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1

Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2010-01-01

2

Performance expectation plan  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

Ray, P.E.

1998-09-04

3

Expectation, Performance, and Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author distinguishes between social worker accountability, a product of intent, and effectiveness, the level of performance that derives from being accountable. It should be sufficient, he feels, to demonstrate that the profession is acting accountably. Client expectations, social worker-supervisor interaction, and social work education are…

Tropp, Emanuel

1974-01-01

4

Expectation and Pupil Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this monograph is to describe a number of studies that the author has carried out, which offer some evidence for the existence of a few environmental factors which appear to influence children's performance on both ability and attainment tests. The notion is developed of how children's motivation to learn, and hence their level of…

Pidgeon, Douglas A.

5

Sex Differences in Occupational Performance Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effects of occupational sex-dominance on sex differences in occupational performance expectations. College students indicated their self-expectations and comparison person expectations (those of a "typical" male or female) regarding job performance for six occupations. Women reported lower expectations for themselves except for…

Bridges, Judith S.

1988-01-01

6

Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

2010-01-01

7

Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

2011-01-01

8

Expected performance of m-solution backtracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper derives upper bounds on the expected number of search tree nodes visited during an m-solution backtracking search, a search which terminates after some preselected number m problem solutions are found. The search behavior is assumed to have a general probabilistic structure. The results are stated in terms of node expansion and contraction. A visited search tree node is said to be expanding if the mean number of its children visited by the search exceeds 1 and is contracting otherwise. It is shown that if every node expands, or if every node contracts, then the number of search tree nodes visited by a search has an upper bound which is linear in the depth of the tree, in the mean number of children a node has, and in the number of solutions sought. Also derived are bounds linear in the depth of the tree in some situations where an upper portion of the tree contracts (expands), while the lower portion expands (contracts). While previous analyses of 1-solution backtracking have concluded that the expected performance is always linear in the tree depth, the model allows superlinear expected performance.

Nicol, D. M.

1986-01-01

9

VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien

2014-07-01

10

Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

2012-01-01

11

The impact of performance management on customers' expected logistics performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The main objective of this paper is to describe state-of-the-art practices for handling logistics performance management in dyadic relationships. Another objective is to explain the relationship between logistics performance management practices and customers' expected logistics performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A logistics performance management model was developed and applied to 136 dyads of Swedish manufacturing companies and their most important

Helena Forslund

2007-01-01

12

Landsat Data Continuity Mission Expected Instrument Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is scheduled for a December 2012 launch date. LDCM is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In order to provide the necessary spectral coverage of the visible through shortwave-infrared (SWIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR), the satellite will carry two sensors. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine visible to shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will collect coincident image data for two TIR bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it's manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space F!ight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite instrument systems, present pre-launch performance data for OLI and TIRS, and present simulated images to highlight notable features and expected imaging performance.

Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.; Markham, Brian L.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Storey, James C.

2012-01-01

13

SMAP Radar Processing and Expected Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will describe the processing algorithms being developed for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radar data and the expected characteristics of the measured backscattering cross sections. The SMAP radar combines some unique features such as a conically scanned antenna with SAR processing of the data. The rapidly varying squint angle gives the measurements variable resolution and noise characteristics and poses a challenge to the processor to maintain accuracy around the wide (1000 km) swath. Rapid variation of Doppler around the scan leads to a time domain azimuth correlation algorithm, and variation of the Doppler geometry will likely require varying the processing bandwidth to manage ambiguity contamination errors. The basic accuracy requirement is 1-dB (one-sigma) in the backscatter measurements at a resolution of 3 km. The main error contributions come from speckle noise, calibration uncertainty, and radio frequency interference (RFI). Speckle noise is determined by system design parameters and details of the processing algorithms. The calibration of the backscatter measurements will be based on pre-launch characterization of the radar components which allow corrections for short term (~1 month) variations in performance. Longer term variations and biases will be removed using measurements of stable reference targets such as parts of the Amazon rain forest, and possibly the oceans and ice sheets. RFI survey measurements will be included to measure the extent of RFI around the world. The SMAP radar is designed to be able to hop the operating frequency within the 80 MHz allocated band to avoid the worst RFI emitters. Data processing will detect and discard further RFI contaminated measurements. This work is supported by the SMAP project at JPL - CalTech. The SMAP mission has not been formally approved by NASA. The decision to proceed with the mission will not occur until the completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. Material in this document related to SMAP is for information purposes only.

West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.

2011-12-01

14

5 CFR 9901.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...assess subordinate employees' performance. (e) Performance expectations include— ...that set general or specific performance targets at the individual... (2) Organizational, occupational, or other work...

2010-01-01

15

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...managers must communicate performance expectations, including those that may affect an employee's retention in the job. Performance expectations need not be in writing, but must be communicated to the employee prior to holding the employee...

2010-01-01

16

Rational and Adaptive Performance Expectations in a Customer Satisfaction Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops and tests alternative models of market-level expectations, perceived product performance, and customer satisfaction. Market performance expectations are argued to be largely rational in nature yet adaptive to changing market conditions. Customer satisfaction is conceptualized as a cumulative construct that is effected by market expectations and performance perceptions in any given period and is affected by past satisfaction

Michael D. Johnson; Eugene W. Anderson; Claes Fornell

1995-01-01

17

An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance  

PubMed Central

Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternate explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost – that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternate explanations both for the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across subdisciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternate models might be empirically distinguished. PMID:24304775

Kurzban, Robert; Duckworth, Angela; Kable, Joseph W.; Myers, Justus

2013-01-01

18

Overt Expression of Experimenter Expectancies, Interaction with Subject Expectancies, and Performance on a Psychomotor Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjects (N=48) attempted 24 trials of a psychomotor task to avoid aversive stimulus. Subject-experimenters, with solution expectancies instilled, offered information to subjects. Found that subject-experimenter expectancies were communicated to subjects via periodic comments. Expectancies affected subjects' task performance. Previous similar task…

Callaway, John W.; And Others

1980-01-01

19

Optical telecommunications: expected performance of the beacon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beacon is a powerful non-coherent CW laser source which is developed in the frame of the Semi-conductor Inter-satellite Link Experiment (SILEX). Its functionality is to provide a high divergence beam during the first tracking sequence. It is made up of 19 laser diodes coupled into one multi-mode fiber, the exit face of that fiber being integrated at the focal plane of a collimator. A breadboarding phase has been conducted at the beginning of the phase C/D in order to demonstrate that the requirement of 8 KW/Sr within a divergence of 11.75 mRd will be achieved. That phase is now completed and the overall breadboard performance is discussed in this paper with respect to the SILEX requirements.

Renard, Michel; Gollier, Jacques; Dobie, Paul J.; Heinrichs, Theo; Sobeczko, Andre

1994-09-01

20

Changes in Student Effort and Grade Expectation in the Course of a Term  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students were surveyed and asked to self-evaluate their performance and time-on-task in six engineering courses (eight sections). Surveys were conducted four times over the course of a 10-week quarter. Students with the highest grade point averages (GPAs) (2.88 mean; 4.00 mode) indicated "no change" while students with lower GPAs (2.67 mean; 1.83…

Khachikian, C. S.; Guillaume, D. W.; Pham, T. K.

2011-01-01

21

Parental Expectations and Children's Academic Performance in Sociocultural Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review research on parental expectations and their effects on student achievement within and across diverse\\u000a racial and ethnic groups. Our review suggests that the level of parental expectations varies by racial\\/ethnic group, and that\\u000a students' previous academic performance is a less influential determinant of parental expectations among racial\\/ethnic minority\\u000a parents than among European American parents. To

Yoko Yamamoto; Susan D. Holloway

2010-01-01

22

Teacher Expectancy Related to Student Performance in Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was designed (1) to discover the effect of teacher expectation on student performance in the cognitive and in the psychomotor skills, and (2) to analyze students' attitudes toward teachers because of teacher expectations. The study utilized two different instructional units. The quality milk production unit was used to teach cognitive…

Pandya, Himanshu S.

23

Maintenance personnel performance simulation (MAPPS) model: overview and evaluation efforts  

SciTech Connect

The development of the MAPPS model has been completed and the model is currently undergoing evaluation. These efforts are addressing a number of identified issues concerning practicality, acceptability, usefulness, and validity. Preliminary analysis of the evaluation data that has been collected indicates that MAPPS will provide comprehensive and reliable data for PRA purposes and for a number of other applications. The MAPPS computer simulation model provides the user with a sophisticated tool for gaining insights into tasks performed by NPP maintenance personnel. Its wide variety of input parameters and output data makes it extremely flexible for application to a number of diverse applications. With the demonstration of favorable model evaluation results, the MAPPS model will represent a valuable source of NPP maintainer reliability data and provide PRA studies with a source of data on maintainers that has previously not existed.

Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.; Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Ryan, T.G.

1984-01-01

24

Expectations, Performance, and Citizen Satisfaction with Urban Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expectancy disconfirmation model has dominated private-sector research on customer satisfaction for several decades, yet it has not been applied to citizen satisfaction with urban services. The model views satisfaction judgments as determined--not just by product or service performance--but by a process in which consumers compare performance

Van Ryzin, Gregg G.

2004-01-01

25

Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study is presented of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector. The reconstruction of tracks, leptons, photons, missing energy and jets is investigated, together with the performance of b-tagging and the trigger. The physics potential for a variety of interesting physics processes, within the Standard Model and beyond, is examined. The study comprises a series of notes based

G. Aad; E. Abat; B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; M. Aharrouche; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad; H. Ahmed; G. Aielli; T. Akdogan; T. P. A. Akesson; G. Akimoto; M. S. Alam; M. A. Alam; J. Albert; S. Albrand; M. Aleksa; I. N. Aleksandrov; F. Alessandria; C. Alexa; G. Alexander; G. Alexandre; T. Alexopoulos; M. Alhroob; G. Alimonti; J. Alison; M. Aliyev; P. P. Allport; S. E. Allwood-Spiers; A. Aloisio; R. Alon; A. Alonso; J. Alonso; M. G. Alviggi; K. Amako; P. Amaral; C. Amelung; V. V. Ammosov; A. Amorim; G. Amoros; N. Amram; C. Anastopoulos; C. F. Anders; K. J. Anderson; A. Andreazza; V. Andrei; M-L. Andrieux; X. S. Anduaga; F. Anghinolfi; A. Antonaki; M. Antonelli; S. Antonelli; B. Antunovic; F. A. Anulli; G. Arabidze; I. Aracena; Y. Arai; A. T. H. Arce; J. P. Archambault; S. Arfaoui; J-F. Arguin; T. Argyropoulos; E. Arik; M. Arik; A. J. Armbruster; O. Arnaez; C. Arnault; A. Artamonov; D. Arutinov; M. Asai; S. Asai; S. Ask; B. Asman; D. Asner; L. Asquith; K. Assamagan; A. Astbury; A. Astvatsatourov; T. Atkinson; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; E. Auge; K. Augsten; M. A. Aurousseau; N. Austin; G. Avolio; R. Avramidou; A. Axen; C. Ay; G. Azuelos; Y. Azuma; M. A. Baak; G. Baccaglioni; C. Bacci; H. Bachacou; K. Bachas; M. Backes; E. Badescu; P. Bagnaia; Y. Bai; D. C. Bailey; J. T. Baines; O. K. Baker; F. Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa; E. Banas; S. Banerjee; D. Banfi; A. Bangert; V. Bansal; S. P. Baranov; A. Barashkou; T. B. Barber; E. L. Barberio; D. Barberis; M. B. Barbero; D. Y. Bardin; T. Barillari; M. Barisonzi; T. Barklow; N. B. Barlow; N. B. Barlow; R. M. Barnett; S. Baron; A. Baroncelli; A. Baroncelli; F. Barreiro; J. Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa; P. Barrillon; R. Bartoldus; D. Bartsch; J. Bastos; R. L. Bates; J. R. Batley; A. Battaglia; M. Battistin; F. Bauer; M. Bazalova; B. Beare; P. H. Beauchemin; R. B. Beccherle; N. Becerici; P. Bechtle; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; M. Beckingham; K. H. Becks; I. Bedajanek; A. J. Beddall; P. Bednar; V. A. Bednyakov; C. Bee; S. Behar Harpaz; P. K. Behera; M. Beimforde; C. Belanger-Champagne; P. J. Bell; W. H. Bell; G. Bella; L. Bellagamba; F. Bellina; M. Bellomo; A. Belloni; K. Belotskiy; O. Beltramello; S. Ben Ami; O. Beltramello; D. Benchekroun; M. Bendel; B. H. Benedict; N. Benekos; Y. Benhammou; G. P. Benincasa; D. P. Benjamin; M. Benoit; J. R. Bensinger; K. Benslama; S. Bentvelsen; M. Beretta; D. Berge; E. Bergeaas Kuutmann; N. Berger; F. Berghaus; E. Berglund; J. Beringer; K. Bernardet; P. Bernat; R. Bernhard; C. Bernius; T. Berry; A. Bertin; N. Besson; S. Bethke; R. M. Bianchi; M. Bianco; O. Biebel; J. Biesiada; M. Biglietti; H. Bilokon; S. Binet; A. Bingul; C. Bini; C. Biscarat; M. Bischofberger; U. Bitenc; K. M. Black; R. E. Blair; G. Blanchot; C. Blocker; J. Blocki; A. Blondel; W. Blum; U. Blumenschein; C. Boaretto; G. J. Bobbink; A. Bocci; B. Bodine; J. Boek; N. Boelaert; S. Boeser; J. A. Bogaerts; A. Bogouch; C. Bohm; J. Bohm; V. Boisvert; T. Bold; V. Boldea; V. G. Bondarenko; M. Bondioli; M. Boonekamp; C. N. Booth; P. S. L. Booth; J. R. A. Booth; A. Borisov; G. Borissov; I. Borjanovic; S. Borroni; K. Bos; D. Boscherini; M. Bosman; M. Bosteels; H. Boterenbrood; J. Bouchami; J. Boudreau; E. V. Bouhova-Thacker; C. Boulahouache; C. Bourdarios; J. Boyd; I. R. Boyko; A. Braem; P. Branchini; G. W. Brandenburg; A. Brandt; O. Brandt; U. Bratzler; J. E. Brau; H. M. Braun; B. Brelier; J. Bremer; R. Brenner; S. Bressler; D. Breton; N. D. Brett; D. Breton; F. M. Brochu; I. Brock; R. Brock; E. Brodet; F. Broggi; G. Brooijmans; W. K. Brooks; E. Brubaker; P. A. Bruckman de Renstrom; D. Bruncko; R. Bruneliere; S. Brunet; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; M. Bruschi; T. Buanes; F. B. Bucci; P. Buchholz; A. G. Buckley; I. A. Budagov; V. Buescher; L. Bugge; F. Bujor; O. Bulekov; M. Bunse; T. Buran; H. Burckhart; S. Burdin; S. Burke; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; F. Butin; B. Butler; J. M. Butler; C. M. Buttar; J. M. Butterworth; T. Byatt; S. Cabrera Urban; D. Caforio; O. Cakir; P. Calafiura; G. Calderini; R. Calkins; L. P. Caloba; R. Calkins; D. Calvet; P. Camarri; M. Cambiaghi; D. Cameron; F. Campabadal Segura; S. Campana; M. Campanelli; V. Canale; J. Cantero; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; I. Caprini; M. D. M. Capeans Garrido; M. Capua; R. Caputo; C. Caramarcu; R. Cardarelli; T. Carli; G. Carlino; L. Carminati; B. Caron; S. Caron; S. Carron Montero; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; J. Carvalho; D. Casadei; M. P. Casado; M. Cascella; C. Caso; A. M. Castaneda Hernadez; E. Castaneda Miranda; V. Castillo Gimenez; N. F. Castro; G. Cataldi; A. Catinaccio; J. R. Catmore; A. Catinaccio; G. Cattani; S. Caughron; D. Cauz; P. Cavalleri; D. Cavalli; M. Cavalli-Sforza; V. Cavasinni; A. Cazzato

2008-01-01

26

Assets, parental expectations and involvement, and children's educational performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationships between parental assets with their expectations and involvement of children's education, and children's educational performance measured 2 years later. Through the analysis of the mother–child data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), results indicate that after controlling for family income and other parent characteristics, parental assets were positively related to children's math

Min Zhan

2006-01-01

27

Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mathematics Performance Expectations (MPE) define the content and level of achievement students must reach to be academically prepared for success in entry-level, credit-bearing mathematics courses in college or career training. They were developed through a process that involved faculty from Virginia's two- and four-year colleges and…

Virginia Department of Education, 2011

2011-01-01

28

High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from thirties to fifties, the age category most affected was in the forties range. Incident rate calculations (incidents per 100 training runs) revealed that the 2002, 2003, and 2004 time periods registered the highest reported incident rate levels (3.4, 6.1, and 4.1 respectively) when compared to the following years (all = 1.0). In addition to general hand-arm discomfort being the highest reported result from training, specific types of hand injuries or symptoms included erythema, fingernail delamination, abrasions, muscle soreness/fatigue, paresthesia, bruising, blanching, and edema. Specific body locations most affected by hand injuries included the metacarpophalangeal joints, fingernails, finger crotches, fingers in general, interphalangeal joints, and fingertips. Causes of injuries reported in the LSAH data were primarily attributed to the forces that the gloved hands were exposed to due to hand intensive tasks and/or poor glove sizing. DISCUSSION: Although the age data indicate that most injuries are reported by male crewmembers in their forties, that is also the dominant gender and age range of most EVA crew therefore it is not an unexpected finding. Age and gender analysis will continue as more details on the uninjured population is accrued. While there is a reasonable mechanism to link training quantity to injury, the results were inconsistent and point to the need for a consistent method of suit-related injury screening and documentation. For instance, the high-incident rate levels for the years 2002 to 2004 could be attributed to a comprehensive medical review of crewmembers post-NBL EVA training that occurred from July 19, 2002 to January 16, 2004. Furthermore, there could have been increased awareness from an investigation at the NBL. These investigations may have temporarily increased the fidelity of reported injuries and discomforts during these dates as compared to surrounding years, when injury signs and symptom were no longer actively being investigated but rather voluntarily reported. Data mining for possible mechanistic factors continues and include

Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

2014-01-01

29

Expected Performance of Adaptive Optics in Large Aperture Solar Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar adaptive optics has become an indispensable tool for high resolution solar observations. New generation solar telescopes, such as the 4 m aperture Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, introduce a new set of challenges to solar adaptive optics correction. Larger aperture sizes are more susceptible to the effects on AO correction performance of the extended field-of-view of the cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Observations at large zenith angles further enhance these field-of-view effects and can introduce more performance reductions due to atmospheric dispersion. We study the expected correction performance of solar adaptive optics systems in large aperture solar telescopes using an end-to-end adaptive optics simulation package.

Marino, J.; Rimmele, T. R.

2012-12-01

30

Teacher Expectancy Related to Student Performance in Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment explored the effect of teacher expectations on vocational students' cognitive and psychomotor skills and on attitudes. Although teachers' expectations changed student attitudes toward teachers and subjects, neither expectations nor attitude change had an effect on student achievement. (SK)

Curtis, Samuel M.; Pandya, Himanshu S.

1980-01-01

31

Student Effort Expectations and Their Learning in First-Year Introductory Physics: A Case Study in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) survey was designed to probe students' expectations about their understanding of the process of learning physics and the structure of physics knowledge--cognitive expectations. This survey was administered to first-year university students in Thailand in the first semester of an introductory calculus-based…

Wutchana, U.; Emarat, N.

2011-01-01

32

Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics  

SciTech Connect

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV mass scale where groundbreaking discoveries are expected. In the focus are the investigation of the electroweak symmetry breaking and linked to this the search for the Higgs boson as well as the search for Physics beyond the Standard Model. In this report a detailed examination of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector is provided, with a major aim being to investigate the experimental sensitivity to a wide range of measurements and potential observations of new physical processes. An earlier summary of the expected capabilities of ATLAS was compiled in 1999 [1]. A survey of physics capabilities of the CMS detector was published in [2]. The design of the ATLAS detector has now been finalised, and its construction and installation have been completed [3]. An extensive test-beam programme was undertaken. Furthermore, the simulation and reconstruction software code and frameworks have been completely rewritten. Revisions incorporated reflect improved detector modelling as well as major technical changes to the software technology. Greatly improved understanding of calibration and alignment techniques, and their practical impact on performance, is now in place. The studies reported here are based on full simulations of the ATLAS detector response. A variety of event generators were employed. The simulation and reconstruction of these large event samples thus provided an important operational test of the new ATLAS software system. In addition, the processing was distributed world-wide over the ATLAS Grid facilities and hence provided an important test of the ATLAS computing system - this is the origin of the expression 'CSC studies' ('computing system commissioning'), which is occasionally referred to in these volumes. The work reported does generally assume that the detector is fully operational, and in this sense represents an idealised detector: establishing the best performance of the ATLAS detector with LHC proton-proton collisions is a challenging task for the future. The results summarised here therefore represent the best estimate of ATLAS capabilities before real operational experience of the full detector with beam. Unless otherwise stated, simulations also do not include the effect of additional interactions in the same or other bunch-crossings, and the effect of neutron background is neglected. Thus simulations correspond to the low-luminosity performance of the ATLAS detector. This report is broadly divided into two parts: firstly the performance for identification of physics objects is examined in detail, followed by a detailed assessment of the performance of the trigger system. This part is subdivided into chapters surveying the capabilities for charged particle tracking, each of electron/photon, muon and tau identification, jet and missing transverse energy reconstruction, b-tagging algorithms and performance, and finally the trigger system performance. In each chapter of the report, there is a further subdivision into shorter notes describing different aspects studied. The second major subdivision of the report addresses physics measurement capabilities, and new physics search sensitivities. Individual chapters in this part discuss ATLAS physics capabilities in Standard Model QCD and electroweak processes, in the top quark sector, in b-physics, in searches for Higgs bosons, supersymmetry searches, and finally searches for other new particles predicted in more exotic models.

Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington /Athens U. /Natl. Tech. U., Athens /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /Belgrade U. /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Humboldt U., Berlin /Bern U., LHEP /Birmingham U. /Bogazici U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U.

2011-11-28

33

High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend interventions where possible that could be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigation focused on the discomforts and injuries of U.S. crewmembers who had worn the pressurized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit and experienced 4000 Series or Phase VI glove related incidents during 1981 to 2010 for either EVA ground training or in-orbit flight. We conducted an observational retrospective case-control investigation using 1) a literature review of known injuries, 2) data mining of crew injury, glove sizing, and hand anthropometry databases, 3) descriptive statistical analyses, and finally 4) statistical risk correlation and predictor analyses to better understand injury prevalence and potential causation. Specific predictor statistical analyses included use of principal component analyses (PCA), multiple logistic regression, and survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards regression). Results of these analyses were computed risk variables in the forms of odds ratios (likelihood of an injury occurring given the magnitude of a risk variable) and hazard ratios (likelihood of time to injury occurrence). Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, we selected predictor variables significant at p=0.15. RESULTS: Through 2010, there have been a total of 330 NASA crewmembers, from which 96 crewmembers performed 322 EVAs during 1981-2010, resulting in 50 crewmembers being injured inflight and 44 injured during 11,704 ground EVA training events. Of the 196 glove related injury incidents, 106 related to EVA and 90 to EVA training. Over these 196 incidents, 277 total injuries (126 flight; 151 training) were reported and were then grouped into 23 types of injuries. Of EVA flight injuries, 65% were commonly reported to the hand (in general), metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, and finger (not including thumb) with fatigue, abrasion, and paresthesia being the most common injury types (44% of total flight injuries). Training injuries totaled to more than 70% being distributed to the fingernail, MCP joint, and finger crotch with 88% of the specific injuries listed as pain, erythema, and onycholysis. Of these training injuries, when reporting pain or erythema, the most common location was the index finger, but when reporting onycholysis, it was the middle finger. Predictor variables specific to increased risk of onycholysis included: female sex (OR=2.622), older age (OR=1.065), increased duration in hours of the flight or training event (OR=1.570), middle finger length differences in inches between the finger and the EVA glove (OR=7.709), and use of the Phase VI glove (OR=8.535). Differentiation between training and flight and injury reporting during 2002-2004 were significant control variables. For likelihood of time to first onycholysis injury, there was a 24% reduction in rate of reporting for each year increase in age. Also, more experienced crewmembers, based on number of EVA flight or training events completed, were less likely to report an onycholysis injury (3% less for every event). Longer duration events also found reporting rates to occur 2.37 times faster for every hour of length. Crewmembers with larger hand size reported onycholysis 23% faster than those with smaller hand size. Finally, for every 1/10th of an inch increase in difference between the middle finger length and the glove, the rate of reporting increased by 60%. DISCUSSION: One key finding was that the Series 4000 glove had a lower injury risk than the Phase VI, which provides a platform for

Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

2015-01-01

34

Expectations Lead to Performance: The Transformative Power of High Expectations in Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the preschool program at Missouri State University where deaf and hard of hearing children with all communication modalities and all styles of personal assistive listening devices are served. The job of the early intervention providers is to model for parents what high expectations look like and how to translate those…

Wang, Ye; Engler, Karen S.; Oetting, Tara L.

2014-01-01

35

Unmet Expectations: Why Is There Such a Difference between Student Expectations and Classroom Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past studies indicate that students are frequently poor judges of their likely academic performance in the classroom. The difficulty a student faces in accurately predicting performance on a classroom exam may be due to unrealistic optimism or may be due to an inability to self-evaluate academic performance, but the resulting disconnect between…

Stinson, Terrye A.; Zhao, Xiaofeng

2008-01-01

36

29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2014-07-01

37

29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance...COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is...

2013-07-01

38

Expected EDL navigation performance with spacecraft to spacecraft data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pinpoint landing (defined for the purpose of this discussion as landing within 1km of a preselected target) is a key Advanced Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology for future Mars landers. Key scientific goals for Mars exploration, such as the search for water and characterization of aqueous process on Mars, the study of mineralogy and weathering of the Martian surface and the search for preserved biosignatures in Martian rocks, requires placing landers at pre-defined locations of greatest scientific interest. The capability to land within 1 km of a pre-defined landing site will improve safety and enable landing within roving range of sites of scientific interest while avoiding hazardous areas. A critical component of the closed-loop guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) system required for pinpoint landing is position and velocity estimation in real time. Spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will take advantage of the UHF link between two spacecraft (i.e. to an orbiter from an approaching lander for EDL telemetry relay) to build radiometric data, specifically the velocity between the two spacecraft along the radio beam, that are processed to determine position and velocity in real time. The improved onboard state knowledge provided by spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will reduce the landed position error and improve the performance of entry guidance. Results from the first of two years planned for this effort are documented here, including selection and documentation of prototype algorithms that will go forward into flight code along with analysis results used to define the algorithm set.

Burkhart, P. Daniel; Ely, Todd; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, Glenn; Campbell, Todd; Mogensen, Andy

2005-01-01

39

Principal Leadership and Teacher Expectancy in Low-Performing Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the relationship between principal leadership and teacher expectancy within Chicago's accountability context. Current school accountability policies assume that the threat of sanctions will motivate teachers to improve. The study uses expectancy theory, which suggests that any impact on motivation will be constrained by…

Finnigan, Kara S.

2005-01-01

40

Achievement goals in a presentation task: Performance expectancy, achievement goals, state anxiety, and task performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the study were to test the linkages between achievement goals to task performance, as mediated by state anxiety arousal. Performance expectancy was also examined as antecedents of achievement goals. A presentation task in a computer practice class was used as achievement task. Fifty-three undergraduates (37 females and 16 males) were administered self-report questionnaire measures before and immediately

Ayumi Tanaka; Takuma Takehara; Hirotsugu Yamauchi

2006-01-01

41

The Expected Performance from the NASA OCO-2 Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) will be launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on a Delta-II 7320 launch vehicle as early as 1 July 2014. Once deployed in the 705-km Afternoon Constellation (A-Train), it will collect the measurements needed to estimate the column-averaged, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction (XCO2) with improved precision, resolution, and coverage. The OCO-2 spacecraft carries and points a 3-channel, imaging, grating spectrometer that collects high resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the 765 nm O2 A-band and in the CO2 bands centered near 1610 and 2060 nm. These spectral ranges overlap those used by the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) TANSO-FTS, the current standard in space-based XCO2 measurements. The OCO-2 instrument performance was extensively characterized during pre-launch testing, facilitating comparisons with the TANSO-FTS. OCO-2 has slightly lower spectral resolution, but the far wings of its instrument line shape functions decay more rapidly, such that it yields similar spectral contrast within O2 and CO2 bands. The instruments have similar continuum signal to noise ratios (SNR) for bright scenes, but the OCO-2 instrument has higher SNR at low light levels associated with absorption lines or dark surfaces. The OCO-2 spectrometers will collect 24 soundings per second, yielding up to a million soundings per day over the sunlit hemisphere. For routine operations, the OCO-2 instrument boresight will be pointed at the local nadir or at the 'glint spot,' where sunlight is specularly reflected from the surface. Nadir observations provide the best spatial resolution and are expected to yield more cloud-free soundings. Glint observations will have much better SNR over dark, ocean surfaces. The nominal plan is to alternate between glint and nadir observations on successive 16-day ground-track repeat cycles, so that the entire sunlit hemisphere is sampled in both modes at 32-day intervals. The instrument's rapid sampling, small (< 3 km2) sounding footprint, and high SNR, combined with the spacecraft's ability to point the instrument's aperture toward the glint spot over the entire sunlit hemisphere, are expected to provide more complete coverage of the ocean, cloudy regions, and high latitude continents. While the OCO-2 measurement capabilities provide opportunities to improve the XCO2 precision, resolution, and coverage, they also pose some formidable challenges for calibration, retrieval, and validation. To fully exploit this instrument's capabilities, the 24,000 spectral/spatial channels must be cross-calibrated to within a fraction of 1%. Substantial increases in algorithm speed and more efficient data screening techniques are needed to fully utilize the much larger data volume. Finally, a comprehensive validation program will be needed to ensure the accuracy of the retrieved XCO2 estimates. This presentation will summarize the OCO-2 measurement capabilities and observation strategies, and the methods adopted to address these challenges.

Crisp, D.; Eldering, A.; Gunson, M. R.; Pollock, H.

2013-12-01

42

The effect of achievement goals on enjoyment, effort, satisfaction and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of achievement goals and achievement emotions on sport satisfaction, performance and effort among competitive athletes. Participants were 200 athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of mastery-approach goals on satisfaction with sport experience and performance, the direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and effort, the direct effect of performance-approach and

Rogelio Puente-Díaz

2011-01-01

43

The effect of achievement goals on enjoyment, effort, satisfaction and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of achievement goals and achievement emotions on sport satisfaction, performance and effort among competitive athletes. Participants were 200 athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of mastery-approach goals on satisfaction with sport experience and performance, the direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and effort, the direct effect of performance-approach and

Rogelio Puente-Díaz

2012-01-01

44

Supercomputer and cluster performance modeling and analysis efforts:2004-2006.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes efforts by the Performance Modeling and Analysis Team to investigate performance characteristics of Sandia's engineering and scientific applications on the ASC capability and advanced architecture supercomputers, and Sandia's capacity Linux clusters. Efforts to model various aspects of these computers are also discussed. The goals of these efforts are to quantify and compare Sandia's supercomputer and cluster performance characteristics; to reveal strengths and weaknesses in such systems; and to predict performance characteristics of, and provide guidelines for, future acquisitions and follow-on systems. Described herein are the results obtained from running benchmarks and applications to extract performance characteristics and comparisons, as well as modeling efforts, obtained during the time period 2004-2006. The format of the report, with hypertext links to numerous additional documents, purposefully minimizes the document size needed to disseminate the extensive results from our research.

Sturtevant, Judith E.; Ganti, Anand; Meyer, Harold (Hal) Edward; Stevenson, Joel O.; Benner, Robert E., Jr. (.,; .); Goudy, Susan Phelps; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Taylor, Mark A.; Malins, Robert Joseph; Scott, Ryan T.; Barnette, Daniel Wayne; Rajan, Mahesh; Ang, James Alfred; Black, Amalia Rebecca; Laub, Thomas William; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas; Franke, Brian Claude

2007-02-01

45

29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...during a similar portion of her time to performing fill-in work requiring greater dexterity—such as rearranging displays of spices or other small items. The difference in kind of effort required of the employees does not appear to make their efforts...

2012-07-01

46

29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...during a similar portion of her time to performing fill-in work requiring greater dexterity—such as rearranging displays of spices or other small items. The difference in kind of effort required of the employees does not appear to make their efforts...

2011-07-01

47

A Cross-National Comparison of Reported Effort and Mathematics Performance in TIMSS Advanced  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to measure students' reported test-taking effort and the relationship between reported effort and performance on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced mathematics test. This was done in three countries participating in TIMSS Advanced 2008 (Sweden, Norway, and Slovenia), and the…

Eklöf, Hanna; Pavešic, Barbara Japelj; Grønmo, Liv Sissel

2014-01-01

48

Outcome Expectancies of People Who Conduct Performance Appraisals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined outcome expectancies of people who conduct appraisals. Interviews with 32 appraisers in the newsprint industry showed that appraisers perceived no consequences to them of conducting appraisals. Questionnaires completed by 39 appraisers in the banking industry provided moderate support for alternate hypothesis that appraisers perceive…

Napier, Nancy K.; Latham, Gary P.

