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Sample records for periapical lesion histologic

  1. Nonsurgical management of periapical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Periapical lesions develop as sequelae to pulp disease. They often occur without any episode of acute pain and are discovered on routine radiographic examination. The incidence of cysts within periapical lesions varies between 6 and 55%. The occurrence of periapical granulomas ranges between 9.3 and 87.1%, and of abscesses between 28.7 and 70.07%. It is accepted that all inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. Studies have reported a success rate of up to 85% after endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesions. A review of literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: the conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, method using calcium hydroxide, Lesion Sterilization and Repair Therapy, and the Apexum procedure. Monitoring the healing of periapical lesions is essential through periodic follow-up examinations. PMID:21217952

  2. Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Mário Roberto; Salgado, Antônio Alberto; da Silva, Léa Assed; Tanomaru Filho, Mário

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC) was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Sealapex, AH Plus or Sealer Plus for sealing. After 180 days, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the obtained histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for optical microscopic analysis of the apical and periapical repair. The groups filled with Sealapex and AH Plus had better histological repair (p < 0.05) than the group filled with Sealer Plus, that had unsatisfactory results. PMID:12908063

  3. Mixed periapical lesion: differential diagnosis of a case

    PubMed Central

    Krithika, C; Kota, S; Gopal, KS; Koteeswaran, D

    2011-01-01

    A radicular cyst associated with carious teeth is a very common odontogenic lesion in the oral cavity, but calcifications in residual radicular cysts are quite rare. We report one such case where a routine pre-implant radiographic assessment revealed a mixed periapical radiopaque radiolucent lesion in the right maxillary central incisor region. Histological and radiographic studies show that there is a slow increase in the mineralized deposits within the cyst lumen with time. This becomes prominent histochemically in cysts more than 8 years old and radiographically 6 years later, as seen in our case. In this paper we would like to highlight the importance of a residual radicular cyst with calcifications in the differential diagnosis of a mixed periapical radiopaque radiolucent lesion. PMID:21346087

  4. Interrelationship between Periapical Lesion and Systemic Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Hajime; Hirai, Kimito; Martins, Christine Men; Furusho, Hisako; Battaglino, Ricardo; Hashimoto, Koshi

    2016-01-01

    Periapical periodontitis, also known as periapical lesion, is a common dental disease, along with periodontitis (gum disease). Periapical periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, caused by endodontic infection, and its development is regulated by the host immune/inflammatory response. Metabolic disorders, which are largely dependent on life style such as eating habits, have been interpreted as a “metabolically-triggered” low-grade systemic inflammation and may interact with periapical periodontitis by triggering immune modulation. The host immune system is therefore considered the common fundamental mechanism of both disease conditions. An elevated inflammatory state caused by metabolic disorders can impact the clinical outcome of periapical lesions and interfere with wound healing after endodontic treatment. Although additional well-designed clinical studies are needed, periapical lesions appear to affect insulin sensitivity and exacerbate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Immune regulatory cytokines produced by various cell types, including immune cells and adipose tissue, play an important role in this interrelationship. PMID:26881444

  5. [Endodontic treatment of a periapical lesion causing root separation].

    PubMed

    Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    A case is presented of a periapical lesion of a rather large size, which produced an important separation of two inferior incisor roots. The root canal was treated, with calcium hydroxide overextending the apex. Clinic and radiographic control after two years complete reparation of the periapex. PMID:2168734

  6. Progression of periapical cystic lesion after incomplete endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jong-Ki; Yang, Dong-Kyu; Jeon, Kug-Jin; Shin, Su-Jung

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of large radicular cyst progression related to endodontic origin to emphasize proper intervention and follow-up for endodontic pathosis. A 25 yr old man presented with an endodontically treated molar with radiolucency. He denied any intervention because of a lack of discomfort. Five years later, the patient returned. The previous periapical lesion had drastically enlarged and involved two adjacent teeth. Cystic lesion removal and apicoectomy were performed on the tooth. Histopathological analysis revealed that the lesion was an inflammatory radicular cyst. The patient did not report any discomfort except for moderate swelling 3 days after the surgical procedure. Although the patient had been asymptomatic, close follow-ups are critical to determine if any periapical lesions persist after root canal treatment. PMID:27200282

  7. Progression of periapical cystic lesion after incomplete endodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong-Kyu; Jeon, Kug-Jin

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of large radicular cyst progression related to endodontic origin to emphasize proper intervention and follow-up for endodontic pathosis. A 25 yr old man presented with an endodontically treated molar with radiolucency. He denied any intervention because of a lack of discomfort. Five years later, the patient returned. The previous periapical lesion had drastically enlarged and involved two adjacent teeth. Cystic lesion removal and apicoectomy were performed on the tooth. Histopathological analysis revealed that the lesion was an inflammatory radicular cyst. The patient did not report any discomfort except for moderate swelling 3 days after the surgical procedure. Although the patient had been asymptomatic, close follow-ups are critical to determine if any periapical lesions persist after root canal treatment. PMID:27200282

  8. Collagenase-3 expression in periapical lesions: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, G; Astekar, M S; Ramesh, G; Kaur, P; Sowmya, G V

    2014-08-01

    Collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) is a metalloproteinase (MMP) that is associated with bone lesions and exhibits variable expression patterns in odontogenic cysts; it may play a role in regulating focal proliferation and maturation of jaw cyst epithelium. We studied the localization, staining intensity and distribution of collagenase-3 in 13 periapical granulomas with epithelium, 16 periapical granulomas without epithelium and 10 radicular cysts using archived formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues. A monoclonal antibody against human collagenase-3 was used to evaluate its expression. Immunohistochemical staining intensities of collagenase-3 in all periapical lesions were (-), 4 (10%); (+), 1 (3%); (++), 22 (56%) and (+++), 12 (31%); differences were not statistically significant. Immunohistochemical distribution of collagenase-3 in epithelial cells was (-), 17 (44%); (+), 17 (44%); (++), 5 (13%); in fibroblasts it was (-), 8 (20%); (+), 23 (59%); (++), 8 (21%); in plasma cells it was (-), 7 (18%); (+), 22 (56%); (++), 10 (26%); in macrophages it was (-), 7 (18%); (+), and 15 (38%); and (++), 17 (44%). Statistically significant differences were found in epithelial cells (p = 0.00) and fibroblasts (p = 0.02), whereas differences were not statistically significant for plasma cells and macrophages. Collagenase-3 may play a role in the conversion of a periapical granuloma with epithelium to radicular cyst. MMP's influence not only epithelial rest cell migration, but also invasion of various stromal cells into granulomatous tissue. PMID:24974940

  9. ASSOCIATION OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE AND METRONIDAZOLE IN THE TREATMENT OF DOG'S TEETH WITH CHRONIC PERIAPICAL LESION

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Souza, Valdir; Holland, Roberto; Dezan, Eloi

    2006-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of endodontic treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis is the elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system, as effectively as possible, especially in cases with chronic periapical lesions. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of the periapical tissue of dogs' teeth with chronic periapical lesions to endodontic treatment performed with utilization of metronidazole, calcium hydroxide, and an association of both as root canal dressings. METHODOLOGY: Forty root canals were submitted to pulpectomy and the root canals were kept exposed to the oral environment for 6 months. Then, they were submitted to biomechanical preparation and divided into 4 study groups with 10 specimens: group I – no root canal dressing; group II – calcium hydroxide; group III – metronidazole; group IV – calcium hydroxide associated to metronidazole. After 15 days, the root canals were filled with Fill Canal sealer. After 90 days, the animals were killed and the especimens processed for histological analysis. RESULTS: Calcium hydroxide dressing provided a significantly better outcome compared to other experimental groups (α = 0.01). Also, the results of the association of metronidazole and calcium hydroxide were similar to those observed for the metronidazole group. The worst results were obtained by the no root canal dressing group. CONCLUSION: The use of metronidazole alone or associated with Calcium hydroxide, did not improve periapical healing when compared to Calcium hydroxide dressing. PMID:19089054

  10. Cellular composition of periapical granulomas and its function. Histological, immunohistochemical and electronmicroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Babál, P; Brozman, M; Jakubovský, J; Basset, F; Jány, Z

    1989-01-01

    Periapical granulomas have been investigated histologically, immunohistologically using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, as well as electronmicroscopically. Lesions were formed by inflammatory granulation tissue frequently with foci of purulent exudation and fibrosis. Most numerous were plasma cells usually in cellular regions of the granulation tissue where they were tightly pressed. Of other cellular types were numerous lymphocytes, fibroblasts, less frequent were macrophages, scattered granulocytes and mast cells. More than a half of the plasma cells were IgG positive, about 20% IgA positive, up to 10% IgM, rarely IgE and sporadically IgD positive cells. In the vascular walls and their surrounding as well as in the phagocytes fine granular to granular positivities of C3 and C4 components of the complement were present. The majority of lymphocytes beared markers of T lymphocytes of which the T-suppressor markedly prevailed over the T-helper lymphocytes. In electron microscopy the plasma cells were most frequent. They were usually close to each other, sometimes with a disintegrated cytoplasmic membrane and non-damaged organelles being free around the nucleus. Mast cells were numerous and did not show any signs of marked degranulation. Rich production of immunoglobulins as well as the presence of IgG and IgM positive material in phagocytes, and the presence of positivities of the C3 and C4 components of the complement in the surrounding of the vessels and in phagocytes on the other hand supported the presumption that immune complexes participate in the pathogenesis of periapical granulomas. In spite of the presence of the IgE producing cells the morphological picture of mast cells did not suggest the presence of anaphylactic reaction in periapical lesions. Diffuse distribution of T lymphocytes, moreover with the prevalence of T-suppressor/cytotoxic over T-helper lymphocytes and not numerous macrophages in the inflammatory infiltrates did not suggest the

  11. Comparison of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Periapical Radiography in Predicting Treatment Decision for Periapical Lesions: A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Balasundaram, Ashok; Shah, Punit; Hoen, Michael M.; Wheater, Michelle A.; Bringas, Josef S.; Gartner, Arnold; Geist, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the ability of endodontists to determine the size of apical pathological lesions and select the most appropriate choice of treatment based on lesions' projected image characteristics using 2 D and 3 D images. Study Design. Twenty-four subjects were selected. Radiographic examination of symptomatic study teeth with an intraoral periapical radiograph revealed periapical lesions equal to or greater than 3 mm in the greatest diameter. Cone-beam Computed tomography (CBCT) images were made of the involved teeth after the intraoral periapical radiograph confirmed the size of lesion to be equal to greater than 3 mm. Six observers (endodontists) viewed both the periapical and CBCT images. Upon viewing each of the images from the two imaging modalities, observers (1) measured lesion size and (2) made decisions on treatment based on each radiograph. Chi-square test was used to look for differences in the choice of treatment among observers. Results. No significant difference was noted in the treatment plan selected by observers using the two modalities (χ2(3) = .036, P > 0.05). Conclusion. Lesion size and choice of treatment of periapical lesions based on CBCT radiographs do not change significantly from those made on the basis of 2 D radiographs. PMID:23056050

  12. Endodontic periapical lesion-induced mental nerve paresthesia

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Elham; Shekarchizade, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Paresthesia is a burning or prickling sensation or partial numbness, resulting from neural injury. The symptoms can vary from mild neurosensory dysfunction to total loss of sensation in the innervated area. Only a few cases have described apical periodontitis to be the etiological factor of impaired sensation in the area innervated by the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. The aim of the present paper is to report a case of periapical lesion-induced paresthesia in the innervation area of the mental nerve, which was successfully treated with endodontic retreatment. PMID:25878687

