Science.gov

Sample records for performance expectancy effort

  1. Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…

  2. Performance expectation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  3. The association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with nurses’ efforts

    PubMed Central

    Motlagh, Farhad Shafiepour; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Yaghoubi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: One important factor in growth, progress, and increase in work efficiency of employees of any enterprise is to make considerable effort. Supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran also addressed the issue of need for more efforts. The goal of this study was to determine the association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with efforts of nurses to provide a suitable model. Materials and Methods: The current study was a descriptive study. The study group consists of all nurses who worked in hospitals of Isfahan. Due to some limitations all nurses of the special unit, surgery wards and operating room were questioned. The data collection tools were the Organizational Justice Questionnaire, organizational expectations questionnaire, and double effort questionnaire. Content validity of the mentioned questionnaires was confirmed after considering the experts’ comments. The reliability of these questionnaires, using the Cronbach’s alpha, were 0.79, 0.83 and 0.92, respectively. The Pearson correlation and the structural equation model were used for the analysis of data. Findings There was a significant correlation between the perceived organizational justice and the double effort of nurses during the surgery of patients. Correlation of the expectation from job, usefulness of job, and its attractiveness with double effort of nurses before the surgery was also statistically significant. Moreover, it was shown that the root of the mean square error of estimation (RMSEA) was 0.087, the fitted goodness index (GFI) was 0.953, the value of chi-square was 268.5, and the model was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Today Justice is an essential need for human life and its importance in organizations and social life of individuals is evident. PMID:23833614

  4. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  5. Expected performance of m-solution backtracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper derives upper bounds on the expected number of search tree nodes visited during an m-solution backtracking search, a search which terminates after some preselected number m problem solutions are found. The search behavior is assumed to have a general probabilistic structure. The results are stated in terms of node expansion and contraction. A visited search tree node is said to be expanding if the mean number of its children visited by the search exceeds 1 and is contracting otherwise. It is shown that if every node expands, or if every node contracts, then the number of search tree nodes visited by a search has an upper bound which is linear in the depth of the tree, in the mean number of children a node has, and in the number of solutions sought. Also derived are bounds linear in the depth of the tree in some situations where an upper portion of the tree contracts (expands), while the lower portion expands (contracts). While previous analyses of 1-solution backtracking have concluded that the expected performance is always linear in the tree depth, the model allows superlinear expected performance.

  6. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Expected Instrument Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.; Markham, Brian L.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Storey, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is scheduled for a December 2012 launch date. LDCM is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In order to provide the necessary spectral coverage of the visible through shortwave-infrared (SWIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR), the satellite will carry two sensors. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine visible to shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will collect coincident image data for two TIR bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it's manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space F!ight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite instrument systems, present pre-launch performance data for OLI and TIRS, and present simulated images to highlight notable features and expected imaging performance.

  7. Focusing Your E-Recruitment Efforts to Meet the Expectations of College-Bound Students. E-Expectations 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early in 2010, the E-Expectations research group surveyed more than 1,000 college-bound high school students, polling them on their online behaviors and expectations, as well as other key enrollment-related topics. Highlights of the study include: (1) 1 in 4 students reported removing a school from their prospective list because of a bad…

  8. Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

  9. Status Valued Goal Objects and Performance Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hysom, Stuart J.

    2009-01-01

    I designed an experiment to test predictions, derived from expectation states theories, that the unequal allocation of social rewards among collective task-focused actors will affect the actors' rates of power and prestige behavior. Past research shows that allocations of exchangeable resources can have these effects. The prediction, however, is…

  10. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    2012-09-01

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving. PMID:22664690

  11. [The effects of teacher expectancy and self-expectancy on performance].

    PubMed

    Choi, K S

    1987-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect on performance of the relationship between teacher expectancy and self-expectancy. For the induced expectancy, a random half of 96 high school students enrolled in a four-week summer language course of a Christian association were described to the instructors as having high success potential. The remaining trainees served as controls. Correct scores on the learning task, instructor ratings of behavior and attitude of the instructors were measured on three sessions of the course. Ratings of teacher's behavior were factor-analyzed and four interpretable factors emerged: Support, Caring, Attention, and Tutoring. The induced expectancy and specific levels of self-expectancy had significant effects on the subjects' performance and ratings of the instructor. It was concluded that self-expectancy mediates the effects of teacher expectancy on learning performance. Implications of these results for the Pygmalion effect were discussed. PMID:3450908

  12. Standards of Performance--Expectations and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The APU was set up in 1975 in England to conduct national surveys of science performance and to make the findings available to a variety of audiences. The research reported here was carried out from 1979 to 1982 to investigate how people make judgments about the APU science results. (RM)

  13. An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance

    PubMed Central

    Kurzban, Robert; Duckworth, Angela; Kable, Joseph W.; Myers, Justus

    2013-01-01

    Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternate explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost – that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternate explanations both for the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across subdisciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternate models might be empirically distinguished. PMID:24304775

  14. 5 CFR 9901.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and communicating performance... DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.406 Setting and communicating performance expectations. (a) Performance expectations will support and align with the mission...

  15. Predictors of Neuropsychological Effort Test Performance in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Lindsay F.; Gold, James M.; Sullivan, Sara K.; Strauss, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence that insufficient effort may be common in schizophrenia, posing significant threats to the validity of neuropsychological test results. Low effort may account for a significant proportion of variance in neuropsychological test scores and the generalized cognitive deficit that characterizes the disorder. The current study evaluated clinical predictors of insufficient effort in schizophrenia using an embedded effort measure, the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Effort Index (EI). Participants were 330 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or another psychotic disorder who received a battery of neuropsychological tests, including: Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), and RBANS. Clinical assessments designed to measure functional outcome, symptoms, and premorbid adjustment were also obtained. Results indicated that 9.4% of patients failed the EI. Patients who failed had lower full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ, as well as poorer performance on RBANS domains not included in the EI (immediate memory, language, and visuospatial/construction). Patients who failed the EI also displayed poorer community-based vocational outcome, greater likelihood of having “deficit schizophrenia” (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms), and increased severity of positive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that insufficient effort was most significantly predicted by a combination of low IQ, negative symptoms, and positive symptoms. Findings suggest that although insufficient effort may be relatively uncommon in schizophrenia, it is associated with important clinical outcomes. The RBANS EI may be a useful tool in evaluating insufficient effort in schizophrenia. PMID:25583248

  16. Academic Expectations and Actual Achievements: The Roles of Hope and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Uzi; Einav, Michal; Ziv, Orit; Raskind, Ilana; Margalit, Malka

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to extend the research on adolescents' hope, academic expectations, and average grades. The hope theory (Snyder, "Psychological Inquiry" 13(4):249-275, 2002), the salutogenic paradigm (with a focus on sense of coherence (SOC) (Antonovsky 1987)), and Bandura's ("Journal of Management" 38(1):9-44,…

  17. Academic Expectations and Actual Achievements: The Roles of Hope and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Uzi; Einav, Michal; Ziv, Orit; Raskind, Ilana; Margalit, Malka

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to extend the research on adolescents' hope, academic expectations, and average grades. The hope theory (Snyder, "Psychological Inquiry" 13(4):249-275, 2002), the salutogenic paradigm (with a focus on sense of coherence (SOC) (Antonovsky 1987)), and Bandura's ("Journal of Management" 38(1):9-44,…

  18. The Link between Educational Expectations and Effort in the College-for-All Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie; Farkas, George

    2011-01-01

    From the Wisconsin status attainment model to rational choice, classical sociological, social-psychological, and economic theories of student educational transitions have assumed that students' expectations are positively related to their ultimate attainment. However, the growth of the college-for-all ethos raises questions about that assumption.…

  19. Teacher Expectancy Related to Student Performance in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Himanshu S.

    A study was designed (1) to discover the effect of teacher expectation on student performance in the cognitive and in the psychomotor skills, and (2) to analyze students' attitudes toward teachers because of teacher expectations. The study utilized two different instructional units. The quality milk production unit was used to teach cognitive…

  20. Parental Expectations and Children's Academic Performance in Sociocultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Yoko; Holloway, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we review research on parental expectations and their effects on student achievement within and across diverse racial and ethnic groups. Our review suggests that the level of parental expectations varies by racial/ethnic group, and that students' previous academic performance is a less influential determinant of parental…

  1. Performance improvement in addiction treatment: efforts in California.

    PubMed

    Herbeck, Diane M; Gonzales, Rachel; Rawson, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    This article examines performance data improvement efforts among alcohol and other drug (AOD) county and program stakeholders within California's publicly-funded treatment system. County AOD system administrators from approximately two-thirds of California counties (N=37) and a random sample of treatment program managers (N=63) were surveyed about practices and priorities related to using performance data to improve service delivery. Survey results showed that over half (56.8%) of the county administrators reported using performance and/or outcome measures to guide decision-making about the treatment programs with which they contract. Measures of treatment engagement and retention were most frequently reported as high priorities for performance data collection. Treatment providers reported considerable variation with their use of performance measures to improve practices. Overall, findings from this study suggest that many programs and counties are taking steps toward adopting practices of performance measurement and management for treatment improvement, although they still require assistance and support in establishing, collecting, and using performance data. PMID:21138202

  2. Expectations, Performance, and Citizen Satisfaction with Urban Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ryzin, Gregg G.

    2004-01-01

    The expectancy disconfirmation model has dominated private-sector research on customer satisfaction for several decades, yet it has not been applied to citizen satisfaction with urban services. The model views satisfaction judgments as determined--not just by product or service performance--but by a process in which consumers compare performance…

  3. Maintenance personnel performance simulation (MAPPS) model: overview and evaluation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.; Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Ryan, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the MAPPS model has been completed and the model is currently undergoing evaluation. These efforts are addressing a number of identified issues concerning practicality, acceptability, usefulness, and validity. Preliminary analysis of the evaluation data that has been collected indicates that MAPPS will provide comprehensive and reliable data for PRA purposes and for a number of other applications. The MAPPS computer simulation model provides the user with a sophisticated tool for gaining insights into tasks performed by NPP maintenance personnel. Its wide variety of input parameters and output data makes it extremely flexible for application to a number of diverse applications. With the demonstration of favorable model evaluation results, the MAPPS model will represent a valuable source of NPP maintainer reliability data and provide PRA studies with a source of data on maintainers that has previously not existed.

  4. Face-induced expectancies influence neural mechanisms of performance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Osinsky, Roman; Seeger, Jennifer; Mussel, Patrick; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    In many daily situations, the consequences of our actions are predicted by cues that are often social in nature. For instance, seeing the face of an evaluator (e.g., a supervisor at work) may activate certain evaluative expectancies, depending on the history of prior encounters with that particular person. We investigated how such face-induced expectancies influence neurocognitive functions of performance monitoring. We recorded an electroencephalogram while participants completed a time-estimation task, during which they received performance feedback from a strict and a lenient evaluator. During each trial, participants first saw the evaluator's face before performing the task and, finally, receiving feedback. Therefore, faces could be used as predictive cues for the upcoming evaluation. We analyzed electrocortical signatures of performance monitoring at the stages of cue processing, task performance, and feedback reception. Our results indicate that, at the cue stage, seeing the strict evaluator's face results in an anticipatory preparation of fronto-medial monitoring mechanisms, as reflected by a sustained negative-going amplitude shift (i.e., the contingent negative variation). At the performance stage, face-induced expectancies of a strict evaluation rule led to increases of early performance monitoring signals (i.e., frontal-midline theta power). At the final stage of feedback reception, violations of outcome expectancies differentially affected the feedback-related negativity and frontal-midline theta power, pointing to a functional dissociation between these signatures. Altogether, our results indicate that evaluative expectancies induced by face-cues lead to adjustments of internal performance monitoring mechanisms at various stages of task processing. PMID:26527096

  5. Expectations developed over multiple timescales facilitate visual search performance

    PubMed Central

    Gekas, Nikos; Seitz, Aaron R.; Seriès, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our perception of the world is strongly influenced by our expectations, and a question of key importance is how the visual system develops and updates its expectations through interaction with the environment. We used a visual search task to investigate how expectations of different timescales (from the last few trials to hours to long-term statistics of natural scenes) interact to alter perception. We presented human observers with low-contrast white dots at 12 possible locations equally spaced on a circle, and we asked them to simultaneously identify the presence and location of the dots while manipulating their expectations by presenting stimuli at some locations more frequently than others. Our findings suggest that there are strong acuity differences between absolute target locations (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical) and preexisting long-term biases influencing observers' detection and localization performance, respectively. On top of these, subjects quickly learned about the stimulus distribution, which improved their detection performance but caused increased false alarms at the most frequently presented stimulus locations. Recent exposure to a stimulus resulted in significantly improved detection performance and significantly more false alarms but only at locations at which it was more probable that a stimulus would be presented. Our results can be modeled and understood within a Bayesian framework in terms of a near-optimal integration of sensory evidence with rapidly learned statistical priors, which are skewed toward the very recent history of trials and may help understanding the time scale of developing expectations at the neural level. PMID:26200891

  6. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... expectations. 9701.406 Section 9701.406 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting...

  7. Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Mathematics Performance Expectations (MPE) define the content and level of achievement students must reach to be academically prepared for success in entry-level, credit-bearing mathematics courses in college or career training. They were developed through a process that involved faculty from Virginia's two- and four-year colleges and…

  8. Expected Performance of Adaptive Optics in Large Aperture Solar Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, J.; Rimmele, T. R.

    2012-12-01

    Solar adaptive optics has become an indispensable tool for high resolution solar observations. New generation solar telescopes, such as the 4 m aperture Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, introduce a new set of challenges to solar adaptive optics correction. Larger aperture sizes are more susceptible to the effects on AO correction performance of the extended field-of-view of the cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Observations at large zenith angles further enhance these field-of-view effects and can introduce more performance reductions due to atmospheric dispersion. We study the expected correction performance of solar adaptive optics systems in large aperture solar telescopes using an end-to-end adaptive optics simulation package.

  9. VCL Laser Altimeter Surface Return Expected Geolocation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, S. B.; Blair, J. B.; Hofton, M. A.; Rowlands, D. D.; Zelensky, N. P.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, expected to launch in the spring of 2002, will carry a unique Multi-Beam Laser Altimeter (MBLA) instrument designed to observe vegetative canopy structure for a nominal mission duration of 2 years. The VCL MBLA is a three-beam instrument where each laser is capable of producing returns with 30-m along-track spacing and 25-m-diameter footprints. Identifying the precise location of the point on the Earth's surface from which the laser energy reflects is a critical issue in the validation and application of the data. The resultant geolocation accuracy is dependent on the performance of many components of the VCL system including: laser pulse round trip travel time observation to surface, navigation tracking data, attitude determination system data, timing, laser pointing and body orientation stability, knowledge of instrument and navigation tracking point positions, media and geophysical corrections. Additionally, it is critical to calibrate on-orbit instrument parameters including pointing and range corrections. The geolocation and calibration methodology and algorithms will be summarized. A detailed geolocation error analysis identifying the contributions from each system component, along with the resultant expected geolocation accuracy, will be presented. A brief discussion of the operational geolocation process will also be presented. Science and data validation implications from geolocation performance will be summarized.

  10. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from thirties to fifties, the age category most affected was in the forties range. Incident rate calculations (incidents per 100 training runs) revealed that the 2002, 2003, and 2004 time periods registered the highest reported incident rate levels (3.4, 6.1, and 4.1 respectively) when compared to the following years (all = 1.0). In addition to general hand-arm discomfort being the highest reported result from training, specific types of hand injuries or symptoms included erythema, fingernail delamination, abrasions, muscle soreness/fatigue, paresthesia, bruising, blanching, and edema. Specific body locations most affected by hand injuries included the metacarpophalangeal joints, fingernails, finger crotches, fingers in general, interphalangeal joints, and fingertips. Causes of injuries reported in the LSAH data were primarily attributed to the forces that the gloved hands were exposed to due to hand intensive tasks and/or poor glove sizing. DISCUSSION: Although the age data indicate that most injuries are reported by male crewmembers in their forties, that is also the dominant gender and age range of most EVA crew therefore it is not an unexpected finding. Age and gender analysis will continue as more details on the uninjured population is accrued. While there is a reasonable mechanism to link training quantity to injury, the results were inconsistent and point to the need for a consistent method of suit-related injury screening and documentation. For instance, the high-incident rate levels for the years 2002 to 2004 could be attributed to a comprehensive medical review of crewmembers post-NBL EVA training that occurred from July 19, 2002 to January 16, 2004. Furthermore, there could have been increased awareness from an investigation at the NBL. These investigations may have temporarily increased the fidelity of reported injuries and discomforts during these dates as compared to surrounding years, when injury signs and symptom were no longer actively being investigated but rather voluntarily reported. Data mining for possible mechanistic factors continues and includes more detailed training timelines, hand anthropometry, and suit sizing information. The limited published data looking at hand-arm anthropometry correlated hand-anthropometry metrics with injuries stemming from glove design and operation. Future work will include further evaluation of body sizing and fit in relation to hand injury incidents.

  11. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington /Athens U. /Natl. Tech. U., Athens /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /Belgrade U. /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Humboldt U., Berlin /Bern U., LHEP /Birmingham U. /Bogazici U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U.

    2011-11-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV mass scale where groundbreaking discoveries are expected. In the focus are the investigation of the electroweak symmetry breaking and linked to this the search for the Higgs boson as well as the search for Physics beyond the Standard Model. In this report a detailed examination of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector is provided, with a major aim being to investigate the experimental sensitivity to a wide range of measurements and potential observations of new physical processes. An earlier summary of the expected capabilities of ATLAS was compiled in 1999 [1]. A survey of physics capabilities of the CMS detector was published in [2]. The design of the ATLAS detector has now been finalised, and its construction and installation have been completed [3]. An extensive test-beam programme was undertaken. Furthermore, the simulation and reconstruction software code and frameworks have been completely rewritten. Revisions incorporated reflect improved detector modelling as well as major technical changes to the software technology. Greatly improved understanding of calibration and alignment techniques, and their practical impact on performance, is now in place. The studies reported here are based on full simulations of the ATLAS detector response. A variety of event generators were employed. The simulation and reconstruction of these large event samples thus provided an important operational test of the new ATLAS software system. In addition, the processing was distributed world-wide over the ATLAS Grid facilities and hence provided an important test of the ATLAS computing system - this is the origin of the expression 'CSC studies' ('computing system commissioning'), which is occasionally referred to in these volumes. The work reported does generally assume that the detector is fully operational, and in this sense represents an idealised detector: establishing the best performance of the ATLAS detector with LHC proton-proton collisions is a challenging task for the future. The results summarised here therefore represent the best estimate of ATLAS capabilities before real operational experience of the full detector with beam. Unless otherwise stated, simulations also do not include the effect of additional interactions in the same or other bunch-crossings, and the effect of neutron background is neglected. Thus simulations correspond to the low-luminosity performance of the ATLAS detector. This report is broadly divided into two parts: firstly the performance for identification of physics objects is examined in detail, followed by a detailed assessment of the performance of the trigger system. This part is subdivided into chapters surveying the capabilities for charged particle tracking, each of electron/photon, muon and tau identification, jet and missing transverse energy reconstruction, b-tagging algorithms and performance, and finally the trigger system performance. In each chapter of the report, there is a further subdivision into shorter notes describing different aspects studied. The second major subdivision of the report addresses physics measurement capabilities, and new physics search sensitivities. Individual chapters in this part discuss ATLAS physics capabilities in Standard Model QCD and electroweak processes, in the top quark sector, in b-physics, in searches for Higgs bosons, supersymmetry searches, and finally searches for other new particles predicted in more exotic models.

  12. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  13. Expectations Lead to Performance: The Transformative Power of High Expectations in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ye; Engler, Karen S.; Oetting, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the preschool program at Missouri State University where deaf and hard of hearing children with all communication modalities and all styles of personal assistive listening devices are served. The job of the early intervention providers is to model for parents what high expectations look like and how to translate those…

  14. Unmet Expectations: Why Is There Such a Difference between Student Expectations and Classroom Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Terrye A.; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2008-01-01

    Past studies indicate that students are frequently poor judges of their likely academic performance in the classroom. The difficulty a student faces in accurately predicting performance on a classroom exam may be due to unrealistic optimism or may be due to an inability to self-evaluate academic performance, but the resulting disconnect between…

  15. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend interventions where possible that could be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigation focused on the discomforts and injuries of U.S. crewmembers who had worn the pressurized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit and experienced 4000 Series or Phase VI glove related incidents during 1981 to 2010 for either EVA ground training or in-orbit flight. We conducted an observational retrospective case-control investigation using 1) a literature review of known injuries, 2) data mining of crew injury, glove sizing, and hand anthropometry databases, 3) descriptive statistical analyses, and finally 4) statistical risk correlation and predictor analyses to better understand injury prevalence and potential causation. Specific predictor statistical analyses included use of principal component analyses (PCA), multiple logistic regression, and survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards regression). Results of these analyses were computed risk variables in the forms of odds ratios (likelihood of an injury occurring given the magnitude of a risk variable) and hazard ratios (likelihood of time to injury occurrence). Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, we selected predictor variables significant at p=0.15. RESULTS: Through 2010, there have been a total of 330 NASA crewmembers, from which 96 crewmembers performed 322 EVAs during 1981-2010, resulting in 50 crewmembers being injured inflight and 44 injured during 11,704 ground EVA training events. Of the 196 glove related injury incidents, 106 related to EVA and 90 to EVA training. Over these 196 incidents, 277 total injuries (126 flight; 151 training) were reported and were then grouped into 23 types of injuries. Of EVA flight injuries, 65% were commonly reported to the hand (in general), metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, and finger (not including thumb) with fatigue, abrasion, and paresthesia being the most common injury types (44% of total flight injuries). Training injuries totaled to more than 70% being distributed to the fingernail, MCP joint, and finger crotch with 88% of the specific injuries listed as pain, erythema, and onycholysis. Of these training injuries, when reporting pain or erythema, the most common location was the index finger, but when reporting onycholysis, it was the middle finger. Predictor variables specific to increased risk of onycholysis included: female sex (OR=2.622), older age (OR=1.065), increased duration in hours of the flight or training event (OR=1.570), middle finger length differences in inches between the finger and the EVA glove (OR=7.709), and use of the Phase VI glove (OR=8.535). Differentiation between training and flight and injury reporting during 2002-2004 were significant control variables. For likelihood of time to first onycholysis injury, there was a 24% reduction in rate of reporting for each year increase in age. Also, more experienced crewmembers, based on number of EVA flight or training events completed, were less likely to report an onycholysis injury (3% less for every event). Longer duration events also found reporting rates to occur 2.37 times faster for every hour of length. Crewmembers with larger hand size reported onycholysis 23% faster than those with smaller hand size. Finally, for every 1/10th of an inch increase in difference between the middle finger length and the glove, the rate of reporting increased by 60%. DISCUSSION: One key finding was that the Series 4000 glove had a lower injury risk than the Phase VI, which provides a platform for further evaluation. General interventions that reduce hand overexertion and repetitive use exposure through tool development, procedural changes and shorter exposures may be one mitigation path, but due to the way the training event times were reported, we cannot provide a guideline for a specific event duration change. When the finger length was different from the glove length, the risk of injury increased indicating that the use of larger finger take-ups could be contributing to injury and therefore may not be recommended. Prior to this investigation, there was one previous investigation indicating hand anthropometry may be related to onycholysis. We found different hand anthropometry variables indicated by this investigation as compared to the prior, specifically differences in middle finger length compared to glove finger length, which point more towards a sizing issue than a specific anthropometry issue. Additionally, although this investigation has identified sizing as an issue, the force and environmental-related variables of the EVA glove that could also cause injury were not accounted for.

  16. Principal Leadership and Teacher Expectancy in Low-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnigan, Kara S.

    2005-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between principal leadership and teacher expectancy within Chicago's accountability context. Current school accountability policies assume that the threat of sanctions will motivate teachers to improve. The study uses expectancy theory, which suggests that any impact on motivation will be constrained by…

  17. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concerned with the measurement of the physical or mental exertion needed for the performance of a job. Job... in the performance of his job, provided that the extra effort so expended is substantial and is... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16...

  18. The Expected Performance from the NASA OCO-2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, D.; Eldering, A.; Gunson, M. R.; Pollock, H.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) will be launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on a Delta-II 7320 launch vehicle as early as 1 July 2014. Once deployed in the 705-km Afternoon Constellation (A-Train), it will collect the measurements needed to estimate the column-averaged, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction (XCO2) with improved precision, resolution, and coverage. The OCO-2 spacecraft carries and points a 3-channel, imaging, grating spectrometer that collects high resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the 765 nm O2 A-band and in the CO2 bands centered near 1610 and 2060 nm. These spectral ranges overlap those used by the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) TANSO-FTS, the current standard in space-based XCO2 measurements. The OCO-2 instrument performance was extensively characterized during pre-launch testing, facilitating comparisons with the TANSO-FTS. OCO-2 has slightly lower spectral resolution, but the far wings of its instrument line shape functions decay more rapidly, such that it yields similar spectral contrast within O2 and CO2 bands. The instruments have similar continuum signal to noise ratios (SNR) for bright scenes, but the OCO-2 instrument has higher SNR at low light levels associated with absorption lines or dark surfaces. The OCO-2 spectrometers will collect 24 soundings per second, yielding up to a million soundings per day over the sunlit hemisphere. For routine operations, the OCO-2 instrument boresight will be pointed at the local nadir or at the 'glint spot,' where sunlight is specularly reflected from the surface. Nadir observations provide the best spatial resolution and are expected to yield more cloud-free soundings. Glint observations will have much better SNR over dark, ocean surfaces. The nominal plan is to alternate between glint and nadir observations on successive 16-day ground-track repeat cycles, so that the entire sunlit hemisphere is sampled in both modes at 32-day intervals. The instrument's rapid sampling, small (< 3 km2) sounding footprint, and high SNR, combined with the spacecraft's ability to point the instrument's aperture toward the glint spot over the entire sunlit hemisphere, are expected to provide more complete coverage of the ocean, cloudy regions, and high latitude continents. While the OCO-2 measurement capabilities provide opportunities to improve the XCO2 precision, resolution, and coverage, they also pose some formidable challenges for calibration, retrieval, and validation. To fully exploit this instrument's capabilities, the 24,000 spectral/spatial channels must be cross-calibrated to within a fraction of 1%. Substantial increases in algorithm speed and more efficient data screening techniques are needed to fully utilize the much larger data volume. Finally, a comprehensive validation program will be needed to ensure the accuracy of the retrieved XCO2 estimates. This presentation will summarize the OCO-2 measurement capabilities and observation strategies, and the methods adopted to address these challenges.

  19. Achievement Goals in a Presentation Task: Performance Expectancy, Achievement Goals, State Anxiety, and Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Ayumi; Takehara, Takuma; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test the linkages between achievement goals to task performance, as mediated by state anxiety arousal. Performance expectancy was also examined as antecedents of achievement goals. A presentation task in a computer practice class was used as achievement task. Fifty-three undergraduates (37 females and 16 males) were…

  20. Expectancies, Utility Values, and Attributions for Performance in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kirby A.; And Others

    Some of the determinants of the decision to take or not to take mathematics are explored. The focus is on sex and grade differences in responses to questions about mathematics. The results show that fifth- and sixth-grade girls tended to have higher expectancies for success as well as higher ratings of their ability in mathematics than the boys…

  1. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and... and its strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans,...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and... and its strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans,...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and... and its strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans,...

  4. 5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.406 Setting and... and its strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans,...

  5. Stereotype Threat in Middle School: The Effects of Prior Performance on Expectancy and Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Keith E.; Anderson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Stereotype threat research has demonstrated how presenting situational cues in a testing environment, such as raising the salience of negative stereotypes, can adversely affect test performance (Perry, Steele, & Hilliard, 2003; Steele & Aronson, 1995) and expectancy (Cadinu, Maass, Frigerio, Impagliazzo, & Latinotti, 2003; Stangor, Carr, & Kiang,…

  6. The Effects of Instructor Expectation and Performance on Child Comprehension and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Hagan, Margaret S.

    To investigate the influence of instructional behaviors and adult expectations on children's task performance, 48 boys either 5 to 6 or 8 to 9 years of age individually viewed instructional videotapes and participated in a delay of gratification task. In the first phase of the study, videotapes were produced in which instructors were told to…

  7. 5 CFR 9901.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.406 Setting and... strategic goals, organizational program and policy objectives, annual performance plans, and other...

  8. Supercomputer and cluster performance modeling and analysis efforts:2004-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Sturtevant, Judith E.; Ganti, Anand; Meyer, Harold Edward; Stevenson, Joel O.; Benner, Robert E., Jr.; Goudy, Susan Phelps; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Taylor, Mark A.; Malins, Robert Joseph; Scott, Ryan T.; Barnette, Daniel Wayne; Rajan, Mahesh; Ang, James Alfred; Black, Amalia Rebecca; Laub, Thomas William; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas; Franke, Brian Claude

    2007-02-01

    This report describes efforts by the Performance Modeling and Analysis Team to investigate performance characteristics of Sandia's engineering and scientific applications on the ASC capability and advanced architecture supercomputers, and Sandia's capacity Linux clusters. Efforts to model various aspects of these computers are also discussed. The goals of these efforts are to quantify and compare Sandia's supercomputer and cluster performance characteristics; to reveal strengths and weaknesses in such systems; and to predict performance characteristics of, and provide guidelines for, future acquisitions and follow-on systems. Described herein are the results obtained from running benchmarks and applications to extract performance characteristics and comparisons, as well as modeling efforts, obtained during the time period 2004-2006. The format of the report, with hypertext links to numerous additional documents, purposefully minimizes the document size needed to disseminate the extensive results from our research.

  9. A Cross-National Comparison of Reported Effort and Mathematics Performance in TIMSS Advanced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklöf, Hanna; Pavešic, Barbara Japelj; Grønmo, Liv Sissel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure students' reported test-taking effort and the relationship between reported effort and performance on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced mathematics test. This was done in three countries participating in TIMSS Advanced 2008 (Sweden, Norway, and Slovenia), and the…

  10. The Effects of Response Effort on Safe Performance by Therapists at an Autism Treatment Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casella, Sarah E.; Wilder, David A.; Neidert, Pamela; Rey, Catalina; Compton, Megan; Chong, Ivy

    2010-01-01

    The effects of response effort on safe behaviors (i.e., glove wearing, hand sanitizing, and electrical outlet replacement) exhibited by therapists at an autism treatment center were examined. Participants were exposed to 2 or 3 levels of effort (i.e., high, medium, low) for each dependent variable. Results showed increased safe performance during…

  11. Emotions correlate with perceived mental effort and concentration disruption in adult sport performers.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark S; Jones, Marc; McCarthy, Paul J; Sheehan-Mansfield, Sam; Sheffield, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies explored the relationship between emotions, perceived mental effort and concentration disruption in adult sport performers. In Study 1, semi-professional association football players completed questionnaire measures before and after a competitive match. In Study 2, student athletes completed questionnaire measures for two performance scenarios: one in which they were performing above their normal level and one in which they were performing below their normal level. Findings demonstrated that cognitive trait anxiety was associated with greater disruptions in concentration but was unrelated to mental effort. For state measures, athletes reported greater levels of concentration disruption when experiencing high levels of anxiety or high levels of happiness, and fewer disruptions in concentration when experiencing high levels of excitement. Findings also showed that excitement was associated with low levels of mental effort during good performances and high levels of mental effort during poor performances; anxiety and happiness were associated with high levels of mental effort during good performances and low levels of mental effort during poor performances. Taken together, these studies point towards potential benefits accompanying high levels of excitement and potential disadvantages accompanying high levels of anxiety and happiness. PMID:24251748

  12. Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorhagen, Nicole S.

    2013-01-01

    This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student…

  13. Performance Overconfidence: Metacognitive Effects or Misplaced Student Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayson, Dennis E.

    2005-01-01

    Prior research has shown that students consistently overestimate their performance on academic exams, with the error being inversely related to their grades. The effect has been explained as a matter of competency. If true, then students who do not know what they do not know are put in a double bind. They do not have the cognitive ability to…

  14. Gender determination of effort and associated cardiovascular responses: when men place greater value on available performance incentives.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Patricia; Wong, Jem; Estes, Kaleb; Wright, Rex A

    2012-05-01

    Participants were presented an easy or difficult mental addition task and led to believe that they could win a traditionally masculine incentive by meeting a certain performance standard. As expected, blood pressure and heart rate responses during the work period were stronger under difficult conditions than easy ones among men but low under both difficulty conditions among women. Findings support the suggestion from a conceptual analysis grounded in motivation intensity theory that gender differences in cardiovascular response could be partially understood in terms of effort processes that occur where men and women place different value on available performance incentives. PMID:22335195

  15. Expected orbit determination performance for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission

    SciTech Connect

    Nerem, R.S.; Putney, B.H.; Marshall, J.A.; Lerch, F.J. ); Pavlis, E.C. ); Klosko, S.M.; Luthcke, S.B.; Patel, G.B.; Williamson, R.G.; Zelensky, N.P.

    1993-03-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) mission, launched during the summer of 1992, has the requirement that the radial component of its orbit must be computed to an accuracy of 13 cm root-mean-square (rms) or better, allowing measurements of the sea surface height to be computed to similar accuracy when the satellite height is differenced with the altimeter measurements. This will be done by combining precise satellite tracking measurements with precise models of the forces acting on the satellite. The Space Geodesy Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), as part of the T/P precision orbit determination (POD) Team, has the responsibility within NASA for the T/P precise orbit computations. The prelaunch activities of the T/P POD Team have been mainly directed towards developing improved models of the static and time-varying gravitational forces acting on T/P and precise models for the non-conservative forces perturbing the orbit of T/P such as atmospheric drag, solar and Earth radiation pressure, and thermal imbalances. The radial orbit error budget for T/P allows 10 cm rms error due to gravity field mismodeling, 3 cm due to solid Earth and ocean tides, 6 cm due to radiative forces, and 3 cm due to atmospheric drag. A prelaunch assessment of the current modeling accuracies for these forces indicates that the radial orbit error requirements can be achieved with the current models, and can probably be surpassed once T/P tracking data are used to fine tune the models. Provided that the performance of the T/P spacecraft is nominal, the precise orbits computed by the T/P POD Team should be accurate to 13 cm or better radially.

  16. Caffeine increases psychomotor performance on the effort expenditure for rewards task

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Margaret C.; Treadway, Michael T.; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that cost/benefit decision-making involves interactions between adenosine and dopamine (DA). In rats, DA depletion decreases willingness to incur effort costs, while adenosine antagonism reverses these effects, likely by increasing DA transmission. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist commonly used to facilitate effortful tasks, and thus may affect decisions involving effort costs in humans. The current study examined acute effects of 200 mg of caffeine on willingness to exert effort for monetary rewards at varying levels of reward value and reward probability, in young adult light caffeine users. Based on previous findings with amphetamine, we predicted that caffeine would increase willingness to exert effort. At separate sessions, 23 healthy normal adults received placebo or 200 mg caffeine under counterbalanced double-blind conditions, then completed the effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT). Measures of subjective and cardiovascular effects were obtained at regular intervals. Caffeine produced small but significant subjective and cardiovascular effects, and sped psychomotor performance on the EEfRT. Caffeine did not alter willingness to exert effort, except in high cardiovascular responders to caffeine, in whom it decreased willingness to exert effort. These results were contrary to our predictions, but consistent with rodent studies suggesting that moderate doses of caffeine alone do not affect effort, but rather only influence effort in the context of DA antagonism. Our results demonstrate that psychomotor speeding and decisional effects on the EEfRT are dissociable, providing additional evidence for the EEfRT as a specific measure of effort-based decision-making. This study provides a starting point for exploring contributions of the adenosine system to motivation in humans. PMID:22750066

  17. 5 CFR 9901.410 - Addressing performance that does not meet expectations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... that an employee's performance is not meeting expectations, the supervisor will— (1) Identify and communicate to the employee the specific performance deficiencies that require improvement; (2) Consider the range of options available to address the performance deficiency, including remedial...

  18. Effect of alternative video displays on postures, perceived effort, and performance during microsurgery skill tasks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Denny; Green, Cooper; Kasten, Steven J; Sackllah, Michael E; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    Physical work demands and posture constraint from operating microscopes may adversely affect microsurgeon health and performance. Alternative video displays were developed to reduce posture constraints. Their effects on postures, perceived efforts, and performance were compared with the microscope. Sixteen participants performed microsurgery skill tasks using both stereo and non-stereoscopic microscopes and video displays. Results showed that neck angles were 9-13° more neutral and shoulder flexion were 9-10° more elevated on the video display than the microscope. Time observed in neck extension was higher (30% vs. 17%) and neck movements were 3x more frequent on the video display than microscopes. Ratings of perceived efforts did not differ among displays, but usability ratings were better on the microscope than the video display. Performance times on the video displays were 66-110% slower than microscopes. Although postures improved, further research is needed to improve task performance on video displays. PMID:26585502

  19. How Need for Cognition Affects the Formation of Performance Expectancies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with low Need for Cognition (NFC) have been found to process information using a peripheral route compared to individuals higher in NFC. These differences affect the formation of performance expectancies. Based on previous work demonstrating that the formation of performance expectancies can be understood as an information processing…

  20. The Prediction of College Student Academic Performance and Retention: Application of Expectancy and Goal Setting Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.

    2010-01-01

    Student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educators, students, and the nation facing critical professional labor shortages. Expectancy and goal setting theories were used to predict academic performance and college student retention. Students' academic expectancy motivation at the start of the college…

  1. The Prediction of College Student Academic Performance and Retention: Application of Expectancy and Goal Setting Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.