1986-01-01

49

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management §...

2013-01-01

50

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

...Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management §...

2014-01-01

51

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance...

2011-01-01

52

5 CFR 9701.406 - Setting and communicating performance expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance...

2012-01-01

53

Expected Performance of a Self-Coherent Camera  

E-print Network

Residual wavefront errors in optical elements limit the performance of coronagraphs. To improve their efficiency, different types of devices have been proposed to correct or calibrate these errors. In this paper, we study one of these techniques proposed by Baudoz et al. 2006 and called Self-Coherent Camera (SCC). The principle of this instrument is based on the lack of coherence between the stellar light and the planet that is searched for. After recalling the principle of the SCC, we simulate its performance under realistic conditions and compare it with the performance of differential imaging.

R. Galicher; P. Baudoz

2007-07-24

54

Sustainability of Teacher Expectation Bias Effects on Long-Term Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we address the relationship between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics, its effect on long-term student performance, and the development of this effect over time. Expectation bias was defined as the difference between observed and predicted teacher expectation. These predicted expectations were estimated from a…

de Boer, Hester; Bosker, Roel J.; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

2010-01-01

55

Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student…

Sorhagen, Nicole S.

2013-01-01

56

The Interplay among Stereotypes, Performance-Avoidance Goals, and Women's Math Performance Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was designed to examine whether and how achievement goals contribute to the effect of gender stereotypes on women's\\u000a low expectancies for success on math tasks. Study 1 confirmed predictions from the Stereotyped Task Engagement Process (STEP)\\u000a model (Smith, 2004) by demonstrating that, compared to a counter-stereotype situation, women reminded of the gender-stereotype\\u000a endorsed performance-avoidance goals. Study 2 tested

Jessi L. Smith

2006-01-01

57

How does mental health care perform in respect to service users' expectations? Evaluating inpatient and outpatient care in Germany with the WHO responsiveness concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health systems increasingly try to make their services more responsive to users' expectations. In the context of the World Health Report 2000, WHO developed the concept of health system responsiveness as a performance parameter. Responsiveness relates to the system's ability to respond to service users' legitimate expectations of non-medical aspects. We used this concept in an effort to evaluate

Anke Bramesfeld; Felix Wedegärtner; Hermann Elgeti; Susanne Bisson

2007-01-01

58

Effort testing in children: can cognitive and symptom validity measures differentiate malingered performances?  

PubMed

Recent efforts have contributed to significant advances in the detection of malingered performances in adults during cognitive assessment. However, children's ability to purposefully underperform has received relatively little attention. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine children's performances on common intellectual measures, as well as two symptom validity measures: the Test of Memory Malingering and the Dot-Counting Test. This was accomplished through the administration of measures to children ages 6 to 12 years old in randomly assigned full-effort (control) and poor-effort (treatment) conditions. Prior to randomization, children's general intellectual functioning (i.e., IQ) was estimated via administration of the Kaufman Brief Intellectual Battery-Second Edition (KBIT-2). Multivariate analyses revealed that the conditions significantly differed on some but not all administered measures. Specifically, children's estimated IQ in the treatment condition significantly differed from the full-effort IQ initially obtained from the same children on the KBIT-2, as well as from the IQs obtained in the full-effort control condition. These findings suggest that children are fully capable of willfully underperforming during cognitive testing; however, consistent with prior investigations, some measures evidence greater sensitivity than others in evaluating effort. PMID:24156737

Rambo, Philip L; Callahan, Jennifer L; Hogan, Lindsey R; Hullmann, Stephanie; Wrape, Elizabeth

2015-01-01

59

The influence of performance feedback on goal-setting and mental effort regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal-setting and mental effort investment may be influenced by the perception of success or failure. The aim of the current\\u000a study was to investigate the dynamics of motivational intensity model using false performance feedback. Forty participants\\u000a performed a demanding cognitive task over five successive (5 min) blocks. Participants received performance feedback of either\\u000a progressive success or progressive failure. A number of

Louise Venables; Stephen H. Fairclough

2009-01-01

60

Expected orbit determination performance for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission  

SciTech Connect

The TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) mission, launched during the summer of 1992, has the requirement that the radial component of its orbit must be computed to an accuracy of 13 cm root-mean-square (rms) or better, allowing measurements of the sea surface height to be computed to similar accuracy when the satellite height is differenced with the altimeter measurements. This will be done by combining precise satellite tracking measurements with precise models of the forces acting on the satellite. The Space Geodesy Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), as part of the T/P precision orbit determination (POD) Team, has the responsibility within NASA for the T/P precise orbit computations. The prelaunch activities of the T/P POD Team have been mainly directed towards developing improved models of the static and time-varying gravitational forces acting on T/P and precise models for the non-conservative forces perturbing the orbit of T/P such as atmospheric drag, solar and Earth radiation pressure, and thermal imbalances. The radial orbit error budget for T/P allows 10 cm rms error due to gravity field mismodeling, 3 cm due to solid Earth and ocean tides, 6 cm due to radiative forces, and 3 cm due to atmospheric drag. A prelaunch assessment of the current modeling accuracies for these forces indicates that the radial orbit error requirements can be achieved with the current models, and can probably be surpassed once T/P tracking data are used to fine tune the models. Provided that the performance of the T/P spacecraft is nominal, the precise orbits computed by the T/P POD Team should be accurate to 13 cm or better radially.

Nerem, R.S.; Putney, B.H.; Marshall, J.A.; Lerch, F.J. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Pavlis, E.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Klosko, S.M.; Luthcke, S.B.; Patel, G.B.; Williamson, R.G.; Zelensky, N.P.

1993-03-01

61

The Impact of Effort and Strategy Use on Academic Performance: Student and Teacher Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the perceptions of 308 adolescents with learning disabilities, 355 average achievers, and their 57 teachers on student level of effort, strategy use, and academic performance. Findings indicated that the students with learning disabilities demonstrated positive academic self-concepts, whereas teachers' judgments were…

Meltzer, Lynn; Katzir-Cohen, Tamar; Miller, Lynne; Roditi, Bethany

2001-01-01

62

Attributional Gender Bias: Teachers' Ability and Effort Explanations for Students' Math Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students' performance in math. Whereas boys' successes in math are attributed to ability, girls' successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys' failures in math are attributed to a…

Espinoza, Penelope; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.

2014-01-01

63

Effortful Control in "Hot" and "Cool" Tasks Differentially Predicts Children's Behavior Problems and Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effortful control (EC), the capacity to deliberately suppress a dominant response and perform a subdominant response, rapidly developing in toddler and preschool age, has been shown to be a robust predictor of children's adjustment. Not settled, however, is whether a view of EC as a heterogeneous rather than unidimensional construct may offer…

Kim, Sanghag; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

2013-01-01

64

The influence of effort on neuropsychological performance in children: is performance on the TOMM indicative of neuropsychological ability?  

PubMed

The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but is being increasingly used with children, though it is not yet entirely clear what suboptimal TOMM performance means in terms of neuropsychological test scores. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether performance on the TOMM can be used as a predictive marker for neuropsychological performance in children. Participants (N = 75) completed the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), Children's Memory Test, and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trails. Results revealed significant correlations between age, education level, IQ, and many of the neuropsychological measures administered, indicating that as children's TOMM scores increase, so do their cognitive performances. Children were subsequently divided into two groups: optimal effort and suboptimal effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Results suggest significant differences in IQ performance and WCST Failure to Maintain Set; however, there were no differences in regard to any other neuropsychological measures administered. It was also found that a larger proportion of the younger children (aged 6 to 10 years old) scored below the TOMM cutoff compared with older children. This study illustrates that although correlations exist, suboptimal effort on the TOMM may not predict poorer performance on a neuropsychological evaluation in children as has been reported in other studies. PMID:24236939

Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R

2014-01-01

65

Causal influence of teachers' expectations on children's academic performance: A cross-lagged panel analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the causal interplay of teachers' expectations and children's academic performance. In a 4-yr longitudinal study of 4,300 British beginning elementary school children, a series of cross-lagged panel correlational analyses indicated that the preponderant cause in the achievement–expectancy relationship was that of teachers' expectations causing children's achievements to an extent appreciably exceeding that to which children's performance impinged on teachers'

William D. Crano; Phyllis M. Mellon

1978-01-01

66

The Influence of Adult Expectancy\\/Child Performance Discrepancies upon Children's Self-Concepts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents and teachers expect children from higher socioeconomic backgrounds to excel academically, relative to socioeconomically disadvantaged children. When children from high socioeconomic homes experience academic failure, the discrepancy between adult expectations and child performance is comparatively large. This expectancy\\/performance discrepancy results in lowered self-concepts. On the other hand, children with disadvantaged backgrounds do not experience lowered self-concept as a result

Monte D. Smith; Salvatore A. Zingale; J. Michael Coleman

1978-01-01

67

The Prediction of College Student Academic Performance and Retention: Application of Expectancy and Goal Setting Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educators, students, and the nation facing critical professional labor shortages. Expectancy and goal setting theories were used to predict academic performance and college student retention. Students' academic expectancy motivation at the start of the college…

Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.

2010-01-01

68

Additive benefits of external focus and enhanced performance expectancy for motor learning.  

PubMed

Abstract The authors examined the individual and combined influences of 2 factors that have been shown to benefit motor learning: an external focus of attention and enhanced performance expectancies. Another purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying these variables. In a factorial design, participants learning a novel motor skill (i.e., throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not given external focus instructions, and were or were not provided bogus positive social-comparative feedback to enhance their expectancies. This resulted in 4 groups: external focus, enhanced expectancy, external focus/enhanced expectancy and control. External focus instructions and enhanced expectancies had additive benefits for learning: the external focus/enhanced expectancy group demonstrated the greatest throwing accuracy on both retention and transfer tests, while the accuracy scores of the external focus and enhanced expectancy groups were lower, but higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, self-efficacy was increased by both external focus and enhanced expectancy, and predicted retention and transfer performance. Positive affect was heightened in the enhanced expectancy and external focus/enhanced expectancy groups after practice and predicted transfer performance. The findings suggest that the learning benefits of an external focus and enhanced expectancies mediate learning through partially different mechanisms. PMID:24875153

Pascua, Luigi A M; Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

2015-01-01

69

Predicting Pilot Error in Nextgen: Pilot Performance Modeling and Validation Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We review 25 articles presenting 5 general classes of computational models to predict pilot error. This more targeted review is placed within the context of the broader review of computational models of pilot cognition and performance, including such aspects as models of situation awareness or pilot-automation interaction. Particular emphasis is placed on the degree of validation of such models against empirical pilot data, and the relevance of the modeling and validation efforts to Next Gen technology and procedures.

Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Gore, Brian; Hooey, Becky

2012-01-01

70

Expectancy-value motivation in the context of a music performance examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectancy-value theory is a well-established cognitive approach to motivational re.search that focuses on belief systems. specifically. learners' expectations and valuing of activities in which they are engaged. Investigating this area in music we sampled 723 instrumental music learners aged 9 to 19 to determine their expectations for succeeding on a graded music performance examination. The students completed a questionnaire on

J. McCormick; G. E. McPherson

2007-01-01

71

Caffeine Consumption, Expectancies of Caffeine-Enhanced Performance, and Caffeinism Symptoms among University Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gathered self-report data on college students' (n=797) expectations of caffeine-enhanced performance, level of beverage caffeine consumed daily, and caffeinism signs experienced after consumption of caffeinated beverages. Results supported extending the expectancies model of substance use motivation from alcohol to caffeine. (Author/ABL)

Bradley, John R.; Petree, Allen

1990-01-01

72

Group Motivation and Group Task Performance: The Expectancy-Valence Theory Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated effects of group motivation on group task performance. Created two levels of valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence variable reflected on group productivity on unstructured and task persistence measures. Expectancy variable's effect was on task persistence measure. Instrumentality affected group productivity on structured…

Nakanishi, Masayuki

1988-01-01

73

Aleksandar KOSTADINOV: Expected performance of Orbit Determination of the GALILEO Satellites  

E-print Network

Aleksandar KOSTADINOV: Expected performance of Orbit Determination of the GALILEO Satellites satellite navigation system. The system will consist of about 30 satellites in medium earth orbits (MEOs) at 23600 km altitude. The launch of the first GALILEO satellites can be expected

Schuh, Harald

74

Motivated or Paralyzed? Individuals' Beliefs about Intelligence Influence Performance Outcome of Expecting Rapid Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current research examines whether and how beliefs about intelligence moderate the effects of expecting rapid feedback on exam performance. Thirty-six undergraduates participated in a field experiment with two between-subjects independent variables: anticipated feedback proximity and beliefs about intelligence. The results show that expecting

Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Jie; Vance, Kaleigh

2013-01-01

75

Teachers' communication of differential expectations for children's classroom performance: Some behavioral data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the processes by which teachers communicate differential performance expectations to different children through observational study of dyadic contacts between teachers and individual students in 4 1st grade classrooms. Differential teacher expectations for different children were associated with a variety of interaction measures, although many of these relationships are attributable to objective differences. However, other differential teacher behavior was observed

Jere E. Brophy; Thomas L. Good

1970-01-01

76

The influence of subordinate age, work experience, and performance level on supervisor expectations and actions  

E-print Network

THE INFLUENCE OF SUBORDINATE AGE, WORK EXPERIENCE, AND PERFORMANCE LEVEL ON SUPERVISOR EXPECTATIONS AND ACTIONS A Thesis BEVERLY HUI-JUN WU Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Psychology THE INFLUENCE OF SUBORDINATE AGE, WORK EXPERIENCE, AND PERFORMANCE LEVEL ON SUPERVISOR EXPECTATIONS AND ACTIONS A Thesis by BEVERLY HUI-JUN WU Approved as to style and content by...

Wu, Beverly Hui-Jun

1987-01-01

77

Academic performance and social competence of adolescents: predictions based on effortful control and empathy.  

PubMed

This study explored the predictive power of effortful control (EC) on empathy, academic performance, and social competence in adolescents. We obtained self-report measures of EC and dispositional empathy in 359 students (197 girls and 162 boys) aged between 12 and 14 years. Each student provided information about the prosocial behavior of the rest of his/her classmates and completed a sociogram. At the end of the school year, we calculated the mean grade of each student and the teacher responsible for each class completed a questionnaire on the academic skills of his/her students. The study confirmed the existence of a structural equation model (SEM) in which EC directly predicted academic performance and social competence. Additionally, empathic concern partially mediated the effect of EC on social competence. Finally, social competence significantly predicted academic performance. The article discusses the practical applications of the model proposed. PMID:24230950

Zorza, Juan P; Marino, Julián; de Lemus, Soledad; Acosta Mesas, Alberto

2013-01-01

78

The effects of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort mobility performance in wheelchair athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m sprint times reduced in 18° (5.89±0.47 s, P=0.011) and 20° camber (5.93±0.47 s, P=0.030) compared with 24° (6.05±0.45 s). Large effect sizes revealed that 18° camber enabled greater acceleration over the first 2 (r=0.53, 95% CI=0.004 to 0.239) and 3 (r=0.59, 95% CI=0.017 to 0.170) pushes compared with 24°. Linear mobility times significantly improved (P?0.05) in 15° (16.08±0.84 s), 18° (16.06±0.97 s) and 20° (16.22±0.84 s) camber compared with 24° (16.62±1.10 s). Although no statistically significant main effect of camber was revealed, large effect sizes (r=0.72, 95% CI=0.066 to 0.250) demonstrated that 18° camber reduced times taken to perform the manoeuvrability drill compared with 15°. It was concluded that 18° camber was the best performing setting investigated given its superior performance for both linear and non-linear aspects of mobility, whereas 24° camber impaired linear performance. This was likely to be due to the greater drag forces experienced. Subsequently, athletes would be recommended to avoid 24° camber and young or inexperienced athletes in particular may benefit from selecting 18° as a starting point due to its favourable performance for all aspects of mobility performance in the current study. PMID:22187387

Mason, B; van der Woude, L; Tolfrey, K; Goosey-Tolfrey, V

2012-03-01

79

Teacher expectancy effects on the achievement test performance of elementary school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carried out a longitudinal study of teacher expectancy effects, using 16 Ss each in 2 2nd-grade and 2 4th-grade classes. At the start of the school year Stanford Achievement Tests (SAT), disguised as tests to measure academic potential, were administered while each teacher ranked the students in her room in terms of her expectations regarding their year-end performance in language

Jerome B. Dusek; Edward J. OConnell

1973-01-01

80

Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults.  

PubMed

Research has shown that water supplementation positively affects cognitive performance in children and adults. The present study considered whether this could be a result of expectancies that individuals have about the effects of water on cognition. Forty-seven participants were recruited and told the study was examining the effects of repeated testing on cognitive performance. They were assigned either to a condition in which positive expectancies about the effects of drinking water were induced, or a control condition in which no expectancies were induced. Within these groups, approximately half were given a drink of water, while the remainder were not. Performance on a thirst scale, letter cancellation, digit span forwards and backwards and a simple reaction time task was assessed at baseline (before the drink) and 20 min and 40 min after water consumption. Effects of water, but not expectancy, were found on subjective thirst ratings and letter cancellation task performance, but not on digit span or reaction time. This suggests that water consumption effects on letter cancellation are due to the physiological effects of water, rather than expectancies about the effects of drinking water. PMID:23104227

Edmonds, Caroline J; Crombie, Rosanna; Ballieux, Haiko; Gardner, Mark R; Dawkins, Lynne

2013-01-01

81

Unfinished tasks foster rumination and impair sleeping - particularly if leaders have high performance expectations.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationship between time pressure and unfinished tasks as work stressors on employee well-being. Relatively little is known about the effect of unfinished tasks on well-being. Specifically, excluding the impact of time pressure, we examined whether the feeling of not having finished the week's tasks fosters perseverative cognitions and impairs sleep. Additionally, we proposed that leader performance expectations moderate these relationships. In more detail, we expected the detrimental effect of unfinished tasks on both rumination and sleep would be enhanced if leader expectations were perceived to be high. In total, 89 employees filled out online diary surveys both before and after the weekend over a 5-week period. Multilevel growth modeling revealed that time pressure and unfinished tasks impacted rumination and sleep on the weekend. Further, our results supported our hypothesis that unfinished tasks explain unique variance in the dependent variables above and beyond the influence of time pressure. Moreover, we found the relationship between unfinished tasks and both rumination and sleep was moderated by leader performance expectations. Our results emphasize the importance of unfinished tasks as a stressor and highlight that leadership, specifically in the form of performance expectations, contributes significantly to the strength of this relationship. PMID:24933596

Syrek, Christine J; Antoni, Conny H

2014-10-01

82

Improving performance expectancies in stereotypic domains: task relevance and the reduction of stereotype threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiments presented here extend previous research on reducing stereotype threat, along with examining the mediating role of performance expectancies. Women who generated shared academic characteristics between men and women predicted higher scores for themselves on a math test compared to the baseline and those who generated shared non-academic characteristics or shared physical characteristics. No effects were found for male

Harriet E. S. Rosenthal; Richard J. Crisp; Mein-Woei Suen

2007-01-01

83

Gender Differences in Math and Verbal Self-Concept, Performance Expectations, and Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in mathematics and verbal self-concept, performance expectations, intrinsic motivation, and goal orientation were examined in 4 samples of Norwegian students. A total of 907 students in 6th grade (n = 277), 9th grade (n = 239), 11th grade (n = 264), and adult students enrolled in first year of senior high school (n = 127) participated in the

Sidsel Skaalvik; Einar M. Skaalvik

2004-01-01

84

The Minimum Competency Exam Requirement, Teachers' and Students' Expectations and Academic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes whether the minimum competency exam requirement for high school graduation affects students' academic performance directly or affects the educational process by moderating the effect of teachers' expectations on students' mathematics test score gains, proficiency levels, and high school graduation. Tenth-grade students and their mathematics teachers from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 are analyzed. Contingent, negative

Chandra Muller

1997-01-01

85

Autonomy Support and Intrinsic Goal Progress Expectancy and Its Links to Longitudinal Study Effort and Subjective Wellbeing: The Differential Mediating Effect of Intrinsic and Identified Regulations and the Moderator Effects of Effort and Intrinsic Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors tested a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) process model of subjective wellbeing among students at Norwegian Folk High Schools. In this model the authors hypothesized that students' intrinsic goal progress expectancy in the chosen study activity and perceived autonomy support from teachers would be positively…

Waaler, Rune; Halvari, Halgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

2013-01-01

86

Mood impact on effort-related cardiovascular reactivity depends on task context: evidence from a task with an unfixed performance standard.  

PubMed

Gendolla and colleagues have consistently found that negative mood leads to higher effort-related cardiovascular reactivity than positive mood if performers can choose their own performance standard (Gendolla et al., 2001; Gendolla and Krüsken, 2001a, 2002a,b). However, an integration of motivational intensity theory with the mood literature suggests that the impact of mood on cardiovascular activity should vary with task context. In a 2 (task context: demand vs. reward)×2 (mood valence: negative vs. positive) between-persons design, participants performed a memory task without a fixed performance standard. The results showed the expected interaction. Positive mood led to higher effort mobilization-reflected by increased pre-ejection period and heart rate reactivity-than negative mood if participants had answered questions about task reward before performing the task. If participants had responded to questions about task demand, the pattern was reversed. These results extend and add to preceding research that has demonstrated that mood impact on effort-related cardiovascular activity is not stable but depends on task context. PMID:24814934

Richter, Michael; Knappe, Katja

2014-08-01

87

Predicting performance expectations from affective impressions: Linking affect control theory and status characteristics theory.  

PubMed

Affect control theory (ACT) and status characteristics theory (SCT) offer separate and distinct explanations for how individuals interpret and process status- and power-relevant information about interaction partners. Existing research within affect control theory offers evidence that status and power are related to the affective impressions that individuals form of others along the dimensions of evaluation and potency, respectively. Alternately, status characteristics theory suggests that status and power influence interaction through the mediating cognitive construct of performance expectations. Although both theories have amassed an impressive amount of empirical support, research has yet to articulate theoretical and empirical connections between affective impressions and performance expectations. The purpose of our study is to address this gap. Elaborating a link between ACT and SCT in terms of their central concepts can serve as a stepping stone to improving the explanatory capacity of both theories, while providing a potential bridge by which they can be employed jointly. PMID:25592917

Dippong, Joseph; Kalkhoff, Will

2015-03-01

88

Cloudy with a Chance of Sarcasm or Sunny with High Expectations: Using Best Practice Language to Strengthen Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What's the forecast in your classroom? Are you forecasting cloudy with a chance of sarcasm or sunny with high expectations? A teacher's Language of Practice holds the key to creating a climate of mutual respect in our schools. This article will explore the power and promise of "teacher language," and how it can be used to…

Holloman, Hal; Yates, Peggy H.

2013-01-01

89

Effort test performance in clinical acute brain injury, community brain injury, and epilepsy populations.  

PubMed

Effort tests have become commonplace within medico-legal and forensic contexts and their use is rising within clinical settings. It is recognized that some patients may fail effort tests due to cognitive impairment and not because of poor effort. However, investigation of the base rate of failure among clinical populations other than dementia is limited. Forty-seven clinical participants were recruited and comprised three subgroups: acute brain injury (N = 11), community brain injury (N = 20), and intractable epilepsy (N = 16). Base rates of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT; Green, 2003 ) and six other less well-validated measures were investigated. A significant minority of patients failed effort tests according to standard cutoff scores, particularly patients with severe traumatic brain injury and marked frontal-executive features. The WMT was able to identify failures associated with significant cognitive impairment through the application of profile analysis and/or lowered cutoff levels. Implications for clinical assessment, effort test interpretation, and future research are discussed. PMID:25084843

Hampson, Natalie E; Kemp, Steven; Coughlan, Anthony K; Moulin, Chris J A; Bhakta, Bipin B

2014-01-01

90

Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance  

PubMed Central

The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

2014-01-01

91

Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance.  

PubMed

The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

2014-01-01

92

Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions  

E-print Network

Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the l...

Girish, T E

2010-01-01

93

Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions  

E-print Network

Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the lunar environment.

T. E Girish; S Aranya

2010-12-03

94

Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. [Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international

R. Winston; J. J. OGallagher

1992-01-01

95

Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985-1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international

R. Winston; J. J. Ogallagher

1992-01-01

96

The dorsomedial striatum encodes net expected return, critical for energizing performance vigor  

PubMed Central

Decision making requires an actor to not only steer behavior towards specific goals, but also determine the optimal vigor of performance. Current research and models have largely focused on the former problem of how actions are directed, while overlooking the latter problem of how they are energized. Here, we designed a self-paced decision-making paradigm that showed that rats' performance vigor globally fluctuates with the net value of their options, suggesting that they maintain long-term estimates of the value of their current state. Lesions of the dorsomedial (DMS), and to a lesser degree, in the ventral striatum (VS) impaired such state-dependent modulation of vigor, rendering vigor to depend more exclusively on the outcomes of immediately preceding trials. The lesions, however, spared choice biases. Neuronal recordings showed that the DMS is enriched with net-value-coding neurons. In sum, the DMS encodes one's net expected return, which drives the general motivation to perform. PMID:23584742

Wang, Alice Y.; Miura, Keiji; Uchida, Naoshige

2013-01-01

97

Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing…

Perdian, David C.

2013-01-01

98

So Much for Fairy Tale Endings: When Performance Improvement Efforts Fizzle, Stumble, or Stall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of human performance technology's role in identifying, measuring, and resolving performance problems focuses on questions regarding whether, when, and how to participate as change agents in exceedingly difficult or no-win situations. Presents a hypothetical performance problem, uses a human performance model to analyze the…

Sommers, Adele A.

2000-01-01

99

NICMOS in the Cryo-Cooler Era: Expectations for On-Orbit Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Servicing Mission 3B for the Hubble Space Telescope, a reverse-Brayton cycle turbine cooler will be installed in conjunction with a new external radiator to recool the Near Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrometer's (NICMOS) MgCdTe focal plane arrays to operational temperatures of approximately 75K. The new NICMOS Cooling System (NCS) will circulate cold Neon gas through the cooling coils in the NICMOS cryostat (originally used to freeze out the now depleted solid Nitrogen cryogen). Today, NICMOS remains passively functional, and should return to full usability with all observing modes intact with the advent of the NCS. Here, we report on the expectations for the performance of NICMOS once integrated with and cooled by the NCS based on an extensive series of flight and ground experiments and our experience with flight spare detectors operated at these temperatures. We discuss the results from the shuttle-born HOST mission, laboratory experiments at the Steward Observatory NICMOS detector Laboratory emulating the on-orbit warm-up of the detectors, and system level and electro-magnetic susceptibility and interference tests at the Goddard Space Flight Center. From these, and our experience with the NICMOS both during its pre-launch testing and calibration, and on-orbit use during HST Cycle 7, we re-evaluate expectations for systemic read-noise, dark currents, thermal backgrounds, quantum efficiencies, and optical and mechanical stability of the instrument platform. We discuss the expected changes in these characteristics, with respect to HST Cycle 7, both in terms of established performance metrics and their effects on the formulation and conduction of effective observational strategies for conducting NICMOS science observations. This work is supported, in part, by NASA grant NAG5-3042 to the NICMOS Instrument Definition Team.

O'Neil, E. J.; Schneider, G.; Ferro, A. J.; Hubbard, W. P.; Barg, M. I.; Stobie, E. B.; Thompson, R. I.; Boeker, Torsten; Holfeltz, S. T.; Petro, L. D.

2000-12-01

100

Influences of aspirations and expectations on contest performance at the National FFA Agricultural Mechanics Career Development Event, 2001-2006  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to examine how performance expectations influence contest performance at the National FFA Agricultural Mechanics Career Development Event. The population for this study included all participants at the national contest...

Clark, Travis Scott

2009-05-15

101

29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...carrying out heavy packages or replacing stock involving the lifting of heavy items whereas a female checker is required...men performing a particular type of job never perform heavy lifting, but some men do, payment of a higher wage rate to all...

2010-07-01

102

Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for targeted advertisement of student resources such as tutoring services. The students who are identified in the over-performing student population received higher grades than their fellow students, but spent less time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for honors programs, independent research projects, and peer-tutoring programs. Incorporating these evaluation criteria to online homework systems will allow instructors to quickly identify students in these academic student populations.

Perdian, David C.

2012-10-01

103

Using the Networked Fire Chief for ego-depletion research: measuring dynamic decision-making effort and performance.  

PubMed

This study replicated ego-depletion predictions from the self-control literature in a computer simulation task that requires ongoing decision-making in relation to constantly changing environmental information: the Network Fire Chief (NFC). Ego-depletion led to decreased self-regulatory effort, but not performance, on the NFC task. These effects were also buffered by task enjoyment so that individuals who enjoyed the dynamic decision-making task did not experience ego-depletion effects. These findings confirm that past ego-depletion effects on decision-making are not limited to static or isolated decision-making tasks and can be extended to dynamic, naturalistic decision-making processes more common to naturalistic settings. Furthermore, the NFC simulation provides a methodological mechanism for independently measuring effort and performance when studying ego-depletion. PMID:25175988

Barber, Larissa K; Smit, Brandon W

2014-01-01

104

Worry, Optimism, and Expectations as Predictors of Anxiety and Performance in the First Year of Law School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research suggests that worry, optimism, and expectations have subsequent effects on performance, which may be mediated through self-efficacy expectations. The first year of law school provides a unique naturalistic setting in which to study this process. Participants were recruited at orientation and assessed at five points during their first year of law school. Results indicated that worry was significantly related

Hoorie I. Siddique; V. Holland LaSalle-Ricci; Carol R. Glass; Diane B. Arnkoff; Rolando J. Díaz

2006-01-01

105

Comparison of Virginia's College and Career Ready Mathematics Performance Expectations with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a comparison of Virginia's mathematics performance expectations with the common core state standards for mathematics. The comparison focuses on number and quantity, algebra, functions, geometry, and statistics and probability. (Contains 1 footnote.)

Virginia Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

106

Expected performance of the stereo camera on board the BepiColombo mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stereo camera (STC) is one of the channels of SIMBIOSYS, the remote sensing instrument that will be on board the BepiColombo, and it will provide the global mapping of Mercury and Digital Terrain Model of the entire surface. The maximum spatial resolution will be of 50 m per pixel at the periherm (400 km from the surface) and the vertical accuracy will be about 84 m. The grid size of the DTM is depending even from the stereo reconstruction software will apply, and according to our new algorithm we may achieve 1-2 pixels. In this work we will show the expected performance of STC, the observing strategy and the simulations of what the camera will provide for the geological analysis. Some stereo pairs obtained by space missions, on other Solar System bodies, will be used for the simulations after having applied our new algorithm for the stereo reconstruction. On all the images we will evaluate the impact of the compression software in terms of DTM accuracy.

Cremonese, Gabriele; Capria, Maria Teresa; da Deppo, Vania; Forlani, Gianfranco; Forni, Olivier; Langevin, Yves; Massironi, Matteo; Naletto, Giampiero; Simioni, Emanuele; Debei, Stefano; Flamini, Enrico; Sgavetti, Maria; Giacomini, Lorenza; Martellato, Elena

107

Performance expectations of the associate degree nurse graduate within the first six months.  

PubMed

The Oklahoma Associate Degree Nursing Directors Council was determined to be proactive in defining the role of the associate degree registered nurse (ADN) within the evolving health care delivery system. A task force was formed by the Council to design and implement strategies for defining the emerging roles. Strategies included surveying health care employers on the performance expectations of the ADN graduates within the first six months of employment. The employers were asked to determine the importance of various functions and abilities that the ADN graduates may or may not possess. Surveys returned were representative of a variety of rural and urban agencies throughout the state and bordering areas. Responses were grouped into 21 categories. Ranked highest was the ability to demonstrate verbal and written communication effectively with accountability to the employer and personal attributes such as open-mindedness, flexibility, and receptiveness to criticism ranked second and third. The lowest rankings received were for competency with fiscal management. The results of the survey highlight the continued need to stress strong communication skills, as well as professional accountability throughout the educational process. PMID:11052652

Diede, N; McNish, G; Coose, C

2000-10-01

108

FY13 High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort - Training Data Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the time hand-intensive tasks were first created for EVAs, discomforts and injuries have been noted.. There have been numerous versions of EVA gloves for US crew over the past 50 years, yet pain and injuries persist. The investigation team was tasked with assisting in a glove injury assessment for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project.center dot To aid in this assessment, the team was asked to complete the following objectives: - First, to develop the best current understanding of what glove-related injuries have occurred to date, and when possible, identify the specific mechanisms that caused those injuries - Second, to create a standardized method for comparison of glove injury potential from one glove to another. center dot The overall goal of the gloved hand injury assessment is to utilize ergonomics in understanding how these glove injuries are occurring, and to propose mitigations to current designs or design changes in the next generation of EVA gloves.

Reid, Christopher; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Charvat, Jacqueline; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

109

Examination of Faculty Expectations of Technical College Administrators as an Important Factor in High Performing Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular thought supports the notion that faculty expectations of technical college administrators appear to be linked to the success or failure of an institution at accomplishing its mission. These expectations provide the basis for the development of relationships that foster the growth of technical training and thus the growth of a skilled…

Dupuis, Phyllis A.