  13. Endodontic periapical lesion-induced mental nerve paresthesia.

    PubMed

    Shadmehr, Elham; Shekarchizade, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Paresthesia is a burning or prickling sensation or partial numbness, resulting from neural injury. The symptoms can vary from mild neurosensory dysfunction to total loss of sensation in the innervated area. Only a few cases have described apical periodontitis to be the etiological factor of impaired sensation in the area innervated by the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. The aim of the present paper is to report a case of periapical lesion-induced paresthesia in the innervation area of the mental nerve, which was successfully treated with endodontic retreatment. PMID:25878687

  14. Noninvasive differential diagnosis of dental periapical lesions in cone-beam CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Kazunori; Rysavy, Steven; Flores, Arturo; Linguraru, Marius George

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: This paper proposes a novel application of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to an everyday clinical dental challenge: the noninvasive differential diagnosis of periapical lesions between periapical cysts and granulomas. A histological biopsy is the most reliable method currently available for this differential diagnosis; however, this invasive procedure prevents the lesions from healing noninvasively despite a report that they may heal without surgical treatment. A CAD using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) offers an alternative noninvasive diagnostic tool which helps to avoid potentially unnecessary surgery and to investigate the unknown healing process and rate for the lesions. Methods: The proposed semiautomatic solution combines graph-based random walks segmentation with machine learning-based boosted classifiers and offers a robust clinical tool with minimal user interaction. As part of this CAD framework, the authors provide two novel technical contributions: (1) probabilistic extension of the random walks segmentation with likelihood ratio test and (2) LDA-AdaBoost: a new integration of weighted linear discriminant analysis to AdaBoost. Results: A dataset of 28 CBCT scans is used to validate the approach and compare it with other popular segmentation and classification methods. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method with 94.1% correct classification rate and an improvement of the performance by comparison with the Simon’s state-of-the-art method by 17.6%. The authors also compare classification performances with two independent ground-truth sets from the histopathology and CBCT diagnoses provided by endodontic experts. Conclusions: Experimental results of the authors show that the proposed CAD system behaves in clearer agreement with the CBCT ground-truth than with histopathology, supporting the Simon’s conjecture that CBCT diagnosis can be as accurate as histopathology for differentiating the periapical lesions.

  15. Effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the healing of extraction sockets with a periapical lesion: A pilot study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji-Youn; Yon, Jeyoung; Lee, Jung-Seok; Lee, In-Kyeong; Yang, Cheryl; Kim, Min-Soo; Choi, Seong-Ho; Jung, Ui-Won

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the healing process of extraction sockets with a periapical lesion following immediate graft with collagenated bovine bone mineral (CBBM) soaked with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Following induction of periapical lesions in premolars in five dogs, treatment of extraction sockets was divided into three groups: control (no treatment) and two test groups, CBBM with or without EGCG. 3D reconstruction and superimposition of the digital images were used to measure the dimensional changes in alveolar ridge. Histologic specimen was evaluated in all groups. The horizontal ridge widths at 4-mm level were wider in both test groups (3.3 ± 1.7 mm in CBBM; 3.0 ± 1.7 mm in CBBM+EGCG) than in the control group (1.7 ± 2.4 mm). Fibrosis and limited new bone formation were observed in the apical regions of test groups; however, the extent of fibrosis was less in the CBBM+EGCG group. Within the limitations of this study, it was conjectured that adjunctive use of EGCG with CBBM can be a candidate biomaterial in grafting of extraction socket with periapical lesion. Bone regeneration at the coronal region of the CBBM grafted socket might not be influenced by the presence of a periapical lesion. PMID:25045081

  16. Nonsurgical management of a large periapical lesion associated with an immature tooth displaying external inflammatory resorption

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Immature nonvital teeth can often be associated with periapical lesions. Presence of external inflammatory resorption can complicate the treatment plan. A 21-year-old female patient presented with a large periapical lesion in relation to teeth 11 and 12. Tooth 11 was an immature tooth undergoing external inflammatory resorption. Aspiration through the root canal was carried out to evacuate the purulent fluid in the periapical lesion. Triple antibiotic paste was then placed as an intracanal medicament for a period of 2 weeks, followed by calcium hydroxide therapy for a period of 2 months. Mineral trioxide aggregate was then placed as an apical barrier to a thickness of about 4 mm. Obturation of the remainder of the canal space was done after 48 h. Complete periapical healing was evident after 1 year and 6 months. Nonsurgical healing of a large periapical lesion associated with an immature tooth displaying external inflammatory resorption can be successfully achieved. PMID:26180425

  17. Treatment of Large Periapical Cyst Like Lesion: A Noninvasive Approach: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Neha; Gothi, Rajat; Sood, Niti

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Periapical lesions develop as sequelae to pulp disease. Periapical radiolucent areas are generally diagnosed either during routine dental radiographic examination or following acute toothache. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: the conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, method using calcium hydroxide, lesion sterilization and repair therapy and the apexum procedure. Monitoring the healing of periapical lesions is essential through periodic follow-up examinations. The ultimate goal of endodontic therapy should be to return the involved teeth to a state of health and function without surgical intervention. All inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. Surgical intervention is recommended only after nonsurgical techniques have failed. Besides, surgery has many drawbacks, which limit its use in the management of periapical lesions. How to cite this article: Sood N, Maheshwari N, Gothi R, Sood N. Treatment of Large Periapical Cyst Like Lesion: A Noninvasive Approach: A Report of Two Cases. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):133-137. PMID:26379382

  18. Treatment of Large Periapical Cyst Like Lesion: A Noninvasive Approach: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Sood, Nikhil; Maheshwari, Neha; Gothi, Rajat; Sood, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Periapical lesions develop as sequelae to pulp disease. Periapical radiolucent areas are generally diagnosed either during routine dental radiographic examination or following acute toothache. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: the conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, method using calcium hydroxide, lesion sterilization and repair therapy and the apexum procedure. Monitoring the healing of periapical lesions is essential through periodic follow-up examinations. The ultimate goal of endodontic therapy should be to return the involved teeth to a state of health and function without surgical intervention. All inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. Surgical intervention is recommended only after nonsurgical techniques have failed. Besides, surgery has many drawbacks, which limit its use in the management of periapical lesions. How to cite this article: Sood N, Maheshwari N, Gothi R, Sood N. Treatment of Large Periapical Cyst Like Lesion: A Noninvasive Approach: A Report of Two Cases. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):133-137. PMID:26379382

  19. [Current perspectives on endodontic treatment of teeth with chronic periapical lesions].

    PubMed

    Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    The author study in this article histopathological aspects of periapical lesions, intra-granulomatous epithelial proliferation phenomenon as pathogenic mechanism of microscopic cystic cavities formation, diagnostic problems of them all, as well as the most actual therapeutic perspectives. PMID:1964067

  20. Use of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate in the Treatment of Large Periapical Lesions: Reports of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Tahsin; Gencoglu, Nimet

    2010-01-01

    Pulpal and periradicular pathosis are the result of microbial, mechanical, or chemical invasion. Microorganisms are the main irritants of pulpal and periapical tissues. The goal of the obturation is to obtain a fluid-tight seal of the root canal system from its coronal aspect through its apical extent to preserve from the irritants.. Root apices have morphological irregularities in teeth with periapical lesions. Therefore, it is more difficult to produce hermetically apical stop with conventional guttapercha obturation techniques. This case report describes the treatment and six years follow-up of the teeth with large periapical lesion using MTA as apical filling material. PMID:20922168

  1. Healing of a large periapical lesion using triple antibiotic paste and intracanal aspiration in nonsurgical endodontic retreatment

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Jaidev Singh; Amita; Saini, Suresh Kumar; Bedi, Harmandeep Singh; Ratol, Sukhmilap Singh; Gill, Bobbin

    2014-01-01

    A patient with a large periapical lesion in relation to the maxillary right central and lateral incisors is presented here. During the conservative root canal treatment, aspiration of the fluid was done through the root canal, followed by placement of triple antibiotic paste for two weeks. Complete periapical healing was observed at the 24-month recall. This report confirms that for treatment of a large periapical lesion it is not always necessary to do surgical treatment and even cyst-like periapical lesions heal following conservative endodontic therapy. PMID:25565747

  2. Surgical Management of Mandibular Central Incisors with Dumbbell Shaped Periapical Lesion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Patil, Jayaprakash D.; Jayaprakash, Thumu; Chaitanya, C. H. Krishna; Kalluru, Rama S.

    2014-01-01

    Dental traumatic injuries may affect the teeth and alveolar bone directly or indirectly. Pulpal necrosis and chronic and apical periodontitis with cystic changes are the most common sequelae of the dental traumatic injuries, if the teeth are not treated immediately. This case report focuses on the conventional and surgical management of mandibular central incisors. A twenty-four-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular central incisors. Radiographic examination revealed mandibular central incisors with dumbbell shaped periapical lesion. After root canal treatment, parendodontic surgery was performed for mandibular central incisors. After one-year recall examination, the teeth were asymptomatic and periapical lesion had healed. PMID:25105031

  3. Bactericidal Effects of Diode Laser Irradiation on Enterococcus faecalis Using Periapical Lesion Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Nagayoshi, Masato; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Nakashima, Keisuke; Iwaki, Shigetsugu; Chen, Ker-Kong; Terashita, Masamichi; Kitamura, Chiaki

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Photodynamic therapy has been expanded for use in endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of diode laser irradiation on endodontic pathogens in periapical lesions using an in vitro apical lesion model. Study Design. Enterococcus faecalis in 0.5% semisolid agar with a photosensitizer was injected into apical lesion area of in vitro apical lesion model. The direct effects of irradiation with a diode laser as well as heat produced by irradiation on the viability of microorganisms in the lesions were analyzed. Results. The viability of E. faecalis was significantly reduced by the combination of a photosensitizer and laser irradiation. The temperature caused by irradiation rose, however, there were no cytotoxic effects of heat on the viability of E. faecalis. Conclusion. Our results suggest that utilization of a diode laser in combination with a photosensitizer may be useful for clinical treatment of periapical lesions. PMID:21991489

  4. Scanning electron microscopy reveals severe external root resorption in the large periapical lesion.

    PubMed

    Ookubo, Kensuke; Ookubo, Atsushi; Tsujimoto, Masaki; Sugimoto, Kouji; Yamada, Shizuka; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2016-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the relationships between clinicopathological findings and the resorptive conditions of root apices of teeth with periodontitis. The samples included 21 root apices with large periapical radiolucent lesions. The preoperative computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative findings were correlated with the presence, extension, and the progression pattern of periapical resorption using a scanning electron microscope. The subjects' age, gender, chief complaint, type of tooth, percussion test results, size of periapical lesion using CT, and intraoperative findings were recorded. All apicoectomies were performed under an operative microscope for endodontic microsurgery. A significant large size was observed in cystic lesions compared with granulomatous lesions. The cementum surface at the periphery of the lesion was covered with globular structures (2-3 μm in diameter). Cementum resorption started as small defect formations at the surface. As the defect formation progressed, a lamellar structure appeared at the resorption area, and the size of globular structures became smaller than that of globules at the surface. Further resorption produced typical lacuna formation, which was particularly observed in fracture cases. The most morphologically severe destructive pattern of dentin resorption was observed in large cystic lesions. This study is the first report to elucidate the relationships between three clinical types of undesirable periapical lesions: (1) undertreatment, (2) periapical fracture, (3) macro-level resorption, and the microstructure of external root resorption including from small defects at the cementum surface to a significant destructive pattern inside the dentin. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:495-500, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26957368