    2010-01-01

    Student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educators, students, and the nation facing critical professional labor shortages. Expectancy and goal setting theories were used to predict academic performance and college student retention. Students' academic expectancy motivation at the start of the college…

  2. The Effect on Children's Performance of a Discrepancy between Adult Expectancy and Feedback Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Ellen D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Ninety-six high-achieving fourth graders performed a memory task before which either positive or negative expectancy statements were made by an adult and after which either positive or negative feedback statements were given. For high IQ children, performance was higher for discrepant combinations of expectancy-feedback. (Author/MH)

  3. Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

  4. Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

  5. Attributional Gender Bias: Teachers' Ability and Effort Explanations for Students' Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students' performance in math. Whereas boys' successes in math are attributed to ability, girls' successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys' failures in math are attributed to a…

  6. Attributional Gender Bias: Teachers' Ability and Effort Explanations for Students' Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students' performance in math. Whereas boys' successes in math are attributed to ability, girls' successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys' failures in math are attributed to a…

  7. Effortful Control in "Hot" and "Cool" Tasks Differentially Predicts Children's Behavior Problems and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sanghag; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children's adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer…

  8. Educating for High Performance. Honoring Change in Connecticut's Schools. Selected Change Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Business and Industry Association, Hartford.

    This booklet describes 46 change efforts that Connecticut educators have undertaken to ensure that all students have the opportunity to learn at high levels and to succeed in a high performance economy. They are organized by category according to whether they are district-level changes, demonstration schools, or instructional practices. A summary…

  9. Effortful Control in "Hot" and "Cool" Tasks Differentially Predicts Children's Behavior Problems and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sanghag; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children's adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer…

  10. The influence of effort on neuropsychological performance in children: is performance on the TOMM indicative of neuropsychological ability?

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but is being increasingly used with children, though it is not yet entirely clear what suboptimal TOMM performance means in terms of neuropsychological test scores. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether performance on the TOMM can be used as a predictive marker for neuropsychological performance in children. Participants (N = 75) completed the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), Children's Memory Test, and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trails. Results revealed significant correlations between age, education level, IQ, and many of the neuropsychological measures administered, indicating that as children's TOMM scores increase, so do their cognitive performances. Children were subsequently divided into two groups: optimal effort and suboptimal effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Results suggest significant differences in IQ performance and WCST Failure to Maintain Set; however, there were no differences in regard to any other neuropsychological measures administered. It was also found that a larger proportion of the younger children (aged 6 to 10 years old) scored below the TOMM cutoff compared with older children. This study illustrates that although correlations exist, suboptimal effort on the TOMM may not predict poorer performance on a neuropsychological evaluation in children as has been reported in other studies. PMID:24236939

  11. Effortful control in "hot" and "cool" tasks differentially predicts children's behavior problems and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children's adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer advantages in the context of predicting diverse developmental outcomes. This study focused on the potential distinction between "hot" EC function (delay-of-gratification tasks that called for suppressing an emotionally charged response) and more abstract "cool" EC functions (motor inhibition tasks, suppressing-initiating response or Go-No Go tasks, and effortful attention or Stroop-like tasks). Children (N?=?100) were observed performing EC tasks at 38 and 52 months. Mothers, fathers, and teachers rated children's behavior problems and academic performance at 67, 80, and 100 months, and children participated in a clinical interview at 100 months. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analyses with latent variables produced consistent findings across all informants: Children's scores in "hot" EC tasks, presumably engaging emotion regulation skills, predicted behavior problems but not academic performance, whereas their scores in "cool" EC tasks, specifically those engaging effortful attention, predicted academic performance but not behavior problems. The models of EC as a heterogeneous construct offered some advantages over the unidimensional models. Methodological and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22798038

  12. Mental simulation and experience as determinants of performance expectancies in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Huddy, Vyv; Drake, Gareth; Wykes, Til

    2016-03-30

    People with schizophrenia demonstrate both impairment in mental time travel and reduced expectancies of performance on future tasks. We aimed to reconcile these findings within the Kahneman and Tversky (1982) simulation heuristic framework by testing a key prediction that impaired future simulation would be associated with reduced performance expectancies in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SZSPEC). A total of 54 individuals (30 people with SZSPEC and 24 healthy controls) generated mental simulations of everyday scenarios; after each response they rated performance expectations, distress and the similarity of the scenario to experience. Independent raters coded the coherence of responses. We found that people with SZSPEC had, compared to healthy controls, lower performance expectations and greater anticipated distress when imaging everyday scenarios. Lower performance expectancies were associated with lower experience of similar scenarios, greater negative symptoms and social withdrawal in the SZSPEC group. The current study confirmed previous findings of both impaired mental simulation and abnormal performance expectations in people with SZSPEC, together with the association of the latter with negative symptoms. Experience with social or occupational activities plays a more important role in determining performance expectancies in people with SS than the ability to mentally simulate scenarios. PMID:26921059

  13. Group Motivation and Group Task Performance: The Expectancy-Valence Theory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakanishi, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    Investigated effects of group motivation on group task performance. Created two levels of valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence variable reflected on group productivity on unstructured and task persistence measures. Expectancy variable's effect was on task persistence measure. Instrumentality affected group productivity on structured…

  14. Caffeine Consumption, Expectancies of Caffeine-Enhanced Performance, and Caffeinism Symptoms among University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, John R.; Petree, Allen

    1990-01-01

    Gathered self-report data on college students' (n=797) expectations of caffeine-enhanced performance, level of beverage caffeine consumed daily, and caffeinism signs experienced after consumption of caffeinated beverages. Results supported extending the expectancies model of substance use motivation from alcohol to caffeine. (Author/ABL)

  15. Motivated or Paralyzed? Individuals' Beliefs about Intelligence Influence Performance Outcome of Expecting Rapid Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Jie; Vance, Kaleigh

    2013-01-01

    The current research examines whether and how beliefs about intelligence moderate the effects of expecting rapid feedback on exam performance. Thirty-six undergraduates participated in a field experiment with two between-subjects independent variables: anticipated feedback proximity and beliefs about intelligence. The results show that expecting…

  16. Predicting Pilot Error in Nextgen: Pilot Performance Modeling and Validation Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Gore, Brian; Hooey, Becky

    2012-01-01

    We review 25 articles presenting 5 general classes of computational models to predict pilot error. This more targeted review is placed within the context of the broader review of computational models of pilot cognition and performance, including such aspects as models of situation awareness or pilot-automation interaction. Particular emphasis is placed on the degree of validation of such models against empirical pilot data, and the relevance of the modeling and validation efforts to Next Gen technology and procedures.

  17. Pygmalion Grows Up: A Model for Teacher Expectation Communication and Performance Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Harris M.

    1979-01-01

    Research on the effects of teacher expectations on student performance is reviewed. A model is proposed, based on previous research, or, where more speculation is involved, on identifiable hypotheses. (MH)

  18. Treating Chronically Ill Diabetic Patients with Limited Life Expectancy: Implications for Performance Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, LeChauncy D.; Landrum, Cassie R.; Urech, Tracy H.; Profit, Jochen; Virani, Salim S.; Petersen, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives To validly assess quality-of-care differences among providers, performance measurement programs must reliably identify and exclude patients for whom the quality indicator may not be desirable, including those with limited life expectancy. We developed an algorithm to identify patients with limited life expectancy and examined the impact of limited life expectancy on glycemic control and treatment intensification among diabetic patients. Design We identified diabetic patients with coexisting congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, end-stage liver disease, and/or primary/metastatic cancers with limited life expectancy. To validate our algorithm, we assessed 5-year mortality among patients identified as having limited life expectancy. We compared rates of meeting performance measures for glycemic control between patients with and without limited life expectancy. Among uncontrolled patients, we examined the impact of limited life expectancy on treatment intensification within 90 days. Setting 110 Veterans Administration facilities; October 2006 – September 2007 Participants 888,628 diabetic patients Measurements Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <9%; treatment intensification within 90 days Results 29,016 (3%) patients had limited life expectancy. Adjusting for age, 5-year mortality was 5 times higher among patients with limited life expectancy than those without. Patients with limited life expectancy had poorer glycemic control (77.1% vs. 78.1%) and less frequent treatment intensification (20.9% vs. 28.6%) than patients without, even after controlling for patient-level characteristics (odds ratio [OR]=0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.81-0.86 and OR=0.71; 95% CI=0.67-0.76, respectively). Conclusion Patients with limited life expectancy were slightly, but significantly less likely than those without to have HbA1c levels controlled and to receive treatment intensification, suggesting that providers treat these patients less aggressively. Quality measurement and performance-based reimbursement systems should acknowledge the different needs of this population. PMID:22260627

  19. Effort, symptom validity testing, performance validity testing and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, Erin D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: To understand the neurocognitive effects of brain injury, valid neuropsychological test findings are paramount. Review: This review examines the research on what has been referred to a symptom validity testing (SVT). Above a designated cut-score signifies a ‘passing’ SVT performance which is likely the best indicator of valid neuropsychological test findings. Likewise, substantially below cut-point performance that nears chance or is at chance signifies invalid test performance. Significantly below chance is the sine qua non neuropsychological indicator for malingering. However, the interpretative problems with SVT performance below the cut-point yet far above chance are substantial, as pointed out in this review. This intermediate, border-zone performance on SVT measures is where substantial interpretative challenges exist. Case studies are used to highlight the many areas where additional research is needed. Historical perspectives are reviewed along with the neurobiology of effort. Reasons why performance validity testing (PVT) may be better than the SVT term are reviewed. Conclusions: Advances in neuroimaging techniques may be key in better understanding the meaning of border zone SVT failure. The review demonstrates the problems with rigidity in interpretation with established cut-scores. A better understanding of how certain types of neurological, neuropsychiatric and/or even test conditions may affect SVT performance is needed. PMID:25215453

  20. Evaluating Faculty Work: Expectations and Standards of Faculty Performance in Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia; Cox, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Expectations and the way they are communicated can influence employees' motivation and performance. Previous research has demonstrated individual effects of workplace climate and individual differences on faculty productivity. The present study focused on the characteristics of institutional performance standards, evaluation processes and…

  1. Type 2 diabetes exaggerates exercise effort and impairs exercise performance in older women

    PubMed Central

    Huebschmann, A G; Kohrt, W M; Herlache, L; Wolfe, P; Daugherty, S; Reusch, J EB; Bauer, T A; Regensteiner, J G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with high levels of disability and mortality. Regular exercise prevents premature disability and mortality, but people with T2DM are generally sedentary for reasons that are not fully established. We previously observed that premenopausal women with T2DM report greater effort during exercise than their counterparts without diabetes, as measured by the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale. We hypothesized that RPE is greater in older women with T2DM versus no T2DM. Research design and methods We enrolled overweight, sedentary women aged 50–75 years with (n=26) or without T2DM (n=28). Participants performed submaximal cycle ergometer exercise at 30 W and 35% of individually-measured peak oxygen consumption (35% VO2peak). We assessed exercise effort by RPE (self-report) and plasma lactate concentration. Results VO2peak was lower in T2DM versus controls (p=0.003). RPE was not significantly greater in T2DM versus controls (30 W: Control, 10.4±3.2, T2DM, 11.7±2.3, p=0.08; 35% VO2peak: Control, 11.1±0.5, T2DM, 12.1±0.5, p=0.21). However, lactate was greater in T2DM versus controls (p=0.004 at 30 W; p<0.05 at 35% VO2peak). Greater RPE was associated with higher lactate, higher heart rate, and a hypertension diagnosis (p<0.05 at 30 W and 35% VO2peak). Conclusions Taken together, physiological measures of exercise effort were greater in older women with T2DM than controls. Exercise effort is a modifiable and thereby targetable end point. In order to facilitate regular exercise, methods to reduce exercise effort in T2DM should be sought. Trial number NCT00785005. PMID:26464803

  2. The benefit of expecting no conflict - Stronger influence of self-generated than cue-induced conflict expectations on Stroop performance.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Maike; Gaschler, Robert; Schwager, Sabine; Schubert, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The role of expectations in sequential adaptation to cognitive conflict has been debated controversially in prior studies. On the one hand, a sequential congruency effect (SCE) has been reported for trials in which participants expect a repetition of conflict level. On the other hand, conflict level expectations vs. the SCE have been shown to develop differentially across runs of trials with the same conflict level, arguing against the theory that the SCE is purely driven by expectation. The current verbal Stroop experiment addresses this controversy by two means. First, we tested which specific type of expectation (cue-induced expectations vs. self-generated predictions) might affect the SCE. Second, we assessed the impact of expectation on the SCE as well as the development of SCE and expectation with congruency level run length in one design. We observed a dissociation between expectations and SCE, demonstrating that the SCE is not exclusively driven by expectations. At the same time, we found evidence that (self-generated) expectations do have an impact on the SCE. Our data document especially high performance for one specific combination of task events: congruent trial accompanied by congruent prediction and conflict level repetition. Our results are in line with theories attributing conflict adaptation effects to the "adaption to the lack of conflict". We discuss our results in a broader context of theories about conflict monitoring. PMID:26649453

  3. Great Expectations, Mixed Results: Standards and Performance in Denver's New Public Schools, 2007-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the Denver Plan instituted in 2005, Denver Public Schools (DPS) has embarked upon a consistent strategy of opening new schools in an effort to improve overall academic performance. DPS has pursued this strategy under several different paths: an annual request for proposals from charter school applicants; allowing current…

  4. Unfinished tasks foster rumination and impair sleeping - particularly if leaders have high performance expectations.

    PubMed

    Syrek, Christine J; Antoni, Conny H

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between time pressure and unfinished tasks as work stressors on employee well-being. Relatively little is known about the effect of unfinished tasks on well-being. Specifically, excluding the impact of time pressure, we examined whether the feeling of not having finished the week's tasks fosters perseverative cognitions and impairs sleep. Additionally, we proposed that leader performance expectations moderate these relationships. In more detail, we expected the detrimental effect of unfinished tasks on both rumination and sleep would be enhanced if leader expectations were perceived to be high. In total, 89 employees filled out online diary surveys both before and after the weekend over a 5-week period. Multilevel growth modeling revealed that time pressure and unfinished tasks impacted rumination and sleep on the weekend. Further, our results supported our hypothesis that unfinished tasks explain unique variance in the dependent variables above and beyond the influence of time pressure. Moreover, we found the relationship between unfinished tasks and both rumination and sleep was moderated by leader performance expectations. Our results emphasize the importance of unfinished tasks as a stressor and highlight that leadership, specifically in the form of performance expectations, contributes significantly to the strength of this relationship. PMID:24933596

  5. Linking melodic expectation to expressive performance timing and perceived musical tension.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Pearce, Marcus T; Goodchild, Meghan; Dean, Roger T; Wiggins, Geraint; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    This research explored the relations between the predictability of musical structure, expressive timing in performance, and listeners' perceived musical tension. Studies analyzing the influence of expressive timing on listeners' affective responses have been constrained by the fact that, in most pieces, the notated durations limit performers' interpretive freedom. To circumvent this issue, we focused on the unmeasured prelude, a semi-improvisatory genre without notated durations. In Experiment 1, 12 professional harpsichordists recorded an unmeasured prelude on a harpsichord equipped with a MIDI console. Melodic expectation was assessed using a probabilistic model (IDyOM [Information Dynamics of Music]) whose expectations have been previously shown to match closely those of human listeners. Performance timing information was extracted from the MIDI data using a score-performance matching algorithm. Time-series analyses showed that, in a piece with unspecified note durations, the predictability of melodic structure measurably influenced tempo fluctuations in performance. In Experiment 2, another 10 harpsichordists, 20 nonharpsichordist musicians, and 20 nonmusicians listened to the recordings from Experiment 1 and rated the perceived tension continuously. Granger causality analyses were conducted to investigate predictive relations among melodic expectation, expressive timing, and perceived tension. Although melodic expectation, as modeled by IDyOM, modestly predicted perceived tension for all participant groups, neither of its components, information content or entropy, was Granger causal. In contrast, expressive timing was a strong predictor and was Granger causal. However, because melodic expectation was also predictive of expressive timing, our results outline a complete chain of influence from predictability of melodic structure via expressive performance timing to perceived musical tension. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594881

  6. Relationships Between Expectations of Teachers and Performance of Students (Pygmalion in the Classroom)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Paul M.

    1973-01-01

    Empirical findings on effects of teacher preconceptions of pupils' abilities on student performance are complex and contradictory. Some of the contradictions can be resolved by considering variables intervening between an expectancy manipulation (induced in the teacher by information provided by the investigator) and the evaluation of the…

  7. How Students Build Their Performance Expectancies: The Importance of Need for Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in need for cognition (NFC) have been found to correspond with differences in information processing. Individuals with lower NFC process information using a peripheral route compared to individuals higher in NFC. These differences may effect the formation of performance expectancies. Based on previous work demonstrating that…

  8. An Investigation of Student Expectation, Perceived Performance and Satisfaction of E-textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, George C.; Moon, Soo-Young

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the use of e-textbooks in a college level introductory information systems course using an empirical study that gave students the option to buy electronic or print versions of the same textbook. The study measured and analyzed student expectations prior to purchase, perceived performance and satisfaction after use, intention to…

  9. Performance evolution and expectations management: lessons from Tevatron and other machines

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-02-01

    We review the LHC luminosity progress in 2010, discuss the luminosity evolution of the Tevatron collider at different stages of the Collider Runs, emphasize general dynamics of the process, compare with the performance of the other colliders analyze planned and delivered luminosity integrals, and discuss the expectation management lessons.

  10. Motivated or Paralyzed? Individuals' Beliefs about Intelligence Influence Performance Outcome of Expecting Rapid Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Jie; Vance, Kaleigh

    2013-01-01

    The current research examines whether and how beliefs about intelligence moderate the effects of expecting rapid feedback on exam performance. Thirty-six undergraduates participated in a field experiment with two between-subjects independent variables: anticipated feedback proximity and beliefs about intelligence. The results show that expecting…

  11. Virginia's College and Career Ready Initiative Grade 12 English Capstone Course Content and Performance Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Virginia's "College and Career Ready English Performance Expectations" grade 12 capstone course contains high-interest contextualized content designed to give certain students an additional boost for competent and successful entry into college and careers. The course will add to students' preparation for critical reading, college and workplace…

  12. Economy of effort in different speaking conditions. II. Kinematic performance spaces for cyclical and speech movements.

    PubMed

    Perkell, Joseph S; Zandipour, Majid

    2002-10-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the kinematic manipulations used by speakers in different speaking conditions are influenced by kinematic performance limits. A range of kinematic parameter values was elicited by having seven subjects produce cyclical CV movements of lips, tongue blade and tongue dorsum (/ba/, /da/, /ga/), at rates ranging from 1 to 6 Hz. The resulting measures were used to establish speaker- and articulator-specific kinematic performance spaces, defined by movement duration, displacement and peak speed. These data were compared with speech movement data produced by the subjects in several different speaking conditions in the companion study (Perkell et al., 2002). The amount of overlap of the speech data and cyclical data varied across speakers, from almost no overlap to complete overlap. Generally, for a given movement duration, speech movements were larger than cyclical movements, indicating that the speech movements were faster and were produced with greater effort, according to the performance space analysis. It was hypothesized that the cyclical movements of the tongue and lips were slower than the speech movements because they were more constrained by (coupled to) the relatively massive mandible. To test this hypothesis, a comparison was made of cyclical movements in maxillary versus mandibular frames of reference. The results indicate that the cyclical movements were not strongly constrained by mandible movements. The overall results generally indicate that the cyclical task did not succeed in defining the upper limits of kinematic performance spaces within which the speech data were confined. Thus, the hypothesis that performance limits influence speech kinematics could not be tested effectively. The differences between the speech and cyclical movements may be due to other factors, such as differences in speakers' "skill" with the two types of movement, or the size of the movements--the speech movements were larger, probably because of a well-defined target for the primary, stressed vowel. PMID:12398469

  13. "Of Course I Will ...": The Combined Effect of Certainty and Level of Expectancies on Persistence and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Englert, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The importance of performance expectancies for the prediction of regulation of behavior and actual performance has long been established. Building on theories from the field of social cognition, we suggest that the level of performance expectancies, as well as the certainty of the expectancy, have a joint influence on an individual's beliefs and…

  14. Shoe collar height effect on athletic performance, ankle joint kinematics and kinetics during unanticipated maximum-effort side-cutting performance.

    PubMed

    Lam, Gilbert Wing Kai; Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man

    2015-01-01

    Side-step cutting manoeuvres comprise the coordination between planting and non-planting legs. Increased shoe collar height is expected to influence ankle biomechanics of both legs and possibly respective cutting performance. This study examined the shoe collar height effect on kinematics and kinetics of planting and non-planting legs during an unanticipated side-step cutting. Fifteen university basketball players performed maximum-effort side-step cutting to the left 45° direction or a straight ahead run in response to a random light signal. Seven successful cutting trials were collected for each condition. Athletic performance, ground reaction force, ankle kinematics and kinetics of both legs were analysed using paired t-tests. Results indicated that high-collar shoes resulted in less ankle inversion and external rotation during initial contact for the planting leg. The high-collar shoes also exhibited a smaller ankle range of motion in the sagittal and transverse planes for both legs, respectively. However, no collar effect was found for ankle moments and performance indicators including cutting performance time, ground contact time, propulsion ground reaction forces and impulses. These findings indicated that high-collar shoes altered ankle positioning and restricted ankle joint freedom movements in both legs, while no negative effect was found for athletic cutting performance. PMID:25671398

  15. Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. [Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1992-05-31

    The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This multilateral'' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250{degree}C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

  16. Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1992-05-01

    The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985-1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This 'multilateral' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125 mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125 mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250 C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government, and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

  17. Autonomy Support and Intrinsic Goal Progress Expectancy and Its Links to Longitudinal Study Effort and Subjective Wellbeing: The Differential Mediating Effect of Intrinsic and Identified Regulations and the Moderator Effects of Effort and Intrinsic Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waaler, Rune; Halvari, Halgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) process model of subjective wellbeing among students at Norwegian Folk High Schools. In this model the authors hypothesized that students' intrinsic goal progress expectancy in the chosen study activity and perceived autonomy support from teachers would be positively…

  18. Autonomy Support and Intrinsic Goal Progress Expectancy and Its Links to Longitudinal Study Effort and Subjective Wellbeing: The Differential Mediating Effect of Intrinsic and Identified Regulations and the Moderator Effects of Effort and Intrinsic Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waaler, Rune; Halvari, Halgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) process model of subjective wellbeing among students at Norwegian Folk High Schools. In this model the authors hypothesized that students' intrinsic goal progress expectancy in the chosen study activity and perceived autonomy support from teachers would be positively…

  19. A Study of Performance and Effort Expectancy Factors among Generational and Gender Groups to Predict Enterprise Social Software Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sunil S.

    2013-01-01

    Social software technology has gained considerable popularity over the last decade and has had a great impact on hundreds of millions of people across the globe. Businesses have also expressed their interest in leveraging its use in business contexts. As a result, software vendors and business consumers have invested billions of dollars to use…

  20. A Study of Performance and Effort Expectancy Factors among Generational and Gender Groups to Predict Enterprise Social Software Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sunil S.

    2013-01-01

    Social software technology has gained considerable popularity over the last decade and has had a great impact on hundreds of millions of people across the globe. Businesses have also expressed their interest in leveraging its use in business contexts. As a result, software vendors and business consumers have invested billions of dollars to use…

  1. Predicting performance expectations from affective impressions: linking affect control theory and status characteristics theory.

    PubMed

    Dippong, Joseph; Kalkhoff, Will

    2015-03-01

    Affect control theory (ACT) and status characteristics theory (SCT) offer separate and distinct explanations for how individuals interpret and process status- and power-relevant information about interaction partners. Existing research within affect control theory offers evidence that status and power are related to the affective impressions that individuals form of others along the dimensions of evaluation and potency, respectively. Alternately, status characteristics theory suggests that status and power influence interaction through the mediating cognitive construct of performance expectations. Although both theories have amassed an impressive amount of empirical support, research has yet to articulate theoretical and empirical connections between affective impressions and performance expectations. The purpose of our study is to address this gap. Elaborating a link between ACT and SCT in terms of their central concepts can serve as a stepping stone to improving the explanatory capacity of both theories, while providing a potential bridge by which they can be employed jointly. PMID:25592917

  2. Promoting professional nursing practice: linking a professional practice model to performance expectations.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Marcia; Hinch, Barbara; Llewellyn, Jane; Dillon, Paula J; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    Professional practice models (PPMs) provide the conceptual framework for establishing professional nursing practice. Integrating a PPM requires complex organizational change. One strategy for integrating a PPM is to directly link the PPM with performance expectations to ensure that underlying beliefs are integrated into everyday practice. This article describes the development, implementation, and successful outcomes of a clinical advancement system that was aligned with a PPM. PMID:21320662

  3. Expectancy of stress-reducing aromatherapy effect and performance on a stress-sensitive cognitive task.

    PubMed

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG) task performance and event related potentials (ERP) components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma groups (active experimental, detectable, and undetectable placebo) and 2 prime subgroups (prime suggesting stress-reducing aroma effects or no-prime). GNG performance, ERPs, subjective expected aroma effects, and stress ratings were assessed at baseline and poststress. Results. No specific aroma effects on stress or cognition were observed. However, regardless of experienced aroma, people receiving a prime displayed faster poststress median reaction times than those receiving no prime. A significant interaction for N200 amplitude indicated divergent ERP patterns between baseline and poststress for go and no-go stimuli depending on the prime subgroup. Furthermore, trends for beneficial prime effects were shown on poststress no-go N200/P300 latencies and N200 amplitude. Conclusion. While there were no aroma-specific effects on stress or cognition, these results highlight the role of expectancy for poststress response inhibition and attention. PMID:25802539

  4. Expectancy of Stress-Reducing Aromatherapy Effect and Performance on a Stress-Sensitive Cognitive Task

    PubMed Central

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG) task performance and event related potentials (ERP) components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma groups (active experimental, detectable, and undetectable placebo) and 2 prime subgroups (prime suggesting stress-reducing aroma effects or no-prime). GNG performance, ERPs, subjective expected aroma effects, and stress ratings were assessed at baseline and poststress. Results. No specific aroma effects on stress or cognition were observed. However, regardless of experienced aroma, people receiving a prime displayed faster poststress median reaction times than those receiving no prime. A significant interaction for N200 amplitude indicated divergent ERP patterns between baseline and poststress for go and no-go stimuli depending on the prime subgroup. Furthermore, trends for beneficial prime effects were shown on poststress no-go N200/P300 latencies and N200 amplitude. Conclusion. While there were no aroma-specific effects on stress or cognition, these results highlight the role of expectancy for poststress response inhibition and attention. PMID:25802539

  5. Negative expectancy appraisals and defeatist performance beliefs and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Couture, Shannon M; Blanchard, Jack J; Bennett, Melanie E

    2011-08-30

    Negative symptoms have clear functional implications in schizophrenia and are typically unresponsive to current treatments. The cognitive model of negative symptoms suggests that dysfunctional beliefs are influential in the development and maintenance of negative symptoms and schizophrenia. The current study reports on a preliminary investigation of a new measure of Negative Expectancy Appraisals (specifically beliefs about limited probability of success and perception of limited cognitive resources), and also evaluates whether dysfunctional beliefs are more closely linked to particular subdomains of negative symptoms. Sixty two individuals with schizophrenia completed measures of dysfunctional beliefs and were rated on negative symptoms. Analyses indicated that the endorsement of beliefs regarding low expectations for success and perception of limited resources (Negative Expectancy Appraisals) are robustly associated with diminished experience negative symptoms (avolition, asociality, and anhedonia), but are not associated with negative symptoms reflecting diminished expressivity (blunted affect, alogia). Similarly, Defeatist Performance Beliefs are modestly related to diminished experience, but not diminished expression, negative symptoms. Negative Expectancy Appraisals were also robustly linked to depressive symptoms. Results from the current study provide evidence that dysfunctional beliefs are clearly relevant to consider in relation to negative symptoms, and may represent a fruitful treatment target. PMID:21704387

  6. Expected Performance of the CoRoT Planet Search from Light Curve Beauty Contests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutou, C.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Barge, P.; Blouin, D.; Borde, P.; Cabrera, J.; Carone, L.; Cautain, R.; Deeg, H.; Erikson, A.; Fressin, F.; Guis, V.; Leger, A.; Guterman, P.; Irwin, M.; Kabath, P.; Lanza, A.; Maceroni, C.; Mazeh, T.; Ollivier, M.; Pont, F.; Paetzold, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Schneider, J.; Tamuz, O.; Voss, H.; Zucker, S.

    2007-07-01

    The CoRoT space mission, scheduled for launch in December 2006, has two primary science goals: asteroseismology and the detection of planetary transits, the latter being the subject of this contribution. Given its expected photometric performance and its 150 day observing window, CoRoT will detect planets with periods up to 75 days and radii down to 2 Earth radii. To prepare for the data analysis and evaluate the detection limits of the mission, a number of blind exercises to detect planets in simulated light curves have been carried out within the CoRoT exoplanet community, and their results to date are summarized here.

  7. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Margaret; Spurlock, C. Anna; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  8. Mood impact on effort-related cardiovascular reactivity depends on task context: evidence from a task with an unfixed performance standard.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Knappe, Katja

    2014-08-01

    Gendolla and colleagues have consistently found that negative mood leads to higher effort-related cardiovascular reactivity than positive mood if performers can choose their own performance standard (Gendolla et al., 2001; Gendolla and Krüsken, 2001a, 2002a,b). However, an integration of motivational intensity theory with the mood literature suggests that the impact of mood on cardiovascular activity should vary with task context. In a 2 (task context: demand vs. reward)×2 (mood valence: negative vs. positive) between-persons design, participants performed a memory task without a fixed performance standard. The results showed the expected interaction. Positive mood led to higher effort mobilization-reflected by increased pre-ejection period and heart rate reactivity-than negative mood if participants had answered questions about task reward before performing the task. If participants had responded to questions about task demand, the pattern was reversed. These results extend and add to preceding research that has demonstrated that mood impact on effort-related cardiovascular activity is not stable but depends on task context. PMID:24814934

  9. Traits and cognitions of perfectionism and their relation with coping style, effort, achievement, and performance anxiety in Japanese musicians.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Osamu; Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

    2011-06-01

    Research has shown that 2 major facets of perfectionism can be differentiated: perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. In order to investigate how these different facets of perfectionism are related to coping, effort, achievement, and performance anxiety in musicians, we asked 275 professional and amateur Japanese musicians to complete measures of perfectionism traits, perfectionism cognitions, coping style, effort, achievement, and performance anxiety. While both facets of perfectionism showed a similar pattern of correlation with coping measures, they were differently associated with effort, achievement, and performance anxiety. In addition, results of hierarchical regression analysis showed the incremental validity of perfectionism cognitions in explaining variance in performance anxiety above the variance explained by other variables, such as trait perfectionism. These findings demonstrate that perfectionism in musicians has both positive and negative elements. PMID:21477982

  10. Understanding Internet Searching Performance in a Heterogeneous Portal for K-12 Students: Search Success, Search Time, Strategy, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin; Robins, David; Holmes, Jason; Salaba, Athena

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to better understand search performance using an online portal containing a collection of heterogeneous library resources for K-12 students. Search performance is examined in terms of search success, search time, strategy, and effort. This study revealed unsuccessful searches tended to take longer than successful searches;…

  11. NICMOS in the Cryo-Cooler Era: Expectations for On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, E. J.; Schneider, G.; Ferro, A. J.; Hubbard, W. P.; Barg, M. I.; Stobie, E. B.; Thompson, R. I.; Boeker, Torsten; Holfeltz, S. T.; Petro, L. D.

    2000-12-01

    During Servicing Mission 3B for the Hubble Space Telescope, a reverse-Brayton cycle turbine cooler will be installed in conjunction with a new external radiator to recool the Near Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrometer's (NICMOS) MgCdTe focal plane arrays to operational temperatures of approximately 75K. The new NICMOS Cooling System (NCS) will circulate cold Neon gas through the cooling coils in the NICMOS cryostat (originally used to freeze out the now depleted solid Nitrogen cryogen). Today, NICMOS remains passively functional, and should return to full usability with all observing modes intact with the advent of the NCS. Here, we report on the expectations for the performance of NICMOS once integrated with and cooled by the NCS based on an extensive series of flight and ground experiments and our experience with flight spare detectors operated at these temperatures. We discuss the results from the shuttle-born HOST mission, laboratory experiments at the Steward Observatory NICMOS detector Laboratory emulating the on-orbit warm-up of the detectors, and system level and electro-magnetic susceptibility and interference tests at the Goddard Space Flight Center. From these, and our experience with the NICMOS both during its pre-launch testing and calibration, and on-orbit use during HST Cycle 7, we re-evaluate expectations for systemic read-noise, dark currents, thermal backgrounds, quantum efficiencies, and optical and mechanical stability of the instrument platform. We discuss the expected changes in these characteristics, with respect to HST Cycle 7, both in terms of established performance metrics and their effects on the formulation and conduction of effective observational strategies for conducting NICMOS science observations. This work is supported, in part, by NASA grant NAG5-3042 to the NICMOS Instrument Definition Team.

  12. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... job. Where jobs are otherwise equal under the EPA, and there is no substantial difference in the... required to spend part of his time carrying out heavy packages or replacing stock involving the lifting of... spices or other small items. The difference in kind of effort required of the employees does not...

  13. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... job. Where jobs are otherwise equal under the EPA, and there is no substantial difference in the... required to spend part of his time carrying out heavy packages or replacing stock involving the lifting of... spices or other small items. The difference in kind of effort required of the employees does not...

  14. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits: An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating…

  15. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    PubMed Central

    Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

  16. Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdian, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing…

  17. Expected performance of a hard X-ray polarimeter (POLAR) by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shaolin; Produit, Nicolas; Wu, Bobing

    2009-07-01

    Polarization measurements of the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can provide diagnostic information for understanding the nature of the central engine. POLAR is a compact polarimeter dedicated to the polarization measurement of GRBs between 50 and 300 keV and is scheduled to be launched aboard the Chinese Space Laboratory around the year 2012. A preliminary Monte Carlo simulation has been accomplished to model the expected performance of POLAR while a prototype of POLAR is being constructed. The modulation factor, efficiency and effective area, background rates and minimum detectable polarization (MDP) were calculated for different detector configurations and trigger strategies. With the optimized detector configuration and trigger strategy and the total weight constraint of less than 30 kg, the primary science goal to determine whether most GRBs are strongly polarized can be achieved, and about 9 GRBs/yr can be detected with an MDP<10% for the conservative detector configuration.

  18. Science objectives and Expected performances of NOMAD, an ExoMars TGO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, S.; Vandaele, A. C.; Thomas, I.; Daerden, F.; Depiesse, C.; Drummond, R.; Neary, L.; Willame, Y.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J.; Patel, M. R.; Bellucci, G.

    2015-10-01

    NOMAD, the "Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery" spectrometer suite is part of the payload of the 2016 ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Mission. This instrument suite will probe the atmosphere of Mars in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions covering 0.2 - 0.65 and 2.2 - 4.3?m. Thanks to its very high spectral resolution and multiple channels and observational modes, NOMAD will be able to detect a wide range of atmospheric trace gases, many of which are important markers of geophysical and/or biogenic activity. We will present the instrument, its science objectives and the performances we expect based on simulations we have done so far.

  19. The Relationship between Levels of Expertise, Task Difficulty, Perceived Self-Efficacy, and Mental Effort Investment in Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsin-Ning

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of different levels of task difficulty and expertise on self-efficacy judgments. In addition, the study examines how self-efficacy judgments affect the amount of mental effort investment and task performance under different levels of task difficulty and expertise. Results from this study are used to build a…

  20. Attributional Bias Instrument (ABI): Validation of a Measure to Assess Ability and Effort Explanations for Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope P.; Quezada, Stephanie A.; Rincones, Rodolfo; Strobach, E. Natalia; Gutierrez, Maria Armida Estrada

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the validation of a newly developed instrument, the attributional bias instrument, based on achievement attribution theories that distinguish between effort and ability explanations of behavior. The instrument further incorporates the distinction between explanations for success versus failure in academic performance.…

  1. Effects of Imagery Training on Cognitive Performance and Use of Physiological Measures as an Assessment Tool of Mental Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadelis, Christos; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Albani, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of motor imagery training on cognitive performance was examined and the physiological mechanisms involved in the contribution of mental practice to motor learning were considered. The subject's mental effort during motor imagery was assessed by using psychophysiological measures and particularly eye blink activity as an…

  2. The Relationship between Levels of Expertise, Task Difficulty, Perceived Self-Efficacy, and Mental Effort Investment in Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsin-Ning

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of different levels of task difficulty and expertise on self-efficacy judgments. In addition, the study examines how self-efficacy judgments affect the amount of mental effort investment and task performance under different levels of task difficulty and expertise. Results from this study are used to build a…

  3. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., however, that men and women are working side by side on a line assembling parts. Suppose further that one of the men who performs the operations at the end of the line must also lift the assembly, as he... men and women. For example, if all women and some men performing a particular type of job...

  4. Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdian, David C.

    2012-10-01

    Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for targeted advertisement of student resources such as tutoring services. The students who are identified in the over-performing student population received higher grades than their fellow students, but spent less time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for honors programs, independent research projects, and peer-tutoring programs. Incorporating these evaluation criteria to online homework systems will allow instructors to quickly identify students in these academic student populations.

  5. Current efforts of regional and national performance measurement initiatives around the United States.

    PubMed

    Roski, Joachim; Kim, Min Gayles

    2010-01-01

    Performance measurement and reporting has become widespread. The authors provide a status snapshot of regional (n = 20) and nonregional (n = 24) initiatives that have issued at least 1 performance report since 2005. Most regional initiatives around the United States are in the very early stages of acquiring data and devising data collection strategies. The authors recommend that a framework and approach for generating nationally consistent and locally adaptable performance information for communities across the United States should be formulated. This would allow better coordination of promising regional initiatives to improve their impact and reduce operating costs/burden. PMID:19729554

  6. Effortful Control in “Hot” and “Cool” Tasks Differentially Predicts Children’s Behavior Problems and Academic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children’s adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer advantages in the context of predicting diverse developmental outcomes. This study focused on the potential distinction between “hot” EC function (delay-of-gratification tasks that called for suppressing an emotionally charged response) and more abstract “cool” EC functions (motor inhibition tasks, suppressing-initiating response or Go-No Go tasks, and effortful attention or Stroop-like tasks). Children (N=100) were observed performing EC tasks at 38 and 52 months. Mothers, fathers, and teachers rated children’s behavior problems and academic performance at 67, 80, and 100 months, and children participated in a clinical interview at 100 months. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analyses with latent variables produced consistent findings across all informants: Children’s scores in “hot” EC tasks, presumably engaging emotion regulation skills, predicted behavior problems but not academic performance, whereas their scores in “cool” EC tasks, specifically those engaging effortful attention, predicted academic performance but not behavior problems. The models of EC as a heterogeneous construct offered some advantages over the unidimensional models. Methodological and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22798038

  7. Effects of Motivational Prompts on Motivation, Effort, and Performance on a Low-Stakes Standardized Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Katrice A.; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana; Suh, Yonghee

    2015-01-01

    Increased demands for accountability have placed an emphasis on assessment of student learning outcomes. At the post-secondary level, many of the assessments are considered low-stakes, as student performance is linked to few, if any, individual consequences. Given the prevalence of low-stakes assessment of student learning, research that…

  8. A Memory Game to Demonstrate the Power of Collaborative Efforts to Improve Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buche, Mari W.

