaire assessing ego-centered social networks, relationship quality, perceived conflict, and personal characteristics. As expected, perceived relationship effort was more pronounced and more strongly associated with emotional closeness in old age than in early midlife. In both age groups, perceived effort was comparably associated with reciprocity and conflict. Such associations were similar across the different life contexts. The findings suggest that perceived personal effort in social relationships contributes to the proactive shaping of social worlds across adulthood. PMID:23586359

Lang, Frieder R; Wagner, Jenny; Wrzus, Cornelia; Neyer, Franz J

2013-06-01

174

Effects of Methylphenidate and Expectancy on Children With ADHD: Behavior, Academic Performance, and Attributions in a Summer Treatment Program and Regular Classroom Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacological and expectancy effects of 0.3 mg\\/kg methylphenidate on the behavior and attributions of boys with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder were evaluated. In a within-subject, balanced-placebo design, 136 boys received 4 medication–expectancy conditions. Attributions for success and failure on a daily report card were gathered. Assessments took place within the setting of a summer treatment program and were repeated in boys' regular

William E. Pelham; Betsy Hoza; David R. Pillow; Elizabeth M. Gnagy; Heidi L. Kipp; Andrew R. Greiner; Daniel A. Waschbusch; Sarah T. Trane; Joel Greenhouse; Lara Wolfson; Erin Fitzpatrick

2002-01-01

175

Dopamine and effort-based decision making.  

PubMed

Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action. PMID:21734862

Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J

2011-01-01

176

Dissociations between Expectancy and Performance in Simple and Two-Choice Reaction-Time Tasks: A Test of Associative and Nonassociative Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perruchet, Cleeremans, and Destrebecqz (2006) reported a striking dissociation between trends in the conscious expectancy of an event and the speed of a response that is cued by that event. They argued that this indicates the operation of independent processes in human associative learning. However, there remains a strong possibility that this…

Barrett, Louise C.; Livesey, Evan J.

2010-01-01

177

Illustration of sampling-based approaches to the calculation of expected dose in performance assessments for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  

SciTech Connect

A deep geologic repository for high level radioactive waste is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. As mandated in the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated public health and safety standards (i.e., 40 CFR Part 197) for the YM repository, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has promulgated licensing standards (i.e., 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc.) consistent with 40 CFR Part 197 that the DOE must establish are met in order for the YM repository to be licensed for operation. Important requirements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. relate to the determination of expected (i.e., mean) dose to a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) and the incorporation of uncertainty into this determination. This presentation describes and illustrates how general and typically nonquantitive statements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. can be given a formal mathematical structure that facilitates both the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI and the appropriate separation in this calculation of aleatory uncertainty (i.e., randomness in the properties of future occurrences such as igneous and seismic events) and epistemic uncertainty (i.e., lack of knowledge about quantities that are poorly known but assumed to have constant values in the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI).

Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD. (.; .)

2007-04-01

178

Random -Expectations Marcel Nutz  

E-print Network

Random -Expectations Marcel Nutz First version: September 11, 2010. This version: June 28, 2012. Abstract We construct a time-consistent sublinear expectation in the setting of volatility uncertainty. This mapping extends Peng's -expectation by allowing the range of the volatility uncertainty to be stochastic

Nutz, Marcel

179

First Impressions and Expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized that (a) impressions of a stranger as bad and potent would result in greater expectation of harm and less expectation of benefits than good and impotent impressions, and (b) disconfirmation of these expectations would result in changes in level of expressed attractiveness. Forty female introductory psychology students participated in an initial investigation, and 20 male introductory psychology

Robert C. Brown Jr; R. Bob Smith III; James T. Tedeschi

1975-01-01

180

Swedish nuclear waste efforts  

SciTech Connect

After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

Rydberg, J.

1981-09-01

181

Attitudes and expectations of producers to the use of a microcomputer-based management information system to monitor dairy herd performance  

PubMed Central

The attitudes and expectations of producers toward the use of a microcomputer-based herd management information system were assessed. The study was conducted over a two-year period, beginning in January 1986, and was operated as a bureau service. The implementation and use of the program are described elsewhere. Pre- and posttrial questionnaires were administered to assess producer attitudes. We found that the monthly analysis reports were used in the management of the dairy farms and were found to be a useful management tool. The majority of producers indicated a willingness to pay, on average, $6.86/cow/year for such a service. PMID:17423946

Lissemore, Kerry D.; Leslie, Ken E.; Martin, S. Wayne; Menzies, Paula I.; Meek, Alan H.

1992-01-01

182

Simulation of the expected performance of INSERT: A new multi-modality SPECT/MRI system for preclinical and clinical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (INtegrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus, that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems such as 3 T MRI with 59 cm bore diameter. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes will be developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging, the second one dedicated to clinical imaging.

Busca, P.; Fiorini, C.; Butt, A. D.; Occhipinti, M.; Peloso, R.; Quaglia, R.; Schembari, F.; Trigilio, P.; Nemeth, G.; Major, P.; Erlandsson, K.; Hutton, B. F.

2014-01-01

183

When is irony effortful?  

PubMed

Whereas some studies indicate that ironic-as opposed to literal-readings of utterances take longer to process, others indicate that the 2 are processed at comparable speeds. We propose that mindreading processes are at least partly responsible for the mixed results, as we present 3 experiments that include stories having a target utterance with either an Ironic or Literal reading. Experiment 1 replicates earlier findings (Spotorno, Koun, Prado, Van Der Henst, & Noveck, 2012) showing that ironic readings take longer than literal ones when fillers include decoys, stories that call for an ironic remark but present a banal utterance instead and thus diffuse participants' expectations for irony. Starting with Experiment 2, decoys are removed, leading to effects that are arguably revealing of Theory of Mind processes. One is an Early-Late effect, which occurs when ironic utterances are read as readily as literal ones in the 2nd half of an experimental session, creating "mixed" results in the laboratory. In Experiment 3, we further added antecedents before a critical event so that, later, the target utterance would be echoing an explicitly stated thought and would facilitate irony comprehension (Gibbs, 1986; Sperber & Wilson, 1981). Results reveal an Early-Late effect here, too. Further evidence of Theory of Mind activity follows from analyses of participants' Social Skill subscale scores in the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin, & Clubley, 2001). Socially inclined participants are more likely than the socially disinclined to use a story's negative event to portend the arrival of an irony; in contrast, socially disinclined participants appear more reactive than the socially inclined to explicit antecedents. PMID:24773194

Spotorno, Nicola; Noveck, Ira A

2014-08-01

184

BUILDING RESEARCH & INFORMATION (2008) Paper in press (mock proof) expected to appear in Vol 36 No 6 (Nov 2008) An intuitive daylighting performance  

E-print Network

in a condensed form, the adaptation of daylight metrics that encompass temporal and spatial considerations challenge that designers face is to effectively combine the many performance parameters involved, Belgium 3 Computer Science Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA The effective integration

Varela, Carlos

185

Leader-member exchange and its dimensions: effects of self-effort and other's effort on relationship quality.  

PubMed

Two hundred thirty-two manager-subordinate dyads provided data on the effort expended toward the development of leader-member exchange (LMX) relationships, how such effort related to expectations about relationship quality, and intentions to exert future effort toward relationship development. For both managers and subordinates, higher quality LMX relationships were reported and expectations were met when the other member of the dyad put forth effort into relationship development. One's own higher effort coupled with lower effort by the other was associated with a lower quality LMX relationship. Examination of the 4 dimensions of LMX (R. C. Liden & J. M. Maslyn, 1998) revealed unique effects depending on the dimension considered. In addition, LMX and relationship tenure interacted, showing that future effort toward relationship development was greatest when individuals had been in higher quality relationships for longer periods of time. PMID:11519653

Maslyn, J M; Uhl-Bien, M

2001-08-01

186

STATE PERSONNEL MANUAL Performance Management Section 10, Page 8  

E-print Network

STATE PERSONNEL MANUAL Performance Management Section 10, Page 8 September 1, 2007 North Carolina Rating Scale Outstanding (O) · Performance is far above the defined job expectations. · The employee. · Performance that exceeds expectations is due to the effort and skills of the employee. · Any performance

Saidak, Filip

187

A Rational Expectations Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a simple classroom simulation of the Lucas supply curve mechanism with rational expectations. Concludes that the exercise has proved very useful as an introduction to the concepts of rational and adaptive expectations, the Lucas supply curve, the natural rate hypothesis, and random supply shocks. (DB)

Peterson, Norris A.

1990-01-01

188

Outside the Expected.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In examining the findings of "Pygmalion in the Classroom," an experimental study of the positive effects of favorable teacher expectations on the intellectual development of disadvantaged elementary school students, this review speculates about why the experimental students, whom the teachers expected to improve, and the control students, who were…

Dienstfrey, Harris

1968-01-01

189

Double-Entry Expectancy Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Double-entry expectancy tables are used to make admissions, guidance, or employment decisions based on two predictors. Examples of their use in showing relationships between high school and college performance are explained. The advantages of double-entry expectacy tables given are: (1) relative simplicity of preparation requiring no formal…

Wesman, Alexander G.

1966-01-01

190

Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

Kalvelage, T.A.

2002-01-01

191

The two sides of competition: competition-induced effort and affect during intergroup versus interindividual competition.  

PubMed

Competition strongly affects individual effort and performance for both individuals and groups. Especially in work settings, these effort gains might come at the cost of individual well-being. The present study tested whether competition increases both effort (as indicated by task performance) and stress (in terms of cardiovascular reactivity and affective response), and whether this effect is further qualified by the type of competition (interindividual vs. intergroup), using a cognitive computer-based task and a 2 (Group: Yes, No) × 2 (Competition: Yes, No) × 2 (Gender) factorial design (N = 147). All participants either worked as a representative of a group or as an individual, and were offered performance-related incentives distributed in a lottery. In the competition conditions, participants were informed that they competed with someone else, and that only the winning person/team would take part in the lottery. Consistent with expectations, competition increased both individual effort and cardiovascular reactivity compared to non-competitive work. Moreover, for female participants, intergroup competition triggered increased effort and more positive affect than interindividual competition. Aside from documenting costly side-effects of competition in terms of stress, this study provides evidence for a stress-related explanation of effort gains during intergroup competition as compared to interindividual competition. PMID:23848384

Wittchen, Marion; Krimmel, Anna; Kohler, Mischa; Hertel, Guido

2013-08-01

192

Expectations across entertainment media  

E-print Network

An audience's satisfaction with an entertainment product is dependent on how well their expectations are fulfilled. This study delves into the implicit contract that is formed between the purveyor of an entertainment ...

Austin, Alexander Chance

2007-01-01

193

Learning To Minimize Efforts versus Maximizing Rewards: Computational Principles and Neural Correlates.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of reward maximization have been extensively studied at both the computational and neural levels. By contrast, little is known about how the brain learns to choose the options that minimize action cost. In principle, the brain could have evolved a general mechanism that applies the same learning rule to the different dimensions of choice options. To test this hypothesis, we scanned healthy human volunteers while they performed a probabilistic instrumental learning task that varied in both the physical effort and the monetary outcome associated with choice options. Behavioral data showed that the same computational rule, using prediction errors to update expectations, could account for both reward maximization and effort minimization. However, these learning-related variables were encoded in partially dissociable brain areas. In line with previous findings, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was found to positively represent expected and actual rewards, regardless of effort. A separate network, encompassing the anterior insula, the dorsal anterior cingulate, and the posterior parietal cortex, correlated positively with expected and actual efforts. These findings suggest that the same computational rule is applied by distinct brain systems, depending on the choice dimension-cost or benefit-that has to be learned. PMID:25411490

Skvortsova, Vasilisa; Palminteri, Stefano; Pessiglione, Mathias

2014-11-19

194

Conditional Expectations and Renormalization  

E-print Network

In optimal prediction methods one estimates the future behavior of underresolved systems by solving reduced systems of equations for expectations conditioned by partial data; renormalization group methods reduce the number of variables in complex systems through integration of unwanted scales. We establish the relation between these methods for systems in thermal equilibrium, and use this relation to find renormalization parameter flows and the coefficients in reduced systems by expanding conditional expectations in series and evaluating the coefficients by Monte-Carlo. We illustrate the construction by finding parameter flows for simple spin systems and then using the renormalized (=reduced) systems to calculate the critical temperature and the magnetization.

Alexandre J. Chorin

2002-04-17

195

Patient Expectations and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Surgery: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Recent events in healthcare reform have brought national attention to integrating patient experiences and expectations into quality metrics. Few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effect of patient expectations on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following surgery. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the available literature describing the relationship between patient expectations and postoperative PROs. Methods We performed a search of the literature published prior to November 1, 2012. Articles were included in the review if 1) primary data were presented 2) patient expectations regarding a surgical procedure were measured 3) PROs were measured, and 4) the relationship between patient expectations and PROs was specifically examined. PROs were categorized into five subgroups: satisfaction, quality of life (QOL), disability, mood disorder, and pain. We examined each study to determine the relationship between patient expectations and PROs as well as study quality. Results From the initial literature search yielding 1,708 studies, 60 articles were included. Fulfillment of expectations was associated with improved PROs among 24 studies. Positive expectations were correlated with improved PROs for 28 (47%) studies, and poorer PROs for 9 (15%) studies. Eighteen studies reported that fulfillment of expectations was correlated with improved patient satisfaction, and 10 studies identified that positive expectations were correlated with improved postoperative QOL. Finally, patients with positive preoperative expectations reported less pain (8 studies) and disability (15 studies) compared with patients with negative preoperative expectations. Conclusions Patient expectations are inconsistently correlated with PROs following surgery, and there is no accepted method to capture perioperative expectations. Future efforts to rigorously measure expectations and explore their influence on postoperative outcomes can inform clinicians and policy-makers seeking to integrate PROs into measures of surgical quality. PMID:24787107

Waljee, Jennifer; McGlinn, Evan P.; Sears, Erika Davis; Chung, Kevin C.

2014-01-01

196

It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.

2010-08-27

197

Parenting with High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

2014-01-01

198

Maintaining High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

2014-01-01

199

Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

Devine, Kelley

200

The DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort: Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

hatwill enable researchers to develop new systems by selectingcomponents from library of reusable modulesand assembling them together. Their effort will be focusedon creating specialized knowledge and reasonersspecific to the task of their system. Their new systemwould inter-operate with existing systems, usingthem to perform some of its reasoning. In this way,declarative knowledge, problem solving techniques andreasoning services could all be shared

Ramesh S. Patil; Richard E. Fikes; Peter F. Patel-schneider

1993-01-01

201

R&D manager's performance expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managers of professional employees from 18 companies were assessed to determine attributes associated with their most-preferred and least-preferred technical professional. It was found that managers of technical professionals have a clear cognitive set regarding behavior and characteristics associated with the most-preferred and least-preferred technical professional. A basic cognitive model for professional attributes emerges from the consistency of managerial perspective. This

DONALD R. DOMM; THOMAS E. DINERO; S. Haas

1990-01-01

202

Laboratory efforts to cultivate noroviruses.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide and are recognized as the foremost cause of foodborne illness. Despite numerous efforts, routine cell cultures have failed to yield replicating NoV. This paper describes methods used to try to grow NoV in vitro in two laboratories. Cells (A549, AGS, Caco-2, CCD-18, CRFK, CR-PEC, Detroit 551, Detroit 562, FRhK-4, HCT-8, HeLa, HEC, HEp-2, Ht-29, HuTu-80, I-407, IEC-6, IEC-18, Kato-3, L20B, MA104, MDBK, MDCK, RD, TMK, Vero and 293) were cultured on solid or permeable surfaces. Differentiation was induced using cell culture supplements such as insulin, DMSO and butyric acid. In some cases, the cells and the NoV-containing stool samples were treated with bioactive digestive additives. Variables evaluated in cultivation experiments included the method of preparation of the virus inoculum, the genotype of the virus, conditions for maintenance of cell monolayers, additives in the maintenance medium and the method of inoculation of the cells. Serial blind passage studies were performed routinely. In addition to evaluation for CPE, evidence of virus replication was sought using immunofluorescent assays to detect newly produced viral capsid antigen and RT-PCR assays to detect the viral genome. Although some infected cultures remained NoV positive by RT-PCR for up to five passages and an occasional cell in a monolayer showed evidence of specific immunofluorescence, no reproducible NoV-induced CPE was observed and all RT-PCR results that were positive initially were negative following continued passaging. Thus, attempts to develop a method for the cultivation of NoV were unsuccessful. PMID:14718622

Duizer, Erwin; Schwab, Kellogg J; Neill, Frederick H; Atmar, Robert L; Koopmans, Marion P G; Estes, Mary K

2004-01-01

203

Hearing on FBI Counterterrorism Efforts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available on the Washington Post Web site, the above listed link is the entire transcript of the Senate's Judiciary Committee hearing on FBI counterterrorism efforts held on June 6, 2002. Users can view remarks from members of the committee, and hear testimonials from others such as the FBI director and Inspector General Glenn Fine. Although the transcript is rather long, it not only gives information regarding counterterrorism efforts, but also provides insight into the world of Congressional committees and how they operate.

2002-01-01

204

Shared Expectations for Protection of Identifiable Health Care Information  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The Ethical Force Program is a collaborative effort to create performance measures for ethics in health care. This report lays out areas of consensus that may be amenable to performance measurement on protecting the privacy, confidentiality and security of identifiable health information. DESIGN Iterative consensus development process. PARTICIPANTS The program's oversight body and its expert panel on privacy include national leaders representing the perspectives of physicians, patients, purchasers, health plans, hospitals, and medical ethicists as well as public health, law, and medical informatics experts. METHODS AND MAIN RESULTS The oversight body appointed a national Expert Advisory Panel on Privacy and Confidentiality in September 1998. This group compiled and reviewed existing norms, including governmental reports and legal standards, professional association policies, private organization statements and policies, accreditation standards, and ethical opinions. A set of specific and assessable expectations for ethical conduct in this domain was then drafted and refined through 7 meetings over 16 months. In the final 2 iterations, each expectation was graded on a scale of 1 to 10 by each oversight body member on whether it was: (1) important, (2) universally applicable, (3) feasible to measure, and (4) realistic to implement. The expectations that did not score more than 7 (mean) on all 4 scales were reconsidered and retained only if the entire oversight body agreed that they should be used as potential subjects for performance measurement. Consensus was achieved on 34 specific expectations. The expectations fell into 8 content areas, addressing the need for transparency of policies and practices, consent for use and disclosure of identifiable information, limitations on information that can be collected and by whom, individual access to one's own health records, security requirements for storage and transfer of information, provisions to ensure ongoing data quality, limitations on how identifiable information may be used, and provisions for meaningful accountability. CONCLUSIONS This process established consensus on 34 measurable ethical expectations for the protection of privacy and confidentiality in health care. These expectations should apply to any organization with access to personally identifiable health information, including managed care organizations, physician groups, hospitals, other provider organizations, and purchasers. Performance measurement on these expectations may improve accountability across the health care system. PMID:11251761

Wynia, Matthew K; Coughlin, Steven S; Alpert, Sheri; Cummins, Deborah S; Emanuel, Linda L

2001-01-01

205

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMESEXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES Expected Learning Outcome (definition)  

E-print Network

44 EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMESEXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES Expected Learning Outcome (definition) An expected learning outcome is a formal statement of what students are expected to learn in a course. Expected learning outcome statements refer to specific knowledge, practical skills, areas of professional

Rock, Chris

206

Dopamine, Behavioral Economics, and Effort  

PubMed Central

There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M.; Nunes, Eric J.; Pardo, Marta

2009-01-01

207

An investigation of gender and grade-level differences in middle school students' attitudes about science, in science process skills ability, and in parental expectations of their children's science performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary purpose of the study was to examine different variables (i.e. science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation for their children in science, which may impinge on science education differently for males and females in grades five, seven, and nine. The research question addressed by the study was: What are the differences between science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation in science on the academic success of fifth, seventh, and ninth graders in science and do effects differ according to gender and grade level? The subjects included fifth, seven, and ninth grade students ( n = 543) and their parents (n = 474) from six rural, public elementary schools and two rural, public middle schools in Southern Mississippi. A two-way (grade x gender) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences in science process skill abilities of females and males in grade five, seven, and nine. An additional separate two-way multivariate analysis of variance (grade x gender) was also used to determine the differences in science attitudes of males and females in grade five, seven, and nine. A separate analysis of variance (PPSEX [parent's gender]) with the effects being parents' gender was used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. An additional separate analysis of variance (SSEX [student's gender]) with the effects being the gender of the student was also used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. Results of the analyses indicated significant main effects for grade level (p < .001) and gender (p < .001) on the TIPS II. There was no significant grade by gender interaction on the TIPS II. Results for the TOSRA also indicated a significant main effect for grade (p < .001) and the interaction of grade by sex ( p < .001). On variable ATT 5 (enjoyment of science lessons), males' attitudes toward science decreased across the grade levels; whereas, females decreased from grade five to seven, but showed a significant increase from grade seven to nine. Results from the analysis of variance with the parent's gender as the main effect showed no significant difference. The analysis of variance with student's gender as the main effect showed no significant difference.