2009-01-01

110

An Assessment of General Education Mathematics Courses via Examination of Student Expectations and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the method and results of an evaluation of general education mathematics courses. Students at the University of Louisville were surveyed in the first week of the Fall 2000 semester to determine their expectations for their mathematics course. Student grades were examined to determine how student expectations related to student…

Barnes, George R.; Cerrito, Patricia B.; Levi, Inessa

2004-01-01

111

Effort testing in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: validity indicator profile and test of memory malingering performance characteristics.  

PubMed

While the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) and the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) are designed to limit the influence of actual cognitive impairment on successful performance, the extent to which cognitive dysfunction does play a role in the assessment of effort should be verified in distinct clinical groups. To date, little research has been conducted on VIP performance in individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. Fifty-four patients with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered the VIP, TOMM, Short Test of Mental Status, and the Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest. Specificity rates were compared between tests, with normative data, and with published specificity rates in psychiatric samples. Results indicate that the use of the VIP with psychotic-disordered individuals will generate increased invalid performance profiles, whereas the TOMM is more resilient in this population. Significantly, mental status and estimated intellectual ability were predictive of classifications on the VIP Verbal subtest and the TOMM. PMID:24002172

Hunt, Sandra; Root, James C; Bascetta, Brittany Lynn

2014-03-01

112

Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported. Detailed consideration of the effects of both the natural and induced ionizing radiation environment during ISS design, development, and flight operations has produced a safe, efficient manned space platform that is largely immune to deleterious effects of the LEO ionizing radiation environment. The assumption of a small shielding mass for purposes of design and verification has been shown to be a valid worst-case approximation approach to design for reliability, though predicted dependences of single event effect (SEE) effects on latitude, longitude, SEP events, and spacecraft structural shielding mass are not observed. The Figure of Merit (FOM) method over predicts the rate for median shielding masses of about 10g/cm(exp 2) by only a factor of 3, while the Scott Effective Flux Approach (SEFA) method overestimated by about one order of magnitude as expected. The Integral Rectangular Parallelepiped (IRPP), SEFA, and FOM methods for estimating on-orbit (Single Event Upsets) SEU rates all utilize some version of the CREME-96 treatment of energetic particle interaction with structural shielding, which has been shown to underestimate the production of secondary particles in heavily shielded manned spacecraft. The need for more work directed to development of a practical understanding of secondary particle production in massive structural shielding for SEE design and verification is indicated. In contrast, total dose estimates using CAD based shielding mass distributions functions and the Shieldose Code provided a reasonable accurate estimate of accumulated dose in Grays internal to the ISS pressurized elements, albeit as a result of using worst-on-worst case assumptions (500 km altitude x 2) that compensate for ignoring both GCR and secondary particle production in massive structural shielding.

Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

2005-01-01

113

Performance Expectations of the Associate Degree Nurse Graduate within the First Six Months.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey responses from 174 health care employers identified their expectations of entry-level associate degree nursing graduates. Verbal/written communication, accountability, flexibility, and open mindedness ranked highest. Fiscal management competence ranked lowest. (SK)

Diede, Nancy; McNish, Gayle; Coose, Carol

2000-01-01

114

Different aspects of performance feedback engage different brain areas: disentangling valence and expectancy in feedback processing.  

PubMed

Evaluating the positive and negative outcomes of our behaviour is important for action selection and learning. Such reinforcement learning has been shown to engage a specific neural circuitry including the mesencephalic dopamine system and its target areas, the striatum and medial frontal cortex, especially the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). An intensively pursued debate regards the prevailing influence of feedback expectancy and feedback valence on the engagement of these two brain regions in reinforcement learning and their respective roles are far from being understood. To this end, we used a time estimation task with three different types of feedback that allows disentangling the effect of feedback valence and expectancy using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results show greater ACC activation after unexpected positive and unexpected negative feedback than after expected feedback and by this sensitivity to unexpected events in general irrespective of their valence. PMID:25100234

Ferdinand, Nicola K; Opitz, Bertram

2014-01-01

115

Expectancy Work Motivation, Central Life Interests, Voluntarism, Organizational Situation, Job Satisfaction, and Perceived Teaching Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the hypotheses that expectancy work motivation, individual attitudes toward work, and structural and environmental components are predictions of teacher job satisfaction and effectiveness. Samples were selected from junior high school and higher education faculties. Subjects responded to open-ended questionnaires, and results…

Miskel, Cecil; And Others

116

5 CFR 9901.410 - Addressing performance that does not meet expectations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...options available to address the performance deficiency, including remedial...including a reduction in rate of basic pay or pay band or a removal); and...nature and gravity of the unacceptable performance and its consequences. (b)...

2010-01-01

117

General and Specific Self-Efficacy in the Context of a Training Intervention to Enhance Performance Expectancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pretest-posttest field study investigated self-efficacy, both general and specific, in an intensive training experience to prepare new recruits for their work assignments. Specific issues addressed include (1) the effects of the training experience on general self-efficacy (GSE), work-specific selfefficacy (SSE), and performance expectancy; (2)…

Schwoerer, Catherine E.; May, Douglas R.; Hollensbe, Elaine C.; Mencl, Jennifer

2005-01-01

118

The OCO ``full-physics'' CO2 retrieval algorithm: expected performance based on full-orbit simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results on the expected performance of the ``full-physics'' carbon dioxide concentration retrieval algorithm, originally designed to process Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) data. This algorithm has been modified to work on the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) data as well. The algorithm is a standard `optimal-estimation' style inversion. For each sounding, the observed spectra of reflected sunlight, as well

C. W. O'Dell; H. Boesch; R. Castano; M. Christy; B. J. Connor; D. Crisp; J. McDuffie; C. E. Miller; V. Natraj; D. O'Brien; F. Oyafuso; I. N. Polonsky

2009-01-01

119

IBS and expected luminosity performance for RHIC beams at top energy with 56 MHz SRF cavity  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of RF system in RHIC is to capture injected bunches, accelerate them to the top energy, and store bunches at the top energy for many hours. The accelerating RF system operates at harmonic number h=360 of the particle revolution frequency f=78.196 kHz, which corresponds to 28.15MHz. The storage RF system accepts the shortened bunches at top energy and provides longitudinal focusing to keep these bunches short during the store time (collision mode). The storage system operates at harmonic number h=7x360=2520, which corresponds to an RF frequency of 197.05 MHz [1]. Recently, an upgrade of storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was proposed [2]. This upgrade will provide significant increase in the acceptance of storage RF bucket. Presently, the short bunch length for collisions is obtained via RF gymnastics with bunch rotation (called re-bucketing), because the length of 197MHz bucket of 5 nsec is too short to accommodate long bunches otherwise. However, due to bucket non-linearity and hardware complications some increase in the longitudinal emittance occurs during re-bucketing. The 56MHz cavity will produce sufficiently short bunches which would allow one to operate without re-bucketing procedure. This Note summarizes simulation of beam evolution due to Intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvement is shown both for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and for protons at 250 GeV.

Fedotov,A.

2008-10-01

120

The ionizing radiation environment on the International Space Station: performance vs. expectations for avionics and materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

Steven L. Koontz; Paul A. Boeder; C. Pankop; B. Reddell

2005-01-01

121

The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

2005-01-01

122

Use of groundwater lifetime expectancy for the performance assessment of a deep geologic waste repository: 1. Theory, illustrations, and implications  

E-print Network

Long-term solutions for the disposal of toxic wastes usually involve isolation of the wastes in a deep subsurface geologic environment. In the case of spent nuclear fuel, if radionuclide leakage occurs from the engineered barrier, the geological medium represents the ultimate barrier that is relied upon to ensure safety. Consequently, an evaluation of radionuclide travel times from a repository to the biosphere is critically important in a performance assessment analysis. In this study, we develop a travel time framework based on the concept of groundwater lifetime expectancy as a safety indicator. Lifetime expectancy characterizes the time that radionuclides will spend in the subsurface after their release from the repository and prior to discharging into the biosphere. The probability density function of lifetime expectancy is computed throughout the host rock by solving the backward-in-time solute transport adjoint equation subject to a properly posed set of boundary conditions. It can then be used to defi...

Cornaton, F J; Normani, S D; Sudicky, E A; Sykes, J F

2011-01-01

123

Managing Performance in the Forensic Sciences: Expectations in Light of Limited Budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

For forensic service providers worldwide, the demand for high-quality services greatly outpaces available resources to meet those requests. The gap between the demand for services and the resource-restricted supply of those services has implications for managing performance: the effectiveness and efficiency of forensic science. The effectiveness of forensic science is directly related to the quality of the scientific analysis and

Hilton Kobus; Max Houck; Paul Speaker; Richard Riley; Tom Witt

2011-01-01

124

Leadership Styles and School Performance: Is There a Gender Difference in Expectations for Teachers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the research on the perceptions of gender differences in leadership styles is explored. The study also attempts to determine whether there are differences in overall school performance for male versus female school principals. The methodology involved a mixed-model ANOVA analysis of findings from 31 principals and 236 teachers…

Magee, Iris Denise

2012-01-01

125

Expected Performance Centering for Analog/RF Designs Bao Liu and Andrew B. Kahng  

E-print Network

increasingly significant due to the latest technology scaling, and introduce significant variations of analog/RF design performance met- rics. As a result, analog/RF design must target parametric yield optimization. Several techniques have been proposed for analog/RF design parametric yield maximization. Implicit

Liu, Bao

126

Case Study of Expected Seismic Performance of an Instrumented Steel Moment Frame Building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relevant number of modern welded steel structures suffered unexpected damage during the January 1994 Northridge earthquake. The damage of welded special moment resisting frames (W-SMRJF) typically involved the brittle fracture in the welded girder to column connection areas. In the aftermath of the Northridge earthquake the research and structural engineering communities addressed the issue of the seismic safety of damaged and undamaged W-SMRF's. However, even though seismic design codes in the United States were significantly revised after the Northridge quake, still there are hundreds of existing W-Serf's in the US and in other countries, designed and detailed according to pre-Northridge criteria. This work is a case study on seismic response of a W-SMRF instrumented by the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) which was shaken during the 1987 Whittier, 1991 Sierra Madre and 1994 Northridge earthquakes. A detailed finite element model of the structure is developed to analyze the building dynamic response during recorded strong motions. Model accuracy was assessed by comparing prediction of the analytical model with actual CSMIP response records. In order to assess its vulnerability in response to future and possibly stronger earthquakes, nonlinear analyses were conducted subjecting the model to the Newhall and Sylmar records of the 1994 Northridge and to the 1995 Kobe earthquakes. Analysis results show that the structure behaved linearly during these earthquakes. The predicted response to larger and more severe ground motions show that plastic deformation occur at many column ends and inelastic deformation demands exceed the expected capacity of the welded pre-Northridge beam-to-column connections.

Amore, Enzo D'; Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

2008-07-01

127

Federated or cached searches: Providing expected performance from multiple invasive species databases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invasive species are a universal global problem, but the information to identify them, manage them, and prevent invasions is stored around the globe in a variety of formats. The Global Invasive Species Information Network is a consortium of organizations working toward providing seamless access to these disparate databases via the Internet. A distributed network of databases can be created using the Internet and a standard web service protocol. There are two options to provide this integration. First, federated searches are being proposed to allow users to search "deep" web documents such as databases for invasive species. A second method is to create a cache of data from the databases for searching. We compare these two methods, and show that federated searches will not provide the performance and flexibility required from users and a central cache of the datum are required to improve performance.

Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Newman, Gregory J.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

2011-06-01

128

Federated or cached searches: providing expected performance from multiple invasive species databases  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive species are a universal global problem, but the information to identify them, manage them, and prevent invasions is stored around the globe in a variety of formats. The Global Invasive Species Information Network is a consortium of organizations working toward providing seamless access to these disparate databases via the Internet. A distributed network of databases can be created using the Internet and a standard web service protocol. There are two options to provide this integration. First, federated searches are being proposed to allow users to search “deep” web documents such as databases for invasive species. A second method is to create a cache of data from the databases for searching. We compare these two methods, and show that federated searches will not provide the performance and flexibility required from users and a central cache of the datum are required to improve performance.

Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Newman, Gregory J.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

129

Special Report on the "Department of Energy's Efforts to Meet Accountability and Performance Reporting Objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act"  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in health and science, and invest in the Nation's energy future. The Department of Energy will receive an unprecedented $38 billion in Recovery Act funding to support a variety of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. The Recovery Act requires transparency and accountability over these funds. To this end, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued guidance requiring the Department to compile and report a wide variety of funding, accounting, and performance information. The Department plans to leverage existing information systems to develop accounting and performance information that will be used by program managers and ultimately reported to Recovery.gov, the government-wide source of Recovery Act information, and to OMB. The Department's iManage iPortal, a system that aggregates information from a number of corporate systems, will serve as the main reporting gateway for accounting information. In addition, the Department plans to implement a methodology or system that will permit it to monitor information reported directly to OMB by prime funding recipients. Furthermore, performance measures or metrics that outline expected outcomes are being developed, with results ultimately to be reported in a recently developed Department-wide system. Because of the significance of funds provided and their importance to strengthening the Nation's economy, we initiated this review to determine whether the Department had taken the steps necessary to ensure that Recovery Act funds can be appropriately tracked and are transparent to the public, and whether the benefits of the expenditures can be properly measured and reported clearly, accurately, and in a timely manner. Although not yet fully mature, we found that the Department's efforts to develop, refine, and apply the control structure needed to ensure accurate, timely, and reliable reporting to be both proactive and positive. We did, however, identify certain issues relating to Recovery Act performance management, accounting and reporting accuracy, and timeliness that should be addressed and resolved. In particular, at the time of our review: (1) Program officials had not yet determined whether existing information systems will be able to process anticipated transaction increases associated with the Recovery Act; (2) System modifications made to the Department's performance management system to accommodate Recovery Act performance measures had not yet been fully tested and verified; (3) The ability of prime and sub-recipients to properly segregate and report both accounting and performance information had not been determined; (4) There was a lack of coordination between Headquarters organizations related to aspects of Recovery Act reporting. For example, we observed that the Offices of Fossil Energy and Program, Analysis and Evaluation were both involved in developing job creation estimates that could yield significantly different results; and, (5) A significant portion (91 of 142, or 64 percent) of the performance measures developed for the Recovery Act activities were not quantifiable. In some instances, Project Operating Plans had not been finalized and we were not able to verify that all needed performance measures had been developed. Furthermore, the Department had not developed specific metrics to measure federal and contractor jobs creation and retention, an essential Recovery Act objective. The Department had devoted a great deal of time and resources to identifying and mitigating Recovery Act-related risks. For example, the Department developed a risk assessment tool that is intended to assist programs in identifying risks that can prevent its Recovery Act projects from meeting their intended goals. We also found that program staff and management officials at multiple levels were actively engaged in designing Recovery Act-related control and accountability programs. These efforts ra

None

2009-09-01

130

Thermal Performance Expectations of the Advanced Stirling Convertor Over a Range of Operating Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) will enable various missions such as small body sample return, atmospheric missions around Venus, as well as long - duration deep space missions. Analysis of the temperature distributions are performed on an Advanced Stirling Convertor, and the results are compared with available experimental measurements. This analysis includes applied environmental conditions that are similar to those that will be experienced while the convertor is in operation. The applied conditions represent a potential mission profile including pre-takeoff sterilization, launch, transit, and return. The results focus on the anticipated peak temperatures of the magnets in the linear alternator. These results confirm that the ASC can support future missions to deep space targets, extreme environment landers, as well as more conventional goals.

Reid, Terry V.; Dyson, Rodger W.

2010-01-01

131

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the random integer command on their graphing calculators to simulate rolling a die. They will then use operations on lists to analyze the probability of rolling the first 1 on the 1st roll, 2nd roll, and so on and finally find the expected value. Teacher notes explain in detail how to perform these actions on the graphing calculator.

2012-08-30

132

Expected performance of an ideal liquid argon neutrino detector with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light  

E-print Network

Scintillation light is used in liquid argon (LAr) neutrino detectors to provide a trigger signal, veto information against cosmic rays, and absolute event timing. In this work, we discuss additional opportunities offered by detectors with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light, that is with light collection efficiencies of about $10^{-3}$. We focus on two key detector performance indicators for neutrino oscillation physics: calorimetric neutrino energy reconstruction and neutrino/antineutrino separation in a non-magnetized detector. Our results are based on detailed simulations, with neutrino interactions modelled according to the GENIE event generator, while the charge and light responses of a large LAr ideal detector are described by the Geant4 and NEST simulation tools. A neutrino energy resolution as good as 3.3\\% RMS for 4 GeV electron neutrino charged-current interactions can in principle be obtained in a large detector of this type, by using both charge and light information. By exploiting muon capture in argon and scintillation light information to veto muon decay electrons, we also obtain muon neutrino identification efficiencies of about 50\\%, and muon antineutrino misidentification rates at the few percent level, for few-GeV neutrino interactions that are fully contained. We argue that the construction of large LAr detectors with sufficiently high light collection efficiencies is in principle possible.

M. Sorel

2014-09-05

133

Observation of Lunar Impact Flashes with the SPOSH Camera: System Parameters and Expected Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of meteors in the atmosphere of the Earth have a long historic tradition and brought up knowledge of meteoroid population and streams in near Earth space (amongst others). Only recently observations of meteoroid impacts on the dark side of the Moon became technically possible. Since the first confirmed Earth based observation of a lunar impact flash in 1999 [e.g.2] more than 50 impact flashes have been registered [1]. Meteoroids bombarding the Moon are not slowed down by an atmosphere and impact with high velocities of up to 70 km/s, causing a light flash of about 10 to 100 ms duration. Continuous observations of the dark hemisphere of the Moon enable the possibility to improve data of the meteoroid population as well as to determine impact time and location which can be used for seismic analysis and interior structure determination. Therefore, it is important to study the various system parameters that determine the possibility of a successful lunar impact flash detection, which we have implemented by numeric simulations. In particular, we want to evaluate the performance of the camera head of the SPOSH camera system [3] attached to a telescope.

Luther, R.; Margonis, A.; Oberst, J.; Sohl, F.; Flohrer, J.

2013-09-01

134

Documentary effort.  

PubMed

This spring, Virtua Health, the largest health system in Southern New Jersey, launched an innovative campaign aimed at raising overall awareness of its facilities by documenting real-life patients undergoing a variety of experiences (e.g., breast cancer, high-risk pregnancy, spine surgery, and minimally-invasive knee replacement surgery). The effort, called "The Virtua Experience" became a 30-minute hospital documentary that aired on Philadelphia's NBC affiliate this summer. PMID:17048760

2006-01-01

135

The Influence of Stimulus Material on Attention and Performance in the Visual Expectation Paradigm: A Longitudinal Study with 3- And 6-Month-Old Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the influence of stimulus material on attention and expectation learning in the visual expectation paradigm. Female faces were used as attention-attracting stimuli, and non-meaningful visual stimuli of comparable complexity (Greebles) were used as low attention-attracting stimuli. Expectation learning performance

Teubert, Manuel; Lohaus, Arnold; Fassbender, Ina; Vierhaus, Marc; Spangler, Sibylle; Borchert, Sonja; Freitag, Claudia; Goertz, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Gudi, Helene; Kolling, Thorsten; Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2012-01-01

136

Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. Final report, July 1, 1986May 31, 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international

R. Winston

1992-01-01

137

Performance in a Computerized Self-Control Task by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca Mulatta"): The Combined Influence of Effort and Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The variables of delay and effort have been found to influence self-control predictably and in similar fashion when tested independently, but it is unclear how they influence self-control interactively. In the present study, I tested these two variables simultaneously to gain better understanding of their combined influence on self-control. A…

Evans, Theodore A.

2007-01-01

138

Self- and Teacher Expectancy Effects on Academic Performance of College Students Enrolled in an Academic Reinforcement Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self- and teacher expectancy effects on the academic achievement of black college freshmen in an academic reinforcement program were investigated. Results indicated more significant self-expectancy effects than teacher expectancy effects on achievement. (Author/DWH)

Haynes, Norris M.; Johnson, Sylvia T.

1983-01-01

139

A Reputation for Success (or Failure): The Association of Peer Academic Reputations With Academic Self-Concept, Effort, and Performance Across the Upper Elementary Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The associations between children's academic reputations among peers and their academic self-concept, effort, and performance were examined in a longitudinal study of 427 students initially enrolled in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Assessments were completed in the fall and spring of 2 consecutive school years and in the fall of a 3rd school year. Peer…

Gest, Scott D.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Davidson, Alice J.; Welsh, Janet A.

2008-01-01

140

Buoyancy under Control: Underwater Locomotor Performance in a Deep Diving Seabird Suggests Respiratory Strategies for Reducing Foraging Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBecause they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag) and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing accelerometers, we show that during both the

Timothée R. Cook; Akiko Kato; Hideji Tanaka; Yan Ropert-Coudert; Charles-André Bost; Craig R. White

2010-01-01

141

Effort and Accuracy in Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals often use several different strategies such as the expected value rule, conjunctive rule, and elimination-by-aspects, to make decisions. It has been hypothesized that strategy selection is, in part, a function of (1) the ability of a strategy to produce an accurate response and (2) the strategy's demand for mental resources or effort. We examine effort and accuracy and their

Eric J. Johnson; John W. Payne

1985-01-01

142

Expected Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, interactive lesson on expected value provides examples, exercises, and applets in which students will explore relationships between the expected value of real-valued random variables and the center of the distribution. Students will also examine how expected values can be used to measure spread and correlation.

Siegrist, Kyle

143

Structured self-reflection as a tool to enhance perceived performance and maintain effort in adult recreational salsa dancers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of structured self-reflection in community dance classes would influence achievement goal orientations, levels of intrinsic motivation, or perceived dance performance. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic...

144

Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (-3.0% ± 1.3% and -2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

2014-07-01

145

Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg?1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (?3.9% ± 1.6% and ?4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (?3.0% ± 1.3% and ?2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

2014-01-01

146

Mental fatigue influence on effort-related cardiovascular response: difficulty effects and extension across cognitive performance domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated cardiovascular effects of mental fatigue as a function of (1) the difficulty of the cognitive\\u000a challenge with which participants were confronted, and (2) the relevance of that challenge to the activity that instigated\\u000a the fatigue. In the first, participants performed an easy (fatigue low) or difficult (fatigue high) counting task and then\\u000a were presented an arithmetic challenge

Rex A. Wright; Tonia R. Junious; Christin Neal; Ashley Avello; Candace Graham; Laura Herrmann; Sonia Junious; Natasha Walton

2007-01-01

147

Survey Expectations  

E-print Network

would be sufficient in the case of linear-quadratic decision problems where the utility (or cost) functions are quadratic and the constraints linear. For more general decision problems density expectations might be required. From an empirical viewpoint... Expectations formation is an integral part of the decision making process by households, firms, as well as the private and public institutions. At the theoretical level the rational expectations hypothesis as advanced by Muth (1961) has gained general...

Pesaran, M Hashem; Weale, Martin

2006-03-14

148

Does Publicizing Hospital Performance Stimulate Quality Improvement Efforts? Results from a study in Wisconsin suggest that making performance information public stimulates quality improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the impact on quality improvement of reporting hospital performance publicly versus privately back to the hospital. Making performance informa- tion public appears to stimulate quality improvement activities in areas where performance is reported to be low. The findings from this Wisconsin-based study indicate that there is added value to making this information public. P ublic r ep

Judith H. Hibbard; Jean Stockard; Martin Tusler

149

Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach  

PubMed Central

Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception–action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication. PMID:25400601

Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

2014-01-01

150

Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians' Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach.  

PubMed

Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians' expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers' effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians' perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis - proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes - of a marimbists' expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer's expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants' individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants' attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception-action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication. PMID:25400601

Broughton, Mary C; Davidson, Jane W

2014-01-01

151

School related stress in early adolescence and academic performance three years later: the conditional influence of self expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis was tested that educational expectations of junior high school students in interaction with school-related stress during early adolescence would adversely affect grades during high school. Multiple regression analyses of data from home interviews of 1034 students during junior high school and 3 years later during high school supported the hypothesis that early adolescent school-related stress both independently and

Diane S. Kaplan; Ruth X. Liu; Howard B. Kaplan

2005-01-01

152

The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the model. Motivation variables did account for a portion of the variance in performance, but not in the ways predicted. Increasing the number of subjects in each group and adding the following variables to the model would clarify the role that motivation plays in performance: realistic self-appraisal; perceived competition; and elaboration, organization, and rehearsal strategies. Based on results, the following interventions were recommended to increase undergraduate science performance: assessment in realistic self-appraisal of science skills; instruction in elaboration and organization strategies; and encouragement of intrinsic interest in science.

Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

153

TAILORING EXPECTATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Bollywood’ film costume has inspired clothing trends for many years. Female consumers have managed their relation to film costume through negotiations with their tailor as to how film outfits can be modified. These efforts have coincided with, and reinforced, a semiotic of female film costume where eroticized Indian clothing, and most forms of western clothing set the vamp apart from

2005-01-01

154

A Comprehensive Expectancy Motivation Model: Implications for Adult Education and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive Expectancy Motivation Model is based on valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory. It describes expectancy motivation as part of a larger process that includes past experience, motivation, effort, performance, reward, and need satisfaction. The model has significant implications for the design, marketing, and delivery of adult…

Howard, Kenneth W.

1989-01-01

155

Rational Expectations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rational Expectations was set up by Ralph Lazar, former strategist and economist for Goldman Sachs, Barings & Credit Suisse First Boston, as a "resource for anyone interested in [emerging markets] economics -- students, teachers, lecturers, journalists, professionals, or just the curious." A fully comprehensive guide to the people, places, and events of the economics world, Rational Expectations includes an searchable database of over 1,000 organizations and institutions in OECD countries and emerging markets, a conference calendar, and job listings. The site also links to academic, professional, and government organizations, as well as a huge suggested publication list and macroeconomic and financial market data. Rational Expectations will be a welcome resource for anyone interested in emerging markets economics.

Lazar, Ralph.

156

Partisan politics and stock market performance: The effect of expected government partisanship on stock returns in the 2002 German federal election  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational partisan theory suggests that firms perform better under right- than left-leaning governments. In the pre-election\\u000a time, investors should anticipate these effects of government partisanship. This is the first study to investigate such anticipated\\u000a partisan effects in Germany. Applying conditional volatility models we analyze the impact of expected government partisanship\\u000a on stock market performance in the 2002 German federal election.

Roland Füss; Michael M. Bechtel

2008-01-01

157

Teacher Reactions to the Performance-Based Bonus Program: How the Expectancy Theory Works in the South Korean School Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted in order to examine how and to what extent the implementation of the performance-based bonus program in South Korean schools has motivated teachers to improve their behavior, as well as to identify any other positive or negative effects of the program. Interviews with teachers indicated that a large percentage of teachers…

Ha, Bong-Woon; Sung, Youl-Kwan

2011-01-01

158

Adaptive optics at short wavelengths. Expected performance and sky coverage of the FLAO system going toward visible wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system has been successfully commissioned at the Large Binocular Telescope. It delivers extreme adaptive optics performance using bright natural guide stars reaching 90 % Strehl Ratios in H-band. Observations with current adaptive optics systems are limited to the near infrared wavelengths, in these bands the diffraction limited resolution of the largest ground-based telescopes (8-10 meter class) is comparable to the one of the much smaller Hubble Space Telescope that observes in the visible bands. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of an adaptive optics system designed to achieve very high order correction at visible wavelengths (0.5 to 0.8 ? m) with significant sky coverage. Upgrading the FLAO design with a low noise CCD relaxes the reference magnitude limit needed to achieve greater performance. In particular, we demonstrate that a gain of 1-2 magnitudes is possible by upgrading the wavefront sensor with a very low read out noise CCD. For future AO systems, in addition to low noise CCDs, deformable (secondary) mirrors with a higher actuator density will be able to move the high order correction capability from the near infrared to the visible wavelengths (Strehl Ratio of 80 % in R (0.7 ? m), 60 % in V (0.5 ? m)). We investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the gain in imaging performance obtained at Near Infrared, Visible, and UV wavelengths. The results of these simulations have been used to derive the empirical relation between Strehl Ratio and magnitude of the reference star and we then use this relationship to perform a detailed sky coverage analysis based on astronomical catalog data. The detailed simulations of the Point Spread Functions allow us to compute Ensquared Energy and Strehl Ratio for the magnitude working range of such an Adaptive Optics system. We present the results of the instrumental isoplanatic angle determination. We then used these values to compute the relationship between correction level and the off-axis angle from the reference star. The Strehl Ratio relationship with the reference magnitude and the angular distance provides the information needed to perform the sky-coverage analysis, which demonstrates that the designed system is able to provide V and R bands correction on a not negligible few percent of the sky.

Agapito, Guido; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, Simone

2014-11-01

159

Use of groundwater lifetime expectancy for the performance assessment of a deep geologic radioactive waste repository: 2. Application to a Canadian Shield environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

F. J. Cornaton et al. (2008) introduced the concept of lifetime expectancy as a performance measure of the safety of subsurface repositories, on the basis of the travel time for contaminants released at a certain point in the subsurface to reach the biosphere or compliance area. The methodologies are applied to a hypothetical but realistic Canadian Shield crystalline rock environment, which is considered to be one of the most geologically stable areas on Earth. In an approximately 10 × 10 × 1.5 km3 hypothetical study area, up to 1000 major and intermediate fracture zones are generated from surface lineament analyses and subsurface surveys. In the study area, mean and probability density of lifetime expectancy are analyzed with realistic geologic and hydrologic shield settings in order to demonstrate the applicability of the theory and the numerical model for optimally locating a deep subsurface repository for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel. The results demonstrate that, in general, groundwater lifetime expectancy increases with depth and it is greatest inside major matrix blocks. Various sources and aspects of uncertainty are considered, specifically geometric and hydraulic parameters of permeable fracture zones. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the existence and location of permeable fracture zones and the relationship between fracture zone permeability and depth from ground surface are the most significant factors for lifetime expectancy distribution in such a crystalline rock environment. As a consequence, it is successfully demonstrated that the concept of lifetime expectancy can be applied to siting and performance assessment studies for deep geologic repositories in crystalline fractured rock settings.

Park, Y.-J.; Cornaton, F. J.; Normani, S. D.; Sykes, J. F.; Sudicky, E. A.

2008-04-01

160

Simulation of the Expected Performance of a Seamless Scanner for Brain PET Based on Highly Pixelated CdTe Detectors  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is the evaluation of the design for a nonconventional PET scanner, the voxel imaging PET (VIP), based on pixelated room-temperature CdTe detectors yielding a true 3-D impact point with a density of 450 channels cm3, for a total 6 336 000 channels in a seamless ring shaped volume. The system is simulated and evaluated following the prescriptions of the NEMA NU 2-2001 and the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results show that the excellent energy resolution of the CdTe detectors (1.6% for 511 keV photons), together with the small voxel pitch (1×1×2 mm3), and the crack-free ring geometry, give the design the potential to overcome the current limitations of PET scanners and to approach the intrinsic image resolution limits set by physics. The VIP is expected to reach a competitive sensitivity and a superior signal purity with respect to values commonly quoted for state-of-the-art scintillating crystal PETs. The system can provide 14 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 3.95% and 21 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 0.73% according to NEMA NU 2-2001 and NEMA NU 4-2008, respectively. The calculated NEC curve has a peak value of 122 kcps at 5.3 kBq/mL for NEMA NU 2-2001 and 908 kcps at 1.6 MBq/mL for NEMA NU 4-2008. The proposed scanner can achieve an image resolution of ~ 1 mm full-width at half-maximum in all directions. The virtually noise-free data sample leads to direct positive impact on the quality of the reconstructed images. As a consequence, high-quality high-resolution images can be obtained with significantly lower number of events compared to conventional scanners. Overall, simulation results suggest the VIP scanner can be operated either at normal dose for fast scanning and high patient throughput, or at low dose to decrease the patient radioactivity exposure. The design evaluation presented in this work is driving the development and the optimization of a fully operative prototype to prove the feasibility of the VIP concept. PMID:24108750

Mikhaylova, Ekaterina; De Lorenzo, Gianluca; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Kolstein, Machiel; Cañadas, Mario; Arce, Pedro; Calderón, Yonatan; Uzun, Dilber; Ariño, Gerard; Macias-Montero, José Gabriel; Martinez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles; Cabruja, Enric

2014-01-01

161

Use of groundwater lifetime expectancy for the performance assessment of a deep geologic radioactive waste repository:2. Application to a Canadian Shield environment  

E-print Network

Cornaton et al. [2007] introduced the concept of lifetime expectancy as a performance measure of the safety of subsurface repositories, based upon the travel time for contaminants released at a certain point in the subsurface to reach the biosphere or compliance area. The methodologies are applied to a hypothetical but realistic Canadian Shield crystalline rock environment, which is considered to be one of the most geologically stable areas on Earth. In an approximately 10\\times10\\times1.5 km3 hypothetical study area, up to 1000 major and intermediate fracture zones are generated from surface lineament analyses and subsurface surveys. In the study area, mean and probability density of lifetime expectancy are analyzed with realistic geologic and hydrologic shield settings in order to demonstrate the applicability of the theory and the numerical model for optimally locating a deep subsurface repository for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel. The results demonstrate that, in general, groundwater lifetime exp...