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration is an important aspect of information systems (IS) education since work is typically performed in teams. However, IS students often do not fully appreciate the value of group work in their business courses. This teaching tip describes an activity that will objectively demonstrate the value of collaboration and diversity of…

  9. Reflective Thinking, Effort, Persistence, Disorganization and Academic Performance: A Mediational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This article reports on a two-phase study that was conducted looking at study processing strategies, reflective thinking practice, and academic performance. Phase I is a mediational analysis of conceptual model that we have developed involving examination of direct and mediating effects between the four phases of reflection (habitual…

  10. How NOAA/DSCOVR Will Perform during Extreme Space Weather and Why Lead Time Exceeds Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesecker, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The NOAA/DSCOVR satellite is expected to launch in January, 2015 and replace the NASA/ACE satellite as the L1 Sentinel in early Summer, 2015. Having relied on ACE to provide critical warnings of geomagnetic storms since 1998, it is important for the space weather community to understand how DSCOVR will perform relative to ACE in real-time operations. The WIND/SWE instrument is sufficiently similar to the DSCOVR Faraday Cup that it can be used as a proxy for DSCOVR, with some caveats. We compare the ACE/SWEPAM and WIND/SWE observations for all geomagnetic storm events meeting the criteria of severe or extreme. We also examine time periods where ACE data were compromised by solar energetic particles. We find that DSCOVR will provide a more robust data stream than was provided by ACE during solar cycle 23. We will briefly address the magnetometer, supra-thermal particle measurements, and relativistic proton measurements provided by ACE, of which only the magnetometer is retained on DSCOVR. We also demonstrate that lead time for geomagnetic storm notifications to customers far exceeds the L1 to Earth delay time.

  11. Expected performance of the stereo camera on board the BepiColombo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonese, Gabriele; Capria, Maria Teresa; da Deppo, Vania; Forlani, Gianfranco; Forni, Olivier; Langevin, Yves; Massironi, Matteo; Naletto, Giampiero; Simioni, Emanuele; Debei, Stefano; Flamini, Enrico; Sgavetti, Maria; Giacomini, Lorenza; Martellato, Elena

    The stereo camera (STC) is one of the channels of SIMBIOSYS, the remote sensing instrument that will be on board the BepiColombo, and it will provide the global mapping of Mercury and Digital Terrain Model of the entire surface. The maximum spatial resolution will be of 50 m per pixel at the periherm (400 km from the surface) and the vertical accuracy will be about 84 m. The grid size of the DTM is depending even from the stereo reconstruction software will apply, and according to our new algorithm we may achieve 1-2 pixels. In this work we will show the expected performance of STC, the observing strategy and the simulations of what the camera will provide for the geological analysis. Some stereo pairs obtained by space missions, on other Solar System bodies, will be used for the simulations after having applied our new algorithm for the stereo reconstruction. On all the images we will evaluate the impact of the compression software in terms of DTM accuracy.

  12. Expected Performance of the Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) for the Upgrade of the ALICE Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, Bernard; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Harton, Austin

    2014-03-01

    CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research) is a global laboratory that studies proton and heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of four large experiments of the LHC. ALICE is dedicated to the study of the transition of matter to Quark Gluon Plasma in heavy ion collisions. In the present ALICE detector there are two sub-detectors, (the T0 and V0), that provide minimum bias trigger, multiplicity trigger, beam-gas event rejection, collision time for the Time of Flight detector (TOF), on line multiplicity and event plane determination. In order to adapt these functionalities to the collision rates expected for the LHC upgrade of 2018, it is planned to replace these systems by a single detector system, called the Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT). Two sensor technologies are proposed for FIT, they represent improvements of the current T0 and V0 detectors (T0-Plus and V0-Plus). In this presentation we describe the performance parameters of the FIT upgrade; show the proposed characteristics of the T0-Plus and the simulations that support the conceptual design of this detector. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grants NSF-PHY-0968903 and NSF-PHY-1305280.

  13. Modeling the expected performance of the REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, Niraj K.; Binzel, Richard P.; Hong, Jae Sub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-09-01

    OSIRIS-REx is the third spacecraft in the NASA New Frontiers Program and is planned for launch in 2016. OSIRIS-REx will orbit the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, characterize it, and return a sample of the asteroid's regolith back to Earth. The Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is an instrument on OSIRIS-REx designed and built by students at MIT and Harvard. The purpose of REXIS is to collect and image sun-induced fluorescent X-rays emitted by Bennu, thereby providing spectroscopic information related to the elemental makeup of the asteroid regolith and the distribution of features over its surface. Telescopic reflectance spectra suggest a CI or CM chondrite analog meteorite class for Bennu, where this primitive nature strongly motivates its study. A number of factors, however, will influence the generation, measurement, and interpretation of the X-ray spectra measured by REXIS. These include: the compositional nature and heterogeneity of Bennu, the time-variable solar state, X-ray detector characteristics, and geometric parameters for the observations. In this paper, we will explore how these variables influence the precision to which REXIS can measure Bennu's surface composition. By modeling the aforementioned factors, we place bounds on the expected performance of REXIS and its ability to ultimately place Bennu in an analog meteorite class.

  14. Comparison of Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of Virginia's mathematics performance expectations with the common core state standards for mathematics. The comparison focuses on number and quantity, algebra, functions, geometry, and statistics and probability. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  15. Effects of Test Expectation on Multiple-Choice Performance and Subjective Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduates studied the definitions of 16 psychology terms, expecting either a multiple-choice (n = 132) or short-answer (n = 122) test. All students then received the same multiple-choice test, requiring them to recognize the definitions as well as novel examples of the terms. Compared to students expecting a multiple-choice test, those…

  16. Efforts to achieve high-performance long-pulse operations in the EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Baonian; EAST Team; Collaborators

    2016-01-01

    To achieve long-pulse tokamak operation, sufficient current drive and self-generated current are required, with the challenges of the exhaust of the heat from the divertor plates. Experiments have proven that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can broaden the divertor power footprint and cause the splitting of the strike point current and hence reduce the peak heat flux on the divertors. Edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation can be realized by supersonic molecule beam injection (SMBI), modulated LHCD, lithium granule and aerosol injection, as well as resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). Enhanced transport by an electrostatic edge coherent mode at the pedestal region is observed in the ELM mitigated plasmas by LHCD. Long-pulse H-mode plasmas in the small ELMy regime have been demonstrated by a combination of ELM mitigation techniques and the optimization of the plasma confinement performance. These newly achieved H-mode scenarios by using features of LHCD in the control of steady-state peak heat flux and transient heat flux due to ELMs may offer a promising regime for further EAST long-pulse high-performance operation and be applicable to ITER.

  17. FY13 High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort - Training Data Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Charvat, Jacqueline; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    From the time hand-intensive tasks were first created for EVAs, discomforts and injuries have been noted.. There have been numerous versions of EVA gloves for US crew over the past 50 years, yet pain and injuries persist. The investigation team was tasked with assisting in a glove injury assessment for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project.center dot To aid in this assessment, the team was asked to complete the following objectives: - First, to develop the best current understanding of what glove-related injuries have occurred to date, and when possible, identify the specific mechanisms that caused those injuries - Second, to create a standardized method for comparison of glove injury potential from one glove to another. center dot The overall goal of the gloved hand injury assessment is to utilize ergonomics in understanding how these glove injuries are occurring, and to propose mitigations to current designs or design changes in the next generation of EVA gloves.

  18. Inference about the expected performance of a data-driven dynamic treatment regime

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Bibhas; Laber, Eric B.; Zhao, Ying-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Background A dynamic treatment regime (DTR) comprises a sequence of decision rules, one per stage of intervention, that recommends how to individualize treatment to patients based on evolving treatment and covariate history. These regimes are useful for managing chronic disorders, and fit into the larger paradigm of personalized medicine. The Value of a DTR is the expected outcome when the DTR is used to assign treatments to a population of interest. Purpose The Value of a data-driven DTR, estimated using data from a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, is both a data-dependent parameter and a non-smooth function of the underlying generative distribution. These features introduce additional variability that is not accounted for by standard methods for conducting statistical inference, e.g., the bootstrap or normal approximations, if applied without adjustment. Our purpose is to provide a feasible method for constructing valid confidence intervals for this quantity of practical interest. Methods We propose a conceptually simple and computationally feasible method for constructing valid confidence intervals for the Value of an estimated DTR based on subsampling. The method is self-tuning by virtue of an approach called the double bootstrap. We demonstrate the proposed method using a series of simulated experiments. Results The proposed method offers considerable improvement in terms of coverage rates of the confidence intervals over the standard bootstrap approach. Limitations In this paper, we have restricted our attention to Q-learning for estimating the optimal DTR. However, other methods can be employed for this purpose; to keep the discussion focused, we have not explored these alternatives. Conclusions Subsampling-based confidence intervals provide much better performance compared to standard bootstrap for the Value of an estimated DTR. PMID:24925083

  19. Expectation to receive methylphenidate enhances subjective arousal but not cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2013-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription stimulant medication such as methylphenidate (MPH) has increased among college students over the past several years. Common motivations for use include enhancements in cognition and subjective arousal. As it is unclear whether stimulant medication exerts the same effect on healthy individuals as for those with ADHD, it is possible that many reported effects of prescription stimulants by healthy individuals may stem from placebo effects, which may be an important mechanism underlying initiation and maintenance of nonmedical use. This study examined whether placebo effects influence reports of subjective mood and cognitive performance among college students who endorsed several risk factors for prescription stimulant misuse (i.e., low GPA, fraternity/sorority involvement, binge drinking, cannabis use). Ninety-six subjects (60% male) completed a battery of cognitive tests and questionnaires assessing present mood state on two occasions. Forty-seven participants were randomized to an experimental condition and orally ingested what they believed to be MPH, though actually placebo, on one visit and received no medication on the other visit. The control group received no medication on either visit. During the administration visit, experimental participants reported feeling significantly more high and stimulated compared to the non-administration visit and to the control subjects. However, cognitive enhancement differences were not generally seen between visits or groups. This research demonstrates that placebo effects for prescription stimulants do influence subjective mood and may be implicated in nonmedical stimulant use. This knowledge may be useful in challenging prescription stimulant-related expectancies to decrease the prevalence of use among college students. PMID:21875224

  20. Expectation to receive methylphenidate enhances subjective arousal but not cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2011-12-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription-stimulant medication such as methylphenidate (MPH) has increased among college students over the past several years. Common motivations for use include enhancements in cognition and subjective arousal. As it is unclear whether stimulant medication exerts the same effect on healthy individuals as for those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, it is possible that many reported effects of prescription stimulants by healthy individuals may stem from placebo effects, which may be an important mechanism underlying initiation and maintenance of nonmedical use. This study examined whether placebo effects influence reports of subjective mood and cognitive performance among college students who endorsed several risk factors for prescription-stimulant misuse (i.e., low grade point average, fraternity/sorority involvement, binge drinking, cannabis use). Ninety-six subjects (60% male) completed cognitive tests and questionnaires assessing present mood state on two occasions. Forty-seven participants were randomized to an experimental condition and orally ingested what they believed to be MPH, though actually placebo, on one visit and received no medication on the other visit. The control group received no medication on either visit. During the administration visit, experimental participants reported feeling significantly more high and stimulated compared with the nonadministration visit and to the control subjects. However, cognitive enhancement differences were not generally seen between visits or groups. This research demonstrates that placebo effects for prescription stimulants do influence subjective mood and may be implicated in nonmedical stimulant use. This knowledge may be useful in challenging prescription-stimulant-related expectancies to decrease the prevalence of use among college students. PMID:21875224

  1. Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported. Detailed consideration of the effects of both the natural and induced ionizing radiation environment during ISS design, development, and flight operations has produced a safe, efficient manned space platform that is largely immune to deleterious effects of the LEO ionizing radiation environment. The assumption of a small shielding mass for purposes of design and verification has been shown to be a valid worst-case approximation approach to design for reliability, though predicted dependences of single event effect (SEE) effects on latitude, longitude, SEP events, and spacecraft structural shielding mass are not observed. The Figure of Merit (FOM) method over predicts the rate for median shielding masses of about 10g/cm(exp 2) by only a factor of 3, while the Scott Effective Flux Approach (SEFA) method overestimated by about one order of magnitude as expected. The Integral Rectangular Parallelepiped (IRPP), SEFA, and FOM methods for estimating on-orbit (Single Event Upsets) SEU rates all utilize some version of the CREME-96 treatment of energetic particle interaction with structural shielding, which has been shown to underestimate the production of secondary particles in heavily shielded manned spacecraft. The need for more work directed to development of a practical understanding of secondary particle production in massive structural shielding for SEE design and verification is indicated. In contrast, total dose estimates using CAD based shielding mass distributions functions and the Shieldose Code provided a reasonable accurate estimate of accumulated dose in Grays internal to the ISS pressurized elements, albeit as a result of using worst-on-worst case assumptions (500 km altitude x 2) that compensate for ignoring both GCR and secondary particle production in massive structural shielding.

  2. Performance Expectations of the Associate Degree Nurse Graduate within the First Six Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diede, Nancy; McNish, Gayle; Coose, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 174 health care employers identified their expectations of entry-level associate degree nursing graduates. Verbal/written communication, accountability, flexibility, and open mindedness ranked highest. Fiscal management competence ranked lowest. (SK)

  3. Influence of poor effort on neuropsychological test performance in U.S. military personnel following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Pancholi, Sonal; Bhagwat, Aditya; Anderson-Barnes, Victoria; French, Louis M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of poor effort on neuropsychological test performance in military personnel following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Participants were 143 U.S. service members who sustained a TBI, divided into three groups based on injury severity and performance on the Word Memory Test and four embedded markers of poor effort: MTBI-pass (n?=?87), MTBI-fail (n?=?21), and STBI-pass (n?=?35; where STBI denotes severe TBI). Patients were evaluated at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center on average 3.9 months (SD?=?3.4) post injury. The majority of the sample was Caucasian (84.6%), was male (93.0%), and had 12+ years of education (96.5%). Measures included the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and 13 common neurocognitive measures. Patients in the MTBI-fail group performed worse on the majority of neurocognitive measures, followed by the Severe TBI-Pass group and the MTBI-pass group. Using a criterion of three or more low scores <10th percentile, the MTBI-fail group had the greatest rate of impairment (76.2%), followed by the Severe TBI-Pass group (34.3%) and MTBI-pass group (16.1%). On the PAI, the MTBI-fail group had higher scores on the majority of clinical scales (p < .05). There were a greater number of elevated scales (e.g., 5 or more elevated mild or higher) in the MTBI-fail group (71.4%) than in the MTBI-pass group (32.2%) and Severe TBI-Pass group (17.1%). Effort testing is an important component of postacute neuropsychological evaluations following combat-related MTBI. Those who fail effort testing are likely to be misdiagnosed as having severe cognitive impairment, and their symptom reporting is likely to be inaccurate. PMID:22273465

  4. Athlome Project Consortium: a concerted effort to discover genomic and other "omic" markers of athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Tanaka, Masashi; Eynon, Nir; Bouchard, Claude; North, Kathryn N; Williams, Alun G; Collins, Malcolm; Moran, Colin N; Britton, Steven L; Fuku, Noriyuki; Ashley, Euan A; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Ahmetov, Ildus I; de Geus, Eco; Alsayrafi, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, injury predisposition, and elite/world-class athletic status, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies predominantly focusing on genotyping a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms or the insertion/deletion variants in small, often heterogeneous cohorts (i.e., made up of athletes of quite different sport specialties) have not generated the kind of results that could offer solid opportunities to bridge the gap between basic research in exercise sciences and deliverables in biomedicine. A retrospective view of genetic association studies with complex disease traits indicates that transition to hypothesis-free genome-wide approaches will be more fruitful. In studies of complex disease, it is well recognized that the magnitude of genetic association is often smaller than initially anticipated, and, as such, large sample sizes are required to identify the gene effects robustly. A symposium was held in Athens and on the Greek island of Santorini from 14-17 May 2015 to review the main findings in exercise genetics and genomics and to explore promising trends and possibilities. The symposium also offered a forum for the development of a position stand (the Santorini Declaration). Among the participants, many were involved in ongoing collaborative studies (e.g., ELITE, GAMES, Gene SMART, GENESIS, and POWERGENE). A consensus emerged among participants that it would be advantageous to bring together all current studies and those recently launched into one new large collaborative initiative, which was subsequently named the Athlome Project Consortium. PMID:26715623

  5. Expectations and Outcomes of Reserve Network Performance following Re-zoning of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.

    PubMed

    Emslie, Michael J; Logan, Murray; Williamson, David H; Ayling, Anthony M; MacNeil, M Aaron; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Cheal, Alistair J; Evans, Richard D; Johns, Kerryn A; Jonker, Michelle J; Miller, Ian R; Osborne, Kate; Russ, Garry R; Sweatman, Hugh P A

    2015-04-20

    Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are widely advocated for preserving exploited fish stocks and for conserving biodiversity. We used underwater visual surveys of coral reef fish and benthic communities to quantify the short- to medium-term (5 to 30 years) ecological effects of the establishment of NTMRs within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). The density, mean length, and biomass of principal fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp., Variola spp.), were consistently greater in NTMRs than on fished reefs over both the short and medium term. However, there were no clear or consistent differences in the structure of fish or benthic assemblages, non-target fish density, fish species richness, or coral cover between NTMR and fished reefs. There was no indication that the displacement and concentration of fishing effort reduced coral trout populations on fished reefs. A severe tropical cyclone impacted many survey reefs during the study, causing similar declines in coral cover and fish density on both NTMR and fished reefs. However, coral trout biomass declined only on fished reefs after the cyclone. The GBRMP is performing as expected in terms of the protection of fished stocks and biodiversity for a developed country in which fishing is not excessive and targets a narrow range of species. NTMRs cannot protect coral reefs directly from acute regional-scale disturbance but, after a strong tropical cyclone, impacted NTMR reefs supported higher biomass of key fishery-targeted species and so should provide valuable sources of larvae to enhance population recovery and long-term persistence. PMID:25819564

  6. Different aspects of performance feedback engage different brain areas: disentangling valence and expectancy in feedback processing.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Nicola K; Opitz, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the positive and negative outcomes of our behaviour is important for action selection and learning. Such reinforcement learning has been shown to engage a specific neural circuitry including the mesencephalic dopamine system and its target areas, the striatum and medial frontal cortex, especially the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). An intensively pursued debate regards the prevailing influence of feedback expectancy and feedback valence on the engagement of these two brain regions in reinforcement learning and their respective roles are far from being understood. To this end, we used a time estimation task with three different types of feedback that allows disentangling the effect of feedback valence and expectancy using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results show greater ACC activation after unexpected positive and unexpected negative feedback than after expected feedback and by this sensitivity to unexpected events in general irrespective of their valence. PMID:25100234

  7. The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first…

  8. The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first…

  9. Expectancy Work Motivation, Central Life Interests, Voluntarism, Organizational Situation, Job Satisfaction, and Perceived Teaching Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; And Others

    This study tested the hypotheses that expectancy work motivation, individual attitudes toward work, and structural and environmental components are predictions of teacher job satisfaction and effectiveness. Samples were selected from junior high school and higher education faculties. Subjects responded to open-ended questionnaires, and results…

  10. Effect of Test-Expectancy and Word Bank Availability on Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Laura A.; Clause, Christopher B.; Kreiner, David S.

    2007-01-01

    We examined test-expectancy as it applies to fill-in-the-blank tests. We randomly assigned 60 college students to take a fill-in-the-blank vocabulary test in one of three conditions. Two groups took the test with a word bank available; we told one group but not the other that they would have a word bank. The third group took the test with no word…

  11. Between-day reliability of electromechanical delay of selected neck muscles during performance of maximal isometric efforts

    PubMed Central

    Almosnino, Sivan; Pelland, Lucie; Pedlow, Samuel V; Stevenson, Joan M

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the between-day reliability of the electromechanical delay (EMD) of selected neck muscles during the performance of maximal isometric contractions in five different directions. Methods Twenty-one physically active males participated in two testing sessions separated by seven to eight days. Using a custom-made fixed frame dynamometer, cervical force and surface electromyography (EMG) were recorded bilaterally from the splenius capitis, upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles during the performance of efforts in extension, flexion, left and right lateral bending, and protraction. The EMD was extracted using the Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator. Reliability indices calculated for each muscle in each testing direction were: the difference in scores between the two testing sessions and corresponding 95% confidence intervals, the standard error of measurement (SEM) and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Results EMD values showed no evidence of systematic difference between the two testing sessions across all muscles and testing directions. The SEM for extension, flexion and lateral bending efforts ranged between 2.5 ms to 4.8 ms, indicating a good level of measurement precision. For protraction, SEM values were higher and considered to be imprecise for research and clinical purposes. ICC values for all muscles across all testing directions ranged from 0.23 to 0.79. Conclusion EMD of selected neck muscles can be measured with sufficient precision for the assessment of neck muscle function in an athletic population in the majority of directions tested. PMID:19775461

  12. 41 CFR 102-117.275 - What performance must I expect from a TSP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance § 102-117.275 What performance must I... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What performance must...

  13. The Ganymede Laser Altimeter (GALA) as part of the JUICE payload: instrument, science objectives and expected performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussmann, H.; Lingenauber, K.; Michaelis, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Thomas, N.; Lara, L.; Araki, H.; Behnke, T.; Gwinner, K.; Namiki, N.; Noda, H.; Oberst, J.; Roatsch, T.; Rodrigo, R.; Sasaki, S.; Seiferlin, K.; Spohn, T.; Althaus, C.; Barnouin, O.; Beck, T.; Breuer, D.; Casotto, S.; Castro, J. M.; Choblet, G.; Christensen, U.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Giese, B.; Kallenbach, R.; Kimura, J.; Kurita, K.; Lainey, V.; Lichopoj, A.; Lötzke, H.-G.; Lüdicke, F.; Lupovka, V.; Moore, W. B.; Rodriguez, A.; Santovito, M.-R.; Schreiber, U.; Schrödter, R.; Sohl, F.; del Togno, S.; Vermeersen, B.; Wickhusen, K.; Wieczorek, M.; Yseboodt, M.

    2013-09-01

    The Ganymede Laser Altimeter (GALA) has been selected by ESA for the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission payload. GALA will focus on geodetic and geophysical investigations of the icy satellites Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Here, we describe the scientific objectives, its expected performance, and the status of the instrument development.

  14. General and Specific Self-Efficacy in the Context of a Training Intervention to Enhance Performance Expectancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwoerer, Catherine E.; May, Douglas R.; Hollensbe, Elaine C.; Mencl, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A pretest-posttest field study investigated self-efficacy, both general and specific, in an intensive training experience to prepare new recruits for their work assignments. Specific issues addressed include (1) the effects of the training experience on general self-efficacy (GSE), work-specific selfefficacy (SSE), and performance expectancy; (2)…

  15. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  16. Children's Achievement Expectations and Performance as a Function of Two Consecutive Reinforcement Experiences, Sex of Subject, and Sex of Experimenter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanelli, Dale Soderman; Hill, Kennedy T.

    1969-01-01

    Presents research patterned on two earlier studies by the Crandalls 1963, 1964 on the effects of praise, criticism, and nonreaction on 10-year-old children involved in a marble-dropping task. The subjects tended to increase in performance and decrease in achievement expectancy when criticized. Table, graphs, and bibliography. (RW)

  17. Expecting Success: A Study of Five High Performing, High Poverty Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Mary A.; Clubine, Betsy; Constable, Deborah; Smith, Pamela A.

    This report identifies and describes practices that support the achievement of students enrolled in five high performing, high poverty elementary schools. Findings indicate that despite variations, the school share many similarities in terms of the strategies they employ to strengthen academic performance: (1) the schools embrace the belief that…

  18. Expectancy and the Menstrual Cycle: Effects on Performance and Self-Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altenhaus, Amy L.

    The impact of false information concerning the effect of the menstrual cycle on test performance and subjects' perception of the adequacy of that performance were investigated. Women (N=65) were studied either during the premenstrual or midcycle phase. Subjects were given one of three interpretations: (1) they should do well because of their…

  19. A liquid xenon imaging telescope for gamma ray astrophysics: Design and expected performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Chen, D.; Bolotnikov, A.

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution telescope for imaging cosmic x ray sources in the MeV region, with an angular resolution better than 0.5 deg is being developed as balloon-borne payload. The instrument consists of a 3-D liquid xenon TPC as x ray detector, coupled with a coded aperture at a distance of 1 meter. A study of the actual source distribution of the 1.809 MeV line from the decay of Al-26 and the 511 keV positron-electron annihilation line is among the scientific objectives, along with a search for new x ray sources. The telescope design parameters and expected minimum flux sensitivity to line and continuum radiation are presented. The unique capablity of the LXe-TPC as a Compton Polarimeter is also discussed.

  20. IBS and expected luminosity performance for RHIC beams at top energy with 56 MHz SRF cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov,A.

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of RF system in RHIC is to capture injected bunches, accelerate them to the top energy, and store bunches at the top energy for many hours. The accelerating RF system operates at harmonic number h=360 of the particle revolution frequency f=78.196 kHz, which corresponds to 28.15MHz. The storage RF system accepts the shortened bunches at top energy and provides longitudinal focusing to keep these bunches short during the store time (collision mode). The storage system operates at harmonic number h=7x360=2520, which corresponds to an RF frequency of 197.05 MHz [1]. Recently, an upgrade of storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was proposed [2]. This upgrade will provide significant increase in the acceptance of storage RF bucket. Presently, the short bunch length for collisions is obtained via RF gymnastics with bunch rotation (called re-bucketing), because the length of 197MHz bucket of 5 nsec is too short to accommodate long bunches otherwise. However, due to bucket non-linearity and hardware complications some increase in the longitudinal emittance occurs during re-bucketing. The 56MHz cavity will produce sufficiently short bunches which would allow one to operate without re-bucketing procedure. This Note summarizes simulation of beam evolution due to Intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvement is shown both for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and for protons at 250 GeV.

  1. Planck pre-launch status: Low Frequency Instrument calibration and expected scientific performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennella, A.; Bersanelli, M.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Davis, R. J.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; Gregorio, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lowe, S. R.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Meinhold, P.; Mendes, L.; Morgante, G.; Sandri, M.; Stringhetti, L.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Valenziano, L.; Villa, F.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.; Balasini, M.; Franceschet, C.; Battaglia, P.; Lapolla, P. M.; Leutenegger, P.; Miccolis, M.; Pagan, L.; Silvestri, R.; Aja, B.; Artal, E.; Baldan, G.; Bastia, P.; Bernardino, T.; Boschini, L.; Cafagna, G.; Cappellini, B.; Cavaliere, F.; Colombo, F.; de La Fuente, L.; Edgeley, J.; Falvella, M. C.; Ferrari, F.; Fogliani, S.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.; Gomez, F.; Herreros, J. M.; Hildebrandt, S.; Hoyland, R.; Hughes, N.; Jukkala, P.; Kettle, D.; Laaninen, M.; Lawson, D.; Leahy, P.; Levin, S.; Lilje, P. B.; Maino, D.; Malaspina, M.; Manzato, P.; Marti-Canales, J.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Mediavilla, A.; Pasian, F.; Pascual, J. P.; Pecora, M.; Peres-Cuevas, L.; Platania, P.; Pospieszalsky, M.; Poutanen, T.; Rebolo, R.; Roddis, N.; Salmon, M.; Seiffert, M.; Simonetto, A.; Sozzi, C.; Tauber, J.; Tuovinen, J.; Varis, J.; Wilkinson, A.; Winder, F.

    2010-09-01

    We present the calibration and scientific performance parameters of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) measured during the ground cryogenic test campaign. These parameters characterise the instrument response and constitute our optimal pre-launch knowledge of the LFI scientific performance. The LFI shows excellent 1/f stability and rejection of instrumental systematic effects; its measured noise performance shows that LFI is the most sensitive instrument of its kind. The calibration parameters will be updated during flight operations until the end of the mission.

  2. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  3. Performance Expectations for Future Moderate Resolution Visible and Infrared Space Instruments Based on AIRS and MODIS In-Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Broberg, Steven E.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Baron, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Lessons learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) projects highlight areas where further technology development is needed to address future land, ocean and atmospheric measurement needs. Although not established as requirements at this time, it is anticipated that scientists will expect improvements in the areas of spatial, spectral, radiometric, polarimetric, temporal and calibration performance for future sensors. This paper addresses each of these performance areas and provides lessons learned from MODIS and AIRS. We also present expectations in performance of the system based on information from NASA Instrument Incubator Program and industry reports. Tradeoffs are presented vs orbit altitude (LEO, ME0 and GEO) and provide a 'systems' perspective to future measurement concepts.

  4. The Threat of Living up to Expectations: Analyzing the Performance of Hispanic Students on Standardized Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines whether the recognition of stereotypes undermines the academic performance of Hispanic students, a phenomenon known as "stereotype threat." With regard to race, stereotype threat has been examined predominately between African American and White students, yet limited research has investigated how Hispanic…

  5. Product Delivery Expectations: Hanford LAW Product Performance and Acceptance Tanks Focus Area Task

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzscheiter, E.W.

    1999-04-29

    This task has several facets all aimed at providing technical products that will support the immobilization of Hanford's Low Activity Waste. Since this task breaks new ground in developing predictive capability, a review process external to the technical team is critical for acceptance by the technical community and is key to Hanford's Performance Assessment review process.

  6. Leadership Styles and School Performance: Is There a Gender Difference in Expectations for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Iris Denise

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the research on the perceptions of gender differences in leadership styles is explored. The study also attempts to determine whether there are differences in overall school performance for male versus female school principals. The methodology involved a mixed-model ANOVA analysis of findings from 31 principals and 236 teachers…

  7. Leadership Styles and School Performance: Is There a Gender Difference in Expectations for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Iris Denise

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the research on the perceptions of gender differences in leadership styles is explored. The study also attempts to determine whether there are differences in overall school performance for male versus female school principals. The methodology involved a mixed-model ANOVA analysis of findings from 31 principals and 236 teachers…

  8. The Threat of Living up to Expectations: Analyzing the Performance of Hispanic Students on Standardized Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines whether the recognition of stereotypes undermines the academic performance of Hispanic students, a phenomenon known as "stereotype threat." With regard to race, stereotype threat has been examined predominately between African American and White students, yet limited research has investigated how Hispanic…

  9. Site Effect and Expected Seismic Performance of Buildings in Palestine- Case Study: Nablus City

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    2008-07-08

    The effects of local geology on ground-motion amplification and building damage were studied in Palestine-West Bank. Nakamura's method of microtremor analysis was applied in this study. The measurements showed significantly higher amplification in the frequency range of building vulnerability in different parts of Nablus city. This finding is consistent with the distribution of the earthquake damage grades in the urban areas struck by the 11 February 2004 earthquake (ML = 5.2) with a focal depth of 17 km beneath the northeastern part of the Dead Sea Basin. Quite large differences in amplification between around 1 and 9 were computed between the eastern and western rims of the city. The downtown built in the central part of the city on soft clay, marl and valley deposits, whereas the northern and southern parts of urban areas in Nablus city lying on mountains consist of consolidated carbonates bedrock. In the central part of the city and at the rims, where the thickness of fluvial deposits and soft formations is about 15 m, amplifications between 6.74 and 8.67 for dominant natural period range of 0.8-1.1 sec were obtained. On the southern and northern mountains, which are located on limestone rocks covered with a thin layer of soil, the amplification in the same frequency range was low. Calculating the natural period of the existing common buildings (T{sub b}) in the studied area (buildings with 10-12 stories), by using the dynamic analysis method. The values of T{sub b} obtained were much closed to the site dominant natural period (Ts). The findings of this study indicate that the expected differences in damage grades for urban areas in Nablus city could be attributed to variations in the thickness and physical properties of Tertiary-Quaternary sediments, which appear to be rather heterogeneous.

  10. Federated or cached searches: Providing expected performance from multiple invasive species databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Newman, Gregory J.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2011-06-01

    Invasive species are a universal global problem, but the information to identify them, manage them, and prevent invasions is stored around the globe in a variety of formats. The Global Invasive Species Information Network is a consortium of organizations working toward providing seamless access to these disparate databases via the Internet. A distributed network of databases can be created using the Internet and a standard web service protocol. There are two options to provide this integration. First, federated searches are being proposed to allow users to search "deep" web documents such as databases for invasive species. A second method is to create a cache of data from the databases for searching. We compare these two methods, and show that federated searches will not provide the performance and flexibility required from users and a central cache of the datum are required to improve performance.

  11. Federated or cached searches: providing expected performance from multiple invasive species databases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Newman, Gregory J.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are a universal global problem, but the information to identify them, manage them, and prevent invasions is stored around the globe in a variety of formats. The Global Invasive Species Information Network is a consortium of organizations working toward providing seamless access to these disparate databases via the Internet. A distributed network of databases can be created using the Internet and a standard web service protocol. There are two options to provide this integration. First, federated searches are being proposed to allow users to search “deep” web documents such as databases for invasive species. A second method is to create a cache of data from the databases for searching. We compare these two methods, and show that federated searches will not provide the performance and flexibility required from users and a central cache of the datum are required to improve performance.

  12. Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. Final report, July 1, 1986--May 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, R.; O`Gallagher, J.J.

    1992-05-31

    The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This ``multilateral`` project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250{degree}C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

  13. Absorption of scintillation light in a 100 l liquid xenon ?-ray detector and expected detector performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Doke, T.; Grassi, M.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K.; Kikuchi, J.; Maki, A.; Mashimo, T.; Mihara, S.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mori, T.; Nicolò, D.; Nishiguchi, H.; Ootani, W.; Ozone, K.; Papa, A.; Pazzi, R.; Ritt, S.; Sawada, R.; Sergiampietri, F.; Signorelli, G.; Suzuki, S.; Terasawa, K.; Yamashita, M.; Yamashita, S.; Yoshimura, T.; Yuri, Yu.

    2005-06-01

    An 800 l liquid xenon scintillation ?-ray detector is being developed for the MEG experiment which will search for ?+?e+? decay at the Paul Scherrer Institut. Absorption of scintillation light of xenon by impurities might possibly limit the performance of such a detector. We used a 100 l prototype with an active volume of 372×372×496 mm3 to study the scintillation light absorption. We have developed a method to evaluate the light absorption, separately from elastic scattering of light, by measuring cosmic rays and ? sources. By using a suitable purification technique, an absorption length longer than 100 cm has been achieved. The effects of the light absorption on the energy resolution are estimated by Monte Carlo simulation.

  14. Investigating Assessment Bias for Constructed Response Explanation Tasks: Implications for Evaluating Performance Expectations for Scientific Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federer, Meghan Rector

    Assessment is a key element in the process of science education teaching and research. Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment is a major challenge for science education reforms. Prior research has documented several limitations of instrument types on the measurement of students' scientific knowledge (Liu et al., 2011; Messick, 1995; Popham, 2010). Furthermore, a large body of work has been devoted to reducing assessment biases that distort inferences about students' science understanding, particularly in multiple-choice [MC] instruments. Despite the above documented biases, much has yet to be determined for constructed response [CR] assessments in biology and their use for evaluating students' conceptual understanding of scientific practices (such as explanation). Understanding differences in science achievement provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Using the integrative framework put forth by the National Research Council (2012), this dissertation aimed to explore whether assessment biases occur for assessment practices intended to measure students' conceptual understanding and proficiency in scientific practices. Using a large corpus of undergraduate biology students' explanations, three studies were conducted to examine whether known biases of MC instruments were also apparent in a CR instrument designed to assess students' explanatory practice and understanding of evolutionary change (ACORNS: Assessment of COntextual Reasoning about Natural Selection). The first study investigated the challenge of interpreting and scoring lexically ambiguous language in CR answers. The incorporation of 'multivalent' terms into scientific discourse practices often results in statements or explanations that are difficult to interpret and can produce faulty inferences about student knowledge. The results of this study indicate that many undergraduate biology majors frequently incorporate multivalent concepts into explanations of change, resulting in explanatory practices that were scientifically non-normative. However, use of follow-up question approaches was found to resolve this source of bias and thereby increase the validity of inferences about student understanding. The second study focused on issues of item and instrument structure, specifically item feature effects and item position effects, which have been shown to influence measures of student performance across assessment tasks. Results indicated that, along the instrument item sequence, items with similar surface features produced greater sequencing effects than sequences of items with dissimilar surface features. This bias could be addressed by use of a counterbalanced design (i.e., Latin Square) at the population level of analysis. Explanation scores were also highly correlated with student verbosity, despite verbosity being an intrinsically trivial aspect of explanation quality. Attempting to standardize student response length was one proposed solution to the verbosity bias. The third study explored gender differences in students' performance on constructed-response explanation tasks using impact (i.e., mean raw scores) and differential item function (i.e., item difficulties) patterns. While prior research in science education has suggested that females tend to perform better on constructed-response items, the results of this study revealed no overall differences in gender achievement. However, evaluation of specific item features patterns suggested that female respondents have a slight advantage on unfamiliar explanation tasks. That is, male students tended to incorporate fewer scientifically normative concepts (i.e., key concepts) than females for unfamiliar taxa. Conversely, females tended to incorporate more scientifically non-normative ideas (i.e., naive ideas) than males for familiar taxa. Together these results indicate that gender achievement differences for this CR instrument may be a result of differences in how males and females interpret and respond to combinations of item features. Overall, the results presented in the subsequent chapters suggest that as science education shifts toward the evaluation of fused scientific knowledge and practice (e.g., explanation), it is essential that educators and researchers investigate potential sources of bias inherent to specific assessment practices. This dissertation revealed significant sources of CR assessment bias, and provided solutions to address these problems.