White, Terri Renee'

208

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2012-09-01

209

Peer Victimization and Effortful Control  

PubMed Central

The relations among peer victimization, effortful control, school engagement, and academic achievement were examined in a group of 390 (212 boys and 178 girls) racially diverse (38.20% Latino and 46.70% White) 6- to 10-year-old children. Specifically, a multimethod, multi-informant approach was used in which data were gathered using self-report, peer-report, and teacher-report questionnaires at three points in time: twice during the initial year of the study when children were in first and third grades and once in the fall of their second-grade and fourth-grade years, respectively. Findings showed that peer victimization was negatively correlated with effortful control; however, longitudinal analyses conducted to examine causal priority were inconclusive. Results from structural equation modeling were consistent with the hypotheses that school engagement mediated the relations between peer victimization and academic achievement, as well as between effortful control and academic achievement. PMID:23105166

Iyer, Roopa V.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thompson, Marilyn

2012-01-01

210

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2011-09-01

211

Logical effort of carry propagate adders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide assortment of carry propagate adders offer varying area-delay tradeoffs. Wiring and choice of circuit family also affect the size and performance. This paper uses the method of logical effort to characterize the effects of architecture, circuit family, and wire capacitance on adder delay. Domino logic offers about a 30% speedup on most valency-2 adders. Although Kogge-Stone adders are

D. Harris; Ivan Sutherland

2003-01-01

212

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations Week 1 Report: 1. Write at and what kind of formatting expections apply. 9. Note: Keep copies of your reports and NMR's and GC Report Expectations for students who did Scheme 4: Do as much as you can from the instructions above

Jasperse, Craig P.

213

Marijuana Primes, Marijuana Expectancies, and Arithmetic Efficiency*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Previous research has shown that primes associated with alcohol influence behavior consistent with specific alcohol expectancies. The present study examined whether exposure to marijuana-related primes and marijuana expectancies interact to produce similar effects. Specifically, the present study examined whether marijuana primes and marijuana expectancies regarding cognitive and behavioral impairment interact to influence performance on an arithmetic task. Method: Two independent samples (N = 260) of undergraduate students (both marijuana users and nonusers) first completed measures of marijuana-outcome expectancies associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment and with general negative effects (Sample 2). Later in the semester, participants were exposed to marijuana-related (or neutral) primes and then completed an arithmetic task. Results: Results from Sample 1 indicated that participants who were exposed to marijuana-themed magazine covers performed more poorly on the arithmetic task if they expected that marijuana would lead to cognitive and behavioral impairment. Results from Sample 2 indicated that, for marijuana users, cognitive and behavioral impairment expectancies, but not expectancies regarding general negative effects, similarly moderated arithmetic performance for participants exposed to marijuana-related words. Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that the implicit activation of specific marijuana-outcome expectancies can influence cognitive processes. Implications for research on marijuana are discussed. PMID:19371490

Hicks, Joshua A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Friedman, Ronald S.

2009-01-01

214

Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

1993-01-01

215

Does cleanliness influence moral judgments? Response effort moderates the effect of cleanliness priming on moral judgments  

PubMed Central

Whether cleanliness influences moral judgments has recently become a topic of debate in the psychological literature. After the initial report that activating the notion of physical purity can result in less severe moral judgments (Schnall et al., 2008a), a direct replication (Johnson et al., 2014a) with much larger sample sizes failed to yield similar findings. The current paper examines the possibility that only non-conscious activation of the cleanliness concept, as achieved in participants with low response effort on priming materials, can produce the expected effect. An online replication (Study 1, N = 214) provided evidence that, when participants exerted low (yet still acceptable) levels of response effort to the experimental material, cleanliness priming led to more lenient moral judgments than neutral priming. An online experiment (Study 2, N = 440; replicated in Study 2a, N = 436) manipulating participants’ effort on the priming task (low vs. high) supported the hypothesized mechanism. Specifically, respondents in the low response effort group were instructed to complete the priming task as quickly as possible without too much attention, and the cleanliness priming resulted in less extreme moral judgments than the neutral condition as expected. In contrast, respondents in the high response effort group were instructed to perform to the best of their ability on the priming task, with a non-significant difference on moral ratings between cleanliness and neutral conditions. In addition to helping resolve the controversy regarding the cleanliness hypothesis, the current paper calls into attention the role of response effort in the execution and replication of priming studies.

Huang, Jason L.

2014-01-01

216

Unidata's International Efforts and Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly, the conduct of science requires strong international scientific partnerships and the sharing of data, information, knowledge and other assets. This is particularly true in the geosciences where the highly coupled nature of the Earth system and the need to understand global environmental processes and their regional linkages have heightened the importance of international collaborations. As geoscience studies become a team effort involving networked scientists and data providers, it is crucial that there is full, open, reliable and timely access to and sharing of earth system science data. Unidata, which is funded by the United States National Science Foundation, recognizes the benefits of international scientific partnerships and the value of networked communities, as institutions and people exchange data, knowledge and other resources. Unidata's international data sharing activities began modestly as the MeteoForum project in Latin America in 2001, but have since grown to include several projects and collaborations in many countries. Unidata's growing portfolio of international activities are conducted in close collaboration with academic, research, and operational institutions worldwide. Specific emphasis of those efforts is on sharing data, and provision of software, support, and training. Real-time atmospheric science data delivered have helped to initiate teaching innovations in universities, advanced research, and facilitated operational forecasting. In this talk, an overview of Unidata's approach to gradual but organic international broadening will be presented, along with examples of specific collaborations and activities via myriad internationally-linked efforts and projects. In addition to describing these efforts, the talk will summarize some of the lessons learned in developing, implementing, and supporting those activities.

Ramamurthy, Mohan

2010-05-01

217

Role Expectations and Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new study on female transsexuals and lesbians is reported. A matched-group comparison of 15 women in each sample suggests that the two groups do not differ in overall intelligence, although lesbians, unlike female transsexuals, tended to have a significantly high verbal IQ than performance IQ. Both groups showed a similar response pattern on the Embedded Figures Test but differed

Elizabeth A. McCauley; Anke A. Ehrhardt

1978-01-01

218

Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction.  

PubMed

In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths. Specifically, it is suggested that the phase differential of the source driving signals should be in agreement with the phase differential of the desired sound pressure field. The performance of the suggested method is compared with that of conventional effort regularization, wave field synthesis (WFS), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy in the listening room. PMID:20707444

Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, John

2010-08-01

219

Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

2012-01-01

220

Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

2010-11-29

221

Does Effort Still Count?: More on What Makes the Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has examined differences between students and faculty regarding the weight of effort in assigning grades. Here, students and faculty responded to questions regarding the relative weight of performance and effort on final grades and what letter grades faculty should assign across different types of courses. The authors asked these…

Zinn, Tracy E.; Magnotti, John F.; Marchuk, Kimberly; Schultz, Bridget S.; Luther, Andrew; Varfolomeeva, Veronika

2011-01-01

222

CONSUMERS' EXPECTATIONS AND CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some studies have examined the impact of consumers' expectations on consumption expenditure. However, none of these studies concludes a clear positive relationship between these variables. It has been argued that consumers' expectations about the economy's future should have an impact on consumers' decisions about how much to consume and how much to save. While consumers' expectations seem to be a

Shokoofeh Fazel

2005-01-01

223

Reflexive Expectation Formation Timo Ehrig  

E-print Network

Reflexive Expectation Formation Timo Ehrig J¨urgen Jost Abstract How do economic agents form expectations regarding asset prices and the development of macroeconomic quantities, when of expectations fold back to the realized economic process, and in particular, to the selection of one of multiple

Jost, Jürgen

224

The Art of Expectations Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most valuable skills a software professional can develop, expectations management is something surprisingly few people know or practice. The author has witnessed more than 100 stakeholder software requirements negotiations in which inflated expectations about the simplicity of the problem or ease of providing a solution have caused the most difficulty. Expectations management holds the key to providing

Barry W. Boehm

2000-01-01

225

Gender Role Expectations of Juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the development of two five-item Likert scales that classify juveniles' gender role expectations as highly traditional to nontraditional. One is composed of behavioral expectations that juveniles define as traditionally feminine and the other is composed of expectations they define as traditionally masculine. With a sample of junior and senior high school students, correlational and factor analyses of

Neal Shover; Stephen Norland; Jennifer James

1978-01-01

226

Subpopulation triage: how to allocate conservation effort among populations.  

PubMed

Threatened species often exist in a small number of isolated subpopulations. Given limitations on conservation spending, managers must choose from strategies that range from managing just one subpopulation and risking all other subpopulations to managing all subpopulations equally and poorly, thereby risking the loss of all subpopulations. We took an economic approach to this problem in an effort to discover a simple rule of thumb for optimally allocating conservation effort among subpopulations. This rule was derived by maximizing the expected number of extant subpopulations remaining given n subpopulations are actually managed. We also derived a spatiotemporally optimized strategy through stochastic dynamic programming. The rule of thumb suggested that more subpopulations should be managed if the budget increases or if the cost of reducing local extinction probabilities decreases. The rule performed well against the exact optimal strategy that was the result of the stochastic dynamic program and much better than other simple strategies (e.g., always manage one extant subpopulation or half of the remaining subpopulation). We applied our approach to the allocation of funds in 2 contrasting case studies: reduction of poaching of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and habitat acquisition for San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica). For our estimated annual budget for Sumatran tiger management, the mean time to extinction was about 32 years. For our estimated annual management budget for kit foxes in the San Joaquin Valley, the mean time to extinction was approximately 24 years. Our framework allows managers to deal with the important question of how to allocate scarce conservation resources among subpopulations of any threatened species. PMID:18477029

McDonald-Madden, Eve; Baxter, Peter W J; Possingham, Hugh P

2008-06-01

227

Overview and stellar statistics of the expected Gaia Catalogue using the Gaia Object Generator  

E-print Network

Aims: An effort has been undertaken to simulate the expected Gaia Catalogue, including the effect of observational errors. A statistical analysis of this simulated Gaia data is performed in order to better understand what can be obtained from the Gaia astrometric mission. This catalogue is used in order to investigate the potential yield in astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic information, and the extent and effect of observational errors on the true Gaia Catalogue. This article is a follow-up to Robin et. al. (2012), where the expected Gaia Catalogue content was reviewed but without the simulation of observational errors. Methods: The Gaia Object Generator (GOG) catalogue is analysed using the Gaia Analysis Tool (GAT), producing a number of statistics on the catalogue. Results: A simulated catalogue of one billion objects is presented, with detailed information on the 523 million individual single stars it contains. Detailed information is provided for the expected errors in parallax, position, proper ...

Luri, X; Arenou, F; Masana, E; de Bruijne, J; Antiche, E; Babusiaux, C; Borrachero, R; Sartoretti, P; Julbe, F; Isasi, Y; Martinez, O; Robin, A C; Reylé, C; Jordi, C; Carrasco, J M

2014-01-01

228

Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…

Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

2012-01-01

229

Gender differences in attributions for triathlon performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causal attributions given by athletes for performance can influence performance satisfaction, expectation of future success, and persistence in training and competition. Young and inexperienced athletes often show gender differences in sport attribution, with males attributing success to controllable or stable factors like ability and effort, and females attributing success to uncontrollable or unstable factors like luck and social support. Would

Helen M. Hendy; Bonnie J. Boyer

1993-01-01

230

An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Efforts over the last Two Decades to Reduce Human Losses due to Natural Hazards, and A Proposal for Future Efforts (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is evidence that efforts over the last 20 years to reduce human and fiscal losses due to natural hazards have been effective, there is also evidence that, despite these efforts, we can expect large and, perhaps, even increasing losses in the future. If this conclusion is correct---and unacceptable---then what should be done differently to reduce these losses? One

B. E. Tucker; A. Chakos

2009-01-01

231

Metaphor Comprehension and Cognitive Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated processing differences between metaphorical and literal versions of the same sentences. The purposes of the study were (1) to directly compare the on-line processing demands of metaphoric and nonmetaphoric sentences, and (2) to examine the consequences of such sentences for memory performance. The subjects were 39 college…

Petrun, Craig J.; Belmore, Susan M.

232

Music Cognition: Learning, Perception, Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in music cognition domain has shown that non musician listeners have implicit knowledge about the Western tonal musical\\u000a system. This knowledge, acquired by mere exposure to music in everyday life, influences perception of musical structures and\\u000a allows developing expectations for future incoming events. Musical expectations play a role for musical expressivity and influence\\u000a event processing: Expected events are processed

Barbara Tillmann

2007-01-01

233

DAU StatRefresher: Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tutorial on expectations helps students understand the concept of expectations, recognize and use variance and standard deviation, understand the method of moments, recognize and use co-variance, and solve exercise problems using expectations. Each component has its own explanation, demonstration and quiz questions. At the end, there is a series of questions to test the students full understanding of the concepts covered.

2009-08-31

234

Expectation Value in Bell's Theorem  

E-print Network

We will demonstrate in this paper that Bell's theorem (Bell's inequality) does not really conflict with quantum mechanics, the controversy between them originates from the different definitions for the expectation value using the probability distribution in Bell's inequality and the expectation value in quantum mechanics. We can not use quantum mechanical expectation value measured in experiments to show the violation of Bell's inequality and then further deny the local hidden-variables theory. Considering the difference of their expectation values, a generalized Bell's inequality is presented, which is coincided with the prediction of quantum mechanics.

Zheng-Chuan Wang

2006-04-26

235

Canadian efforts to prevent and control hypertension  

PubMed Central

Suboptimum blood pressure is estimated to be the leading risk factor for death worldwide and is associated with 13.5% of deaths globally. The clinical diagnosis of hypertension affects one in four adults globally and is expected to increase by 60% between 2000 and 2025. Clearly, global efforts to prevent and control hypertension are important health issues. While Canada had a prevalence of hypertension similar to that of the United States in the early 1990s, the treatment and control rate was only 13% compared with 25% in the United States. A national strategic plan was developed, and a coalition of organizations and health care professional and scientist volunteers actively implemented parts of the strategy. Specific initiatives that have evolved include the development of hypertension knowledge translation programs for health professionals, the public and people with hypertension, an outcomes research program to assess the impact of hypertension and guide national-, regional- and community-based knowledge translation interventions, and a program to reduce the prevalence of hypertension by decreasing sodium additives in food. These initiatives have relied on the active involvement of health care professional volunteers, health care professional and scientific organizations and various government departments. There have been large increases in the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, with corresponding reductions in cardiovascular disease and total mortality associated with the start of the hypertension initiatives. As a result, Canada is becoming recognized as a world leader in the prevention, treatment and control of hypertension. PMID:20847986

Campbell, Norman RC; Chen, Guanmin

2010-01-01

236

Canadian efforts to prevent and control hypertension.  

PubMed

Suboptimum blood pressure is estimated to be the leading risk factor for death worldwide and is associated with 13.5% of deaths globally. The clinical diagnosis of hypertension affects one in four adults globally and is expected to increase by 60% between 2000 and 2025. Clearly, global efforts to prevent and control hypertension are important health issues. While Canada had a prevalence of hypertension similar to that of the United States in the early 1990 s, the treatment and control rate was only 13% compared with 25% in the United States. A national strategic plan was developed, and a coalition of organizations and health care professional and scientist volunteers actively implemented parts of the strategy. Specific initiatives that have evolved include the development of hypertension knowledge translation programs for health professionals, the public and people with hypertension, an outcomes research program to assess the impact of hypertension and guide national-, regional- and community-based knowledge translation interventions, and a program to reduce the prevalence of hypertension by decreasing sodium additives in food. These initiatives have relied on the active involvement of health care professional volunteers, health care professional and scientific organizations and various government departments. There have been large increases in the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, with corresponding reductions in cardiovascular disease and total mortality associated with the start of the hypertension initiatives. As a result, Canada is becoming recognized as a world leader in the prevention, treatment and control of hypertension. PMID:20847986

Campbell, Norman R C; Chen, Guanmin

2010-01-01

237

Expected stock returns and volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relation between stock returns and stock market volatility. We find evidence that the expected market risk premium (the expected return on a stock portfolio minus the Treasury bill yield) is positively related to the predictable volatility of stock returns. There is also evidence that unexpected stock market returns are negatively related to the unexpected change in

Kenneth R. French; G. William Schwert; Robert F. Stambaugh

1987-01-01

238

Do Juries Meet Our Expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony,

Hal R. Arkes; Barbara A. Mellers

2002-01-01

239

The Ethics of Life Expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive — our expectation of further life — and the other negative — the loss

Robin Small

2002-01-01

240

FastStats: Life Expectancy  

MedlinePLUS

... in 2010? Life expectancy at age 25, by sex and education level, Health, United States, 2011, figure 32 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Life expectancy at birth, at 65 and 75 years of age by sex, race and Hispanic origin Health, United States 2013, ...

241

NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

Sander, Libby

2008-01-01

242

Predictive Automatic Relevance Determination by Expectation Propagation  

E-print Network

Predictive Automatic Relevance Determination by Expectation Propagation Yuan (Alan) Qi yuanqi Neuroscience Unit, UCL, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR, UK Abstract In many real-world classification Pre- dictive ARD based on estimating the predictive performance of the classifier. While the actual

Ghahramani, Zoubin

243

How Students Verify Conjectures: Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight teachers were interviewed concerning how students verify conjectures. The study is a sequel to a previous study, "How Students Verify Conjectures" [Bergqvist, T. (2000). "How students verify conjectures." "Research reports in Mathematics Education" 3]. Teachers' expectations of students' reasoning and performance are examined, and also how…

Bergqvist, Tomas

2005-01-01

244

Development and validation of the Chinese adolescent gambling expectancy scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gambling expectancies have been reported to be an important variable in adolescents' gambling behaviours. However, little is known regarding the role of gambling expectancies among Chinese adolescents. This study aimed to identify Chinese adolescents' expectancies for gambling and to evaluate their relation to gambling behaviours. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed which confirmed that a five-factor model was a

Stella Sau-kuen Wong; Sandra Kit-man Tsang

2012-01-01

245

The effect of effort grading on learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 2004, Benedict College – a Historically Black College in Columbia, SC – began enforcing a new grading policy called Success Equals Effort (SE2). Under this policy, students taking freshman and sophomore level courses were assigned grades that explicitly rewarded not only content learning (“knowledge” grade) but also measures of effort (“effort” grade). This paper examines the

Omari H. Swinton

2010-01-01

246

Effort Reporting for WU Staff Fiscal 2006  

E-print Network

Jacqueline Judie at 747-6273 1 #12;I tit ti l Ri kInstitutional Risk · National attention focused on Effort is effort reporting a big deal?Why is effort reporting a big deal? · Grantees agree to comply with Federalg

Kroll, Kristen L.