Park, Y -J; Normani, S D; Sykes, J F; Sudicky, E A

2011-01-01

162

Participation Performance and Behavioral Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of student participation in class discussion is considered. An approach is suggested for college teachers to help them better motivate and evaluate students who participate in classroom discussion. Reliable, accurate, and meaningful assessment of students' participation in classroom discussion can be achieved if an instructor bases the…

Lyons, Paul R.

163

Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

2014-01-01

164

Just What Do You Expect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boards should clearly establish what is expected of the university president, including the six elements of good leadership: tolerance of freedom, tolerance of uncertainty, the ability to integrate motives and efforts into a meaningful aggregate, the ability to persuade, the ability to represent the institution, and influence with superiors. (MSE)

Mason, Philip R.

1990-01-01

165

The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort  

SciTech Connect

The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

Brown, K.D.

1995-01-01

166

Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Efforts  

E-print Network

Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Efforts Christine Kirby, MassDEP ZE-MAP Meeting October 24, 2014 #12 · Provide Clean Air · Grow the Clean Energy Economy · Electric vehicles are a key part of the solution #12 is promoting EVs 4 #12;TCI and Electric Vehicles · Established the Northeast Electric Vehicle Network through

California at Davis, University of

167

Overlapping Neural Systems Represent Cognitive Effort and Reward Anticipation  

PubMed Central

Anticipating a potential benefit and how difficult it will be to obtain it are valuable skills in a constantly changing environment. In the human brain, the anticipation of reward is encoded by the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and Striatum. Naturally, potential rewards have an incentive quality, resulting in a motivational effect improving performance. Recently it has been proposed that an upcoming task requiring effort induces a similar anticipation mechanism as reward, relying on the same cortico-limbic network. However, this overlapping anticipatory activity for reward and effort has only been investigated in a perceptual task. Whether this generalizes to high-level cognitive tasks remains to be investigated. To this end, an fMRI experiment was designed to investigate anticipation of reward and effort in cognitive tasks. A mental arithmetic task was implemented, manipulating effort (difficulty), reward, and delay in reward delivery to control for temporal confounds. The goal was to test for the motivational effect induced by the expectation of bigger reward and higher effort. The results showed that the activation elicited by an upcoming difficult task overlapped with higher reward prospect in the ACC and in the striatum, thus highlighting a pivotal role of this circuit in sustaining motivated behavior. PMID:24608867

Vassena, Eliana; Silvetti, Massimo; Boehler, Carsten N.; Achten, Eric; Fias, Wim; Verguts, Tom

2014-01-01

168

Design and expected performances of the SCAO-WFS module of SIMPLE, the high-resolution near-infrared spectrometer for E-ELT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and discuss the design and expected performances of the SCAO-WFS module of SIMPLE, the highsd resolution near-infrared spectrometer for the E-ELT which is designed to operate in the wavelengths range 0.84-2.5?m with an entrance slit width of 27mas which yields a spectral resolving power of R=130,000. We analyze both pyramid and SH wave-front sensors operating at near-infrared wavelengths (1-2 ?m). The main results can be summarized as follows. - Good levels of AO correction can only be achieved within a few arc-sec of the reference star. The primary applications of SCAO correction are therefore observations where the science object is compact and bright enough to be used as reference star, feeding the WFS via a beam-splitter. We concentrate on a WFS operating at nearinfrared wavelengths because many of the scientific targets of SIMPLE are intrinsically very red. - The pyramid WFS provides better performances than the SH, because it is less affected by aliasing errors. - The quality of AO correction is almost independent on the wavelength at which the wave-front is sensed. Therefore, we simplify the design the WFS module by not including the K-band, i.e. operating in the 1.0-2.1?m range. Extension to shorter wavelengths is also possible but requires exchanging the atmospheric dispersion compensator. - Using a pyramid WFS with 84x84 sub-apertures one can achieve remarkably high values of light-concentration in the slit, i.e. ~70% in K and ~40% at 0.9?m. - The limiting magnitude for the 84×84 WFS is about 13.5+2.5•log(?), where ? is the fraction of stellar light sent to the WFS by the beam-splitter. - Somewhat fainter limits, i.e. magnitudes ~14.0+2.5•log(?), can be achieved by changing the camera optics of the WFS and sampling 42×42 sub-apertures.

Tozzi, A.; Oliva, E.; Le Louarn, M.; Origlia, L.

2010-07-01

169

Navy superconductivity efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

Gubser, D. U.

1990-01-01

170

UV RESEARCH - FUNDED AND IN HOUSE EFFORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Risk Management research Laboratory (NRMRL) has performed or funded limited in-house and extramural research on the disinfection of CCL listed organisms using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In addition, multiple extramural efforts have been funded to assess operation...

171

Instructional Effort Report Completion of the Instructional Effort Report  

E-print Network

I E R Instructional Effort Report Completion of the Instructional Effort Report Description This guide covers the process of completing the Instructional Effort Report. Objective · To compile externally-mandated and internally-useful reports and analyses. Why is there an Instructional Effort Report

Indiana University

172

Predicting problem behaviors with multiple expectancies: expanding expectancy-value theory.  

PubMed

Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this study, we expanded expectancy-value theory to evaluate the contributions of two competing expectancies to adolescent behavior problems. One hundred twenty-one high school students completed measures of behavior problems, expectancies for both acting out and academic effort, and perceived academic competence. Students' self-reported behavior problems covaried mostly with perceived competence and academic expectancies and only nominally with problem behavior expectancies. We suggest that behavior problems may result from students perceiving a lack of valued or feasible alternative behaviors, such as studying. We discuss implications for interventions and suggest that future research continue to investigate the contribution of alternative expectancies to behavioral decisions. PMID:15673229

Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J

2004-01-01

173

Probationary Progress Review/Extension/Completion Form Planning: All employees will use the Lead@UVa system to document performance expectations within 30 days of their start date.  

E-print Network

Probationary Progress Review/Extension/Completion Form Planning: All employees will use the Lead@UVa, the document should be attached to the employee's current Lead@UVa performance record. Extensions: All in writing to the employee, and attached to the employee's current Lead@UVa performance record. Completion

Acton, Scott

174

The Role of Low Cognitive Effort and Negative Symptoms in Neuropsychological Impairment in Schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Objective: Two experiments were conducted to examine whether insufficient effort, negative symptoms (e.g., avolition, anhedonia), and psychological variables (e.g., anhedonia and perception of low cognitive resources) predict generalized neurocognitive impairment in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). Method: In Experiment 1, participants included 97 individuals with SZ and 63 healthy controls (CN) who completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), and self-report anhedonia questionnaires. In Experiment 2, participants included 46 individuals with SZ and 33 CN who completed Green's Word Memory Test (WMT), the MCCB, and self-reports of anhedonia, defeatist performance beliefs, and negative expectancy appraisals. Results: Results indicated that a low proportion of individuals with SZ failed effort testing (1.0% Experiment 1; 15.2% Experiment 2); however, global neurocognitive impairment was significantly predicted by low effort and negative symptoms. Conclusions: Findings indicate that low effort does not threaten the validity of neuropsychological test results in the majority of individuals with schizophrenia; however, effort testing may be useful in SZ patients with severe negative symptoms who may be more likely to put forth insufficient effort due to motivational problems. Although the base rate of failure is relatively low, it may be beneficial to screen for insufficient effort in SZ and exclude individuals who fail effort testing from pharmacological or cognitive remediation trials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25000322

Strauss, Gregory P; Morra, Lindsay F; Sullivan, Sara K; Gold, James M

2014-07-01

175

Swedish nuclear waste efforts  

SciTech Connect

After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

Rydberg, J.

1981-09-01

176

Worldwide effort against smoking.  

PubMed

The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because smokers need to be aware of the dangers of smoking. Health education projects and public information should address the hazards of smoking and discourage smoking from becoming the social norm. PMID:12314496

1986-07-01

177

Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

Rice, J. R.

1978-01-01

178

DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTES IN RCRA-C DISPOSAL CELLS - DISPOSAL CELLS EXPECTED CASE PERFORMANCE, WORKER EXPOSURES, AND HUMAN INTRUSION  

EPA Science Inventory

Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology....

179

National Service Programs: Status of AmeriCorps Reform Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study determined the status of the Corporation for National and Community Service reform efforts to improve AmeriCorps. Work focused on the reform efforts related to reducing costs. The study relied on funding data from the Corporation's grant data system on grant awards and expected funding matches from non-Corporation sources. Analysis…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

180

Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

Kalvelage, T.A.

2002-01-01

181

Teacher expectations and underachieving gifted children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how teacher expectations can contribute to gifted underachievement. Self?fulfilling prophecy, perceptual bias, and accuracy are reviewed as three ways in which teacher expectations relate to classroom performance. The evidence suggests that a teacher's low expectations for a child can create a climate that encourages underachievement. Underachievement may also occur when teachers inappropriately assign lower grades to gifted

Kathryn J. Kolb; Lee Jussim

1994-01-01

182

A Superintendent's High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

Pascopella, Angela

2009-01-01

183

Modeling the Surface Composition of 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Expected Performance of the VIRTIS-M Spectrometer Onboard the Rosetta Spacecraft.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rosetta spacecraft will encounter comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in the second half of 2014. The present study investigates the capabilities of the VIRTIS-M imaging spectrometer onboard Rosetta to detect and characterize the cometary nucleus surface composition; this is one of the major scientific objectives of the spectrometer that covers the range 0.25-5 ?m. A radiative transfer model is applied to mixtures of plausible endmembers to determine the spectral radiance as a function of the observing conditions. We simulated surfaces composed of different types of ices mixtures assuming areal or intimate mixing. For the time being, we have assumed mixtures including water ice, carbon dioxide ice and methanol, but a wide range organics and other compounds (of known optical constants) can be used to generate mixtures. The ices are mixed with a dark opaque featureless component, having a spectral reflectance derived from the dark terrains of Tempel 1 as detected from HRII aboard Deep Impact. The I/F spectra for the areal and intimate mixing are calculated using Hapke's model. The VIRTIS-M Simulator is an essential tool to calculate the instrumental signal / noise ratio (S/N) for different input signals and different observing conditions in which the spectrometer will operate during the mission. Its main aim is to obtain the optimal integration time, which allows to reach the best S/N while avoiding the saturation. Given a radiance in input, the simulator's output is the retrieved error on the signal. Moreover, given the heliocentric distance, it calculates the reflectance with its error.. Detection criteria for the various icy components are based on the evaluation of the error on the band area of diagnostic absorption features. As expected, factors that increase the detectability of a spectral feature for a given endmember are: 1) longer integration time; 2) larger endmember abundance; 3) areal mixing with the dark terrain; 4) shorter heliocentric distance. On the other hand, if the signal is too high there is the possibility to reach saturation. Therefore, the simulator, allows to identify the optimal integration time for balancing the other factors. Finally, we plan to use the simulator to identify detection limits for the various components of the surface during the various phases of the mission.

Raponi, A.; Ciarniello, M.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.

2013-12-01

184

Learning To Minimize Efforts versus Maximizing Rewards: Computational Principles and Neural Correlates.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of reward maximization have been extensively studied at both the computational and neural levels. By contrast, little is known about how the brain learns to choose the options that minimize action cost. In principle, the brain could have evolved a general mechanism that applies the same learning rule to the different dimensions of choice options. To test this hypothesis, we scanned healthy human volunteers while they performed a probabilistic instrumental learning task that varied in both the physical effort and the monetary outcome associated with choice options. Behavioral data showed that the same computational rule, using prediction errors to update expectations, could account for both reward maximization and effort minimization. However, these learning-related variables were encoded in partially dissociable brain areas. In line with previous findings, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was found to positively represent expected and actual rewards, regardless of effort. A separate network, encompassing the anterior insula, the dorsal anterior cingulate, and the posterior parietal cortex, correlated positively with expected and actual efforts. These findings suggest that the same computational rule is applied by distinct brain systems, depending on the choice dimension-cost or benefit-that has to be learned. PMID:25411490

Skvortsova, Vasilisa; Palminteri, Stefano; Pessiglione, Mathias

2014-11-19

185

Expectations across entertainment media  

E-print Network

An audience's satisfaction with an entertainment product is dependent on how well their expectations are fulfilled. This study delves into the implicit contract that is formed between the purveyor of an entertainment ...

Austin, Alexander Chance

2007-01-01

186

Willingness and Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores intergenerational differences in attitudes toward willingness to and expectations for parent care based on survey data collected during 1997-1999 with 777 one-child generation students and 110 current familial caregivers. Findings suggest that current caregivers have very low expectations for their children's provision of elder care in the future. Children from one-child families experienced high levels of obligation

Heying Jenny Zhan

2004-01-01

187

Patient Expectations and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Surgery: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Recent events in healthcare reform have brought national attention to integrating patient experiences and expectations into quality metrics. Few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effect of patient expectations on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following surgery. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the available literature describing the relationship between patient expectations and postoperative PROs. Methods We performed a search of the literature published prior to November 1, 2012. Articles were included in the review if 1) primary data were presented 2) patient expectations regarding a surgical procedure were measured 3) PROs were measured, and 4) the relationship between patient expectations and PROs was specifically examined. PROs were categorized into five subgroups: satisfaction, quality of life (QOL), disability, mood disorder, and pain. We examined each study to determine the relationship between patient expectations and PROs as well as study quality. Results From the initial literature search yielding 1,708 studies, 60 articles were included. Fulfillment of expectations was associated with improved PROs among 24 studies. Positive expectations were correlated with improved PROs for 28 (47%) studies, and poorer PROs for 9 (15%) studies. Eighteen studies reported that fulfillment of expectations was correlated with improved patient satisfaction, and 10 studies identified that positive expectations were correlated with improved postoperative QOL. Finally, patients with positive preoperative expectations reported less pain (8 studies) and disability (15 studies) compared with patients with negative preoperative expectations. Conclusions Patient expectations are inconsistently correlated with PROs following surgery, and there is no accepted method to capture perioperative expectations. Future efforts to rigorously measure expectations and explore their influence on postoperative outcomes can inform clinicians and policy-makers seeking to integrate PROs into measures of surgical quality. PMID:24787107

Waljee, Jennifer; McGlinn, Evan P.; Sears, Erika Davis; Chung, Kevin C.

2014-01-01

188

Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

Li, Daoquan

2012-01-01

189

The DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort: Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

hatwill enable researchers to develop new systems by selectingcomponents from library of reusable modulesand assembling them together. Their effort will be focusedon creating specialized knowledge and reasonersspecific to the task of their system. Their new systemwould inter-operate with existing systems, usingthem to perform some of its reasoning. In this way,declarative knowledge, problem solving techniques andreasoning services could all be shared

Ramesh S. Patil; Richard E. Fikes; Peter F. Patel-schneider

1993-01-01

190

Effort Testing in Children on Neuropsychological and Symptom Validity Measures.  

E-print Network

??Recent efforts have contributed to significant advances in the detection of malingered performances in adults during cognitive testing. However, children's ability to purposefully underperform has… (more)

Rambo, Philip Louis

2011-01-01

191

Are three contact efforts really reflective of a repeated high-intensity effort bout?  

PubMed

The use of 3 or more efforts (running and contact), separated by short recovery periods, is widely used to define a 'repeated high-intensity effort' (RHIE) bout in rugby league. It has been suggested that due to fatigue, players become less effective following RHIE bouts; however, there is little evidence to support this. This study determined if physical performance is reduced after performing 1, 2, or 3 efforts with minimal recovery. Twelve semi-professional rugby league players (age 24.5 ± 2.9 years) competed in three 'off-side' small-sided games (2 x 10 min halves) with a contact bout performed every 2 min. The rules of each game were identical except for the number of contact efforts performed in each bout. Players performed 1, 2, or 3 x 5 s wrestling bouts in the single-, double- and triple-contact game, respectively. Movement demands of each game were monitored using global positioning system units. From the first to the second half, there were trivial reductions in relative distance during the single-contact game (ES = -0.13 ± 0.12), small reductions during the double-contact game (ES = -0.47 ± 0.24), and moderate reductions during the triple-contact game (ES = -0.74 ± 0.27). The present data show that running intensity is progressively reduced as the number of contact efforts per bout is increased. Targeting defensive players and forcing them to perform two or more consecutive contact efforts is likely to lead to greater reductions in running intensity. Conditioning performing multiple contact efforts whilst maintaining running intensity should therefore be incorporated into training for contact team sports. PMID:25226335

Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J; Walker, Shane; Walker, Ben; Jenkins, David G

2014-09-15

192

Expected Performance of the GLAST Burst Monitor  

SciTech Connect

The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage from the LAT threshold down to {approx}8 keV, and will provide a trigger for re-orienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from selected bursts outside the LAT field of view. GBM consists of twelve NaI scintillation detectors operating in the 8 keV to 1 MeV energy range and two BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 150 keV to 30 MeV energy range. Detector resolution, effective area, and angular response have been determined by calibrations. Analyses indicate that the on-board burst threshold will be {approx}0.7 photons cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the on-board burst localization accuracy will typically be better than 8 deg.

Meegan, Charles; Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen [NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Bhat, Narayana; Briggs, Michael; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert [University of Alabama Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Kienlin, Andreas von; Lichti, Giselher; Steinle, Helmut [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany); Kippen, R. Marc [Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM (United States)

2008-05-22

193

Family Income, Expectations Tied to Kindergarten Performance  

MedlinePLUS

... to childrearing is really important," he said. Karen Smith, a pediatric psychologist with the University of Texas ... kids, probably because they've been read to," Smith said. Poorer parents "may not even have the ...

194

Job performance expectations of school resource officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to determine (a) the differences in perception among principals, assistant principals, teachers, and school resource officers regarding the tasks and roles of the school resource officer; (b) the differences in perception among grade levels regarding the tasks and roles of the school resource officer; and (c) the differences in perception of the tasks

Linda Adell Kennedy

2000-01-01

195

Expected Performance of the GLAST Burst Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage from the LAT threshold down to approx. 8 kev, and will provide a trigger for re-orienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from selected bursts outside the LAT field of view. GBM consists of twelve NaI scintillation detectors operating in the 8 kev to 1 MeV energy range and two BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 150 keV to 30 MeV energy range. Detector resolution, effective area, and angular response have been determined by calibrations. Analyses indicate that the on-board burst threshold will be approx. 0.7 photon/cm2/s and the on-board burst localization accuracy will typically be better than 8 degrees.

Meegan, Charles; Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert; Briggs, Michael; Bhat, Narayana; Connaughton, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; vonKienlin, Andreas; Diehl, Roland; Steinle, Helmut; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Kippen, R. Marc

2007-01-01

196

Glioblastoma: changing expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glioblastoma (GB) represents the most aggressive glioma in the adult population. Despite recent research efforts, the prognosis\\u000a of patients with GB has remained dismal. Lately, the knowledge of genetic information about gliomagenesis has increased; we\\u000a even have a classification of the genetic expression of the tumour. The main problem is that at the moment we do not have\\u000a any therapeutical

Leoncio Arribas Alpuente; Antonio Menéndez López; Ricardo Yayá Tur

2011-01-01

197

External Expectations of Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the many external expectations confronting persons with disabilities and the skills required to survive and prosper in school, at home, on the job, and in the community. Data were obtained from 155 regular teachers, 110 special educators, 150 parents, and 55 employers through the use of the School Survival Skills Questionnaire.…

Nickles, James L.

198

Maintaining High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

2014-01-01

199

It's To Be Expected  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a tree diagram on their graphing calculators to find theoretical probabilities. They then manipulate this information in a spreadsheet to find the expected value. This lesson includes teacher notes, a student worksheet with solutions, and a homework assignment with solutions.

2010-08-27

200

Parenting with High Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

2014-01-01

201

Heterogeneity in expected longevities.  

PubMed

We develop a new methodology to compute differences in the expected longevity of individuals of a given cohort who are in different socioeconomic groups at a certain age. We address the two main problems associated with the standard use of life expectancy: (1) that people's socioeconomic characteristics change, and (2) that mortality has decreased over time. Our methodology uncovers substantial heterogeneity in expected longevities, yet much less heterogeneity than what arises from the naive application of life expectancy formulae. We decompose the longevity differences into differences in health at age 50, differences in the evolution of health with age, and differences in mortality conditional on health. Remarkably, education, wealth, and income are health-protecting but have very little impact on two-year mortality rates conditional on health. Married people and nonsmokers, however, benefit directly in their immediate mortality. Finally, we document an increasing time trend of the socioeconomic gradient of longevity in the period 1992-2008, and we predict an increase in the socioeconomic gradient of mortality rates for the coming years. PMID:25391225

Pijoan-Mas, Josep; Ríos-Rull, José-Víctor

2014-12-01

202

Grassroots Lobbying: A Community Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efforts of an ad hoc committee formed to lobby for federal legislation to allow tax deductions to nonitemizers for charitable gifts are described. Suggests that decline in charitable contributions could be disastrous to colleges, churches, etc. (MLW)

Heath, Ronald E.

1979-01-01

203

EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

Wagner, Howard A.

2010-01-01

204

Sandbagging efforts in Fargo, ND  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Volunteer sandbagging efforts, used to build levees in Fargo, ND during historic flooding. The height of these levees are built based on flood predictions, made by the National Weather Service using USGS streamflow information. ...

205

Hearing on FBI Counterterrorism Efforts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available on the Washington Post Web site, the above listed link is the entire transcript of the Senate's Judiciary Committee hearing on FBI counterterrorism efforts held on June 6, 2002. Users can view remarks from members of the committee, and hear testimonials from others such as the FBI director and Inspector General Glenn Fine. Although the transcript is rather long, it not only gives information regarding counterterrorism efforts, but also provides insight into the world of Congressional committees and how they operate.

2002-01-01

206

Expectation States Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectation states theory is, in many ways, a textbook example of a theoretical research program. It is deductive, programmatic,\\u000a formalized mathematically, cumulative, precise, and predictive; and its propositions have been subjected to rigorous evaluation.\\u000a More importantly, however, it is a theory that illuminates core issues in social psychology and sociology more broadly. It\\u000a is fundamentally a “macro-micro-macro” explanation about one

Shelley J. Correll; Cecilia L. Ridgeway

207

An investigation of gender and grade-level differences in middle school students' attitudes about science, in science process skills ability, and in parental expectations of their children's science performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary purpose of the study was to examine different variables (i.e. science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation for their children in science, which may impinge on science education differently for males and females in grades five, seven, and nine. The research question addressed by the study was: What are the differences between science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation in science on the academic success of fifth, seventh, and ninth graders in science and do effects differ according to gender and grade level? The subjects included fifth, seven, and ninth grade students ( n = 543) and their parents (n = 474) from six rural, public elementary schools and two rural, public middle schools in Southern Mississippi. A two-way (grade x gender) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences in science process skill abilities of females and males in grade five, seven, and nine. An additional separate two-way multivariate analysis of variance (grade x gender) was also used to determine the differences in science attitudes of males and females in grade five, seven, and nine. A separate analysis of variance (PPSEX [parent's gender]) with the effects being parents' gender was used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. An additional separate analysis of variance (SSEX [student's gender]) with the effects being the gender of the student was also used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. Results of the analyses indicated significant main effects for grade level (p < .001) and gender (p < .001) on the TIPS II. There was no significant grade by gender interaction on the TIPS II. Results for the TOSRA also indicated a significant main effect for grade (p < .001) and the interaction of grade by sex ( p < .001). On variable ATT 5 (enjoyment of science lessons), males' attitudes toward science decreased across the grade levels; whereas, females decreased from grade five to seven, but showed a significant increase from grade seven to nine. Results from the analysis of variance with the parent's gender as the main effect showed no significant difference. The analysis of variance with student's gender as the main effect showed no significant difference.

White, Terri Renee'

208

Effects of naturally induced teacher expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined a natural quasi experiment as a test of the teacher expectancy hypothesis. 1st-grade achievement scores were obtained for 79 younger siblings who had been preceded in school by bright or dull older siblings. It was hypothesized that pupils taught by the same teacher as their older siblings (expectancy condition) would perform better than those taught by a different teacher

W. Burleigh Seaver

1973-01-01

209

Does software design complexity affect maintenance effort?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design complexity of a software system may be characterized within a refinement level (e.g., data flow among modules), or between refinement levels (e.g., traceability between the specification and the design). We analyzed an existing set of data from NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory to test whether changing software modules with high design complexity requires more personnel effort than changing modules with low design complexity. By analyzing variables singly, we identified strong correlations between software design complexity and change effort for error corrections performed during the maintenance phase. By analyzing variables in combination, we found patterns which identify modules in which error corrections were costly to perform during the acceptance test phase.

Epping, Andreas; Lott, Christopher M.

1994-01-01

210

Parental expectations of their adolescents' teachers.  

PubMed

In spite of increasing parental participation in their children's education, and the growing research interest in this trend, the study of one of the central components of parental involvement, namely, parental expectations of teachers, has been scarce. The present research focuses on this important, albeit neglected, topic. We examined the effects of the sex of the parent and the sex and grade level of the specific child on parental expectations of teachers. Seven hundred and sixty-five Israeli parents of students attending 31 educational institutions participated in the study. They completed the Expectations of Teachers questionnaire, consisting of 12 items describing behavioural characteristics of teachers subsumed under three broad categories: Help and Assistance, Teaching Competence, and Fairness. Greater expectations for Help and Assistance were reported by the parents, followed by Teaching Competence and Fairness on the part of the teacher. Mothers hold higher Fairness and Help and Assistance expectations as compared with fathers. Help and competence expectations were higher for parents of female students as compared with parents of boys. Conclusions from our study call for increasing efforts geared toward the building of a sustainable and beneficial partnership between teachers and parents for the best interest of the students and for the further elucidation of teachers' expectations of parents. PMID:10936019

Tatar, M; Horenczyk, G

2000-08-01

211

Does cleanliness influence moral judgments? Response effort moderates the effect of cleanliness priming on moral judgments  

PubMed Central

Whether cleanliness influences moral judgments has recently become a topic of debate in the psychological literature. After the initial report that activating the notion of physical purity can result in less severe moral judgments (Schnall et al., 2008a), a direct replication (Johnson et al., 2014a) with much larger sample sizes failed to yield similar findings. The current paper examines the possibility that only non-conscious activation of the cleanliness concept, as achieved in participants with low response effort on priming materials, can produce the expected effect. An online replication (Study 1, N = 214) provided evidence that, when participants exerted low (yet still acceptable) levels of response effort to the experimental material, cleanliness priming led to more lenient moral judgments than neutral priming. An online experiment (Study 2, N = 440; replicated in Study 2a, N = 436) manipulating participants’ effort on the priming task (low vs. high) supported the hypothesized mechanism. Specifically, respondents in the low response effort group were instructed to complete the priming task as quickly as possible without too much attention, and the cleanliness priming resulted in less extreme moral judgments than the neutral condition as expected. In contrast, respondents in the high response effort group were instructed to perform to the best of their ability on the priming task, with a non-significant difference on moral ratings between cleanliness and neutral conditions. In addition to helping resolve the controversy regarding the cleanliness hypothesis, the current paper calls into attention the role of response effort in the execution and replication of priming studies. PMID:25414690

Huang, Jason L.

2014-01-01

212

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2011-09-01

213

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2012-09-01

214

The SDC DAQSim simulation effort  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to model the SDC data acquisition system, the DAQSim simulation effort was formed. This project used the MODSIM 2 simulation language to represent the flow of data from front-end models through an event builder to a processing farm, with attached storage. Trigger communications and event data flow control were fully modeled. The purpose of DAQSim was to determine or confirm the numbers, sizes, and speeds of the various buffers, links, processors, etc. in the data acquisition system, with better accuracy than spread-sheet estimations. This paper describes the history of the effort, the reasoning behind the key decisions, and state of the project since the SSC termination. All of the simulation models, documentation, and results are available to others for future studies.

Haney, M.J.; Brandys, T.A.; Hughes, E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Chen, Y.M.; Lee, J.A.; Wang, C.C. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)] [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Sayle, R.P. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1995-08-01

215

Global efforts in structural genomics.  

PubMed

A worldwide initiative in structural genomics aims to capitalize on the recent successes of the genome projects. Substantial new investments in structural genomics in the past 2 years indicate the high level of support for these international efforts. Already, enormous progress has been made on high-throughput methodologies and technologies that will speed up macromolecular structure determinations. Recent international meetings have resulted in the formation of an International Structural Genomics Organization to formulate policy and foster cooperation between the public and private efforts. PMID:11588249

Stevens, R C; Yokoyama, S; Wilson, I A

2001-10-01

216

Training effects of the effortful swallow under three exercise conditions.  

PubMed

The effortful swallow achieves overload through high effort. It was predicted that both immediate effects on biomechanics and long-term neuromuscular adaptations would be facilitated by maximal overload during this exercise. This study examined how high-effort sips from small-diameter straws influenced linguapalatal swallow pressures. Additionally, training effects of effortful swallows preceded by high-effort sips were compared to two other exercise conditions: effortful swallows preceded by maximum effort lingual elevation and effortful swallows performed in isolation. Training outcomes included linguapalatal pressures produced during effortful and noneffortful swallows, and maximum isometric pressure (MIP) produced during tongue elevation and interlabial compression. Forty healthy adults participated in the experiment. Lingual-palatal swallowing pressure during non effortful and effortful swallows and MIPs were measured prior to and after 4 weeks of training. Prior to training, anterior linguapalatal pressures were significantly higher during effortful compared to noneffortful swallows. Anterior linguapalatal pressures did not significantly differ during swallows preceded by sips from high-resistance straws. Weak correlations were observed between tongue MIP and linguapalatal pressures during effortful swallows. After training, anterior linguapalatal pressures significantly increased, with training effects more dramatic for effortful swallows. Anterior tongue MIP also significantly increased. Gains in anterior linguapalatal pressure were not correlated with gains in tongue MIP. Training effects did not vary across exercise condition. The study failed to find a training advantage of pairing the effortful swallow with a precursor movement. The results demonstrated specificity of training, with more dramatic benefits observed for effortful swallows relative to noneffortful swallows. Further investigation is needed to characterize training effects in older adults and patients with dysphagia. PMID:24913837

Clark, Heather M; Shelton, Natalia

2014-10-01

217

Changing and Sustaining Teachers' Expectations through Professional Development in Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how New Zealand teachers' expectations of low- income students' achievement changed during a 6-month professional development in literacy effort, noting how those changes were sustained over a year. Pre- and post survey and interview data highlighted changes in teachers' expectations and self-efficacy. Conditions required to achieve…

Timperley, Helen S.; Phillips, Gwenneth

2003-01-01

218

Biopsy: What to Expect  

MedlinePLUS

... large, or an excisional biopsy is impractical. Nail bed biopsy : When a dermatologist suspects that melanoma may be present under a nail, a nail bed biopsy is performed. During this procedure, part or ...

219

The AstroHDF Effort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we update the astronomy community on our effort to deal with the demands of ever-increasing astronomical data size and complexity, using the Hierarchical Data Format, version 5 (HDF5) format (Wise et al. 2011). NRAO, LOFAR and VAO have joined forces with The HDF Group to write an NSF grant, requesting funding to assist in the effort. This paper briefly summarizes our motivation for the proposed project, an outline of the project itself, and some of the material discussed at the ADASS Birds of a Feather (BoF) discussion. Topics of discussion included: community experiences with HDF5 and other file formats; toolsets which exist and/or can be adapted for HDF5; a call for development towards visualizing large (> 1 TB) image cubes; and, general lessons learned from working with large and complex data.

Masters, J.; Alexov, A.; Folk, M.; Hanisch, R.; Heber, G.; Wise, M.

2012-09-01

220

Sensors and Data Acquisition Development Efforts at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes efforts at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to develop spacecraft sensors and instruments which meet the expected needs of potential clients on a budget. Sensors are profiled, and the topics covered include systems health monitoring, smart structures, software algorithms, and testing.

Perotti, Jose M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

221

Preventing Marketing Efforts That Bomb.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a marketplace overwhelmed with messages, too many institutions waste money on ineffective marketing. Highlights five common marketing errors: limited definition of marketing; unwillingness to address strategic issues; no supporting data; fuzzy goals and directions; and unrealistic expectations, time lines, and budgets. Though trustees are not…

Sevier, Robert A.

2000-01-01

222

Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis. PMID:12767860

Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil

2003-05-01

223

Trunk loading and expectation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the epidemiological literature has reported that there is a link between sudden unexpected load handling and the risk of a low back injury. However, few biomechanical studies have investigated the effect of this type of loading on trunk muscular response. An experiment was performed to test the hypothesis that sudden unexpected loads would create excessive forces upon the

W. S. MARRAS; S. L. RANGARAJULU; S. A. LAVENDER

1987-01-01

224

A status report on the OO7 OODBMS benchmarking effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OO7 Benchmark was first published in 1993, and has since found a home in the marketing literature of various object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) vendors. The OO7 Benchmark (as published) was the initial result of an ongoing OODBMS performance evaluation effort at the University of Wisconsin. This paper provides an update on the status of the effort on two

Michael J. Carey; David J. DeWitt; Chander Kant; Jeffrey F. Naughton

1994-01-01

225

The vulnerability to coaching across measures of effort.  