  15. Thermal Performance Expectations of the Advanced Stirling Convertor Over a Range of Operating Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Terry V.; Dyson, Rodger W.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) will enable various missions such as small body sample return, atmospheric missions around Venus, as well as long - duration deep space missions. Analysis of the temperature distributions are performed on an Advanced Stirling Convertor, and the results are compared with available experimental measurements. This analysis includes applied environmental conditions that are similar to those that will be experienced while the convertor is in operation. The applied conditions represent a potential mission profile including pre-takeoff sterilization, launch, transit, and return. The results focus on the anticipated peak temperatures of the magnets in the linear alternator. These results confirm that the ASC can support future missions to deep space targets, extreme environment landers, as well as more conventional goals.

  16. Expected performance of an ideal liquid argon neutrino detector with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorel, M.

    2014-10-01

    Scintillation light is used in liquid argon (LAr) neutrino detectors to provide a trigger signal, veto information against cosmic rays, and absolute event timing. In this work, we discuss additional opportunities offered by detectors with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light, that is with light collection efficiencies of about 10-3. We focus on two key detector performance indicators for neutrino oscillation physics: calorimetric neutrino energy reconstruction and neutrino/antineutrino separation in a non-magnetized detector. Our results are based on detailed simulations, with neutrino interactions modelled according to the GENIE event generator, while the charge and light responses of a large LAr ideal detector are described by the Geant4 and NEST simulation tools. A neutrino energy resolution as good as 3.3% RMS for 4 GeV electron neutrino charged-current interactions can in principle be obtained in a large detector of this type, by using both charge and light information. By exploiting muon capture in argon and scintillation light information to veto muon decay electrons, we also obtain muon neutrino identification efficiencies of about 50%, and muon antineutrino misidentification rates at the few percent level, for few-GeV neutrino interactions that are fully contained. We argue that the construction of large LAr detectors with sufficiently high light collection efficiencies is in principle possible.

  17. MIMA, a miniaturized Fourier infrared spectrometer for Mars ground exploration: Part I. Concept and expected performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, G.; Saggin, B.; Fonti, S.; Biondi, D.; Cerulli, P.; De Luca, M.; Altieri, F.; Mattana, A.; Alberti, E.; Marzo, G.; Zasova, L.

    2007-10-01

    The Mars Infrared MApper (MIMA) is a FT-IR miniaturised spectrometer which is being developed for ESA ExoMars Pasteur mission. The Martian Infrared MApper Fourier Spectrometer is designed to provide remote measurements of mineralogy and atmosphere of the scene surrounding a Martian rover and guide it to key targets for detailed in situ measurements by other rover experiments. Among the main scientific objectives of the MIMA instrument are to assist the rover in rock/soils selection for further in-situ investigation and to identify rocks and soils on the Martian surface which provide evidence of past/present biological activity. The instrument is also designed to measure the water vapour abundance and vertical distribution and its diurnal and seasonal variation, dust opacity, optical properties, composition, diurnal and seasonal variation. The instrument is a double pendulum interferometer providing spectra in the 2 - 25 ?m wavelength domain with a resolving power of 1000 at 2 ?m and 80 at 25 ?m. The radiometric performances are SNR > 40 in the near infrared and a NEDe = 0.002 in the thermal region. The instrument design is very compact, with a total mass of 1kg and an average power consumption of 5 W.

  18. The SEIS Experiment for the InSight mission: status and performance expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, David; Lognonne, Philippe; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Laudet, Philippe; De Raucourt, Sébastien; IJpelaan, Frans; Kerjean, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Pont, Gabriel; Sylvestre-Baron, Annick; verdier, Nicolas; Denise, Robert; Feldman, Jason; Hurst, Ken; Klein, Kerry; Giardini, Domenico; Zweifel, Peter; Pike, W. Tom; Calcutt, Simon; Bramanti, Christina

    2015-04-01

    The Insight NASA Discovery mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, will deploy in September 2016 a very broadband seismometer on the Mars surface, SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure). It is a hybrid 3-axes instrument, which encloses 3 very broadband oblique sensors and 3 short period sensors. The sensor assembly and its wind and thermal shield will by deployed on the Mars surface from the Phoenix-like spacecraft by a robotic arm (IDS). The acquisition system will be hosted in the spacecraft warm electronics box, and connected to the deployed sensor assembly by a tether. The SEIS experiment is provided by CNES, the French Space Agency that makes the coordination of a wide consortium including IPGP of Paris (SEIS PI Institution), Imperial College of London, Oxford University, MPS of Göttingen, ETH of Zürich, ISAE from Toulouse and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Pasadena. In addition to the seismometer, the Insight payload will also include a suite of instruments complementary to the seismometer, such as a precision temperature sensor, a micro-barometer, a magnetometer and a wind sensor, making it the first geophysical multi-parameter station on another planet. A heat flow sensor and geodetic measurements will provide additional science measurements, in order to constrain the internal structure of Mars. Several challenges have been overcome to design and realize the planetary seismometer, which will exhibit a noise of about 10-9 m/s2/sqrt(Hz) in its seismic bandwidth bandwidth (0.01-1 Hz) for the very broadband component. These challenges include a very efficient insulation from the external temperature variations, and a finely crafted mechanical design to keep the extreme sensitivity of the seismometer, while allowing enough robustness for the harsh mechanical environment encountered during the launch and landing sequences. Also, specific attention has been paid to understanding the various environment contributions to the noise figure. A discussion will be presented, on how to understand the seismometer performance figure in a changing environment, and how to secure the mission science goals in the challenging environment of the Mars surface.

  19. The Influence of Stimulus Material on Attention and Performance in the Visual Expectation Paradigm: A Longitudinal Study with 3- And 6-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teubert, Manuel; Lohaus, Arnold; Fassbender, Ina; Vierhaus, Marc; Spangler, Sibylle; Borchert, Sonja; Freitag, Claudia; Goertz, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Gudi, Helene; Kolling, Thorsten; Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of stimulus material on attention and expectation learning in the visual expectation paradigm. Female faces were used as attention-attracting stimuli, and non-meaningful visual stimuli of comparable complexity (Greebles) were used as low attention-attracting stimuli. Expectation learning performance…

  20. Analog front-end electronics for the outer layers of the SuperB SVT: Design and expected performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombelli, Luca; Fiorini, Carlo; Nasri, Bayan; Trigilio, Paolo; Citterio, Mauro; Neri, Nicola

    2013-08-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the new SuperB collider will be composed of 6 different detector layers [1]. The innermost layer (L0) will be composed by striplets or pixels [2]; the other 5 detector layers will be double-sided long-strip detectors. The strip geometries and the foreseen hit-rates will change according to the different layers. As a consequence, different optimization of the analog read-out electronics is needed in order to provide high detection-efficiency and low noise level in the different layers. Two readout ASICs are currently developed, one for layers 0-3, another for layers 4 and 5; they differ mainly in the analog front-end. In this work, we present the design and the expected performances of the analog front-end for layers 4 and 5. For these layers, the strip detectors show a very high stray capacitance and high series resistance. In this condition, the noise optimization is our primary concern. A necessary compromise on the best peaking time to achieve an acceptable noise level together with efficiency and timing accuracy has been found. We will present the design of preamplifier and shaper and the results of simulation of noise performance and efficiency (with the expected background rates). In addition, the design of the time-over-threshold and its use to correct the time-walk of the event trigger is discussed as well as the achievable timing accuracy of the circuit.

  1. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    PubMed

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades. PMID:26847254

  2. Documentary effort.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This spring, Virtua Health, the largest health system in Southern New Jersey, launched an innovative campaign aimed at raising overall awareness of its facilities by documenting real-life patients undergoing a variety of experiences (e.g., breast cancer, high-risk pregnancy, spine surgery, and minimally-invasive knee replacement surgery). The effort, called "The Virtua Experience" became a 30-minute hospital documentary that aired on Philadelphia's NBC affiliate this summer. PMID:17048760

  3. [Should the patient with myocardial bridge be advised not to performe extreme sport effort? Case of a patient with troponin I elevation after exercise].

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Krzysztof; O?d?e?ska-Milke, Ewa; Jankowski, ?ukasz; Rzewuska, Ewa; Dul, Przemys?aw; Ilnicka, Edyta; Kobylecka, Ma?gorzata; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of cardiac troponins are an established method of diagnosis of heart muscle necrosis. A case of a long distance amateur-marathon runner, who showed significant elevation of plasma troponin I after extreme physical effort is reported. The diagnostic examinations did not reveal atherosclerosis burden, but myocardial bridging of coronary artery. The authors describe the significance of the pathology in the view of extreme sport effort performed by the described patient. PMID:23180526

  4. The Influences of Course Effort, Mastery and Performance Goals, Grade Expectancies, and Earned Course Grades on Student Ratings of Course Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svanum, Soren; Aigner, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The positive relation between course grades and student ratings of course satisfaction is well established but controversy continues concerning the magnitude, interpretation, and implications of this association. Aims: This study examined the within course relations of a set of variables often implicated as potential contributors to…

  5. The Influences of Course Effort, Mastery and Performance Goals, Grade Expectancies, and Earned Course Grades on Student Ratings of Course Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svanum, Soren; Aigner, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The positive relation between course grades and student ratings of course satisfaction is well established but controversy continues concerning the magnitude, interpretation, and implications of this association. Aims: This study examined the within course relations of a set of variables often implicated as potential contributors to…

  6. Performance in a Computerized Self-Control Task by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca Mulatta"): The Combined Influence of Effort and Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    The variables of delay and effort have been found to influence self-control predictably and in similar fashion when tested independently, but it is unclear how they influence self-control interactively. In the present study, I tested these two variables simultaneously to gain better understanding of their combined influence on self-control. A…

  7. Performance Standards and Employee Effort: Evidence from Teacher Absences. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 15-217

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased accountability pressure in U.S. public schools by threatening to impose sanctions on Title 1 schools that failed to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) in consecutive years. Difference-in-difference estimates of the effect of failing AYP in the first year of NCLB on teacher effort in the…

  8. Performance in a Computerized Self-Control Task by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca Mulatta"): The Combined Influence of Effort and Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    The variables of delay and effort have been found to influence self-control predictably and in similar fashion when tested independently, but it is unclear how they influence self-control interactively. In the present study, I tested these two variables simultaneously to gain better understanding of their combined influence on self-control. A…

  9. Performance Standards and Employee Effort: Evidence from Teacher Absences. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 15-217

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased accountability pressure in U.S. public schools by threatening to impose sanctions on Title 1 schools that failed to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) in consecutive years. Difference-in-difference estimates of the effect of failing AYP in the first year of NCLB on teacher effort in the…

  10. Performance Expectations of Closed-Brayton-Cycle Heat Exchangers in 100-kWe Nuclear Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Performance expectations of closed-Brayton-cycle heat exchangers to be used in 100-kWe nuclear space power systems were forecast. Proposed cycle state points for a system supporting a mission to three of Jupiter s moons required effectiveness values for the heat-source exchanger, recuperator and rejection exchanger (gas cooler) of 0.98,0.95 and 0.97, respectively. Performance parameters such as number of thermal units (Nm), equivalent thermal conductance (UA), and entropy generation numbers (Ns) varied from 11 to 19,23 to 39 kWK, and 0.019 to 0.023 for some standard heat exchanger configurations. Pressure-loss contributions to entropy generation were significant; the largest frictional contribution was 114% of the heat-transfer irreversibility. Using conventional recuperator designs, the 0.95 effectiveness proved difficult to achieve without exceeding other performance targets; a metallic, plate-fin counterflow solution called for 15% more mass and 33% higher pressure-loss than the target values. Two types of gas-coolers showed promise. Single-pass counterflow and multipass cross-counterflow arrangements both met the 0.97 effectiveness requirement. Potential reliability-related advantages of the cross-countefflow design were noted. Cycle modifications, enhanced heat transfer techniques and incorporation of advanced materials were suggested options to reduce system development risk. Carbon-carbon sheeting or foam proved an attractive option to improve overall performance.

  11. Performance Expectations of Closed-Brayton-Cycle Heat Exchangers in 100-kWe Nuclear Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Performance expectations of closed-Brayton-cycle heat exchangers to be used in 100-k We nuclear space power systems were forecast. Proposed cycle state points for a system supporting a mission to three of Jupiter's moons required effectiveness values for the heat-source exchanger, recuperator and rejection exchanger (gas cooler) of 0.98, 0.95, and 0.97, respectively. Performance parameters such as number of thermal units (Ntu), equivalent thermal conductance (UA), and entropy generation numbers (Ns) varied from 11 to 19, 23 to 39 kW/K, and 0.019 to 0.023 for some standard heat exchanger configurations. Pressure-loss contributions to entropy generation were significant; the largest frictional contribution was 114% of the heat transfer irreversibility. Using conventional recuperator designs, the 0.95 effectiveness proved difficult to achieve without exceeding other performance targets; a metallic, plate-fin counterflow solution called for 15% more mass and 33% higher pressure-loss than the target values. Two types of gas-coolers showed promise. Single-pass counterflow and multipass cross-counterflow arrangements both met the 0.97 effectiveness requirement. Potential reliability-related advantages of the cross-counterflow design were noted. Cycle modifications, enhanced heat transfer techniques and incorporation of advanced materials were suggested options to reduce system development risk. Carbon-carbon sheeting or foam proved an attractive option to improve overall performance.

  12. Modeling and Evaluating Pilot Performance in NextGen: Review of and Recommendations Regarding Pilot Modeling Efforts, Architectures, and Validation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Keller, John; Peters, Steve; Small, Ronald; Hutchins, Shaun; Algarin, Liana; Gore, Brian Francis; Hooey, Becky Lee; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen operations are associated with a variety of changes to the national airspace system (NAS) including changes to the allocation of roles and responsibilities among operators and automation, the use of new technologies and automation, additional information presented on the flight deck, and the entire concept of operations (ConOps). In the transition to NextGen airspace, aviation and air operations designers need to consider the implications of design or system changes on human performance and the potential for error. To ensure continued safety of the NAS, it will be necessary for researchers to evaluate design concepts and potential NextGen scenarios well before implementation. One approach for such evaluations is through human performance modeling. Human performance models (HPMs) provide effective tools for predicting and evaluating operator performance in systems. HPMs offer significant advantages over empirical, human-in-the-loop testing in that (1) they allow detailed analyses of systems that have not yet been built, (2) they offer great flexibility for extensive data collection, (3) they do not require experimental participants, and thus can offer cost and time savings. HPMs differ in their ability to predict performance and safety with NextGen procedures, equipment and ConOps. Models also vary in terms of how they approach human performance (e.g., some focus on cognitive processing, others focus on discrete tasks performed by a human, while others consider perceptual processes), and in terms of their associated validation efforts. The objectives of this research effort were to support the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in identifying HPMs that are appropriate for predicting pilot performance in NextGen operations, to provide guidance on how to evaluate the quality of different models, and to identify gaps in pilot performance modeling research, that could guide future research opportunities. This research effort is intended to help the FAA evaluate pilot modeling efforts and select the appropriate tools for future modeling efforts to predict pilot performance in NextGen operations.

  13. Special Report on the "Department of Energy's Efforts to Meet Accountability and Performance Reporting Objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in health and science, and invest in the Nation's energy future. The Department of Energy will receive an unprecedented $38 billion in Recovery Act funding to support a variety of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. The Recovery Act requires transparency and accountability over these funds. To this end, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued guidance requiring the Department to compile and report a wide variety of funding, accounting, and performance information. The Department plans to leverage existing information systems to develop accounting and performance information that will be used by program managers and ultimately reported to Recovery.gov, the government-wide source of Recovery Act information, and to OMB. The Department's iManage iPortal, a system that aggregates information from a number of corporate systems, will serve as the main reporting gateway for accounting information. In addition, the Department plans to implement a methodology or system that will permit it to monitor information reported directly to OMB by prime funding recipients. Furthermore, performance measures or metrics that outline expected outcomes are being developed, with results ultimately to be reported in a recently developed Department-wide system. Because of the significance of funds provided and their importance to strengthening the Nation's economy, we initiated this review to determine whether the Department had taken the steps necessary to ensure that Recovery Act funds can be appropriately tracked and are transparent to the public, and whether the benefits of the expenditures can be properly measured and reported clearly, accurately, and in a timely manner. Although not yet fully mature, we found that the Department's efforts to develop, refine, and apply the control structure needed to ensure accurate, timely, and reliable reporting to be both proactive and positive. We did, however, identify certain issues relating to Recovery Act performance management, accounting and reporting accuracy, and timeliness that should be addressed and resolved. In particular, at the time of our review: (1) Program officials had not yet determined whether existing information systems will be able to process anticipated transaction increases associated with the Recovery Act; (2) System modifications made to the Department's performance management system to accommodate Recovery Act performance measures had not yet been fully tested and verified; (3) The ability of prime and sub-recipients to properly segregate and report both accounting and performance information had not been determined; (4) There was a lack of coordination between Headquarters organizations related to aspects of Recovery Act reporting. For example, we observed that the Offices of Fossil Energy and Program, Analysis and Evaluation were both involved in developing job creation estimates that could yield significantly different results; and, (5) A significant portion (91 of 142, or 64 percent) of the performance measures developed for the Recovery Act activities were not quantifiable. In some instances, Project Operating Plans had not been finalized and we were not able to verify that all needed performance measures had been developed. Furthermore, the Department had not developed specific metrics to measure federal and contractor jobs creation and retention, an essential Recovery Act objective. The Department had devoted a great deal of time and resources to identifying and mitigating Recovery Act-related risks. For example, the Department developed a risk assessment tool that is intended to assist programs in identifying risks that can prevent its Recovery Act projects from meeting their intended goals. We also found that program staff and management officials at multiple levels were actively engaged in designing Recovery Act-related control and accountability programs. These efforts ranged from updating existing information systems to developing matrices designed to ensure that all required reporting and performance elements were addressed. Each of these activities required substantial effort and was accomplished within a relatively short period. Further, we noted that the Office of the Chief Financial Officer had been instrumental in helping impacted program elements identify issues that could adversely affect the Department's ability to execute its accounting, reporting, and performance monitoring responsibilities. While much has been done, additional work is necessary if the Department is to successfully manage Recovery Act-related risks. For example, as previously noted, OMB has issued guidance establishing Recovery Act monitoring and reporting requirements.

  14. Management Practices. U.S. Companies Improve Performance through Quality Efforts. Report to the Honorable Donald Ritter, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. National Security and International Affairs Div.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined the impact of formal total quality management (TQM) practices on the performance of 20 selected U.S. companies that were among the highest-scoring applicants in 1988 and 1989 for the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. Several key indicators used by companies to measure performance were analyzed.…

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories Perspective on Code Development and High Performance Computing Resources in Support of the National HED/ICF Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Clouse, C. J.; Edwards, M. J.; McCoy, M. G.; Marinak, M. M.; Verdon, C. P.

    2015-07-07

    Through its Advanced Scientific Computing (ASC) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) code development efforts, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides a world leading numerical simulation capability for the National HED/ICF program in support of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP). In addition the ASC effort provides high performance computing platform capabilities upon which these codes are run. LLNL remains committed to, and will work with, the national HED/ICF program community to help insure numerical simulation needs are met and to make those capabilities available, consistent with programmatic priorities and available resources.

  16. The Interactive Effects of Consonant and Dissonant Teacher Expectancy and Feedback Communication on Student Performance in a Natural School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Virginia; And Others

    1979-01-01

    High, neutral, and low statements of success expectancy were paired with positive and negative success feedback statements in a reading comprehension experiment. Incongruent combinations such as high success expectancy--negative feedback produced higher comprehension than congruent combinations. Results were interpreted by arousal and attribution…

  17. Structured self-reflection as a tool to enhance perceived performance and maintain effort in adult recreational salsa dancers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of structured self-reflection in community dance classes would influence achievement goal orientations, levels of intrinsic motivation, or perceived dance performance. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic...

  18. The effect of breathing an ambient low‐density, hyperoxic gas on the perceived effort of breathing and maximal performance of exercise in well‐trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ansley, L; Petersen, D; Thomas, A; Gibson, A St Clair; Robson‐Ansley, P; Noakes, T D

    2007-01-01

    Background The role of the perception of breathing effort in the regulation of performance of maximal exercise remains unclear. Aims To determine whether the perceived effort of ventilation is altered through substituting a less dense gas for normal ambient air and whether this substitution affects performance of maximal incremental exercise in trained athletes. Methods Eight highly trained cyclists (mean SD) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) = 69.9 (7.9) (mlO2/kg/min) performed two randomised maximal tests in a hyperbaric chamber breathing ambient air composed of either 35% O2/65% N2 (nitrox) or 35% O2/65% He (heliox). A ramp protocol was used in which power output was incremented at 0.5 W/s. The trials were separated by at least 48 h. The perceived effort of breathing was obtained via Borg Category Ratio Scales at 3‐min intervals and at fatigue. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and minute ventilation (VE) were monitored continuously. Results Breathing heliox did not change the sensation of dyspnoea: there were no differences between trials for the Borg scales at any time point. Exercise performance was not different between the nitrox and heliox trials (peak power output = 451 (58) and 453 (56) W), nor was VO2max (4.96 (0.61) and 4.88 (0.65) l/min) or maximal VE (157 (24) and 163 (22) l/min). Between‐trial variability in peak power output was less than either VO2max or maximal VE. Conclusion Breathing a less dense gas does not improve maximal performance of exercise or reduce the perception of breathing effort in highly trained athletes, although an attenuated submaximal tidal volume and VE with a concomitant reduction in VO2 suggests an improved gas exchange and reduced O2 cost of ventilation when breathing heliox. PMID:17062658

  19. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg?1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (?3.9% ± 1.6% and ?4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (?3.0% ± 1.3% and ?2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  20. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (-3.0% ± 1.3% and -2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  1. Exceeding Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, John

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of expectations is so important in the facilities business. The author's experiences has taught him that it is essential to understand how expectations impact people's lives as well as those for whom they provide services for every day. This article presents examples and ideas that will provide insight and ideas to help educators…

  2. The Role of Teachers' Expectations in the Association between Children's SES and Performance in Kindergarten: A Moderated Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Speybroeck, Sara; Kuppens, Sofie; Van Damme, Jan; Van Petegem, Peter; Lamote, Carl; Boonen, Tinneke; de Bilde, Jerissa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of teachers' expectations in the association between children's socio-economic background and achievement outcomes. Furthermore, the role of children's ethnicity in moderating this mediated relation is investigated. In the present study, 3,948 children from kindergarten are examined. Data are analysed by means of structural equation modeling. First, results show that teachers' expectations mediate the relation between children's SES and their later language and math achievement, after controlling for children's ethnicity, prior achievement and gender. This result indicates that teachers may exacerbate individual differences between children. Second, children's ethnicity moderates the mediation effect of teachers' expectations with respect to math outcomes. The role of teachers' expectations in mediating the relation between SES and math outcomes is stronger for majority children than for minority children. PMID:22506023

  3. Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in acute improvements in mood and cognitive performance during sustained mental effort.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Andrew B; French, Stephen J; Morris, Penelope J; Kennedy, David O; Milne, Anthea L; Haskell, Crystal F

    2010-10-01

    Cocoa flavanols (CF) positively influence physiological processes in ways that suggest their consumption may improve aspects of cognitive function. This study investigated the acute cognitive and subjective effects of CF consumption during sustained mental demand. In this randomized, controlled, double-blinded, balanced, three period crossover trial 30 healthy adults consumed drinks containing 520 mg, 994 mg CF and a matched control, with a three-day washout between drinks. Assessments included the state anxiety inventory and repeated 10-min cycles of a Cognitive Demand Battery comprising of two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Serial Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task and a 'mental fatigue' scale, over the course of 1 h. Consumption of both 520 mg and 994 mg CF significantly improved Serial Threes performance. The 994 mg CF beverage significantly speeded RVIP responses but also resulted in more errors during Serial Sevens. Increases in self-reported 'mental fatigue' were significantly attenuated by the consumption of the 520 mg CF beverage only. This is the first report of acute cognitive improvements following CF consumption in healthy adults. While the mechanisms underlying the effects are unknown they may be related to known effects of CF on endothelial function and blood flow. PMID:19942640

  4. Social Learning versus Attributional Interpretations: The Effect of Task Familiarity on Task Performance Perceptions and Future Success Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triplet, Rodney G.; Cohn, Ellen S.

    1984-01-01

    Attempts to assess whether social learning or attributional theory best accounts for expectancies of future success in college students (N=159) with a modification of a task used by Weiner and Kukla (1970). Results indicated partial support for elements of both the social learning and attribution theories. (LLL)

  5. What Do Hispanic Students Want in a Mentor? A Model of Protégé Cultural Orientation, Mentorship Expectations, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Cody B.; Yang, Yan; Dicke-Bohmann, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of the effects of cultural factors on Hispanic protégés' expectations for and experiences with their mentors. Specifically, the proposed model posits that cultural orientation predicts the mentorship functions protégés desire, and the positive impact of these mentorship functions…

  6. Great Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1993-01-01

    Inside one Washington, DC, elementary school, Principal John Pannell has high hopes for his students and an expansive school vision. Malcolm X School compensates for disorder outside by clearly inculcating rules and behavior expectations. Children in school uniforms daily repeat a motto promoting Malcolm X as a school of love allowing no hitting,…

  7. Development of hydration strategies to optimize performance for athletes in high-intensity sports and in sports with repeated intense efforts.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Shirreffs, S M

    2010-10-01

    Hypohydration - if sufficiently severe - adversely affects athletic performance and poses a risk to health. Strength and power events are generally less affected than endurance events, but performance in team sports that involve repeated intense efforts will be impaired. Mild hypohydration is not harmful, but many athletes begin exercise already hypohydrated. Athletes are encouraged to begin exercise well hydrated and - where opportunities exist - to consume fluid during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. In high-intensity efforts, there is no need, and may be no opportunity, to drink during competition. Most team sports players do not drink enough to match sweat losses, but some drink too much and a few may develop hyponatremia because of excessive fluid intake. Athletes should assess their hydration status and develop a personalized hydration strategy that takes account of exercise, environment and individual needs. Pre-exercise hydration status can be assessed from urine markers. Short-term changes in hydration can be estimated from the change in body mass. Sweat salt losses can be determined by collection and analysis of sweat samples. An appropriate drinking strategy will take account of pre-exercise hydration status and of fluid, electrolyte and substrate needs before, during and after exercise. PMID:20840563

  8. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the model. Motivation variables did account for a portion of the variance in performance, but not in the ways predicted. Increasing the number of subjects in each group and adding the following variables to the model would clarify the role that motivation plays in performance: realistic self-appraisal; perceived competition; and elaboration, organization, and rehearsal strategies. Based on results, the following interventions were recommended to increase undergraduate science performance: assessment in realistic self-appraisal of science skills; instruction in elaboration and organization strategies; and encouragement of intrinsic interest in science.

  9. Performance of p-bulk microstrip sensors under 60Co ? irradiation at rates expected at the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Hara, K.; Kim, S.; Ikegami, Y.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.; Mitsui, S.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    We are developing p-bulk microstrip sensors for the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC accelerator, HL-LHC. The stability of FZ (float zone) wafers available to Hamamatsu Photonics was examined by irradiating them at rates expected at the HL-LHC. They show degradation in the operational voltage at low dose but recover after the dose is accumulated. The instability is dependent on the bias voltage and dose rate, and also on the irradiation history. We have characterized the instability and attributed the cause to the charge concentration at the electrode edge. The strip isolation, which is degraded while in irradiation, is shown not to induce any practical problem for the operation.

  10. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception–action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication. PMID:25400601

  11. Perceived Autonomy-Support, Expectancy, Value, Metacognitive Strategies and Performance in Chemistry: A Structural Equation Model in Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González, Antonio; Paoloni, Paola-Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Research in chemistry education has highlighted a number of variables that predict learning and performance, such as teacher-student interactions, academic motivation and metacognition. Most of this chemistry research has examined these variables by identifying dyadic relationships through bivariate correlations. The main purpose of this study was…

  12. 1985 Interpretive Panel Results: Educators Set Performance Expectations. Assessment Report 13: An Update on the Alaska Statewide Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Evaluation, Assessment and Research.

    In 1985, reading and mathematics achievement tests were administered to nearly 15,000 fourth and eighth graders in Alaska. Educators comprising the Interpretive Panel developed a minimum and a desired level of performance. Scores below the minimum indicated a weakness; scores above it, a strength, and scores between, satisfactory achievement. The…

  13. Teacher Reactions to the Performance-Based Bonus Program: How the Expectancy Theory Works in the South Korean School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Bong-Woon; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine how and to what extent the implementation of the performance-based bonus program in South Korean schools has motivated teachers to improve their behavior, as well as to identify any other positive or negative effects of the program. Interviews with teachers indicated that a large percentage of teachers…

  14. Perceived Autonomy-Support, Expectancy, Value, Metacognitive Strategies and Performance in Chemistry: A Structural Equation Model in Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González, Antonio; Paoloni, Paola-Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Research in chemistry education has highlighted a number of variables that predict learning and performance, such as teacher-student interactions, academic motivation and metacognition. Most of this chemistry research has examined these variables by identifying dyadic relationships through bivariate correlations. The main purpose of this study was…

  15. Adaptive optics at short wavelengths. Expected performance and sky coverage of the FLAO system going toward visible wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapito, Guido; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, Simone

    2014-11-01

    The First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system has been successfully commissioned at the Large Binocular Telescope. It delivers extreme adaptive optics performance using bright natural guide stars reaching 90 % Strehl Ratios in H-band. Observations with current adaptive optics systems are limited to the near infrared wavelengths, in these bands the diffraction limited resolution of the largest ground-based telescopes (8-10 meter class) is comparable to the one of the much smaller Hubble Space Telescope that observes in the visible bands. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of an adaptive optics system designed to achieve very high order correction at visible wavelengths (0.5 to 0.8 ? m) with significant sky coverage. Upgrading the FLAO design with a low noise CCD relaxes the reference magnitude limit needed to achieve greater performance. In particular, we demonstrate that a gain of 1-2 magnitudes is possible by upgrading the wavefront sensor with a very low read out noise CCD. For future AO systems, in addition to low noise CCDs, deformable (secondary) mirrors with a higher actuator density will be able to move the high order correction capability from the near infrared to the visible wavelengths (Strehl Ratio of 80 % in R (0.7 ? m), 60 % in V (0.5 ? m)). We investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the gain in imaging performance obtained at Near Infrared, Visible, and UV wavelengths. The results of these simulations have been used to derive the empirical relation between Strehl Ratio and magnitude of the reference star and we then use this relationship to perform a detailed sky coverage analysis based on astronomical catalog data. The detailed simulations of the Point Spread Functions allow us to compute Ensquared Energy and Strehl Ratio for the magnitude working range of such an Adaptive Optics system. We present the results of the instrumental isoplanatic angle determination. We then used these values to compute the relationship between correction level and the off-axis angle from the reference star. The Strehl Ratio relationship with the reference magnitude and the angular distance provides the information needed to perform the sky-coverage analysis, which demonstrates that the designed system is able to provide V and R bands correction on a not negligible few percent of the sky.

  16. Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health workers’ motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers’ experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers’ motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers attesting to the importance of the salary for motivation. Lessons learned from OPRAS can be utilized in the implementation of P4P and can enhance our knowledge on motivation and performance in the health services in low-income contexts such as Tanzania. PMID:22963317

  17. A Comprehensive Expectancy Motivation Model: Implications for Adult Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kenneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The Comprehensive Expectancy Motivation Model is based on valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory. It describes expectancy motivation as part of a larger process that includes past experience, motivation, effort, performance, reward, and need satisfaction. The model has significant implications for the design, marketing, and delivery of adult…

  18. Simulation of the Expected Performance of a Seamless Scanner for Brain PET Based on Highly Pixelated CdTe Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Mikhaylova, Ekaterina; De Lorenzo, Gianluca; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Kolstein, Machiel; Cañadas, Mario; Arce, Pedro; Calderón, Yonatan; Uzun, Dilber; Ariño, Gerard; Macias-Montero, José Gabriel; Martinez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles; Cabruja, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of the design for a nonconventional PET scanner, the voxel imaging PET (VIP), based on pixelated room-temperature CdTe detectors yielding a true 3-D impact point with a density of 450 channels cm3, for a total 6 336 000 channels in a seamless ring shaped volume. The system is simulated and evaluated following the prescriptions of the NEMA NU 2-2001 and the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results show that the excellent energy resolution of the CdTe detectors (1.6% for 511 keV photons), together with the small voxel pitch (1×1×2 mm3), and the crack-free ring geometry, give the design the potential to overcome the current limitations of PET scanners and to approach the intrinsic image resolution limits set by physics. The VIP is expected to reach a competitive sensitivity and a superior signal purity with respect to values commonly quoted for state-of-the-art scintillating crystal PETs. The system can provide 14 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 3.95% and 21 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 0.73% according to NEMA NU 2-2001 and NEMA NU 4-2008, respectively. The calculated NEC curve has a peak value of 122 kcps at 5.3 kBq/mL for NEMA NU 2-2001 and 908 kcps at 1.6 MBq/mL for NEMA NU 4-2008. The proposed scanner can achieve an image resolution of ~ 1 mm full-width at half-maximum in all directions. The virtually noise-free data sample leads to direct positive impact on the quality of the reconstructed images. As a consequence, high-quality high-resolution images can be obtained with significantly lower number of events compared to conventional scanners. Overall, simulation results suggest the VIP scanner can be operated either at normal dose for fast scanning and high patient throughput, or at low dose to decrease the patient radioactivity exposure. The design evaluation presented in this work is driving the development and the optimization of a fully operative prototype to prove the feasibility of the VIP concept. PMID:24108750

  19. The New Horizons Radio Science Experiment: Expected Performance in Measurements of Pluto's Atmospheric Structure, Surface Pressure, and Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinson, D. P.; Linscott, I.; Woods, W. W.; Tyler, G. L.; Bird, M. K.; Paetzold, M.; Strobel, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    The New Horizons (NH) payload includes a Radio Science Experiment (REX) for investigating key characteristics of Pluto and Charon during the upcoming flyby in July 2015. REX flight equipment augments the NH radio transceiver used for spacecraft communications and tracking. The REX hardware implementation requires 1.6 W and 160 g. This presentation will focus on the final design and the predicted performance of two high-priority observations. First, REX will receive signals from a pair of 70-m antennas on Earth - each transmitting 20 kW at 4.2-cm wavelength - during a diametric radio occultation by Pluto. The data recorded by REX will reveal the surface pressure, the temperature structure of the lower atmosphere, and the surface radius. Second, REX will measure the thermal emission from Pluto at 4.2-cm wavelength during two linear scans across the disk at close range when both the dayside and the nightside are visible, allowing the surface temperature and its spatial variations to be determined. Both scans extend from limb to limb with a resolution of about 10 pixels; one bisects Pluto whereas the second crosses the winter pole. We will illustrate the capabilities of REX by reviewing the method of analysis and the precision achieved in a lunar occultation observed by New Horizons in May 2011. Re-analysis of radio occultation measurements by Voyager 2 at Triton is also under way. More generally, REX objectives include a radio occultation search for Pluto's ionosphere; examination of Charon through both radio occultation and radiometry; a search for a radar echo from Pluto's surface; and improved knowledge of the Pluto system mass and the Pluto-Charon mass ratio from a combination of two-way and one-way Doppler frequency measurements.

  20. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the Cassini launch, JHU/APL's on-station real-time launch contingency activities were implemented. Live news from NASA Select TV of a successful Cassini launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The Cassini launch contingency effort contributed to mission safety and demonstrated successful cooperation between several agencies. .

  1. Role of information systems in controlling costs: the electronic medical record (EMR) and the high-performance computing and communications (HPCC) efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1994-12-01

    On October 18, 1991, the IEEE-USA produced an entity statement which endorsed the vital importance of the High Performance Computer and Communications Act of 1991 (HPCC) and called for the rapid implementation of all its elements. Efforts are now underway to develop a Computer Based Patient Record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the HPCC, and the so-called `Patient Card'. Multiple legislative initiatives which address these and related information technology issues are pending in Congress. Clearly, a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public. Timely and reliable information represents a critical element in any initiative to reform the health care system as well as to protect and improve the health of every person. Appropriately used, information technologies offer a vital means of improving the quality of patient care, increasing access to universal care and lowering overall costs within a national health care program. Health care reform legislation should reflect increased budgetary support and a legal mandate for the creation of a national health care information system by: (1) constructing a National Information Infrastructure; (2) building a Computer Based Patient Record System; (3) bringing the collective resources of our National Laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; and (4) utilizing Government (e.g. DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues.