247

Pain Expectancies, Pain, and Functional Self-Efficacy Expectancies as Determinants of Disability in Patients with Chronic Low Back Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested the predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities, expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back pain patients. Before assessment of function, patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks--functional self-efficacy (FSE)--and the likelihood working would…

Lackner, Jeffrey M.; And Others

1996-01-01

248

QM Momentum Expectation Value Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The QM Momentum Expectation Value program displays the time evolution of the position-space wave function and the associated momentum expectation value. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the qm_expectation_p.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default wave function is a Gaussian wave packet in a harmonic oscillator. Additional states and other potential energy functions can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. QM Momentum Expectation Value is one of 18 Open Source Physics programs that model time-dependent quantum mechanics using an energy eigenstate expansion. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Superposition.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-04-17

249

Endogenous Human Brain Dynamics Recover Slowly Following Cognitive Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In functional magnetic resonance imaging, the brain's response to experimental manipulation is almost always assumed to be independent of endogenous oscillations. To test this, we addressed the possible interaction between cognitive task performance and endogenous fMRI oscillations in an experiment designed to answer two questions: 1) Does performance of a cognitively effortful task significantly change fractal scaling properties of

Anna Barnes; Edward T. Bullmore; John Suckling

2009-01-01

250

Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies*  

PubMed Central

Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

2009-01-01

251

Effect of Partner's Effort and Ability on Liking for Partner After Failure on a Cooperative Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined that perceived effort and ability of a low-performing group member had an impact on the other members' liking for the low-performing member. Results indicated that when future contact in work or social settings was assumed, group members expressed greater attraction to high-effort than to low-effort partners. (Author/DB)

Tjosvold, Dean; And Others

1981-01-01

252

Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2012-01-01

253

The Mobile Browsing Behaviors and Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the…

Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

2012-01-01

254

U.S. Navy battery requirements and development efforts  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research, The Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) is the focal point for exploratory battery development within the US Navy. NSWC is responsible for identifying naval power needs not met by existing technology. To accomplish this, the authors conduct a biennial power source survey to assess the technology gap between state-of-the-art battery performance and mid-to-long term fleet needs. Once Navy power requirements have been identified, high payoff technologies are developed to meet them. During the 1993 survey, the authors identified four Navy systems requiring battery developments, namely sonobuoys, mines, underwater vehicles and torpedoes. Power supply inadequacies were found to be the result of two important factors, a shift in Navy focus from deep ocean waters to the more complex, littoral (coastal) environments, and an increased emphasis on the cost effectiveness of a system in an era of reduced military budgets. The survey revealed the following issues: (1) future sonobuoys will require significantly greater power than the presently used lithium/sulfur dioxide batteries can provide; (2) there is concern in the mine community over the future availability of specific batteries; (3) in the case of underwater vehicles (including torpedo targets), there is a desire for a more cost-effective power source having a greater energy density than the presently used silver oxide/zinc cells; (4) enhanced energy density was requested by the torpedo community to provide increased operational time. As expected, safety and environmental issues were of concern to participants responding to the survey. This paper will discuss the recommendations of the power needs survey and summarize efforts underway to implement them.

Smith, P.H.; James, S.D.; Keller, P.B. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States). Carderock Div.

1995-07-01

255

Children's Effortful Control and Academic Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations among children’s effortful control, school liking, and academic competence with a sample of 240 7- to 12-year-old children. Parents and children reported on effortful control, and teachers and children assessed school liking. Children, parents, and teachers reported on children’s academic competence. Significant positive correlations existed between children’s effortful control, school liking, and academic competence. Consistent with

Carlos Valiente; Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant; Kimberly S. Castro

2007-01-01

256

Measuring the Success of Wildlife Linkage Efforts  

E-print Network

term, year-round monitoring of wildlife crossing structuresstate monitoring activities and mitigation efforts. Wildlifeand monitoring individual movements, genetic flow, population range, and levels of wildlife

Servheen, Christopher; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Basting, Pat

2007-01-01

257

Are expectations for parallelism too high? A survey for potential parallel users  

SciTech Connect

Parallel computing has been portrayed as a technology that enables users to solve very large and complex problems very quickly. But has this portrayal created unreasonably high expectations for potential parallel users? This paper reports the results of a survey designed to delineate the differences in how computer scientists and technical programmers approach parallel programming. Responses from 326 ``potential parallel programmers`` at Supercomputing `93 are presented. The analysis provides information about the costs and benefits associated with parallel programming, application development activities, and the extent of tool use in those activities. It shows that users expect very dramatic gains in performance from parallel machines, while underestimating the amount of effort that will be needed. The results should be of interest to parallel tool developers and people involved in training parallel programmers.

Cook, C.R.; Pancake, C.M.; Walpole, R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1994-12-31

258

WHO expectation and industry goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is expected the world's vaccine market will show a robust growth over the next few years, yet this growth will predominantly come from introduction of new vaccines in industrialised countries. Economic market forces will increasingly direct vaccine sales and vaccine development towards the needs of markets with effective purchasing power. Yet the scientific and technological progress that drives the

Walter Vandersmissen

2001-01-01

259

Student expectations of computing majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research into student motivation and satisfaction with various computing majors on campus. A survey was administered to 422 computing majors and a different survey was administered to approximately 800 non-computing majors at Brigham Young University. The objective was to discover student understanding and expectations of the Computer Science, Information Systems and Information Technology programs on campus. Students

C. Richard G. Helps; Robert B. Jackson; Marshall B. Romney

2005-01-01

260

Expectancy theory analysis of migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Expectancy Theory analysis was used to explain patterns of migration in Iran. Fifty-four Iranian males and females were interviewed about their perception of the probability of attaining certain life outcomes in an urban or rural environment, and the importance of each outcome. The subjects were divided into three samples: migrants to the capital city, villagers, and migrants who had

Martin M. Chemers; Roya Ayman; Carol Werner

1978-01-01

261

Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

1996-01-01

262

Tourism motivation and expectation formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical study introduces a model of tourism motivation and expectation formation. It is based on a discussion and operationalization of both the behaviorist notion of drive reduction and the cognitivist constructs of attitudes and values. While the satisfaction of inner-directed values and motivations depends on classes of objects, outer-directed values target specific objects. In the case of trying to

Juergen Gnoth

1997-01-01

263

Great Expectations and New Beginnings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

Davis, Frances A.

2009-01-01

264

How is the high vaginal swab used to investigate vaginal discharge in primary care and how do GPs' expectations of the test match the tests performed by their microbiology services?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the management of vaginal discharge in general practice, with particular regard to the use of the high vaginal swab (HVS), and to compare GPs' expectations of this test with the processing and reporting undertaken by different laboratories. Methods: A postal questionnaire survey of 2146 GPs in the North Thames area and postal questionnaire study of the 22 laboratories serving the same GPs were carried out. GPs were asked how they would manage a young woman with vaginal discharge and what information they would like on an HVS report. Laboratories were asked how they would process and report on the HVS sample from the same patient. Results: Response rate was 26%. 72% of GPs would take an HVS and 62% would refer on to a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. 45% would offer empirical therapy and 47% of these would treat for candida initially. 75% of GPs routinely request "M,C&S" on HVS samples but 55% only want to be informed about specific pathogens. Routine processing of HVS samples varies widely between laboratories and 86% only report specific pathogens. 78% of GPs would like to be offered a suggested diagnosis on HVS reports, and 74% would like a suggested treatment. 43% of laboratories ever provide a diagnosis, and 14% provide a suggested treatment. Conclusions: GPs frequently manage vaginal discharge and most of them utilise the HVS. GPs' expectations of the test are not well matched to laboratory processing or reporting of the samples. PMID:15170004

Noble, H; Estcourt, C; Ison, C; Goold, P; Tite, L; Carter, Y

2004-01-01

265

Falling behind: life expectancy in US counties from 2000 to 2007 in an international context  

PubMed Central

Background The United States health care debate has focused on the nation's uniquely high rates of lack of insurance and poor health outcomes relative to other high-income countries. Large disparities in health outcomes are well-documented in the US, but the most recent assessment of county disparities in mortality is from 1999. It is critical to tracking progress of health reform legislation to have an up-to-date assessment of disparities in life expectancy across counties. US disparities can be seen more clearly in the context of how progress in each county compares to international trends. Methods We use newly released mortality data by age, sex, and county for the US from 2000 to 2007 to compute life tables separately for each sex, for all races combined, for whites, and for blacks. We propose, validate, and apply novel methods to estimate recent life tables for small areas to generate up-to-date estimates. Life expectancy rates and changes in life expectancy for counties are compared to the life expectancies across nations in 2000 and 2007. We calculate the number of calendar years behind each county is in 2000 and 2007 compared to an international life expectancy time series. Results Across US counties, life expectancy in 2007 ranged from 65.9 to 81.1 years for men and 73.5 to 86.0 years for women. When compared against a time series of life expectancy in the 10 nations with the lowest mortality, US counties range from being 15 calendar years ahead to over 50 calendar years behind for men and 16 calendar years ahead to over 50 calendar years behind for women. County life expectancy for black men ranges from 59.4 to 77.2 years, with counties ranging from seven to over 50 calendar years behind the international frontier; for black women, the range is 69.6 to 82.6 years, with counties ranging from eight to over 50 calendar years behind. Between 2000 and 2007, 80% (men) and 91% (women) of American counties fell in standing against this international life expectancy standard. Conclusions The US has extremely large geographic and racial disparities, with some communities having life expectancies already well behind those of the best-performing nations. At the same time, relative performance for most communities continues to drop. Efforts to address these issues will need to tackle the leading preventable causes of death. PMID:21672269

2011-01-01

266

Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

2013-01-01

267

Diversity Efforts October 2010 -December 2010  

E-print Network

" ESS Diversity Efforts October 2010 - December 2010 #12;Recruitment Efforts SACNAS Conference) San Mateo, CA Attendees: Terrance Mayes, Dr. Ebonee Williams, 9 UCSD NSBE students #12;Updates Job currently in recruitment. Talk: "Perspectives on Inclusion and Diversity" Dr. Sheila Humphreys, Director

Hasty, Jeff

268

Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

1988-01-01

269

Patterns of Research Effort in Birds  

PubMed Central

Between species differences in research effort can lead to biases in our global view of evolution, ecology and conservation. The increase in meta-taxonomic comparative analyses on birds underlines the need to better address how research effort is distributed in this class. Methods have been developed to choose which species should be studied to obtain unbiased comparative data sets, but a precise and global knowledge of research effort is required to be able to properly apply them. We address this issue by providing a data set of research effort (number of papers from 1978 to 2008 in the Zoological Record database) estimates for the 10 064 species of birds. We then test whether research effort is associated with phylogeny, geography and eleven different life history and ecological traits. We show that phylogeny accounts for a large proportion of the variance, while geographic range and all the tested traits are also significant contributors to research effort variance. We identify avian taxa that are under- and overstudied and address the importance of research effort biases in evaluating vulnerability to extinction, with non-threatened species studied twice as much as threatened ones. Our research effort data set covering the entire class Aves provides a tool for researchers to incorporate this potential confounding variable in comparative analyses. PMID:24587149

Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

2014-01-01

270

Risk Acceptance and Expectations of Laryngeal Allotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Laryngeal allotransplantation (LA) is a technique involving transplantation of a deceased donor's larynx into a recipient, and it may be substituted for conventional laryngeal reconstruction. There are widely different views on LA, as the recipient is administered continuous, potentially life-threatening, immunosuppressive therapy for a functional or aesthetic result, which is not directly related to life extension. The purpose of this study was to analyze the difference in risk acceptance and expectations of LA between four population groups. Methods A survey was performed to examine patients' risk acceptance and expectations of LA. The survey included 287 subjects in total (general public, n=100; kidney transplant recipients, n=53; post-laryngectomy patients, n=34; doctors, n=100), using a Korean translated version of the louisville instrument for transplantation (LIFT) questionnaire. Results All four groups responded differently at various levels of their perception in risk acceptance and expectations. The kidney transplant recipients reported the highest risk acceptance and expectations, and the doctor group the lowest. Conclusions This study examined the disparate perception between specific population groups of the risks and benefits of using LA for the promotion of the quality of life. By addressing the information gaps about LA in the different populations that have been highlighted from this survey, we suggest that LA can become a more viable alternative to classical surgery with resultant improved quality of life for patients.

Jo, Hyun Kyo; Park, Jang Wan; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong; Shin, Jun Ho

2014-01-01

271

Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism.  

PubMed

The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases. PMID:22427384

Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C

2012-06-01

272

Effortful Retrieval Reduces Hippocampal Activity and Impairs Incidental Encoding  

PubMed Central

Functional imaging studies frequently report that the hippocampus is engaged by successful episodic memory retrieval. However, considering that concurrent encoding of the background environment occurs during retrieval and influences medial temporal lobe activity, it is plausible that hippocampal encoding functions are reduced with increased attentional engagement during effortful retrieval. Expanding upon evidence that retrieval efforts suppress activity in hippocampal regions implicated in encoding, this study examines the influence of retrieval effort on encoding performance and the interactive effects of encoding and retrieval on hippocampal and neocortical activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while subjects performed a word recognition task with incidental picture encoding. Both lower memory strength and increased search duration were associated with encoding failure and reduced hippocampal and default network activity. Activity in the anterior hippocampus tracked encoding, which was more strongly deactivated when incidental encoding was unsuccessful. These findings highlight potential contributions from background encoding processes to hippocampal activations during neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval. PMID:23378272

Reas, Emilie T.; Brewer, James B.

2014-01-01

273

Do Introductory Science Courses Select for Effort or Aptitude?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On the first day of classes, students in introductory biology courses believe that effort is the most accurate predictor of their academic success. Students know which academic behaviors are important for success, and they are confident that they will earn high grades, attend lectures and help sessions, take advantage of other opportunities to master the course material and raise their grade. Despite this optimism, many students do not follow through on their first-day-of-class expectations, and their grades suffer accordingly. Academic success in introductory science courses is strongly associated with effort-based behaviors, but only weakly associated with aptitude. The relevant research findings are discussed in this chapter relative to how instructors can help students succeed in introductory science courses.

Moore, Randy

2006-01-01

274

Forecasting Spanish natural life expectancy.  

PubMed

Knowledge of trends in life expectancy is of major importance for policy planning. It is also a key indicator for assessing future development of life insurance products, substantiality of existing retirement schemes, and long-term care for the elderly. This article examines the feasibility of decomposing age-gender-specific accidental and natural mortality rates. We study this decomposition by using the Lee and Carter model. In particular, we fit the Poisson log-bilinear version of this model proposed by Wilmoth and Brouhns et al. to historical (1975-1998) Spanish mortality rates. In addition, by using the model introduced by Wilmoth and Valkonen we analyze mortality-gender differentials for accidental and natural rates. We present aggregated life expectancy forecasts compared with those constructed using nondecomposed mortality rates. PMID:16297222

Guillen, Montserrat; Vidiella-i-Anguera, Antoni

2005-10-01

275

Outcome expectancy as a moderator of mental fatigue influence on cardiovascular response.  

PubMed

Female undergraduates performed an easy (fatigue low) or difficult (fatigue high) scanning task and then were presented mental arithmetic problems with instructions that they would earn a high or low chance of winning a prize if they did as well as or better than 50% of those who had performed previously. As expected, blood pressure responses in the second work period rose or tended to rise with fatigue where the chance of winning was high. By contrast, the responses tended weakly to decline with fatigue where the chance of winning was low. The pressure findings support the suggestion of a recent fatigue analysis that success importance should moderate fatigue influence on CV responses to a challenge so long as fatigued performers view success as possible. They also conceptually replicate previous fatigue results and provide a special class of evidence that fatigue influence on CV response is mediated by effort. PMID:19572905

Stewart, Christopher C; Wright, Rex A; Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Simmons, Angel

2009-11-01

276

Anisotropic flow: Achievements, Difficulties, Expectations  

E-print Network

Anisotropic flow measurements play a crucial role in understanding the physics and bulk properties of the system created in heavy ion collisions. In this talk I briefly review the most important results obtained so far, recent developments in the analysis techniques and the interpretation of the results, and what should we expect next, both at RHIC and LHC. I also discuss event anisotropies sensitive to the strong parity violation effects.

Sergei A. Voloshin

2008-05-09

277

Menopause: Social expectations, women's realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a The experience of menopause, and the ramifications of that experience for psychiatric treatment, is significantly shaped by\\u000a social and historical context and by the implicit and explicit expectations they arouse in women. American society is heavily\\u000a youth-oriented. Although in fact many women experience this time as one of liberation and self-actualization, society views\\u000a them as bereft of their families

N. L. Stotland

2002-01-01

278

Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.  

PubMed

Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level. PMID:20962229

Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude

2010-10-20

279

Coordinating a supply chain with a loss-averse retailer and effort dependent demand.  

PubMed

This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

Li, Liying; Wang, Yong

2014-01-01

280

Origins of Effortful Control: Infant and Parent Contributions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effortful control (EC) refers to the ability to inhibit a dominant response to perform a subdominant one and has been shown as protective against a myriad of difficulties. Research examining precursors of EC has been limited to date, and in this study, infancy contributors to toddler EC were examined. Specifically, parent/family background…

Gartstein, Maria A.; Bridgett, David J.; Young, Brandi N.; Panksepp, Jaak; Power, Thomas

2013-01-01

281

Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA?s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roo...

282

Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA?s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

283

Muscle fibers, ubiquinone and exercise capacity in effort angina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen male patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and effort angina performed OBLA exercise stress tests (set to 2.0 mmol × 1-1). They had muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle the day before coronary by-pass grafting, and from the internal and external intercostal, diaphragm and gastrocnemius muscles during surgery. They had a low WOBLA (83 ± 6 W, mean

Jan Karlsson; Sigurd Gunnes; Bjarne Semb

1996-01-01

284

Perceived listening effort for a tonal task with contralateral competing signals  

PubMed Central

Perceived listening effort was assessed for a monaural irregular-rhythm detection task while competing signals were presented to the contralateral ear. When speech was the competing signal, listeners reported greater listening effort compared to either contralateral steady-state noise or no competing signal. Behavioral thresholds for irregular-rhythm detection were unaffected by competing speech, indicating that listeners compensated for this competing signal with effortful listening. These results suggest that perceived listening effort may be associated with suppression of task-irrelevant information, even for conditions where informational masking and competition for linguistic processing resources would not be expected. PMID:24116542

Bologna, William J.; Chatterjee, Monita; Dubno, Judy R.

2013-01-01

285

Athletes' expectations with regard to officiating competence.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify the cues upon which athletes rely when developing their expectations with regard to the competence of sports officials and to examine the sources of information, which are given priority in different kinds of sport (i.e. team, racquet and fighting sports). A questionnaire - the Athlete Perception of Sports Officials Questionnaire (APSO-Q) - was developed in which athletes (N=472) were asked to indicate the influence of 32 cues on their impressions of sports officials. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) yielded a four-factor model (i.e. static cues, psychological, communicational and performance cues). Athletes mostly rely on psychological and personal communication attributes when evaluating officiating competence. Moreover, team players perceived that static cues were more influential when forming their expectations of sports officials than racquet players and fighting contestants. Such findings may have implications for athlete-official relationships and training of sports officials. PMID:24444240

Dosseville, Fabrice; Laborde, Sylvain; Bernier, Marjorie

2014-01-01

286

Overview and stellar statistics of the expected Gaia Catalogue using the Gaia Object Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: An effort has been made to simulate the expected Gaia Catalogue, including the effect of observational errors. We statistically analyse this simulated Gaia data to better understand what can be obtained from the Gaia astrometric mission. This catalogue is used to investigate the potential yield in astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic information and the extent and effect of observational errors on the true Gaia Catalogue. This article is a follow-up to previous work, where the expected Gaia Catalogue content was reviewed but without the simulation of observational errors. Methods: We analysed the Gaia Object Generator (GOG) catalogue using the Gaia Analysis Tool (GAT), thereby producing a number of statistics about the catalogue. Results: A simulated catalogue of one billion objects is presented, with detailed information on the 523 million individual single stars it contains. Detailed information is provided for the expected errors in parallax, position, proper motion, radial velocity, and the photometry in the four Gaia bands. Information is also given on the expected performance of physical parameter determination, including temperature, metallicity, and line-of-sight extinction.