  5. Presence of secretory IgA in human periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Torres, J O; Torabinejad, M; Matiz, R A; Mantilla, E G

    1994-02-01

    The concentration of secretory IgA in fluids present in the canals of 33 teeth was determined by the rocket immunoelectrophoresis technique. Except for the presence or absence of communication between the oral cavity and the root canals of the affected teeth, no other clinical finding showed significant statistical correlation with the presence of secretory IgA. The canals which were open to the oral flora had significantly higher concentrations of secretory IgA. Leaving canals open to the oral cavity may result in formation of periapical cysts. PMID:8006572

  6. Is The Periapical lesion a Risk For Periimplantitis? (A review)

    PubMed Central

    Esfahrood, Z. Rezaei; Kadkhodazadeh, M.; Amid, R.; Rokn, AR.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional implant dentistry has been limited to healed edentulous ridges with adequate bone. Predictable success rates resulted in using dental implants in compromised situations such as insertion into old infected sites or near to pathological areas. There is significant data about marginal bone loss and lack of osseointegration around the neck of implants. However, the data about peri apical implant bone loss is really rare. An electronic search was carried in PubMed regarding articles in the time period from 1980 to 2011. Subsequent manual search was performed included all animal and human case series and clinical trials. Reported success rates and treatment options were calculated in a systematic manner. There is conflicted data showing a relatively accepted success of implantation immediately after removal of infection directly or indirectly in contact with the apical portion of the implants. However, some complications may happen that must be managed. The available data about the periapical implant pathologies is relatively inadequate. However, concluded data represents some clinical comments in order to reduce the complexities. PMID:23066482

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Advanced and Conventional Diagnostic Aids for Endodontic Management of Periapical Lesions, An in Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Smita; Arora, Saurabh; Sandhu, Amneet Kaur; Dhingra, Ravneet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate efficacy of Colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUSG), direct digital radiography (DDR) and conventional radiography (CR) in diagnosis of periapical lesions and to clinically correlate treatment plan of periapical diseases. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients which were diagnosed with periapical lesions in anterior region by using both conventional and digital radiography were examined using colour doppler ultrasound imaging at the site of lesion. The images of each lesion were analysed by two endodontists and by an expert oral radiologist. A tentative differential diagnosis was agreed upon, based on certain principles discussed in article, then a diagnosis between cyst, granuloma and mixed lesions was made. Periapical lesions diagnosed as mixed lesions by colour doppler ultrasonography (CDUSG) were treated non-surgically whereas other periapical lesions were treated surgically. Tissues obtained during endodontic surgery were processed and examined for histopathological findings, and compared with the diagnosis made by ultrasound images. Statistical analysis was done with Chi-Square test and using one-way-Anova. Results: The periapical lesions which were diagnosed as granuloma by ultrasonographic findings, was confirmed by the results of histopathological examination in all 16 surgically treated cases. The lesions in rest of the 14 cases which showed vascularity and were diagnosed as mixed lesions by ultrasonography, were treated non-surgically and had a favourable prognosis. Conclusion: CR and DDR facilitate diagnosis of the presence of periapical disease, but do not provide and information of its nature. CDUSG imaging facilitates accurate information on the pathological nature of the lesion and hence can lead to predictable treatment planning. PMID:25738075

  8. Successful treatment of a large implant periapical lesion that caused paraesthesia and perimandibular abscess.

    PubMed

    Jafarian, Mohammad; Rayati, Farshid; Najafi, Elnaz

    2016-01-01

    Successful treatment of a large implant periapical lesion (IPL) that caused paraesthesia and perimandibular abscess. IPL is a pathologic phenomenon that rarely involves implants. This event first described in 1992 with an incidence rate of 0.26-9.9% and the origin is not well known. The most likely suggested causes are presence of preexisting bone pathology, contamination of implant surface, bone overheating during implant surgery, vascular ischemia, excessive tightening of the implant, fenestration of the buccal plate and different implant surface designs. In the present case report, we describe relatively large periapical lesions involving several implants caused severe abscess accompanied by transient inferior alveolar nerve paraesthesia and its successful management. A brief review of the literature and a discussion of possible causes and different treatment plans are also included. PMID:27076835

  9. Successful treatment of a large implant periapical lesion that caused paraesthesia and perimandibular abscess

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, Mohammad; Rayati, Farshid; Najafi, Elnaz

    2016-01-01

    Successful treatment of a large implant periapical lesion (IPL) that caused paraesthesia and perimandibular abscess. IPL is a pathologic phenomenon that rarely involves implants. This event first described in 1992 with an incidence rate of 0.26-9.9% and the origin is not well known. The most likely suggested causes are presence of preexisting bone pathology, contamination of implant surface, bone overheating during implant surgery, vascular ischemia, excessive tightening of the implant, fenestration of the buccal plate and different implant surface designs. In the present case report, we describe relatively large periapical lesions involving several implants caused severe abscess accompanied by transient inferior alveolar nerve paraesthesia and its successful management. A brief review of the literature and a discussion of possible causes and different treatment plans are also included. PMID:27076835

  10. HISTOMICROBIOLOGIC ASPECTS OF THE ROOT CANAL SYSTEM AND PERIAPICAL LESIONS IN DOGS' TEETH AFTER ROTARY INSTRUMENTATION AND INTRACANAL DRESSING WITH Ca(OH)2 PASTES

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Janir Alves; Leonardo, Mário Roberto; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Tanomaru, Mário; Ito, Izabel Yoko

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of microorganisms in the root canal system (RCS) and periapical lesions of dogs' teeth after rotary instrumentation and placement of different calcium hydroxide [Ca(OHy-based intracanal dressings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chronic periapical lesions were experimentally induced in 80 premolar roots of four dogs. Instrumentation was undertaken using the ProFile rotary system and irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. The following Ca(OH)2-based pastes were applied for 21 days: group 1 - Calen (n=18); group 2 - Calen+CPMC (n=20); group 3 - Ca(OH2 p.a. + anaesthetic solution (n=16) and group 4 - Ca(OH2 p.a.+ 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (n=18). Eight root canals without endodontic treatment constituted the control group. Histological sections were obtained and stained with Brown & Brenn staining technique to evaluate the presence of microorganisms in the main root canal, ramifications of the apical delta and secondary canals, apical cementoplasts, dentinal tubules, areas of cemental resorption and periapical lesions. The results were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05). RESULTS: The control group showed the highest prevalence of microorganisms in all sites evaluated. Gram-positive cocci, bacilli and filaments were the most frequent morphotypes. Similar microbial distribution patterns in the RCS and areas of cementum resorption were observed in all groups (p>0.05). The percentage of RCS sites containing microorganisms in groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and control were: 67.6%, 62.5%, 78.2%, 62.0% and 87.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the histomicrobiological analysis showed that the rotary instrumentation and the different calcium hydroxide pastes employed did not effectively eliminate the infection from the RCS and periapical lesions. However, several bacteria seen in the histological sections were probably dead or were inactivated by the biomechanical preparation and calcium

  11. Injectable nanoamorphous calcium phosphate based in situ gel systems for the treatment of periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Amany A; Zaazou, Mohamed H; Chow, Laurence C; Mahmoud, Azza A; Zaki, Dalia Y; Basha, Mona; Abdel Hamid, Mohamed A; Khallaf, Maram E; Sharaf, Nehal F; Hamdy, Tamer M

    2015-12-01

    Nonsurgical local treatment of a periapical lesion arising from trauma or bacterial infection is a promising innovative approach. The present study investigated the feasibility of developing injectable amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (ACP NPs) and ACP NPs loaded with an anti-inflammatory drug; ibuprofen (IBU-ACP NPs) in the form of thermoreversible in situ gels to treat periapical lesions with the stimulation of bone formation. NPs were produced by a spray-drying technique. Different formulations of Poloxamer 407 were incorporated with/without the produced NPs to form injectable gels. A drug release study was carried out. A 3 month in vivo test on a dog model also was assessed. Results showed successful incorporation of the drug into the NPs of CP during spray drying. The particles had mean diameters varying from 100 to 200 nm with a narrow distribution. A drug release study demonstrated controlled IBU release from IBU-ACP NPs at a pH of 7.4 over 24 h. The gelation temperature of the injectable in situ gels based on Poloxamer 407 was measured to be 30 °C. After 3 months of implantation in dogs, the results clearly demonstrated that the inclusion of ACP NPs loaded with IBU showed high degrees of periapical bone healing and cementum layer deposition around the apical root tip. PMID:26541174

  12. Long-term observation of the mineral trioxide aggregate extrusion into the periapical lesion: a case series.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seok-Woo; Oh, Tae-Seok; Lee, WooCheol; Cheung, Gary Shun-Pan; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2013-03-01

    One-step apexification using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been reported as an alternative treatment modality with more benefits than the use of long-term calcium hydroxide for teeth with open apex. However, orthograde placement of MTA is a challenging procedure in terms of length control. This case series describes the sequence of events following apical extrusion of MTA into the periapical area during a one-step apexification procedure for maxillary central incisor with an infected immature apex. Detailed long-term observation revealed complete resolution of the periapical radiolucent lesion around the extruded MTA. These cases revealed that direct contact with MTA had no negative effects on healing of the periapical tissues. However, intentional MTA overfilling into the periapical lesion is not to be recommended. PMID:23558344

  13. Periapical actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Pasupathy, Sanjay P; Chakravarthy, Dhanavel; Chanmougananda, Sumathy; Nair, Preeti P

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a rare chronic infection caused by species of Actinomyces and characterised by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis, suppurative lesions and fistulas with purulent discharge containing sulphur granules. Owing to its multiform manners of presentation and non-specificity from its clinical features, it has been considered as a challenging diagnosis. Periapical actinomycosis is one of the rarest forms of actinomycosis occurring in the maxillofacial region. In its occurrence it presents in the form of persistent and recurrent draining fistula in the periapical region. We report a case of periapical actinomycosis occurred in endodontically treated teeth and accidentally found to be actinomycosis during histopatological examination. An insight towards the portal of entry of the organisms into the periapical region is also discussed. The practice of sending even a tiny bit of tissues to histopathology obtained from periapical surgery will very well demonstrate this disease and help in rapid resolution through appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:22854234

  14. Radiological diagnosis of periapical bone tissue lesions in endodontics: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Petersson, A; Axelsson, S; Davidson, T; Frisk, F; Hakeberg, M; Kvist, T; Norlund, A; Mejàre, I; Portenier, I; Sandberg, H; Tranaeus, S; Bergenholtz, G