  2. Inequity responses of monkeys modified by effort.

    PubMed

    van Wolkenten, Megan; Brosnan, Sarah F; de Waal, Frans B M

    2007-11-20

    Without joint benefits, joint actions could never have evolved. Cooperative animals need to monitor closely how large a share they receive relative to their investment toward collective goals. This work documents the sensitivity to reward division in brown, or tufted, capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). In addition to confirming previous results with a larger subject pool, this work rules out several alternative explanations and adds data on effort sensitivity. Thirteen adult monkeys exchanged tokens for rewards, showing negative reactions to receiving a less-favored reward than their partner. Because their negative reaction could not be attributed to the mere visibility of better rewards (greed hypothesis) nor to having received such rewards in the immediate past (frustration hypothesis), it must have been caused by seeing their partner obtain the better reward. Effort had a major effect in that by far the lowest level of performance in the entire study occurred in subjects required to expend a large effort while at the same time seeing their partner receive a better reward. It is unclear whether this effort-effect was based on comparisons with the partner, but it added significantly to the intensity of the inequity response. These effects are as expected if the inequity response evolved in the context of cooperative survival strategies. PMID:18000045

  3. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  4. Behavior, Expectations and Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

    2010-01-01

    We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

  5. Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Non-Clinical Children: Relationships with Self-Report and Performance-Based Measures of Attention and Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; van der Pennen, Els; Sigmond, Rianne; Mayer, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control, and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8-12 years. For this purpose, children completed self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological…

  6. Inefficient effort allocation and negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Julie M; Treadway, Michael T; Bennett, Melanie E; Blanchard, Jack J

    2016-02-01

    Negative symptoms like avolition and anhedonia are thought to involve difficulties with reward processing and motivation. The current study aimed to replicate and extend prior findings that individuals with schizophrenia display reduced willingness to expend effort for rewards and that such reduced effort is associated with negative symptoms, poor functioning, and cognitive impairment. The present study compared the effortful decision making of individuals with schizophrenia (n=48) and healthy controls (n=27) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Individuals with schizophrenia chose a smaller proportion of hard tasks than healthy controls across all probability and reward levels with the exception of trials with a 12% probability and low or medium reward magnitude wherein both groups chose similarly few hard tasks. Contrary to expectations, in individuals with schizophrenia, greater negative symptoms were associated with making more effortful choices. Effortful decision making was unrelated to positive symptoms, depression, cognition, and functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. Our results are consistent with prior findings that revealed a pattern of inefficient decision making in individuals with schizophrenia relative to healthy controls. However the results did not support the hypothesized association of negative symptoms and reduced effort in schizophrenia and highlight prior inconsistencies in this literature. Future research is needed to understand what factors may be related to diminished effortful decision making in schizophrenia and the clinical significance of such performance deficits. PMID:26763628

  7. Psychological components of effort sense.

    PubMed

    Morgan, W P

    1994-09-01

    The perception of effort is multidimensional and it is governed by many physiological, psychological, and experiential factors. This paper deals with a discussion of selected psychological states and traits that are known to be correlated with the expression of effort sense. It has been shown that anxiety, somatic perception, depression, and neuroticism are associated with perceived exertion. Extroversion has been found to be inversely correlated with perceived exertion, and positively correlated with preferred exercise intensity. These empirical findings are congruent with theoretical expectations in each case. It has also been found that perception of effort can be increased and decreased in a systematic manner with various psychological interventions such as hypnotic suggestion, dissociative cognitive strategies, and imagery. Changes in effort sense can also be systematically modified by titrating exercise volume (e.g., overtraining, tapering), and this exercise-induced alteration in perception covaries with affective changes. The research reviewed in this paper supports the conclusion that effort sense is best conceptualized as a complex psychobiological construct as originally proposed by Borg three decades ago. PMID:7808238

  8. Simulation of the expected performance of INSERT: A new multi-modality SPECT/MRI system for preclinical and clinical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busca, P.; Fiorini, C.; Butt, A. D.; Occhipinti, M.; Peloso, R.; Quaglia, R.; Schembari, F.; Trigilio, P.; Nemeth, G.; Major, P.; Erlandsson, K.; Hutton, B. F.

    2014-01-01

    A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (INtegrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus, that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems such as 3 T MRI with 59 cm bore diameter. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes will be developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging, the second one dedicated to clinical imaging. The basic building block of the SPECT detector ring is a small 5 cm×5 cm gamma camera, based on the well-established Anger architecture with a continuous scintillator readout by an array of silicon photodetectors. Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) and Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM) are being considered as possible scintillator readout, considering that the detector choice plays a predominant role for the final performance of the system, such as energy and spatial resolution, as well as the useful field of view of the camera. Both solutions are therefore under study to evaluate their performances in terms of field of view (FOV), spatial and energy resolution. Preliminary simulations for both the preclinical and clinical systems have been carried out to evaluate resolution and sensitivity.

  9. NASA Efforts on Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the field of nanotechnology within the theme of "New efforts in Nanotechnology Research," will be presented. NASA's interest, requirements and current efforts in this emerging field will be discussed. In particular, NASA efforts to develop nanoelectronic devices, fuel cells, and other applications of interest using this novel technology by collaborating with academia will be addressed. Progress on current collaborations in this area with the University of Puerto Rico will be highlighted.

  10. Just What Do You Expect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Philip R.

    1990-01-01

    Boards should clearly establish what is expected of the university president, including the six elements of good leadership: tolerance of freedom, tolerance of uncertainty, the ability to integrate motives and efforts into a meaningful aggregate, the ability to persuade, the ability to represent the institution, and influence with superiors. (MSE)

  11. DETECTION OF TRANSITING JOVIAN EXOPLANETS BY GAIA PHOTOMETRY-EXPECTED YIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Dzigan, Yifat; Zucker, Shay E-mail: shayz@post.tau.ac.il

    2012-07-01

    Several attempts have been made in the past to assess the expected number of exoplanetary transits that the Gaia space mission will detect. In this Letter, we use the updated design of Gaia and its expected performance and apply recent empirical statistical procedures to provide a new assessment. Depending on the extent of the follow-up effort that will be devoted, we expect Gaia to detect from a few hundreds to a few thousands of transiting exoplanets.

  12. Detection of Transiting Jovian Exoplanets by Gaia Photometry—Expected Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzigan, Yifat; Zucker, Shay

    2012-07-01

    Several attempts have been made in the past to assess the expected number of exoplanetary transits that the Gaia space mission will detect. In this Letter, we use the updated design of Gaia and its expected performance and apply recent empirical statistical procedures to provide a new assessment. Depending on the extent of the follow-up effort that will be devoted, we expect Gaia to detect from a few hundreds to a few thousands of transiting exoplanets.

  13. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  14. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  15. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the Breckinridge Project and summarizes the results achieved during the development phase of the project performed under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy. The Breckinridge Project provides for the design, construction and operation of a 50,000 barrel per day coal liquefaction facility in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. The development of the basic technology used in the Breckinridge Project dates back to the late 1950's and the invention by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., (HRI) of the ebullated-bed reactor and the H-OIL process. The H-COAL process is based on the H-OIL technology. This coal liquefaction process produces clean low-sulfur petroleum substitutes suitable for most types of hydrocarbon-based fuel and chemical uses regardless of the sulfur content of the coal. A large H-COAL Pilot Plant in operation at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, is converting 220 tons of coal per day into 600 barrels of distillate products by catalytic hydrogenation. The estimated capital cost of the commercial facility is $3.17 billion, and the associated out-of-pocket operating cost is $18 per barrel, both in January 1981 dollars. Financial analysis shows the project to be an attractive investment under certain leveraged conditions which are possible through the assistance of the Synthetic Fuels Corporation. Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. is currently working with the Synthetic Fuels Corporation and potential partners to develop financing for the commercial venture. Critical permits are being obtained and an Environmental Impact Statement is being prepared pursuant to initiating site preparation in early 1983. Commercial operations are expected to start up in early 1988.

  16. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko

    2015-07-01

    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of "action values," which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke. PMID:25948869

  17. High Performance Computing and Communications: New Program Direction Would Benefit from a More Focused Effort. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Information Management Div.

    The House Armed Services Committee asked the GAO (General Accounting Office) to examine the HPCC (High Performance Computing and Communications) program in terms of: (1) the effectiveness of the program's management structure in setting goals and measuring progress, and (2) how extensively private industry has been involved in the planning and…

  18. Expectancy in Rapid Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, James V.

    This paper briefly reviews how subjects enhance performance by favoring some stimuli over others. The author calls the mechanism by which this is achieved "expectancy", a generic term including preparatory set, behavioral hypotheses, orienting reflex, and anticipatory goal responses. Temporal and event expectancy are contrasted. Verbal prediction…

  19. Army thermophotovoltaic efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, John S.; Guazzoni, Guido; Nawrocki, Selma J.

    1999-03-01

    A presentation and description of the several efforts in Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) Energy Conversion for power generation supported/monitored by the Army is provided with their more recent technical status and results. The efforts are related to small business (SBIR, STTR) contracts, academic research grants (MURI), and contracts awarded as the result of specialized solicitations. This paper covers a number of Army potential uses of the TPV power generation and is an attempt to give a more cohesive and integrated picture of the various military interests in TPV. With the exception of low power (<10 W) units, all Army potential uses of TPV power sources will demand operation with logistically available fuels.

  20. Measuring Cycling Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the basic mechanics of cycling with a simple reckoning of how much effort is needed from the cyclist. The work done by the cyclist is quantified when the ride is on the flat and also when pedaling uphill. Proves that by making use of the available gears on a mountain bike, cycling uphill can be accomplished without pain. (Author/ASK)

  1. The Ideal Promotion Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward L.

    The ideal promotional effort for an educational television (ETV) station is dependent on a professional approach to the problem. This means that each ETV station should employ a public relations manager and should keep him informed about all major station decisions. The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) has a campaign of its own to bring attention…

  2. Glioblastoma: changing expectations?

    PubMed

    Arribas Alpuente, Leoncio; Menéndez López, Antonio; Yayá Tur, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) represents the most aggressive glioma in the adult population. Despite recent research efforts, the prognosis of patients with GB has remained dismal. Lately, the knowledge of genetic information about gliomagenesis has increased; we even have a classification of the genetic expression of the tumour. The main problem is that at the moment we do not have any therapeutical resources to help us better treat these tumours, as we can do, with others tumours like breast, lung and colorectal cancer. We have also improved on diagnostic imaging, especially with the new MRI sequences; we can now better define the characteristics of the tumour area and the surrounding brain structures, allowing us to adjust resections. Thanks to the most advanced surgery techniques, such as neuronavigation, intraoperative control of the nervous function and the tumour volume, the neurosurgeon is able to complete tumour exeresis with less morbidity. These imaging techniques allow the radiation oncologist to better contour the irradiation target volume, the structures and the organs at risk, to diminish the irradiation of apparently healthy tissue. Nowadays, knowledge of brain stem cells provides new expectations for future treatments. Novel targeted agents such as bevacizumab, imatinib, erlotinib, temsirolimus, immunotherapy, cilengitide, talampanel, etc. are helping classical chemotherapeutic agents, like temozolomide, to achieve an increase in overall survival. The main objective is to improve median overall survival, which is currently between 9 and 12 months, with a good quality of life, measured by the ability to carry out daily life activities. PMID:21493184

  3. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  4. What Do Hispanic Students Want in a Mentor? A Model of Protégé Cultural Orientation, Mentorship Expectations, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Cody B.; Yang, Yan; Dicke-Bohmann, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of the effects of cultural factors on Hispanic protégés' expectations for and experiences with their mentors. Specifically, the proposed model posits that cultural orientation predicts the mentorship functions protégés desire, and the positive impact of these mentorship functions…

  5. Dissociations between Expectancy and Performance in Simple and Two-Choice Reaction-Time Tasks: A Test of Associative and Nonassociative Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Louise C.; Livesey, Evan J.

    2010-01-01

    Perruchet, Cleeremans, and Destrebecqz (2006) reported a striking dissociation between trends in the conscious expectancy of an event and the speed of a response that is cued by that event. They argued that this indicates the operation of independent processes in human associative learning. However, there remains a strong possibility that this…

  6. Expectation and conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Adelle C. F.; Alstrøm, Preben

    2001-02-01

    We present a dynamical model that embodies both classical and instrumental conditioning paradigms in the same framework. The model is based on the formation of expectations of stimuli and of rewards. The expectations of stimuli are formed in a recurrent process called expectation learning in which one activity pattern evokes another. The expectation of rewards or punishments (motivation) is modelled using reinforcement learning.

  7. The population problem and family planning effort.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, A C

    1972-12-01

    A discussion of any aspect of family planning must include an evaluation of the current demographic situation and the prospects for the future. With the rate of population growth in developing countries between 2-5% per annum and the drastic reduction in mortality accepted as a positive goal under any circumstances, it becomes evident that the only way to contain the population growth is by fertility control. It was the recognition of this need to contain the population by controlling their fertility which brought about India's adoption of family planning as an officially sponsored program as early as 1951. The goals and efforts have increased in each Five Year Plan. The initial emphasis on the "clinical approach" which expected the people to visit the clinics and avail themselves of the family planning services changed to the "extension approach" in 1963 which brought the advice and services to the people. The program now aims at promoting voluntary acceptance by individuals of 1 or more methods of contraception through a process of education and motivation. Regarding the national perspective, a comprehensive Bill liberalizing abortion has already been passed by the Parliament, and efforts are being made to raise the legal age of marriage from 16 to 18 for women. Concerning performance, 9.11 million sterilizations and 3.94 million IUD insertions have been performed since August 1971. A rise in the use of conventional contraceptives has also been noted. The current pressing problem is one of motivating and educating the millions of illiterate rural people towards family planning. Even if this were possible, the subsequent problem of providing them with the family planning services is formidable. Other problems are the continuation of social and psychological barriers which block the efforts of those promoting family planning, and the fact that 2 often conflicting facets of the family planning effort, the national good and the interest of the individual, need to be reconciled. Emphasis must be given to educating and motivating young couples toward birth spacing well before they marry. Voluntary organizations can help in motivating the public, and this help is needed for success depends on how best and how soon the individual can be motivated towards the common goal. PMID:12179385

  8. [Expectations and service performance of social psychiatry services in free Saxony. An analysis of viewpoints of psychiatric practice and clinical specialists and coworkers of social psychiatric services].

    PubMed

    Kallert, T W; Leisse, M; Kreiner, B; Bach, O

    1997-10-01

    After the "Polyclinic system" that had predominated in the GDR had been dismantled, a far-reaching restructuring of the complementary psychiatric care sector became necessary. In the State of Saxony, comprehensive establishment of a homogeneous home-visit outpatient service is the first building block in an interlinked system of regionalized community psychiatry. Based on about 20 years of experience in the Federal States of the FRG, this function is fulfilled by social psychiatry services (SPS). The present study investigates the expectations of free-practising psychiatrists (n = 165), doctors in psychiatric hospitals (n = 95) and staff of social psychiatry services (n = 138) throughout the State of Saxony in respect of available care and the way these new care structures work. The results are approximately representative owing to the high rate of responses in an anonymous postal survey of three specified groups (48.5%, 67.4%, 84.0%). All the groups surveyed expected that the clientel to be looked after by SPS will chiefly consist of the group of chronically mentally ill persons. Moreover, the consistently expressed expectations as to the central care/therapy to be provided by SPS can be summarised as the core of directly client-oriented SPS work. This consists of the elements "welfare work", "individual and institutionalised social therapy", and "help in administrative measures". The main differences between the two groups of doctors is that free-practising psychiatrists more often expect a large SPS involvement with regard to social therapy provided at an institutional level, whereas hospital doctors expect this with regard to medical therapies in the strict sense. Hospital doctors have greater expectations that SPS will also fulfil further functions: work with relatives, public relations, establishment of a crisis service and running self-help groups. The expectations of SPS staff with regard to the therapy they should provide themselves exceed what has already been currently achieved in all sectors. A detailed analysis of contents is also presented in this article. Besides improved staffing, SPS employees state that eliminating internal organisational and postgraduate training deficits are two major requirements for stabilization of their work. Appraisals of the quality of care for the chronically mentally ill in the outpatient complementary sector requested by hospital doctors and SPS staff in comparison with former provision structures in the GDR, show deterioration in the economic security of patients as well as of possibilities available in occupational rehabilitation. On the other hand, there are some improvements in the training of specialist staff whereas protection of the personality rights of patients as well as care measures are now free from ideological bias. These are crucial prerequisites for an update individualised, need-orientated therapeutic procedure. To counteract overburdening of the SPS with expectations of care and to enable a more unequivocal positioning of its structure in a complex system of psychosocial care, further need-orientated development and establishment of psychiatric facilities close to the community concerned, are urgently required, a least as far as the State of Saxony is concerned. PMID:9445839

  9. Illustration of sampling-based approaches to the calculation of expected dose in performance assessments for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD.

    2007-04-01

    A deep geologic repository for high level radioactive waste is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. As mandated in the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated public health and safety standards (i.e., 40 CFR Part 197) for the YM repository, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has promulgated licensing standards (i.e., 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc.) consistent with 40 CFR Part 197 that the DOE must establish are met in order for the YM repository to be licensed for operation. Important requirements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. relate to the determination of expected (i.e., mean) dose to a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) and the incorporation of uncertainty into this determination. This presentation describes and illustrates how general and typically nonquantitive statements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. can be given a formal mathematical structure that facilitates both the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI and the appropriate separation in this calculation of aleatory uncertainty (i.e., randomness in the properties of future occurrences such as igneous and seismic events) and epistemic uncertainty (i.e., lack of knowledge about quantities that are poorly known but assumed to have constant values in the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI).

  10. Overlapping neural systems represent cognitive effort and reward anticipation.

    PubMed

    Vassena, Eliana; Silvetti, Massimo; Boehler, Carsten N; Achten, Eric; Fias, Wim; Verguts, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Anticipating a potential benefit and how difficult it will be to obtain it are valuable skills in a constantly changing environment. In the human brain, the anticipation of reward is encoded by the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and Striatum. Naturally, potential rewards have an incentive quality, resulting in a motivational effect improving performance. Recently it has been proposed that an upcoming task requiring effort induces a similar anticipation mechanism as reward, relying on the same cortico-limbic network. However, this overlapping anticipatory activity for reward and effort has only been investigated in a perceptual task. Whether this generalizes to high-level cognitive tasks remains to be investigated. To this end, an fMRI experiment was designed to investigate anticipation of reward and effort in cognitive tasks. A mental arithmetic task was implemented, manipulating effort (difficulty), reward, and delay in reward delivery to control for temporal confounds. The goal was to test for the motivational effect induced by the expectation of bigger reward and higher effort. The results showed that the activation elicited by an upcoming difficult task overlapped with higher reward prospect in the ACC and in the striatum, thus highlighting a pivotal role of this circuit in sustaining motivated behavior. PMID:24608867

  11. Navy superconductivity efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  12. Attitudes and expectations of producers to the use of a microcomputer-based management information system to monitor dairy herd performance

    PubMed Central

    Lissemore, Kerry D.; Leslie, Ken E.; Martin, S. Wayne; Menzies, Paula I.; Meek, Alan H.

    1992-01-01

    The attitudes and expectations of producers toward the use of a microcomputer-based herd management information system were assessed. The study was conducted over a two-year period, beginning in January 1986, and was operated as a bureau service. The implementation and use of the program are described elsewhere. Pre- and posttrial questionnaires were administered to assess producer attitudes. We found that the monthly analysis reports were used in the management of the dairy farms and were found to be a useful management tool. The majority of producers indicated a willingness to pay, on average, $6.86/cow/year for such a service. PMID:17423946

  13. Expecting the Best

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaula, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational expectations are psychological constructs that change over time and can be altered or influenced by various factors. The concept of educational expectations refers to how much schooling students realistically believe that they will complete. These expectations are eventually raised or lowered as students see others like themselves…

  14. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action. PMID:21734862

  15. Preparing for TESS: What to Expect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.

    2015-08-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will launch in 2017 as a NASA Explorer mission, and will discover hundreds of new small planets transiting nearby, bright stars. As has been the case with Kepler, understanding and limiting systematic noise sources will be key to squeezing the best photometric precision out of the TESS instrument. I will describe our efforts at MIT to minimize such systematics, speaking both generally and in regard to one very specific challenge: mitigating the scourge of cosmic rays passing through TESS's thick CCD detectors. I will present the current data collection strategy and its expected performance in light of these known error sources, and I will share detailed simulations of what the TESS survey data will be like. Harnessing the unique opportunity offered by this focus meeting, I hope to solicit feedback from the ExoStats community on what additional lessons from Kepler should be considered in advance of the launch of TESS.

  16. Implementation of the Performance Management System (PMS) in Senior Secondary Schools in Botswana: An Investigation of Senior Management Team's Expected Benefits of the PMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulawa, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Different forms of the performance management system have been implemented in many countries for some years. As in other countries, in 1999 the government of Botswana took a decision to implement a performance management system (PMS) across the entire public service including schools. The government explained the purpose for which this reform was…

  17. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  18. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Motivation of Mental Versus Physical Effort

    PubMed Central

    Daunizeau, Jean; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Mental and physical efforts, such as paying attention and lifting weights, have been shown to involve different brain systems. These cognitive and motor systems, respectively, include cortical networks (prefronto-parietal and precentral regions) as well as subregions of the dorsal basal ganglia (caudate and putamen). Both systems appeared sensitive to incentive motivation: their activity increases when we work for higher rewards. Another brain system, including the ventral prefrontal cortex and the ventral basal ganglia, has been implicated in encoding expected rewards. How this motivational system drives the cognitive and motor systems remains poorly understood. More specifically, it is unclear whether cognitive and motor systems can be driven by a common motivational center or if they are driven by distinct, dedicated motivational modules. To address this issue, we used functional MRI to scan healthy participants while performing a task in which incentive motivation, cognitive, and motor demands were varied independently. We reasoned that a common motivational node should (1) represent the reward expected from effort exertion, (2) correlate with the performance attained, and (3) switch effective connectivity between cognitive and motor regions depending on task demand. The ventral striatum fulfilled all three criteria and therefore qualified as a common motivational node capable of driving both cognitive and motor regions of the dorsal striatum. Thus, we suggest that the interaction between a common motivational system and the different task-specific systems underpinning behavioral performance might occur within the basal ganglia. PMID:22363208

  19. UV RESEARCH - FUNDED AND IN HOUSE EFFORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management research Laboratory (NRMRL) has performed or funded limited in-house and extramural research on the disinfection of CCL listed organisms using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In addition, multiple extramural efforts have been funded to assess operation...

  20. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because smokers need to be aware of the dangers of smoking. Health education projects and public information should address the hazards of smoking and discourage smoking from becoming the social norm. PMID:12314496

  1. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  2. When is irony effortful?

    PubMed

    Spotorno, Nicola; Noveck, Ira A

    2014-08-01

    Whereas some studies indicate that ironic-as opposed to literal-readings of utterances take longer to process, others indicate that the 2 are processed at comparable speeds. We propose that mindreading processes are at least partly responsible for the mixed results, as we present 3 experiments that include stories having a target utterance with either an Ironic or Literal reading. Experiment 1 replicates earlier findings (Spotorno, Koun, Prado, Van Der Henst, & Noveck, 2012) showing that ironic readings take longer than literal ones when fillers include decoys, stories that call for an ironic remark but present a banal utterance instead and thus diffuse participants' expectations for irony. Starting with Experiment 2, decoys are removed, leading to effects that are arguably revealing of Theory of Mind processes. One is an Early-Late effect, which occurs when ironic utterances are read as readily as literal ones in the 2nd half of an experimental session, creating "mixed" results in the laboratory. In Experiment 3, we further added antecedents before a critical event so that, later, the target utterance would be echoing an explicitly stated thought and would facilitate irony comprehension (Gibbs, 1986; Sperber & Wilson, 1981). Results reveal an Early-Late effect here, too. Further evidence of Theory of Mind activity follows from analyses of participants' Social Skill subscale scores in the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin, & Clubley, 2001). Socially inclined participants are more likely than the socially disinclined to use a story's negative event to portend the arrival of an irony; in contrast, socially disinclined participants appear more reactive than the socially inclined to explicit antecedents. PMID:24773194

  3. A Superintendent's High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

  4. Outside the Expected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dienstfrey, Harris

    1968-01-01

    In examining the findings of "Pygmalion in the Classroom," an experimental study of the positive effects of favorable teacher expectations on the intellectual development of disadvantaged elementary school students, this review speculates about why the experimental students, whom the teachers expected to improve, and the control students, who were…

  5. Reflections on Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santini, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf…

  6. An Unexpected Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)

  7. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  8. Modeling the Surface Composition of 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Expected Performance of the VIRTIS-M Spectrometer Onboard the Rosetta Spacecraft.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raponi, A.; Ciarniello, M.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft will encounter comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in the second half of 2014. The present study investigates the capabilities of the VIRTIS-M imaging spectrometer onboard Rosetta to detect and characterize the cometary nucleus surface composition; this is one of the major scientific objectives of the spectrometer that covers the range 0.25-5 ?m. A radiative transfer model is applied to mixtures of plausible endmembers to determine the spectral radiance as a function of the observing conditions. We simulated surfaces composed of different types of ices mixtures assuming areal or intimate mixing. For the time being, we have assumed mixtures including water ice, carbon dioxide ice and methanol, but a wide range organics and other compounds (of known optical constants) can be used to generate mixtures. The ices are mixed with a dark opaque featureless component, having a spectral reflectance derived from the dark terrains of Tempel 1 as detected from HRII aboard Deep Impact. The I/F spectra for the areal and intimate mixing are calculated using Hapke's model. The VIRTIS-M Simulator is an essential tool to calculate the instrumental signal / noise ratio (S/N) for different input signals and different observing conditions in which the spectrometer will operate during the mission. Its main aim is to obtain the optimal integration time, which allows to reach the best S/N while avoiding the saturation. Given a radiance in input, the simulator's output is the retrieved error on the signal. Moreover, given the heliocentric distance, it calculates the reflectance with its error.. Detection criteria for the various icy components are based on the evaluation of the error on the band area of diagnostic absorption features. As expected, factors that increase the detectability of a spectral feature for a given endmember are: 1) longer integration time; 2) larger endmember abundance; 3) areal mixing with the dark terrain; 4) shorter heliocentric distance. On the other hand, if the signal is too high there is the possibility to reach saturation. Therefore, the simulator, allows to identify the optimal integration time for balancing the other factors. Finally, we plan to use the simulator to identify detection limits for the various components of the surface during the various phases of the mission.

  9. Is Effort Praise Motivational? The Role of Beliefs in the Effort-Ability Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Ng, Yee-lam

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how beliefs in the effort-ability relationship moderated the effects of effort praise on student motivation. Study 1 showed that the more the participants believed that effort and ability were related positively (the positive rule) versus related negatively (the inverse rule), the more they would have positive…

  10. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  11. Expected Performance of the GLAST Burst Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Meegan, Charles; Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Kienlin, Andreas von; Lichti, Giselher; Steinle, Helmut; Kippen, R. Marc

    2008-05-22

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage from the LAT threshold down to {approx}8 keV, and will provide a trigger for re-orienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from selected bursts outside the LAT field of view. GBM consists of twelve NaI scintillation detectors operating in the 8 keV to 1 MeV energy range and two BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 150 keV to 30 MeV energy range. Detector resolution, effective area, and angular response have been determined by calibrations. Analyses indicate that the on-board burst threshold will be {approx}0.7 photons cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the on-board burst localization accuracy will typically be better than 8 deg.

  12. Parenting with High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

    2014-01-01

    In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

  13. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  14. Maintaining High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  15. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Andrew; Braver, Todd S

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  16. Space expectations: Latest survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitt, David; Swan, Cathy; Swan, Peter; Woods, Arthur

    2010-11-01

    At the 59th IAC in Glasgow, a paper was presented describing two studies being carried out by Commission VI of the International Academy of Astronautics on the impact of space activities upon society. One of these studies sought to discover the hopes, aspirations and expectations of those outside the space field - the person in the street - regarding space activities. The paper reviewed the thought processes and decisions leading up to the commencement of the survey, documented the reasoning behind the questions which the public were; described the efforts to translate the questionnaire into the six Unesco languages to achieve wider participation, and provided an overview of results to date. This present paper provides an update on this Space Expectations survey as the study comes to a close. The paper briefly discusses the addition of new languages for the questionnaire and the drive to make the survey better known and encourage participation worldwide, before going on to provide a detailed analysis of the latest results of opinions. Insights include respondent's thoughts regarding the visions and costs of space activities, how much people feel part of them and whether and how they would like to be more involved.

  17. A Study of Expectations and the Marital Quality of Participants of a Marital Enrichment Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Lee J.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Frousakis, Nikki N.; Schumm, Jeremiah A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the effects of expectations of effort of self and spouse on the marital quality of marital enrichment seminar participants. Self-report measures of marital quality, expectations regarding effort put into implementing what was learned during the seminar, amount of perceived effort, and satisfaction with effort…

  18. The interactive effect of achievement motivation and task difficulty on mental effort.

    PubMed

    Capa, Rémi L; Audiffren, Michel; Ragot, Stéphanie

    2008-11-01

    The interactive effect of achievement motivation and task difficulty on invested mental effort, postulated by Humphreys and Revelle [Humphreys, M.S., Revelle, W., 1984. Personality, motivation, and performance: a theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing. Psychol. Rev. 91, 153-184], was examined using behavioral, subjective, and effort-related physiological measures. Eighteen approach-driven participants and 18 avoidance-driven participants were selected based on their motive to achieve success scores and their motive to avoid failure scores. A 2x3 factorial design was used, with three levels of task difficulty. As expected, approach-driven participants performed better and had a stronger decrease of midfrequency band of heart rate variability than avoidance-driven participants, especially during the difficult task. These results support the interactive effect of achievement motivation and task difficulty on invested mental effort. PMID:18627781

  19. Patient Expectations and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Surgery: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Jennifer; McGlinn, Evan P.; Sears, Erika Davis; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent events in healthcare reform have brought national attention to integrating patient experiences and expectations into quality metrics. Few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effect of patient expectations on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following surgery. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the available literature describing the relationship between patient expectations and postoperative PROs. Methods We performed a search of the literature published prior to November 1, 2012. Articles were included in the review if 1) primary data were presented 2) patient expectations regarding a surgical procedure were measured 3) PROs were measured, and 4) the relationship between patient expectations and PROs was specifically examined. PROs were categorized into five subgroups: satisfaction, quality of life (QOL), disability, mood disorder, and pain. We examined each study to determine the relationship between patient expectations and PROs as well as study quality. Results From the initial literature search yielding 1,708 studies, 60 articles were included. Fulfillment of expectations was associated with improved PROs among 24 studies. Positive expectations were correlated with improved PROs for 28 (47%) studies, and poorer PROs for 9 (15%) studies. Eighteen studies reported that fulfillment of expectations was correlated with improved patient satisfaction, and 10 studies identified that positive expectations were correlated with improved postoperative QOL. Finally, patients with positive preoperative expectations reported less pain (8 studies) and disability (15 studies) compared with patients with negative preoperative expectations. Conclusions Patient expectations are inconsistently correlated with PROs following surgery, and there is no accepted method to capture perioperative expectations. Future efforts to rigorously measure expectations and explore their influence on postoperative outcomes can inform clinicians and policy-makers seeking to integrate PROs into measures of surgical quality. PMID:24787107

  20. Learning to minimize efforts versus maximizing rewards: computational principles and neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Skvortsova, Vasilisa; Palminteri, Stefano; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2014-11-19

    The mechanisms of reward maximization have been extensively studied at both the computational and neural levels. By contrast, little is known about how the brain learns to choose the options that minimize action cost. In principle, the brain could have evolved a general mechanism that applies the same learning rule to the different dimensions of choice options. To test this hypothesis, we scanned healthy human volunteers while they performed a probabilistic instrumental learning task that varied in both the physical effort and the monetary outcome associated with choice options. Behavioral data showed that the same computational rule, using prediction errors to update expectations, could account for both reward maximization and effort minimization. However, these learning-related variables were encoded in partially dissociable brain areas. In line with previous findings, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was found to positively represent expected and actual rewards, regardless of effort. A separate network, encompassing the anterior insula, the dorsal anterior cingulate, and the posterior parietal cortex, correlated positively with expected and actual efforts. These findings suggest that the same computational rule is applied by distinct brain systems, depending on the choice dimension-cost or benefit-that has to be learned. PMID:25411490

  1. Shared Expectations for Protection of Identifiable Health Care Information

    PubMed Central

    Wynia, Matthew K; Coughlin, Steven S; Alpert, Sheri; Cummins, Deborah S; Emanuel, Linda L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Ethical Force Program is a collaborative effort to create performance measures for ethics in health care. This report lays out areas of consensus that may be amenable to performance measurement on protecting the privacy, confidentiality and security of identifiable health information. DESIGN Iterative consensus development process. PARTICIPANTS The program's oversight body and its expert panel on privacy include national leaders representing the perspectives of physicians, patients, purchasers, health plans, hospitals, and medical ethicists as well as public health, law, and medical informatics experts. METHODS AND MAIN RESULTS The oversight body appointed a national Expert Advisory Panel on Privacy and Confidentiality in September 1998. This group compiled and reviewed existing norms, including governmental reports and legal standards, professional association policies, private organization statements and policies, accreditation standards, and ethical opinions. A set of specific and assessable expectations for ethical conduct in this domain was then drafted and refined through 7 meetings over 16 months. In the final 2 iterations, each expectation was graded on a scale of 1 to 10 by each oversight body member on whether it was: (1) important, (2) universally applicable, (3) feasible to measure, and (4) realistic to implement. The expectations that did not score more than 7 (mean) on all 4 scales were reconsidered and retained only if the entire oversight body agreed that they should be used as potential subjects for performance measurement. Consensus was achieved on 34 specific expectations. The expectations fell into 8 content areas, addressing the need for transparency of policies and practices, consent for use and disclosure of identifiable information, limitations on information that can be collected and by whom, individual access to one's own health records, security requirements for storage and transfer of information, provisions to ensure ongoing data quality, limitations on how identifiable information may be used, and provisions for meaningful accountability. CONCLUSIONS This process established consensus on 34 measurable ethical expectations for the protection of privacy and confidentiality in health care. These expectations should apply to any organization with access to personally identifiable health information, including managed care organizations, physician groups, hospitals, other provider organizations, and purchasers. Performance measurement on these expectations may improve accountability across the health care system. PMID:11251761

  2. Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-08

    This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

  3. Dynamics with Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glance, Natalie Sandrine

    The study of dynamics with expectations is relevant whenever the entities or "agents" comprising a complex system take into account possible future states when making decisions in the present. Goal-seeking agents form plans to achieve their ends based on their knowledge of causes, their memory of the past, their predictions for the future, as well as on their biases and their beliefs. A dynamical formulation of agent interactions requires a different approach when the behavior of the entities depends on their beliefs and knowledge as well as on the rules governing the evolution of the system. The agents' predictions for the future must enter explicitly into the dynamical rules governing the evolution of the system. This thesis examines the behavior of two dynamical systems in particular. The first, referred to as a computational ecosystem, is composed of a collection of processes, or agents, that compete among themselves for limited resources. The analytical tools of nonlinear dynamics and the modern-day aid of numerical integration via computer are employed to map out the behavioral regimes of the system first when the external environment changes over time, and second when the individual agents incorporate expectations about the future into their decisions. In the second part, a system composed of interacting agents whose individual goals conflict with the overall good of the group is studied both analytically and through computer simulations. It is shown how spontaneous cooperation can be achieved if the agents take into account their expectations about the future when making their choices in the present. Further, the system can remain trapped in a metastable state for long periods of time; eventually, rare large fluctuations occur due to uncertain information that can cause a transition to the global equilibrium. The effects of ultrametric group structure and diversity on the dynamics of cooperation are also elucidated. Specifically, it is seen how the interplay between evolving group structure and the number of agents cooperating introduces new dynamical pathways to cooperation.

  4. An investigation of gender and grade-level differences in middle school students' attitudes about science, in science process skills ability, and in parental expectations of their children's science performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Terri Renee'

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine different variables (i.e. science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation for their children in science, which may impinge on science education differently for males and females in grades five, seven, and nine. The research question addressed by the study was: What are the differences between science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation in science on the academic success of fifth, seventh, and ninth graders in science and do effects differ according to gender and grade level? The subjects included fifth, seven, and ninth grade students ( n = 543) and their parents (n = 474) from six rural, public elementary schools and two rural, public middle schools in Southern Mississippi. A two-way (grade x gender) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences in science process skill abilities of females and males in grade five, seven, and nine. An additional separate two-way multivariate analysis of variance (grade x gender) was also used to determine the differences in science attitudes of males and females in grade five, seven, and nine. A separate analysis of variance (PPSEX [parent's gender]) with the effects being parents' gender was used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. An additional separate analysis of variance (SSEX [student's gender]) with the effects being the gender of the student was also used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. Results of the analyses indicated significant main effects for grade level (p < .001) and gender (p < .001) on the TIPS II. There was no significant grade by gender interaction on the TIPS II. Results for the TOSRA also indicated a significant main effect for grade (p < .001) and the interaction of grade by sex ( p < .001). On variable ATT 5 (enjoyment of science lessons), males' attitudes toward science decreased across the grade levels; whereas, females decreased from grade five to seven, but showed a significant increase from grade seven to nine. Results from the analysis of variance with the parent's gender as the main effect showed no significant difference. The analysis of variance with student's gender as the main effect showed no significant difference.

  5. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  6. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  7. Sandbagging efforts in Fargo, ND

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Volunteer sandbagging efforts, used to build levees in Fargo, ND during historic flooding. The height of these levees are built based on flood predictions, made by the National Weather Service using USGS streamflow information. ...