Luri, X.; Palmer, M.; Arenou, F.; Masana, E.; de Bruijne, J.; Antiche, E.; Babusiaux, C.; Borrachero, R.; Sartoretti, P.; Julbe, F.; Isasi, Y.; Martinez, O.; Robin, A. C.; Reylé, C.; Jordi, C.; Carrasco, J. M.

2014-06-01

287

USGS Shoots Video of Flooding Efforts  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS public affairs specialist, Jennifer LaVista prepares to shoot video of USGS efforts during historic flooding in Fargo, ND. The videos can be viewed at http://www.usgs.gov/homepage/science_features/flooding_march09.asp...

2009-04-03

288

Effort Reporting Activity Categories Instructional Activity  

E-print Network

Effort Reporting Activity Categories Instructional Activity Courses Instruction of students, grading papers and assisting students. Instructional assignments should be based on the contact hours. Also includes grading papers and assisting students for a course section of extraordinary size (200

Florida, University of

289

Labor effort over the business cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unobservable labor utilization is recognized as a crucial feature of economic fluctuations. Yet very little is known on the behavior of work effort over the business cycle. By using firm-level panel data drawn from two high-quality sources, we obtain a microeconomic estimate of variable labor effort from a dynamic cost minimization set-up. We argue that, contrary to common assumptions, the

Domenico J. Marchetti; Francesco Nucci

2001-01-01

290

Intelligent civil structures efforts in Vermont: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past number of years, research has been underway in Vermont investigating development and implementation of smart civil structures. During the course of this effort, numerous fiber optic and conventional sensor techniques and designs have been developed and tested. Laboratory studies have led to field testing at numerous sites and types of installations ranging from residential homes, conventional multi-story buildings, pedestrian footbridges, interstate highway road surfaces and railway bridges to high performance structures such as a hydroelectric dam. A description of the efforts in sensor design as well as multiplexing and multi-use sensors and systems with particular emphasis on smart civil structures applications is given.

Fuhr, Peter L.; Huston, Dryver R.

1993-07-01

291

The Martyrdom Effect: When Pain and Effort Increase Prosocial Contributions  

PubMed Central

Most theories of motivation and behavior (and lay intuitions alike) consider pain and effort to be deterrents. In contrast to this widely held view, we provide evidence that the prospect of enduring pain and exerting effort for a prosocial cause can promote contributions to the cause. Specifically, we show that willingness to contribute to a charitable or collective cause increases when the contribution process is expected to be painful and effortful rather than easy and enjoyable. Across five experiments, we document this “martyrdom effect,” show that the observed patterns defy standard economic and psychological accounts, and identify a mediator and moderator of the effect. Experiment 1 showed that people are willing to donate more to charity when they anticipate having to suffer to raise money. Experiment 2 extended these findings to a non-charity laboratory context that involved real money and actual pain. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the martyrdom effect is not the result of an attribute substitution strategy (whereby people use the amount of pain and effort involved in fundraising to determine donation worthiness). Experiment 4 showed that perceptions of meaningfulness partially mediate the martyrdom effect. Finally, Experiment 5 demonstrated that the nature of the prosocial cause moderates the martyrdom effect: the effect is strongest for causes associated with human suffering. We propose that anticipated pain and effort lead people to ascribe greater meaning to their contributions and to the experience of contributing, thereby motivating higher prosocial contributions. We conclude by considering some implications of this puzzling phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23559692

Olivola, Christopher Y; Shafir, Eldar

2013-01-01

292

Patrol officers and problem solving: An application of expectancy theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving has been recognized as a key aspect of community policing. We use expectancy motivation theory to explain variation in police officers' problem-solving behavior. Specifically, we expect that the amount of problem solving performed by officers will be explained by (1) the opportunity to do so, (2) the ability to do so, (3) the likelihood that officers will be

Christina Dejong; Stephen D. Mastrofski; Roger B. Parks

2001-01-01

293

Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation: A developmental perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

I consider Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value model of achievement performance and choice from a developmental perspective, by examining how recent research on the development of young children's competence beliefs, expectancies for success, subjective task values, and achievement goals can be incorporated into the model. The kinds of change in children's achievement beliefs considered include change in the factor structure

Allan Wigfield

1994-01-01

294

Systemic Efforts in Georgia to Improve Education Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research points to links between school and school district leadership and student achievement. Local and national education reform has created rising expectations for student performance. Education leadership is both complex and high stakes. Key stakeholders in Georgia have developed a solution to improve factors in the work, workplace, and…

Page, Deb

2010-01-01

295

DOE/Allison ceramic vane effort  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities to be accomplished and the expected results from the program to develop ultra-high efficiency gas turbine systems. The topics of the report include the objectives, the approach, project description including design/analysis of ceramic vanes and mounting hardware; procurement of ceramic vanes; thermal shock proof tests; vane/mount proof test in engine; ceramic vane field demonstration, and expected results.

Wenglarz, R.; Ali, S.; Browning, W.; Calcuttawala, S.; Khandelwal, P.

1995-12-31

296

The Teacher and Student as Pygmalions: Joint Effects of Teacher and Student Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the joint effects of teachers' expectations about students and vice versa on the performance and attitudes of both participants. Results showed that student performance was a function of the teacher's expectations. (Author/GK)

Feldman, Robert S.; Theiss, Andrew J.

1982-01-01

297

Comprehensive Management of Subclavian Vein Effort Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Subclavian vein (SCV) effort thrombosis, also known as the Paget-Schroetter syndrome, is a relatively uncommon condition that affects young, active, otherwise healthy individuals. It is considered a form of thoracic outlet syndrome, arising as a consequence of compression and repetitive injury of the SCV between the first rib and the overlying clavicle, as well as the anterior scalene muscle, subclavius muscle, and costoclavicular ligament. Effort thrombosis is distinct from other forms of deep vein thrombosis with respect to pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and functional consequences, and it requires treatment considerations unique to effective management of thoracic outlet compression as well as the obstructed SCV. In this review the comprehensive management of SCV effort thrombosis is addressed, with an emphasis on current interventional radiology techniques used in conjunction with definitive surgical treatment, based on early catheter-based venography, thrombolytic therapy, and prompt paraclavicular thoracic outlet decompression with direct SCV reconstruction. PMID:23448848

Thompson, Robert W.

2012-01-01

298

Asymmetry in the disconfirmation of expectations for natural yogurt.  

PubMed

Effects of expectations conveyed by a product description or an empty package on the evaluation of four types of natural yogurt were studied in a laboratory setting. Hedonic and perceptual responses for the correctly or incorrectly identified products generally showed assimilation: they fell between the responses to the unlabelled products and the responses for the expected properties evoked by presenting only product descriptions or empty packages. Hedonic judgments remained close to the expectation when the product performed better than expected, whereas they were relatively close to the evaluation for the unlabelled product when the product performed worse than expected. The asymmetry was largest for the buying intentions of subjects who received product packages. This is in accordance with the theory that positive disconfirmations are regarded as "gains" and negative disconfirmations as "losses". The asymmetry is likely to be more important in actual buying behaviour than in the experimental settings generally studied, as here. PMID:10336791

Schifferstein, H N; Kole, A P; Mojet, J

1999-06-01

299

Reproductive effort and success of wild female mallards: does male quality matter?  

PubMed

In accordance with the differential allocation hypothesis, females are expected to increase their reproductive investment when mated to high-quality males. In waterfowl, reproductive, investment increased when captive female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were mated to more attractive males, but information for wild ducks is lacking. Studies of waterfowl mating systems have focused primarily on the importance of plumage coloration of males and female mate choice, whereas investigations of reproductive ecology examine female attributes and virtually ignore the role of males in investment decisions. Here, we used unique data for 253 pairs of wild mallards to test whether females mated to high-quality males would increase reproductive effort and reproduce more successfully. We derived measurements of female and male body size and condition, and indices of male plumage quality, and related these traits to patterns of reproductive effort and performance of females. Consistent with predictions, yearling females nested earlier and had higher nest survival when mated to males with better plumage scores. Furthermore, when paired with larger bodied males, yearling females renested more often, and nest and brood survival increased among older females. Although the strength of male effects varied with breeding stage and female age or experience, this is one of a few studies to demonstrate an additive effect of male quality on investment and success of females, in free-ranging birds. PMID:23973707

Sheppard, Jennifer L; Clark, Robert G; Devries, James H; Brasher, Michael G

2013-11-01

300

The Relationship Between Effort and Moral Worth: Three Amendments to Sorensen's Model  

PubMed Central

Kelly Sorensen defends a model of the relationship between effort and moral worth in which the effort exerted in performing a morally desirable action contributes positively to the action’s moral worth, but the effort required to perform the action detracts from its moral worth. I argue that Sorensen’s model, though on the right track, is mistaken in three ways. First, it fails to capture the relevance of counterfactual effort to moral worth. Second, it wrongly implies that exerting unnecessary effort confers moral worth on an action. Third, it fails to adequately distinguish between cases in which effort is required because of defects of moral character and those in which effort is required because of barriers external to moral character, such as social pressures or non-moral cognitive deficits. I suggest three amendments to Sorensen’s model that correct these three defects. PMID:24991189

Douglas, Thomas

2014-01-01

301

How do motivational regulation strategies affect achievement: Mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was assumed that the effect of motivational regulation strategies on achievement is mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence. A sample of 231 11th and 12th grade German high-school students provided self-reports on their use of motivational regulation strategies and effort management and completed an intelligence test. Students' half-year grades (GPA) were assessed six months later. As expected,

Malte Schwinger; Ricarda Steinmayr; Birgit Spinath

2009-01-01

302

Age and state-dependent reproductive effort in male mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammalian polygynous mating systems, male reproductive effort consists mainly of male–male competition and courting of\\u000a females, which entail substantial somatic costs. Males are thus expected to adjust their reproductive effort according to\\u000a their age and condition. In this study, we examined how activity budgets of male mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), a polygynous ungulate, varied with age in a marked

Julien Mainguy; Steeve D. Côté

2008-01-01

303

Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort  

PubMed Central

Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

1995-01-01

304

Brain and effort: brain activation and effort-related working memory in healthy participants and patients with working memory deficits  

PubMed Central

Despite the interest in the neuroimaging of working memory, little is still known about the neurobiology of complex working memory in tasks that require simultaneous manipulation and storage of information. In addition to the central executive network, we assumed that the recently described salience network [involving the anterior insular cortex (AIC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)] might be of particular importance to working memory tasks that require complex, effortful processing. Method: Healthy participants (n = 26) and participants suffering from working memory problems related to the Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) (a specific form of periodic idiopathic hypersomnia; n = 18) participated in the study. Participants were further divided into a high- and low-capacity group, according to performance on a working memory task (listening span). In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants were administered the reading span complex working memory task tapping cognitive effort. Principal findings: The fMRI-derived blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was modulated by (1) effort in both the central executive and the salience network and (2) capacity in the salience network in that high performers evidenced a weaker BOLD signal than low performers. In the salience network there was a dichotomy between the left and the right hemisphere; the right hemisphere elicited a steeper increase of the BOLD signal as a function of increasing effort. There was also a stronger functional connectivity within the central executive network because of increased task difficulty. Conclusion: The ability to allocate cognitive effort in complex working memory is contingent upon focused resources in the executive and in particular the salience network. Individual capacity during the complex working memory task is related to activity in the salience (but not the executive) network so that high-capacity participants evidence a lower signal and possibly hence a larger dynamic response. PMID:23616756

Engstrom, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Karlsson, Thomas

2013-01-01

305

Effort Thrombosis in the Elite Throwing Athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Upper extremity vascular injuries are uncommon in the elite throwing athlete. However, the extreme stresses that are placed on the upper extremity of elite baseball players, especially pitchers, puts them at risk for such injuries. One such injury is upper extremity venous thrombosis or “effort thrombosis.”Purpose: We wanted to review the common initial clinical symptoms and physical examination findings

Gregory S. DiFelice; George A. Paletta; Barry B. Phillips; Rick W. Wright

2002-01-01

306

Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

2007-01-01

307

Restructuring Schooling: Learning from Ongoing Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular demands for school restructuring are increasingly common. This book is designed for diverse audiences who are interested in school improvement. Chapter 1, "Restructuring: In Search of a Movement" (Joseph Murphy), provides a historical and conceptual framework of restructuring efforts. Chapter 2, "Feeling the Ripples, Riding the Waves"…

Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Hallinger, Philip, Ed.

308

Maintenance of State Effort for Higher Education: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Maintenance of Effort (MOE) provision for higher education was first adopted in the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 and was included as a requirement for states to participate in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The information below was presented before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor on November 1, 2007

F. King Alexander

2011-01-01

309

Maintenance of State Effort for Higher Education: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

:A Maintenance of Effort (MOE) provision for higher education was first adopted in the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 and was included as a requirement for states to participate in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The information below was presented before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor on November 1, 2007

F. King Alexander

2011-01-01

310

Past, Present, and Future Recruitment Efforts  

E-print Network

recruitment activities. Recommendation 2: Recruitment. The Graduate School should receive additional resources of the College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences (CLAHS) to recruit competitive students at minority servingPast, Present, and Future Recruitment Efforts Office of Recruitment and Diversity Initiatives

Buehrer, R. Michael

311

Economic Woes May Hurt Colleges' Green Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent events on Wall Street raise a complicated question: Will the financial crisis help or hurt colleges' sustainability efforts? Both are possible. In this article, the author discusses how the Wall Street meltdown may hurt colleges' green initiatives. However, advocates of sustainability see an opportunity to change the conversation. A…

Carlson, Scott

2008-01-01

312

North Carolina: Statewide Automation and Connectivity Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes statewide information automation and connectivity efforts in North Carolina. Highlights include Triangle Research Libraries Network Document Delivery System; cooperative networking projects; public library connectivity to the state library; rural access projects; community college automation; K-12 technology plans; electronic government…

Christian, Elaine J., Ed.

1996-01-01

313

REPRODUCTIVE EFFORT IN SQUIRRELS: ECOLOGICAL, PHYLOGENETIC, ALLOMETRIC,  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTIVE EFFORT IN SQUIRRELS: ECOLOGICAL, PHYLOGENETIC, ALLOMETRIC, AND LATITUDINAL PATTERNS The distinctive features of reproduction in squirrels are the lack of allometric influences on the duration of reproductive investment; the strong allometric influences on offspring mass; and a trade-off between number

Hayssen, Virginia

314

On Efforts to Collegially Develop Teacher Professionalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes efforts to support the development of reflective practice at a basic school in Brno, the Czech Republic. The aims, structure, content and methods are mentioned, as well as some preliminary results. Also, the authors suggest a few preconditions of the success of possible future actions. The specific case is seen from the…

Lazarova, Bohumira; Pol, Milan

2002-01-01

315

Efforts by the US Food and Drug  

E-print Network

. Prohibitions on Extra-Label Use in Food Animals (21 CFR 530.21) · Chloramphenicol · Clenbuterol1 Efforts by the US Food and Drug Administration's Center for Veterinary Medicine to Address September 2010 Tampa, FL Who is CVM? · Part of the United States of America's Food and Drug Administration

Kane, Andrew S.

316

Planning New Development Efforts: Recommended Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Laboratory uses one of its own research projects as a model to outline recommended procedures in the planning of research efforts. The model used is an inservice teacher education program where three distinct phases operate in an overlapping manner as the program progresses. In the first phase, the problem is…

Della-Dora, Delmo

317

Psychological Factors in Perceived and Sustained Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was threefold; (a) to determine how different components of effort are perceived during physical activity; (b) to examine whether attention focus varies as a function of intensity during physical activity; and (c) to test the effect of dispositional and task-specific self-efficacy on the ability to tolerate sustained physical activity. Adult male and female participants were

Jasmin Caroline Robertson Hutchinson

2004-01-01

318

Accountability: Responsibility and Reasonable Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses features of educational accountability systems, illustrating them using requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Asserts that broadly shared responsibility is needed for accountability systems to contribute to improved education, noting that systems design requires setting ambitious performance standards and…

Linn, Robert L.

2003-01-01

319

American lifelines alliance efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was performed on American Lifelines Alliance (ALA) efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability. ALA is a public-private partnership project, with the goal of reducing risks to lifelines from natural hazards and human threat events. The mechanism used by ALA for developing national guidelines for lifeline systems is dependent upon using existing Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as means to achieve national consensus.

Nishenko, S. P.; Savage, W. U.; Honegger, D. G.; McLane, T. R.

2002-01-01

320

Heart rate variability and cognitive function: Effects of physical effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive performance before and after physical effort, for 30 high-level track and field athletes (23 males and 7 females). Interbeat intervals were assessed at the baseline and during each task of a CogState cognitive battery (simple reaction time, choice reaction time, working memory, short-term memory and sustained attention). Time and

Caroline Di Bernardi Luft; Emílio Takase; David Darby

2009-01-01

321

The Effects of Education Compatibility and Technological Expectancy on E-Learning Acceptance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discerning what influences a student's acceptance of e-learning is still unclear and has not been well investigated. On the basis of the expectancy-value theory, much effort has been put into identifying the effectual factors regarding the technological expectancy of students. However, aside from technological usage, the adoption of an e-learning…

Chen, Jian-Liang

2011-01-01

322

Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 1 Running Head: Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation  

E-print Network

Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 1 Running Head: Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation The Effects of Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation On Teachers Autonomy and Exercise Psychology 4 (2006) 283-301" #12;Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 2 Abstract

Boyer, Edmond

323

Conflict and expectancies interact to predict sexual behavior under the influence among gay and bisexual men  

PubMed Central

As the mechanisms of the associations between substance use and risky sex remain unclear, this study investigates the interactive roles of conflicts about casual sex and condom use and expectancies of the sexual effects of substances in those associations among gay men. Conflict interacted with expectancies to predict sexual behavior under the influence; low casual sex conflict coupled with high expectancies predicted the highest number of casual partners, and high condom use conflict and high expectancies predicted the highest number of unprotected sex acts. Results have implications for intervention efforts that aim to improve sexual decision-making and reduce sexual expectancies. PMID:23584507

Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit

2013-01-01

324

Exceeding Energy Consumption Design Expectations  

E-print Network

& Structural Engineering Mott MacDonald Sheffield, UK The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK ABSTRACT Operational building performance often fails to meet that predicted at the design stage by as much as two to three times. Many... priority, it is important to understand how, if at all, ?low carbon? building targets are attainable. Furthermore, the 2008 UK Government budget report laid down targets for: zero carbon new homes by 2016; zero carbon new public buildings by 2018...

Castleton, H. F.; Beck, S. B. M.; Hathwat, E. A.; Murphy, E.

2013-01-01

325

Seismic Modeling on a GPU with Modest Programming Effort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate an effective approach to porting a production code of anelastic wave propagation using a directive-based programming model, called Mint. Mint generated code realized about 80% of the performance of hand-coded CUDA on the Nvidia 200 and 400 series of GPUs. We think this performance gap is reasonable in light of the simplified programming model enjoyed by Mint's pragma-based model. Compared with writing CUDA by hand, Mint provides the flexibility to explore different performance variants of the same program through annotations and compiler options which saves considerable amount of programming effort. In this talk, we discuss how Mint enables the programmer to tune performance at a high level and evaluate various performance programming strategies realized by Mint programs and translator optimization options.