    2012-09-01

    This systematic review evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of radiographic methods employed to indicate presence/absence and changes over time of periapical bone lesions. Also investigated were the leads radiographic images may give about the nature of the process and the condition of the pulp in nonendodontically treated teeth. Electronic literature search included the databases PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL from January 1950 to June 2011. All languages were accepted provided there was an abstract in English. The MeSH terms were 'Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)', 'Radiography, panoramic', 'Periapical diseases', 'Dental pulp diseases', 'Sensitivity and specificity', 'receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve', 'Cadaver', 'Endodontics' and 'Radiography dental'. Two reviewers independently assessed abstracts and full text articles. An article was read in full text if at least one of the two reviewers considered an abstract to be potentially relevant. Altogether, 181 articles were read in full text. The GRADE approach was used to assess the quality of evidence of each radiographic method based on studies of high or moderate quality. Twenty-six studies fulfilled criteria set for inclusion. None was of high quality; 11 were of moderate quality. There is insufficient evidence that the digital intraoral radiographic technique is diagnostically as accurate as the conventional film technique. The same applies to CBCT. No conclusions can be drawn regarding the accuracy of radiological examination in identifying various forms of periapical bone tissue changes or about the pulpal condition. PMID:22429152

  15. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression in the Epithelium of Inflammatory Periapical Lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, R.; Perrotta, R.E.; Musumeci, G.; Crimi, S.; dos Santos, J.N.; Rusu, M.C.; Bufo, P.; Barbato, E.; Pannone, G.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are essential for the innate immune response against invading pathogens and have been described in immunocompetent cells of areas affected by periapical disease. Besides initiating the inflammatory response, they also directly regulate epithelial cell proliferation and survival in a variety of settings. This study evaluates the in situ expression of TLR4 in periapical granulomas (PG) and radicular cysts, focusing on the epithelial compartment. Twenty-one periapical cysts (PC) and 10 PG were analyzed; 7 dentigerous non-inflamed follicular cyst (DC) served as control. TLR4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. TLR4 immunoreaction products were detected in the epithelium of all specimens, with a higher percentage of immunostained cells in PG. Although TLR4 overexpression was detected in both PG and PC, there were differences that seemed to be related to the nature of the lesion, since in PG all epithelial cells of strands, islands and trabeculae were strongly immunoreactive for TLR4, whereas in PC only some areas of the basal and suprabasal epithelial layers were immunostained. This staining pattern is consistent with the action of TLR4: in PG it could promote formation of epithelial cell rests of Malassez and in epithelial strands and islands the enhancement of cell survival, proliferation and migration, whereas in PC TLR4 could protect the lining epithelium from extensive apoptosis. These findings go some way towards answering the intriguing question of why many epithelial strands or islands in PG and the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after non-surgical endodontic therapy, and suggest that TLR4 plays a key role in the pathobiology of the inflammatory process related to periapical disease. PMID:26708181

  16. Periodontal repair of periapical lesions: the borderland between pulpal and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Gold, S I; Moskow, B S

    1987-05-01

    A series of cases demonstrating the destruction of periapical periodontal structures, without pulpal involvement has been presented. Treatment using both surgery and antibiotics resulted in extensive healing without any concommitant endodontic therapy. The results suggest that lesions affecting the apical periodontium are either periodontal or pulpal in origin. Careful diagnosis allows the maintenance of pulp vitality in cases where apical destruction has a source other than an infected pulp. The commonly held belief that lateral and accessory canals are a significant source of pulpal contamination from deep periodontal pockets has been questioned. PMID:3475293

  17. Role of ultrasound and color doppler in diagnosis of periapical lesions of endodontic origin at varying bone thickness

    PubMed Central

    Tikku, Aseem P; Bharti, Ramesh; Sharma, Neha; Chandra, Anil; Kumar, Ashutosh; Kumar, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To access the role of ultrasound and color doppler in diagnosing periapical lesions of maxilla and mandible. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics (Faculty of Dental Sciences), Department of Radiotherapy, and Department of Pathology. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 30 patients with periapical lesions of endodontic origin in maxilla and mandible requiring endodontic surgery. After thorough clinical and radiographic examination patients were subjected to ultrasound and color doppler examination, where the lesions were assessed for their contents as to cystic or solid. Following which periapical surgery was done and the pathological tissue obtained was subjected to histopathological examination. The results of the ultrasound examination were correlated with histopathological features. The diagnostic validity of ultrasound was assessed by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15.0 statistical analysis software. The values were represented in number (%). Results: Within the limitations of the current study it can be stated that although ultrasound may not establish the definitive diagnosis, it can facilitate the differential diagnosis between cystic and solid granulomatous lesions. However, this technique may have a limited role in detecting periapical lesions present in the region with thick overlying cortical bone. Conclusion: Ultrasound can routinely be recommended as a complimentary method for the diagnosis of periapical lesions of endodontic origin. However, this technique may have a limited role in detecting periapical lesions present in the region with thick overlying cortical bone. PMID:27099421

  18. The use of platelet rich plasma in the treatment of immature tooth with periapical lesion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ceren; Akgün, Özlem Martı; Altun, Ceyhan; Dinçer, Didem; Özkan, Cansel Köse

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the treatment of an immature permanent tooth with periapical lesion which was treated with regenerative approach using platelet rich plasma (PRP). The root canal of immature human permanent tooth with periapical lesion was gently debrided of necrotic tissue and disinfected with 2.5% NaOCl, and then medicated with triple antibiotic paste comprised of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline. When the tooth was asymptomatic, PRP and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) were placed into the root canal. Six months after PRP treatment, radiographical examination revealed resolution of the radiolucency and progressive thickening of the root wall and apical closure. Our findings suggest that PRP can be used for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with periapical lesion, as part of a regenerative endodontic treatment procedure. PMID:25110649

  19. Porcine deltacoronavirus: histological lesions and genetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leyi; Hayes, Jeff; Sarver, Craig; Byrum, Beverly; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    First identified in 2012 in a surveillance study in Hong Kong, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a proposed member of the genus Deltacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. In February of 2014, PDCoV was detected in pigs with clinical diarrheal symptoms for the first time in the USA. Since then, it has been detected in more than 20 states in the USA and in other countries, including Canada, South Korea, and mainland China. So far, histological lesions in the intestines of pigs naturally infected with PDCoV under field conditions have not been reported. In this report, we describe the characteristic histological lesions in the small intestine that were associated with PDCoV infection, as evidenced by detection of viral nucleic acid by RT-PCR. In addition, we performed genomic analysis to determine the genetic relationship of all PDCoV strains from the four countries. We found that PDCoV mainly caused histological lesions in the small intestines of naturally infected piglets. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the PDCoV strains of different countries are closely related and shared high nucleotide sequence similarity; however, deletion patterns in the spike and 3' untranslated regions are different among the strains from mainland China, Hong Kong, the USA, and South Korea. Our study highlights the fact that continual surveillance is needed to trace the evolution of this virus. PMID:26475155

  20. Conservative treatment of patients with periapical lesions associated with extraoral sinus tracts.

    PubMed

    Soares, Janir Alves; de Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldes; Araújo, Gustavo Sivieri; de Pontes Lima, Regina K; Rodrigues, Vivian M Tellaroli; de Toledo Leonardo, Renato

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the clinical courses of three cases with extra-oral sinus tract formation, from diagnosis and treatment to short-term follow-up and evaluation. All teeth involved had periradicular radiolucent areas noted on radiographic examination and extra-oral sinus tracts appearing on the chin with exudation and unpleasant aesthetic appearance. The adopted treatment protocol included treating the sinus tract surface simultaneously with the root canal therapy. After root canal shaping using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution, calcium hydroxide-based pastes associated with different vehicles were inserted into the root canal for 4 months, and were changed monthly. All the sinus tracts healed in 7 to 10 days. The apical lesions were completely repaired in a maximum period of 24 months. The treatment adopted provided a complete healing of the periapical lesions in a short follow-up period. Surgical repair of the cutaneous sinus tract was therefore unnecessary. PMID:18076581

  1. Impact of lossy compression on diagnostic accuracy of radiographs for periapical lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eraso, Francisco E.; Analoui, Mostafa; Watson, Andrew B.; Rebeschini, Regina

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group compression for endodontic pretreatment digital radiographs. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty clinical charge-coupled device-based, digital radiographs depicting periapical areas were selected. Each image was compressed at 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48, and 64 compression ratios. One root per image was marked for examination. Images were randomized and viewed by four clinical observers under standardized viewing conditions. Each observer read the image set three times, with at least two weeks between each reading. Three pre-selected sites per image (mesial, distal, apical) were scored on a five-scale score confidence scale. A panel of three examiners scored the uncompressed images, with a consensus score for each site. The consensus score was used as the baseline for assessing the impact of lossy compression on the diagnostic values of images. The mean absolute error between consensus and observer scores was computed for each observer, site, and reading session. RESULTS: Balanced one-way analysis of variance for all observers indicated that for compression ratios 48 and 64, there was significant difference between mean absolute error of uncompressed and compressed images (P <.05). After converting the five-scale score to two-level diagnostic values, the diagnostic accuracy was strongly correlated (R (2) = 0.91) with the compression ratio. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that high compression ratios can have a severe impact on the diagnostic quality of the digital radiographs for detection of periapical lesions.

  2. Nonsurgical management of large periapical lesion in mature and immature teeth using different calcium hydroxide formulations: case series.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Vinay; Hegde, Reshma S; Moogi, Prashant P; Prashant, B R; Patil, Basanagouda

    2013-01-01

    This case series evaluates the effectiveness of different calcium hydroxide formulations with various vehicles in management of large periapical lesion in mature and immature teeth. This will help clinicians to make informed judgments about which formulations of calcium hydroxide should be used for specific endodontic procedures. PMID:24858773

  3. Atypical Lymphocytes and Cellular Cannibalism: A Phenomenon, First of its Kind to be Discovered in Chronic Periapical Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Kaustubh P.; Nayyar, Abhishek Singh; Sasane, Rutuparna S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lymphocytes are often termed to be isomorphic, having a monotonous light microscopic appearance. Morphological aspects of lymphocytes in tissue sections thereby are not routinely taken notice of as their morphology seems to vary only in case of lymphoid malignancies, hematological malignancies apart from certain viral infections. Atypical lymphocytes are the lymphocytes with unusual shape, size or overall structure. These are more commonly known as reactive lymphocytes. The unusual histomorphological feature of these cells include larger size than normal lymphocytes; in some cells the size exceeds even 30 microns. The large size is the result of antigenic stimulation of the cell. Alongwith these, the other rare feature which is recently coming under light is “Cellular Cannibalism” which is defined as a large cell enclosing a slightly smaller one within its cytoplasm. Previously, this feature was noted only in cases of malignant tumors. Aim The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of atypical lymphocytes in chronic periapical granulomas and cysts; to determine the proportionate cellular cannibalism in these periapical lesions. Materials and Methods This was a descriptive, observational study conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and Oral Pathology and Microbiology. Haematoxylin and eosin stained 30 slides of chronic periapical granulomas and 20 slides of cysts reported in the year 2014-15 and the clinical proformas of the patients were retrieved from the files of the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and Oral Pathology and Microbiology. These slides were evaluated by 3 experts from the specialization of Oral Pathology and Microbiology to determine the presence of atypical lymphocytes and cellular cannibalism under high power magnification (400X). Results Out of the 30 slides of chronic periapical granulomas, about 12 slides (40%) revealed presence of atypical lymphocytes. In case of slides of chronic

  4. The guided tissue regeneration principle in endodontic surgery: one-year postoperative results of large periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Pecora, G; Kim, S; Celletti, R; Davarpanah, M