  8. The economics of cognitive effort.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, John Andrew; Braver, Todd S

    2013-12-01

    If cognitive effort indexes opportunity costs, it should be investigated like other cost factors including risk and delay. We discuss recent methodological advances in behavioral economics and neuroeconomics, highlighting our own work in measuring the subjective (economic) value of cognitive effort. We discuss the implications of Kurzban et al.'s proposal and how some of its predictions may be untestable without behavioral economic formalisms. PMID:24304803

  9. Are three contact efforts really reflective of a repeated high-intensity effort bout?

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J; Walker, Shane; Walker, Ben; Jenkins, David G

    2015-03-01

    The use of 3 or more efforts (running and contact), separated by short recovery periods, is widely used to define a "repeated high-intensity effort" (RHIE) bout in rugby league. It has been suggested that due to fatigue, players become less effective after RHIE bouts; however, there is little evidence to support this. This study determined whether physical performance is reduced after performing 1, 2, or 3 efforts with minimal recovery. Twelve semiprofessional rugby league players (age: 24.5 ± 2.9 years) competed in 3 "off-side" small-sided games (2 × 10-minute halves) with a contact bout performed every 2 minutes. The rules of each game were identical except for the number of contact efforts performed in each bout. Players performed 1, 2, or 3 × 5-second wrestling bouts in the single-, double- and triple-contact game, respectively. Movement demands of each game were monitored using global positioning system units. From the first to the second half, there were trivial reductions in relative distance during the single-contact game (ES = -0.13 ± 0.12), small reductions during the double-contact game (ES = -0.47 ± 0.24), and moderate reductions during the triple-contact game (ES = -0.74 ± 0.27). These data show that running intensity is progressively reduced as the number of contact efforts per bout is increased. Targeting defensive players and forcing them to perform 2 or more consecutive contact efforts is likely to lead to greater reductions in running intensity. Conditioning performing multiple contact efforts while maintaining running intensity should therefore be incorporated into training for contact team sports. PMID:25226335

  10. Beyond my wildest expectations.

    PubMed

    Nester, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    With support from my parents, I fulfilled their and my expectations of graduating from college and becoming a scientist. My scientific career has focused on two organisms, Bacillus subtilis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and two experimental systems, aromatic amino acid synthesis and DNA transfer in bacteria and plants. Studies on B. subtilis emphasized the genetics and biochemistry of aromatic amino acid synthesis and the characterization of competence in DNA transformation. I carried out both as a postdoc at Stanford with Josh Lederberg. At the University of Washington, I continued these studies and then investigated how Agrobacterium transforms plant cells. In collaboration, Milt Gordon, Mary-Dell Chilton, and I found that this bacterium could transfer a piece of its plasmid into plant cells and thereby modify their properties. This discovery opened up a host of intriguing questions that we have tried to answer over the last 35 years. PMID:25208299

  11. A Comparison of Two Methods for Measuring Listening Effort As Part of an Audiologic Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingjing; Cox, Robyn; Pendergraft, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated 2 measures of listening effort (a self-report measure and a word recall measure) regarding their suitability for inclusion in a comprehensive audiologic testing protocol. The relationship between the 2 measures was explored, and both measures were examined with regard to validity, sensitivity, and effect on speech intelligibility performance. Method Thirty adults with normal hearing participated. Speech intelligibility performance was evaluated at 4 signal-to-noise ratios by using keywords embedded in both high- and low-context sentences. Listening effort was evaluated at set intervals throughout the speech intelligibility task. Results Results obtained with the 2 measures were consistent with expected changes in listening effort. However, data obtained with the self-report method demonstrated greater sensitivity to these changes. The 2 measures were uncorrelated. Under certain conditions, speech intelligibility performance was more negatively affected when the word recall measure was used. Exploration of additional theoretical and practical considerations supported a conclusion that the self-report measure was preferable for measuring listening effort simultaneously with speech intelligibility. Conclusion The results of this study provide a rationale for preferring the self-report measure of listening effort over the word recall measure when testing audiologic outcomes. PMID:25996680

  12. Does Explicit Expectation Really Affect Preparation?

    PubMed Central

    Umbach, Valentin J.; Schwager, Sabine; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT). However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectations. Expectations often originate from our experience: we expect that events occurring with a high frequency in the past are more likely to occur again. In addition to expectation, other task demands can feed into action preparation. In four experiments, frequency-based expectation was pitted against a selective response deadline. In a three-choice reaction time task, participants responded to stimuli that appeared with varying frequency (60, 30, 10%). Trial-by-trial stimulus expectations were either captured via verbal predictions or induced by visual cues. Predictions as well as response times quickly conformed to the variation in stimulus frequency. After two (of five) experimental blocks we forced participants by selective time pressure to respond faster to a less frequent stimulus. Therefore, participants had to prepare for one stimulus (medium frequency) while often explicitly expecting a different one (high frequency). Response times for the less frequent stimulus decreased immediately, while explicit expectations continued to indicate the (unchanged) presentation frequencies. Explicit expectations were thus not just reflecting preparation. In fact, participants responded faster when the stimulus matched the trial-wise expectations, even when task demands discouraged their use. In conclusion, we argue that explicit expectation feeds into preparatory processes instead of being a mere by-product. PMID:23248606

  13. The effects of achievement motivation, task difficulty, and goal difficulty on physiological, behavioral, and subjective effort.

    PubMed

    Capa, Rémi L; Audiffren, Michel; Ragot, Stéphanie

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to present experimental arguments evaluating the Humphreys and Revelle's model of effort. Two important factors were tested: achievement motivation and difficulty. Heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, facial electromyographic reactivity, and reaction time were measured as an index of effort expenditure. A 2x2x2 factorial design was used with two levels of resultant achievement motivation, two levels of task difficulty, and two levels of goal difficulty. As expected, the 16 participants high in resultant achievement motivation showed a better performance and had a larger decrease of the midfrequency band than the 16 participants low in resultant achievement motivation, especially during the difficult task. Results lend some support for the impact of resultant achievement motivation, task difficulty, and goal difficulty on effort mobilization. PMID:18627535

  14. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  15. Dopamine, Behavioral Economics, and Effort

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M.; Nunes, Eric J.; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  16. High School to Community College: New Efforts to Build Shared Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosin, Matthew; Wilson, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Although K-12 schools and community colleges share responsibility for the futures of a vast number of young Californians, and both are under pressure to improve student academic achievement, the groups operate under separate governance systems, pursue distinct missions, gauge success based on different measures, and are seldom looked at together.…

  17. New standard exceeds expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.J. )

    1993-08-01

    The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.

  18. Sociology of Low Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Gabrielle; Williams, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have drawn attention to the role of hype and optimistic visions of the future in providing momentum to biomedical innovation projects by encouraging innovation alliances. In this article, we show how less optimistic, uncertain, and modest visions of the future can also provide innovation projects with momentum. Scholars have highlighted the need for clinicians to carefully manage the expectations of their prospective patients. Using the example of a pioneering clinical team providing deep brain stimulation to children and young people with movement disorders, we show how clinicians confront this requirement by drawing on their professional knowledge and clinical expertise to construct visions of the future with their prospective patients; visions which are personalized, modest, and tainted with uncertainty. We refer to this vision-constructing work as recalibration, and we argue that recalibration enables clinicians to manage the tension between the highly optimistic and hyped visions of the future that surround novel biomedical interventions, and the exigencies of delivering those interventions in a clinical setting. Drawing on work from science and technology studies, we suggest that recalibration enrolls patients in an innovation alliance by creating a shared understanding of how the “effectiveness” of an innovation shall be judged. PMID:26527846

  19. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs. PMID:25994710

  20. Peer Victimization and Effortful Control

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Roopa V.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thompson, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    The relations among peer victimization, effortful control, school engagement, and academic achievement were examined in a group of 390 (212 boys and 178 girls) racially diverse (38.20% Latino and 46.70% White) 6- to 10-year-old children. Specifically, a multimethod, multi-informant approach was used in which data were gathered using self-report, peer-report, and teacher-report questionnaires at three points in time: twice during the initial year of the study when children were in first and third grades and once in the fall of their second-grade and fourth-grade years, respectively. Findings showed that peer victimization was negatively correlated with effortful control; however, longitudinal analyses conducted to examine causal priority were inconclusive. Results from structural equation modeling were consistent with the hypotheses that school engagement mediated the relations between peer victimization and academic achievement, as well as between effortful control and academic achievement. PMID:23105166

  1. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  2. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  3. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  4. Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

  5. Does software design complexity affect maintenance effort?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epping, Andreas; Lott, Christopher M.

    1994-01-01

    The design complexity of a software system may be characterized within a refinement level (e.g., data flow among modules), or between refinement levels (e.g., traceability between the specification and the design). We analyzed an existing set of data from NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory to test whether changing software modules with high design complexity requires more personnel effort than changing modules with low design complexity. By analyzing variables singly, we identified strong correlations between software design complexity and change effort for error corrections performed during the maintenance phase. By analyzing variables in combination, we found patterns which identify modules in which error corrections were costly to perform during the acceptance test phase.

  6. Preventing Marketing Efforts That Bomb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    In a marketplace overwhelmed with messages, too many institutions waste money on ineffective marketing. Highlights five common marketing errors: limited definition of marketing; unwillingness to address strategic issues; no supporting data; fuzzy goals and directions; and unrealistic expectations, time lines, and budgets. Though trustees are not…

  7. Preventing Marketing Efforts That Bomb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    In a marketplace overwhelmed with messages, too many institutions waste money on ineffective marketing. Highlights five common marketing errors: limited definition of marketing; unwillingness to address strategic issues; no supporting data; fuzzy goals and directions; and unrealistic expectations, time lines, and budgets. Though trustees are not…

  8. Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

  9. Expecting ourselves to expect: the Bayesian brain as a projector.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Daniel C

    2013-06-01

    Clark's essay lays the foundation for a Bayesian account of the "projection" of consciously perceived properties: The expectations that our brains test against inputs concern the particular affordances that evolution has designed us to care about, including especially expectations of our own expectations. PMID:23663550

  10. Vaccine research efforts for filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Hart, Mary Kate

    2003-05-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses belong to the family Filoviridae, and cause acute, frequently fatal, haemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. No vaccines are available for human use. This review describes the status of research efforts to develop vaccines for these viruses and to identify the immune mechanisms of protection. The vaccine approaches discussed include DNA-based vaccines, and subunit vaccines vectored by adenovirus, alphavirus replicons, and vaccinia virus. PMID:12782057

  11. Noradrenaline and dopamine neurons in the reward/effort trade-off: a direct electrophysiological comparison in behaving monkeys.

    PubMed

    Varazzani, Chiara; San-Galli, Aurore; Gilardeau, Sophie; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-05-20

    Motivation determines multiple aspects of behavior, including action selection and energization of behavior. Several components of the underlying neural systems have been examined closely, but the specific role of the different neuromodulatory systems in motivation remains unclear. Here, we compare directly the activity of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta and noradrenergic neurons from the locus coeruleus in monkeys performing a task manipulating the reward/effort trade-off. Consistent with previous reports, dopaminergic neurons encoded the expected reward, but we found that they also anticipated the upcoming effort cost in connection with its negative influence on action selection. Conversely, the firing of noradrenergic neurons increased with both pupil dilation and effort production in relation to the energization of behavior. Therefore, this work underlines the contribution of dopamine to effort-based decision making and uncovers a specific role of noradrenaline in energizing behavior to face challenges. PMID:25995472

  12. German COIL efforts: status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2002-05-01

    Historically, COIL research in Germany has started with microwave excitation of an oxygen flow. But soon all efforts have been devoted to the chemical generation of excited singlet oxygen and have eventually given rise to a supersonic 10 kW class rotating disk driven device. A diode based diagnostic provides data of small signal gain and cavity temperature which emphasize the role of iodine injection for different penetration conditions. Heat release can lead to substantially higher temperatures as expected from adiabatic expansion. Power extraction is found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Alternatively, small scale liquid jet generator experiments show encouraging 60 percent efficiency. Besides air defense related applications and a study on space debris removal, results are given which are pertinent to the decommissioning of nuclear installations. In particular, laser cutting of concrete at 1.3 micrometers is demonstrated and theoretically scaled up to relevant power levels.

  13. Peru continues to press privitization efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    This paper reports that Peru has again extended the deadline for bids on a 30 year operating contract for state owned Petromar SA's offshore Block Z-2b. The tender is key to efforts to privatize Petromar, a subsidiary of state oil company Petroleos del Peru. The committee charged with implementing Petromar privatization extended the deadline for bids another 70 days Oct. 30, following a 60 day extension made in September. The latest deadline for bids is Feb. 10, with the contract expected to be awarded Feb. 26. A bid package on Block Z-2b is available from Petroperu's Lima headquarters for $20,000. Petromar operates the former Belco Petroleum Corp. offshore assets Peru's government expropriated in 1985. It currently produces 17,600 b/d, compared with 27,000 b/d at the time of expropriation.

  14. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper describes JHU/APL's roles and responsibilities in the launch contingency effort, and the specific tasks to fulfill those responsibilities. The overall effort contributed to mission safety and demonstrated successful cooperation between several agencies.

  15. Does cleanliness influence moral judgments? Response effort moderates the effect of cleanliness priming on moral judgments

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Whether cleanliness influences moral judgments has recently become a topic of debate in the psychological literature. After the initial report that activating the notion of physical purity can result in less severe moral judgments (Schnall et al., 2008a), a direct replication (Johnson et al., 2014a) with much larger sample sizes failed to yield similar findings. The current paper examines the possibility that only non-conscious activation of the cleanliness concept, as achieved in participants with low response effort on priming materials, can produce the expected effect. An online replication (Study 1, N = 214) provided evidence that, when participants exerted low (yet still acceptable) levels of response effort to the experimental material, cleanliness priming led to more lenient moral judgments than neutral priming. An online experiment (Study 2, N = 440; replicated in Study 2a, N = 436) manipulating participants’ effort on the priming task (low vs. high) supported the hypothesized mechanism. Specifically, respondents in the low response effort group were instructed to complete the priming task as quickly as possible without too much attention, and the cleanliness priming resulted in less extreme moral judgments than the neutral condition as expected. In contrast, respondents in the high response effort group were instructed to perform to the best of their ability on the priming task, with a non-significant difference on moral ratings between cleanliness and neutral conditions. In addition to helping resolve the controversy regarding the cleanliness hypothesis, the current paper calls into attention the role of response effort in the execution and replication of priming studies. PMID:25414690

  16. Dialysis centers - what to expect

    MedlinePLUS

    Artificial kidneys - dialysis centers - what to expect; Dialysis - what to expect; Renal replacement therapy - dialysis centers - what ... excess fluid. The filter is sometimes called an artificial kidney. Once you arrive at the center, trained ...

  17. Cognitive effort avoidance and detection in people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gold, James M; Kool, Wouter; Botvinick, Matthew M; Hubzin, Leeka; August, Sharon; Waltz, James A

    2015-03-01

    Many people with schizophrenia exhibit avolition, a difficulty initiating and maintaining goal-directed behavior, considered to be a key negative symptom of the disorder. Recent evidence indicates that patients with higher levels of negative symptoms differ from healthy controls in showing an exaggerated cost of the physical effort needed to obtain a potential reward. We examined whether patients show an exaggerated avoidance of cognitive effort, using the demand selection task developed by Kool, McGuire, Rosen, and Botvinick (Journal of Experimental Psychology. General, 139, 665-682, 2010). A total of 83 people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 71 healthy volunteers participated in three experiments where instructions varied. In the standard task (Experiment 1), neither controls nor patients showed expected cognitive demand avoidance. With enhanced instructions (Experiment 2), controls demonstrated greater demand avoidance than patients. In Experiment 3, patients showed nonsignificant reductions in demand avoidance, relative to controls. In a control experiment, patients showed significantly reduced ability to detect the effort demands associated with different response alternatives. In both groups, the ability to detect effort demands was associated with increased effort avoidance. In both groups, increased cognitive effort avoidance was associated with higher IQ and general neuropsychological ability. No significant correlations between demand avoidance and negative symptom severity were observed. Thus, it appears that individual differences in general intellectual ability and effort detection are related to cognitive effort avoidance and likely account for the subtle reduction in effort avoidance observed in schizophrenia. PMID:24957405

  18. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  19. International efforts in independent living.

    PubMed

    Tate, D G; Jarvis, R L; Juhr, G D

    1979-10-01

    Several nations currently share a major concern for provision of services to severely disabled persons. The focus of this concern has been upon those services which promote maximum integration and independence of severely disabled individuals in the community. Recent efforts in this direction by governments, private citizens, and handicapped-consumer organizations in Sweden, The Netherlands, Denmark, England, Canada, and Australia are discussed. Developments in housing and environmental modification, transportation, and self-help training are reviewed for their potential interest to advocates and practitioners of rehabilitation for independent living. PMID:496600

  20. The Other Half of the Expectancy Equation: Pygmalion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Margaret M.; Rappaport, Herbert

    1975-01-01

    Studies the concept of the communication of positive expectancies in the classroom by examining the effects of different sources of expectancy on reading performance for compensatory program pupils. (Author/DEP)

  1. Motivation and effort in individuals with social anhedonia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Julie M; Treadway, Michael T; Blanchard, Jack J

    2015-06-01

    It has been proposed that anhedonia may, in part, reflect difficulties in reward processing and effortful decision making. The current study aimed to replicate previous findings of effortful decision making deficits associated with elevated anhedonia and expand upon these findings by investigating whether these decision making deficits are specific to elevated social anhedonia or are also associated with elevated positive schizotypy characteristics. The current study compared controls (n=40) to individuals elevated on social anhedonia (n=30), and individuals elevated on perceptual aberration/magical ideation (n=30) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Across groups, participants chose a higher proportion of hard tasks with increasing probability of reward and reward magnitude, demonstrating sensitivity to probability and reward values. Contrary to our expectations, when the probability of reward was most uncertain (50% probability), at low and medium reward values, the social anhedonia group demonstrated more effortful decision making than either individuals high in positive schizotypy or controls. The positive schizotypy group only differed from controls (making less effortful choices than controls) when reward probability was lowest (12%) and the magnitude of reward was the smallest. Our results suggest that social anhedonia is related to intact motivation and effort for monetary rewards, but that individuals with this characteristic display a unique and perhaps inefficient pattern of effort allocation when the probability of reward is most uncertain. Future research is needed to better understand effortful decision making and the processing of reward across a range of individual difference characteristics. PMID:25888337

  2. Dopamine D1 receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex regulate effort-based decision making

    PubMed Central

    Schweimer, Judith; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in encoding whether or not an action is worth performing in view of the expected benefit and the cost of performing the action. Dopamine input to the ACC may be critical for this form of effort-based decision making; however, the role of distinct ACC dopamine receptors is yet unknown. Therefore, we examined in rats the effects of an intra-ACC D1 and D2 receptor blockade on effort-based decision making tested in a T-maze cost-benefit task. In this task, subjects could either choose to climb a barrier to obtain a high reward in one arm or a low reward in the other arm without a barrier. Unlike vehicle-treated rats, rats with intra-ACC infusion of the D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 exhibited a reduced preference for the high-cost– high-reward response option when having the choice to obtain a low reward with little effort. In contrast, in rats with intra-ACC infusion of the D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride, the preference for the high-cost–high-reward response option was not altered relative to vehicle-treated rats. These data provide the first evidence that D1 receptors in the ACC regulate effort-based decision making. PMID:17142306

  3. DarkLight Invisibles Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantarians, Narbe

    2015-04-01

    The DarkLight (Detecting A Resonance Kinematically with eLectrons Incident on a Gaseous Hydrogen Target) experiment at Jefferson Lab intends to study the process e- p -->e- pA' , with A' being a hidden gauge boson decaying to e-e+ . DarkLight will explore the A' mass region 10-100 MeV with sensitivity to couplings as low as ?' /?EM ~10-7 with 1 ab-1 of data. The complete kinematic information provided by the DarkLight detector also permits a search for an invisibly decaying A'. In contrast to the numerous visible decay searches, both attempted and planned, there is considerably less data for the invisible decay. Furthermore, the limited data for invisibles' searches is from beam-dump and indirect decays, making this a unique measurement. This talk will focus on the invisibles effort for DarkLight, covering both the related physics and necessary instrumentation. DOE DE-SC0003884.

  4. Student Perception of Academic Grading: Personality, Academic Orientation, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippin, Gregory K.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.; Page, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Factors influencing student perceptions of academic grading were examined, with an emphasis on furthering understanding of the relevance of effort to students' conceptualization of grading. Students demonstrated a conceptualization of grading where effort should be weighted comparably to actual performance in importance to the composition of a…

  5. Student Perception of Academic Grading: Personality, Academic Orientation, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippin, Gregory K.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.; Page, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Factors influencing student perceptions of academic grading were examined, with an emphasis on furthering understanding of the relevance of effort to students' conceptualization of grading. Students demonstrated a conceptualization of grading where effort should be weighted comparably to actual performance in importance to the composition of a…

  6. Effort, anhedonia, and function in schizophrenia: reduced effort allocation predicts amotivation and functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Barch, Deanna M; Treadway, Michael T; Schoen, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    One of the most debilitating aspects of schizophrenia is an apparent interest in or ability to exert effort for rewards. Such "negative symptoms" may prevent individuals from obtaining potentially beneficial outcomes in educational, occupational, or social domains. In animal models, dopamine abnormalities decrease willingness to work for rewards, implicating dopamine (DA) function as a candidate substrate for negative symptoms given that schizophrenia involves dysregulation of the dopamine system. We used the effort-expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT) to assess the degree to which individuals with schizophrenia were wiling to exert increased effort for either larger magnitude rewards or for rewards that were more probable. Fifty-nine individuals with schizophrenia and 39 demographically similar controls performed the EEfRT task, which involves making choices between "easy" and "hard" tasks to earn potential rewards. Individuals with schizophrenia showed less of an increase in effort allocation as either reward magnitude or probability increased. In controls, the frequency of choosing the hard task in high reward magnitude and probability conditions was negatively correlated with depression severity and anhedonia. In schizophrenia, fewer hard task choices were associated with more severe negative symptoms and worse community and work function as assessed by a caretaker. Consistent with patterns of disrupted dopamine functioning observed in animal models of schizophrenia, these results suggest that 1 mechanism contributing to impaired function and motivational drive in schizophrenia may be a reduced allocation of greater effort for higher magnitude or higher probability rewards. PMID:24886012

  7. Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…

  8. Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…

  9. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  10. Institutional Differences: Expectations and Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harold

    1982-01-01

    The history of higher education has paid scant attention to the attitudes and expectations of its customers, students, and employers of graduates. Recent research on student and employer attitudes toward higher education sectors has not taken into account these expectations in the context of recent higher education history. (Author/MSE)

  11. Effort analysis of gender differences in cardiovascular response: Further evidence involving a traditionally feminine incentive.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Patricia; Wright, Rex A; Krubinski, Kimberlee; Molzof, Hylton; Hur, Jinwoo

    2015-07-01

    Participants were presented a moderately- or impossibly difficult cumulative mental addition task with instructions that they could win a traditionally feminine- or masculine incentive if they achieved a 90% success rate. When the incentive was feminine, systolic blood pressure responses during the task period were stronger under moderately difficult conditions among women, but low irrespective of difficulty among men - creating a gender difference only when difficulty was moderate. By contrast, when the incentive was masculine, systolic-, mean arterial- and, to a lesser degree, diastolic blood pressure responses during the task period were stronger under moderately difficult conditions irrespective of gender. The former finding confirmed expectations and adds substantively to the body of evidence favoring a recent effort analysis of gender influence on CV response to performance challenge. The latter findings conflict with what was first expected, but can be understood in terms of post hoc reasoning extended in light of participants' ratings of the masculine incentive. PMID:26032868

  12. NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

  13. NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

  14. Diversity in Literary Response: Revisiting Gender Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendler, Beth M.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on and reexamining theories on gender and literacy, derived from research performed between 1974 and 2002, this qualitative study explored the gender assumptions and expectations of Language Arts teachers in a graduate level adolescent literature course at a university in the Midwestern United States. The theoretical framework was…

  15. Patient expectations of arthroplasty of the hip and knee.

    PubMed

    Scott, C E H; Bugler, K E; Clement, N D; MacDonald, D; Howie, C R; Biant, L C

    2012-07-01

    Patient expectations and their fulfilment are an important factor in determining patient-reported outcome and satisfaction of hip (THR) and knee replacement (TKR). The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine the expectations of patients undergoing THR and TKR, and to identify differences in expectations, predictors of high expectations and the relationship between the fulfilment of expectations and patient-reported outcome measures. During the study period, patients who underwent 346 THRs and 323 TKRs completed an expectation questionnaire, Oxford score and Short-Form 12 (SF-12) score pre-operatively. At one year post-operatively, the Oxford score, SF-12, patient satisfaction and expectation fulfilment were assessed. Univariable and multivariable analysis were performed. Improvements in mobility and daytime pain were the most important expectations in both groups. Expectation level did not differ between THR and TKR. Poor Oxford score, younger age and male gender significantly predicted high pre-operative expectations (p < 0.001). The level of pre-operative expectation was not significantly associated with the fulfilment of expectations or outcome. THR better met the expectations identified as important by patients. TKR failed to meet expectations of kneeling, squatting and stair climbing. High fulfilment of expectation in both THR and TKR was significantly predicted by young age, greater improvements in Oxford score and high pre-operative mental health scores. The fulfilment of expectations was highly correlated with satisfaction. PMID:22733956

  16. Pharmacology of acute effort angina.

    PubMed

    Opie, L H

    1989-06-01

    From the pharmacologic point of view, each of the major types of antianginal agents--calcium antagonists, beta-blockers, and nitrates--seem to act at least in part by an improvement of the myocardial blood supply. The recently elucidated mechanism of action of nitrates, acting on a common pathway with the endothelium-derived relaxation factor (EDRF), suggests an important role for guanylate cyclase and cyclic GMP in maintaining coronary artery patency in patients with coronary atheroma. The efficacy of calcium antagonists, even in effort-induced angina, is in accord with a current hypothesis that physical exercise in the presence of coronary stenosis can cause relative coronary vasoconstriction, or at the least, failure of full dilation. Therefore, calcium antagonists all act, at least in part, on the "supply" side of the supply-demand equation. Beta-adrenergic blockers appear to have as their major mode of action a reduction of heart rate, which not only reduces the oxygen demand but, through an anti-ischemic effect, also appears to improve the endocardial blood supply (in relation to the heart rate). Thus beta-blockade indirectly enhances the supply side of the equation. The intriguing situation arises whereby all three major types of antianginal compounds may also act by a common mechanism of anginal relief, namely, improvement in the coronary blood supply, in addition to the diverse mechanisms specific to each type of compound. That conclusion does not mean the the "demand" side of the equation can be ignored. Rather, the critical importance of a reduced myocardial blood supply in the production of anginal syndromes is highlighted. PMID:2577296

  17. Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

  18. Patient expectations of dental services. Image affects expectations, and expectations affect perceived service quality.

    PubMed

    Clow, K E; Fischer, A K; O'Bryan, D

    1995-01-01

    The authors construct a theoretical model of the antecedents of expectations for dental services by analyzing survey responses from 240 dental patients. The patients' image of the dentist, tangible cues, situational factors, and patient satisfaction with prior service encounters have the greatest influence on expectations of service, whereas marketing variables, such as price and advertising, appear to have no effect. PMID:10152791

  19. Externalities, expectations, and Pigouvian taxes

    SciTech Connect

    Cornes, R.; Sandler, T.

    1985-03-01

    This article derives Pigouvian-type corrective measures for reciprocal externalities when non-Nash behavior characterizes the participants. These reciprocal externalities may involve various kinds of environmental pollutants, such as acid rain. A comparison between corrective measures for Nash and non-Nash behavior demonstrates that positive conjectures, regarding the other agent's externality-generating activity, have an expectation-internalizing influence that usually reduces the required corrective measures. Negative conjectures (e.g., free-riding expectations), however, have an expectation-externalizing effect that increases the required corrective measures. The article analyzes both two-person and n-person externalities. 13 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  20. Feedback and the rationing of time and effort among competing tasks.

    PubMed

    Northcraft, Gregory B; Schmidt, Aaron M; Ashford, Susan J

    2011-09-01

    The study described here tested a model of how characteristics of the feedback environment influence the allocation of resources (time and effort) among competing tasks. Results demonstrated that performers invest more resources on tasks for which higher quality (more timely and more specific) feedback is available; this effect was partially mediated by task salience and task expectancies. Feedback timing and feedback specificity demonstrated both main and interaction effects on resource allocations. Results also demonstrated that performers do better on tasks for which higher quality feedback is available; this effect was mediated by resources allocated to tasks. The practical and theoretical implications of the role of the feedback environment in managing performance are discussed. PMID:21463017

  1. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  2. ?-adrenergic impact underlies the effect of mood and hedonic instrumentality on effort-related cardiovascular response.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, Nicolas; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2011-05-01

    After habituation, participants were first induced into negative vs. positive moods and performed then an attention task with either low vs. high hedonic instrumentality of success. In the high-instrumentality condition participants expected to see a funny movie after success and an unpleasant movie after failure; in the low-instrumentality condition participants expected an unpleasant movie after success and a pleasant movie after failure. Effort-related cardiovascular response (ICG, blood pressure) was assessed during mood inductions and task performance. As predicted by the mood-behavior-model (Gendolla, 2000), responses of cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and systolic blood pressure were stronger in the high-instrumentality/negative-mood condition than in the other three cells. Here the high hedonic instrumentality of success justified the high effort that was perceived as necessary in a negative mood. Moreover, the PEP effects indicate that cardiovascular response was driven by beta-adrenergic impact on the heart rather than by vascular adjustments. PMID:21382436

  3. Pain Expectancies, Pain, and Functional Self-Efficacy Expectancies as Determinants of Disability in Patients with Chronic Low Back Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested the predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities, expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back pain patients. Before assessment of function, patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks--functional self-efficacy (FSE)--and the likelihood working would…

  4. Pain Expectancies, Pain, and Functional Self-Efficacy Expectancies as Determinants of Disability in Patients with Chronic Low Back Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested the predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities, expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back pain patients. Before assessment of function, patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks--functional self-efficacy (FSE)--and the likelihood working would…

  5. Major League Baseball Players’ Life Expectancies*

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  6. Expectation and the tilt aftereffect.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk-Yacobi, Noga; Dekel, Ron; Sagi, Dov

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to oriented stimuli leads to a bias in the perceived orientation of subsequently viewed stimuli (tilt aftereffect, TAE). This is traditionally attributed to sensory adaptation, and viewed as a stimulus-driven process, independent of stimulus predictability. Here, we tested whether the magnitude of the TAE is modulated by expectations, and specifically, whether TAE depends on the congruency of adapted and expected orientations. Observers were presented at fixation with successive pairs of oriented Gabor patches (s=0.6°, l=0.3°). Each Gabor was presented for 50ms with 600ms interval between pair members (pairs were separated by 1-1.5secs). Gabor pairs were arranged in blocks, forming two experimental conditions with orientation either expected or not expected. For all blocks, the orientation of the first Gabor in each pair was randomized (±20° relative to vertical). In the 'expected' condition, the orientation of the second Gabor correlated, either positively or negatively, in different sessions, with that of the first Gabor. In the 'not-expected' condition, the orientation of the second Gabor was independent of the first Gabor (randomized ±20°). Intermixed test trials (33%) were used to measure the shift in subjects' perceived vertical, with the second pair member serving as a target, oriented around the vertical, permitting a measurement of the TAE produced by the presentation of the first Gabor member. Presentation of the oriented Gabors led to a tilt aftereffect, which was modulated by the expected orientation. The aftereffect was significantly higher (N=5; p< 0.01, pairwise t-test) in the positively correlated blocks (1.6°±0.2SE) than in the corresponding 'not expected' blocks (1.0°±0.3SE). In the negatively correlated blocks (N=2), the aftereffect was lower (0.6°±1.1SE) than in the corresponding 'not expected' blocks (1.0°±0.7SE). These findings indicate a role of expectation in generating the perceptual tilt aftereffect and are in line with predictive coding models of perception. Acknowledgement: BRF/ISF. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325727

  7. Social Baseline Theory: The Social Regulation of Risk and Effort

    PubMed Central

    Coan, James A.; Sbarra, David A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe Social Baseline Theory (SBT), a perspective that integrates the study of social relationships with principles of attachment, behavioral ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and perception science. SBT suggests the human brain expects access to social relationships that mitigate risk and diminish the level of effort needed to meet a variety of goals. This is accomplished in part by incorporating relational partners into neural representations of the self. By contrast, decreased access to relational partners increases cognitive and physiological effort. Relationship disruptions entail re-defining the self as independent, which implies greater risk, increased effort, and diminished well being. The ungrafting of the self and other may mediate recovery from relationship loss. PMID:25825706

  8. Achieving Common Expectations for Overall Goals amid Diversity among Cooperative Extension Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Barbara

    As a part of the initial phase of a strategic planning effort for the development of Florida's 1988 through 1991 long-range cooperative extension program, an effort was initiated to achieve common expectations for overall organizational mission and purpose among diverse cooperative extension faculty. The unification effort included the following…

  9. Desettling Expectations in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, M.; Warren, B.; Rosebery, A. S.; Medin, D.

    2012-01-01

    Calls for the improvement of science education in the USA continue unabated, with particular concern for the quality of learning opportunities for students from historically nondominant communities. Despite many and varied efforts, the field continues to struggle to create robust, meaningful forms of science education. We argue that "settled…

  10. TRENDS IN SENESCENT LIFE EXPECTANCY

    PubMed Central

    Bongaarts, John

    2009-01-01

    The distinction between senescent and non-senescent mortality proves to be very valuable for describing and analyzing age patterns of death rates. Unfortunately, standard methods for estimating these mortality components are lacking. The first part of this study discusses alternative methods for estimating background and senescent mortality among adults and proposes a simple approach based on death rates by causes of death. The second part examines trends in senescent life expectancy (i.e. the life expectancy implied by senescent mortality) and compares them with trends in conventional longevity indicators between 1960 and 2000 in a group of 17 developed countries with low mortality. Senescent life expectancy for females rises at an average rate of 1.54 years per decade between 1960 and 2000 in these countries. The shape of the distribution of senescent deaths by age remains relatively invariant while the entire distribution shifts over time to higher ages as longevity rose. PMID:19851933

  11. First Things First: What Americans Expect from the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean; Immerwahr, John

    Efforts to reform and improve the nation's schools have encountered serious roadblocks, often in the form of parental opposition. This document describes findings of a study that investigated parents' expectations of America's public schools. Data were derived from a national telephone survey with over 1,100 Americans, including 550 White,…

  12. First Things First: What Americans Expect from the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean; Immerwahr, John

    Efforts to reform and improve the nation's schools have encountered serious roadblocks, often in the form of parental opposition. This document describes findings of a study that investigated parents' expectations of America's public schools. Data were derived from a national telephone survey with over 1,100 Americans, including 550 White,…

  13. Control of robotic assistance using poststroke residual voluntary effort.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Nathaniel S; Knutson, Jayme S; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick E

    2015-03-01

    Poststroke hemiparesis limits the ability to reach, in part due to involuntary muscle co-activation (synergies). Robotic approaches are being developed for both therapeutic benefit and continuous assistance during activities of daily living. Robotic assistance may enable participants to exert less effort, thereby reducing expression of the abnormal co-activation patterns, which could allow participants to reach further. This study evaluated how well participants could perform a reaching task with robotic assistance that was either provided independent of effort in the vertical direction or in the sagittal plane in proportion to voluntary effort estimated from electromyograms (EMG) on the affected side. Participants who could not reach targets without assistance were enabled to reach further with assistance. Constant anti-gravity force assistance that was independent of voluntary effort did not reduce the quality of reach and enabled participants to exert less effort while maintaining different target locations. Force assistance that was proportional to voluntary effort on the affected side enabled participants to exert less effort and could be controlled to successfully reach targets, but participants had increased difficulty maintaining a stable position. These results suggest that residual effort on the affected side can produce an effective command signal for poststroke assistive devices. PMID:25373107

  14. PLATO Simulator: Realistic simulations of expected observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos-Arenal, P.; Zima, W.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; Huygen, R.; Samadi, R.; Green, J.; Piotto, G.; Salmon, S.; Catala, C.; Rauer, H.

    2015-06-01

    PLATO Simulator is an end-to-end simulation software tool designed for the performance of realistic simulations of the expected observations of the PLATO mission but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. It models and simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources.

  15. Great Expectations and New Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

  16. Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

    1996-01-01

    Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

  17. Undergraduates' Perceptions of Employer Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Carrie; Williams, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) indicates that employers across industries seek similar skills in job applicants; yet employers often report finding these desired skills lacking in new hires. This study closes the gap in understanding between employer expectations and student perceptions regarding…

  18. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant secondary metabolites (e.g., phenolics) are important for human health, in addition to the organoleptic properties they impart to fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions. Thorough identification of phenolic com...

  19. Kidney Failure: What to Expect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fund National Kidney Foundation Renal Support Network MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Español Kidney Failure: What to Expect Page Content On this ...

  20. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  1. Career Expectations of Accounting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…

  2. The Mobile Browsing Behaviors and Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the…

  3. RBANS embedded measures of suboptimal effort in dementia: effort scale has a lower failure rate than the effort index.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rachel L; Enright, Joe; O'Connell, Megan E; Lanting, Shawnda; Morgan, Debra

    2015-02-01

    The importance of evaluating effort in neuropsychological assessments has been widely acknowledged, but measuring effort in the context of dementia remains challenging due to the impact of dementia severity on effort measure scores. Two embedded measures have been developed for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS; Randolph, C., Tierney, M. C., Mohr, E., & Chase, T. N. (1998). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS): Preliminary clinical validity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20 (3), 310-319): the Effort Index (EI; Silverberg, N. D., Wertheimer, J. C., & Fichtenberg, N. L. (2007). An effort index for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21 (5), 841-854) and the Effort Scale (ES; Novitski, J., Steele, S., Karantzoulis, S., & Randolph, C. (2012). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status effort scale. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27 (2), 190-195). We explored failure rates on these effort measures in a non-litigating mixed dementia sample (N = 145). Failure rate on the EI was high (48%) and associated with dementia severity. In contrast, failure on the ES was 14% but differed based on type of dementia. ES failure was low (4%) when dementia was due to Alzheimer disease (AD), but high (31%) for non-AD dementias. These data raise concerns about use of the RBANS embedded effort measures in dementia evaluations. PMID:25472686

  4. Pupil size variations correlate with physical effort perception

    PubMed Central

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    It has long been established that the pupil diameter increases during mental activities in proportion to the difficulty of the task at hand. However, it is still unclear whether this relationship between the pupil size and effort applies also to physical effort. In order to address this issue, we asked healthy volunteers to perform a power grip task, at varied intensity, while evaluating their effort both implicitly and explicitly, and while concurrently monitoring their pupil size. Each trial started with a contraction of imposed intensity, under the control of a continuous visual feedback. Upon completion of the contraction, participants had to choose whether to replicate, without feedback, the first contraction for a variable monetary reward, or whether to skip this step and go directly to the next trial. The rate of acceptance of effort replication and the amount of force exerted during the replication were used as implicit measures of the perception of the effort exerted during the first contraction. In addition, the participants were asked to rate on an analog scale, their explicit perception of the effort for each intensity condition. We found that pupil diameter increased during physical effort and that the magnitude of this response reflected not only the actual intensity of the contraction but also the subjects' perception of the effort. This finding indicates that the pupil size signals the level of effort invested in a task, irrespective of whether it is physical or mental. It also helps refining the potential brain circuits involved since the results of the current study imply a convergence of mental and physical effort information at some level along this pathway. PMID:25202247

  5. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    PubMed

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed. PMID:24404807

  6. The expected value of control: an integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function.

    PubMed

    Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2013-07-24

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function. PMID:23889930

  7. The expected value of control: An integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function

    PubMed Central

    Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M.; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function. PMID:23889930

  8. The effects of sleep loss on capacity and effort.

    PubMed

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy

    2014-12-01

    Sleep loss appears to affect the capacity for performance and access to energetic resources. This paper reviews research examining the physical substrates referred to as resource capacity, the role of sleep in protecting that capacity and the reaction of the system as it attempts to respond with effort to overcome the limitations on capacity caused by sleep loss. Effort is the extent to which an organism will exert itself beyond basic levels of functioning or attempt alternative strategies to maintain performance. The purpose of this review is to bring together research across sleep disciplines to clarify the substrates that constitute and influence capacity for performance, consider how the loss of sleep influences access to those resources, examine cortical, physiological, perceptual, behavioral and subjective effort responses and consider how these responses reflect a system reacting to changes in the resource environment. When sleep deprived, the ability to perform tasks that require additional energy is impaired and the ability of the system to overcome the deficiencies caused by sleep loss is limited. Taking on tasks that require effort including school work, meal preparation, pulling off the road to nap when driving drowsy appear to be more challenging during sleep loss. Sleep loss impacts the effort-related choices we make and those choices may influence our health and safety. PMID:26483932

  9. The effects of sleep loss on capacity and effort

    PubMed Central

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy

    2014-01-01

    Sleep loss appears to affect the capacity for performance and access to energetic resources. This paper reviews research examining the physical substrates referred to as resource capacity, the role of sleep in protecting that capacity and the reaction of the system as it attempts to respond with effort to overcome the limitations on capacity caused by sleep loss. Effort is the extent to which an organism will exert itself beyond basic levels of functioning or attempt alternative strategies to maintain performance. The purpose of this review is to bring together research across sleep disciplines to clarify the substrates that constitute and influence capacity for performance, consider how the loss of sleep influences access to those resources, examine cortical, physiological, perceptual, behavioral and subjective effort responses and consider how these responses reflect a system reacting to changes in the resource environment. When sleep deprived, the ability to perform tasks that require additional energy is impaired and the ability of the system to overcome the deficiencies caused by sleep loss is limited. Taking on tasks that require effort including school work, meal preparation, pulling off the road to nap when driving drowsy appear to be more challenging during sleep loss. Sleep loss impacts the effort-related choices we make and those choices may influence our health and safety. PMID:26483932

  10. U.S. Navy battery requirements and development efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.H.; James, S.D.; Keller, P.B.