Unat, D.

2012-12-01

326

Managing employee performance.  

PubMed

Performance management consists of significantly more than periodic evaluation of performance. It is the art and science of dealing with employees in a manner intended to positively influence their thinking and behavior to achieve a desired level of performance. It is essential for the manager to always model positive behavior concerning performance; what one does or says as a manager always has an influence on others. The kinds of employee behavior most likely encountered relative to performance management efforts stem from resistance to change and lack of complete understanding of what is expected. Employee participation must be elicited whenever possible for performance improvement; as far as the inner working details of a specific job are concerned, there is no one who knows the job better than the person who does it everyday. For each task to be done, an employee needs to know what output is expected, how this output will be measured, and what standards are applied in assessing the output. Managing employee performance requires ongoing contact with each employee, regular feedback, and whatever coaching, counseling, and training are necessary to bring an employee back on track when a problem appears. Sustaining efficient and effective employee performance requires the manager's ongoing attention and involvement. PMID:15457845

McConnell, Charles R

2004-01-01

327

Effects of physical efforts on injury in elite soccer.  

PubMed

In this study, the influence of physical efforts on occurrence of match injury in a professional soccer club was investigated. Computerised motion-analysis was used to measure the physical efforts of players during 10 injury situations. Total distance and those covered at different movement intensities were measured across the 5-min period preceding injury. If the final run preceding injury involved a high-intensity action (HIA), the distance, duration and speed of the effort and the recovery time between this and the penultimate HIA were measured. To determine the influence of these physical efforts, the results were compared to a normative profile for players computed from data across 5 games for the same variables; habitual distances covered over a 5-min period and characteristics of and recovery time between HIA. Compared to the normative profile, no differences were reported in physical characteristics during the period leading up to injury or for HIA although the latter were substantially higher in intensity (duration and distance). A lower than normal recovery time between HIA prior to injury was observed (35.6+/-16.8 s vs. 98.8+/-17.5 s, p=0.003). Within the limitations of the small sample, these findings may aid in further understanding injury and physical performance in elite soccer. PMID:20024885

Carling, C; Gall, F L; Reilly, T P

2010-03-01

328

Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

Prewitt, Jeff

329

A Prototype Cooperative Effort to Enhance TIGER  

E-print Network

: Data sharing and coordination between the US Census Bureau and the Vermont Center for Geographic Information (VCGI) has propelled new advances and possibilities in the update and maintenance of the nation's Topological Integrated Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) database. Utilizing existing local and state resources, internally developed spatial matching and update software, and an effective working partnership with the VCGI, the Census Bureau incorporated, for the first time, GPS 1 -level accuracy to its street centerline network. This statewide prototype demonstrates how the Census Bureau can utilize local data to improve both positional and attribute accuracy while reducing redundancy of effort between federal, state, and local government. This initiative and related data sharing efforts offer important lessons and opportunities for the Census Bureau as well as for the evolution of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). Jonathan Sperling is currently a geographer at t...

Jonathan Sperling; Stephen A. Sharp

1999-01-01

330

New technology emphasizes international offshore effort  

SciTech Connect

While the offshore industry is focusing its major development efforts on the deeper waters of the US Gulf, West Africa and Brazil, technology has not stood still in the world`s many other established and frontier offshore development areas. These selected items drawn from contributions by UK companies and a major joint-venture development in Eastern Canada emphasize this effort. Included here are: (1) announcement of a major six-field, 3 Tcf gas development off Nova Scotia`s Sable Island and award of two drilling contracts; (2) a comprehensive study of mobile production units in the UK by Smith Rea Energy Analysts; (3) four applications of an option to high-pressure swivels on an FPSO with multiple subsea inlet lines; (4) a contract to supply a DC bus drive for 17 ESPs on Texaco`s Captain field; and (5) review of an environmental study of the Falkland Islands in preparation for exploration activity.

NONE

1997-07-01

331

Measures of Effortful Regulation for Young Children  

PubMed Central

Emotion-related regulation is a topic of increasing interest among researchers, yet there is little agreement on ways to measure emotion regulation in young children. In this paper, we first consider important conceptual distinctions in regard to the different types of emotion-related regulation and control. Next, we describe a number of ways researchers have assessed children’s regulation. We also present data from the Toddler Emotional Development project, in which laboratory-based measures of effortful regulation were used. In this section, we highlight the measures that show promise (and those that did not work well). Future directions for research on the measurement of effortful regulation are presented. PMID:18066395

Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget M.

2005-01-01

332

Sales efforts, capital structure and monopoly power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explains how sales efforts try to create product differentiation and increase monopoly power; and uses 1995-1996 data from a panel of 45 Greek firms to examine the relationship between debt-to-equity ratio and profitability, taking a firm’s sales promotion expenses into account. Applies three mathematical models to the data and finds a significant negative relationship between debt-to-equity and profit margin, i.e.

Zoe Ventoura-Neokosmidi

2002-01-01

333

NRC; Smog control efforts off mark  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the National Research Council says the U.S. regulatory programs to control smog may have been misdirected the past 20 years, and more emphasis needs to be placed on limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. An NRC study the ozone control efforts have focused mainly on controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. However, in many parts of the country controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides would be more effective, it the, noting VOCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of ozone.

Not Available

1992-01-06

334

Professional performance: The case of unexpectedand expected deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to explore some commonalties and differences within observational data derived from two research studies concerned with the management of death. The studies differ in both their theoretical framework and focus of enquiry. Yet the contextual settings for both are institutions with an overarching ethic of care and control, namely a hospital and a care home for older

Susie Page; Carol Komaromy

2005-01-01

335

The Academic Researcher Role: Enhancing Expectations and Improved Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article distinguishes between six tasks related to the academic researcher role: (1) networking; (2) collaboration; (3) managing research; (4) doing research; (5) publishing research; and (6) evaluation of research. Data drawn from surveys of academic staff, conducted in Norwegian universities over three decades, provide evidence that the…

Kyvik, Svein

2013-01-01

336

Query-Performance Prediction: Setting the Expectations Fiana Raiber  

E-print Network

connections between tasks -- and methods used to address these tasks -- in federated search, fusion connections between tasks and methods used to address them in federated search [10], fusion-based retrieval

Kurland, Oren

337

Students' Perceptions of Peer Evaluation: An Expectancy Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the difficulty of evaluating uneven performance among group members, many researchers suggest incorporating peer evaluations in a grading system that permits an instructor to evaluate and grade individual performance more equitably within a group. In this study, the authors employ expectancy theory to assess key factors that may…

Chen, Yining; Lou, Hao

2004-01-01

338

Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 MISSION DESCRIPTION/EXPECTATIONS/STATEMENT OF WORK  

E-print Network

Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 Section C i SECTION C MISSION DESCRIPTION/EXPECTATIONS-2 C.3 - PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS, OBJECTIVES, AND MEASURES C-3 C.3.1 Core Expectations C-3 C.3.2 Performance Evaluation Expectations C-5 C.3.3 Performance Objectives and Measures C-8 C.4 - STATEMENT OF WORK

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

339

Legislator Uses of Public Performance Reports: Findings from a Five-Year Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key assumption in efforts to implement and improve cross-government public reporting systems is that legislators will make use of the performance information to enhance accountability and improve program and policy effectiveness. This five-year study is an assessment of expectations and actual uses of annual performance reports by elected…

McDavid, James C.; Huse, Irene

2012-01-01

340

EpidemiologyQJE.tex Macroeconomic Expectations of  

E-print Network

, with important macroeconomic consequences. Keywords: inflation, expectations, unemployment, monetary policy JEL of macroeconomics by John Maynard Keynes [1936], economists have understood that macroeconomic outcomes depend upon expectations. Keynes himself believed that economies could experience fluc- tuations that reflected movements

Niebur, Ernst

341

Measuring Student Effort and Engagement in an Introductory Physics Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple scales reflecting student effort were developed using factor and scale analysis on data from an introductory physics course. This data included interactions with an on-line homework system. One of the scales displays many characteristics of a metric of the individual level of engagement in the course. This scale is shown to be a good predictor of performance on class exams and the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Furthermore, normalized learning gains on the FCI are well predicted by this scale while pre-instructional FCI scores provide no additional predictive ability, agreeing with observations by Richard Hake. This scale also correlates strongly with epistemological beliefs that learning is related to effort and is the responsibility of the student. The factors that enter into this scale, writing and mastering expert-like problem-solving, are consistent with this being a measure of individual levels of class engagement.

Bonham, Scott

2007-11-01

342

Framing tobacco control efforts within an ethical context  

PubMed Central

Public health efforts to promote tobacco control are not performed within a vacuum. They are subject to interpretation and misinterpretation by consumers and policymakers based largely upon the initial framing of the issues. This paper notes how the tobacco industry has established a particular frame that it is the protector of individual rights and that the public health community is trying to eliminate those rights. This paper then shows how the public health community uses metaphors that may unintentionally support this framing and suggests that by reframing public health efforts in accordance with core ethical principles, the public health community can create more positive messages. A public health ethical framework is proposed to examine how the application of the principles can influence the tobacco control movement. Through the increased use of ethics in tobacco control, the public health community may be better positioned to claim the high road as the protector of the public's interests. PMID:16046701

Fox, B

2005-01-01

343

Measuring Student Effort and Engagement in an Introductory Physics Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Multiple scales reflecting student effort were developed using factor and scale analysis on data from an introductory physics course. This data included interactions with an on-line homework system. One of the scales displays many characteristics of a metric of the individual level of engagement in the course. This scale is shown to be a good predictor of performance on class exams and the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Furthermore, normalized learning gains on the FCI are well predicted by this scale while pre-instructional FCI scores provide no additional predictive ability, agreeing with observations by Richard Hake. This scale also correlates strongly with epistemological beliefs that learning is related to effort and is the responsibility of the student. The factors that enter into this scale, writing and mastering expert-like problem-solving, are consistent with this being a measure of individual levels of class engagement.

Bonham, Scott W.

2009-07-06

344

Publicly owned accounting firm consolidators: executive benefit expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the company-related benefits expected by executives of public accounting companies consolidating accounting practices and the implications of these expectations for company performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses a case study approach involving the review of publicly available information and interviews with executives and senior professionals of two Australian, publicly-owned accounting

Mark Edward Pickering

2012-01-01

345

Predicting Homework Effort: Support for a Domain-Specific, Multilevel Homework Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the domain-specific, multilevel homework model proposed in the present study, students' homework effort is influenced by expectancy and value beliefs, homework characteristics, parental homework behavior, and conscientiousness. The authors used structural equation modeling and hierarchical linear modeling analyses to test the model in…

Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Schnyder, Inge; Niggli, Alois

2006-01-01

346

Introduction Each year, almond growers in California spend a considerable amount of management effort and  

E-print Network

rd leaf almonds as well as the new test orchards established in 2011. These experiments are expectedIntroduction Each year, almond growers in California spend a considerable amount of management effort and financial resources to manage weeds on the orchard floor. Many growers use an integrated weed

Hanson, Brad

347

The Influence of Parenthood on the Work Effort of Married Men and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the 1992-93 National Survey of Families and Households were used to examine the effect of parenthood on married men's and women's employment and work hours. Parenthood decreased women's work effort as expected. Findings for men support two competing models--"good provider" and "involved father"--reflecting traditional versus modern…

Kaufman, Gayle; Uhlenberg, Peter

2000-01-01

348

Sex-Role Stereotyping in Two Newspapers of 1885: The Influence of the Pioneer Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To answer the questions of whether the pioneer effort and subsequent differences in lifestyles affected sex-role stereotyping in newspapers in 1885 and whether a widely perceived difference in role expectation was evident in the popular writing of the times, a study examined the differences in sex roles reflected in popular journalistic portrayals…

Jolliffe, Lee; Bond, Turner

349

Implementing Successful Geoscience Education and Outreach Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful geoscience Education and Outreach (E&O) efforts associated with a research program benefit from effective planning and a commitment by scientists/researchers to become more knowledgeable about and involved in education. Several suggested strategies have evolved based on experience in Earth science E&O with K-16 educators and students during the past 10 years. E&O programs and materials should be developed at appropriate levels ("start from where they're at") and utilize information, skills and topics that are most relevant to students and teachers. Hands-on and inquiry-based activities that teach or reinforce fundamental science understanding and skills, while introducing new topics, results and discoveries, are particularly effective. It is useful to design materials that can provide for a range of time commitment, level of technical skills, and effort, so that introductory to in-depth curriculum units can be implemented. Use of the Internet and working with teachers can be effective methods for dissemination and taking advantage of a "multiplying factor". Obtaining feedback and evaluation of the programs and developed materials, and connecting the materials to national or state education standards are also highly recommended. Most importantly, scientists should become more involved in the science education community. Attending and presenting papers at appropriate science education sessions or workshops, or state or national science teacher meetings (the annual National Science Teachers Association convention is an excellent place to start) can be a significant educational experience for the scientist/researcher. Effective geoscience E&O programs have significant potential for enhancing K-16 education and scientific literacy, and can help attract students to the sciences. Perhaps surprisingly, these efforts have substantial positive impact on the scientist/researcher as well.

Braile, L. W.

2004-12-01

350

Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

Holden, N. E.

2014-06-01

351

Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad.  

PubMed

We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives. PMID:24401293

Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M

2014-04-01

352

Canadian Efforts Towards a Future Large Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Very Large Optical Telescope (VLOT) was identified as a high priority project in the Canadian Long Range Plan for Astronomy that was published in early 2000. The VLOT concept is for a 20-m segmented mirror telscope that could replace the CFHT on Mauna Kea. Technical studies and some design work have been undertaken by both NRC-HIA and AMEC Dyanamic Structures over the past two years. VLOT effort is now funded at the 1M (Cdn) per year level. This presentation will describe the Canadian work to date.

Crabtree, Dennis; Roberts, Scott; Carlberg, Ray; Halliday, David

353

MEMS packaging efforts at Sandia National Laboratories.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has programs covering a broad range of MEMS technologies from LIGA to bulk to surface micromachining. These MEMS technologies are being considered for an equally broad range of applications, including sensors, actuators, optics, and microfluidics. As these technologies have moved from the research to the prototype product stage, packaging has been required to develop new capabilities to integrated MEMS and other technologies into functional microsystems. This paper discusses several of Sandia's MEMS packaging efforts, focusing mainly on inserting Sandia's SUMMIT V (5-level polysilicon) surface micromachining technology into fieldable microsystems.

Custer, Jonathan Sloane

2003-02-01

354

Learning, Adaptive Expectations and Technology Shocks &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the macroeconomic implications of adaptive expectations in a standard growth model. We show that the self-confirming equilibrium under adaptive expectations is the same as the steady state rational expectations equilibrium for all admissible parameter values, but that dynamics around the steady state are substantially different between the two equilibria. The differences are driven mainly by the dampened

Kevin X. D. Huang; Zheng Liu; Tao Zha

2009-01-01

355

UTSC Undergraduate Degree Level Expectations March, 2008  

E-print Network

UTSC Undergraduate Degree Level Expectations March, 2008 Introduction is document sets out the goals and expectations that UTSC has for its undergraduate degrees and programs of study. ese degree expectations will be used to assess existing and new programs. ey also provide a standard by which students can

Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

356

Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter? Laetitia-14Dec2010 #12;Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter of remittances on financial expectations in Albania using longitudinal data covering the period 2002

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

357

Measuring Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has suggested the utility of studying individual differences in the regulation of negative mood states. Generalized response expectancies for negative mood regulation were defined as expectancies that some overt behavior or cognition would alleviate negative mood states as they occur across situations. The Generalized Expectancy for…

Catanzaro, Salvatore J.; Mearns, Jack

358

Will I do as well on the final exam as I expect? An examination of students' expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immediately prior to an exam, it is common to hear students commenting on whether they anticipate doing as well on the exam as they expect (or, in other words, whether they anticipate performing as well on the exam as the standard at which they believe they should be performing). These anticipations have received little past research attention. In this study,

David J. Burns

2008-01-01

359

On Best-Effort Packet Reordering for Mitigating the Effects of Out-of-Order Delivery on Unmodified TCP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multipath routing and the ability to simultaneously use multiple network paths has long been proposed as a means for meeting the reliability and performance improvement goals of a next generation Internet. However, its use causes out-of-order packet delivery, which is well known to hinder TCP performance. While next-generation transport protocols will no doubt better cope with this phenomenon, a complete switch to these new protocols cannot be made on all devices “overnight” the reality is that we will be forced to continue using TCP on such multipath networks well after deployment of a future Internet is complete.In this paper, we investigate the use of best-effort packet reordering — an optional network layer service for improving the performance of any TCP session in the presence of out-of-order packet delivery. Such a service holds the promise of allowing unmodified TCP to take advantage of the reliability and performance gains offered by a future multipath-enabled Internet without suffering the adverse performance effects commonly associated with out-of-order packet delivery. Our experiments test the performance of two common TCP variants under packet dispersion with differing numbers of paths and amounts of inter-path latency variance. They were conducted using multipath network and packet reorderer implementations implemented within the Emulab testbed. Our results demonstrate that a simple best-effort reordering service can insulate TCP from the type of reordering that might be expected from use of packet dispersion over disjoint paths in a wide-area network, and is capable of providing significant performance benefits with few ill side-effects.

Lane, John Russell; Nakao, Akihiro

360

Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

Singh, Gurkirpal

2005-01-01

361

HEP data in education and outreach efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Energy Physics (HEP) community has recognized that data preservation is an important part of our future and has organized an international working committee to address this. Beyond the continued data mining which can take place, there is a great opportunity to use these datasets as teaching tools, both for university students and an interested general public. The BABAR experiment at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has a dedicated group working on the preservation effort; the education and outreach effort is a significant goal of this group. Retention of knowledge and conceptual understanding is enhanced by active participation in problem solving -- a challenge that can be addressed with more involved projects than currently available to the general public from the HEP outreach centers. We are developing a framework that will make subsets of the BABAR dataset available to others, along with computing tools and tutorials, so that interested parties can work through either parts or the whole of a variety of analyses. With the proper framework, this may be used by other HEP experiments as a way to make their physics available and teachable beyond our community. The scope of this project may be extended to teach the next generation of particle physicists, who may lack immediate data, by providing them with datasets with which to prepare themselves for upcoming experiments. )

Bellis, Matt

2010-02-01

362

Analytical Properties of Credibilistic Expectation Functions  

PubMed Central

The expectation function of fuzzy variable is an important and widely used criterion in fuzzy optimization, and sound properties on the expectation function may help in model analysis and solution algorithm design for the fuzzy optimization problems. The present paper deals with some analytical properties of credibilistic expectation functions of fuzzy variables that lie in three aspects. First, some continuity theorems on the continuity and semicontinuity conditions are proved for the expectation functions. Second, a differentiation formula of the expectation function is derived which tells that, under certain conditions, the derivative of the fuzzy expectation function with respect to the parameter equals the expectation of the derivative of the fuzzy function with respect to the parameter. Finally, a law of large numbers for fuzzy variable sequences is obtained leveraging on the Chebyshev Inequality of fuzzy variables. Some examples are provided to verify the results obtained. PMID:24723800

Wang, Bo; Watada, Junzo

2014-01-01

363

Control effort associated with model reference adaptive control for vibration damping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) is studied in numerical simulations with the objective of understanding the effects of differences between the plant and the reference model. MRAC is applied to two structural systems with adjustable error between the reference model and the actual plant. Performance indices relating to control effort and response characteristics are monitored in order to determine what effects small errors have on the control effort and performance of the two systems. It is shown that reasonable amounts of error in the reference model can cause dramatic increases in both the control effort and response magnitude (as measured by energy integrals) of the plant.

Messer, Richard Scott; Haftka, Raphael T.