PubMed

Neuropsychologists are increasingly called upon to conduct evaluations with individuals involved in personal injury litigation. While the inclusion of measures of effort within a test battery may help clinicians determine whether a client has put forth full effort, attorney coaching may allow dishonest clients to circumvent these efforts. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which frequently used measures of effort are susceptible to coaching, as well as to explore and classify strategies undertaken by coached malingering simulators. Overall, coached simulators performed significantly better on 7 of 14 measured variables. Potential improvements in the external validity of the simulation design were also explored. PMID:18609324

Brennan, Adrianne M; Meyer, Stephen; David, Emily; Pella, Russell; Hill, Ben D; Gouvier, Wm Drew

2009-02-01

226

Expectancy-Value Theory of Achievement Motivation.  

PubMed

We discuss the expectancy-value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy-value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest. Research is reviewed dealing with two issues: (1) change in children's and adolescents' ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and subjective values, and (2) relations of children's and adolescents' ability-expectancy beliefs and subjective task values to their performance and choice of activities. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10620382

Wigfield; Eccles

2000-01-01

227

Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

2010-11-29

228

Expecting the Best for Students: Teacher Expectations and Academic Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research into teacher expectations has shown that these have an effect on student achievement. Some researchers have explored the impact of various student characteristics on teachers' expectations. One attribute of interest is ethnicity. Aims: This study aimed to explore differences in teachers' expectations and judgments of student…

Rubie-Davies, Christine; Hattie, John; Hamilton, Richard

2006-01-01

229

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations  

E-print Network

Research Module: Weekly Report Expectations. 82 Weekly Report Expectations Week 1 Report: 1. Write product 3 or 6. · see the section in the manual on NMR and GC-MS to give you some help in what to look Report Expectations for students who did Scheme 4: Do as much as you can from the instructions above

Jasperse, Craig P.

230

FastStats: Life Expectancy  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Life Expectancy Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. ... Preliminary Data for 2011 [PDF - 1.7 MB] Life expectancy: 78.7 years Source: Deaths: Final Data ...

231

Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

2006-01-01

232

Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

2005-01-01

233

Expected Returns and Habit Persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a consumption-based asset pricing model with infinite-horizon nonlinear habit formation, Campbell and Cochrane (1999) show that low consumption in surplus of habit should forecast high expected returns. This article argues that the finite-horizon linear habit model also implies an inverse relation between expected returns and surplus consumption. This article also presents empirical evidence, which indicates that expected returns on

Yuming Li

2001-01-01

234

Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known whether it assesses similar constructs (i.e., measurement invariance) between boys

Karen A. Randolph; Mary A. Gerend; Brenda A. Miller

2006-01-01

235

NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

Sander, Libby

2008-01-01

236

How Students Verify Conjectures: Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight teachers were interviewed concerning how students verify conjectures. The study is a sequel to a previous study, "How Students Verify Conjectures" [Bergqvist, T. (2000). "How students verify conjectures." "Research reports in Mathematics Education" 3]. Teachers' expectations of students' reasoning and performance are examined, and also how…

Bergqvist, Tomas

2005-01-01

237

Achieving Common Expectations for Overall Goals amid Diversity among Cooperative Extension Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the initial phase of a strategic planning effort for the development of Florida's 1988 through 1991 long-range cooperative extension program, an effort was initiated to achieve common expectations for overall organizational mission and purpose among diverse cooperative extension faculty. The unification effort included the following…

Taylor, Barbara

238

Do Juries Meet Our Expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of public opinion indicate that people have high expectations for juries. When it comes to serious crimes, most people want errors of convicting the innocent (false positives) or acquitting the guilty (false negatives) to fall well below 10%. Using expected utility theory, Bayes' Theorem, signal detection theory, and empirical evidence from detection studies of medical decision making, eyewitness testimony,

Hal R. Arkes; Barbara A. Mellers

2002-01-01

239

Expectation-based intelligent control  

Microsoft Academic Search

New dynamics paradigms—negative diffusion and terminal attractors—are introduced to control noise and chaos. The applied control forces are composed of expectations governed by the associated Fokker–Planck and Liouville equations. The approach is expanded to a general concept of intelligent control via expectations. Relevance to control in livings is emphasized and illustrated by neural nets with mirror neurons.

Michail Zak

2006-01-01

240

Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is any one really ready for the Spanish Inquisition? Assign studnets to participate in reading the play, The Spanish Inquisition by Monty Python. While readiang the play, display the following pictures at appropiate times. Nobody expects the Spanish Inquistion Confess!!! Get the Cushions!!!! Get the comfy Chair! Now you'll confess! Confess women, CONFESS!!! Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!!! ...

Hirschi, Mrs.

2005-04-08

241

Measuring Instructor Expectations and Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because there are few instruments designed to measure the specific behaviors and characteristics instructors expect of college students and how well the majority of their students meet those expectations, an original survey instrument has been created to address that need. Focus group interviews were held, and as a result of those interviews, an…

Ginley, Kristine J.; Giraud, Gerald; Weglarz, Donna

2006-01-01

242

Pain Expectancies, Pain, and Functional Self-Efficacy Expectancies as Determinants of Disability in Patients with Chronic Low Back Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested the predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities, expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back pain patients. Before assessment of function, patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks--functional self-efficacy (FSE)--and the likelihood working would…

Lackner, Jeffrey M.; And Others

1996-01-01

243

Human genome efforts in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Some project-oriented biosciences have been promoted cooperatively by three governmental agencies in Japan: the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Science and Technology Agency. All three agencies have increased their budgetary requests for human genome analyses for FY 1991. The genome project was initially promoted by the Science and Technology Agency through a program for the design and construction of automated machines for DNA sequencing. Work is ongoing at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research to integrate, by system engineering, instruments that can separate DNA fragments, perform plaque selection, carry out dideoxy reaction, and read the resulting DNA sequence. The most important way for Japan to contribute to research on human genome analyses, however, may be in the evaluation of supporting mechanisms (technical assistance and research resources) and in the recognition and preparation of the transition of biology to a big science approach.

Ikawa, Yoji (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan) RIKEN, Ibaraki (Japan))

1991-01-01

244

Education Versus Schooling--Project LEAD: High Expectations!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Project LEAD: High Expectations! (PLHE) program, a targeted, nontraditional, primary prevention demonstration project that focuses on African-American youth who are children in one of five at-risk categories. Discusses the prevention curriculum, site selection, trainers, implementation, evaluation, and continuing efforts of the PLHE.…

Walton, Flavia R.; And Others

1991-01-01

245

QM Momentum Expectation Value Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The QM Momentum Expectation Value program displays the time evolution of the position-space wave function and the associated momentum expectation value. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the qm_expectation_p.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default wave function is a Gaussian wave packet in a harmonic oscillator. Additional states and other potential energy functions can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. QM Momentum Expectation Value is one of 18 Open Source Physics programs that model time-dependent quantum mechanics using an energy eigenstate expansion. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Superposition.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-04-17

246

Teacher Expectations II: Construction and Reflection of Student Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypotheses regarding self-fulfilling prophecies, perceptual biases, and accuracy were tested using longitudinal data relating 98 6th-grade math teachers’ expectations to 1,731 students’ performance. Consistent with the self-fulfilling prophecy hypothesis, teacher expectations predicted changes in student achievement beyond effects accounted for by previous achievement and motivation. Consistent with the perceptual bias hypothesis, teacher expectations predicted their own evaluations of students’ performance

Lee Jussim; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

1992-01-01

247

The expected value of control: An integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function  

PubMed Central

Summary The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function. PMID:23889930

Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M.; Cohen, Jonathan D.

2013-01-01

248

The expected value of control: an integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function.  

PubMed

The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function. PMID:23889930

Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M; Cohen, Jonathan D

2013-07-24

249

RBANS Embedded Measures of Suboptimal Effort in Dementia: Effort Scale Has a Lower Failure Rate than the Effort Index.  

PubMed

The importance of evaluating effort in neuropsychological assessments has been widely acknowledged, but measuring effort in the context of dementia remains challenging due to the impact of dementia severity on effort measure scores. Two embedded measures have been developed for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS; Randolph, C., Tierney, M. C., Mohr, E., & Chase, T. N. (1998). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS): Preliminary clinical validity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20 (3), 310-319): the Effort Index (EI; Silverberg, N. D., Wertheimer, J. C., & Fichtenberg, N. L. (2007). An effort index for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21 (5), 841-854) and the Effort Scale (ES; Novitski, J., Steele, S., Karantzoulis, S., & Randolph, C. (2012). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status effort scale. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27 (2), 190-195). We explored failure rates on these effort measures in a non-litigating mixed dementia sample (N = 145). Failure rate on the EI was high (48%) and associated with dementia severity. In contrast, failure on the ES was 14% but differed based on type of dementia. ES failure was low (4%) when dementia was due to Alzheimer disease (AD), but high (31%) for non-AD dementias. These data raise concerns about use of the RBANS embedded effort measures in dementia evaluations. PMID:25472686

Burton, Rachel L; Enright, Joe; O'Connell, Megan E; Lanting, Shawnda; Morgan, Debra

2014-12-01

250

Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed. PMID:24404807

Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

2014-01-01

251

Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2012-01-01

252

Coordinating a Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Retailer and Effort Dependent Demand  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

Li, Liying

2014-01-01

253

Coordinating a supply chain with a loss-averse retailer and effort dependent demand.  

PubMed

This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

Li, Liying; Wang, Yong

2014-01-01

254

Effortful control and executive attention in typical and atypical development: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

Executive attention and its relationship with effortful control (EC) were investigated in children with ADHD (n=24), autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n=20), and controls (n=21). Executive attention measures included flanker-performance and event-related potentials (N2, P3, and ERN). EC was assessed using questionnaires. Only the ERN was found to be robustly related to EC across groups. N2 did not differ between groups and only children with ADHD+ODD showed diminished executive attention as expressed in RT and P3. In ADHD, monitoring of incorrect (ERN) and correct (CRN) responses was diminished. Overall, the link between EC and executive attention was less strong as expected and varied depending on group and measure considered. All groups were able to detect conflict (N2) and all but ADHD+ODD were able to allocate extra attention in order to respond correctly (P3). Findings indicate a general reduced response monitoring in ADHD. PMID:24686073

Samyn, Vicky; Wiersema, Jan R; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roeyers, Herbert

2014-05-01

255

Brain potentials related to voluntary sustained effort.  

PubMed

The task of the present study was the investigation of the brain potentials while performing a complex motor task, including voluntary sustained contraction (thumb opposition to the index finger). The fast press of a transducer was sustained for periods of 1.5, 5 or 10 seconds, followed by fast release. Potentials related to the start of the contraction were registered (Bereitschaftspotential, N2, etc.) with considerable interindividual variability. The end of the contraction was preceded, too, by a slow potential, similar to Bereitschaftspotential, with prevailing positivity over frontal areas and negativity over postcentral areas; N2 at the release was well expressed, regardless of the polarity of the preceding slow potential. During the sustained contraction a steady positivity was registered. The presence of potentials related to the start as well as to the end of the voluntary effort suggests the existence of two separate commands. The positivity sustained throughout the contraction, strongly expressed frontally and decreasing postcentrally, implies a decisive role for central processes including the organization and preprogramming of the motor task, but not direct reflection of feedback kinaesthetic afferentation. PMID:7185259

Ganchev, G; Popivanov, D; Dimitrov, B

1982-01-01

256

Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA?s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

257

Origins of Effortful Control: Infant and Parent Contributions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effortful control (EC) refers to the ability to inhibit a dominant response to perform a subdominant one and has been shown as protective against a myriad of difficulties. Research examining precursors of EC has been limited to date, and in this study, infancy contributors to toddler EC were examined. Specifically, parent/family background…

Gartstein, Maria A.; Bridgett, David J.; Young, Brandi N.; Panksepp, Jaak; Power, Thomas

2013-01-01

258

Do Introductory Science Courses Select for Effort or Aptitude?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On the first day of classes, students in introductory biology courses believe that effort is the most accurate predictor of their academic success. Students know which academic behaviors are important for success, and they are confident that they will earn high grades, attend lectures and help sessions, take advantage of other opportunities to master the course material and raise their grade. Despite this optimism, many students do not follow through on their first-day-of-class expectations, and their grades suffer accordingly. Academic success in introductory science courses is strongly associated with effort-based behaviors, but only weakly associated with aptitude. The relevant research findings are discussed in this chapter relative to how instructors can help students succeed in introductory science courses.

Moore, Randy

2006-01-01

259

Patterns of Research Effort in Birds  

PubMed Central

Between species differences in research effort can lead to biases in our global view of evolution, ecology and conservation. The increase in meta-taxonomic comparative analyses on birds underlines the need to better address how research effort is distributed in this class. Methods have been developed to choose which species should be studied to obtain unbiased comparative data sets, but a precise and global knowledge of research effort is required to be able to properly apply them. We address this issue by providing a data set of research effort (number of papers from 1978 to 2008 in the Zoological Record database) estimates for the 10 064 species of birds. We then test whether research effort is associated with phylogeny, geography and eleven different life history and ecological traits. We show that phylogeny accounts for a large proportion of the variance, while geographic range and all the tested traits are also significant contributors to research effort variance. We identify avian taxa that are under- and overstudied and address the importance of research effort biases in evaluating vulnerability to extinction, with non-threatened species studied twice as much as threatened ones. Our research effort data set covering the entire class Aves provides a tool for researchers to incorporate this potential confounding variable in comparative analyses. PMID:24587149

Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

2014-01-01

260

status of the recovery effort iared verner  

E-print Network

CONDORS: status of the recovery effort iared verner L. Pacific Southwest Forest and Ranse;JARED VERNER, a research wildlife biologist, is in charge of the Station's en- dangered species research of the condor problem. Verner, Jared 1978. The California condor: status of the recovery effort. Gen. Tech. Rep

Standiford, Richard B.

261

Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

1988-01-01

262

Mental Effort and Elaboration: A Developmental Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dual task procedures (finger tapping and associative memory) were used to examine developmental differences in the amount of mental effort required to deploy rehearsal and elaboration. Sixth-grade and college students participated. Some evidence for a developmental difference in mental effort was found. (TJH)

Kee, Daniel W.; Davies, Leslie

1988-01-01

263

Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

2013-01-01

264

Vocal effort levels in anechoic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents statistical data on vocal effort levels in anechoic conditions from 50 British English speakers. Extending and rectifying the broadly quoted work carried out by Pearsons et al. in 1977 with American English speakers, the current work stipulates five vocal effort labels: hushed, normal, raised, loud and shout using a set of more precise descriptors with an aim

Ian R. Cushing; Francis F. Li; Trevor J. Cox; Ken Worrall; Tim Jackson

2011-01-01

265

Frontal midline ? power as an index of listening effort.  

PubMed

Attempts to identify physiological correlates of listening effort have mainly focused on peripheral measures (e.g. pupillometry) and auditory-evoked/event-related potentials. Although nonauditory studies have suggested that sustained time-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) features in the ?-band (4-7?Hz) are correlated with domain-general mental effort, little work has characterized such features during effortful listening. Here, high-density EEG data was collected while listeners performed a sentence-recognition task in noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of which varied across blocks. Frontal midline ? (Fm?), largely driven by sources localized in or near the medial frontal cortex, showed greater power with decreasing SNR and was positively correlated with self-reports of effort. Increased Fm? was present before speech onset and during speech presentation. Fm? power also differed across SNRs when including only trials in which all words were recognized, suggesting that the effects were unrelated to performance differences. Results suggest that frontal cortical networks play a larger role in listening as acoustic signals are increasingly masked. Further, sustained time-frequency EEG features may usefully supplement previously used peripheral and event-related potential measures in psychophysiological investigations of effortful listening. PMID:25536119

Wisniewski, Matthew G; Thompson, Eric R; Iyer, Nandini; Estepp, Justin R; Goder-Reiser, Max N; Sullivan, Sarah C

2015-01-21

266

Tourism motivation and expectation formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical study introduces a model of tourism motivation and expectation formation. It is based on a discussion and operationalization of both the behaviorist notion of drive reduction and the cognitivist constructs of attitudes and values. While the satisfaction of inner-directed values and motivations depends on classes of objects, outer-directed values target specific objects. In the case of trying to

Juergen Gnoth

1997-01-01

267

Unconscious Detection of Implicit Expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of unexpected events is a fundamental process of learning. Theories of cognitive control and previous imaging results indicate a prominent role of the prefrontal cortex in the evaluation of the congruency between expected and actual outcome. In most cases, this attributed function is based on results where the person is consciously aware of the discrepancy. In this functional

Michael Rose; Hilde Haider; Christian Büchel

2005-01-01

268

The Confusing Expectations for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequently, the expectations placed on education can lead to confusion over its mission. How one college president, at career end, views the purpose of education is presented in this address. The paper details how educators have tried to meet myriad demands in the face of eroding social support systems, claiming that educators must limit their…

Farquhar, Robin H.

269

Expected utility with lower probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory to characterize uncertainty neutrality and different degrees of uncertainty aversion.

Hans JØrgen Jacobsen; Birgitte Sloth; TORBEN TRANAES

1994-01-01

270

Training Focuses on Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a training program that aims to raise teachers' awareness of how they treat their students. The Teacher Expectations & Student Achievement, or TESA, program--which delves into whether teachers deal with their lower-achieving and higher-achieving students equitably--has been used nationally for more than 30 years. But its…

Gewertz, Catherine

2005-01-01

271

Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

1996-01-01

272

Overview and stellar statistics of the expected Gaia Catalogue using the Gaia Object Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: An effort has been made to simulate the expected Gaia Catalogue, including the effect of observational errors. We statistically analyse this simulated Gaia data to better understand what can be obtained from the Gaia astrometric mission. This catalogue is used to investigate the potential yield in astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic information and the extent and effect of observational errors on the true Gaia Catalogue. This article is a follow-up to previous work, where the expected Gaia Catalogue content was reviewed but without the simulation of observational errors. Methods: We analysed the Gaia Object Generator (GOG) catalogue using the Gaia Analysis Tool (GAT), thereby producing a number of statistics about the catalogue. Results: A simulated catalogue of one billion objects is presented, with detailed information on the 523 million individual single stars it contains. Detailed information is provided for the expected errors in parallax, position, proper motion, radial velocity, and the photometry in the four Gaia bands. Information is also given on the expected performance of physical parameter determination, including temperature, metallicity, and line-of-sight extinction.

Luri, X.; Palmer, M.; Arenou, F.; Masana, E.; de Bruijne, J.; Antiche, E.; Babusiaux, C.; Borrachero, R.; Sartoretti, P.; Julbe, F.; Isasi, Y.; Martinez, O.; Robin, A. C.; Reylé, C.; Jordi, C.; Carrasco, J. M.

2014-06-01

273

The Martyrdom Effect: When Pain and Effort Increase Prosocial Contributions  

PubMed Central

Most theories of motivation and behavior (and lay intuitions alike) consider pain and effort to be deterrents. In contrast to this widely held view, we provide evidence that the prospect of enduring pain and exerting effort for a prosocial cause can promote contributions to the cause. Specifically, we show that willingness to contribute to a charitable or collective cause increases when the contribution process is expected to be painful and effortful rather than easy and enjoyable. Across five experiments, we document this “martyrdom effect,” show that the observed patterns defy standard economic and psychological accounts, and identify a mediator and moderator of the effect. Experiment 1 showed that people are willing to donate more to charity when they anticipate having to suffer to raise money. Experiment 2 extended these findings to a non-charity laboratory context that involved real money and actual pain. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the martyrdom effect is not the result of an attribute substitution strategy (whereby people use the amount of pain and effort involved in fundraising to determine donation worthiness). Experiment 4 showed that perceptions of meaningfulness partially mediate the martyrdom effect. Finally, Experiment 5 demonstrated that the nature of the prosocial cause moderates the martyrdom effect: the effect is strongest for causes associated with human suffering. We propose that anticipated pain and effort lead people to ascribe greater meaning to their contributions and to the experience of contributing, thereby motivating higher prosocial contributions. We conclude by considering some implications of this puzzling phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23559692

Olivola, Christopher Y; Shafir, Eldar

2013-01-01

274

Performance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Department of Transportation combines the performance report for 2001 with the performance plan for 2003. Released in March 2002, its purpose is to weigh statistics and historical trends to improve the nation's transportation system. A key focus of the report is safety; this includes highway, aviation, rail, and all forms of transportation related safety. In light of September 11, national security is another top priority. For each issue covered in the report, the performance of the DOT in recent years is assessed, and specific goals are set. Strategies and initiatives are named to achieve the proposed objectives.

2002-01-01

275

USGS Shoots Video of Flooding Efforts  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS public affairs specialist, Jennifer LaVista prepares to shoot video of USGS efforts during historic flooding in Fargo, ND. The videos can be viewed at http://www.usgs.gov/homepage/science_features/flooding_march09.asp...

2009-04-03

276

Modeling Efforts to Inform Countries' Screening Decisions  

Cancer.gov

Modeling Efforts to Inform Countries’ Screening Decisions Ann Graham Zauber, Iris Vogelaar, Marjolein van Ballegooijen, Deb Schrag, Rob Boer, Dik Habbema, and Sidney Winawer May 11, 2006 International Breast Cancer Screening Network Biennial Meeting,

277

Monitoring antimalarial resistance: launching a cooperative effort.  

PubMed

Current information on efficacy of antimalarials is crucial to provide early warning of resistance. A collaborative effort between the Global Malaria Program of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) has recently been launched. The effort is planned as a collaboration with the scientific malaria community to create a global, comprehensive, and inclusive network that will provide quality-assured information on antimalarial drug resistance. PMID:20304706

Sibley, Carol Hopkins; Guerin, Philippe J; Ringwald, Pascal

2010-05-01

278

Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the requirements for OPC UA was to maintain or even enhance the performance of Classic OPC. Performance in this context\\u000a does not only mean speed of communication, it also means less load and resource requirements on the target system. It was\\u000a an important lesson learned with the adoption of OPC XML-DA in embedded systems where processing XML messages

Wolfgang Mahnke; Stefan-Helmut Leitner

279

Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation: A developmental perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

I consider Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value model of achievement performance and choice from a developmental perspective, by examining how recent research on the development of young children's competence beliefs, expectancies for success, subjective task values, and achievement goals can be incorporated into the model. The kinds of change in children's achievement beliefs considered include change in the factor structure

Allan Wigfield

1994-01-01

280

An expectation-based memory deficit in aging.  

PubMed

Memory performance can be enhanced by expectations regarding the appearance of ensuing stimuli. Here, we investigated the influence of stimulus-category expectation on memory performance in aging, and used fMRI to explore age-related alterations in associated neural mechanisms. Unlike younger adults, who demonstrated both working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance benefits for face stimuli when this stimulus category was expected, older adults did not exhibit these memory benefits. Concordantly, older adults did not exhibit expectation-period activity modulation in visual association cortex (i.e., fusiform face area (FFA)), unlike younger adults. However, within the older population, individuals who demonstrated face-expectation memory benefits also exhibited expectation-period FFA activity modulation equivalent to younger adults. The older cohort also displayed diminished expectation-related functional connectivity between regions of the prefrontal cortex and the FFA, relative to younger adults, suggesting that network alterations underlie the absence of expectation-mediated cortical modulation and memory benefits. This deficit may have broader consequences for the effective utilization of predictive cues to guide attention and engender optimal cognitive performance in older individuals. PMID:21272595

Bollinger, Jacob; Rubens, Michael T; Masangkay, Edrick; Kalkstein, Jonathan; Gazzaley, Adam

2011-05-01

281

The Effects of Organizational Context on Teacher Expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines factors affecting teacher expectancy through hierarchical linear modeling of data from two large-scale surveys of teachers working in schools with highstakes accountability programs. Teacher perceptions of program fairness, student performance feedback, lack of goal conflict, and principal support, as well as school level and reward history, were found to be significant predictors of teacher expectancy.

Carolyn J. Kelley; Kara Finnigan

2003-01-01

282

Reproductive effort and success of wild female mallards: does male quality matter?  

PubMed

In accordance with the differential allocation hypothesis, females are expected to increase their reproductive investment when mated to high-quality males. In waterfowl, reproductive, investment increased when captive female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were mated to more attractive males, but information for wild ducks is lacking. Studies of waterfowl mating systems have focused primarily on the importance of plumage coloration of males and female mate choice, whereas investigations of reproductive ecology examine female attributes and virtually ignore the role of males in investment decisions. Here, we used unique data for 253 pairs of wild mallards to test whether females mated to high-quality males would increase reproductive effort and reproduce more successfully. We derived measurements of female and male body size and condition, and indices of male plumage quality, and related these traits to patterns of reproductive effort and performance of females. Consistent with predictions, yearling females nested earlier and had higher nest survival when mated to males with better plumage scores. Furthermore, when paired with larger bodied males, yearling females renested more often, and nest and brood survival increased among older females. Although the strength of male effects varied with breeding stage and female age or experience, this is one of a few studies to demonstrate an additive effect of male quality on investment and success of females, in free-ranging birds. PMID:23973707

Sheppard, Jennifer L; Clark, Robert G; Devries, James H; Brasher, Michael G

2013-11-01

283

Exchange rate expectations of chartists and fundamentalists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides novel evidence on exchange rate expectations of both chartists and fundamentalists separately. These groups indeed form expectations differently. Chartists change their expectations more often; however, all professionals' expectations vary considerably as they generally follow strong exchange rate trends. In line with non-linear exchange rate-modeling, professionals expect mean reversion only if exchange rates deviate much from PPP. Chartists

Christian D. Dick; Lukas Menkhoff

2012-01-01

284

Gating of attentional effort through the central thalamus  

PubMed Central

The central thalamus plays an important role in the regulation of arousal and allocation of attentional resources in the performance of even simple tasks. To assess the contribution of central thalamic neurons to short-term adjustments of attentional effort, we analyzed 166 microelectrode recordings obtained from two rhesus monkeys performing a visuomotor simple reaction time task with a variable foreperiod. Multiunit responses showed maintained firing rate elevations during the variable delay period of the task in ?24% of recording sites. Simultaneously recorded local field potentials demonstrated significant decreases in power at ?10–20 Hz and increases in power at 30–100 Hz during the delay period when compared against precue baselines. Comparison of the spectral power of local field potentials during the delay period of correct and incorrect trials showed that, during incorrect trials, similar, but reduced, shifts of spectral power occurred within the same frequency bands. Sustained performance of even simple tasks requires regulation of arousal and attention that combine in the concept of “attentional effort”. Our findings suggest that central thalamic neurons regulate task performance through brief changes in firing rates and spectral power changes during task-relevant short-term shifts of attentional effort. Increases in attentional effort may be reflected in changes within the central thalamic local populations, where correct task performance associates with more robust maintenance of firing rates during the delay period. Such ongoing fluctuations of central thalamic activity likely reflect a mix of influences, including variations in moment-to-moment levels of motivation, arousal, and availability of cognitive resources. PMID:23221415

Shah, S. A.; Hudson, A. E.; Nauvel, T.; Kalik, S. F.; Purpura, K. P.

2013-01-01

285

Systemic Efforts in Georgia to Improve Education Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research points to links between school and school district leadership and student achievement. Local and national education reform has created rising expectations for student performance. Education leadership is both complex and high stakes. Key stakeholders in Georgia have developed a solution to improve factors in the work, workplace, and…

Page, Deb

2010-01-01

286

Teacher Expectations: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies, Perceptual Biases, and Accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' performance may confirm teachers' expectations because teacher expectations create self-fulfilling prophecies, create perceptual biases, or accurately predict, without influencing, student performance. Longitudinal data obtained from 27 teachers and 429 students in 6th-grade math classes assessed the extent of self-fulfilling prophecies, perceptual biases, and accuracy. Results revealed modest self-fulfilling-prophecy effects on student achievement and motivation, modest biasing effects on the

Lee Jussim

1989-01-01

287

Age and state-dependent reproductive effort in male mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammalian polygynous mating systems, male reproductive effort consists mainly of male–male competition and courting of\\u000a females, which entail substantial somatic costs. Males are thus expected to adjust their reproductive effort according to\\u000a their age and condition. In this study, we examined how activity budgets of male mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), a polygynous ungulate, varied with age in a marked

Julien Mainguy; Steeve D. Côté

2008-01-01

288

Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.  

PubMed

The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis. PMID:23177755

Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

2012-11-01

289

Impaired effort allocation in patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

A hallmark of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is reduced motivation and goal directed behavior. While preclinical models suggest that blunted striatal dopamine levels can produce such reductions, this mechanism is inconsistent with evidence for enhanced striatal dopamine levels in schizophrenia. In seeking to reconcile this discrepancy, one possibility is that negative symptoms reflect a failure of striatal motivational systems to mobilize appropriately in response to reward-related information. In the present study, we used a laboratory effort-based decision-making task in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls to examine allocation of effort in exchange for varying levels of monetary reward. We found that patients and controls did not differ in the overall amount of effort expenditure, but patients made significantly less optimal choices in terms of maximizing rewards. These results provide further evidence for a selective deficit in the ability of schizophrenia patients to utilize environmental cues to guide reward-seeking behavior. PMID:25487699

Treadway, Michael T; Peterman, Joel S; Zald, David H; Park, Sohee

2015-02-01

290

The Effects of Education Compatibility and Technological Expectancy on E-Learning Acceptance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discerning what influences a student's acceptance of e-learning is still unclear and has not been well investigated. On the basis of the expectancy-value theory, much effort has been put into identifying the effectual factors regarding the technological expectancy of students. However, aside from technological usage, the adoption of an e-learning…

Chen, Jian-Liang

2011-01-01

291

American lifelines alliance efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was performed on American Lifelines Alliance (ALA) efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability. ALA is a public-private partnership project, with the goal of reducing risks to lifelines from natural hazards and human threat events. The mechanism used by ALA for developing national guidelines for lifeline systems is dependent upon using existing Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as means to achieve national consensus.

Nishenko, S.P.; Savage, W.U.; Honegger, D.G.; McLane, T.R.

2002-01-01

292

Multidimensional Effort Prediction for ERP System Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Ph.D. thesis builds upon the state-of-the-art in effort prediction for ERP-implementation projects. While current approaches\\u000a use the complexity of the technical system as only indicator for estimation, a multidimensional key ratio scorecard is developed\\u000a to enhance the quality of effort prediction. Key ratios from the technical dimension are extended towards service-oriented\\u000a architectures as the upcoming, dominating architectural ERP concept.

Torben Hansen

2006-01-01

293

High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

Kalemci, Emrah [Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey)

2011-09-21

294

Extreme Vacua: Achievements and Expectations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining pressures between 10-12 and 10-14 Torr inside vacuum systems operating at room temperature imposes severe limitations on the choice of materials and pumps. If the proper choice is made and the proper procedures are followed, the main obstacle to achieving such low pressure results from the hydrogen outgassing of the metal walls of the vacuum system. However, at the lower end of this range and for pumping systems based on getter pumps (both titanium sublimation and non-evaporable getter pumps), methane may become the main component of the residual gas pressure. Although a large effort has been devoted to developing suitable gauges, only a few of them have been actually tested at the extreme vacuum for which they were designed. Furthermore, none of the commercially available instruments is adequate for pressures below 10-12 Torr. The basic physical phenomena which contribute to defining the vacuum condition inside a system operating in this pressure range are reviewed. Guidelines to the selection of materials and pumps are given and discussed with the help of some examples.

Benvenuti, C.

1988-01-01

295

Conflict and expectancies interact to predict sexual behavior under the influence among gay and bisexual men  

PubMed Central

As the mechanisms of the associations between substance use and risky sex remain unclear, this study investigates the interactive roles of conflicts about casual sex and condom use and expectancies of the sexual effects of substances in those associations among gay men. Conflict interacted with expectancies to predict sexual behavior under the influence; low casual sex conflict coupled with high expectancies predicted the highest number of casual partners, and high condom use conflict and high expectancies predicted the highest number of unprotected sex acts. Results have implications for intervention efforts that aim to improve sexual decision-making and reduce sexual expectancies. PMID:23584507

Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit

2013-01-01

296

Prediction of Children's Academic Competence From Their Effortful Control, Relationships, and Classroom Participation.  