    1995-01-01

    Twenty patients with large endodontic lesions, which failed to respond to conventional endodontic therapy, were selected for this study. The lesions had a radiographic diameter of at least 10 mm, were removed by periradicular surgery, before retrofilling the apices with either super EBA or dessicated zinc oxide-eugenol. In 10 test sites large e-PTFE membranes (Gortex) were placed to cover the lesions, while at the control sites the lesions were not covered before resuturing. Radio-graphic analysis of the lesions at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months revealed that lesions covered with the membranes healed quicker than the control lesions, and that the quality and quantity of the regenerated bone was superior when membranes were used. Results of the study indicate that guided tissue regeneration (GTR) principles can be effectively applied to the healing of large periapical lesions, especially in through-and-through lesions. PMID:7642328

  5. Conservative, Surgical, and Prosthetic Treatment of a Patient with a Periapical Lesion Associated with an Atypical Intraoral Sinus Tract

    PubMed Central

    Tschoppe, Peter; Kielbassa, Andrej M.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a clinical case with an atypical intraoral sinus tract formation from diagnosis and treatment to short-term outcome and definitive prosthetic rehabilitation. In detail, the patient underwent conservative nonsurgical root canal treatment followed by guided bone augmentation of the regions involved in periapical inflammation and sinus tract formation. The removal of the inflammatory source of the lesion as well as the affected tissue clearly led to a healing of the surrounding bone tissues. Subsequently, the tooth was reconstructed using a fibreglass post and a metal-ceramic crown; an implant was successfully placed in the previously inflamed bone region. PMID:26064699

  6. Comparison of cone beam CT device and field of view for the detection of simulated periapical bone lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hedeşiu, M; Băciuţ, M; Băciuţ, G; Nackaerts, O; Jacobs, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of different cone beam CTs (CBCTs) and the influence of field of view (FOV) in diagnosing simulated periapical lesions. Methods 6 formalin-fixed lateral mandibular specimens from pigs were used for creating 20 standardized periapical bone defects. 18 roots were selected for the control group. Three CBCT devices [Accuitomo 3D® (Morita, Kyoto, Japan), NewTom 3G (Quantitative Radiology, Verona, Italy) and Scanora® (Soredex, Tuusula, Finland)] and three FOVs (NewTom 3G® FOV 6, 9 and 12 inches) were used to scan the mandible. Five observers assessed the images, using a five-point probability scale for the presence of lesions. Specificity, sensitivity and areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated. Results Sensitivity ranged from 72% to 80%. Specificity ranged from 60% to 77%. A difference in scoring between Scanora and the other two devices existed only in the control group. ROC analysis for different FOVs showed a decreased sensitivity with an increasing FOV, but this difference was not significant. Conclusion In the control group, there was a difference between the CBCT devices regarding their specificity. FOV size did not show any difference in diagnostic performance. In cases in which conventional radiographic methods in combination with clinical evaluation are not sufficient, CBCT may be the method of choice to assess periapical pathology. CBCT examinations should be complementary to a clinical examination and FOV adaptation can be utilized to keep the dose to the patient as low as possible. PMID:22554990

  7. Segmentation of large periapical lesions toward dental computer-aided diagnosis in cone-beam CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysavy, Steven; Flores, Arturo; Enciso, Reyes; Okada, Kazunori

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study for assessing the applicability of general-purpose 3D segmentation algorithms for analyzing dental periapical lesions in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. In the field of Endodontics, clinical studies have been unable to determine if a periapical granuloma can heal with non-surgical methods. Addressing this issue, Simon et al. recently proposed a diagnostic technique which non-invasively classifies target lesions using CBCT. Manual segmentation exploited in their study, however, is too time consuming and unreliable for real world adoption. On the other hand, many technically advanced algorithms have been proposed to address segmentation problems in various biomedical and non-biomedical contexts, but they have not yet been applied to the field of dentistry. Presented in this paper is a novel application of such segmentation algorithms to the clinically-significant dental problem. This study evaluates three state-of-the-art graph-based algorithms: a normalized cut algorithm based on a generalized eigen-value problem, a graph cut algorithm implementing energy minimization techniques, and a random walks algorithm derived from discrete electrical potential theory. In this paper, we extend the original 2D formulation of the above algorithms to segment 3D images directly and apply the resulting algorithms to the dental CBCT images. We experimentally evaluate quality of the segmentation results for 3D CBCT images, as well as their 2D cross sections. The benefits and pitfalls of each algorithm are highlighted.

  8. Endoscopic and histologic characteristics of serrated lesions.

    PubMed

    Moussata, Driffa; Boschetti, Gilles; Chauvenet, Marion; Stroeymeyt, Karine; Nancey, Stéphane; Berger, Françoise; Lecomte, Thierry; Flourié, Bernard

    2015-03-14

    In recent years, a second pathway for colonic carcinogenesis, distinct from the adenomatous pathway, has been explored. This is referred to as serrated pathway and includes three types of polyp, characterised by a serrated appearance of the crypts: hyperplastic polyps (HP), sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) or lesions, and traditional serrated adenomas. Each lesion has its own genetic, as well as macroscopic and microscopic morphological features. Because of their flat aspect, their detection is easier with chromoendoscopy (carmin indigo or narrow-band imaging). However, as we show in this review, the distinction between SSA and HP is quite difficult. It is now recommended to resect in one piece as it is possible the serrated polyps with a control in a delay depending on the presence or not of dysplasia. These different types of lesion are described in detail in the present review in general population, in polyposis and in inflammatory bowel diseases patients. This review highlights the need to improve characterization and understanding of this way of colorectal cancerogenesis. PMID:25780286

  9. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  10. MMP1-1607 polymorphism increases the risk for periapical lesion development through the upregulation MMP-1 expression in association with pro-inflammatory milieu elements

    PubMed Central

    TROMBONE, Ana Paula Favaro; CAVALLA, Franco; SILVEIRA, Elcia Maria Varize; ANDREO, Camile Bermejo; FRANCISCONI, Carolina Favaro; FONSECA, Angélica Cristina; LETRA, Ariadne; SILVA, Renato Menezes; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is a hallmark of periapical granulomas. However, the factors underlying the MMPs expression modulation in healthy and diseased periapical tissues remains to be determined. Objective In this study, we evaluated the association between the MMP1-1607 polymorphism (rs1799750) and pro-inflammatory milieu elements with MMP-1 mRNA levels in vivo. Material and Methods MMP1-1607 SNP and the mRNA levels of MMP-1, TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, and FOXp3 were determined via RealTimePCR in DNA/RNA samples from patients presenting periapical granulomas (N=111, for both genotyping and expression analysis) and control subjects (N=214 for genotyping and N=26 for expression analysis). The Shapiro-Wilk, Fisher, Pearson, Chi-square ordinal least squares regression tests were used for data analysis (p<0.05 was considered statistically significant). Results The MMP1-1607 1G/2G and 1G/2G+2G/2G genotypes were significantly more prevalent in the patients than in controls, comprising a risk factor for periapical lesions development. MMP-1 mRNA levels were higher in periapical lesions than in healthy periodontal ligament samples, as well as higher in active than in inactive lesions. The polymorphic allele 2G carriers presented a significantly higher MMP-1 mRNA expression when compared with the 1G/1G genotype group. The ordered logistic regression demonstrated a significant correlation between the genetic polymorphism and the expression levels of MMP-1. Additionally, the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-17A, IFN-g, TNF-a, IL-21, IL-10, IL-9, and IL-4 were significant as complementary explanatory variables of MMP-1 expression. Conclusion The MMP1-1607 SNP was identified as a risk factor for periapical lesions development, possibly due to its association with increased MMP-1 mRNA levels in periapical lesions. The MMP-1 expression is also under the control of the inflammatory milieu elements, being the

  11. A Comparative Study on Diagnostic Accuracy of Colour Coded Digital Images, Direct Digital Images and Conventional Radiographs for Periapical Lesions – An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mubeen; K.R., Vijayalakshmi; Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar; Panigrahi, Rajat G; Priyadarshini, Smita R; Misra, Satyaranjan; Singh, Chandravir

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The identification and radiographic interpretation of periapical bone lesions is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The present study was undertaken to study the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital radiographs in terms of presence and size of lesion and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital images with direct digital images and conventional radiographs for assessing periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human dry cadaver hemimandibles were obtained and periapical lesions were created in first and second premolar teeth at the junction of cancellous and cortical bone using a micromotor handpiece and carbide burs of sizes 2, 4 and 6. After each successive use of round burs, a conventional, RVG and colour coded image was taken for each specimen. All the images were evaluated by three observers. The diagnostic accuracy for each bur and image mode was calculated statistically. Results: Our results showed good interobserver (kappa > 0.61) agreement for the different radiographic techniques and for the different bur sizes. Conventional Radiography outperformed Digital Radiography in diagnosing periapical lesions made with Size two bur. Both were equally diagnostic for lesions made with larger bur sizes. Colour coding method was least accurate among all the techniques. Conclusion: Conventional radiography traditionally forms the backbone in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of periapical lesions. Direct digital imaging is an efficient technique, in diagnostic sense. Colour coding of digital radiography was feasible but less accurate however, this imaging technique, like any other, needs to be studied continuously with the emphasis on safety of patients and diagnostic quality of images. PMID:25584318

  12. Management of Cyst-like Periapical Lesions by Orthograde Decompression and Long-term Calcium Hydroxide/Chlorhexidine Intracanal Dressing: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Santos Soares, Suelleng Maria Cunha; Brito-Júnior, Manoel; de Souza, Flávia Kelly; Zastrow, Eduardo Von; Cunha, Carla Oliveira da; Silveira, Frank Ferreira; Nunes, Eduardo; César, Carlos Augusto Santos; Glória, José Cristiano Ramos; Soares, Janir Alves

    2016-07-01

    Cyst-like periapical lesions should be treated initially with conservative nonsurgical procedures. In this case series, we describe the clinical and radiographic outcomes of large cyst-like lesions that were treated by orthograde decompression and long-term intracanal use of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] mixed with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate. Ten cases of cyst-like periapical lesions involving 15 teeth from 10 patients were selected. Maximal radiographic diameters of the lesions ranged from 11 to 28 mm. Nonsurgical procedures were performed, including apical patency, orthograde puncture of cyst-like exudates, chemomechanical preparation, and placement of intracanal Ca(OH)2/CHX dressings, which were periodically replaced during 6-10 months. The root canals were then filled with gutta-percha and sealer. The follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 24 months, and the outcome was classified as healed, healing, or failure. Nine lesions drained copious exudates after canal patency. One lesion only drained bloody serous exudate after periapical overinstrumentation. In 9 patients, intracanal exudation ceased in the first follow-up visit. At the 24-month follow-up, 6 lesions (60.0%) had healed, and 3 lesions (30.0%) were healing, with the corresponding patients being without clinical signs or symptoms. The case of treatment failure was submitted to surgical treatment. Microscopically, the lesion appeared to be an apical cyst with exuberant extraradicular bacterial biofilms attached to the sectioned root apex. This case series supports the use of nonsurgical methods to resolve larger cyst-like periapical lesions. PMID:27325458

  13. Osgood Schlatter lesion: histologic features of slipped anterior tibial tubercle.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, F; Giordano, M; Aulisa, A G; Poggiaroni, A; Guzzanti, V