1991-01-01

364

Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA activities. The program provides teachers with a one-week summer professional development workshop, long-term teacher support through classroom visits, teacher access to GLOBE instrumentation, and research opportunities for students. Professional development is centered on student engagement through inquiry, opportunities for collaborative student research, and the GLOBE Program's atmosphere protocols and learning activities. Beyond the training week, teachers receive follow-up specifically addressing current opportunities for student engagement in current research and opportunities for students to present research findings. The first cohort of teachers completed the professional development workshop in July 2012. This session will summarize the planning and implementation details of the summer workshop, including schedule and materials. In addition to these details, we will share our evaluation of follow-up activities and survey results highlighting teachers' perceived barriers to implementing atmosphere investigations. These results will add to the discussion on effective programs aimed at inspiring young scientists.

Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

2012-12-01

365

Cumulative assessment: strategic choices to influence students' study effort  

PubMed Central

Background It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students’ learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at helping initially low-scoring students improve their performance during a module, without impairing initially high-scoring students’ performance. We used performance as a proxy for study effort and investigated whether the program worked as intended. Methods We analysed students’ test scores in two second-year (n?=?494 and n?=?436) and two third-year modules (n?=?383 and n?=?345) in which cumulative assessment was applied. We used t-tests to compare the change in test scores of initially low-scoring students with that of initially high-scoring students between the first and second subtest and again between the combined first and second subtest and the third subtest. During the interpretation of the outcomes we took regression to the mean and test difficulty into account. Results Between the first and the second subtest in all four modules, the scores of initially low-scoring students increased more than the scores of initially high-scoring students decreased. Between subtests two and three, we found a similar effect in one module, no significant effect in two modules and the opposite effect in another module. Conclusion The results between the first two subtests suggest that cumulative assessment may positively influence students’ study effort. The inconsistent outcomes between subtests two and three may be caused by differences in perceived imminence, impact and workload between the third subtest and the first two. Cumulative assessment may serve as an example of how several evidence-based assessment principles can be integrated into a program for the benefit of student learning. PMID:24370117

2013-01-01

366

The moderate success of quality of care improvement efforts: three observations on the situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is the health care system still unable to achieve a breakthrough in its quality performance? This commentary offers three observations on the problem of the moderate success of quality of care improvement efforts. We based our discussion on theo- retical models from management theory and research. We conclude that health care organizations invest efforts in quality improvement initiatives; however,

TAL KATZ-NAVON; EITAN NAVEH; ZVI STERN

2007-01-01

367

Are verbal intelligence subtests and reading measures immune to non-credible effort?  

PubMed

The validity of neuropsychological testing is reliant on examinees putting forth adequate effort, yet it has been asserted that verbal subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS) are insensitive to suboptimal effort in comparison to other commonly used neuropsychological measures. The current study examined performance differences on the entire WAIS-IV and WRAT-4 Reading, as well as the CVLT-II and several WMS-IV subtests, in 207 Veterans classified into Credible Effort (n = 146) and Non-credible Effort (n = 61) groups. Analyses revealed that the Non-credible Effort group performed significantly lower on all examined measures including verbal tests, with moderate to large effect sizes observed for most tests. Current findings thus indicate that WAIS-IV verbal subtests and reading ability measures, such as on the WRAT-4, are not insensitive to effects of non-credible effort. Consequently it is recommended that these tests not generally be used to estimate baseline intellectual functioning when found in the presence of non-credible effort. While there was broad performance suppression across all measures examined, results also showed a distinct continuum of test susceptibility with some measures being more or less sensitive to inadequate effort. Recommendations for future performance validity test development are presented. PMID:24862245

Sawyer, R John; Young, J Christopher; Roper, Brad L; Rach, Amanda

2014-01-01

368

Pyrochemical Glovebox Line Replacement and Modernization Effort at Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), as part of the stockpile stewardship mission, is developing the capability to manufacture replacement pits for the United States nuclear weapon stockpile. Part of this effort requires that the various manufacturing activities formerly performed at the Rocky Flats be reconstructed at LANL, modernized to improve operation, and re-certified for pit production. Part of this effort

D. K. Dennison; James A. McNeese; W. S. Cantrell; R. E. Garcia

2002-01-01

369

The visual acuity variability during physical efforts in low vision athletes from the athletics Brazilian team  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and objective: This study had as an objective to evaluate the visual acuity behavior in athletes with low vision, du- ring a continuous effort protocol. Researches point out that visual acuity presents performance varieties when submitted to physical efforts in subjects without visual impairment. Method: The studi- ed population was composed by six peoples, who practiced athle- tics and

Keila Miriam; Monteiro de Carvalho; Luiz Eduardo; Barreto Martins

370

Integrating Hard/Soft RealTime Tasks and BestEffort Jobs on Multiprocessors #  

E-print Network

that require guaranteed transaction response times [14]. Such real­time applications have performance demandsIntegrating Hard/Soft Real­Time Tasks and Best­Effort Jobs on Multiprocessors # BjË? orn B a multiprocessor scheduling framework for in­ tegrating hard and soft real­time tasks and best­effort jobs

Anderson, James

371

Integrating Hard/Soft Real-Time Tasks and Best-Effort Jobs on Multiprocessors  

E-print Network

that require guaranteed transaction response times [14]. Such real-time applications have performance demandsIntegrating Hard/Soft Real-Time Tasks and Best-Effort Jobs on Multiprocessors Bj¨orn B. Brandenburg scheduling framework for in- tegrating hard and soft real-time tasks and best-effort jobs. This framework

Anderson, James

372

Exoatmospheric intercepts using zero effort miss steering for midcourse guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suitability of proportional navigation, or an equivalent zero effort miss formulation, for exatmospheric intercepts during midcourse guidance, followed by a ballistic coast to the endgame, is addressed. The problem is formulated in terms of relative motion in a general, three dimensional framework. The proposed guidance law for the commanded thrust vector orientation consists of the sum of two terms: (1) along the line of sight unit direction and (2) along the zero effort miss component perpendicular to the line of sight and proportional to the miss itself and a guidance gain. If the guidance law is to be suitable for longer range targeting applications with significant ballistic coasting after burnout, determination of the zero effort miss must account for the different gravitational accelerations experienced by each vehicle. The proposed miss determination techniques employ approximations for the true differential gravity effect and thus, are less accurate than a direct numerical propagation of the governing equations, but more accurate than a baseline determination, which assumes equal accelerations for both vehicles. Approximations considered are constant, linear, quadratic, and linearized inverse square models. Theoretical results are applied to a numerical engagement scenario and the resulting performance is evaluated in terms of the miss distances determined from nonlinear simulation.

Newman, Brett

373

Heart rate variability and cognitive function: effects of physical effort.  

PubMed

This study investigated alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive performance before and after physical effort, for 30 high-level track and field athletes (23 males and 7 females). Interbeat intervals were assessed at the baseline and during each task of a CogState cognitive battery (simple reaction time, choice reaction time, working memory, short-term memory and sustained attention). Time and frequency domain measures of HRV were compared between conditions and between tasks. The results indicated differences in HRV between executive and non-executive tasks. There was a significant increase in sympathetic-modulation-related indices after physical effort. The differences between executive and non-executive tasks were the same in post-test. Correlations were found between HRV and cognitive performance, which differed by speed and accuracy. We conclude that HRV is related to cognitive demand and that the correlation between HRV and cognitive performance seems to be stronger after physical exercise. The results raise questions about the psychophysiological meaning of different HRV signals and this has implications for future research about the relationship between HRV and cognition. PMID:19632295

Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Takase, Emílio; Darby, David

2009-10-01

374

Directed-energy process technology efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

Alexander, P.

1985-01-01

375

Limitation of the diagnostic effort in paediatrics.  

PubMed

The principle objective of a diagnosis is not to categorise symptoms, or group a combination of signs or clinical symptoms in a coherent way, but to cure a patient or improve their quality of life. Diagnoses that are technically correct, but do not seek this objective may become unnecessary labels which convert healthy people, or those who do not consider themselves to be sick, into patients. We propose a limitation of the diagnostic effort in order to reduce the iatrogenic consequences of these unnecessary labels or diagnoses, a new imperative which, in Kantian terms, can be expressed as: examine and treat your patients in such a way that, at the very least, the effects of your actions always improve the quality of their lives. PMID:20663755

Martínez González, Carmen

2010-11-01

376

Status of Educational Efforts in National Security Workforce  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the status of educational efforts for the preparation of a national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This report includes an assessment of the current educational situation for the national security workforce.

None

2008-03-31

377

Income expectations, rural-urban migration and employment in Africa.  

PubMed

This article develops a theoretical framework explaining the influence of economic conditions on rural-urban migration in tropical Africa. The model explains the continued process of migration despite high levels of urban unemployment. A lengthy discussion is devoted to short-, intermediate-, and long-term policies for relieving the urban unemployment problem. It is argued that efforts must be made to reduce the differences between the expectation of urban income and real rural income. No one single policy will slow rural-to-urban migration. The author suggests policies that would eliminate factor-price distortions, restrain urban wages, redirect development toward concentrated and comprehensive programs of rural development, resettle and repatriate unemployed urban migrants, and establish capital-goods industries. The capital-goods industries would develop labor-intensive technologies for agriculture and industry. The theoretical model assumes that migrants make decisions about moving on the basis of an expected income and the expectation of an urban job. It is argued that the urban-rural income differences and the probability of securing an urban job determine the rate and extent of rural-urban migration in Africa. If the migrant has a low probability of finding regular wage employment in the short term, but expects the probability to increase over time, the migrant would make a rational decision to migrate. Policies that operate solely on urban labor demand are considered unlikely to reduce urban unemployment. This model better estimates the shadow prices of rural labor. PMID:12320790

Todaro, M P

1996-01-01

378

Automatic and effortful processes in memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a framework for the conceptualization of a broad range of memory phenomena that integrates research on memory performance in young children, the elderly, and individuals under stress with research on memory performance in normal college students. One basic assumption is that encoding operations vary in their attentional requirements. Operations that drain minimal energy from limited-capacity attentional mechanisms are called

Lynn Hasher; Rose T. Zacks

1979-01-01

379

Natural variation in a testosterone-mediated trade-off between mating effort and parental effort.  

PubMed

Male birds frequently face a trade-off between acquiring mates and caring for offspring. Hormone manipulation studies indicate that testosterone often mediates this trade-off, increasing mating effort while decreasing parental effort. Little is known, however, about individual covariation between testosterone and relevant behavior on which selection might act. Using wild, male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we measured individual variation in testosterone levels before and after standardized injections of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The GnRH challenges have been shown to produce short-term testosterone increases that are similar to those produced naturally in response to social stimuli, repeatable in magnitude, and greater in males with more attractive ornaments. We correlated these testosterone increases with behavioral measures of mating and parental effort (aggressive response to a simulated territorial intrusion and nestling feeding, respectively). Males that showed higher postchallenge testosterone displayed more territorial behavior, and males that produced higher testosterone increases above initial levels displayed reduced parental behavior. Initial testosterone levels were positively but nonsignificantly correlated with aggression but did not predict parental behavior. These relationships suggest that natural variation in testosterone, specifically the production of short-term increases, may underlie individual variation in the mating effort/parental effort trade-off. We discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of hormonally mediated trade-offs. PMID:18171169

McGlothlin, Joel W; Jawor, Jodie M; Ketterson, Ellen D

2007-12-01

380

Time-Variation in Expected Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article characterizes the stochastic behavior of expected retu rns on common stocks. The authors assume market efficiency and postulate an autoregressive process for conditional expected returns. They use weekly returns of ten size-based portfolios over the 1962-8 5 period and find that (1) the variation through time in expected returns is well characterized by a stationary first-order autoregression process;

Jennifer Conrad; Gautam Kaul

1988-01-01

381

Expectancy–Value Theory of Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the expectancy–value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy–value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest.

Allan Wigfield; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

2000-01-01

382

Chapter 5. Measurements of Expectations: The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) Survey  

E-print Network

138 Chapter 5. Measurements of Expectations: The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) Survey I. OVERVIEW A. What are Expectations? In chapter 2, several examples were used from the Physics Education or her own experiences, brings to the physics class a set of expectations about what sorts of things

Maryland at College Park, University of

383

Fuel-conservation efforts of Texas municipal  

SciTech Connect

Based on survey findings, several conclusions can be made about how Texas police departments perceive and react to high and rising fuel costs. Responses received from all departments indicated some programatic efforts to conserve fuel, which demonstrates that Texas police departments have dealt with and are concerned about the rising cost of fuel. However, the problem of meeting fuel bills was apparently not a paralyzing one in 1981. For example, only about one in five departments claimed that fuel costs were second only to salaries in their budgets. In addition, although some departments have been relying on the more popular conservation plans for years, the majority had instituted such plans within two or three years. Among the most frequently used programs, two clusters of program choices appear. The first cluster includes more frequent tune-ups, increased maintenance, and reminders to offiers to conserve fuel. The second cluster includes shutting-off engines at given intervals, regular use of fixed position patrol, and reminders to officers to conserve fuel.

Crouch, B.M.

1982-05-01

384

Slow growth efforts renewed in Iran.  

PubMed

Iran's first population policy was developed under the Shah in 1967. Policymakers brought in with the Islamic Revolution of 1979, however, rejected much of the earlier regime's views on women and childbearing. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, large population size and rapid growth were seen as advantageous to the war effort. After the war, the government of Iran again began to voice concern about rapid population growth. The pragmatic and proactive approach taken by the government since 1988 may, indeed, accelerate a decline in fertility began in the late 1960s, but stalled in the 1980s. The following are examples of the new governmental attitude: the Iranian government announced March 1992 that it would begin importing Norplant and make it available along with other contraceptives at public clinics; last year, the government announced that the fourth child of a family would not be eligible for food rationing or nutritional supplements and other public child benefits; the Minister of Health in 1991 for the first time publicly encouraged male sterilization; and last fall, Iran conducted a special census of the population five years before the regular decennial census date of 1996. These actions represent dramatic policy changes on population growth and family planning in this country of 60 million, the largest and one of the fastest growing in the Middle East. PMID:12285529

Aghajanian, A

1992-10-01

385

Effortless Effort in Bone Regeneration: A Review  

PubMed Central

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of osteoconduction in bony changes in the oral cavity showed a wide range of biomaterials and their osteoinductive potential that emerged gradually and has to a large extent improved the quality of the bone prior to the placement of an implant. Alveolar bone loss is a major concern after tooth extraction in patients and therefore atraumatic extraction procedures should be followed to avoid further bone loss. To overcome the alveolar bone loss and to augment support for placing dental implants, many bone regenerative substitutes are available such as allografts, autografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials and osteoactive agents. In light of the steady progress in bone grafting techniques and graft materials, it has become possible to improve the volume, width, and height of bone in deficient areas of the oral cavity. These advances in regenerative dentistry thus facilitate an easy and convenient placement of an implant in an ideal position and angulations resulting in superior esthetics and function. Bone grafting materials and their substitutes are the alternative filler materials, which facilitate to reduce additional surgical procedures, risks, chances of cross infection involved in placing autografts and allografts into the bony structures. This review literature highlights various biomaterials that are helpful in bone healing and thus create an anatomically favorable base for ideal implant placement. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Dole V, Nikam A. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):120-4. PMID:25083047

Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Dole, Vinaykumar; Nikam, Akhilesh

2014-01-01

386

Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching  

PubMed Central

Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

2011-01-01

387

Infectious Diseases, Reproductive Effort and the Cost of Reproduction in Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive effort can have profound effects on subsequent performance. Field experiments on the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) have demonstrated a number of trade-offs between life-history traits at different ages. The mechanism by which reproductive effort is mediated into future reproductive performance remains obscure. Anti-parasite adaptations such as cell-mediated immunity may probably also be costly. Hence the possibility exists of a

L. Gustafsson; D. Nordling; M. S. Andersson; B. C. Sheldon; A. Qvarnstrom

1994-01-01

388

Effort is virtuous: teacher preferences of pupil effort, ability and grading in physical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on contemporary psychological approaches to attribution and emotions, this paper reports on three groups of pre? and inservice teachers and their preferences for different grading criteria for pupils based on the amount of effort and ability displayed in physical education. Consistent with our hypothesis derived from social psychological theories of social emotion, we found a clear preference for working

Stuart Biddle; Marios Goudas

1997-01-01

389

E Is for Effort: Correlates of College Students' Differential Effort Expenditure across Academic Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers findings intended to shed light on the determinants and consequences of college students' willingness to work hard. Self-report survey data from a sample of 1296 undergraduates revealed that (1) students expended significantly different amounts of effort across four pairs of study contexts (e.g., courses where they connected with…

Strage, Amy

2007-01-01

390

Musculoskeletal pain and effort-reward imbalance- a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Musculoskeletal pain may be triggered by physical strains and psychosocial risk factors. The effort-reward imbalance model (ERI model) is a stress model which measures psychosocial factors in the working world. The question is whether workers with an effort-reward imbalance report musculoskeletal pain more frequently than those with no effort-reward imbalance. A systematic review using a best evidence synthesis approach was conducted to answer this question. Methods A literature search was conducted for the period from 1996 to 2012, using three databases (Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO). The research criteria related to psychosocial, work-related stress as per the ERI model and to musculoskeletal pain. A quality score was developed using various quality criteria to assess the standard of the studies. The level of evidence was graded as in (Am J Ind Med 39:180–193, 2001). Results After applying the inclusion criteria, a total of 19 studies were included in the review: 15 cross-sectional studies, three prospective studies and one case–control study. 74% of all studies exhibited good methodological quality, 53% collected data using the original ERI questionnaire, and in 42% of the studies, there was adequate control for physical working conditions. Furthermore, different cut-off points were used to classify exposed and non-exposed individuals. On the basis of 13 studies with a positive, statistically significant association, a moderate level of evidence was inferred for the association between effort-reward imbalance and musculoskeletal pain. The evidence for a role of over-commitment and for its interaction with effort-reward imbalance was rated as inconclusive - on the basis of eight and five studies, respectively. Conclusions On the basis of the available evidence, no reliable conclusion may be drawn about any association between the psychosocial factors ascertained using the ERI model and musculoskeletal pain. Before a reliable statement can be made on the association between ERI and musculoskeletal pain, additional longitudinal studies must be performed - with a standardised method for recording and classifying exposure, as well as control of physical confounders. Appropriate preventive measures can then be specified. PMID:24428955

2014-01-01

391

Teaching Rational Expectations at 'A' Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the economic concept of Rational Expectations (RE) and demonstrates how it can be introduced to British 'A' level students. Illustrates the implications of RE for the Cobweb and Augmented Phillips Curve market models. Outlines some attractions and limitations of rational expectations. (Author/DH)

Beachill, Bob

1987-01-01

392

Expectations of Vocational Teachers for Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined three components of the initial expectations of 66 secondary vocational teachers toward mainstreamed educable mentally retarded and learning disabled children. Among findings was that presence of the labels lowered the initial academic and behavioral expectations of teachers in the sample. (SB)

Minner, Sam

1982-01-01

393

Framing expectations in early HIV cure research  

PubMed Central

Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term ‘experiment’. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit. PMID:25280965

Dube, Karine; Henderson, Gail E.; Margolis, David M.

2014-01-01

394

Course Expectations and Career Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…

Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben

2008-01-01

395

College students' dining expectations in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary purpose of the study is to investigate college students' dining expectations and define the factors that shape their dining choices. In addition, the study investigates whether gender, ethnic origin, prior food and beverage working experience, spending habits and dining frequency influence students' dining expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A quantitative questionnaire was developed and randomly administered to college

Anastasios Zopiatis; Jovana Pribic

2007-01-01

396

Expectations of two-level telegraph noise  

E-print Network

We find expectation values of functions of time integrated two-level telegraph noise. Expectation values of this noise are evaluated under simple control pulses. Both the Gaussian limit and $1/f$ noise are considered. We apply the results to a specific superconducting quantum computing example, which illustrates the use of this technique for calculating error probabilities.