PubMed

The authors examined the relations among children's effortful control, school relationships, classroom participation, and academic competence with a sample of 7- to 12-year-old children (N = 264). Parents and children reported on children's effortful control, and teachers and children reported on children's school relationships and classroom participation. Children's grade point averages (GPAs) and absences were obtained from school-issued report cards. Significant positive correlations existed between effortful control, school relationships, classroom participation, and academic competence. Consistent with expectations, the teacher-child relationship, social competence, and classroom participation partially mediated the relation between effortful control and change in GPA from the beginning to the end of the school year. The teacher-child relationship and classroom participation also partially mediated the relation between effortful control and change in school absences across the year. PMID:21212831

Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Swanson, Jodi; Reiser, Mark

2008-02-01

297

On Efforts to Collegially Develop Teacher Professionalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes efforts to support the development of reflective practice at a basic school in Brno, the Czech Republic. The aims, structure, content and methods are mentioned, as well as some preliminary results. Also, the authors suggest a few preconditions of the success of possible future actions. The specific case is seen from the…

Lazarova, Bohumira; Pol, Milan

2002-01-01

298

Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

2007-01-01

299

Executive Stock Options with Effort Disutility  

E-print Network

Executive Stock Options with Effort Disutility and Choice of Volatility Abel Cadenillas Jaksa-1427. Ph: (213) 740-6538. Fax: (213) 740-6650. E-mail: fzapatero@marshall.usc.edu. #12;Executive Stock that receives call options as com- pensation in a dynamic setting. She can influence the stock price return

Cvitanic, Jaksa

300

Adaptive best effort protocols for video delivery  

E-print Network

data when transmitted over best-effort networks like the Internet. The protocols are end-to-end, and do not propose any modifications (like reservations) to the network infrastructure-hence, they can be used over the existing Internet. The design...

Madhwaraj, Ashwin Raj

1998-01-01

301

Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele

2010-01-01

302

Expressing vocal effort in concatenative synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new diphone database with a full diphone set for each of three levels of vocal effort is presented. A the- oretical motivation is given why this kind of database will be useful for emotional speech synthesis. Two hy- potheses are verified in perception experiments: (I) The three diphone sets are perceived as belonging to the same speaker; (II) The

Marc Schroder; Martine Grice

2003-01-01

303

Efforts toward the Total Synthesis of (-)-Kendomycin  

E-print Network

Efforts toward the Total Synthesis of (-)-Kendomycin David R. Williams and Khalida Shamim, Smith and co-workers have recently described conditions for 16-membered macrocyclization by RCM, albeit. 2005, 7, 1529. (6) Smith, A. B.; Mesaros, E. F.; Meyer, E. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 6948

Williams, David R.

304

Summary results of the DOE flywheel development effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology and applications evaluation task focuses on defining performance and cost requirements for flywheels in the various areas of application. To date the DOE program has focused on automotive applications. The composite materials effort entails the testing of new commercial composites to determine their engineering properties. The rotor and containment development work uses data from these program elements to design and fabricate flywheels. The flywheels are then tested at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory and their performance is evaluated to indicate possible areas for improvement. Once a rotor has been fully developed it is transferred to the private sector.

Olszewski, M.; Martin, J. F.

1984-01-01

305

V and V Efforts of Auroral Precipitation Models: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Auroral precipitation models have been valuable both in terms of space weather applications and space science research. Yet very limited testing has been performed regarding model performance. A variety of auroral models are available, including empirical models that are parameterized by geomagnetic indices or upstream solar wind conditions, now casting models that are based on satellite observations, or those derived from physics-based, coupled global models. In this presentation, we will show our preliminary results regarding V&V efforts of some of the models.

Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Rastaetter, Lutz; Hesse, Michael

2011-01-01

306

Changing expectancies: cognitive mechanisms and context effects.  

PubMed

This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco, organized by Reinout W. Wiers and Mark D. Wood. The symposium combined two topics of recent interest in studies of alcohol expectancies: cognitive mechanisms in expectancy challenge studies, and context-related changes of expectancies. With increasing recognition of the substantial role played by alcohol expectancies in drinking, investigators have begun to develop and evaluate expectancy challenge procedures as a potentially promising new prevention strategy. The two major issues addressed in the symposium were whether expectancy challenges result in changes in expectancies that mediate intervention (outcome relations), and the influence of simulated bar environments ("bar labs," in which challenges are usually done) on expectancies. The presentations were (1) An introduction, by Jack Darkes; (2) Investigating the utility of alcohol expectancy challenge with heavy drinking college students, by Mark D. Wood; (3) Effects of an expectancy challenge on implicit and explicit expectancies and drinking, by Reinout W. Wiers; (4) Effects of graphic feedback and simulated bar assessments on alcohol expectancies and consumption, by William R. Corbin; (5) Implicit alcohol associations and context, by Barry T Jones; and (6) A discussion by Kenneth J. Sher, who pointed out that it is important not only to study changes of expectancies in the paradigm of an expectancy challenge but also to consider the role of changing expectancies in natural development and in treatments not explicitly aimed at changing expectancies. PMID:12605068

Wiers, Reinout W; Wood, Mark D; Darkes, Jack; Corbin, William R; Jones, Barry T; Sher, Kenneth J

2003-02-01

307

What to Expect Before Pulmonary Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

... Rehabilitation » What To Expect Before Pulmonary Rehabilitation Explore Pulmonary Rehabilitation What Is... Who Needs What To Expect Before What to Expect During What to Expect After Benefits & Risks Links Related Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a ...

308

Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 1 Running Head: Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation  

E-print Network

Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 1 Running Head: Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation The Effects of Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation On Teachers Autonomy and Exercise Psychology 4 (2006) 283-301" #12;Teachers' Expectations about Students' Motivation 2 Abstract

Boyer, Edmond

309

The teacher and student as Pygmalions: Joint effects of teacher and student expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the effects of teachers' expectations about students and students' expectations about teachers on the performance and attitudes of both participants. 60 female undergraduates were designated as teachers and were led to expect a high- or low-ability student, and a further 60 Ss acting as students were independently led to expect a teacher of low or high competence. Teachers and

Robert S. Feldman; Andrew J. Theiss

1982-01-01

310

A comparative study of conventional effort estimation and fuzzy effort estimation based on Triangular Fuzzy Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective cost estimation is the most challenging activity in software development. Software cost estimation is not an exact science. However it can be transformed from a black art to a series of systematic steps that provide estimate with acceptable risk. Effort is a function of size. For estimating effort first we face sizing problem. In direct approach size is measured

Harish Mittal; Pradeep Bhatia

311

Name stereotypes and teachers' expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicted that teachers' evaluations of children's performance would be systematically associated with stereotyped perceptions of first names. Short essays actually written by 5th-grade students were presented for evaluation to 80 female teachers (age range 20-45) and 80 female undergraduates. Authorship of the essays was randomly linked with boys and girls with common, popular, and attractive names as well as with

Herbert Harari; John W. McDavid

1973-01-01

312

Measures of Effortful Regulation for Young Children  

PubMed Central

Emotion-related regulation is a topic of increasing interest among researchers, yet there is little agreement on ways to measure emotion regulation in young children. In this paper, we first consider important conceptual distinctions in regard to the different types of emotion-related regulation and control. Next, we describe a number of ways researchers have assessed children’s regulation. We also present data from the Toddler Emotional Development project, in which laboratory-based measures of effortful regulation were used. In this section, we highlight the measures that show promise (and those that did not work well). Future directions for research on the measurement of effortful regulation are presented. PMID:18066395

Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget M.

2005-01-01

313

Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

Smith, Danford

2010-01-01

314

NRC; Smog control efforts off mark  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the National Research Council says the U.S. regulatory programs to control smog may have been misdirected the past 20 years, and more emphasis needs to be placed on limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. An NRC study the ozone control efforts have focused mainly on controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. However, in many parts of the country controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides would be more effective, it the, noting VOCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of ozone.

Not Available

1992-01-06

315

Measuring Student Effort and Engagement in an Introductory Physics Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple scales reflecting student effort were developed using factor and scale analysis on data from an introductory physics course. This data included interactions with an on-line homework system. One of the scales displays many characteristics of a metric of the individual level of engagement in the course. This scale is shown to be a good predictor of performance on class exams and the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Furthermore, normalized learning gains on the FCI are well predicted by this scale while pre-instructional FCI scores provide no additional predictive ability, agreeing with observations by Richard Hake. This scale also correlates strongly with epistemological beliefs that learning is related to effort and is the responsibility of the student. The factors that enter into this scale, writing and mastering expert-like problem-solving, are consistent with this being a measure of individual levels of class engagement.

Bonham, Scott

2007-11-01

316

Framing tobacco control efforts within an ethical context  

PubMed Central

Public health efforts to promote tobacco control are not performed within a vacuum. They are subject to interpretation and misinterpretation by consumers and policymakers based largely upon the initial framing of the issues. This paper notes how the tobacco industry has established a particular frame that it is the protector of individual rights and that the public health community is trying to eliminate those rights. This paper then shows how the public health community uses metaphors that may unintentionally support this framing and suggests that by reframing public health efforts in accordance with core ethical principles, the public health community can create more positive messages. A public health ethical framework is proposed to examine how the application of the principles can influence the tobacco control movement. Through the increased use of ethics in tobacco control, the public health community may be better positioned to claim the high road as the protector of the public's interests. PMID:16046701

Fox, B

2005-01-01

317

Measuring Student Effort and Engagement in an Introductory Physics Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Multiple scales reflecting student effort were developed using factor and scale analysis on data from an introductory physics course. This data included interactions with an on-line homework system. One of the scales displays many characteristics of a metric of the individual level of engagement in the course. This scale is shown to be a good predictor of performance on class exams and the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Furthermore, normalized learning gains on the FCI are well predicted by this scale while pre-instructional FCI scores provide no additional predictive ability, agreeing with observations by Richard Hake. This scale also correlates strongly with epistemological beliefs that learning is related to effort and is the responsibility of the student. The factors that enter into this scale, writing and mastering expert-like problem-solving, are consistent with this being a measure of individual levels of class engagement.

Bonham, Scott W.

2009-07-06

318

Review of efforts combining neural networks and evolutionary computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the widespread recognition of the capacity for neural networks to perform general function approximation, a variety of such mapping functions have been used to address difficult problems in pattern recognition, time series forecasting, automatic control, image compression, and other engineering applications. Although these efforts have met with considerable success, the design and training of neural networks have remained much of an art, relying on human expertise, trial, and error. More recently, methods in evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, evolution strategies, and evolutionary programming, have been used to assist in and automate the design and training of neural networks. This presentation offers a review of these efforts and discusses the potential benefits and limitations of such combinations.

Fogel, David B.; Angeline, Peter J.

1995-04-01

319

Students' Perceptions of Peer Evaluation: An Expectancy Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the difficulty of evaluating uneven performance among group members, many researchers suggest incorporating peer evaluations in a grading system that permits an instructor to evaluate and grade individual performance more equitably within a group. In this study, the authors employ expectancy theory to assess key factors that may…

Chen, Yining; Lou, Hao

2004-01-01

320

Sex-Role Stereotyping in Two Newspapers of 1885: The Influence of the Pioneer Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To answer the questions of whether the pioneer effort and subsequent differences in lifestyles affected sex-role stereotyping in newspapers in 1885 and whether a widely perceived difference in role expectation was evident in the popular writing of the times, a study examined the differences in sex roles reflected in popular journalistic portrayals…

Jolliffe, Lee; Bond, Turner

321

Understanding Activist Leadership Effort in the Movement Opposing Drinking and Driving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why do some social movement leaders work harder than others? And, how does gender affect the patterns we uncover? Utilizing historical case study evidence of local chapters in the emerging movement opposing drinking and driving we are able to develop and test theoretical expectations about predictors of weekly effort among MADD and RID leaders.…

Dorius, Cassandra R.; McCarthy, John D.

2011-01-01

322

Male reed buntings do not adjust parental effort in relation to extrapair paternity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental effort is considered to be costly; therefore, males are expected to provide less care to unrelated offspring. Theoretical models suggest that males should either reduce their care to the entire brood or alternatively distinguish between related and unrelated nestlings and direct provisioning to kin when paternity is in doubt. Reed buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus) have been found to have high

Karen M. Bouwman; C. M. Lessells; Jan Komdeura

2005-01-01

323

Clinical expectations: what facilitators expect from ESL students on clinical placement.  

PubMed

Many nursing students for whom English is a second language (ESL) face challenges related to communication on clinical placement and although clinical facilitators are not usually trained language assessors, they are often in a position of needing to assess ESL students' clinical language performance. Little is known, however, about the particular areas of clinical performance facilitators focus on when they are assessing ESL students. This paper discusses the results of a study of facilitators' written assessment comments about the clinical performance of a small group of ESL nursing students over a two and a half year period. These comments were documented on students' clinical assessment forms at the end of each placement. The results provide a more detailed insight into facilitators' expectations of students' language performance and the particular challenges faced by ESL students and indicate that facilitators have clear expectations of ESL students regarding communication, learning styles and professional demeanour. These findings may help both ESL students and their facilitators better prepare for clinical placement. PMID:22079570

San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

2012-03-01

324

Control effort associated with model reference adaptive control for vibration damping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) is studied in numerical simulations with the objective of understanding the effects of differences between the plant and the reference model. MRAC is applied to two structural systems with adjustable error between the reference model and the actual plant. Performance indices relating to control effort and response characteristics are monitored in order to determine what effects small errors have on the control effort and performance of the two systems. It is shown that reasonable amounts of error in the reference model can cause dramatic increases in both the control effort and response magnitude (as measured by energy integrals) of the plant.

Messer, Richard Scott; Haftka, Raphael T.

1991-01-01

325

Interactive effect of leaders' influence tactics and ethical leadership on work effort and helping behavior.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive influence of a) leaders' exemplification and supplication efforts and b) followers' perceptions of the leaders' ethicality on followers' work efforts and helping behaviors. We surveyed 58 leaders and 175 followers who worked for a governmental agency in the United States. Results indicated that the expected positive (negative) relationship between leaders' usage of exemplification and work effort was evident when ethical leadership was high (low). The expected positive relationship between leaders' engagement in supplication and helping behaviors was not present when ethical leadership was high, but the predicted negative relationship was found between supplication and helping when perceptions of leaders' ethicality were low. PMID:24003584

Kacmar, K Michele; Carlson, Dawn S; Harris, Kenneth J

2013-01-01

326

Exploring students’ reflective thinking practice, deep processing strategies, effort, and achievement goal orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research indicates that study processing strategies, effort, reflective thinking practice, and achievement goals are important factors contributing to the prediction of students’ academic success. Very few studies have combined these theoretical orientations within one conceptual model. This study tested a conceptual model that included, in particular, deep processing strategies, effort, mastery and performance?approach goals, reflection, and critical thinking. We

Huy Phuong Phan

2009-01-01

327

Joint Probabilistic Projection of Female and Male Life Expectancy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The United Nations (UN) produces population projections for all countries every two years. These are used by international organizations, governments, the private sector and researchers for policy planning, for monitoring development goals, as inputs to economic and environmental models, and for social and health research. The UN is considering producing fully probabilistic population projections, for which joint probabilistic projections of future female and male life expectancy at birth are needed. OBJECTIVE We propose a methodology for obtaining joint probabilistic projections of female and male life expectancy at birth. METHODS We first project female life expectancy using a one-sex method for probabilistic projection of life expectancy. We then project the gap between female and male life expectancy. We propose an autoregressive model for the gap in a future time period for a particular country, which is a function of female life expectancy and a t-distributed random perturbation. This method takes into account mortality data limitations, is comparable across countries, and accounts for shocks. We estimate all parameters based on life expectancy estimates for 1950–2010. The methods are implemented in the bayesLife and bayesPop R packages. RESULTS We evaluated our model using out-of-sample projections for the period 1995–2010, and found that our method performed better than several possible alternatives. CONCLUSIONS We find that the average gap between female and male life expectancy has been increasing for female life expectancy below 75, and decreasing for female life expectancy above 75. Our projections of the gap are lower than the UN’s 2008 projections for most countries and so lead to higher projections of male life expectancy.

Raftery, Adrian E.; Lalic, Nevena; Gerland, Patrick

2014-01-01

328

Global Life Expectancy Continues to Climb  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Global Life Expectancy Continues to Climb Women have slightly greater ... few decades ago, a new study indicates. Worldwide life expectancy rose from 65.3 years in 1990 ...

329

Pioneering efforts to control AIDS. Review: IHO.  

PubMed

The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS. PMID:12346829

Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K

1995-01-01

330

Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad.  

PubMed

We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives. PMID:24401293

Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M

2014-01-01

331

Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

Holden, N. E.

2014-06-01

332

Development efforts to improve curved-channel microchannel plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Curved-channel microchannel plate (C-plate) improvements resulting from an ongoing NASA STIS microchannel plate (MCP) development program are described. Performance limitations of previous C-plates led to a development program in support of the STIS MAMA UV photon counter, a second generation instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. C-plate gain, quantum detection efficiency, dark noise, and imaging distortion, which are influenced by channel curvature non-uniformities, have all been improved through use of a new centrifuge fabrication technique. This technique will be described, along with efforts to improve older, more conventional shearing methods. Process optimization methods used to attain targeted C-plate performance goals will be briefly characterized. Newly developed diagnostic measurement techniques to study image distortion, gain uniformity, input bias angle, channel curvature, and ion feedback, will be described. Performance characteristics and initial test results of the improved C-plates will be reported. Future work and applications will also be discussed.

Corbett, M. B.; Feller, W. B.; Laprade, B. N.; Cochran, R.; Bybee, R.; Danks, A.; Joseph, C.

1993-01-01

333

Community Expectations of College Completion and Attendance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communities relay expectations of behavior that influence residents' decision making processes. The study's purpose was to define and identify social, cultural, and human capital variables relevant to understanding community expectations of postsecondary attainment. The study sought an operational model of community expectancy that would allow…

Derden, Michael Wade

2011-01-01

334

Measuring Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has suggested the utility of studying individual differences in the regulation of negative mood states. Generalized response expectancies for negative mood regulation were defined as expectancies that some overt behavior or cognition would alleviate negative mood states as they occur across situations. The Generalized Expectancy for…

Catanzaro, Salvatore J.; Mearns, Jack

335

Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter? Laetitia-14Dec2010 #12;Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter of remittances on financial expectations in Albania using longitudinal data covering the period 2002

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

Expectancy Effects in Memory for Melodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments explored the relation between melodic expectancy and melodic memory. In Experiment 1, listeners rated the degree to which different endings confirmed their expectations for a set of melodies. After providing these expectancy ratings, listeners received a recognition memory test in which they discriminated previously heard melodies from new melodies. Recognition memory in this task positively correlated with perceived

MARK A. SCHMUCKLER

1997-01-01

337

Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen

Robert Schoen; Vladimir Canudas-Romo

2005-01-01

338

EXPECTATIONS AND DROPOUTS IN SCHOOLS OF NURSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXPECTATIONS AND EXPERIENCES OF STRESS AND SATISFACTION OF 1852 1ST-YR STUDENTS IN 43 NURSING SCHOOLS WERE ASSESSED BY QUESTIONNAIRE. LOW BUT SIGNIFICANT NEGATIVE CORRELATIONS WERE OBTAINED BETWEEN WITHDRAWAL AND (1) EXPERIENCED SATISFACTIONS, AND (2) CONFIRMATION OF EXPECTATIONS, ESPECIALLY WITH RESPECT TO SATISFACTIONS. WITHDRAWAL WAS UNRELATED TO EXPERIENCED STRESS, WHETHER EXPECTED OR UNEXPECTED.

MILDRED E. KATZELL

1968-01-01

339

Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure…

Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

2015-01-01

340

Understanding Activist Leadership Effort in the Movement Opposing Drinking and Driving  

PubMed Central

Why do some social movement leaders work harder than others? And, how does gender affect the patterns we uncover? Utilizing historical case study evidence of local chapters in the emerging movement opposing drinking and driving we are able to develop and test theoretical expectations about predictors of weekly effort among MADD and RID leaders. Taken together, our model explains 45 percent of the variation in leadership effort. We find bureaucratic complexity and victim support activities are more powerful predictors of effort than are individual leader characteristics, although all are important. Further analysis reveals that gender almost wholly conditions the strong effect of bureaucratic complexity on leadership effort so that increasingly complex chapter structures are associated with substantial increases in work hours for women but not men. PMID:22993454

Dorius, Cassandra R.; McCarthy, John D.

2012-01-01

341

Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

Singh, Gurkirpal

2005-01-01

342

Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

2009-01-31

343

Implicit and Self-Attributed Achievement Goals: Relationships with Effort and Persistence  

E-print Network

This dissertation investigates the existence of implicit, or non-conscious, achievement goals and their relationships with self-attributed achievement goals and two aspects of task performance: effort and persistence. One hundred twenty...

Beauchamp, Anne

2011-02-05

344

Implicit and Self-Attributed Achievement Goals: Relationships with Effort and Persistence.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation investigates the existence of implicit, or non-conscious, achievement goals and their relationships with self-attributed achievement goals and two aspects of task performance: effort… (more)

Beauchamp, Anne

2011-01-01

345

Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was diverted into the Porong River through a mud pump system. Also we continuously monitor changes in eruption behavior and try to anticipate the consequences, particularly after the Ring Dyke (of main vent) collapsed and became useless in controlling the flow. In September 2009 spectacular eruption intensity with kick and wave developed and is continuing. Surface and subsurface investigations continue ceaselessly to try to understand the forces driving the eruption. There are no precedents for mitigation of such a large scale mud volcano in a densely populated area that seems destined to continue for a very long time. This makes all efforts to stop eruption together with the emergency efforts, which have to be conducted simultaneously with recovery and reconstruction efforts that cover all basic needs of people live in the area. This is why BPLS has to develop innovative and creative efforts, mainly by applying the basic principle of learning by doing.

Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

2009-12-01

346

Infectious Diseases, Reproductive Effort and the Cost of Reproduction in Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive effort can have profound effects on subsequent performance. Field experiments on the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) have demonstrated a number of trade-offs between life-history traits at different ages. The mechanism by which reproductive effort is mediated into future reproductive performance remains obscure. Anti-parasite adaptations such as cell-mediated immunity may probably also be costly. Hence the possibility exists of a

L. Gustafsson; D. Nordling; M. S. Andersson; B. C. Sheldon; A. Qvarnstrom

1994-01-01

347

Income expectations, rural-urban migration and employment in Africa.  

PubMed

This article develops a theoretical framework explaining the influence of economic conditions on rural-urban migration in tropical Africa. The model explains the continued process of migration despite high levels of urban unemployment. A lengthy discussion is devoted to short-, intermediate-, and long-term policies for relieving the urban unemployment problem. It is argued that efforts must be made to reduce the differences between the expectation of urban income and real rural income. No one single policy will slow rural-to-urban migration. The author suggests policies that would eliminate factor-price distortions, restrain urban wages, redirect development toward concentrated and comprehensive programs of rural development, resettle and repatriate unemployed urban migrants, and establish capital-goods industries. The capital-goods industries would develop labor-intensive technologies for agriculture and industry. The theoretical model assumes that migrants make decisions about moving on the basis of an expected income and the expectation of an urban job. It is argued that the urban-rural income differences and the probability of securing an urban job determine the rate and extent of rural-urban migration in Africa. If the migrant has a low probability of finding regular wage employment in the short term, but expects the probability to increase over time, the migrant would make a rational decision to migrate. Policies that operate solely on urban labor demand are considered unlikely to reduce urban unemployment. This model better estimates the shadow prices of rural labor. PMID:12320790

Todaro, M P

1996-01-01

348

Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA activities. The program provides teachers with a one-week summer professional development workshop, long-term teacher support through classroom visits, teacher access to GLOBE instrumentation, and research opportunities for students. Professional development is centered on student engagement through inquiry, opportunities for collaborative student research, and the GLOBE Program's atmosphere protocols and learning activities. Beyond the training week, teachers receive follow-up specifically addressing current opportunities for student engagement in current research and opportunities for students to present research findings. The first cohort of teachers completed the professional development workshop in July 2012. This session will summarize the planning and implementation details of the summer workshop, including schedule and materials. In addition to these details, we will share our evaluation of follow-up activities and survey results highlighting teachers' perceived barriers to implementing atmosphere investigations. These results will add to the discussion on effective programs aimed at inspiring young scientists.

Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

2012-12-01

349

Illusory expectations can affect retrieval-monitoring accuracy.  

PubMed

The present study investigated how expectations, even when illusory, can affect the accuracy of memory decisions. Participants studied words presented in large or small font for subsequent memory tests. Replicating prior work, judgments of learning indicated that participants expected to remember large words better than small words, even though memory for these words was equivalent on a standard test of recognition memory and subjective judgments. Critically, we also included tests that instructed participants to selectively search memory for either large or small words, thereby allowing different memorial expectations to contribute to performance. On these tests we found reduced false recognition when searching memory for large words relative to small words, such that the size illusion paradoxically affected accuracy measures (d' scores) in the absence of actual memory differences. Additional evidence for the role of illusory expectations was that (a) the accuracy effect was obtained only when participants searched memory for the aspect of the stimuli corresponding to illusory expectations (size instead of color) and (b) the accuracy effect was eliminated on a forced-choice test that prevented the influence of memorial expectations. These findings demonstrate the critical role of memorial expectations in the retrieval-monitoring process. PMID:21942496

McDonough, Ian M; Gallo, David A

2012-03-01

350

Time for Great Expectations: A Personal Perspective on Poor and Minority Student Achievement in Urban Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The superintendent of schools in Providence, Rhode Island reflects on her own personal odyssey, asserting that society must expect more from poor and minority children. She discusses areas for focused effort, such as literacy. (EV)

Lam, Diana

2002-01-01

351

Natural variation in a testosterone-mediated trade-off between mating effort and parental effort.  

PubMed

Male birds frequently face a trade-off between acquiring mates and caring for offspring. Hormone manipulation studies indicate that testosterone often mediates this trade-off, increasing mating effort while decreasing parental effort. Little is known, however, about individual covariation between testosterone and relevant behavior on which selection might act. Using wild, male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we measured individual variation in testosterone levels before and after standardized injections of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The GnRH challenges have been shown to produce short-term testosterone increases that are similar to those produced naturally in response to social stimuli, repeatable in magnitude, and greater in males with more attractive ornaments. We correlated these testosterone increases with behavioral measures of mating and parental effort (aggressive response to a simulated territorial intrusion and nestling feeding, respectively). Males that showed higher postchallenge testosterone displayed more territorial behavior, and males that produced higher testosterone increases above initial levels displayed reduced parental behavior. Initial testosterone levels were positively but nonsignificantly correlated with aggression but did not predict parental behavior. These relationships suggest that natural variation in testosterone, specifically the production of short-term increases, may underlie individual variation in the mating effort/parental effort trade-off. We discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of hormonally mediated trade-offs. PMID:18171169

McGlothlin, Joel W; Jawor, Jodie M; Ketterson, Ellen D

2007-12-01

352

Prediction and synthesis efforts at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

One important aspect of an organic synthesis effort related to the development of new explosives, is the ability to estimate the properties of proposed molecules. In most cases, the detonation velocity and C-J pressure are estimated for the proposed explosive using any number of existing predictive methods. Novel explosives are being proposed, at Los Alamos and elsewhere, that are qualitatively different in their molecular makeup than most of the existing conventional ones. These explosives include, highly strained cage molecules, heterocyclic molecules, low hydrogen-containing molecules, and high nitrogen-containing molecules. This paper describes alternate ways of viewing detonation velocities and a new method for estimating detonation velocity of a proposed compound. 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Stine, J.R.; Coburn, M.D.

1988-01-01

353

The NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span over two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis (NCR) Effort. NCR consisted of 1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved using modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms, and 2) blending, where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. The results indicated major improvement over the previously available CZCS archive. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll.

Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.; OReilly, John E.; Patt, Frederick S.; Wang, Meng-Hua; Yoder, James; Casey-McCabe, Nancy; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

354

Two groups challenge US acid rain efforts  

SciTech Connect

In its report, Acid Rain Invades Our National Parks, the National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA) says acid rain is being detected at all 27 national park monitoring sites. In 1980, 87 national parks expressed concern in a NPCA survey over acid rain. Repolled in 1986, more than half of the respondents reported that no research on acid rain was under way. The NPCA report concludes that the alarm that was sounded in 1980 fell largely on deaf ears, and calls for the structural and scientific reorganization of the National Park Service. The National Audubon Society shares NPCA's dissatisfaction with federal efforts to tackle the problem of acid rain and has taken testing into its own hands. Through its Citizens Acid Rain Monitoring Network, Audubon volunteers have collected readings of acidity at 64 monitoring stations in 31 states since July.

Not Available

1987-11-01

355

NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts  

SciTech Connect

Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research.' While NREL maintains a robust patent portfolio, often companies are looking to do more than just license a technology. These relationships are invaluable in successfully moving technologies from NREL to the marketplace. 'We may generate new and potentially valuable innovations, but our commercialization partners do the heavy work of building a successful business around our technology,' Farris said. Tools such as CRADAs (Cooperative Research and Development Agreements) allow NREL to continue working with companies to refine and develop technologies. And, working with businesses is an area where NREL excels. NREL is responsible for one quarter of the CRADAs in the DOE system. 'When you look at the results of our CRADA program, you can demonstrate that we are actively engaged with companies in collaborating on research and moving technologies to market,' Farris said. NREL is first among DOE labs with 186 active CRADAs. And last year, NREL also was first with the number of new CRADAs signed. 'Part of the success in our working with industry goes back to NREL's mission to grow and support new industries,' Farris added. 'NREL has basic research capabilities, but we are never going to be the ultimate producer of a commercial product. That is the role of the private sector.' Farris also credits the advocacy and support that the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy at DOE provides for these technology transfer activities. 'EERE's support is critical to our success,' Farris said. To assist the private sector in moving a technology from the lab to the manufacturing line, NREL has a number of programs in place to give that first, or even final, nudge toward commercialization. For instance, the Commercialization Assistance Program helps startups overcome technical barriers by granting free access to 40 hours of work at the lab. Through the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Center, NREL also helps clean energy businesses develop strong links with the financial community, as well as other key stakeholders in the commercialization process. In March, NREL formally opened the Colorado Center for Renewable Ene

Lammers, H.

2012-02-01

356

Automatic and effortful processes in memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a framework for the conceptualization of a broad range of memory phenomena that integrates research on memory performance in young children, the elderly, and individuals under stress with research on memory performance in normal college students. One basic assumption is that encoding operations vary in their attentional requirements. Operations that drain minimal energy from limited-capacity attentional mechanisms are called

Lynn Hasher; Rose T. Zacks

1979-01-01

357

Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension  

PubMed Central

When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909

Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting

2013-01-01

358

New Mexico district work-effort analysis computer program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The computer program (CAN 2) described in this report is one of several related programs used in the New Mexico District cost-analysis system. The work-effort information used in these programs is accumulated and entered to the nearest hour on forms completed by each employee. Tabulating cards are punched directly from these forms after visual examinations for errors are made. Reports containing detailed work-effort data itemized by employee within each project and account and by account and project for each employee are prepared for both current-month and year-to-date periods by the CAN 2 computer program. An option allowing preparation of reports for a specified 3-month period is provided. The total number of hours worked on each account and project and a grand total of hours worked in the New Mexico District is computed and presented in a summary report for each period. Work effort not chargeable directly to individual projects or accounts is considered as overhead and can be apportioned to the individual accounts and projects on the basis of the ratio of the total hours of work effort for the individual accounts or projects to the total New Mexico District work effort at the option of the user. The hours of work performed by a particular section, such as General Investigations or Surface Water, are prorated and charged to the projects or accounts within the particular section. A number of surveillance or buffer accounts are employed to account for the hours worked on special events or on those parts of large projects or accounts that require a more detailed analysis. Any part of the New Mexico District operation can be separated and analyzed in detail by establishing an appropriate buffer account. With the exception of statements associated with word size, the computer program is written in FORTRAN IV in a relatively low and standard language level to facilitate its use on different digital computers. The program has been run only on a Control Data Corporation 6600 computer system. Central processing computer time has seldom exceeded 5 minutes on the longest year-to-date runs.

Hiss, W.L.; Trantolo, A.P.; Sparks, J.L.

1972-01-01

359

Seasonal modulation of reproductive effort during early pregnancy in humans.  

PubMed

Life history theory predicts that early pregnancy presents a relatively low cost, uncontested opportunity for a woman to terminate investment in a current reproductive opportunity if a conceptus is of poor quality and/or maternal status or environmental conditions are not propitious for a successful birth. We tested this hypothesis in rural Bolivian women experiencing substantial seasonal variation in workload and food resources. Significant risk factors for early pregnancy loss (EPL) included agropastoralism versus other economic strategies, conception during the most arduous seasons versus other seasons, and increasing maternal age. Anovulation rate (AR) was higher during the most arduous seasons and in older women. Breastfeeding and indicators of social status and living conditions did not significantly influence either risk of EPL or AR. Averaged over the year, anovulation occurred in about 1/4 of the cycles and EPL occurred in about 1/3 of the conceptions. This is the first evidence of seasonality of EPL in a non-industrialized population, and the first to demonstrate a relationship between economic activities and EPL. These findings suggest that both anovulation and EPL are potential mechanisms for modulating reproductive effort; such "failures" may also be nonadaptive consequences of conditions hostile to a successful pregnancy. In either case, variation in EPL risk associated with different subsistence activities can be expected to influence fertility levels and birth seasonality in both contemporary and past human populations. These consequences of variability in the risk of EPL can impact efforts to understand the sources of variation in reproductive success. PMID:19402035

Vitzthum, Virginia J; Thornburg, Jonathan; Spielvogel, Hilde

2009-01-01

360

Expectancy–Value Theory of Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the expectancy–value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy–value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest.

Allan Wigfield; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

2000-01-01

361

Nelson: management is a team effort.  