    2011-01-01

    No study reports the histological features of the various zone of the anterior tubercle of the tibia in the different stages of the Osgood-Schlatter (O-S) lesion. For this reason we carried on an histological study. Specimens were taken from 13 patients with O-S lesion prior to surgery. In 4 cases in the apophyseal stage lesions were present in an altered fibrocartilage anterior to the ossification centre. In 9 cases in the epiphyseal stage varying degrees of reparative tissues were observed in the bed of the fragment of the secondary ossification centre. In 3 of them a zone of lesion was observed within the fibrocartilage anterior to the ossification centre. These results suggest that the slippage of the patellar tendon insertion may be progressive and caused by pathological fibrocartilage. PMID:21669134

  14. Conventional Treatment of Maxillary Incisor Type III Dens Invaginatus with Periapical Lesion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Semenoff Segundo, Alex; Nadalin, Michele Regina; Pedro, Fábio Luís Miranda; da Cruz Filho, Antônio Miranda; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2011-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental dental anomaly clinically characterized by a palatine furrow that can be limited to the coronal pulp or may extend to the radicular apex. The purpose of this paper was to present a clinical case of type III dens invaginatus, identified on the maxillary right central incisor in anterior periapical radiographs, in which the tooth was submitted to conventional endodontic treatment. The results obtained after five years of clinical and radiographic followup demonstrated that conventional endodontic treatment is a clinically viable alternative in cases of type III dens invaginatus. PMID:21991460

  15. Management and prognosis of teeth with trauma induced crown fractures and large periapical cyst like lesions following apical surgery with and without retrograde filling

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly; Al Rayes, Mohamed Hafiz Ibrahim; Saini, Deepti

    2012-01-01

    Crown fractures are common detrimental consequences of dental traumatic injuries. Early management of such cases is mandatory in order to prevent subsequent pathological changes that could further complicate the treatment. Pulp necrosis, chronic and cystic apical periodontitis can be the fate if these teeth are left untreated. Despite these serious complications, root canal treatment followed by apical surgery is considered a valid treatment option when such cases become complicated with large periapical lesions. However, whether a retrograde filling is essential to be placed or not is still a matter of debate. This case report discusses the orthograde endodontic management, the surgical approach and the clinical outcomes of longstanding crown fractured teeth with large cyst-like periapical lesions with and without retrograde filling. PMID:22368341

  16. [Desmoplastic fibroma. Differential diagnosis of a periapical lesion from endodontic failure].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Gil, J; Zabalegui, I

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of endodontically involved teeth requires accurate diagnosis of the clinical pulpal condition to determine the primary cause of pathosis. The case presented shows the differential diagnosis between a desmoplastic fibroma and a failure of a misdiagnosed endodontic treatment. The initial direction of treatment should had never been the endodontic therapy but local surgical curettage of the lesion. PMID:2638020

  17. Chordoid glioma: a rare radiologically, histologically, and clinically mystifying lesion.

    PubMed

    Bongetta, Daniele; Risso, Andrea; Morbini, Patrizia; Butti, Giorgio; Gaetani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Chordoid glioma (CG) is a rare central nervous system neoplasm (WHO grade II) of uncertain origin whose typical localization is in the anterior part of the third ventricle. Its clinical, radiological, and histological features may vary and furthermore mimic other kind of benign lesions usually associated with a better outcome. We report a case of a 43-year-old female who underwent gross total removal of a lesion of the third ventricle causing hydrocephalus. The imaging studies and the intraoperative examination led at first to a hypothesis of meningioma. Early surgical and neurological outcomes were good. The patient underwent multiple complications related to hypothalamic dysfunctions and thrombohemorragic issues and eventually died because of systemic infections. Definitive examination was of chordoid glioma of the third ventricle. Reviewing literature, we evaluated possible pitfalls in radiological and histological diagnosis as well as in surgical and medical treatment of CGs. Despite their benign presentation, a high incidence of multiple possible severe complications is reported. Early alertness and combined treatment strategies could improve overall CGs treatment strategies. PMID:26018908

  18. Management of dens in dente associated with a chronic periapical lesion.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vivek; Raheja, Anupama; Singh, Rajeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Dens in dente is characterised as a developmental anomaly resulting from invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla. It is a rare malformation of teeth, showing a wide spectrum of morphological variations such as gemination, microdontia, taurodontism, dentinogenesis imperfecta, supernumerary tooth and hyperplasias, resulting frequently in early pulp necrosis. Maxillary lateral incisors are the commonest teeth to be affected by dental malformations-supernumerary tooth, talon cusp, congenitally missing tooth and dens in dente. We describe the management of a case of dens in dente in a maxillary lateral incisor with a periradicular lesion. PMID:26655667

  19. Elimination of intracanal infection in dogs' teeth with induced periapical lesions after rotary instrumentation: influence of different calcium hydroxide pastes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Janir Alves; Leonardo, Mário Roberto; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Tanomaru Filho, Mário; Ito, Izabel Yoko

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiseptic efficacy of rotary instrumentation associated with calcium hydroxide-based pastes prepared with different vehicles and antiseptics. Chronic periapical lesions were experimentally induced in 72 premolar root canals of four dogs. Under controlled asepsis, after initial microbiological sampling (A1), the root canals were instrumented using the ProFile system in conjunction with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and the intracanal medication was placed. Four experimental groups were formed according to the pastes used: group 1- Calen (n=18), group 2- Calen+CPMC (n=20), group 3- Ca(OH)(2) p.a.+ anaesthetic solution (n=16) and group 4- Ca(OH)(2) p.a.+ 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (n=18). After 21 days, the pastes were removed; the canals were emptied and 96 hours later a second microbiological sample was obtained (A2). The incidence of positive microbiological cultures and the number of cfus in stages A1 and A2 were compared statistically by the Wilcoxon test while the influence of the different treatments in intracanal infection was evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis test at 5% significance level (p<0.05). Large numbers of strict and facultative anaerobes, and viridans group streptococci were found in 100% of root canals of A1 samples. Among A2 samples, all treatments showed significant reduction of cfus and positive cultures (p<0.05), but only groups 3 and 4 showed 100% of root canals free of microorganisms. Rotary instrumentation plus NaOCl 5.25% associated with intracanal medication produced a drastic reduction or elimination of intracanal microbiota, whose performance was not influenced by the nature of the vehicle or the antiseptic added to the Ca(OH)(2) p.a. PMID:19089068

  20. ELIMINATION OF INTRACANAL INFECTION IN DOGS' TEETH WITH INDUCED PERIAPICAL LESIONS AFTER ROTARY INSTRUMENTATION: INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT CALCIUM HYDROXIDE PASTES

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Janir Alves; Leonardo, Mário Roberto; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Tanomaru, Mário; Ito, Izabel Yoko

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiseptic efficacy of rotary instrumentation associated with calcium hydroxide-based pastes prepared with different vehicles and antiseptics. Chronic periapical lesions were experimentally induced in 72 premolar root canals of four dogs. Under controlled asepsis, after initial microbiological sampling (A1), the root canals were instrumented using the ProFile system in conjunction with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and the intracanal medication was placed. Four experimental groups were formed according to the pastes used: group 1- Calen (n=18), group 2- Calen+CPMC (n=20), group 3- Ca(OH)2 p.a.+ anaesthetic solution (n=16) and group 4- Ca(OH)2 p.a.+ 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (n=18). After 21 days, the pastes were removed; the canals were emptied and 96 hours later a second microbiological sample was obtained (A2). The incidence of positive microbiological cultures and the number of cfus in stages A1 and A2 were compared statistically by the Wilcoxon test while the influence of the different treatments in intracanal infection was evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis test at 5% significance level (p<0.05). Large numbers of strict and facultative anaerobes, and viridans group streptococci were found in 100% of root canals of A1 samples. Among A2 samples, all treatments showed significant reduction of cfus and positive cultures (p<0.05), but only groups 3 and 4 showed 100% of root canals free of microorganisms. Rotary instrumentation plus NaOCl 5.25% associated with intracanal medication produced a drastic reduction or elimination of intracanal microbiota, whose performance was not influenced by the nature of the vehicle or the antiseptic added to the Ca(OH)2 p.a. PMID:19089068

  1. Antimicrobial comparison on effectiveness of endodontic therapy and endodontic therapy combined with photo-disinfection on patients with periapical lesion: a 6 month follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcez, Aguinaldo S.; Núñez, Silvia C.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2008-03-01

    This study compares the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined to endodontic treatment with conventional endodontic treatment alone in patients with necrotic pulp and has a 6-month radiographic follow up comparing the healing of periapical lesions. Fifteen patients with periapical lesion and requiring root canal treatment were selected. Microbiological samples were taken after accessing the root canal, conventional manual endodontic therapy (group 1 n=5) and after accessing the canal, endodontic therapy and PDT (group 2 n=10). All the root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide paste for 1 week. Radiographs were taken after obturation and following 6 months. Endodontic therapy alone presented an 87% reduction in microorganisms while the combination with PDT had a 95% reduction. Radiographic follow up showed 32% higher reduction in the lesion area in PDT group. Results suggest that the use of PDT added to conventional endodontic treatment leads to a further major reduction of microbial load. PDT is an efficient alternative to chemical antimicrobial agents. It is a non-cumulative local treatment, which may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of infections in the oral cavity.

  2. Clinical and radiographical evaluation of the healing of large periapical lesions using triple antibiotic paste, photo activated disinfection and calcium hydroxide when used as root canal disinfectant

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Jolly M.; Thomas, Kunjamma; Abraham, Aby; James, Elizabeth P.; Maroli, Ramesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate clinically and radio graphically, the healing following nonsurgical treatment of periapical lesions when Photo Activated Disinfection(PAD), triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide was used as root canal disinfectant. Material and Methods: Sixty patients (20 for PAD, 20 for triple antibiotic paste, 20 for calcium hydroxide) with periapical lesions in the maxillary and mandibular anterior region were selected from the outpatient section of the Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Govt. Dental College, Kozhikode to participate in this study. The patients were selected with a preoperative score of 4 or 5. There were no significant differences for the PAI Scores between the three groups at the start of the experiment .Intracanal disinfection was done in the three groups followed by obturation. The patients recalled at 3,6,12,18 months interval. Results: At 18 months follow up 15 % of cases failed in calcium hydroxide group,5% in triple antibiotic paste and no failure cases were seen in PAD group. Success criteria were divided into strict and loose, while the former had statistically significant p value the latter did not. Kruskal-Wallis Test showed an increased mean value for PDT and a significant change in p value. Bonferroni post hoc test was done to compare if there is any significant change between groups. Only significant change was found between calcium hydroxide and photoactivated disinfection . Conclusion: PAD was more effective intracanal disinfectant at 6,12 and 18 months. Key words:Calcium, hydroxide, photo activated disinfection, triple antibiotic paste, root canal disinfection PMID:25136422

  3. Histological Spectrum of Large Intestinal Lesions with Clinicopathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Shete, Smita; Kulkarni, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Large intestine is affected by various types of lesions, both non-neoplastic and neoplastic. Due to vague symptoms, the clinical diagnosis is usually delayed. A battery of laboratory tests including biopsy is essential to arrive at a specific diagnosis for appropriate management. Materials and Methods This five years study was done during the period of 2005 to 2010 in a tertiary care centre which included 124 biopsies and resected specimens of large intestine and 64 from Anal canal. All tissues were fixed in formalin, stained with H&E and special stains like Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS), Reticulin, Zeihl Neelsen (ZN) along with Immunohistochemistry (IHC) were done as and when required. Results Out of the 124 cases of large intestine 38 were non-neoplastic, 77 were neoplastic and 9 were inadequate biopsies. Sixty four cases from Anal canal included 55 non-neoplastic and 9 neoplastic lesions. The non-neoplastic conditions included congenital anomalies, infective and ischaemic lesions while neoplastic included benign and malignant lesions. Most of the cases presented with symptoms like abdominal pain, vomiting and constipation. Conclusion We observed that neoplastic lesions were more common in large intestine while non-neoplastic lesions were frequently seen in Anal canal. Present study emphasizes the need for early histopathological diagnosis for appropriate treatment. PMID:26674358