    1995-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research, The Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) is the focal point for exploratory battery development within the US Navy. NSWC is responsible for identifying naval power needs not met by existing technology. To accomplish this, the authors conduct a biennial power source survey to assess the technology gap between state-of-the-art battery performance and mid-to-long term fleet needs. Once Navy power requirements have been identified, high payoff technologies are developed to meet them. During the 1993 survey, the authors identified four Navy systems requiring battery developments, namely sonobuoys, mines, underwater vehicles and torpedoes. Power supply inadequacies were found to be the result of two important factors, a shift in Navy focus from deep ocean waters to the more complex, littoral (coastal) environments, and an increased emphasis on the cost effectiveness of a system in an era of reduced military budgets. The survey revealed the following issues: (1) future sonobuoys will require significantly greater power than the presently used lithium/sulfur dioxide batteries can provide; (2) there is concern in the mine community over the future availability of specific batteries; (3) in the case of underwater vehicles (including torpedo targets), there is a desire for a more cost-effective power source having a greater energy density than the presently used silver oxide/zinc cells; (4) enhanced energy density was requested by the torpedo community to provide increased operational time. As expected, safety and environmental issues were of concern to participants responding to the survey. This paper will discuss the recommendations of the power needs survey and summarize efforts underway to implement them.

  11. Falling behind: life expectancy in US counties from 2000 to 2007 in an international context

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The United States health care debate has focused on the nation's uniquely high rates of lack of insurance and poor health outcomes relative to other high-income countries. Large disparities in health outcomes are well-documented in the US, but the most recent assessment of county disparities in mortality is from 1999. It is critical to tracking progress of health reform legislation to have an up-to-date assessment of disparities in life expectancy across counties. US disparities can be seen more clearly in the context of how progress in each county compares to international trends. Methods We use newly released mortality data by age, sex, and county for the US from 2000 to 2007 to compute life tables separately for each sex, for all races combined, for whites, and for blacks. We propose, validate, and apply novel methods to estimate recent life tables for small areas to generate up-to-date estimates. Life expectancy rates and changes in life expectancy for counties are compared to the life expectancies across nations in 2000 and 2007. We calculate the number of calendar years behind each county is in 2000 and 2007 compared to an international life expectancy time series. Results Across US counties, life expectancy in 2007 ranged from 65.9 to 81.1 years for men and 73.5 to 86.0 years for women. When compared against a time series of life expectancy in the 10 nations with the lowest mortality, US counties range from being 15 calendar years ahead to over 50 calendar years behind for men and 16 calendar years ahead to over 50 calendar years behind for women. County life expectancy for black men ranges from 59.4 to 77.2 years, with counties ranging from seven to over 50 calendar years behind the international frontier; for black women, the range is 69.6 to 82.6 years, with counties ranging from eight to over 50 calendar years behind. Between 2000 and 2007, 80% (men) and 91% (women) of American counties fell in standing against this international life expectancy standard. Conclusions The US has extremely large geographic and racial disparities, with some communities having life expectancies already well behind those of the best-performing nations. At the same time, relative performance for most communities continues to drop. Efforts to address these issues will need to tackle the leading preventable causes of death. PMID:21672269

  12. The Role of Ability Beliefs and Incentives in Middle School Students' Intention, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken R.; Zhang, Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study uncovers the predictive relationship of middle school students' ability beliefs (self-efficacy and expectancy-related beliefs) and incentives (outcome expectancy, importance, interest, and usefulness) to intention, cardiovascular fitness, and teacher-rated effort in physical education. Participants (N = 252; 118 boys, 134 girls)…

  13. Software Faults Fixing Effort: Analysis and Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Maggie; Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Software developers spend significant amount of their time fixing faults. However, not many papers have addressed the effort needed to fix software faults. This paper is focused on comprehensive analysis of the fix implementation effort and factors that affect it, as well as on predicting the level of effort based on information recorded in software change requests. The work is based on data related to 1200 failures, extracted from the change tracking system of a large NASA mission. Our results show that (1) 83% of the total fix implementation effort was associated with only 20% of failures. (2) Both safety critical failures and post-release failures required three times more effort to fix compared to non-critical and pre-release counterparts, respectively. (3) Failures with fixes spread across multiple components and/or across multiple types of software artifacts required more effort. The spread across artifacts was more costly than spread across components. (4) Surprisingly, some types of faults associated with later life-cycle did not require significant effort, especially if only one type of artifact was fixed. (5) The level of fix implementation effort was predicted with 73% accuracy. The medium level fix implementation effort was classified more successfully than both low and high levels.

  14. Spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia - A measure of mental effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Craig Thornton, D.; Moray, Neville

    1987-01-01

    The validity of the spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia as a measure of mental effort was investigated using a computer simulation of a hovercraft piloted along a river as the experimental task. Strong correlation was observed between the subjective effort-ratings and the heart-rate variability (HRV) power spectrum between 0.06 and 0.14 Hz. Significant correlations were observed not only between subjects but, more importantly, within subjects as well, indicating that the spectral analysis of HRV is an accurate measure of the amount of effort being invested by a subject. Results also indicate that the intensity of effort invested by subjects cannot be inferred from the objective ratings of task difficulty or from performance.

  15. Plotting the differences between data and expectation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudalakis, G.; Casadei, D.

    2012-02-01

    This article proposes a way to improve the presentation of histograms where data are compared to expectation. Sometimes, it is difficult to judge by eye whether the difference between the bin content and the theoretical expectation (provided by either a fitting function or another histogram) is just due to statistical fluctuations. More importantly, there could be statistically significant deviations which are completely invisible in the plot. We propose to add a small inset at the bottom of the plot, in which the statistical significance of the deviation observed in each bin is shown. Even though the numerical routines which we developed have only illustration purposes, it comes out that they are based on formulae which could be used to perform statistical inference in a proper way.

  16. Athletes' expectations with regard to officiating competence.

    PubMed

    Dosseville, Fabrice; Laborde, Sylvain; Bernier, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the cues upon which athletes rely when developing their expectations with regard to the competence of sports officials and to examine the sources of information, which are given priority in different kinds of sport (i.e. team, racquet and fighting sports). A questionnaire - the Athlete Perception of Sports Officials Questionnaire (APSO-Q) - was developed in which athletes (N=472) were asked to indicate the influence of 32 cues on their impressions of sports officials. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) yielded a four-factor model (i.e. static cues, psychological, communicational and performance cues). Athletes mostly rely on psychological and personal communication attributes when evaluating officiating competence. Moreover, team players perceived that static cues were more influential when forming their expectations of sports officials than racquet players and fighting contestants. Such findings may have implications for athlete-official relationships and training of sports officials. PMID:24444240

  17. Efforts to emulate human milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Rosa María; Taméz, Martha; Prieto, Pedro

    2007-10-01

    Research on human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) began with the characterisation of their chemical structures and is now focused on the elucidation of their biological roles. Previously, biological effects could only be investigated with fractions or structures isolated from breast milk; consequently, clinical observations were limited to comparisons between outcomes from breast-fed infants and their formula-fed counterparts. In some cases, it was inferred that the observed differences were caused by the presence of HMO in breast milk. Presently, analytical techniques allow for the fast analysis of milk samples, thus providing insights on the inherent variability of specimens. In addition, methods for the synthesis of HMO have provided single structures in sufficient quantities to perform clinical studies with oligosaccharide-supplemented formulae. Furthermore, studies have been conducted with non-mammalian oligosaccharides with the purpose of assessing the suitability of these structures to functionally emulate HMO. Taken together, these developments justify summarising current knowledge on HMO to further discussions on efforts to emulate human milk in regard to its oligosaccharide content. The present account summarises published data and intends to provide an historical context and to illustrate the state of the field. PMID:17922965

  18. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  19. Patterns of Research Effort in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Between species differences in research effort can lead to biases in our global view of evolution, ecology and conservation. The increase in meta-taxonomic comparative analyses on birds underlines the need to better address how research effort is distributed in this class. Methods have been developed to choose which species should be studied to obtain unbiased comparative data sets, but a precise and global knowledge of research effort is required to be able to properly apply them. We address this issue by providing a data set of research effort (number of papers from 1978 to 2008 in the Zoological Record database) estimates for the 10 064 species of birds. We then test whether research effort is associated with phylogeny, geography and eleven different life history and ecological traits. We show that phylogeny accounts for a large proportion of the variance, while geographic range and all the tested traits are also significant contributors to research effort variance. We identify avian taxa that are under- and overstudied and address the importance of research effort biases in evaluating vulnerability to extinction, with non-threatened species studied twice as much as threatened ones. Our research effort data set covering the entire class Aves provides a tool for researchers to incorporate this potential confounding variable in comparative analyses. PMID:24587149

  20. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  1. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  2. Neural substrates underlying effort computation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2013-12-01

    The lack of initiative, drive or effort in patients with schizophrenia is linked to marked functional impairments. However, our assessment of effort and motivation is crude, relying on clinical rating scales based largely on patient recall. In order to better understand the neurobiology of effort in schizophrenia, we need more rigorous measurements of this construct. In the behavioural neuroscience literature, decades of work has been carried out developing various paradigms to examine the neural underpinnings of an animal's willingness to expend effort for a reward. Here, we shall review this literature on the nature of paradigms used in rodents to assess effort, as well as those used in humans. Next, the neurobiology of these effort-based decisions will be discussed. We shall then review what is known about effort in schizophrenia, and what might be inferred from experiments done in other human populations. Lastly, we shall discuss future directions of research that may assist in shedding light on the neurobiology of effort cost computations in schizophrenia. PMID:24035741

  3. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  4. Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

  5. Adaptive and qualitative changes in encoding strategy with experience: evidence from the test-expectancy paradigm.

    PubMed

    Finley, Jason R; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners' abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study-test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study-test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants' metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests. PMID:22103783

  6. An expectation-based memory deficit in aging.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Jacob; Rubens, Michael T; Masangkay, Edrick; Kalkstein, Jonathan; Gazzaley, Adam

    2011-05-01

    Memory performance can be enhanced by expectations regarding the appearance of ensuing stimuli. Here, we investigated the influence of stimulus-category expectation on memory performance in aging, and used fMRI to explore age-related alterations in associated neural mechanisms. Unlike younger adults, who demonstrated both working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance benefits for face stimuli when this stimulus category was expected, older adults did not exhibit these memory benefits. Concordantly, older adults did not exhibit expectation-period activity modulation in visual association cortex (i.e., fusiform face area (FFA)), unlike younger adults. However, within the older population, individuals who demonstrated face-expectation memory benefits also exhibited expectation-period FFA activity modulation equivalent to younger adults. The older cohort also displayed diminished expectation-related functional connectivity between regions of the prefrontal cortex and the FFA, relative to younger adults, suggesting that network alterations underlie the absence of expectation-mediated cortical modulation and memory benefits. This deficit may have broader consequences for the effective utilization of predictive cues to guide attention and engender optimal cognitive performance in older individuals. PMID:21272595

  7. An expectation-based memory deficit in aging

    PubMed Central

    Bollinger, Jacob; Rubens, Michael T.; Masangkay, Edrick; Kalkstein, Jonathan; Gazzaley, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Memory performance can be enhanced by expectations regarding the appearance of ensuing stimuli. Here, we investigated the influence of stimulus-category expectation on memory performance in aging, and used fMRI to explore age-related alterations in associated neural mechanisms. Unlike younger adults, who demonstrated both working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance benefits for face stimuli when this stimulus category was expected, older adults did not exhibit these memory benefits. Concordantly, older adults did not exhibit expectation-period activity modulation in visual association cortex (i.e., fusiform face area (FFA)). However, within the older population, individuals who demonstrated face-expectation memory benefits also exhibited expectation-period FFA activity modulation equivalent to younger adults. The older cohort also displayed diminished expectation-related functional connectivity between regions of the prefrontal cortex and the FFA, relative to younger adults, suggesting that network alterations underlie the absence of expectation-mediated cortical modulation and memory benefits. This deficit may have broader consequences for the effective utilization of predictive cues to guide attention and engender optimal cognitive performance in older individuals. PMID:21272595

  8. Coordinating a Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Retailer and Effort Dependent Demand

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

  9. Coordinating a supply chain with a loss-averse retailer and effort dependent demand.

    PubMed

    Li, Liying; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

  10. Origins of Effortful Control: Infant and Parent Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Bridgett, David J.; Young, Brandi N.; Panksepp, Jaak; Power, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) refers to the ability to inhibit a dominant response to perform a subdominant one and has been shown as protective against a myriad of difficulties. Research examining precursors of EC has been limited to date, and in this study, infancy contributors to toddler EC were examined. Specifically, parent/family background…

  11. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

  12. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roo...

  13. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

  14. When is Deceptive Message Production More Effortful than Truth-Telling? A Baker's Dozen of Moderators.

    PubMed

    Burgoon, Judee K

    2015-01-01

    Deception is thought to be more effortful than telling the truth. Empirical evidence from many quarters supports this general proposition. However, there are many factors that qualify and even reverse this pattern. Guided by a communication perspective, I present a baker's dozen of moderators that may alter the degree of cognitive difficulty associated with producing deceptive messages. Among sender-related factors are memory processes, motivation, incentives, and consequences. Lying increases activation of a network of brain regions related to executive memory, suppression of unwanted behaviors, and task switching that is not observed with truth-telling. High motivation coupled with strong incentives or the risk of adverse consequences also prompts more cognitive exertion-for truth-tellers and deceivers alike-to appear credible, with associated effects on performance and message production effort, depending on the magnitude of effort, communicator skill, and experience. Factors related to message and communication context include discourse genre, type of prevarication, expected response length, communication medium, preparation, and recency of target event/issue. These factors can attenuate the degree of cognitive taxation on senders so that truth-telling and deceiving are similarly effortful. Factors related to the interpersonal relationship among interlocutors include whether sender and receiver are cooperative or adversarial and how well-acquainted they are with one another. A final consideration is whether the unit of analysis is the utterance, turn at talk, episode, entire interaction, or series of interactions. Taking these factors into account should produce a more nuanced answer to the question of when deception is more difficult than truth-telling. PMID:26733932

  15. Spatial habit competes with effort to determine human spatial organization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mona J H; Risko, Evan F

    2016-07-01

    Despite the important role that the physical environment plays in shaping human cognition, few studies have endeavoured to experimentally examine the principles underlying how individuals organize objects in their space. The current investigation examines the idea that humans organize objects in their space in order to minimize effort or maximize performance. We devised a novel spatial organization task whereby participants freely arranged objects in the context of a writing task. Critically, we manipulated the frequency with which each object was used and assessed participants' spontaneous placements. In the first set of experiments, participants showed a counterintuitive tendency to match pen pairs with their initial placements rather than placing pens in the less effortful configuration. However, in Experiment 2, where the difference in physical effort between different locations was increased, participants were more likely to reorganize the pens into the less effortful configuration. We begin developing a theory of human spatial organization wherein the observed initial bias may represent a kind of spatial habit formation that competes with effort/performance considerations to shape future spatial organization. PMID:26912422

  16. Perceived listening effort for a tonal task with contralateral competing signals

    PubMed Central

    Bologna, William J.; Chatterjee, Monita; Dubno, Judy R.

    2013-01-01

    Perceived listening effort was assessed for a monaural irregular-rhythm detection task while competing signals were presented to the contralateral ear. When speech was the competing signal, listeners reported greater listening effort compared to either contralateral steady-state noise or no competing signal. Behavioral thresholds for irregular-rhythm detection were unaffected by competing speech, indicating that listeners compensated for this competing signal with effortful listening. These results suggest that perceived listening effort may be associated with suppression of task-irrelevant information, even for conditions where informational masking and competition for linguistic processing resources would not be expected. PMID:24116542

  17. USGS Shoots Video of Flooding Efforts

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS public affairs specialist, Jennifer LaVista prepares to shoot video of USGS efforts during historic flooding in Fargo, ND. The videos can be viewed at http://www.usgs.gov/homepage/science_features/flooding_march09.asp...

  18. Cataloging Practices in India: Efforts for Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikku, Upinder Kumar

    1984-01-01

    Surveys current cataloging practices in Indian libraries and discusses standardization in cataloging, types of catalogs, cataloging codes (Anglo-American and Ranganathan), subject headings, descriptive cataloging, and standardization efforts (international, United States, USSR, Great Britain, India). Footnotes are included. (EJS)

  19. The future of life expectancy and life expectancy inequalities in England and Wales: Bayesian spatiotemporal forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James E; Li, Guangquan; Foreman, Kyle; Best, Nicky; Kontis, Vasilis; Pearson, Clare; Hambly, Peter; Ezzati, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To plan for pensions and health and social services, future mortality and life expectancy need to be forecast. Consistent forecasts for all subnational units within a country are very rare. Our aim was to forecast mortality and life expectancy for England and Wales' districts. Methods We developed Bayesian spatiotemporal models for forecasting of age-specific mortality and life expectancy at a local, small-area level. The models included components that accounted for mortality in relation to age, birth cohort, time, and space. We used geocoded mortality and population data between 1981 and 2012 from the Office for National Statistics together with the model with the smallest error to forecast age-specific death rates and life expectancy to 2030 for 375 of England and Wales' 376 districts. We measured model performance by withholding recent data and comparing forecasts with this withheld data. Findings Life expectancy at birth in England and Wales was 79·5 years (95% credible interval 79·5–79·6) for men and 83·3 years (83·3–83·4) for women in 2012. District life expectancies ranged between 75·2 years (74·9–75·6) and 83·4 years (82·1–84·8) for men and between 80·2 years (79·8–80·5) and 87·3 years (86·0–88·8) for women. Between 1981 and 2012, life expectancy increased by 8·2 years for men and 6·0 years for women, closing the female–male gap from 6·0 to 3·8 years. National life expectancy in 2030 is expected to reach 85·7 (84·2–87·4) years for men and 87·6 (86·7–88·9) years for women, further reducing the female advantage to 1·9 years. Life expectancy will reach or surpass 81·4 years for men and reach or surpass 84·5 years for women in every district by 2030. Longevity inequality across districts, measured as the difference between the 1st and 99th percentiles of district life expectancies, has risen since 1981, and is forecast to rise steadily to 8·3 years (6·8–9·7) for men and 8·3 years (7·1–9·4) for women by 2030. Interpretation Present forecasts underestimate the expected rise in life expectancy, especially for men, and hence the need to provide improved health and social services and pensions for elderly people in England and Wales. Health and social policies are needed to curb widening life expectancy inequalities, help deprived districts catch up in longevity gains, and avoid a so-called grand divergence in health and longevity. Funding UK Medical Research Council and Public Health England. PMID:25935825

  20. Children's expectations about training the approximate number system.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Moira R; Pires, Ana C; Hyde, Daniel C; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2015-11-01

    Humans possess a developmentally precocious and evolutionarily ancient approximate number system (ANS) whose sensitivity correlates with uniquely human symbolic arithmetic skills. Recent studies suggest that ANS training improves symbolic arithmetic, but such studies may engender performance expectations in their participants that in turn produce the improvement. Here, we assessed 6- to 8-year-old children's expectations about the effects of numerical and non-numerical magnitude training, as well as states of satiety and restfulness, in the context of a study linking children's ANS practice to their improved symbolic arithmetic. We found that children did not expect gains in symbolic arithmetic after exercising the ANS, although they did expect gains in ANS acuity after training on any magnitude task. Moreover, children expected gains in symbolic arithmetic after a good night's sleep and their favourite breakfast. Thus, children's improved symbolic arithmetic after ANS training cannot be explained by their expectations about that training. PMID:26399713

  1. The Teacher and Student as Pygmalions: Joint Effects of Teacher and Student Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; Theiss, Andrew J.

    1982-01-01

    This study examined the joint effects of teachers' expectations about students and vice versa on the performance and attitudes of both participants. Results showed that student performance was a function of the teacher's expectations. (Author/GK)

  2. Facets of job effort in bus driver health: deconstructing "effort" in the effort-reward imbalance model.

    PubMed

    Tse, John L M; Flin, Rhona; Mearns, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to test the relative value of developing and using job-specific facets of effort and testing them using J. Siegrist's (1996) effort-reward imbalance (ERI) theory to extend understanding of how one might determine job strain in urban bus driving. In addition, the interactive effects of the ERI model are further investigated to address the lack of research into the relationships of the model's constructs. Using focus groups and published papers, a measure of bus driver effort was created, which was subsequently completed by 186 male U.K. bus drivers as part of a questionnaire study. The results were factor analyzed to create 4 facets of effort, which demonstrated additional variance in predicting strain, above and beyond J. Siegrist's original effort construct. One facet, workload and fatigue, was observed to be a particularly important contributor to strain. The analyses further indicated that the ERI model's assumptions that ERI creates job strain could not be completely upheld, although poorer levels of reward and higher levels of overcommitment were strong main predictors of job strain. Research and applied implications are considered. PMID:17257066

  3. The Martyrdom Effect: When Pain and Effort Increase Prosocial Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Olivola, Christopher Y; Shafir, Eldar

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of motivation and behavior (and lay intuitions alike) consider pain and effort to be deterrents. In contrast to this widely held view, we provide evidence that the prospect of enduring pain and exerting effort for a prosocial cause can promote contributions to the cause. Specifically, we show that willingness to contribute to a charitable or collective cause increases when the contribution process is expected to be painful and effortful rather than easy and enjoyable. Across five experiments, we document this “martyrdom effect,” show that the observed patterns defy standard economic and psychological accounts, and identify a mediator and moderator of the effect. Experiment 1 showed that people are willing to donate more to charity when they anticipate having to suffer to raise money. Experiment 2 extended these findings to a non-charity laboratory context that involved real money and actual pain. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the martyrdom effect is not the result of an attribute substitution strategy (whereby people use the amount of pain and effort involved in fundraising to determine donation worthiness). Experiment 4 showed that perceptions of meaningfulness partially mediate the martyrdom effect. Finally, Experiment 5 demonstrated that the nature of the prosocial cause moderates the martyrdom effect: the effect is strongest for causes associated with human suffering. We propose that anticipated pain and effort lead people to ascribe greater meaning to their contributions and to the experience of contributing, thereby motivating higher prosocial contributions. We conclude by considering some implications of this puzzling phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23559692

  4. Gender Bias in Mothers' Expectations about Infant Crawling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondschein, Emily R.; Adolph, Karen E.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Examined influence of child's sex on mothers' expectations about their 11-month-olds' motor development. Found that mothers of girls underestimated their performance on the novel task of crawling down steep and shallow slopes and mothers of boys overestimated their performance. Girls and boys exhibited identical levels of motor performance during…

  5. North Dome decision expected soon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Decisions soon will be made which will set in motion the development of Qatar's huge North Dome gas field. The government and state company, Qatar General Petroleum Corp. (QGPC) is studying the results of 2 feasibility studies on the economics of LNG export, although initially North Dome exploitation will be aimed at the domestic market. Decisions on the nature and timing of the North Dome development are the most important that have had to be faced in the short 10-yr history of the small Gulf state. The country's oil production is currently running at approximately 500,000 bpd, with 270,000 bpd originating from 3 offshore fields. Output is expected to decline through 1990, and it generally is accepted that there is little likelihood of further major crude discoveries. Therefore, Qatar has to begin an adjustment from an economy based on oil to one based on gas, while adhering to the underlying tenets of long-term conservation and industrial diversification.

  6. Systemic Efforts in Georgia to Improve Education Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Research points to links between school and school district leadership and student achievement. Local and national education reform has created rising expectations for student performance. Education leadership is both complex and high stakes. Key stakeholders in Georgia have developed a solution to improve factors in the work, workplace, and…

  7. Systemic Efforts in Georgia to Improve Education Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Research points to links between school and school district leadership and student achievement. Local and national education reform has created rising expectations for student performance. Education leadership is both complex and high stakes. Key stakeholders in Georgia have developed a solution to improve factors in the work, workplace, and…

  8. Nonverbal Expectancy Effects in the Political Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Lloyd E.

    Expectancy effects--the unconscious shaping of receiver behavior by signalling sender expectations--while recognized in science, have not been documented extensively from a communication perspective, nor are nonverbal aspects of expectancy effects fully known. Expectancy is a function of three elements, the sender's predisposition (including…

  9. Changing expectancies: cognitive mechanisms and context effects.

    PubMed

    Wiers, Reinout W; Wood, Mark D; Darkes, Jack; Corbin, William R; Jones, Barry T; Sher, Kenneth J

    2003-02-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco, organized by Reinout W. Wiers and Mark D. Wood. The symposium combined two topics of recent interest in studies of alcohol expectancies: cognitive mechanisms in expectancy challenge studies, and context-related changes of expectancies. With increasing recognition of the substantial role played by alcohol expectancies in drinking, investigators have begun to develop and evaluate expectancy challenge procedures as a potentially promising new prevention strategy. The two major issues addressed in the symposium were whether expectancy challenges result in changes in expectancies that mediate intervention (outcome relations), and the influence of simulated bar environments ("bar labs," in which challenges are usually done) on expectancies. The presentations were (1) An introduction, by Jack Darkes; (2) Investigating the utility of alcohol expectancy challenge with heavy drinking college students, by Mark D. Wood; (3) Effects of an expectancy challenge on implicit and explicit expectancies and drinking, by Reinout W. Wiers; (4) Effects of graphic feedback and simulated bar assessments on alcohol expectancies and consumption, by William R. Corbin; (5) Implicit alcohol associations and context, by Barry T Jones; and (6) A discussion by Kenneth J. Sher, who pointed out that it is important not only to study changes of expectancies in the paradigm of an expectancy challenge but also to consider the role of changing expectancies in natural development and in treatments not explicitly aimed at changing expectancies. PMID:12605068

  10. Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.

    Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of…

  11. Evaluation criteria of the hyperthyroid patients' adaptability to effort.

    PubMed

    Tulea, E; Schneider, F; Lungu, G; Stefănigă, P; Petroiu, A

    1983-01-01

    The submaximal triangular-type test was used for studying the adaptive capacity, on an ergometric bicycle. It was performed continuously, starting from O W, with a load increment of 10 watts/min up to optimal maximum heart rate (fmo). The heart rate, arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram, CO2 output and O2 consumption computed maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max, ml/kg/min) (Astrand) were predicted, also taking into consideration the subjective sensations linked to effort, measured on a modified Borg scale. The capacity to effort was expressed by the "adaptability coefficient" (AC) according to formula: AC = W' divided by 2 + (W' --f). 40 hyperthyroid patients, compared to a lot of normal thyroid subjects were examined, both at the beginning and after the treatment at certain intervals of time. A decrease of the effort capacity before the treatment and its increase after was noticed in hyperthyroid patients. PMID:6417692

  12. Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strati, Virginia; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Mantovani, Fabio; McDonough, William F.; Ricci, Barbara; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-12-01

    Constraints on the Earth's composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) neutrino experiment, designed as a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector, will be built in an underground laboratory in South China about 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants, each one having a planned thermal power of approximately 18 GW. Given the large detector mass and the intense reactor antineutrino flux, JUNO aims not only to collect high statistics antineutrino signals from reactors but also to address the challenge of discriminating the geoneutrino signal from the reactor background. The predicted geoneutrino signal at JUNO is terrestrial neutrino unit (TNU), based on the existing reference Earth model, with the dominant source of uncertainty coming from the modeling of the compositional variability in the local upper crust that surrounds (out to approximately 500 km) the detector. A special focus is dedicated to the 6° × 4° local crust surrounding the detector which is estimated to contribute for the 44% of the signal. On the basis of a worldwide reference model for reactor antineutrinos, the ratio between reactor antineutrino and geoneutrino signals in the geoneutrino energy window is estimated to be 0.7 considering reactors operating in year 2013 and reaches a value of 8.9 by adding the contribution of the future nuclear power plants. In order to extract useful information about the mantle's composition, a refinement of the abundance and distribution of U and Th in the local crust is required, with particular attention to the geochemical characterization of the accessible upper crust where 47% of the expected geoneutrino signal originates and this region contributes the major source of uncertainty.

  13. The evaluation of insufficient cognitive effort in schizophrenia in light of low IQ scores.

    PubMed

    Whearty, Kayla M; Allen, Daniel N; Lee, Bern G; Strauss, Gregory P

    2015-09-01

    Low IQ has recently been shown to predict neuropsychological effort test failure in healthy and neurological populations. Although low IQ is common in schizophrenia (SZ), its effect on effort test performance remains unclear in this population. The current study examined the role of IQ in effort test performance in a sample of 60 outpatients with SZ and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (CN). Participants were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, and insufficient effort was calculated using two embedded effort indices: the Reliable Digit Span Effort Index and the Finger Tapping Effort Index. Results indicated that 16.1% of SZ patients and 0% CN failed both effort measures and that 32.1% of SZ and 3.3% of CN failed one measure. In SZ, IQ in the <70 or 70-79 range was associated with the highest rates of falling below the effort cut-off scores; however, patients with IQs in the low-average or higher range (>80) did not fall below effort cut-offs. Findings suggest that low IQ is a significant predictor of insufficient effort during neuropsychological test performance in schizophrenia, calling into question the validity of neuropsychological effort testing in SZ patients with low IQ. PMID:26026486

  14. The special effort processing of FGGE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The basic FGGE level IIb data set was enhanced. It focused on removing deficiencies in the objective methods of quality assurance, removing efficiencies in certain types of operationally produced satellite soundings, and removing deficiencies in certain types of operationally produced cloud tracked winds. The Special Effort was a joint NASA-NOAA-University of Wisconsin effort. The University of Wisconsin installed an interactive McIDAS capability on the Amdahl computer at the Goddard Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) with one interactive video terminal at Goddard and the other at the World Weather Building. With this interactive capability a joint processing effort was undertaken to reprocess certain FGGE data sets. NOAA produced a specially edited data set for the special observing periods (SOPs) of FGGE. NASA produced an enhanced satellite sounding data set for the SOPs while the University of Wisconsin produced an enhanced cloud tracked wind set from the Japanese geostationary satellite images.

  15. Impaired effort allocation in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Treadway, Michael T; Peterman, Joel S; Zald, David H; Park, Sohee

    2015-02-01

    A hallmark of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is reduced motivation and goal directed behavior. While preclinical models suggest that blunted striatal dopamine levels can produce such reductions, this mechanism is inconsistent with evidence for enhanced striatal dopamine levels in schizophrenia. In seeking to reconcile this discrepancy, one possibility is that negative symptoms reflect a failure of striatal motivational systems to mobilize appropriately in response to reward-related information. In the present study, we used a laboratory effort-based decision-making task in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls to examine allocation of effort in exchange for varying levels of monetary reward. We found that patients and controls did not differ in the overall amount of effort expenditure, but patients made significantly less optimal choices in terms of maximizing rewards. These results provide further evidence for a selective deficit in the ability of schizophrenia patients to utilize environmental cues to guide reward-seeking behavior. PMID:25487699

  16. High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemci, Emrah

    2011-09-21

    This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

  17. The Effects of Education Compatibility and Technological Expectancy on E-Learning Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jian-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Discerning what influences a student's acceptance of e-learning is still unclear and has not been well investigated. On the basis of the expectancy-value theory, much effort has been put into identifying the effectual factors regarding the technological expectancy of students. However, aside from technological usage, the adoption of an e-learning…

  18. The Effects of Education Compatibility and Technological Expectancy on E-Learning Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jian-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Discerning what influences a student's acceptance of e-learning is still unclear and has not been well investigated. On the basis of the expectancy-value theory, much effort has been put into identifying the effectual factors regarding the technological expectancy of students. However, aside from technological usage, the adoption of an e-learning…

  19. Managing employee performance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2004-01-01

    Performance management consists of significantly more than periodic evaluation of performance. It is the art and science of dealing with employees in a manner intended to positively influence their thinking and behavior to achieve a desired level of performance. It is essential for the manager to always model positive behavior concerning performance; what one does or says as a manager always has an influence on others. The kinds of employee behavior most likely encountered relative to performance management efforts stem from resistance to change and lack of complete understanding of what is expected. Employee participation must be elicited whenever possible for performance improvement; as far as the inner working details of a specific job are concerned, there is no one who knows the job better than the person who does it everyday. For each task to be done, an employee needs to know what output is expected, how this output will be measured, and what standards are applied in assessing the output. Managing employee performance requires ongoing contact with each employee, regular feedback, and whatever coaching, counseling, and training are necessary to bring an employee back on track when a problem appears. Sustaining efficient and effective employee performance requires the manager's ongoing attention and involvement. PMID:15457845

  20. The Academic Researcher Role: Enhancing Expectations and Improved Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2013-01-01

    This article distinguishes between six tasks related to the academic researcher role: (1) networking; (2) collaboration; (3) managing research; (4) doing research; (5) publishing research; and (6) evaluation of research. Data drawn from surveys of academic staff, conducted in Norwegian universities over three decades, provide evidence that the…

  1. Social-Performance Expectations of Professionals for Behaviorally Disordered Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloss, Patrick J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of surveys administered to 151 special and regular educators, ancillary school personnel, administrators, and mental health personnel revealed behavioral clusters most likely to impede transitions from a mental health to educational setting. Survey responses further identified factors in ancillary support and classroom-related services…

  2. Social-Performance Expectations of Professionals for Behaviorally Disordered Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloss, Patrick J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of surveys administered to 151 special and regular educators, ancillary school personnel, administrators, and mental health personnel revealed behavioral clusters most likely to impede transitions from a mental health to educational setting. Survey responses further identified factors in ancillary support and classroom-related services…

  3. The Academic Researcher Role: Enhancing Expectations and Improved Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2013-01-01

    This article distinguishes between six tasks related to the academic researcher role: (1) networking; (2) collaboration; (3) managing research; (4) doing research; (5) publishing research; and (6) evaluation of research. Data drawn from surveys of academic staff, conducted in Norwegian universities over three decades, provide evidence that the…

  4. Work More, Then Feel More: The Influence of Effort on Affective Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M.; Toma, Claudia; Corneille, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined how effort invested in a task shapes the affective predictions related to potential success in that task, and the mechanism underlying this relationship. In Study 1, PhD students awaiting an editorial decision about a submitted manuscript estimated the effort they had invested in preparing that manuscript for submission and how happy they would feel if it were accepted. Subjective estimates of effort were positively related to participants' anticipated happiness, an effect mediated by the higher perceived quality of one's work. In other words, the more effort one though having invested, the happier one expected to feel if it were accepted, because one expected a higher quality manuscript. We replicated this effect and its underlying mediation in Study 2, this time using an experimental manipulation of effort in the context of creating an advertising slogan. Study 2 further showed that participants mistakenly thought their extra efforts invested in the task had improved the quality of their work, while independent judges had found no objective differences in quality between the outcomes of the high- and low-effort groups. We discuss the implications of the relationship between effort and anticipated emotions and the conditions under which such relationship might be functional. PMID:25028961

  5. Work more, then feel more: the influence of effort on affective predictions.

    PubMed

    Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M; Toma, Claudia; Corneille, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined how effort invested in a task shapes the affective predictions related to potential success in that task, and the mechanism underlying this relationship. In Study 1, PhD students awaiting an editorial decision about a submitted manuscript estimated the effort they had invested in preparing that manuscript for submission and how happy they would feel if it were accepted. Subjective estimates of effort were positively related to participants' anticipated happiness, an effect mediated by the higher perceived quality of one's work. In other words, the more effort one though having invested, the happier one expected to feel if it were accepted, because one expected a higher quality manuscript. We replicated this effect and its underlying mediation in Study 2, this time using an experimental manipulation of effort in the context of creating an advertising slogan. Study 2 further showed that participants mistakenly thought their extra efforts invested in the task had improved the quality of their work, while independent judges had found no objective differences in quality between the outcomes of the high- and low-effort groups. We discuss the implications of the relationship between effort and anticipated emotions and the conditions under which such relationship might be functional. PMID:25028961

  6. Conflict and expectancies interact to predict sexual behavior under the influence among gay and bisexual men

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    As the mechanisms of the associations between substance use and risky sex remain unclear, this study investigates the interactive roles of conflicts about casual sex and condom use and expectancies of the sexual effects of substances in those associations among gay men. Conflict interacted with expectancies to predict sexual behavior under the influence; low casual sex conflict coupled with high expectancies predicted the highest number of casual partners, and high condom use conflict and high expectancies predicted the highest number of unprotected sex acts. Results have implications for intervention efforts that aim to improve sexual decision-making and reduce sexual expectancies. PMID:23584507

  7. [Expectations and patient satisfaction in hospitals: construction and application of an expectation-based experience typology and its use in the management of quality and expectations].