PubMed

Sally I. Nelson, CPA, is executive vice president, chief financial officer, and chief information officer for Texas Children's Hospital in Houston, the largest freestanding pediatric hospital in the United States. It is a part of Texas Children's Hospital and Integrated Delivery System (TCH IDS). Before joining the organization in 1986, Nelson served as a senior manager in the computer services consulting practice of KPMG Peat Marwick-Houston. Nelson recently was named a finalist in CFO magazine's national 2001 CFO Excellence Awards, the first CFO of a not-for-profit organization to be named a finalist since not-for-profits became eligible for the awards. She was cited for her accomplishments in managing expectations and relationships with the community and its leaders, government officials, Baylor College of Medicine, physicians, patients' families, hospital personnel, trustees of the hospital, and investors. PMID:11715378

Nelson, S I

2001-11-01

362

NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the advanced boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the advanced boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO), opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable advanced booster that meets the SLS performance requirements. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss, for the first time publicly, the contract awards and how NASA intends to use the data from these efforts to prepare for the planned advanced booster DDT&E acquisition as the SLS Program moves forward with competitively procured affordable performance enhancements.

Crumbly, Christopher M.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; May, Todd A.

2012-01-01

363

NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and Risk Reduction Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, and its stated intent was to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the Advanced Boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the Advanced Boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit, opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the SLS performance requirements. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an Advanced Booster. This paper will discuss, for the first time publicly, the contract awards and how NASA intends to use the data from these efforts to prepare for the planned Advanced Booster DDT&E acquisition as the SLS Program moves forward with competitively procured affordable performance enhancements.

Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd; Dumbacher, Daniel

2012-01-01

364

The Influence of Task Value, Expectancies for Success, and Identity on Athletes' Achievement Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extended and supported the use of Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value model to a competitive sport context. High school varsity basketball players (N = 189) were assessed on expectancies for success, interest value, attainment value, utility value, and basketball identity. Achievement behavior was measured as coaches't ratings of players' effort and persistence displayed throughout the season. Significant differences

ANNE E. COX; DIANE E. WHALEY

2004-01-01

365

Generalized Expectancies for Internal Versus External Control of Reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of reward or reinforcement on preceding behavior depend in part on whether the person perceives the reward as contingent on his own behavior or independent of it. Acquisition and performance differ in situations perceived as determined by skill versus chance. Persons may also differ in generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. This report summarizes several

Julian B. Rotter

1966-01-01

366

Effects of Help, Anonymity, and Privacy on Children's Academic Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of three aspects of the testing context--physical privacy, anonymity, and offers of help from a tester--on children's expectations. Performance of 96 11-year-old boys and girls on a pictorial recall memory task in a simulated test was evaluated. The subjects were divided into eight different groups varying on the…

Bird, Lisa

367

The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

2013-01-01

368

Getting to Parallel: Assessing the Return on Expectations of Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Companies are scrutinizing resources they allocate to performance programs and are asking questions like: "What is the value?" and "How do you know?" This article advocates for an increased focus on the return on expectations (ROE) via evidence of the three Cs: consensus, correspondence, and consistency. (Author/AEF)

McLinden, Daniel; Trochim, William M. K.

1998-01-01

369

A Reservoir Sampling Algorithm with Adaptive Estimation of Conditional Expectation  

E-print Network

A Reservoir Sampling Algorithm with Adaptive Estimation of Conditional Expectation Vuk Malbasa reservoir- based approaches perform well in this situation. One drawback of these approaches is that the examples not included in the final reservoir are often ignored. To remedy this situation we propose

Vucetic, Slobodan

370

Perceptions of Teacher Expectations by African American High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American high school students are performing behind their White classmates regardless of whether they are in majority or minority populations at school. Teacher expectations, among school-related factors that can impact the academic achievement of African American high school students, are the focus of this study. Interviews were conducted…

Pringle, Beverley E.; Lyons, James E.; Booker, Keonya C.

2010-01-01

371

Disconnections between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…

Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy

2008-01-01

372

Prescription stimulant expectancies in recreational and medical users: results from a preliminary expectancy questionnaire.  

PubMed

Given the rise of prescription stimulant misuse, examination of effect expectancies could prove helpful. The Prescription Stimulant Expectancy Questionnaire (PSEQ) was designed to explore positive and negative prescription stimulant-related expectancies. In 2006, 157 participants nationwide completed an Internet survey of prescription stimulant use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and expectancies. Multiple regressions demonstrate that positive, but not negative expectancies, predicted frequency of use. Recreational and medical users were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. Recreational users reported fewer positive and negative expectancies than medical users. Implications and limitations are discussed. Future research is warranted on prescription stimulant expectancies and the utility of the PSEQ. PMID:19938932

Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

2009-01-01

373

Effortless Effort in Bone Regeneration: A Review  

PubMed Central

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of osteoconduction in bony changes in the oral cavity showed a wide range of biomaterials and their osteoinductive potential that emerged gradually and has to a large extent improved the quality of the bone prior to the placement of an implant. Alveolar bone loss is a major concern after tooth extraction in patients and therefore atraumatic extraction procedures should be followed to avoid further bone loss. To overcome the alveolar bone loss and to augment support for placing dental implants, many bone regenerative substitutes are available such as allografts, autografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials and osteoactive agents. In light of the steady progress in bone grafting techniques and graft materials, it has become possible to improve the volume, width, and height of bone in deficient areas of the oral cavity. These advances in regenerative dentistry thus facilitate an easy and convenient placement of an implant in an ideal position and angulations resulting in superior esthetics and function. Bone grafting materials and their substitutes are the alternative filler materials, which facilitate to reduce additional surgical procedures, risks, chances of cross infection involved in placing autografts and allografts into the bony structures. This review literature highlights various biomaterials that are helpful in bone healing and thus create an anatomically favorable base for ideal implant placement. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Dole V, Nikam A. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):120-4. PMID:25083047

Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Dole, Vinaykumar; Nikam, Akhilesh

2014-01-01

374

Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.  

PubMed

Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

2011-11-12

375

Gender differences in healthy life expectancy among Brazilian elderly  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined gender differences in healthy life expectancy (HLE) and unhealthy life expectancy (UHLE) among people aged 60 years or older living in a large Brazilian city. Methods Based on Chiang method, abridged life tables were constructed for men and for women. To calculate HLE, the Sullivan method was applied. Estimates of the prevalence of self-rated health and self-reported functional disability (global, mild/moderate, and severe) were obtained from a population-based household survey carried out in 2008, which involved non-institutionalized individuals. Results Findings showed that women live longer and these extra years would be spent in good self-rated health. For example, women aged 60 would live, on average, 4 more years in good health in comparison to men. In terms of global limitations and mild/moderate limitations, no gender differences were detected for HLE. However, UHLE was statistically higher among women than among men at all ages in the global limitations and mild/moderate limitations (except for the age 80). Women at age 60, for instance, could expect to live 3.1 years longer with mild/moderate limitations compared to men. Gender differences were identified for severe limitations for either HLE or UHLE. In comparison to men, women at age 60, for example, would expect to live 2.5 and 2.0 more years without and with severe limitations. Conclusions By showing that the advantage of longer life expectancy among women is not necessarily accompanied by worse health conditions, these findings add some evidence to the debate about male-female health-survival paradox. Policy efforts are necessary to reduce gender differences in the quantity and quality of years to be lived, providing equal opportunities to women and men live longer with quality of life, autonomy, and independence. PMID:24906547

2014-01-01

376

Treatment expectations for CAM interventions in pediatric chronic pain patients and their parents.  

PubMed

Patient expectations regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions have important implications for treatment adherence, attrition and clinical outcome. Little is known, however, about parent and child treatment expectations regarding CAM approaches for pediatric chronic pain problems. The present study examined ratings of the expected benefits of CAM (i.e. hypnosis, massage, acupuncture, yoga and relaxation) and conventional medicine (i.e. medications, surgery) interventions in 45 children (32 girls; mean age = 13.8 years +/- 2.5) and parents (39 mothers) presenting for treatment at a specialty clinic for chronic pediatric pain. Among children, medications and relaxation were expected to be significantly more helpful than the remaining approaches (P < 0.01). However, children expected the three lowest rated interventions, acupuncture, surgery and hypnosis, to be of equal benefit. Results among parents were similar to those found in children but there were fewer significant differences between ratings of the various interventions. Only surgery was expected by parents to be significantly less helpful than the other approaches (P < 0.01). When parent and child perceptions were compared, parents expected hypnosis, acupuncture and yoga, to be more beneficial than did children, whereas children expected surgery to be more helpful than did parents (P < 0.01). Overall, children expected the benefits of CAM to be fairly low with parents' expectations only somewhat more positive. The current findings suggest that educational efforts directed at enhancing treatment expectations regarding CAM, particularly among children with chronic pain, are warranted. PMID:16322810

Tsao, Jennie C I; Meldrum, Marcia; Bursch, Brenda; Jacob, Margaret C; Kim, Su C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

2005-12-01

377

Probing for the Multiplicative Term in Modern Expectancy–Value Theory: A Latent Interaction Modeling Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern expectancy–value theory (EVT) in educational psychology, expectancy and value beliefs additively predict performance, persistence, and task choice. In contrast to earlier formulations of EVT, the multiplicative term Expectancy × Value in regression-type models typically plays no major role in educational psychology. The present study used latent moderated structural equation modeling to explore whether there is empirical support for

Ulrich Trautwein; Herbert W. Marsh; Benjamin Nagengast; Oliver Lüdtke; Gabriel Nagy; Kathrin Jonkmann

2012-01-01

378

Probing for the Multiplicative Term in Modern Expectancy-Value Theory: A Latent Interaction Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In modern expectancy-value theory (EVT) in educational psychology, expectancy and value beliefs additively predict performance, persistence, and task choice. In contrast to earlier formulations of EVT, the multiplicative term Expectancy x Value in regression-type models typically plays no major role in educational psychology. The present study…

Trautwein, Ulrich; Marsh, Herbert W.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagy, Gabriel; Jonkmann, Kathrin

2012-01-01

379

Effect of Students' After-School Activities on Teachers' Academic Expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher expectancies can have an impact on students' academic achievement. These expectancies can be based on diverse student characteristics, only one of which is past academic performance. The present study investigated three student individual differences that teachers may use when forming academic expectancies: the sex of the student, the family socioeconomic status (SES) of the student, and the student's after-school

Jill C. Van Matre; Jeffrey C. Valentine; Harris Cooper

2000-01-01

380

Linking Black Middle School Students' Perceptions of Teachers' Expectations to Academic Engagement and Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' expectations are consistent predictors of performance outcomes for elementary, middle, and secondary students. However, the literature is not as clear in articulating exactly how teacher expectations influence such outcomes. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine whether perceptions of teachers' expectations are predictive of…

Tyler, Kenneth M.; Boelter, Christina M.

2008-01-01

381

Student perceptions of differential teacher treatment as moderators of teacher expectation effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested, in 2 studies, a student mediation model of teacher expectation effects that proposes that students acquire information about their abilities by observing the differential teacher treatment accorded high and low achievers. They then revise their own achievement expectations and subsequently perform according to the expectations perceived. Student perceptions of teacher treatment toward hypothetical high and low achievers were used

Karen A. Brattesani; Rhona S. Weinstein; Hermine H. Marshall

1984-01-01

382

Expectations Increase as VLT First Light Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two weeks before the moment of "First Light" of Unit Telescope no. 1 of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) , the ESO Team at the Paranal Observatory reports good progress of the preparatory work. The crucial optimization of the world's first, thin 8.2-metre mirror proceeds according to the established plan. It is thus expected that this important event will take place as foreseen, i.e. during the night of May 25-26, 1998 . If no unforeseen obstacles are encountered, the first scientific images will then be presented during a series of near-simultaneous Press Conferences in the ESO member countries on May 27 . The photos will be published on the WWW the same day, together with explanatory texts. In preliminary optical tests at the first VLT Unit Telescope (UT1), the initial adjustment of the active optics system that controls the telescope optics has demonstrated excellent results. In particular, the first tests have verified the fine optical performance of the 8.2-m primary mirror and of the complex control system that maintains the shape of this thin and flexible Zerodur mirror. In short test exposures with the guide probe (the technical device that is used to steer the telescope) - i.e., not yet with the scientific CCD-camera that will be used for the First Light images - the telescope has been following the external seeing provided by the Paranal site. Image quality of better than 0.5 arcsec has been achieved routinely. "We are pleased with the progress and confident that the telescope will live up to the expectations", says Riccardo Giacconi , Director General of ESO. "The team at Paranal is doing a great job." For more details about the various media activities surrounding the VLT First Light event, please consult the First Light homepage. A list of locations, times and contact addresses for the Press Conferences is available on the web. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

1998-05-01

383

Using expectations to monitor robotic progress and recover from problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How does a robot know when something goes wrong? Our research answers this question by leveraging expectations - predictions about the immediate future - and using the mismatch between the expectations and the external world to monitor the robot's progress. We use the cognitive architecture ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought - Rational) to learn the associations between the current state of the robot and the world, the action to be performed in the world, and the future state of the world. These associations are used to generate expectations that are then matched by the architecture with the next state of the world. A significant mismatch between these expectations and the actual state of the world indicate a problem possibly resulting from unexpected consequences of the robot's actions, unforeseen changes in the environment or unanticipated actions of other agents. When a problem is detected, the recovery model can suggest a number of recovery options. If the situation is unknown, that is, the mismatch between expectations and the world is novel, the robot can use a recovery solution from a set of heuristic options. When a recovery option is successfully applied, the robot learns to associate that recovery option with the mismatch. When the same problem is encountered later, the robot can apply the learned recovery solution rather than using the heuristics or randomly exploring the space of recovery solutions. We present results from execution monitoring and recovery performed during an assessment conducted at the Combined Arms Collective Training Facility (CACTF) at Fort Indiantown Gap.

Kurup, Unmesh; Lebiere, Christian; Stentz, Anthony; Hebert, Martial

2013-05-01

384

Complementary roles of different oscillatory activities in the subthalamic nucleus in coding motor effort in Parkinsonism.  

PubMed

The basal ganglia may play an important role in the control of motor scaling or effort. Recently local field potential (LFP) recordings from patients with deep brain stimulation electrodes in the basal ganglia have suggested that local increases in the synchronisation of neurons in the gamma frequency band may correlate with force or effort. Whether this feature uniquely codes for effort and whether such a coding mechanism holds true over a range of efforts is unclear. Here we investigated the relationship between frequency-specific oscillatory activities in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and manual grips made with different efforts. The latter were self-rated using the 10 level Borg scale ranging from 0 (no effort) to 10 (maximal effort). STN LFP activities were recorded in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) who had undergone functional surgery. Patients were studied while motor performance was improved by dopaminergic medication. In line with previous studies we observed power increase in the theta/alpha band (4-12 Hz), power suppression in the beta band (13-30 Hz) and power increase in the gamma band (55-90 Hz) and high frequency band (101-375 Hz) during voluntary grips. Beta suppression deepened, and then reached a floor level as effort increased. Conversely, gamma and high frequency power increases were enhanced during grips made with greater effort. Multiple regression models incorporating the four different spectral changes confirmed that the modulation of power in the beta band was the only independent predictor of effort during grips made with efforts rated <5. In contrast, increases in gamma band activity were the only independent predictor of effort during grips made with efforts ?5. Accordingly, the difference between power changes in the gamma and beta bands correlated with effort across all effort levels. These findings suggest complementary roles for changes in beta and gamma band activities in the STN in motor effort coding. The latter function is thought to be impaired in untreated PD where task-related reactivity in these two bands is deficient. PMID:23778147

Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Anzak, Anam; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Bogdanovic, Marko; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter

2013-10-01

385

Teacher Expectations and the Able Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two middle school teachers and two students in each of the teacher's classes were assessed for field dependence-independence (FDI). The teachers were interviewed about their students. Found that one teacher had higher expectations and one had lower expectations for the student who had the same FDI orientation as the teacher than for the student…

Lee-Corbin, Hilary

1994-01-01

386

Sexually deviant behavior in expectant fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 91 expectant fathers examined in a court psychiatric clinic is compared with a group of 91 nonexpectant married males equated for age, race, and yr. of arrest. The hypothesis that sexually deviant reactions are more frequent in expectant fathers is statistically substantiated. Other findings are reported and discussed including the frequent occurrence of sexual offenses during the

A. Arthur Hartman; Robert C. Nicolay

1966-01-01

387

Expected utility theory without the completeness axiom  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of obtaining an expected utility representation for a potentially incomplete preference relation over lotteries by means of a set of von Neumann–Morgenstern utility functions. It is shown that, when the prize space is a compact metric space, a preference relation admits such a multi-utility representation provided that it satisfies the standard axioms of expected utility theory.

Juan Dubra; Fabio Maccheroni; Efe A. Ok

2004-01-01

388

Framing expectations in early HIV cure research  

PubMed Central

Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term ‘experiment’. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit. PMID:25280965

Dubé, Karine; Henderson, Gail E.; Margolis, David M.

2014-01-01

389

Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

2012-01-01

390

Course Expectations and Career Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…

Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben

2008-01-01

391

Expectations and the Black Market Premium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of the black market premium--the percentage differential between the black market and the official exchange rate. Tests are used to see whether the black market premium responds to variations in expectations about the official exchange rate in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. Expectations of devaluation do cause movements in

Susan Pozo; Mark Wheeler

1999-01-01

392

EXPECT: Intelligent Support for Knowledge Base Refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective knowledge acquisition amounts to having good sources of expectations that can provide guidance about what knowledge needs to be acquired from users. Current approaches to knowledge acquisition often rely on strong models of the problem-solving method used in the task domain to form expectations. These methods are often implicit in the tool, which is a strong limitation for their

Cécile Paris; Yolanda Gil

1993-01-01

393

Framing expectations in early HIV cure research.  

PubMed

Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term 'experiment'. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit. PMID:25280965

Dubé, Karine; Henderson, Gail E; Margolis, David M

2014-10-01

394

Expectations of Vocational Teachers for Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined three components of the initial expectations of 66 secondary vocational teachers toward mainstreamed educable mentally retarded and learning disabled children. Among findings was that presence of the labels lowered the initial academic and behavioral expectations of teachers in the sample. (SB)

Minner, Sam

1982-01-01

395

Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 MISSION DESCRIPTION/EXPECTATIONS/STATEMENT OF WORK  

E-print Network

/EXPECTATIONS/STATEMENT OF WORK TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE NO. C.1 ­ INTRODUCTION C-1 C.2 ­ IMPLEMENTATION OF DOE'S MISSION FOR PPPL C.2 Performance Evaluation Expectations C-5 C.3.3 Performance Objectives and Measures C-8 C.4 - STATEMENT OF WORK MISSION DESCRIPTION/EXPECTATIONS/WORK STATEMENT C.1 ­ INTRODUCTION This Performance-Based Management

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

396

Database development in toxicogenomics: issues and efforts.  

PubMed

The marriage of toxicology and genomics has created not only opportunities but also novel informatics challenges. As with the larger field of gene expression analysis, toxicogenomics faces the problems of probe annotation and data comparison across different array platforms. Toxicogenomics studies are generally built on standard toxicology studies generating biological end point data, and as such, one goal of toxicogenomics is to detect relationships between changes in gene expression and in those biological parameters. These challenges are best addressed through data collection into a well-designed toxicogenomics database. A successful publicly accessible toxicogenomics database will serve as a repository for data sharing and as a resource for analysis, data mining, and discussion. It will offer a vehicle for harmonizing nomenclature and analytical approaches and serve as a reference for regulatory organizations to evaluate toxicogenomics data submitted as part of registrations. Such a database would capture the experimental context of in vivo studies with great fidelity such that the dynamics of the dose response could be probed statistically with confidence. This review presents the collaborative efforts between the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute ArrayExpress, the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Science Institute, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Center for Toxigenomics Chemical Effects in Biological Systems knowledge base. The goal of this collaboration is to establish public infrastructure on an international scale and examine other developments aimed at establishing toxicogenomics databases. In this review we discuss several issues common to such databases: the requirement for identifying minimal descriptors to represent the experiment, the demand for standardizing data storage and exchange formats, the challenge of creating standardized nomenclature and ontologies to describe biological data, the technical problems involved in data upload, the necessity of defining parameters that assess and record data quality, and the development of standardized analytical approaches. PMID:15033600

Mattes, William B; Pettit, Syril D; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Bushel, Pierre R; Waters, Michael D

2004-03-01

397

Database development in toxicogenomics: issues and efforts.  

PubMed Central

The marriage of toxicology and genomics has created not only opportunities but also novel informatics challenges. As with the larger field of gene expression analysis, toxicogenomics faces the problems of probe annotation and data comparison across different array platforms. Toxicogenomics studies are generally built on standard toxicology studies generating biological end point data, and as such, one goal of toxicogenomics is to detect relationships between changes in gene expression and in those biological parameters. These challenges are best addressed through data collection into a well-designed toxicogenomics database. A successful publicly accessible toxicogenomics database will serve as a repository for data sharing and as a resource for analysis, data mining, and discussion. It will offer a vehicle for harmonizing nomenclature and analytical approaches and serve as a reference for regulatory organizations to evaluate toxicogenomics data submitted as part of registrations. Such a database would capture the experimental context of in vivo studies with great fidelity such that the dynamics of the dose response could be probed statistically with confidence. This review presents the collaborative efforts between the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute ArrayExpress, the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Science Institute, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Center for Toxigenomics Chemical Effects in Biological Systems knowledge base. The goal of this collaboration is to establish public infrastructure on an international scale and examine other developments aimed at establishing toxicogenomics databases. In this review we discuss several issues common to such databases: the requirement for identifying minimal descriptors to represent the experiment, the demand for standardizing data storage and exchange formats, the challenge of creating standardized nomenclature and ontologies to describe biological data, the technical problems involved in data upload, the necessity of defining parameters that assess and record data quality, and the development of standardized analytical approaches. PMID:15033600

Mattes, William B; Pettit, Syril D; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Bushel, Pierre R; Waters, Michael D

2004-01-01

398

The global financial crisis and health: scaling up our effort.  

PubMed

Economic events of the past year are beginning to create hardships for tens of thousands of Canadians. There are likely to be health effects as well, to the extent that unemployment and poverty rates rise. Conditions, however, will be much worse for those living in poorer countries. High-income countries are committing trillions of dollars in countercyclical spending and banking bail-outs. Poorer countries need to do the same, but lack the resources to do so. Yet foreign aid and fairer trade are widely expected to be among the first high-income country victims of the recession fallout as nations turn inwards and protectionist. This is neither good for global health nor necessary given the scale of untaxed (or unfairly taxed) wealth that could be harnessed for a truly global rescue package. Policy choices confront us. The Canadian public health community must hold our political leadership accountable for making those choices that will improve health globally and not further imperil the well-being of much of the world's population in efforts to secure our own future economic revival. PMID:19507716

Labonté, Ronald

2009-01-01

399

Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs: The GPRA Metrics Effort  

SciTech Connect

The requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993 mandate the reporting of outcomes expected to result from programs of the Federal government. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops official metrics for its 11 major programs using its Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis (OPBFA). OPBFA conducts an annual integrated modeling analysis to produce estimates of the energy, environmental, and financial benefits expected from EERE’s budget request. Two of EERE’s major programs include the Building Technologies Program (BT) and Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the OPBFA effort by developing the program characterizations and other market information affecting these programs that is necessary to provide input to the EERE integrated modeling analysis. Throughout the report we refer to these programs as “buildings-related” programs, because the approach is not limited in application to BT or WIP. To adequately support OPBFA in the development of official GPRA metrics, PNNL communicates with the various activities and projects in BT and WIP to determine how best to characterize their activities planned for the upcoming budget request. PNNL then analyzes these projects to determine what the results of the characterizations would imply for energy markets, technology markets, and consumer behavior. This is accomplished by developing nonintegrated estimates of energy, environmental, and financial benefits (i.e., outcomes) of the technologies and practices expected to result from the budget request. These characterizations and nonintegrated modeling results are provided to OPBFA as inputs to the official benefits estimates developed for the Federal Budget. This report documents the approach and methodology used to estimate future energy, environmental, and financial benefits produced by technologies and practices supported by BT and by WIP. However, the approach is general enough for analysis of buildings-related technologies, independent of any specific program. An overview describes the GPRA process and the models used to estimate energy savings. The body of the document describes the algorithms used and the diffusion curve estimates.

Elliott, Douglas B.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Hostick, Donna J.

2004-06-18

400

Merit-Based Scholarships and Student Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-one states offer merit scholarships that require students to maintain a minimum grade point average (GPA). Using a comprehensive administrative database from Clemson University, this study estimates the relationship between the incentives created by a South Carolina merit scholarship (LIFE) and students' academic performance. I hypothesize…

Hernandez-Julian, Rey

2010-01-01

401

Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

Ashcroft, John [Space Energy Conversion, Lockheed Martin KAPL Inc. (United States); Eshelman, Curtis [Space Reactor Engineering, Bechtel Bettis Inc. (United States)

2007-01-30

402

Customer relations data aids marketing efforts.  

PubMed

A customer relations information system can help improve a hospital's marketing performance. With such a system, the author writes, a medical center can easily redirect its information systems away from the traditional transaction-oriented approach toward the building of long-lasting relationship with customers. PMID:10288556

Werronen, H J

1988-08-01

403

Cost/Effort Drivers and Decision Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering trade study analyses demand consideration of performance, cost and schedule impacts across the spectrum of alternative concepts and in direct reference to product requirements. Prior to detailed design, requirements are too often ill-defined (only goals ) and prone to creep, extending well beyond the Systems Requirements Review. Though lack of engineering design and definitive requirements inhibit the ability to perform detailed cost analyses, affordability trades still comprise the foundation of these future product decisions and must evolve in concert. This presentation excerpts results of the recent NASA subsonic Engine Concept Study for an Advanced Single Aisle Transport to demonstrate an affordability evaluation of performance characteristics and the subsequent impacts on engine architecture decisions. Applying the Process Based Economic Analysis Tool (PBEAT), development cost, production cost, as well as operation and support costs were considered in a traditional weighted ranking of the following system-level figures of merit: mission fuel burn, take-off noise, NOx emissions, and cruise speed. Weighting factors were varied to ascertain the architecture ranking sensitivities to these performance figures of merit with companion cost considerations. A more detailed examination of supersonic variable cycle engine cost is also briefly presented, with observations and recommendations for further refinements.

Seidel, Jonathan

2010-01-01

404

Evidence of Conjoint Activation of the Anterior Insular and Cingulate Cortices during Effortful Tasks  

PubMed Central

The ability to perform effortful tasks is a topic that has received considerable interest in the research of higher functions of the human brain. Neuroimaging studies show that the anterior insular and the anterior cingulate cortices are involved in a multitude of cognitive tasks that require mental effort. In this study, we investigated brain responses to effort using cognitive tasks with task-difficulty modulations and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that effortful performance involves modulation of activation in the anterior insular and the anterior cingulate cortices, and that the modulation correlates with individual performance levels. Healthy participants performed tasks probing verbal working memory capacity using the reading span task, and visual perception speed using the inspection time task. In the fMRI analysis, we focused on identifying effort-related brain activation. The results showed that working memory and inspection time performances were directly related. The bilateral anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortices showed significantly increased activation during each task with common portions that were active across both tasks. We observed increased brain activation in the right anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex in participants with low working memory performance. In line with the reported results, we suggest that activation in the anterior insular and cingulate cortices is consistent with the neural efficiency hypothesis (Neubauer). PMID:25674057

Engström, Maria; Karlsson, Thomas; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Craig, A. D. (Bud)

2015-01-01

405

Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born females, and immigrant females on their scores on teacher-assigned grades in science and on the SAIP science literacy test, and across a range of dispositions, beliefs, and behaviors suggested in the literature as predictive of achievement in science. Study findings show that Canadian-born students, particularly boys, have higher performance in the science literacy test despite their lower achievement in the science classroom and the least investments of time in doing science homework. In contrast, immigrant female students demonstrate the highest academic effort and achievement in science courses which are not matched by similar results in the science literacy test. We discuss these results in relation to different socialization experiences with science and technology that limit female and immigrant students' abilities to transfer knowledge to new situations that have not been learned in the classroom.

Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

2013-12-01

406

Masked first name priming increases effort-related cardiovascular reactivity.  

PubMed

Recent research on motivational intensity has shown that explicit manipulations of self-focused attention (e.g., mirrors and video cameras) increase effort-related cardiovascular responses during active coping. An experiment examined whether masked first name priming, an implicit manipulation of self-focused attention, had similar effects. Participants (n=52 young adults) performed a self-paced cognitive task, in which they were told to get as many trials correct as possible within 5min. During the task, the participant's first name was primed for 0%, 33%, 67%, or 100% of the trials. First name priming, regardless of its frequency, significantly increased cardiovascular reactivity, particularly systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity. Furthermore, the priming manipulation interacted with individual differences in trait self-focus: trait self-focus predicted higher SBP reactivity in the 0% condition, but first name priming eliminated the effects of individual differences. Implications for self-awareness research and for the emerging interest in priming effects on effort are considered. PMID:21439332

Silvia, Paul J; Jones, Hannah C; Kelly, Casey S; Zibaie, Alireza

2011-06-01

407

Predicting Homework Effort: Support for a Domain-Specific, Multilevel Homework Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the domain-specific, multilevel homework model proposed in the present study, students' homework effort is influenced by expectancy and value beliefs, homework characteristics, parental homework behavior, and conscientiousness. The authors used structural equation modeling and hierarchical linear modeling analyses to test the model in 2 studies with 414 and 1,501 8th graders, respectively. In line with the authors' assumptions,

Ulrich Trautwein; Oliver Lüdtke; Inge Schnyder; Alois Niggli

2006-01-01

408

Interaction of post-stroke voluntary effort and functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation  

PubMed Central

Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) may be able to augment functional arm and hand movement after stroke. Post-stroke neuroprostheses that incorporate voluntary effort and FES to produce the desired movement need to consider how the forces generated by voluntary effort and FES combine together, even in the same muscle, in order to provide an appropriate level of stimulation to elicit the desired assistive force. The goal of this study was to determine if the force produced by voluntary effort and FES add together independently of effort, or if the increment in force is dependent on the level of voluntary effort. Isometric force matching tasks were performed under different combinations of voluntary effort and electrical stimulation. Participants reached a steady level of force and while attempting to maintain a constant effort level, FES was applied to augment the force. Results indicate that the increment in force produced by FES decreases as the level of initial voluntary effort increases. Potential mechanisms causing the change in force output are proposed, but the relative contribution of each mechanism is unknown. PMID:23516086

Makowski, Nathaniel; Knutson, Jayme; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick

2012-01-01

409

Informal payments and health worker effort: a quantitative study from Tanzania.  

PubMed

Informal payments-payments made from patients to health personnel in excess of official fees--are widespread in low-income countries. It is not obvious how such payments affect health worker effort. On the one hand, one could argue that because informal payments resemble formal pay for performance schemes, they will incite higher effort in the health sector. On the other hand, health personnel may strategically adjust their base effort downwards to maximise patients' willingness to pay informally for extra services. To explore the relationship between informal payments and health worker effort, we use a unique data set from Tanzania with over 2000 observations on the performance of 156 health workers. Patient data on informal payments are used to assess the likelihood that a particular health worker accepts informal payment. We find that health workers who likely accept payments do not exert higher average effort. They do however have a higher variability in the effort they exert to different patients. These health workers are also less sensitive to the medical condition of the patient. A likely explanation for these findings is that health workers engage in rent seeking and lower baseline effort to induce patients to pay. PMID:23188621

Lindkvist, Ida

2013-10-01

410

Systems engineering approach towards performance monitoring of emergency diesel generator  

SciTech Connect

Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. In this study, systems engineering approach towards the performance monitoring of Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) is presented. Performance monitoring is part and parcel of predictive maintenance where the systems and components conditions can be detected before they result into failures. In an effort to identify the proposal for addressing performance monitoring, the EDG boundary has been defined. Based on the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) results and industry operating experiences, the most critical component is identified. This paper proposed a systems engineering concept development framework towards EDG performance monitoring. The expected output of this study is that the EDG reliability can be improved by the performance monitoring alternatives through the systems engineering concept development effort.

Ramli, Nurhayati, E-mail: nurhayati14@gmail.com; Yong-kwan, Lee, E-mail: nurhayati14@gmail.com [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, 1456-1 Shinam-ri, Ulsan 689-882 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-12

411

Systems engineering approach towards performance monitoring of emergency diesel generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. In this study, systems engineering approach towards the performance monitoring of Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) is presented. Performance monitoring is part and parcel of predictive maintenance where the systems and components conditions can be detected before they result into failures. In an effort to identify the proposal for addressing performance monitoring, the EDG boundary has been defined. Based on the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) results and industry operating experiences, the most critical component is identified. This paper proposed a systems engineering concept development framework towards EDG performance monitoring. The expected output of this study is that the EDG reliability can be improved by the performance monitoring alternatives through the systems engineering concept development effort.

Ramli, Nurhayati; Yong-kwan, Lee

2014-02-01

412

Expected degree for RNA secondary structure networks.  