Jesse Fern

2006-11-02

397

LIFE EXPECTANCY IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE (AD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival following a diagnosis of AD is important information for health planners, caregivers, patients, and their families. AD is associated with variable, but shortened life expectancy. Knowing the expected survival time may empower people with AD and their families, but clinicians currently have limited predictive information. A better knowledge about prognosis in patients affected by AD and related disorders should

O. Zanetti; S. B. Solerte; F. Cantoni

2009-01-01

398

The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."…

Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen

1986-01-01

399

What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

2008-01-01

400

Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

2012-01-01

401

Vent conditions for expected eruptions at Vesuvius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining consistent sets of vent conditions for next expected eruptions at Vesuvius is crucial for the simulation of the sub-aerial processes originating the volcanic hazard and the eruption impact. Here we refer to the expected eruptive scales and conditions defined in the frame of the EC Exploris project, and simulate the dynamics of magma ascent along the volcanic conduit for

Paolo Papale; Antonella Longo

2008-01-01

402

Framing expectations in early HIV cure research.  

PubMed

Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term 'experiment'. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit. PMID:25280965

Dubé, Karine; Henderson, Gail E; Margolis, David M

2014-10-01

403

Expectancy in mediational models of cocaine use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several theoretical explanations of how expectancies may influence cocaine use were studied. Hypotheses from these approaches use trait (sensation seeking and social conformity), cognitive (expectancy), and state-like (depression and loneliness) constructs to explain cocaine use and its problem consequences. Constructs from these different approaches were compared as predictors of cocaine use among a community sample of adults. Results revealed that

Alan W. Stacy; Michael D. Newcomb; Peter M. Bentler

1995-01-01

404

Expectations Increase as VLT First Light Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two weeks before the moment of "First Light" of Unit Telescope no. 1 of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) , the ESO Team at the Paranal Observatory reports good progress of the preparatory work. The crucial optimization of the world's first, thin 8.2-metre mirror proceeds according to the established plan. It is thus expected that this important event will take place as foreseen, i.e. during the night of May 25-26, 1998 . If no unforeseen obstacles are encountered, the first scientific images will then be presented during a series of near-simultaneous Press Conferences in the ESO member countries on May 27 . The photos will be published on the WWW the same day, together with explanatory texts. In preliminary optical tests at the first VLT Unit Telescope (UT1), the initial adjustment of the active optics system that controls the telescope optics has demonstrated excellent results. In particular, the first tests have verified the fine optical performance of the 8.2-m primary mirror and of the complex control system that maintains the shape of this thin and flexible Zerodur mirror. In short test exposures with the guide probe (the technical device that is used to steer the telescope) - i.e., not yet with the scientific CCD-camera that will be used for the First Light images - the telescope has been following the external seeing provided by the Paranal site. Image quality of better than 0.5 arcsec has been achieved routinely. "We are pleased with the progress and confident that the telescope will live up to the expectations", says Riccardo Giacconi , Director General of ESO. "The team at Paranal is doing a great job." For more details about the various media activities surrounding the VLT First Light event, please consult the First Light homepage. A list of locations, times and contact addresses for the Press Conferences is available on the web. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

1998-05-01

405

A Second Look at "School-Life Expectancy"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of years a child of school-entry age can expect to remain in school is of great interest both as a measure of individual human capital and of the performance of an education system. An approximate indicator of this concept is the sum of age-specific enrolment rates. The relatively low data demands of this indicator that are feasible to…

Barakat, Bilal Fouad

2012-01-01

406

Disconnections between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…

Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy

2008-01-01

407

Validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire-Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a brief version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire (MEEQ; Schafer & Brown, 1991). The original MEEQ was reduced to 6 items (MEEQ-B). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and two factors were identified (positive effects and negative effects) accounting for 52.3% of the variance.…

Torrealday, O.; Stein, L. A. R.; Barnett, N.; Golembeske, C.; Lebeau, R.; Colby, S. M.; Monti, P. M.

2008-01-01

408

Anxiety-Expectation Mediation Model of Library Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents a test of the Anxiety-Expectation Mediation (AEM) model of library anxiety. The AEM model contains variables that are directly or indirectly related to information search performance, as measured by students' scores on their research proposals. This model posits that library anxiety and self-perception serve as factors that…

Jiao, Qun G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

409

1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT  

SciTech Connect

The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to {+-}5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications.

Blind, B.

1997-01-01

410

Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease  

SciTech Connect

The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort.

Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.

1982-06-01

411

Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

J Ashcroft; C Eshelman

2006-02-08

412

Evaluating and Diffusing an Organizational Change Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates AT&T's organization analysis and design process by describing a study in which it was used to analyze and improve the efficiency of one division's operation, including the identification of specific workflow and performance problems. Difficulties encountered with pilot implementation and diffusion are discussed. (JD)

Dann, Alan O.

1979-01-01

413

Cost/Effort Drivers and Decision Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering trade study analyses demand consideration of performance, cost and schedule impacts across the spectrum of alternative concepts and in direct reference to product requirements. Prior to detailed design, requirements are too often ill-defined (only goals ) and prone to creep, extending well beyond the Systems Requirements Review. Though lack of engineering design and definitive requirements inhibit the ability to perform detailed cost analyses, affordability trades still comprise the foundation of these future product decisions and must evolve in concert. This presentation excerpts results of the recent NASA subsonic Engine Concept Study for an Advanced Single Aisle Transport to demonstrate an affordability evaluation of performance characteristics and the subsequent impacts on engine architecture decisions. Applying the Process Based Economic Analysis Tool (PBEAT), development cost, production cost, as well as operation and support costs were considered in a traditional weighted ranking of the following system-level figures of merit: mission fuel burn, take-off noise, NOx emissions, and cruise speed. Weighting factors were varied to ascertain the architecture ranking sensitivities to these performance figures of merit with companion cost considerations. A more detailed examination of supersonic variable cycle engine cost is also briefly presented, with observations and recommendations for further refinements.

Seidel, Jonathan

2010-01-01

414

Merit-Based Scholarships and Student Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-one states offer merit scholarships that require students to maintain a minimum grade point average (GPA). Using a comprehensive administrative database from Clemson University, this study estimates the relationship between the incentives created by a South Carolina merit scholarship (LIFE) and students' academic performance. I hypothesize…

Hernandez-Julian, Rey

2010-01-01

415

Expectant fathers' knowledge of maternal morbidity: a Sri Lankan experience  

PubMed Central

Background: Male partners play an important and vital role in the decision-making process regarding pregnant women’s health. The purpose of the present study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of expectant fathers about Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH), and anaemia during pregnancy. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among expectant fathers whose partners were attending antenatal clinics at the Anuradhapura Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka. All consenting participants were interviewed by investigators using an interviewer administered questionnaire to collect data on knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, complications and their control. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal Wallis test.  Results: Of the 246 expectant fathers studied, 192 (78%) were aware of GDM, 183 (74.4%) and 154 (62.6%) were aware of PIH and anaemia during pregnancy, respectively. The total number of answers provided by expectant fathers ranged from 0 to 33 (of 41 questions). There were 44 fathers who could not answer even a single question. For GDM, anaemia, and PIH, the percentages of expectant fathers who failed to provide at least a single correct answer were 24.8%, 40.2%, and 31.3%, respectively. The median number of total correct answers provided increased steadily along with the average income (chi-square 31.24, p<0.001) and educational level (chi-square 33.57, p<0.001). Expectant fathers in the 25-34 age group had significantly higher scores, compared to younger and older fathers (chi-square 15.11, p=0.001). Fathers experiencing the second pregnancy of their spouses also had higher scores. Conclusions: Expectant father’s knowledge of the selected morbidities was limited. To improve maternal health, any health promotional programmes should include expectant fathers.

Weekrakkody, Amaya; Weerasinghe, Gihan M; Weerasinghe, Mayumi P; Weerasekara, Gayan L; Agampodi, Suneth B

2013-01-01

416

The Influence of Task Value, Expectancies for Success, and Identity on Athletes' Achievement Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extended and supported the use of Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value model to a competitive sport context. High school varsity basketball players (N = 189) were assessed on expectancies for success, interest value, attainment value, utility value, and basketball identity. Achievement behavior was measured as coaches't ratings of players' effort and persistence displayed throughout the season. Significant differences

ANNE E. COX; DIANE E. WHALEY

2004-01-01

417

Private sector joins family planning effort.  

PubMed

Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost. PMID:12343476

1989-12-01

418

Effect of expectation and disconfirmation on postexposure product evaluations: An alternative interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews interpretations of the effect of expectation and disconfirmation on perceived product performance. At issue is the relative effect of the initial expectation level and the degree of positive or negative disconfirmation on affective judgments following product exposure. Although the results of prior studies suggest a dominant expectation effect, it is argued that detection of the disconfirmation phenomenon may have

Richard L. Oliver

1977-01-01

419

The global financial crisis and health: scaling up our effort.  

PubMed

Economic events of the past year are beginning to create hardships for tens of thousands of Canadians. There are likely to be health effects as well, to the extent that unemployment and poverty rates rise. Conditions, however, will be much worse for those living in poorer countries. High-income countries are committing trillions of dollars in countercyclical spending and banking bail-outs. Poorer countries need to do the same, but lack the resources to do so. Yet foreign aid and fairer trade are widely expected to be among the first high-income country victims of the recession fallout as nations turn inwards and protectionist. This is neither good for global health nor necessary given the scale of untaxed (or unfairly taxed) wealth that could be harnessed for a truly global rescue package. Policy choices confront us. The Canadian public health community must hold our political leadership accountable for making those choices that will improve health globally and not further imperil the well-being of much of the world's population in efforts to secure our own future economic revival. PMID:19507716

Labonté, Ronald

2009-01-01

420

Expected injury cost indices on Finnish farms.  

PubMed

Annually, more than 6000 work-related injuries occur on Finnish farms. One-fourth of these injuries are classified as severe, resulting in considerable economic losses to agricultural enterprises and the national economy. The injury rate among farmers is more than twice that among all employees on average. This study aimed to identify the risk factors that should be considered when targeting interventions, thus improving their cost-effectiveness. The expected injury cost (EIC) risk index method, which combines the probability of injuries with their severity and costs, was implemented. The potential risk factors included the type of agricultural operation, worker characteristics (gender, age), agricultural work tasks performed, and the geographical location of the farm enterprise. Crop production emerged as the type of agricultural operation with the highest risk index (1.12). The lowest risk index was in sheep and goat husbandry operations (0.35). The risk index was higher for men compared to women (1.11 vs. 0.77). The highest risk age group was farmers from 55 to 59 years of age (1.36). Farmers under 40 (0.17 to 0.89) and over 65 years old (0.70) had the lowest injury risks. No evidence was found that dangerous regions are concentrated in certain geographical parts of the country. The most common agricultural work tasks in which injuries occurred were the repair and maintenance of machinery and equipment, the transportation and relocation of animals, and milking. These accounted for more than one-third of all compensated work injuries in 2005. The identified risk factors could be considered when setting priorities in injury prevention and resource allocation. PMID:22458014

Sinisalo, A

2012-01-01

421

Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs: The GPRA Metrics Effort  

SciTech Connect

The requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993 mandate the reporting of outcomes expected to result from programs of the Federal government. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops official metrics for its 11 major programs using its Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis (OPBFA). OPBFA conducts an annual integrated modeling analysis to produce estimates of the energy, environmental, and financial benefits expected from EERE’s budget request. Two of EERE’s major programs include the Building Technologies Program (BT) and Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the OPBFA effort by developing the program characterizations and other market information affecting these programs that is necessary to provide input to the EERE integrated modeling analysis. Throughout the report we refer to these programs as “buildings-related” programs, because the approach is not limited in application to BT or WIP. To adequately support OPBFA in the development of official GPRA metrics, PNNL communicates with the various activities and projects in BT and WIP to determine how best to characterize their activities planned for the upcoming budget request. PNNL then analyzes these projects to determine what the results of the characterizations would imply for energy markets, technology markets, and consumer behavior. This is accomplished by developing nonintegrated estimates of energy, environmental, and financial benefits (i.e., outcomes) of the technologies and practices expected to result from the budget request. These characterizations and nonintegrated modeling results are provided to OPBFA as inputs to the official benefits estimates developed for the Federal Budget. This report documents the approach and methodology used to estimate future energy, environmental, and financial benefits produced by technologies and practices supported by BT and by WIP. However, the approach is general enough for analysis of buildings-related technologies, independent of any specific program. An overview describes the GPRA process and the models used to estimate energy savings. The body of the document describes the algorithms used and the diffusion curve estimates.

Elliott, Douglas B.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Hostick, Donna J.

2004-06-18

422

Expiratory effort enhancement and peak expiratory flow in humans.  

PubMed

Peak expiratory flow (PEF) has previously been considered an effort-dependent, non flow-limited parameter that is constrained by the force-velocity relationship of the respiratory muscles. It has also been assumed that, if the muscles were able to augment the expiratory pressure, the PEF would increase. We tested the validity of this notion in normal volunteers who were able to enhance their expiratory pressure with maneuvers utilizing the stretch-shortening cycle (greater force when contractions were immediately preceded by eccentric contractions). Five healthy volunteers [35 (2) years] performed two successive maximal expiratory flow-volume maneuvers (MEFV) in rapid sequence. MEFV1 was a standard maneuver, whereas MEFV2 included a forceful inspiration to total lung capacity; a strategy designed to augment expiratory pressure via the stretch-shortening cycle. Neither maneuver included a post-inspiratory pause. We measured PEF, esophageal pressure (P(es)), and the electromyographic activity of the abdominal muscles. Compared to MEFV1, MEFV2 produced greater activation of the abdominal muscles during inspiration (eccentric contraction), greater peak expiratory P(es), greater rate of rise of P(es), shorter time to PEF, but similar PEF. Our findings directly demonstrate the inability of the augmented expiratory effort to increase PEF and thus support the notion that PEF is determined by a flow-limiting mechanism and not by the velocity of muscle shortening. PMID:15627207

Tzelepis, George E; Pavleas, Ioannis; Altarifi, Ashraf; Omran, Qasim; McCool, F Dennis

2005-05-01

423

Masked first name priming increases effort-related cardiovascular reactivity.  

PubMed

Recent research on motivational intensity has shown that explicit manipulations of self-focused attention (e.g., mirrors and video cameras) increase effort-related cardiovascular responses during active coping. An experiment examined whether masked first name priming, an implicit manipulation of self-focused attention, had similar effects. Participants (n=52 young adults) performed a self-paced cognitive task, in which they were told to get as many trials correct as possible within 5min. During the task, the participant's first name was primed for 0%, 33%, 67%, or 100% of the trials. First name priming, regardless of its frequency, significantly increased cardiovascular reactivity, particularly systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity. Furthermore, the priming manipulation interacted with individual differences in trait self-focus: trait self-focus predicted higher SBP reactivity in the 0% condition, but first name priming eliminated the effects of individual differences. Implications for self-awareness research and for the emerging interest in priming effects on effort are considered. PMID:21439332

Silvia, Paul J; Jones, Hannah C; Kelly, Casey S; Zibaie, Alireza

2011-06-01

424

Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born females, and immigrant females on their scores on teacher-assigned grades in science and on the SAIP science literacy test, and across a range of dispositions, beliefs, and behaviors suggested in the literature as predictive of achievement in science. Study findings show that Canadian-born students, particularly boys, have higher performance in the science literacy test despite their lower achievement in the science classroom and the least investments of time in doing science homework. In contrast, immigrant female students demonstrate the highest academic effort and achievement in science courses which are not matched by similar results in the science literacy test. We discuss these results in relation to different socialization experiences with science and technology that limit female and immigrant students' abilities to transfer knowledge to new situations that have not been learned in the classroom.

Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

2013-12-01

425

STUDENT EXPECTATIONS FOR RESIDENCE PROGRAMS January 2013  

E-print Network

comments, and other offensive language or behavior are not acceptable; d. Bullying, in any form or to any expect that the student will treat this experience as a an academic one in a school environment

Ellis, Randy

426

Rational Expectations Model of Financial Contagion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We develop a multiple asset rational expectations model of securities prices to explain the determinants of nancial market contagion. Our primary focus is on con- tagion through the cross-market hedging (rebalancing) of shared macroeconomic risks. Through...

L. E. Kodres, M. Pritsker

1999-01-01

427

What to Expect during Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Heart Surgery Heart surgery is done in a hospital, ... surgery, takes about 3–6 hours. Traditional Open-Heart Surgery For this type of surgery, you'll ...

428

Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

1971-01-01

429

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization  

E-print Network

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization made a brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) classification algorithm that uses a twostage applied to a set of normal brain MR images for further testing. We accomplished a working

Chen, Tsuhan

430

FACULTY EXPECTATIONS: COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES  

E-print Network

arts and sciences education. For CAS faculty in their capacity as teachers education and the liberal arts should also inform research and scholarship 1 FACULTY EXPECTATIONS: COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES DRAFT

Goldberg, Bennett

431

What to Expect After Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect After Heart Surgery Recovery in the Hospital You may spend a ... care unit (ICU), depending on the type of heart surgery you have. An intravenous (IV) needle might be ...

432

Expectations of Secondary Science: Realisation and Retrospect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a series of interviews with students at the end of their first year of studying science in secondary schools. Compares and contrasts students' perceptions of reality with their expectations. (DDR)

Hawkey, Roy; Clay, John

1998-01-01

433

Women's attitudes and expectations regarding gynaecological examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectiveto describe women's expectations of doctors and nurses during gynaecological examination, to identify if women have a preference for the doctor's gender, to investigate women's feelings during examination, and to determine why women consult the gynaecological outpatient clinic.

Emre Yanikkerem; Meral Özdemir; Hilal Bingol; Ay?e Tatar; Gülten Karadeniz

2009-01-01

434

What to Expect Before a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Heart Transplant The Heart Transplant Waiting List Patients who are eligible for a ... cardiac rehab after the transplant. Contact With the Transplant Center During the Wait Patients on the waiting ...

435

An expectation model of referring expressions  

E-print Network

This thesis introduces EMRE, an expectation-based model of referring expressions. EMRE is proposed as a model of non-syntactic dependencies - in particular, discourse-level semantic dependencies that bridge sentence gaps. ...

Kræmer, John, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

436

Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

Pearl, Shela

1986-01-01

437

Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

2000-01-01

438

Manipulation of Expectancies about Counseling and Psychotherapy: Review and Analysis of Expectancy Manipulation Strategies and Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews investigations attempting to manipulate clients' expectations for counseling or psychotherapy. Describes and evaluates six strategies used in attempting expectancy manipulation, none with significant success. Audiotaped and videotaped interventions proved most effective, verbal interactions ineffective, and printed documents of dubious…

Tinsley, Howard E. A.; And Others

1988-01-01

439

Converting customer expectations into achievable results.  