  4. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of resin-based root canal sealers in rat periapical tissue.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Noriko; Satoh, Takenori; Watabe, Hirotaka; Tani-Ishii, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the biocompatibility of resin-based root canal sealers (RCSs) in the periapical tissues of rats. Wistar rats underwent tooth replantation for reproducing the response of periapical tissue with RCSs. The resin-based Epipany SE, AH Plus Jet, the eugenol-based sealer (Canals) and a control group were employed. The upper right first molar was extracted and applied with RCSs on apices, and then the tooth was repositioned. Histological evaluation demonstrated that mild inflammation occurred in the periapical tissue with Epiphany and AH Plus Jet sealers on day 7, whereas Canals induced severe-to-moderate inflammation. The statistical analyses demonstrated that the significant differences were observed between Canals and the other groups on day 7 regarding inflammatory response. On day 14, the lesions induced by all sealers were healed and replaced predominantly by fibrous connective tissue. Our results suggest that Epiphany SE and AH Plus Jet are good biocompatible materials. PMID:23719002

  5. Arthroscopical and histological study of cartilaginous lesions treated by mosaicplasty

    PubMed Central

    Cirstoiu, CF; Bădilă, AE

    2010-01-01

    Aim. The aim of our study was to assess macro– and microscopically the knee cartilaginous lesions outcome treated by mosaicplasty. Material and method Our study included 32 patients which underwent mosaicplasty for nondegenerative cartilaginous lesions of the knee and a second look arthroscopy. In 21 patients, minibiopsies from the repaired lesion were performed under arthroscopic control (from the cartilaginous region of the transplanted osteocartilaginous grafts and from the spaces between grafts). All repaired lesions were carefully examined during arthroscopy and all harvested minifragments were studied by optical microscopy (staining method – hematoxylin eosin). Results Macroscopically, the articular surface of the repaired cartilaginous lesions was smooth and congruent to the adjacent surfaces. The aspect and resistance to compression of grafted area was similar to those of the normal surrounding cartilage. The transferred cartilage maintained its height, being at the level of the neighboring cartilage. One year postoperatively, the limits of the cartilaginous autografts were still visible. Two years postoperatively, these limits were no longer visible. Microscopically, the region of the former lesion was constituted mainly by viable hyaline cartilage. Fibrous cartilaginous tissue was visualized in the spaces between the grafts. Conclusions The second look arthroscopy showed that after mosaicplasty the repaired articular surface was smooth, leveled, homogenous and congruent to adjacent cartilage. The spaces between grafts are progressively covered by fibrous cartilaginous tissue with a more textured and uneven surface. Mosaicplasty is a biological surgical technique which restores the normal osteocartilaginous architecture of the most part of the grafted area. The transplanted osteocartilaginous cylindrical grafts maintain its viability and mechanical properties. PMID:21254739

  6. Selected benign cutaneous lesions that may simulate melanoma histologically.

    PubMed

    Wick, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    As cutaneous melanomas manifest a wide spectrum of clinical and pathologic presentations, several other lesions enter into their differential diagnosis. This article considers those entities, including melanocytic hyperplasia, cellular nodules in congenital nevi, atypical lentiginous melanocytic proliferations, "special site" nevi, epithelioid histiocytoma, neurothekeoma, cellular schwannoma, and proliferating scars. PMID:27221234

  7. The use of aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, to evaluate the role of nitric oxide on periapical healing

    PubMed Central

    Farhad, Ali Reza; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nejad, Parnian Alavi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the many chemical mediators involved in inflammatory processes. In addition to periapical inflammation, NO can have a role in periapical healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aminoguanidine (AG) as a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on the degree of healing response of periapical lesions of the canine teeth of cats. Methods: In this interventional experimental study, the root canals of 48 cat canine teeth were infected with cat dental plaque and sealed. After induction of periapical lesions, root canal therapy (RCT) was performed. On the day of RCT phase, the cats were administered either AG (experimental group) or normal saline (control group), which was continued on a daily basis until the day of sacrifice. Four canine teeth in one cat served as negative and positive controls. The animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after RCT. The healing response of the periapical zones was analyzed histologically. The mean scores of healing for the two groups were compared using Mann–Whitney U test. Results: The mean scores of healing for the AG group (2.45±0.508) were significantly higher than those of the control group (2±0.510) (P<0.05). Conclusion: The use of an iNOS selective inhibitor such as AG can accelerate the healing process in periapical lesions. PMID:22135691

  8. Clinical features and histological description of tongue lesions in a large Northern Italian population

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Mario; Arduino, Paolo-Giacomo; Carrozzo, Marco; Conrotto, Davide; Tanteri, Carlotta; Carbone, Lucio; Elia, Alessandra; Maragon, Zaira; Broccoletti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Only few studies on tongue lesions considered sizable populations, and contemporary literature does not provide a valid report regarding the epidemiology of tongue lesions within the Italian population. In this report, the histopathological and clinical appearance of 1.106 tongue lesions from northern Italians are described and discussed. Material and Methods The case records of patients referred for the diagnosis and management of tongue lesions, from October 1993 to October 2013, were reviewed. Histological data were also obtained and blindly reexamined. Results For instance, a biopsy performed on a lingual ulcer has a strong predicting association with a carcinoma, whereas a biopsy on a white lesion predicts for a leukoplakia or oral lichen planus. Moreover, a biopsy of erosion is representative of bullous diseases, whereas a biopsy on a verrucous-papillary lesion is significant for fibroma. Furthermore, carcinomas occur in the majority of cases on the lingual edge or pelvis, oral lichen planus is mainly seen on the edge, and fibromas mostly on the lingual tip. Conclusions The high frequency of tongue involvement of such different diseases emphasizes the importance of histological characterization and that some diseases occur more frequently than others, with a peculiar clinical aspect and a more common area. In fact our survey can help the clinician in advancing diagnostic hypothesis, on the basis of the elementary lesion and its site of involvement. Key words:Tongue lesions, clinical appearance, histological description. PMID:26241456

  9. [Inflammatory odontogenic lesions of the jaws].

    PubMed

    Gallini, G; Merlini, C; Martelossi, L; Benetti, C

    1991-04-15

    The apical granuloma, the periapical abcess and the radicular cyst are the most frequent between the inflammatory odontogenic lesions of the jaws. These three lesions are caused by the necrosis of the pulp but are very different between each other from an histological point of view and they can correspond to different stages of the same pathological process considering the fact that from a granuloma can arise a periapical abcess or a radicular cyst and from a radicular cyst and abcess can originate. About these three pathological processes we discuss in this article the clinical, radiographical, ethiological, microscopical features, we suggest the treatment and the differential diagnosis. PMID:2070926

  10. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Quantification in Determining the Histological Diagnosis of Malignant Liver Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Drevelegas, Konstantinos; Nikiforaki, Katerina; Constantinides, Manolis; Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papalavrentios, Lavrentios; Stoikou, Ioanna; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Pitsiou, Georgia; Pataka, Athanasia; Organtzis, John; Papadaki, Eleni; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Kioumis, Ioannis; Kouskouras, Constantinos; Akriviadis, Evaggelos; Drevelegas, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Diffusion Weighted Imaging is an established diagnostic tool for accurate differential diagnosis between benign and malignant liver lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of Histogram Analysis of ADC quantification in determining the histological diagnosis as well as the grade of malignant liver tumours. To our knowledge, there is no study evaluating the role of Histogram Analysis of ADC quantification in determining the histological diagnosis as well as the grade of malignant liver tumours. Methods: During five years, 115 patients with known liver lesions underwent Diffusion Weighted Imaging in 3Tesla MR scanner prior to core needle biopsy. Histogram analyses of ADC in regions of interest were drawn and were correlated with biopsy histological diagnosis and grading. Results: Histogram analysis of ADC values shows that 5th and 30th percentile parameters have statistically significant potency of discrimination between primary and secondary lesions groups (p values 0.0036 and 0.0125 respectively). Skewness of the histogram can help discriminate between good and poor differentiated (p value 0.17). Discrimination between primary malignancy site in metastases failed for the present number of patients in each subgroup. Conclusion: Statistical parameters reflecting the shape of the left side of the ADC histogram can be useful for discriminating between primary and secondary lesions and also between well differentiated versus moderate or poor. For the secondary malignancies, they failed to predict the original site of tumour. PMID:27076855

  11. Frequency and clinical significance of placental histological lesions in an unselected population at or near term.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Sangeeta; Lees, Christoph C; Hackett, Gerald; Jessop, Flora; Sebire, Neil J

    2011-12-01

    Associations between specific placental histological abnormalities and obstetric outcomes are reported. However, most data are based either on high-risk cases or relate to case-control studies selected from those with abnormal placental histology findings, with the unavoidable biases that these approaches entail. This study reports the frequency of the several common, objective and predefined histological abnormalities of the placenta as identified by pathologists blinded to all clinical information. A total 1,153 women were recruited from an unselected population delivering at 34-43 weeks. Histological findings in common obstetric outcome groups were compared to those of the unselected population, and odds ratios and predictive values were calculated. Normal histological findings were present in 72.1% of pregnancies with normal outcomes and in 79.1%, 66.6%, 80%, and 74.8% of pregnancies affected by pre-eclampsia (PET), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small for gestational age (SGA), respectively. Chronic placental underperfusion was seen more frequently in PIH (odds ratio (OR) 2) and SGA (OR 1.4), while villitis of unknown aetiology was observed more commonly in cases with PIH (OR 3.2). Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy was twice as common in cases with GDM whilst massive perivillous fibrin deposition was much more frequent in those with PET (OR 20.2) and SGA (OR 8.9). Chorangiomata were 13 times more common in pregnancies with PET. However, in all cases, positive predictive values were low, with the majority of cases with histological abnormalities being associated with normal outcome. At term, specific placental histological lesions are significantly more common in complicated pregnancies, but the clinical significance of such lesions in a specific case remains uncertain, since the majority will be identified from clinically uncomplicated normal pregnancies. PMID:22038509

  12. MR histology of advanced atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE- knockout mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumova, A.; Yarnykh, V.; Ferguson, M.; Rosenfeld, M.; Yuan, C.

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the feasibility of determining the composition of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in fixed ApoE-knockout mice and to develop a time-efficient microimaging protocol for MR histological imaging on mice. Five formalin-fixed transgenic ApoE-knockout mice were imaged at the 9.4T Bruker BioSpec MR scanner using 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence with an isotropic field of view of 24 mm3; TR 20.8 ms; TE 2.6 ms; flip angle 20°, resulted voxel size 47 × 63 × 94 pm3. MRI examination has shown that advanced atherosclerotic lesions of aorta, innominate and carotid arteries in ApoE-knockout mice are characterized by high calcification and presence of the large fibrofatty nodules. MRI quantification of atherosclerotic lesion components corresponded to histological assessment of plaque composition with a correlation coefficient of 0.98.