PubMed

Consider the network of all secondary structures of a given RNA sequence, where nodes are connected when the corresponding structures have base pair distance one. The expected degree of the network is the average number of neighbors, where average may be computed with respect to the either the uniform or Boltzmann probability. Here, we describe the first algorithm, RNAexpNumNbors, that can compute the expected number of neighbors, or expected network degree, of an input sequence. For RNA sequences from the Rfam database, the expected degree is significantly less than the constrained minimum free energy structure, defined to have minimum free energy (MFE) over all structures consistent with the Rfam consensus structure. The expected degree of structural RNAs, such as purine riboswitches, paradoxically appears to be smaller than that of random RNA, yet the difference between the degree of the MFE structure and the expected degree is larger than that of random RNA. Expected degree does not seem to correlate with standard structural diversity measures of RNA, such as positional entropy and ensemble defect. The program RNAexpNumNbors is written in C, runs in cubic time and quadratic space, and is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNAexpNumNbors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25382310

Clote, Peter

2015-01-15

413

Policy expectations and reality of telemedicine - a critical analysis of health care outcomes, costs and acceptance for congestive heart failure.  

PubMed

A critical review of evidence was carried out to discover whether the actual performance of telemedicine fulfils the expectations of German policy-makers. The analysis was conducted using the example of telemedicine for congestive heart failure (CHF). It was based on both German and international evidence. The PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library databases were searched, as well as public sources from the German Federal Ministry of Health. Forty-five studies reporting patient outcomes, costs or acceptance of telemedicine for CHF were included in the review, of which 28 were interventional. The policy expectations of telemedicine generally are: high technology acceptance and improved patient outcomes at lower costs. However, in the field of CHF, policy-makers underestimate the complexity of telemedicine and the technology has not yet lived up to its expectations. Although some studies show improvements in all-cause mortality and CHF-related hospitalisations, there is excessive study heterogeneity and vagueness in the areas of costs and acceptance. Methodological insufficiencies as well as the scarcity of evidence in the German context do not allow definite conclusions to be drawn. Policy-makers and other stakeholders should increase their efforts to consolidate isolated telemedicine projects, establish guidelines for clinical treatment procedures and economic evaluations, and define industry/technical device standards to enhance the comparability of interventions. Imposing the use of telemedicine on patients and physicians is not likely to be fruitful. A successful adaptation requires an analysis of needs and continuous education on both sides. PMID:24803273

Achelrod, Dmitrij

2014-05-01

414

Classroom and developmental differences in a path model of teacher expectancy effects.  

PubMed

A path model of teacher expectancy effects was evaluated in a sample of 376 first- through fifth-grade urban elementary school children. The roles of two moderators (classroom perceived differential treatment environment and developmental differences) and one mediator (children's self-expectations) of teacher expectancy effects on children's year-end achievement were examined. Significant differences in effects and effect sizes are presented. Both classroom environment (high versus low in differential treatment, as seen through children's eyes) and developmental differences moderated the strength of teacher expectancy effects. Generally, stronger effects were found in classrooms in which expectancy-related cues were more salient to children, but developmental differences moderated which effect was most pronounced. A significant age-related decline in direct effects on ending achievement was interpreted as evidence that teacher expectations may tend to magnify achievement differences in the early grades, but serve to sustain them in later grades. Support for indirect effects (teacher expectations --> children's self-expectations --> ending achievement) was limited to upper elementary grade classrooms perceived as high in differential treatment. In contrast to prior research that emphasized small effect sizes, the present analyses document several instances of moderate effects, primarily in classrooms in which expectancy-related messages were most salient to children. These results underscore the importance of explicit attention to the inclusion of moderators, mediators, and multiple outcomes in efforts to understand teacher expectancy effects. PMID:11699687

Kuklinski, M R; Weinstein, R S

2001-01-01

415

Ability attribution as a result of variable effort and achievement motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Required 96 community college students to work on 2 tasks with high or low effort and with feedback that indicated successful or average performances on each task. A predicted 3-way interaction showed that high-need achievers (indicated by scores on the Revised and Condensed Achievement Scale) increased judgments of their abilities in response to effortful task success, whereas low-need achievers increased

John C. Touhey; Wayne J. Villemez

1980-01-01

416

A Study on the Utility of Using Expected Quality Level as a Design for Testability Metric  

E-print Network

of shipped circuits that are fault­ free. Traditional approaches to improving quality level have focused testability. Be­ cause the improvement of quality level is the goal of any testing effort, quality levelA Study on the Utility of Using Expected Quality Level as a Design for Testability Metric Douglas

Larrabee, Tracy

417

Obstacles to DisinflationWhat Is the Role of Fiscal Expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is backward-looking behavior in pricing or imperfect credibility of stabilization efforts responsible for the failure of inflation rates to decline to targeted levels during many disinflation programs? This paper assesses the relative importance of these two factors during a number of disinflation attempts in developing and transition economies. Using survey data, we find that expectations of future inflation play a

Oya Celasun; R. Gaston Gelos; Alessandro Prati

2004-01-01

418

Using Response Surfaces and Expected Improvement to Optimize Snake Robot Gait Parameters  

E-print Network

Using Response Surfaces and Expected Improvement to Optimize Snake Robot Gait Parameters Matthew improvement criteria. We apply this technique to optimize open-loop gait parameters for snake robots of these points, rather than optimization. The system we focus our efforts on in this paper is a snake robot (Fig

Choset, Howie

419

Increase in Jumping Height Associated with Maximal Effort Vertical Depth Jumps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to assess if there existed a statistically significant increase in jumping performance when dropping from different heights, 32 males, aged 19 to 26, performed a series of maximal effort vertical jumps after dropping from eight heights onto a force plate. Results are analyzed. (Author/MT)

Bedi, John F.; And Others

1987-01-01

420

Measurement and utilization of healthy life expectancy: conceptual issues.  

PubMed Central

The periodic calculation of healthy life expectancies permits the evaluation of the impact of new health policies at a given moment, as well as the assessment of trends under changing health conditions. In spite of their apparent simplicity, the results obtained will have to be interpreted by experts. Useful reference values can be provided by international comparisons. However, several choices remain to be made, such as (i) the types of morbidity and disability data to be associated with mortality data; (ii) the multiple indicators available; (iii) the type of observations to be recorded, i.e., "abilities" or "performances"; (iv) whether or not the recovery of lost functions should be considered; (v) the mode of computation, i.e., life expectancy before the first morbid event or global healthy life expectancy; and (vi) the determination of thresholds based on either relative or absolute criteria. PMID:1486677

Robine, J. M.; Michel, J. P.; Branch, L. G.

1992-01-01

421

Modularity-based graph partitioning using conditional expected models  

PubMed Central

Modularity-based partitioning methods divide networks into modules by comparing their structure against random networks conditioned to have the same number of nodes, edges, and degree distribution. We propose a novel way to measure modularity and divide graphs, based on conditional probabilities of the edge strength of random networks. We provide closed-form solutions for the expected strength of an edge when it is conditioned on the degrees of the two neighboring nodes, or alternatively on the degrees of all nodes comprising the network. We analytically compute the expected network under the assumptions of Gaussian and Bernoulli distributions. When the Gaussian distribution assumption is violated, we prove that our expression is the best linear unbiased estimator. Finally, we investigate the performance of our conditional expected model in partitioning simulated and real-world networks. PMID:22400627

Chang, Yu-Teng; Leahy, Richard M.; Pantazis, Dimitrios

2013-01-01

422

24 CFR 245.205 - Efforts to obtain assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MULTIFAMILY HOUSING PROJECTS Efforts To Obtain Assistance § 245.205 Efforts to obtain assistance. (a) Mortgagors subject to the requirements...tenants to obtain rent subsidies or other public assistance. (b) A mortgagor subject to...

2013-04-01

423

24 CFR 245.205 - Efforts to obtain assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MULTIFAMILY HOUSING PROJECTS Efforts To Obtain Assistance § 245.205 Efforts to obtain assistance. (a) Mortgagors subject to the requirements...tenants to obtain rent subsidies or other public assistance. (b) A mortgagor subject to...

2010-04-01

424

24 CFR 245.205 - Efforts to obtain assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MULTIFAMILY HOUSING PROJECTS Efforts To Obtain Assistance § 245.205 Efforts to obtain assistance. (a) Mortgagors subject to the requirements...tenants to obtain rent subsidies or other public assistance. (b) A mortgagor subject to...

2012-04-01

425

24 CFR 245.205 - Efforts to obtain assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MULTIFAMILY HOUSING PROJECTS Efforts To Obtain Assistance § 245.205 Efforts to obtain assistance. (a) Mortgagors subject to the requirements...tenants to obtain rent subsidies or other public assistance. (b) A mortgagor subject to...

2011-04-01

426

24 CFR 245.205 - Efforts to obtain assistance.  

...MULTIFAMILY HOUSING PROJECTS Efforts To Obtain Assistance § 245.205 Efforts to obtain assistance. (a) Mortgagors subject to the requirements...tenants to obtain rent subsidies or other public assistance. (b) A mortgagor subject to...

2014-04-01

427

40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Source Management Grants (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive...

2010-07-01

428

40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Source Management Grants (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive...

2013-07-01

429

40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Source Management Grants (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive...

2011-07-01

430

40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Source Management Grants (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive...

2012-07-01

431

40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.  

... 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Source Management Grants (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive...

2014-07-01

432

20 CFR 327.15 - Reasonable efforts to obtain work.  

...2012-04-01 true Reasonable efforts to obtain work. 327.15 Section 327.15 Employees...RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.15 Reasonable efforts to obtain work. (a) Requirement. A claimant may...

2014-04-01

433

20 CFR 327.15 - Reasonable efforts to obtain work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Reasonable efforts to obtain work. 327.15 Section 327.15 Employees...RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.15 Reasonable efforts to obtain work. (a) Requirement. A claimant may...

2012-04-01

434

20 CFR 327.15 - Reasonable efforts to obtain work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true Reasonable efforts to obtain work. 327.15 Section 327.15 Employees...RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.15 Reasonable efforts to obtain work. (a) Requirement. A claimant may...

2013-04-01

435

20 CFR 327.15 - Reasonable efforts to obtain work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Reasonable efforts to obtain work. 327.15 Section 327.15 Employees...RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.15 Reasonable efforts to obtain work. (a) Requirement. A claimant may...

2011-04-01

436

20 CFR 327.15 - Reasonable efforts to obtain work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Reasonable efforts to obtain work. 327.15 Section 327.15 Employees...RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.15 Reasonable efforts to obtain work. (a) Requirement. A claimant may...

2010-04-01

437

Graduation Exam Participation and Performance (2000-2001) of English Language Learners with Disabilities. ELLs with Disabilities Report 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) made it clear that states, districts, and schools are to hold high expectations for all students and work to improve outcomes for low performing groups. A central part of these mandated improvement efforts is using data to identify groups of students who are achieving poorly on statewide tests and find…

Liu, Kristi; Thurlow, Martha; Barrera, Manuel; Guven, Kamil; Shyyan, Vitaliy

2005-01-01

438

What to Expect Before a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Heart Transplant The Heart Transplant Waiting List Patients who are eligible for a ... cardiac rehab after the transplant. Contact With the Transplant Center During the Wait Patients on the waiting ...

439

What to Expect during a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect During a Heart Transplant Just before heart transplant surgery, the patient will ... not replaced as part of the surgery. Heart Transplant Figure A shows where the diseased heart is ...

440

What to Expect During a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect During a Lung Transplant Just before lung transplant surgery, you will get ... and its blood vessels to your heart. Lung Transplant The illustration shows the process of a lung ...

441

What to Expect After a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect After a Heart Transplant Staying in the Hospital The amount of time ... if you have too many side effects. Managing Transplant Medicines and Their Side Effects You'll have ...

442

Anesthesia: What to Expect (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... by the anesthesiologist, using your input. Back Continue In the Operating Room If general anesthesia is used, the anesthesiologist will ... for Surgery Word! Surgery Word! Anesthesia What Happens in the Operating Room? Types of Anesthesia Anesthesia - What to Expect What's ...

443

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization  

E-print Network

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization made a brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) classification algorithm that uses a twostage applied to a set of normal brain MR images for further testing. We accomplished a working

Chen, Tsuhan

444

Expectant Dads May Also Have Hormonal Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... Dec. 15 in the American Journal of Human Biology . Edelstein and her team followed 29 expectant heterosexual ... Dec. 15, 2014, online, American Journal of Human Biology HealthDay Copyright (c) 2014 HealthDay . All rights reserved. ...

445

Leverage Expectations and Bond Credit Spreads  

E-print Network

In an efficient market, spreads will reflect both the issuer’s current risk and investors’ expectations about how that risk might change over time. Collin-Dufresne and Goldstein (2001) show analytically that a firm’s ...

Flannery, Mark J.; Nikolova, Stanislava; Ö ztekin, Ö zde

2012-08-04

446

Parental investment strategies in two species of nuthatch vary with stage-specific predation risk and reproductive effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history theory predicts that differences in reproductive effort and residual reproductive value among species should result in differences in the level of risk that parents are willing to tolerate to themselves versus their offspring. Specifically, highly fecund and shorter-lived species are expected to place greater value in current offspring than themselves, whereas less fecund and longer-lived species are expected to

Cameron K. Ghalambor; Thomas E. Martin

2000-01-01

447

Paradoxical Effects of Alcohol Information on Alcohol Outcome Expectancies  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive associations with alcohol predict both current and future use in youth and young adults. Much cognitive and social cognitive research suggests that exposure to information may have unconscious influences on thinking and behavior. The present study assessed the impact of information statements on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. Methods The 2 studies reported here investigated the effects of exposure to alcohol statements typical of informational approaches to prevention on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. High school and university students were presented with information statements about the effects of alcohol and other commercial products. The alcohol statements were taken from expectancy questionnaires. Some of these statements were presented as facts and others as myths. The retention of detailed information about these statements was manipulated by (i) divided attention versus focused attention or (ii) immediate versus delayed testing. Accessibility of personal alcohol outcome expectancies was subsequently measured using an open-ended question about the expected effects of alcohol. Results Participants reported more alcohol outcomes seen during the information task as personal expectations about the effects of alcohol use than similar unseen items. Paradoxically, myth statements were also more likely to be reported as expectancies than unseen items in all conditions. Additionally, myth statements were generated less often than fact statements only under the condition of immediate testing with strong content processing instructions. Conclusions These observations are consistent with findings from cognitive research where familiarity in the absence of explicit memory can have an unconscious influence on performance. In particular, the exposure to these items in an informational format increases accessibility of the seen items even when the participants were told that they were myths. The findings have implications for the development of effective prevention materials. PMID:20477773

Krank, Marvin D.; Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Schoenfeld, Tara; Stacy, Alan W.

2014-01-01

448

Assessing Organizational Efforts to Mobilize Research Knowledge in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework for evaluating efforts by organizations to share research as exemplified on their websites, then reports the result of an evaluation of these efforts in 100 organizations. The result shows that the overall research sharing efforts of these organizations are modest and not well aligned to evidence on effective…

Qi, Jie; Levin, Benjamin

2013-01-01

449

Cries and Whispers Classification of Vocal Effort in Expressive Speech  

E-print Network

Cries and Whispers Classification of Vocal Effort in Expressive Speech Nicolas Obin IRCAM-CNRS UMR casting. This paper presents a large-scale study on the classification of vocal effort in expressive speech for video games. Changes in vocal effort conduct to substan- tial modifications

450

Coordination between Posture and Phonation in Vocal Effort Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postural correlates of vocal effort are rarely described in the literature, while they are extensively dealt with in speech therapy. Objectives: This study aims at determining whether body movement is a side effect of vocal effort or an integral part of communication effort behavior. The answer to this question is mainly based on correlations between posture and phonation. Method:

Aude Lagier; Marianne Vaugoyeau; Alain Ghio; Thierry Legou; Antoine Giovanni; Christine Assaiante

2010-01-01

451

Do infants really expect agents to act efficiently? A critical test of the rationality principle.  

PubMed

Recent experiments have suggested that infants' expectations about the actions of agents are guided by a principle of rationality: In particular, infants expect agents to pursue their goals efficiently, expending as little effort as possible. However, these experiments have all presented infants with infrequent or odd actions, which leaves the results open to alternative interpretations and makes it difficult to determine whether infants possess a general expectation of efficiency. We devised a critical test of the rationality principle that did not involve infrequent or odd actions. In two experiments, 16-month-olds watched events in which an agent faced two identical goal objects; although both objects could be reached by typical, everyday actions, one object was physically (Experiment 1) or mentally (Experiment 2) more accessible than the other. In both experiments, infants expected the agent to select the more-accessible object. These results provide new evidence that infants possess a general and robust expectation of efficiency. PMID:23470355

Scott, Rose M; Baillargeon, Renée

2013-04-01

452

Measuring Student Expectations and Their Effects on Satisfaction: The Importance of Managing Student Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies investigate the relationship between student expectations and student satisfaction. Can students' satisfaction with a course be accurately predicted by comparing their perceptions to their expectations (as suggested by the expectancy/disconfirmation paradigm)? The results of these studies suggest that the answer to this question is…

Appleton-Knapp, Sara L.; Krentler, Kathleen A.

2006-01-01

453

Condition Dependent Effects on Sex Allocation and Reproductive Effort in Sequential Hermaphrodites  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts the optimal timing of sex change will be the age or size at which half of an individual's expected fitness comes through reproduction as a male and half through reproduction as a female. In this way, sex allocation across the lifetime of a sequential hermaphrodite parallels the sex allocation of an outbreeding species exhibiting a 1?1 ratio of sons to daughters. However, the expectation of a 1?1 sex ratio is sensitive to variation in individual condition. If individuals within a population vary in condition, high-condition individuals are predicted to make increased allocations to the sex with the higher variance in reproductive success. An oft-cited example of this effect is seen in red deer, Cervus elaphus, in which mothers of high condition are more likely to produce sons, while those in low condition are more likely to produce daughters. Here, we show that individual condition is predicted to similarly affect the pattern of sex allocation, and thus the allocation of reproductive effort, in sequential hermaphrodites. High-condition sex-changers are expected to obtain more than half of their fitness in the high-payoff second sex and, as a result, are expected to reduce the allocation of reproductive effort in the initial sex. While the sex ratio in populations of sequential hermaphrodites is always skewed towards an excess of the initial sex, condition dependence is predicted to increase this effect. PMID:25302941

2014-01-01

454

Accuracy versus speed in the generalized effort of learning-disabled children.  

PubMed Central

Reinforcement of effortful performance in a given academic task has been found to increase the subsequent performance of other academic tasks. The learned-effort hypothesis assumes that individuals learn which dimensions of task performance are correlated with reinforcement of high effort, and generalize across tasks. Therefore, reinforcement of increased effort in a given dimension of one task should result in greater generalized effort in the same dimension of transfer performance than in another dimension. In accord with this view, preadolescent learning-disabled students who received points for high reading accuracy subsequently produced more accurate drawings and stories than did students whose points had been based upon high reading speed or upon mere completion of the reading task. Students who received points for high reading speed subsequently constructed stories more quickly than did children whose points had been based upon high reading accuracy or upon reading-task completion. Consistent with the more explicit and frequent feedback for accuracy than for speed in most academic tasks, generalized accuracy was much more durable than generalized speed. PMID:6481298

Eisenberger, R; Mitchell, M; McDermitt, M; Masterson, F A

1984-01-01

455

Marijuana, expectancies, and post-traumatic stress symptoms: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Previous work suggests that people might turn to marijuana to alleviate the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated distress. Expectancy theories emphasize that the use of drugs correlates with their anticipated effects. The current study examined multivariate links among marijuana use, PTSD symptoms, and expectancies for marijuana-induced changes in those symptoms. Over 650 combat-exposed, male veterans who used marijuana at least once per week completed measures of PTSD symptoms, marijuana expectancies, and marijuana use in an Internet survey. Participants generally expected marijuana to relieve PTSD symptoms, especially those related to intrusions and arousal. Symptoms, expectancies for relief of symptoms, and marijuana consumption correlated significantly. Regressions revealed significant indirect effects of symptoms on use via expectancies, but no significant interactions of expectancies and symptoms. Combat-exposed veterans who use marijuana appear to use more as the magnitude of PTSD symptoms and their expectations of marijuana-induced relief of those symptoms increase. These results emphasize the importance of PTSD treatments in an effort to keep potential negative effects of marijuana to a minimum. They also underscore the import of expectancies in predicting marijuana use. PMID:25052875

Earleywine, Mitch; Bolles, Jamie R

2014-01-01

456

Beyond Just a Job: Expectations of Computer Science Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of job expectations among computer science students was conducted. The purpose of the study was to examine relationships between computer science education, gender, and job expectations. A factor analysis revealed that students have four types of expectations, including: intrinsic expectations (nonmaterialistic expectations involving job satisfaction and personal achievement), extrinsic expectations (materialistic expectations involving monetary compensation, status, and prestige),

Laura Marie Leventhal; David Warner Chilson

1989-01-01

457

Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation.  

PubMed

By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer's temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue-stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25068851

Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

2015-01-01

458

Expectations for melodic contours transcend pitch.  

PubMed

The question of what makes a good melody has interested composers, music theorists, and psychologists alike. Many of the observed principles of good "melodic continuation" involve melodic contour-the pattern of rising and falling pitch within a sequence. Previous work has shown that contour perception can extend beyond pitch to other auditory dimensions, such as brightness and loudness. Here, we show that the generalization of contour perception to nontraditional dimensions also extends to melodic expectations. In the first experiment, subjective ratings for 3-tone sequences that vary in brightness or loudness conformed to the same general contour-based expectations as pitch sequences. In the second experiment, we modified the sequence of melody presentation such that melodies with the same beginning were blocked together. This change produced substantively different results, but the patterns of ratings remained similar across the 3 auditory dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that (a) certain well-known principles of melodic expectation (such as the expectation for a reversal following a skip) are dependent on long-term context, and (b) these expectations are not unique to the dimension of pitch and may instead reflect more general principles of perceptual organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365571

Graves, Jackson E; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J

2014-12-01

459

Gender Bias in Mothers' Expectations about Infant Crawling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although boys outshine girls in a range of motor skills, there are no reported gender differences in motor performance during infancy. This study examined gender bias in mothers' expectations about their infants' motor development. Mothers of 11-month-old infants estimated their babies' crawling ability, crawling attempts, and motor decisions in a novel locomotor task—crawling down steep and shallow slopes. Mothers of

Emily R. Mondschein; Karen E. Adolph; Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda

2000-01-01

460

Disconnections Between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher\\u000a expectations of students’ general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues\\u000a in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important decision-making skills. Learning\\u000a bioethics through scientific argumentation gives students opportunities to express their

Nikki L. Hanegan; Laura Price; Jeremy Peterson

2008-01-01

461

SAMPLE EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES STATEMENTSSAMPLE EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES STATEMENTS The following pages depict some sample expected learning outcome statements from  

E-print Network

The following pages depict some sample expected learning outcome statements from selected courses. United States and individuals associated with the history of the United States. Introduction to Business At the end democratic principles · Outline the structure of the Constitution of the U.S. · Identity and define

Rock, Chris

462

Creative motivation: creative achievement predicts cardiac autonomic markers of effort during divergent thinking.  

PubMed

Executive approaches to creativity emphasize that generating creative ideas can be hard and requires mental effort. Few studies, however, have examined effort-related physiological activity during creativity tasks. Using motivational intensity theory as a framework, we examined predictors of effort-related cardiac activity during a creative challenge. A sample of 111 adults completed a divergent thinking task. Sympathetic (PEP and RZ) and parasympathetic (RSA and RMSSD) outcomes were assessed using impedance cardiography. As predicted, people with high creative achievement (measured with the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) showed significantly greater increases in sympathetic activity from baseline to task, reflecting higher effort. People with more creative achievements generated ideas that were significantly more creative, and creative performance correlated marginally with PEP and RZ. The results support the view that creative thought can be a mental challenge. PMID:25063471

Silvia, Paul J; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Eddington, Kari M; Kwapil, Thomas R

2014-10-01

463

Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension  

PubMed Central

In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the thug, but we can’t find out who else) suggest that perceivers do prefer to place focus late in the sentence, though that preference can be mitigated by prosodic information (pitch accents, Experiment 2) or syntactic information (clefted sentences, Experiment 3) indicating that focus is located elsewhere. Furthermore, it is not necessarily the direct object, but the informationally-focused constituent that is the preferred antecedent (Experiment 4). Expectations regarding the information structure of a sentence, which are only partly cancelable by means of overt focus markers, may explain persistent biases in ellipsis resolution. PMID:18609404

Carlson, Katy; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

2009-01-01

464

Powering Up: Assessing the growing municipal energy resilience building efforts in North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy related shortages and price volatilities can impact all levels of society. With coming fossil fuel depletion related to peak oil, it is expected these shortages and volatilities will increase in frequency, duration, and intensity. Resilience building is a strategy to minimize the effects of these events by modifying systems so they are less impacted and/or recover more quickly from disruptive events. Resilience building is being used, particularly at the municipal scale, to prepare for these coming energy related changes. These municipal efforts have only been in existence for five to ten years, and full implementation is still in progress. Little evaluation has been done of these municipal efforts to date, particularly in North America. Despite this, it is important to begin to assess the effectiveness of these efforts now. As a result, future efforts can be redirected to address weak areas and that lessons learned by vanguard communities can be applied in other communities attempting to build energy resilience in the future. This thesis involved the creation of a hybrid framework to evaluate municipal energy resilience building efforts. The framework drew primarily from planning process and factors identified as important to build resilience in social-ecological systems. It consisted of the following categories to group resilience building efforts: Economy, Resource Systems & Infrastructure, Public Awareness, Social Services, Transportation, Built Environment, and Natural Environment. Within these categories the following process steps should be observed: Context, Goals, Needs, Processes, and Outcomes. This framework was then tested through application to four case-study communities (Bloomington, IN, Hamilton, ON, Oakland, CA, Victoria, BC) currently pursuing energy resilience building efforts in North America. This qualitative research involved document analysis primarily of municipal documents related to energy planning efforts. Supplementary interviews were also conducted to verify the findings from the documents and illuminate anything not captured by them. Once data was collected, categorized and analyzed using the framework, comparisons were made between case-studies. Results showed the framework to be a successful, but time consuming, tool for assessing municipal energy resilience building. Four revisions are recommended for the framework before further research. Analysis of the case study communities' efforts also identified five factors for recommended for other communities attempting energy resilience planning at the municipal scale: consistent support from within the municipality, integration and information sharing, presence of key resources, access to information on energy use, and a two-tier planning process. Ultimately, as this is a preliminary attempt to address a young and growing area of municipal effort, there are many avenues for further research to build on the work of this thesis.

Schimmelfing, Kara

465

Intersection of effort and risk: ethological and neurobiological perspectives  

PubMed Central

The physical effort required to seek out and extract a resource is an important consideration for a foraging animal. A second consideration is the variability or risk associated with resource delivery. An intriguing observation from ethological studies is that animals shift their preference from stable to variable food sources under conditions of increased physical effort or falling energetic reserves. Although theoretical models for this effect exist, no exploration into its biological basis has been pursued. Recent advances in understanding the neural basis of effort- and risk-guided decision making suggest that opportunities exist for determining how effort influences risk preference. In this review, we describe the intersection between the neural systems involved in effort- and risk-guided decision making and outline two mechanisms by which effort-induced changes in dopamine release may increase the preference for variable rewards. PMID:24223535

Miller, Mike A.; Thomé, Alexander; Cowen, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

466

Relationship effort, satisfaction, and stability: differences across union type.  

PubMed

Relationship satisfaction and stability are two commonly studied outcomes in marriage and family research. Majority of studies address socio demographic variability and differences across union type in these outcomes. We extend this literature by addressing how the amount of effort one puts into their relationship is associated with stability and satisfaction. Specifically, we focus on how effort impacts these measures of quality in four union types: premarital cohabitation, first marriage, post-divorce cohabitation, and second marriage following divorce. Furthermore, we make union type comparisons in the strength of effort's association with satisfaction and stability. Using data from 8,006 respondents in the Relationship Evaluation Survey, our results show that effort was strongly and positively associated with satisfaction and stability in all four unions. Although effort is more strongly associated with satisfaction in first marriage than cohabiting relationships, no union type differences in the role of effort on stability were observed. Clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24320175

Shafer, Kevin; Jensen, Todd M; Larson, Jeffry H

2014-04-01

467

Confidentiality Expectations and Preferences of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confidentiality in psychotherapy has long been assumed. Recently, this confidentiality has been threatened by computer filing systems, the courts, and third party payers of client expenses. This study investigates client expectations of confidentiality and information subject to disclosure. Subjects (N=185) were undergraduate students who…

Tillinghast, Margo Amy; VandeCreek, Leon

468

New book expected soon! Innovating Minds  

E-print Network

New book ­ expected soon! Innovating Minds: A Thinking Framework for Creativity and Change Wilma goals, whether working on our own or together with others? Innovating Minds offers us a science interplay of our minds, brains, and environments. Drawing on research findings ranging from brain networks

Koutstaal, Wilma

469

Expectations Evaporate for Online MBA Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how, for online Master's of Business Administration programs, enrollments are low and business deals are falling through. Despite initial hype, expectations are now lower in the face of economic uncertainty; programs partnering with businesses and school-run programs both face challenges. (EV)

Mangan, Katherine S.

2001-01-01

470

What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant If you get into a medical center's transplant program, you'll be placed on the Organ ... and Transplantation Network's (OPTN's) national waiting list. Your transplant team will work with you to make sure ...

471

Future Expectations of Brasilian Street Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Future expectations of youth surviving on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brasil, were examined. The sample consisted of 35 boys and 34 girls aged 10-18 (M age 14.4) who participated in a sentence completion task and semi-structured interviews. Responses to two incomplete sentences regarding the future revealed a mismatch between hoped-for and…

Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S.H.

2005-01-01

472

Unrealistic Expectations Businesses Have about Translators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased international business and technological advances that speed business communication are affecting the expectations that business has for translators. More companies are asking translation agencies to translate such items as English business letters, advertising campaigns, flyers, brochures, and technical manuals into other languages,…

Rodriguez, Cecilia M.

473

Opinions and Expectations. 1972 Freshmen Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 1,250 entering freshmen at the State University of New York, Buffalo completed a self-report form called the Inventory of Opinions and Expectations. It was found that 88% of the sample were public high school graduates, that they felt their high school courses had been interesting, that their parents strongly encouraged them to…

Ameele, Martha; Jones, Griffith

474

The Adult Mathematics Learner: Attitudes, Expectations, Attributions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to identify characteristics of college freshmen taking mathematics courses. Students enrolled in basic algebra courses at a regional campus of a large midwestern university participated in the study. Students were administered an instrument which included a "math autobiography," the Adult Mathematics Expectation Scale…

Lehmann, Christine H.

475

Destination Visual Image and Expectation of Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique experience is the essence of tourism sought by tourists. The most effective way to communicate the notion of a tourism experience at a destination is to provide visual cues that stimulate the imagination and connect with potential tourists in a personal way. This study aims at understanding how a visual image is relevant to the expectation of experiences

Helen Ye; Iis P. Tussyadiah

2011-01-01

476

Expectations and Experiences of Substitute Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the expectations of support for and the experiences of substitute teachers in an urban school division in Saskatchewan. Data were collected in semistructured interviews with seven substitute teachers. The purpose of the study was to explore how substitute teachers frame their professional experiences and construct their roles…

Duggleby, Patricia; Badali, Sal

2007-01-01

477

College Students' Instructional Expectations and Evaluations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typical end-of-course faculty ratings were questioned for their inability to measure actual classroom interaction. Extending the concept of these evaluations to include the student instructional expectations dimension, the study proposed that the classroom experience be related to the process and systems approaches, more dependent upon monitoring…

Calista, Donald J.

478

Men's Alcohol Expectancies at Selected Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Men's alcohol expectancies are an important cognitive-behavioral component of their consumption; yet, sparse research details such behaviors for men in two-year colleges. Selected for inclusion with the current study were 563 men from seven Illinois community colleges. Logistic regression analysis indicated four significant, positive relationships…

Derby, Dustin C.

2011-01-01

479

Estimation of lifetime expectancies of motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for evaluating lifetime expectations are discussed. Factors that affect the life of bearings and brushes and of wire coil insulation are identified. Thermal life of insulation and methods for accelerated testing are discussed. Examples are included to assist in the calculation of such factors as motor temperature-rise conditions and the benefits to be realized through upgrading the thermal classification

Emanuel L. Brancato

1992-01-01

480

Harmonic and rhythmic influences on musical expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of harmony and rhythm on expectancy formation were studied in two experiments. In both studies, we generated musical passages consisting of a melodic line accompanied by four har- monic (chord) events. These sequences varied in their harmonic content, the rhythmic periodicity of the three context chords prior to the final chord, and the ending time of the final

MARK A. SCHMUCKLER; MARILYN G. BOLTZ

1994-01-01

481

Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy  

E-print Network

Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy J L Hutton, K Hemming and UKCP collaboration What is UKCP? Information about the physical effects of cerebral palsy on the everyday lives of children with cerebral palsy which collect information about children within specific local areas. They are the Mersey