PubMed

It is not enough in today's environment to just meet customers' expectations--we must exceed them. Therefore, one must learn what constitutes expectations. These needs have expanded during the past few years from just manufacturing the product and looking at the outcome from a provincial standpoint. Now we must understand and satisfy the entire supply chain. To manage this process and satisfy the customer, the process now involves the supplier, the manufacturer, and the entire distribution system. PMID:10623140

Landis, G A

1999-11-01

440

Women's expectations and experiences of childbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to explore, describe and understand the expectations during pregnancy and subsequent experiences of childbirth in primiparae.Design: a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. Data were collected using unstructured, tape-recorded interviews in late pregnancy and at two weeks post birth.Setting: the north of England.Participants: eight pregnant women, expecting their first baby.Findings: the women all wanted to take an active part

Jo Gibbins; Ann M. Thomson

2001-01-01

441

Effect of Expected Rewards on Children's Creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of expected rewards on children's creativity. Sixty-one female gymnasts (ages 4-17) were randomly assigned to a no-reward or expected reward condition. A11 partici- pants completed both a training task that required di- vergent thinking (generating themes for a gymnastics gala) and a transfer task (using circles to make pic- tures). The reward contingency was in

Mireille Joussemet; Richard Koestner

1999-01-01

442

Incorporating life expectancy in glaucoma care  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo calculate for which combinations of age and perimetric disease stage glaucoma patients are unlikely to become visually impaired during their lifetime.MethodsWe used residual life expectancy data (life expectancy adjusted for the age already reached) as provided by Statistics Netherlands and rates of progression as derived from published studies. We calculated the baseline mean deviation (MD) for which an individual

C Wesselink; R Stoutenbeek; N M Jansonius

2011-01-01

443

Predicting Homework Effort: Support for a Domain-Specific, Multilevel Homework Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the domain-specific, multilevel homework model proposed in the present study, students' homework effort is influenced by expectancy and value beliefs, homework characteristics, parental homework behavior, and conscientiousness. The authors used structural equation modeling and hierarchical linear modeling analyses to test the model in 2 studies with 414 and 1,501 8th graders, respectively. In line with the authors' assumptions,

Ulrich Trautwein; Oliver Lüdtke; Inge Schnyder; Alois Niggli

2006-01-01

444

Modularity-based graph partitioning using conditional expected models  

PubMed Central

Modularity-based partitioning methods divide networks into modules by comparing their structure against random networks conditioned to have the same number of nodes, edges, and degree distribution. We propose a novel way to measure modularity and divide graphs, based on conditional probabilities of the edge strength of random networks. We provide closed-form solutions for the expected strength of an edge when it is conditioned on the degrees of the two neighboring nodes, or alternatively on the degrees of all nodes comprising the network. We analytically compute the expected network under the assumptions of Gaussian and Bernoulli distributions. When the Gaussian distribution assumption is violated, we prove that our expression is the best linear unbiased estimator. Finally, we investigate the performance of our conditional expected model in partitioning simulated and real-world networks. PMID:22400627

Chang, Yu-Teng; Leahy, Richard M.; Pantazis, Dimitrios

2013-01-01

445

Even with time, conflict adaptation is not made of expectancies  

PubMed Central

In conflict tasks, congruency effects are modulated by the sequence of preceding trials. This modulation has been interpreted as a strategic reconfiguration of cognitive control, depending on the amount of conflict encountered on the very last trial, and occurring unconditionally whenever there is time to produce it (Notebaert et al., 2006). Jiménez and Méndez (2013) arranged a 4-choice Stroop task with a response-to-stimulus interval (RSI) of 0 ms, and they found that, under these conditions, congruency effects may become dissociated from the explicit expectancies assessed over analogous, but independent, trials. The present study generalizes this phenomenon to a condition with larger RSI, and it shows that participants’ performance does not rely on expectancies unless the task includes a specific requirement to generate and report on these expectancies. The results are interpreted as providing new insights with respect to the status of conflict adaptation effects. PMID:25278926

Jimenez, Luis; Mendez, Amavia

2014-01-01

446

Developments in Non-expected Utility Theory: The Hunt for a Descriptive Theory of Choice under Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent developments in the economic theory of individual decision making under risk. Since the 1950s it has been known that individual choices violate the standard model of expected utility in predictable ways. Considerable research effort has now been devoted to the project of developing a superior descriptive model. Following an overview of non-expected utility theories which distinguishes

Chris Starmer

2000-01-01

447

Current status of the MPEG-4 standardization effort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) of the International Standardization Organization has initiated a standardization effort, known as MPEG-4, addressing generic audiovisual coding at very low bit-rates (up to 64 kbits/s) with applications in videotelephony, mobile audiovisual communications, video database retrieval, computer games, video over Internet, remote sensing, etc. This paper gives a survey of the status of MPEG-4, including its planned schedule, and initial ideas about requirements and applications. A significant part of this paper is summarizing an incomplete draft version of a `requirements document' which presents specifications of desirable features on the video, audio, and system level of the forthcoming standard. Very low bit-rate coding algorithms are not described, because no endorsement of any particular algorithm, or class of algorithms, has yet been made by MPEG-4, and several seminars held concurrently with MPEG-4 meetings have not so far provided evidence that such high performance coding schemes are achievable.

Anastassiou, Dimitris

1994-09-01

448

Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia Are Associated with Abnormal Effort-Cost Computations  

PubMed Central

Background Decision-making studies show that response selection is influenced by the “effort cost” associated with response alternatives. These effort-cost calculations seem to be mediated by a distributed neural circuit including the anterior cingulate cortex and subcortical targets of dopamine neurons. On the basis of evidence of dysfunction in these systems in schizophrenia (SZ), we examined whether effort-cost computations were impaired in SZ patients and whether these deficits were associated with negative symptoms. Methods Effort-cost decision-making performance was evaluated in 44 patients with SZ and 36 demographically matched control subjects. Subjects performed a computerized task where they were presented with a series of 30 trials in which they could choose between making 20 button presses for $1 or 100 button presses for higher amounts (varying from $3 to $7 across trials). Probability of reward receipt was also manipulated to determine whether certain (100%) or uncertain (50%) reward affected effort-based decision-making. Results Patients were less likely than control subjects to select the high-effort response alternative during the 100% probability condition, particularly when the value payoff was highest (i.e., $6 and $7). Patients were also less likely to select the high-effort option on trials after reward in the 50% probability condition. Furthermore, these impairments in effort-cost computations were greatest among patients with elevated negative symptoms. There was no association with haloperidol equivalent dosage. Conclusions The motivational impairments of SZ might be associated with abnormalities in estimating the “cost” of effortful behavior. This increased effort cost might undermine volition. PMID:23394903

Gold, James M.; Strauss, Gregory P.; Waltz, James A.; Robinson, Benjamin M.; Brown, Jamie K.; Frank, Michael J.

2013-01-01

449

7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section...Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon...

2011-01-01

450

7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section...Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon...

2013-01-01

451

7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.  

...2014-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section...Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon...

2014-01-01

452

7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section...Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon...

2012-01-01

453

On second thought: Low-effort thought promotes hierarchy values  

E-print Network

Values are associated with political attitudes and political conservatism is promoted with low-effort thought. Does low-effort thought similarly promote the conservative value of hierarchy while reducing the value of ...

Van Berkel, Laura Danielle

2013-05-31

454

7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section 622.31 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon receipt of an...

2010-01-01

455

Applying fuzzy neural network to estimate software development effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to accurately and consistently estimate software development efforts is required by the project managers in planning\\u000a and conducting software development activities. Since software effort drivers are vague and uncertain, software effort estimates,\\u000a especially in the early stages of the development life cycle, are prone to a certain degree of estimation errors. A software\\u000a effort estimation model which adopts

Sun-jen Huang; Nan-hsing Chiu

2009-01-01

456

Unfair Expectations: A Pilot Study of Middle School Students' Comparisons of Gifted and Regular Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of essays comparing experiences in gifted and regular classes written by sixth grade gifted students found that many students felt teachers and peers outside the gifted class had unfair expectations of them. Other topics addressed by students included grading, group work, lack of acknowledgement for effort, treatment by peers, and teacher…

Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.

1991-01-01

457

Nine basic expectations for fraternal members A Statement of Fraternal Values and Ethics by the  

E-print Network

Commission on Values and Ethics Basic Expectations In an effort to lessen the disparity between fraternal being. IV I will protect the health and safety of all human beings. V I will respect my property environment is essential to both physical and mental health; therefore, I will do all in my power to see

Myers, Lawrence C.

458

Survival of Probationary Students at Queensborough Community College: An Expectancy Table.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to provide counselors, advisors, and students at Queensborough Community College (QCC) with an estimate of the probable outcomes of probationary status, the academic records of 1,722 students on probation during Fall 1977 were examined to develop an expectancy table delineating the correlation between students' academic status at the…

Cohen, Edward G.

459

Teacher Receptivity to a Multidimensional Training Model: Learning/Teaching Styles and Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The critical aspects of a training model used in a program called Turning Point are described. The program allows teachers to make appropriate paradigm shifts that empower them to analyze their own teaching styles and student expectations in an effort to address their students' learning styles more effectively. The training model makes it possible…

Bass, Angela L.

460

Student Self-Concept and Effort: Gender and Grade Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' self-concept and effort in schoolwork are known to have significant influences on essential academic outcomes, but self-concept and effort may decline as students grow up. Students from 16 schools in Sydney (N = 2200) were asked to rate on two self-concept components (competency and affect) and effort in schoolwork. Based on measures…

Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

2011-01-01

461

13th ISTC SAC Seminar Global Design Effort 1  

E-print Network

2-Sept-10 13th ISTC SAC Seminar Global Design Effort 1 Barry Barish Novosibirsk 2-Sept-10 ILC R&D & Global Design Effort #12;2-Sept-10 13th ISTC SAC Seminar Global Design Effort 22 Why a Linear Collider Reference Design and Cost? · Present program and plans #12;2-Sept-10 13th ISTC SAC Seminar Global Design

462

Assessing Organizational Efforts to Mobilize Research Knowledge in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework for evaluating efforts by organizations to share research as exemplified on their websites, then reports the result of an evaluation of these efforts in 100 organizations. The result shows that the overall research sharing efforts of these organizations are modest and not well aligned to evidence on effective…

Qi, Jie; Levin, Benjamin

2013-01-01

463

Informal payments and health worker effort: a quantitative study from Tanzania.  

PubMed

Informal payments-payments made from patients to health personnel in excess of official fees--are widespread in low-income countries. It is not obvious how such payments affect health worker effort. On the one hand, one could argue that because informal payments resemble formal pay for performance schemes, they will incite higher effort in the health sector. On the other hand, health personnel may strategically adjust their base effort downwards to maximise patients' willingness to pay informally for extra services. To explore the relationship between informal payments and health worker effort, we use a unique data set from Tanzania with over 2000 observations on the performance of 156 health workers. Patient data on informal payments are used to assess the likelihood that a particular health worker accepts informal payment. We find that health workers who likely accept payments do not exert higher average effort. They do however have a higher variability in the effort they exert to different patients. These health workers are also less sensitive to the medical condition of the patient. A likely explanation for these findings is that health workers engage in rent seeking and lower baseline effort to induce patients to pay. PMID:23188621

Lindkvist, Ida

2013-10-01

464

What Are the Significant Cost Drivers for COSMIC Functional Size Based Effort Estimation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the nature of the relationship between software product size measured by Common Software Measurement International Consortium (COSMIC) Function Points and the development effort. We investigated which of the numerical and categorical cost drivers explain the variation in the development effort by performing step wise Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA) and Linear Regression Analysis. For the statistical analyses, we utilized the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group (ISBSG) Dataset Release 10. In this paper, we discuss the results we obtained and the significance of the results for the software organizations who would like to improve their effort estimation processes.

Bajwa, Sohaib Shahid; Gencel, Cigdem

465

Expectations for melodic contours transcend pitch.  

PubMed

The question of what makes a good melody has interested composers, music theorists, and psychologists alike. Many of the observed principles of good "melodic continuation" involve melodic contour-the pattern of rising and falling pitch within a sequence. Previous work has shown that contour perception can extend beyond pitch to other auditory dimensions, such as brightness and loudness. Here, we show that the generalization of contour perception to nontraditional dimensions also extends to melodic expectations. In the first experiment, subjective ratings for 3-tone sequences that vary in brightness or loudness conformed to the same general contour-based expectations as pitch sequences. In the second experiment, we modified the sequence of melody presentation such that melodies with the same beginning were blocked together. This change produced substantively different results, but the patterns of ratings remained similar across the 3 auditory dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that (a) certain well-known principles of melodic expectation (such as the expectation for a reversal following a skip) are dependent on long-term context, and (b) these expectations are not unique to the dimension of pitch and may instead reflect more general principles of perceptual organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365571

Graves, Jackson E; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J

2014-12-01

466

How Long Does a Cough Last? Comparing Patients’ Expectations With Data From a Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE We hypothesized that antibiotic overuse for acute cough illness (ACI) is in part due to a mismatch between patients’ expectations and the natural history of ACI. METHODS We performed a population-based random digit dialing survey of 493 adults in Georgia to determine their expectations regarding the duration of ACI. We also performed a systematic review of observational studies and the placebo or untreated control groups of randomized controlled trials to determine the duration of ACI from the published medical literature. We included studies of otherwise healthy adults with undifferentiated ACI, no clear bacterial cause, data on at least 1 cough outcome, and at least 1 week of follow-up. RESULTS The mean duration of cough in the published literature was 17.8 days. Survey respondents reported a median duration of 5 to 7 days and a mean duration of 7.2 to 9.3 days depending on the specific scenario. Patients expecting a longer duration of illness were more likely to be white, female, and have self-reported asthma or chronic lung disease. Independent predictors of the belief that antibiotics are always helpful included nonwhite race (OR = 1.82, 95% CI, 1.14–2.92), some college education or less (OR = 2.08, 95% CI, 1.26–3.45), and previous antibiotics for ACI (OR = 2.20, 95% CI, 1.34–3.55). CONCLUSIONS There is a mismatch between patients’ expectations regarding the duration of ACI and the actual duration based on the best available evidence. Efforts to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use should target this discrepancy. PMID:23319500

Ebell, Mark H.; Lundgren, Jerold; Youngpairoj, Surasak

2013-01-01

467

Beyond Just a Job: Expectations of Computer Science Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of job expectations among computer science students was conducted. The purpose of the study was to examine relationships between computer science education, gender, and job expectations. A factor analysis revealed that students have four types of expectations, including: intrinsic expectations (nonmaterialistic expectations involving job satisfaction and personal achievement), extrinsic expectations (materialistic expectations involving monetary compensation, status, and prestige),

Laura Marie Leventhal; David Warner Chilson

1989-01-01

468

Do infants really expect agents to act efficiently? A critical test of the rationality principle  

PubMed Central

Recent experiments suggest that infants’ expectations about agents’ actions are guided by a principle of rationality: in particular, infants expect agents to pursue their goals efficiently, expending as little effort as possible. However, these experiments have all presented infants with infrequent or odd actions, leaving the results open to alternative interpretations and making it difficult to determine whether infants possess a general expectation of efficiency. Here we devised a critical test of the rationality principle that did not involve infrequent or odd actions. In two experiments, 16-month-olds watched events in which an agent faced two identical goal objects; although both objects could be reached by typical, everyday actions, one object was physically (Experiment 1) or mentally (Experiment 2) more accessible than the other. In both experiments, infants expected the agent to select the more accessible object, providing new evidence that infants possess a general and robust expectation of efficiency. PMID:23470355

Scott, Rose M.; Baillargeon, Renée

2013-01-01

469

US effort on HTS power transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert’s ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year’s program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification, Dielectric system design approach, Dewar development for containing phase assemblies, cryo-cooling system design approach, etc. will be described. Finally; overall program schedule, critical milestone events, test plans and progress to date will be reported.

Mehta, S.

2011-11-01

470

Has the NFL's Rooney Rule Efforts "Leveled the Field" for African American Head Coach Candidates?  

PubMed Central

Madden (2004) and Madden and Ruther (2009) provide evidence that African American National Football League (NFL) head coaches significantly out-performed their white counterparts between 1990 and 2002. They conclude that this evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that African Americans had to be better coaches than whites in order to be hired as a head coach in the NFL. In 2002, the NFL promulgated the Rooney Rule requiring NFL teams to interview a minority candidate when appointing new head coaches, as well as other affirmative efforts. This paper analyzes whether the performance advantage of African American head coaches has been eliminated in the time since the Rooney Rule’s affirmative efforts have been in effect. The paper also examines racial differentials in performance in other NFL coaching positions that were less affected by Rooney Rule affirmative efforts, finding no similar time trends in performance differentials by race. PMID:21572578

Madden, Janice Fanning; Ruther, Matthew

2011-01-01

471

Great Expectations: How Pennsylvanians View Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of broader national effort, 510 Pennsylvania adults were randomly surveyed in order to examine their attitudes toward higher education. In addition, a focus group was held in suburban Philadelphia. The four major findings of the research are that Pennsylvanians believe: (1) higher education is vitally important for success; (2) the process…

Immerwahr, John

472

Home Visitation Assessing Progress, Managing Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early intervention efforts to promote healthy child development have long been a central feature of social service and public health reforms. Today, prenatal care, well-baby visits, and assessments to detect possible developmental delays are commonplace in most communities. Recently, child abuse prevention advocates have applied a developmental…

Daro, Deborah

2006-01-01

473

Parental investment strategies in two species of nuthatch vary with stage-specific predation risk and reproductive effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history theory predicts that differences in reproductive effort and residual reproductive value among species should result in differences in the level of risk that parents are willing to tolerate to themselves versus their offspring. Specifically, highly fecund and shorter-lived species are expected to place greater value in current offspring than themselves, whereas less fecund and longer-lived species are expected to

Cameron K. Ghalambor; Thomas E. Martin

2000-01-01

474

Condition dependent effects on sex allocation and reproductive effort in sequential hermaphrodites.  

PubMed

Theory predicts the optimal timing of sex change will be the age or size at which half of an individual's expected fitness comes through reproduction as a male and half through reproduction as a female. In this way, sex allocation across the lifetime of a sequential hermaphrodite parallels the sex allocation of an outbreeding species exhibiting a 1?1 ratio of sons to daughters. However, the expectation of a 1?1 sex ratio is sensitive to variation in individual condition. If individuals within a population vary in condition, high-condition individuals are predicted to make increased allocations to the sex with the higher variance in reproductive success. An oft-cited example of this effect is seen in red deer, Cervus elaphus, in which mothers of high condition are more likely to produce sons, while those in low condition are more likely to produce daughters. Here, we show that individual condition is predicted to similarly affect the pattern of sex allocation, and thus the allocation of reproductive effort, in sequential hermaphrodites. High-condition sex-changers are expected to obtain more than half of their fitness in the high-payoff second sex and, as a result, are expected to reduce the allocation of reproductive effort in the initial sex. While the sex ratio in populations of sequential hermaphrodites is always skewed towards an excess of the initial sex, condition dependence is predicted to increase this effect. PMID:25302941

Rogers, Lock; Koch, Alan

2014-01-01

475

Condition Dependent Effects on Sex Allocation and Reproductive Effort in Sequential Hermaphrodites  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts the optimal timing of sex change will be the age or size at which half of an individual's expected fitness comes through reproduction as a male and half through reproduction as a female. In this way, sex allocation across the lifetime of a sequential hermaphrodite parallels the sex allocation of an outbreeding species exhibiting a 1?1 ratio of sons to daughters. However, the expectation of a 1?1 sex ratio is sensitive to variation in individual condition. If individuals within a population vary in condition, high-condition individuals are predicted to make increased allocations to the sex with the higher variance in reproductive success. An oft-cited example of this effect is seen in red deer, Cervus elaphus, in which mothers of high condition are more likely to produce sons, while those in low condition are more likely to produce daughters. Here, we show that individual condition is predicted to similarly affect the pattern of sex allocation, and thus the allocation of reproductive effort, in sequential hermaphrodites. High-condition sex-changers are expected to obtain more than half of their fitness in the high-payoff second sex and, as a result, are expected to reduce the allocation of reproductive effort in the initial sex. While the sex ratio in populations of sequential hermaphrodites is always skewed towards an excess of the initial sex, condition dependence is predicted to increase this effect. PMID:25302941

2014-01-01

476

Effort Mobilization When the Self Is Involved: Some Lessons From the Cardiovascular System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article it is proposed that the principles of motivational intensity theory (Brehm & Self, 1989) apply to effort mobilization for challenges with consequences for performers' self-esteem and self-definition (i.e., self-involvement). Accordingly, involvement of the self makes success important and thus justifies the mobilization of high resources. However, up to this level of maximally justified resources, actual effort is

Guido H. E. Gendolla; Michael Richter

2010-01-01