    PubMed

    Gehrlach, Christoph; Güntert, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction (PS) surveys are frequently used evaluation methods to show performance from the customer's view. This approach has some fundamental deficits, especially with respect to theory, methodology and usage. Because of the significant theoretical value of the expectation confirmation/disconfirmation concept in the development of PS, an expectation-based experience typology has been developed and tested to check whether this approach could be a theoretical and practical alternative to the survey of PS. Due to the mainly cognitive-rational process of comparison between expectations and expectation fulfilment, it is easier to make changes in this stage of the process than in the subsequent stage of the development of PS that is mainly based on emotional-affective processes. The paper contains a literature review of the common concept of PS and its causal and influencing factors. Based on the theoretical part of this study, an expectation-based experience typology was developed. In the next step, the typology was subjected to exploratory testing, based on two patient surveys. In some parts of the tested typology explorative differences could be found between hospitals. Despite this rather more complex and unusual approach to expectation-based experience typology, this concept offers the chance to change conditions not only retrospectively (based on data), but also in a prospective way in terms of a "management of expectations". PMID:26704820

  8. ME3 = Minority Engineering Education Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senhouse, Lionel S.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the objectives and activities carried out by the Minority Engineering Education Effort Task Force, including summer program planning and production and distribution of guidance literature and audio-visual aids. Contained is a list of the Task Force members. (CC)

  9. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  10. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  11. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  12. Behavior Contracts: A Home School Cooperative Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitely, Rose Patton

    1978-01-01

    This paper focuses on behavior contracts at school which attempt to promote a home school cooperative effort. The contract is drawn up at school, and classroom teachers award points for appropriate school behaviors; parents in turn reward the student if the report is good. (DS)

  13. The Effect of Effort Grading on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, Omari H.

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2004, Benedict College--a Historically Black College in Columbia, SC--began enforcing a new grading policy called Success Equals Effort (SE[squared]). Under this policy, students taking freshman and sophomore level courses were assigned grades that explicitly rewarded not only content learning ("knowledge" grade) but also measures…

  14. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  15. Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

  16. Economic Woes May Hurt Colleges' Green Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Recent events on Wall Street raise a complicated question: Will the financial crisis help or hurt colleges' sustainability efforts? Both are possible. In this article, the author discusses how the Wall Street meltdown may hurt colleges' green initiatives. However, advocates of sustainability see an opportunity to change the conversation. A…

  17. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels' speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  18. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort.

    PubMed

    Friman, P C

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  19. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  20. Establishing Realistic Patient Expectations Following Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Husain, Adeel; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 20% of patients are dissatisfied following well-performed total knee arthroplasty with good functional outcomes. Surgeons must understand the drivers of dissatisfaction to minimize the number of unhappy patients following surgery. Several studies have shown that unfulfilled expectations are a principal source of patient dissatisfaction. Patients contemplating total knee arthroplasty expect pain relief, improved walking ability, return to sports, and improvement in psychological well-being and social interactions. However, patients are typically overly optimistic with regard to expected outcomes following surgery. Patient expectations and satisfaction can be influenced by age, socioeconomic factors, sex, and race. The interplay of these factors can be complex and specific to each person. Published data on clinical and functional outcomes show that persistence of symptoms, such as pain, stiffness, and failure to return to preoperative levels of function, are common and normal. Therefore, the surgeon needs to help the patient to establish realistic expectations. PMID:26493969

  1. Pygmalion in Media-Based Learning: Effects of Quality Expectancies on Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fries, Stefan; Horz, Holger; Haimerl, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Two studies investigated how quality expectations affect students' outcomes of media-based learning. Experiment 1 (N=62) demonstrated that students expecting a high-end computer-based training programme learned most, whereas students expecting a programme of ambiguous quality learned least and students having no expectations performed in between.…

  2. The Teacher and Student as Pygmalions: Joint Effects of Teacher and Student Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; Theiss, Andrew J.

    Research has suggested that both teacher expectations and student expectations can affect the individuals' own attitudes and behavior, as well as the behavior of those with whom they are interacting. The joint effects of teachers' expectations about students and students' expectations about teachers on the performance and attitudes of both…

  3. Expected results of Cassini Radio Science experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, J.; Rappaport, N.

    Cassini gravity radio science experiments scheduled from February 2005 to July 2008 are expected to improve our knowledge of the Saturnian system through direct measurements of gravity parameters performed in a multidisciplinary and comparative planetary science approach. In 2005, direct mass determination will be achieved for Enceladus, Hyperion, and Dione, as well as gravity field measurement of Rhea. Detection of an ocean suspected to lie within Titan is expected to happen by 2007. However, after the two first flybys scheduled in 2006, the determination of the dimensionless moment of inertia of this body will provide scientists with enough information to build detailed models to be compared with the Galilean satellites. Density determination of all major satellites will be performed through navigation passes scheduled throughout the tour. Accurate and independent determination of Saturn's high zonal harmonics up to degree 8 will provide crucial constraints on the interior of this giant planet by the end of the initial mission. Comparison of direct mass determination with values inferred from analytical theories is very important. Besides, density distribution sampling in the Saturnian system will provide new constraints on the models of evolution of Saturn's subnebula, as well as references for compared planetology with the Jovian satellites. This is particularly timely as a mission toward Jupiter is being scheduled in the frame of NASA New Frontiers program. Fresh geophysical observations of icy satellites and the finding or absence of a deep ocean within Titan will be crucial inputs for constraining numerical models of internal and external dynamics of this category of bodies. We will especially stress out the synergy between the information provided by the Radio Science Subsystems with the other instruments onboard Cassini to leverage our understanding of the phenomena responsible for the dynamics and evolution of the icy satellites.

  4. Brain and effort: brain activation and effort-related working memory in healthy participants and patients with working memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Engström, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Karlsson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Despite the interest in the neuroimaging of working memory, little is still known about the neurobiology of complex working memory in tasks that require simultaneous manipulation and storage of information. In addition to the central executive network, we assumed that the recently described salience network [involving the anterior insular cortex (AIC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)] might be of particular importance to working memory tasks that require complex, effortful processing. Method: Healthy participants (n = 26) and participants suffering from working memory problems related to the Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) (a specific form of periodic idiopathic hypersomnia; n = 18) participated in the study. Participants were further divided into a high- and low-capacity group, according to performance on a working memory task (listening span). In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants were administered the reading span complex working memory task tapping cognitive effort. Principal findings: The fMRI-derived blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was modulated by (1) effort in both the central executive and the salience network and (2) capacity in the salience network in that high performers evidenced a weaker BOLD signal than low performers. In the salience network there was a dichotomy between the left and the right hemisphere; the right hemisphere elicited a steeper increase of the BOLD signal as a function of increasing effort. There was also a stronger functional connectivity within the central executive network because of increased task difficulty. Conclusion: The ability to allocate cognitive effort in complex working memory is contingent upon focused resources in the executive and in particular the salience network. Individual capacity during the complex working memory task is related to activity in the salience (but not the executive) network so that high-capacity participants evidence a lower signal and possibly hence a larger dynamic response. PMID:23616756

  5. Breast ultrasound scans – surgeons’ expectations

    PubMed Central

    Bednarski, Piotr; Chrapowicki, Eryk; Jakubowski, Wies?aw

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dynamic development of mammary gland imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. A challenge related to these studies is the increase in the precision of the anatomical assessment of breast, particularly for early detection of subclinical lesions, performance of ultrasound-guided biopsy procedures, and accurate preoperative location of pathological lesions so as to optimize the surgical treatment. Ultrasound imaging is a primary and baseline diagnostic procedure the patient with suspected pathological lesions within breast is referred to by the surgeon. Lesions visualized in ultrasound scans are classified according to the BI-RADS US assessment categories. The successive categories (2 through 6) encompass individual pathological lesions, estimating the risk of malignancy and provide guidelines for further diagnostic and therapeutic management. This article described the important aspects of ultrasonographic imaging of focal lesions within the breasts as significant from the standpoint of surgical treatment of patients falling within BI-RADS US categories 3, 4, 5, and 6. Attention is drawn to the importance of ultrasound scans in the assessment of axillary fossa lymph nodes before the decision regarding the surgical treatment. PMID:26675118

  6. Breast ultrasound scans - surgeons' expectations.

    PubMed

    Bednarski, Piotr; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Chrapowicki, Eryk; Jakubowski, Wies?aw

    2015-06-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dynamic development of mammary gland imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. A challenge related to these studies is the increase in the precision of the anatomical assessment of breast, particularly for early detection of subclinical lesions, performance of ultrasound- guided biopsy procedures, and accurate preoperative location of pathological lesions so as to optimize the surgical treatment. Ultrasound imaging is a primary and baseline diagnostic procedure the patient with suspected pathological lesions within breast is referred to by the surgeon. Lesions visualized in ultrasound scans are classified according to the BI-RADS US assessment categories. The successive categories (2 through 6) encompass individual pathological lesions, estimating the risk of malignancy and provide guidelines for further diagnostic and therapeutic management. This article described the important aspects of ultrasonographic imaging of focal lesions within the breasts as significant from the standpoint of surgical treatment of patients falling within BI-RADS US categories 3, 4, 5, and 6. Attention is drawn to the importance of ultrasound scans in the assessment of axillary fossa lymph nodes before the decision regarding the surgical treatment. PMID:26675118

  7. American lifelines alliance efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishenko, S.P.; Savage, W.U.; Honegger, D.G.; McLane, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    A study was performed on American Lifelines Alliance (ALA) efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability. ALA is a public-private partnership project, with the goal of reducing risks to lifelines from natural hazards and human threat events. The mechanism used by ALA for developing national guidelines for lifeline systems is dependent upon using existing Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as means to achieve national consensus.

  8. Neural correlates of mental effort evaluation— involvement of structures related to self-awareness

    PubMed Central

    Zijlstra, Fred R. H.; Goebel, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Mental effort is a limited resource which must be invested to perform mental tasks. The amount of mental effort investment that an individual experiences during task performance can be measured afterwards with the help of self-rating scales. Earlier research suggests that integration of information about somatic state changes is crucial for the self-evaluation of mental effort investment. Damage to the pathways which convey information about somatic state changes can lead to an inability to self-evaluate mental effort investment, while conceptually similar evaluations of task difficulty can still be performed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation, while subjects rated their mental effort investment and the difficulty of a previously performed task. Our results show stronger activation of the left anterior insular cortex (aIC) during evaluation of mental effort. Additionally, the activity in left aIC during task performance was modulated by changes in task demand in a similar way as the self-ratings of mental effort. We argue that aIC does not only play a role in the integration of self-related information during self-evaluation of mental effort investment, but that left aIC might also be involved in the experience of mental effort during task performance. PMID:23202660

  9. Contrasting responses of male and female foraging effort to year-round wind conditions.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sue; Phillips, Richard A; Burthe, Sarah J; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis

    2015-11-01

    There is growing interest in the effects of wind on wild animals, given evidence that wind speeds are increasing and becoming more variable in some regions, particularly at temperate latitudes. Wind may alter movement patterns or foraging ability, with consequences for energy budgets and, ultimately, demographic rates. These effects are expected to vary among individuals due to intrinsic factors such as sex, age or feeding proficiency. Furthermore, this variation is predicted to become more marked as wind conditions deteriorate, which may have profound consequences for population dynamics as the climate changes. However, the interaction between wind and intrinsic effects has not been comprehensively tested. In many species, in particular those showing sexual size dimorphism, males and females vary in foraging performance. Here, we undertook year-round deployments of data loggers to test for interactions between sex and wind speed and direction on foraging effort in adult European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis, a pursuit-diving seabird in which males are c. 18% heavier. We found that foraging time was lower at high wind speeds but higher during easterly (onshore) winds. Furthermore, there was an interaction between sex and wind conditions on foraging effort, such that females foraged for longer than males when winds were of greater strength (9% difference at high wind speeds vs. 1% at low wind speeds) and when winds were easterly compared with westerly (7% and 4% difference, respectively). The results supported our prediction that sex-specific differences in foraging effort would become more marked as wind conditions worsen. Since foraging time is linked to demographic rates in this species, our findings are likely to have important consequences for population dynamics by amplifying sex-specific differences in survival rates. PMID:26283625

  10. Office Employment Expectations of Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Edward B.

    1971-01-01

    This study was designed to determine (1) the office employment expectations of white and nonwhite business education students and (2) the effect of various factors on office employment expectations. (Author)

  11. Students' Perceptions of Peer Evaluation: An Expectancy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yining; Lou, Hao

    2004-01-01

    Because of the difficulty of evaluating uneven performance among group members, many researchers suggest incorporating peer evaluations in a grading system that permits an instructor to evaluate and grade individual performance more equitably within a group. In this study, the authors employ expectancy theory to assess key factors that may…

  12. Students' Perceptions of Peer Evaluation: An Expectancy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yining; Lou, Hao

    2004-01-01

    Because of the difficulty of evaluating uneven performance among group members, many researchers suggest incorporating peer evaluations in a grading system that permits an instructor to evaluate and grade individual performance more equitably within a group. In this study, the authors employ expectancy theory to assess key factors that may…

  13. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  14. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  15. 10 CFR 63.304 - Reasonable expectation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reasonable expectation. 63.304 Section 63.304 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards § 63.304 Reasonable expectation. Reasonable expectation means...

  16. Interpersonal Expectancy Effects: A Forty Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Robert

    Interpersonal expectancy effects--the unintentional expectations that experimenters, teachers, and authority figures bring to experiments, classrooms, and other situations--can wield significant influence on individuals. Some of the issues surrounding expectancy effects are detailed in this paper. The effect itself has been recreated in…

  17. 7 CFR 760.636 - Expected revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expected revenue. 760.636 Section 760.636 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program § 760.636 Expected revenue. The expected revenue for each crop on a farm is: (a) For each insurable crop,...

  18. 7 CFR 760.636 - Expected revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expected revenue. 760.636 Section 760.636 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program § 760.636 Expected revenue. The expected revenue for each crop on a farm is: (a) For each insurable crop,...

  19. Seismic Modeling on a GPU with Modest Programming Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unat, D.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate an effective approach to porting a production code of anelastic wave propagation using a directive-based programming model, called Mint. Mint generated code realized about 80% of the performance of hand-coded CUDA on the Nvidia 200 and 400 series of GPUs. We think this performance gap is reasonable in light of the simplified programming model enjoyed by Mint's pragma-based model. Compared with writing CUDA by hand, Mint provides the flexibility to explore different performance variants of the same program through annotations and compiler options which saves considerable amount of programming effort. In this talk, we discuss how Mint enables the programmer to tune performance at a high level and evaluate various performance programming strategies realized by Mint programs and translator optimization options.

  20. [Effort thrombosis of the right subclavian vein].

    PubMed

    Tamar, Michael; Farah, Raymond

    2012-11-01

    This case report illustrates a primary upper extremity DVT of the right subclavian vein in an otherwise healthy young male. The pathogenesis of primary upper extremity DVT may be anatomical, such as thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular microtrauma e.g. effort thrombosis, or both. After examining the patient's clinical presentation and imaging results, a diagnosis of effort thrombosis, or "Paget-Schroetter syndrome" was made. Due to the clear insulting factor, the mild clinical presentation, and the fast response to anti-coagulant treatment, a conservative treatment was followed, which included anti-coagulation and close follow-up, as advised by the American College of Chest Physician's evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. PMID:23367728

  1. Impaired Effort Allocation in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Treadway, Michael T.; Peterman, Joel S.; Zald, David H.; Park, Sohee

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is reduced motivation and goal directed behavior. While preclinical models suggest that blunted striatal dopamine levels can result in reduced motivation and goal-directed behavior, this mechanism is inconsistent with evidence for enhanced striatal dopamine levels in schizophrenia. In seeking to reconcile this discrepancy, one possibility is that negative symptoms reflect a failure of striatal motivational systems to mobilize appropriately in response to reward–related information. In the present study, we used a laboratory effort-based decision-making task in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We found that patients and controls did not differ in the overall amount of effort expenditure, but patients made significantly less optimal choices in terms of maximizing rewards. These results provide further evidence for a selective deficit in the ability of schizophrenia patients to utilize environmental cues to guide reward-seeking behavior. PMID:25487699

  2. Final Report on the NCAR VTMX Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, David; Pinto, James; Brown, William; Cohen, Stephen; Morley, Bruce

    2007-02-13

    The NCAR effort is primarily focused on the analysis of a diverse suite of measurements taken at the southern end of the Salt Lake City Valley within the Jordan Narrows. These measurements include wind profiler, surface, lidar, radiosonde, multi-layered tether-sonde and sodar measurements. We are also collaborating with other VTMX investigators through linking our measurements within the Jordan Narrows with their investigations. The instrumentation was provided to interested VTMX investigators and was used extensively. Thus the NCAR data set played a large role in the results of the overall experiment. Our work under this proposal includes analysis of the observations, mesoscale modeling efforts in support of our VTMX analysis and general instrumentation development aimed at improving the measurement of vertical transport and mixing under stable conditions. This report is subdivided by research objectives.

  3. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  4. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  5. NRC; Smog control efforts off mark

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-06

    This paper reports that the National Research Council says the U.S. regulatory programs to control smog may have been misdirected the past 20 years, and more emphasis needs to be placed on limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. An NRC study the ozone control efforts have focused mainly on controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. However, in many parts of the country controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides would be more effective, it the, noting VOCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of ozone.

  6. Blowout control efforts continue off Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-12

    This paper reports that Greenhill Petroleum Corp., Houston, last week stepped up efforts to control a workover blowout in Timbalier Bay field off Lafourche Parish, La. The blowout occurred as Blake Drilling and Workover Co., Belle Chasse, La., was deepening the Gulf of Mexico well. Plans called for abandoning Miocene D-4 sand perforations at 8,683-86 ft and 8,696-8,706 ft and recompleting in Miocene D-6 sand at 8,802-28 ft.

  7. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  8. Chinese Efforts in High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Shinian; Wang, Jiuqing; Fang, Shouxian

    2010-06-01

    High intensity proton accelerators have two important applications in China in recent years: Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System for nuclear waste transmutation and China Spallation Neutron Source. This paper focuses on the R&D activities of the key technology of high intensity proton accelerators in China, including the normal conducting and superconducting accelerator technologies. Chinese efforts in ADS basic research will also be outlined.

  9. Materials characterization on efforts for ablative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytula, Thomas P.; Schad, Kristin C.; Swann, Myles H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental efforts to develop a new procedure to measure char depth in carbon phenolic nozzle material are described. Using a Shor Type D Durometer, hardness profiles were mapped across post fired sample blocks and specimens from a fired rocket nozzle. Linear regression was used to estimate the char depth. Results are compared to those obtained from computed tomography in a comparative experiment. There was no significant difference in the depth estimates obtained by the two methods.

  10. Autonomic Nervous System Responses During Perception of Masked Speech may Reflect Constructs other than Subjective Listening Effort

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Alexander L.; MacPherson, Megan K.; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Alvar, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Typically, understanding speech seems effortless and automatic. However, a variety of factors may, independently or interactively, make listening more effortful. Physiological measures may help to distinguish between the application of different cognitive mechanisms whose operation is perceived as effortful. In the present study, physiological and behavioral measures associated with task demand were collected along with behavioral measures of performance while participants listened to and repeated sentences. The goal was to measure psychophysiological reactivity associated with three degraded listening conditions, each of which differed in terms of the source of the difficulty (distortion, energetic masking, and informational masking), and therefore were expected to engage different cognitive mechanisms. These conditions were chosen to be matched for overall performance (keywords correct), and were compared to listening to unmasked speech produced by a natural voice. The three degraded conditions were: (1) Unmasked speech produced by a computer speech synthesizer, (2) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked byspeech-shaped noise and (3) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked by two-talker babble. Masked conditions were both presented at a -8 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR), a level shown in previous research to result in comparable levels of performance for these stimuli and maskers. Performance was measured in terms of proportion of key words identified correctly, and task demand or effort was quantified subjectively by self-report. Measures of psychophysiological reactivity included electrodermal (skin conductance) response frequency and amplitude, blood pulse amplitude and pulse rate. Results suggest that the two masked conditions evoked stronger psychophysiological reactivity than did the two unmasked conditions even when behavioral measures of listening performance and listeners’ subjective perception of task demand were comparable across the three degraded conditions. PMID:26973564

  11. Summary results of the DOE flywheel development effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, M.; Martin, J. F.

    1984-11-01

    The technology and applications evaluation task focuses on defining performance and cost requirements for flywheels in the various areas of application. To date the DOE program has focused on automotive applications. The composite materials effort entails the testing of new commercial composites to determine their engineering properties. The rotor and containment development work uses data from these program elements to design and fabricate flywheels. The flywheels are then tested at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory and their performance is evaluated to indicate possible areas for improvement. Once a rotor has been fully developed it is transferred to the private sector.

  12. Influences of sampling effort on detected patterns and structuring processes of a Neotropical plant-hummingbird network.

    PubMed

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Maruyama, Pietro K; Debastiani, Vanderlei J; Duarte, L da S; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Marlies

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all empirical ecological interaction networks to some extent suffer from undersampling. However, how limitations imposed by sampling incompleteness affect our understanding of ecological networks is still poorly explored, which may hinder further advances in the field. Here, we use a plant-hummingbird network with unprecedented sampling effort (2716 h of focal observations) from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil, to investigate how sampling effort affects the description of network structure (i.e. widely used network metrics) and the relative importance of distinct processes (i.e. species abundances vs. traits) in determining the frequency of pairwise interactions. By dividing the network into time slices representing a gradient of sampling effort, we show that quantitative metrics, such as interaction evenness, specialization (H2 '), weighted nestedness (wNODF) and modularity (Q; QuanBiMo algorithm) were less biased by sampling incompleteness than binary metrics. Furthermore, the significance of some network metrics changed along the sampling effort gradient. Nevertheless, the higher importance of traits in structuring the network was apparent even with small sampling effort. Our results (i) warn against using very poorly sampled networks as this may bias our understanding of networks, both their patterns and structuring processes, (ii) encourage the use of quantitative metrics little influenced by sampling when performing spatio-temporal comparisons and (iii) indicate that in networks strongly constrained by species traits, such as plant-hummingbird networks, even small sampling is sufficient to detect their relative importance for the frequencies of interactions. Finally, we argue that similar effects of sampling are expected for other highly specialized subnetworks. PMID:26476103

  13. Expected-Credibility-Based Job Scheduling for Reliable Volunteer Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kan; Fukushi, Masaru; Horiguchi, Susumu

    This paper presents a proposal of an expected-credibility-based job scheduling method for volunteer computing (VC) systems with malicious participants who return erroneous results. Credibility-based voting is a promising approach to guaranteeing the computational correctness of VC systems. However, it relies on a simple round-robin job scheduling method that does not consider the jobs' order of execution, thereby resulting in numerous unnecessary job allocations and performance degradation of VC systems. To improve the performance of VC systems, the proposed job scheduling method selects a job to be executed prior to others dynamically based on two novel metrics: expected credibility and the expected number of results for each job. Simulation of VCs shows that the proposed method can improve the VC system performance up to 11%; It always outperforms the original round-robin method irrespective of the value of unknown parameters such as population and behavior of saboteurs.

  14. Trait Anticipatory Pleasure Predicts Effort Expenditure for Reward

    PubMed Central

    Geaney, Joachim T.; Treadway, Michael T.; Smillie, Luke D.

    2015-01-01

    Research in motivation and emotion has been increasingly influenced by the perspective that processes underpinning the motivated approach of rewarding goals are distinct from those underpinning enjoyment during reward consummation. This distinction recently inspired the construction of the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a self-report measure that distinguishes trait anticipatory pleasure (pre-reward feelings of desire) from consummatory pleasure (feelings of enjoyment and gratification upon reward attainment). In a university community sample (N = 97), we examined the TEPS subscales as predictors of (1) the willingness to expend effort for monetary rewards, and (2) affective responses to a pleasant mood induction procedure. Results showed that both anticipatory pleasure and a well-known trait measure of reward motivation predicted effort-expenditure for rewards when the probability of being rewarded was relatively low. Against expectations, consummatory pleasure was unrelated to induced pleasant affect. Taken together, our findings provide support for the validity of the TEPS anticipatory pleasure scale, but not the consummatory pleasure scale. PMID:26115223

  15. Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.

    PubMed

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes. PMID:26869196

  16. Women's Retirement Expectations: How Stable Are They?

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we examine between- and within-person differences in expected retirement age as a key element of the retirement planning process. The expectation typologies of 1,626 women born between 1923 and 1937 were classified jointly on the basis of specificity and consistency. Methods Latent class analysis was used to determine retirement expectation patterns over a 7-year span. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate the effects of demographic and status characteristics on the likelihood of reporting 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of retirement expectations. Results Substantial heterogeneity in reports of expected retirement age between and within individuals over the 7-year span was found. Demographic and status characteristics, specifically age, race, marital status, job tenure, and recent job change, sorted respondents into different retirement expectation patterns. Conclusions The frequent within-person fluctuations and substantial between-person heterogeneity in retirement expectations indicate uncertainty and variability in both expectations and process of expectation formation. Variability in respondents' reports suggests that studying retirement expectations at multiple time points better captures the dynamics of preretirement planning. PMID:19176483

  17. Implementing Successful Geoscience Education and Outreach Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Successful geoscience Education and Outreach (E&O) efforts associated with a research program benefit from effective planning and a commitment by scientists/researchers to become more knowledgeable about and involved in education. Several suggested strategies have evolved based on experience in Earth science E&O with K-16 educators and students during the past 10 years. E&O programs and materials should be developed at appropriate levels ("start from where they're at") and utilize information, skills and topics that are most relevant to students and teachers. Hands-on and inquiry-based activities that teach or reinforce fundamental science understanding and skills, while introducing new topics, results and discoveries, are particularly effective. It is useful to design materials that can provide for a range of time commitment, level of technical skills, and effort, so that introductory to in-depth curriculum units can be implemented. Use of the Internet and working with teachers can be effective methods for dissemination and taking advantage of a "multiplying factor". Obtaining feedback and evaluation of the programs and developed materials, and connecting the materials to national or state education standards are also highly recommended. Most importantly, scientists should become more involved in the science education community. Attending and presenting papers at appropriate science education sessions or workshops, or state or national science teacher meetings (the annual National Science Teachers Association convention is an excellent place to start) can be a significant educational experience for the scientist/researcher. Effective geoscience E&O programs have significant potential for enhancing K-16 education and scientific literacy, and can help attract students to the sciences. Perhaps surprisingly, these efforts have substantial positive impact on the scientist/researcher as well.

  18. Measuring Student Effort and Engagement in an Introductory Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonham, Scott

    2007-11-01

    Multiple scales reflecting student effort were developed using factor and scale analysis on data from an introductory physics course. This data included interactions with an on-line homework system. One of the scales displays many characteristics of a metric of the individual level of engagement in the course. This scale is shown to be a good predictor of performance on class exams and the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Furthermore, normalized learning gains on the FCI are well predicted by this scale while pre-instructional FCI scores provide no additional predictive ability, agreeing with observations by Richard Hake. This scale also correlates strongly with epistemological beliefs that learning is related to effort and is the responsibility of the student. The factors that enter into this scale, writing and mastering expert-like problem-solving, are consistent with this being a measure of individual levels of class engagement.

  19. Evolution of state outreach efforts under SCHIP.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan R; Rosenbach, Margo L

    2007-01-01

    States have shown creativity and adaptability in developing outreach strategies to promote State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) enrollment. As the program has matured and the fiscal environment has tightened, States have learned what efforts are successful and have tailored their approaches accordingly. This article reviews the evolution of State outreach strategies under SCHIP, using qualitative information from all 50 States and the District of Columbia. Early campaigns were aimed at building broad awareness of SCHIP. Over time, States have adapted their outreach campaigns to close the gaps in enrolling hard-to-reach populations, by modifying their target populations, messages, methods, organizational strategies, and emphasis. PMID:17722754

  20. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    2014-06-15

    Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  1. Respiratory effort energy estimation using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Yavari, Ehsan; Young, Jared; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Stickley, Cris

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory effort can be harvested to power wearable biosensors and mobile electronic devices. The very first step toward designing a harvester is to estimate available energy and power. This paper describes an estimation of the available power and energy due to the movements of the torso during breathing, using Doppler radar by detecting breathing rate, torso displacement, torso movement velocity and acceleration along the sagittal movement of the torso. The accuracy of the detected variables is verified by two reference methods. The experimental result obtained from a healthy female human subject shows that the available power from circumferential movement can be higher than the power from the sagittal movement. PMID:23365993

  2. Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad.

    PubMed

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives. PMID:24401293

  3. Understanding Activist Leadership Effort in the Movement Opposing Drinking and Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Cassandra R.; McCarthy, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Why do some social movement leaders work harder than others? And, how does gender affect the patterns we uncover? Utilizing historical case study evidence of local chapters in the emerging movement opposing drinking and driving we are able to develop and test theoretical expectations about predictors of weekly effort among MADD and RID leaders.…

  4. Sex-Role Stereotyping in Two Newspapers of 1885: The Influence of the Pioneer Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Lee; Bond, Turner

    To answer the questions of whether the pioneer effort and subsequent differences in lifestyles affected sex-role stereotyping in newspapers in 1885 and whether a widely perceived difference in role expectation was evident in the popular writing of the times, a study examined the differences in sex roles reflected in popular journalistic portrayals…

  5. Expectation Suppression in Early Visual Cortex Depends on Task Set

    PubMed Central

    St. John-Saaltink, Elexa; Utzerath, Christian; Kok, Peter; Lau, Hakwan C.; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulus expectation can modulate neural responses in early sensory cortical regions, with expected stimuli often leading to a reduced neural response. However, it is unclear whether this expectation suppression is an automatic phenomenon or is instead dependent on the type of task a subject is engaged in. To investigate this, human subjects were presented with visual grating stimuli in the periphery that were either predictable or non-predictable while they performed three tasks that differently engaged cognitive resources. In two of the tasks, the predictable stimulus was task-irrelevant and spatial attention was engaged at fixation, with a high load on either perceptual or working memory resources. In the third task, the predictable stimulus was task-relevant, and therefore spatially attended. We observed that expectation suppression is dependent on the cognitive resources engaged by a subjects’ current task. When the grating was task-irrelevant, expectation suppression for predictable items was visible in retinotopically specific areas of early visual cortex (V1-V3) during the perceptual task, but it was abolished when working memory was loaded. When the grating was task-relevant and spatially attended, there was no significant effect of expectation in early visual cortex. These results suggest that expectation suppression is not an automatic phenomenon, but dependent on attentional state and type of available cognitive resources. PMID:26098331

  6. Illusory expectations can affect retrieval-monitoring accuracy.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Ian M; Gallo, David A

    2012-03-01

    The present study investigated how expectations, even when illusory, can affect the accuracy of memory decisions. Participants studied words presented in large or small font for subsequent memory tests. Replicating prior work, judgments of learning indicated that participants expected to remember large words better than small words, even though memory for these words was equivalent on a standard test of recognition memory and subjective judgments. Critically, we also included tests that instructed participants to selectively search memory for either large or small words, thereby allowing different memorial expectations to contribute to performance. On these tests we found reduced false recognition when searching memory for large words relative to small words, such that the size illusion paradoxically affected accuracy measures (d' scores) in the absence of actual memory differences. Additional evidence for the role of illusory expectations was that (a) the accuracy effect was obtained only when participants searched memory for the aspect of the stimuli corresponding to illusory expectations (size instead of color) and (b) the accuracy effect was eliminated on a forced-choice test that prevented the influence of memorial expectations. These findings demonstrate the critical role of memorial expectations in the retrieval-monitoring process. PMID:21942496

  7. Effects of resolving to change one's own behavior: expectations vs. experience.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Kathryn; Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter

    2009-06-01

    The "false-hope syndrome" suggests that unrealistic expectations are responsible for the cycle of repeated failure and renewed efforts at self-change characterizing many self-changers. Our hypotheses were that: (1) committing to a particular self-change task would inflate initial expectations, (2) participants would be unsuccessful relative to their expectations, and (3) more elevated expectations would lead to more negative outcomes. Participants were randomly assigned to either increase their physical activity or reduce their stress through meditating or were assigned to a no-change control group. In accordance with Hypotheses 1 and 2, exercise participants had more positive expectations about their resolutions immediately after committing to them, and both exercise and meditation participants were unsuccessful relative to their expectations. With respect to Hypothesis 3, however, having more positive expectations about one's resolution did not predict a worse outcome. PMID:19433147

  8. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households’ expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households’ stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses. PMID:23997423

  9. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  10. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  11. On the energy cost of mental effort.

    PubMed

    Sourkes, Theodore L

    2006-03-01

    The discovery of the Law of Conservation of Energy in the 1840s had consequences for psychological theory. Does the process of thinking involve a novel form of energy that is not recognized by physical science? E. L. Youmans (1821-1887) argued that "mental operations are dependent upon material changes in the nervous system." Kurd Lasswitz (1848-1910) introduced the term "psychophysical energy," based upon the electrical activity of the brain. At the beginning of the twentieth century Alfred Lehmann (1858-1921) claimed that intense mental effort leads to a net increase in oxygen utilization and regarded this as evidence of a specific psychic energy. His views were adopted and extended by Hans Berger (1873-1941). F. G. Benedict (1870-1957), drawing upon extensive experience with balance experiments conducted on humans in large-scale respiration calorimeters, concluded that mental effort probably had no effect upon the brain's metabolism. Modern approaches to the problem make use of PET imaging, which detects local changes in glucose utilization by the brain during cognitive activity. PMID:16443571

  12. Great Expectations. What the President Expects of the PR Director and What You Should Expect in Return.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, James L.

    1980-01-01

    A college president has a right to expect competence, loyalty, knowledge of the president, sensitivity, new ideas, contingency plans, a knowledge of higher education, effective management, partisanship, and hard work from his/her public relations officer. In return, that officer should expect respect, support, reward, and status in decision…

  13. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was diverted into the Porong River through a mud pump system. Also we continuously monitor changes in eruption behavior and try to anticipate the consequences, particularly after the Ring Dyke (of main vent) collapsed and became useless in controlling the flow. In September 2009 spectacular eruption intensity with kick and wave developed and is continuing. Surface and subsurface investigations continue ceaselessly to try to understand the forces driving the eruption. There are no precedents for mitigation of such a large scale mud volcano in a densely populated area that seems destined to continue for a very long time. This makes all efforts to stop eruption together with the emergency efforts, which have to be conducted simultaneously with recovery and reconstruction efforts that cover all basic needs of people live in the area. This is why BPLS has to develop innovative and creative efforts, mainly by applying the basic principle of learning by doing.

  14. Interactive effect of leaders' influence tactics and ethical leadership on work effort and helping behavior.

    PubMed

    Kacmar, K Michele; Carlson, Dawn S; Harris, Kenneth J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive influence of a) leaders' exemplification and supplication efforts and b) followers' perceptions of the leaders' ethicality on followers' work efforts and helping behaviors. We surveyed 58 leaders and 175 followers who worked for a governmental agency in the United States. Results indicated that the expected positive (negative) relationship between leaders' usage of exemplification and work effort was evident when ethical leadership was high (low). The expected positive relationship between leaders' engagement in supplication and helping behaviors was not present when ethical leadership was high, but the predicted negative relationship was found between supplication and helping when perceptions of leaders' ethicality were low. PMID:24003584

  15. Development of the PROMIS® Health Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Stucky, Brian D.; Cerully, Jennifer; Li, Zhen; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers’ health-related outcome expectancies are associated with a number of important constructs in smoking research, yet there are no measures currently available that focus exclusively on this domain. This paper describes the development and evaluation of item banks for assessing the health expectancies of smoking. Methods: Using data from a sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N = 1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses (according to gender, age, and race/ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of health expectancies items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated the performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess health expectancies. Results: A total of 24 items were included in the Health Expectancies item banks; 13 items are common across daily and nondaily smokers, 6 are unique to daily, and 5 are unique to nondaily. For both daily and nondaily smokers, the Health Expectancies item banks are unidimensional, reliable (reliability = 0.95 and 0.96, respectively), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.87). Results from simulated CATs showed that health expectancies can be assessed with good precision with an average of 5–6 items adaptively selected from the item banks. Conclusions: Health expectancies of smoking can be assessed on the basis of these item banks via SFs, CATs, or through a tailored set of items selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118229

  16. Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J.

    2004-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this…

  17. Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA activities. The program provides teachers with a one-week summer professional development workshop, long-term teacher support through classroom visits, teacher access to GLOBE instrumentation, and research opportunities for students. Professional development is centered on student engagement through inquiry, opportunities for collaborative student research, and the GLOBE Program's atmosphere protocols and learning activities. Beyond the training week, teachers receive follow-up specifically addressing current opportunities for student engagement in current research and opportunities for students to present research findings. The first cohort of teachers completed the professional development workshop in July 2012. This session will summarize the planning and implementation details of the summer workshop, including schedule and materials. In addition to these details, we will share our evaluation of follow-up activities and survey results highlighting teachers' perceived barriers to implementing atmosphere investigations. These results will add to the discussion on effective programs aimed at inspiring young scientists.

  18. Prescription stimulant expectancies in recreational and medical users: results from a preliminary expectancy questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932

  19. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  20. Reminiscing about 15 years of interoperability efforts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. In addition, we lament the lack of interoperability across nodes thatmore » play a role in web-based scholarship, but end on a constructive note with some ideas regarding a possible path forward.« less