  13. High reproducibility of histological diagnosis of human papillomavirus-related intraepithelial lesions of the anal canal.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer M; Jin, Fengyi; Thurloe, Julia K; Biro, Clare; Poynten, Isobel M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Fairley, Christopher K; Templeton, David J; Carr, Andrew D; Garland, Suzanne M; Hillman, Richard J; Cornall, Alyssa M; Grulich, Andrew E; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2015-06-01

    In a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-related lesions, we examined the reproducibility of histological high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Three expert anogenital pathologists share the reporting of histological specimens from the Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC), utilising Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) criteria. In total, 194 previously reported biopsies were randomly chosen within diagnostic strata [50 HSIL-anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) 3; 45 HSIL-AIN 2; 49 'flat' low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL); 50 'exophytic' LSIL; and 50 negative for squamous intraepithelial lesion] and reviewed by each of these three pathologists. Consensus was defined as agreement between at least two review diagnoses, using a binary classification of HSIL and non-HSIL, or if consensus was not obtained in this way, it was achieved through a multiheader microscope session by the three pathologists. We found very high agreement between original and consensus diagnoses (Kappa = 0.886) and between each pathologist's review and consensus (Kappas = 0.926, 0.917 and 0.905). Intra-observer agreement for the three pathologists was 0.705, 1.000 and 0.854. This high level of diagnostic reproducibility indicates that the findings of SPANC should be robust and provide reliable information about HPV-related anal canal disease. PMID:25938361

  14. Biopsy of Different Oral Soft Tissues Lesions by KTP and Diode Laser: Histological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Umberto; Russo, Claudia; Lo Giudice, Rossella; Visca, Paolo; Migliau, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Oral biopsy aims to obtain clear and safe diagnosis; it can be performed by scalpel or laser. The controversy in this latter application is the thermal alteration due to tissue heating. The aim of this study is the histological evaluation of margins of “in vivo” biopsies collected by diode and KTP lasers. Material and Methods. 17 oral benign lesions biopsies were made by diode 808 nm (SOL, DenMatItalia, Italy) and KTP 532 nm (SmartLite, DEKA, Italy). Samples were observed at OM LEICA DM 2000; margin alterations were evaluated through Leica Application Suite 3.4. Results. Epithelial and connective damages were assessed for each pathology with an average of 0.245 mm and a standard deviation of ±0.162 mm in mucoceles, 0.382 mm ± 0.149 mm in fibromas, 0.336 mm ± 0.106 mm in hyperkeratosis, 0.473 mm ± 0.105 mm in squamous hyperplasia, 0.182 mm in giant cell granuloma, and 0.149 mm in melanotic macula. Discussion. The histologic aspect of lesions influenced the response to laser, whereas the greater inflammation and cellularity were linked with the higher thermal signs. Many artifacts were also associated to histologic procedures. Conclusion. Both tested lasers permitted sure histologic diagnosis. However, it is suggested to enlarge biopsies of about 0.5 mm, to avoid thermal alterations, especially in inflammatory lesions like oral lichen planus. PMID:25405233

  15. Histology of experimental stress ulcer: the effect of cimetidine on adrenaline-induced gastric lesions in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Man, W. K.; Silcocks, P. B.; Waldes, R.; Spencer, J.

    1981-01-01

    The gastric mucosal injury produced by i.p. instillation of adrenaline in the rabbit was examined and assessed histologically. Mucosal lesions were classified by microscopy into two types bearing distinct histological features. In Type A oedema only was seen and in Type B erosion and/or haemorrhage were added. Statistical analysis revealed that mucosal lesions were related to adrenaline dose. Cimetidine was ineffective in protecting against the stress-related gastric lesion in the present rabbit model. Biochemical studies demonstrated that severe lesions were associated with depleted mucosal histamine. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7295535

  16. Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, E E B; Wynne, J; Garner, M M; Nyaoke, A; Keel, M K

    2016-05-01

    Despite increasing concern for coral reef ecosystem health within the last decade, there is scant literature concerning the histopathology of diseases affecting the major constituents of coral reef ecosystems, particularly marine invertebrates. This study describes histologic findings in 6 species of marine invertebrates (California sea hare [Aplysia californica], purple sea urchin [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with experimentally induced copper toxicosis, and 1 unexposed control of each species listed. The primary lesions in the California sea hare with copper toxicosis were branchial and nephridial necrosis. Affected echinoderms shared several histologic lesions, including epidermal necrosis and ulceration and increased numbers of coelomocytes within the water-vascular system. The sunburst anemone with copper toxicosis had necrosis of both epidermis and gastrodermis, as well as expulsion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis. In addition to the lesions attributed to copper toxicosis, our results describe normal microscopic features of these animals that may be useful for histopathologic assessment of marine invertebrates. PMID:26459519

  17. Expression and immunohistochemical localization of leptin in human periapical granulomas

    PubMed Central

    Martín-González, Jénifer; Carmona-Fernández, Antonio; Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Flora; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptin, initially described as an adipocyte-derived hormone to regulate weight control, is expressed in normal and inflamed human dental pulp, being up-regulated during pulp experimental inflammation. Leptin receptor (LER) has been identified in human periapical granulomas. The aim of this study was to analyze and characterize the expression of leptin in human periapical granulomas. Material and Methods Fifteen periapical inflammatory lesions were obtained from extracted human teeth and teeth which underwent periapical surgery. After their morphological categorization as periapical granulomas and gradation of the inflammatory infiltrate, they were examined by immunohistochemistry using human leptin policlonal antibodies. Leptin mRNA expression was also determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the amount of leptin protein was analyzed by immunoblot. Results All periapical lesions exhibited the characteristic of chronic granulomatous inflammatory process with inflammatory infiltrate grade III. Leptin+ cells were detected in 13 periapical granulomas (86.6%). The median number of Leptin+ cells in periapical granulomas was 1.70 (0.00-7.4). Amongst the inflammatory cells in the periapical granulomas, only macrophages were reactive to leptin antibodies. Western blot analysis revealed the presence in all samples of a protein with apparent molecular weight of approximately 16 kDa, corresponding to the estimated molecular weights of leptin. The expression of leptin mRNA was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis and the size of the amplified fragment (296 bp for leptin and 194 bp for cyclophilin) was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Conclusions For the first time, it has been demonstrated that human periapical granuloma expresses the adipokine leptin. Key words: Apical granuloma, dental pulp, endodontics, leptin, leptin receptor, immune system, immunohistochemistry, periapical inflammatory response. PMID:25662559

  18. Cellular Blue Nevomelanocytic Lesions: Analysis of Clinical, Histological, and Outcome Data in 37 Cases.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tawny; Argenyi, Zsolt; Erickson, Lori; Guitart, Joan; Horenstein, Marcelo G; Lowe, Lori; Messina, Jane; Piepkorn, Michael W; Prieto, Victor G; Rabkin, Michael S; Schmidt, Birgitta; Selim, Maria A; Shea, Christopher R; Trotter, Martin J; Barnhill, Raymond L

    2016-07-01

    Cellular blue nevomelanocytic lesions (CBNLs) frequently pose diagnostic problems to pathologists, and their biological potential may be difficult to establish. In this study, the authors have analyzed the clinical, histological, and outcome data of 37 cellular blue nevomelanocytic lesions and the molecular characteristics of 4 lesions. The cohort of cases comprised 8 cellular blue nevi (CBNs), 17 atypical cellular blue nevi (ACBNs), and 12 blue-nevus-like melanomas (BNLMs) with a mean follow-up of 5 years. The average age at diagnosis was 25.9 years for patients with ACBN, versus 30.4 years for CBN, and 44.6 years for BNLM. Both CBN and ACBN occurred most frequently on the trunk or extremities, whereas BNLM primarily involved the scalp. Histologically, CBN and ACBN were characterized by a mean diameter of <1 cm, absence of necrosis, low mitotic rate (mean: 1-2 mitotic figures/mm), little or no infiltrative properties, and usually low-grade cytologic atypia. In contrast, BNLM had a mean diameter of 1.6 cm, necrosis, tissue infiltration, greater mitotic activity (mean: 6 mitotic figures/mm), and high-grade cytologic atypia. ACBNs often were larger, more densely cellular, exhibited higher mitotic counts, and were cytologically more atypical than CBN. Seven CBN cases with follow-up had a benign clinical course (average follow-up of 4.7 years). Among 6 patients with ACBN who underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, 3 were positive, and a single additional case had 1 positive non-SLN (this patient did not have a SLN biopsy performed). All 14 cases of ACBN with follow-up were alive and without recurrence with mean follow-up of 5 years. Of the 9 melanoma cases with follow-up, 3 patients with SLN and non-SLN involvement died from their disease (average follow-up of 4.8 years). Array comparative genomic hybridization was performed on 2 ACBNs and 1 BNLM: One of the 2 ACBNs showed chromosomal aberrations and 1 BNLM showed multiple chromosomal gains and losses. Multiplex

  19. Analysis of Plaque Composition in Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion Lesion Using Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yo-Han; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Seo, Duck-Jun; Seo, Young-Hoon; Lee, Chung-Seop; Song, In-Geol; Yang, Dong-Ju; Kim, Ki-Hong; Park, Hyun-Woong; Kim, Wan-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Success rates of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have recently been reported to range from 80% to 90%. A better understanding of the pathologic characteristics of the CTO lesion may helpful to improving CTO PCI success rates. We evaluated the CTO lesion in patients with stable angina (SA) by virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). Subjects and Methods The study population consisted of 149 consecutive patients with SA underwent VH-IVUS examination. We analyzed demographic and VH-IVUS findings in 22 CTO patients (17 males; mean, 62.3 years old) compared with 127 non-CTO patients (82 males; mean, 61.3 years old). Results A significantly lower ejection fraction (57.6±13.0% vs. 65.4±8.8%, p=0.007) was detected in the CTO group compared with the non-CTO group. Reference vessel lumen area of the proximal and distal segment was significantly less in CTO group than in non-CTO group. The lesion length of the CTO group was significantly longer than those of the non-CTO group (24.4±9.6 mm vs. 17.2±7.4 mm, p<0.001). Total atheroma volume (224±159 mm3 vs. 143±86 mm3, p=0.006) and percent atheroma volume (63.2±9.6% vs. 55.8±8.5%, p=0.011) of the CTO group were also significantly greater than those of non-CTO group. However, the lesion length adjusted plaque composition of the CTO group was not significantly different compared with that of the non-CTO group. Conclusion CTO lesions had a longer lesion length and greater plaque burden than the non-CTO lesion in patients with SA. However, lesion length adjusted plaque composition showed similar between the two groups. These results support that plaque characteristics of CTO lesions are similar to non-CTO lesions in patients with SA. PMID:26798383

  20. Osteoarthritic cartilage lesions in the bovine patellar groove: a macroscopic, histological and immunohistological analysis.

    PubMed

    Heinola, T; Sukura, A; Virkki, L M; Sillat, T; Lekszycki, T; Konttinen, Y T

    2014-04-01

    A high percentage of osteoarthritis (OA)-like patellar groove lesions in the stifle joint in calcium-deficient bulls has been recently reported. The prevalence of these lesions in bulls deficient in or supplemented with calcium was compared to findings in culled and healthy bulls to determine whether they represent normal anatomical variations, developmental anomalies or OA. It was hypothesized that the patellar groove lesions may represent OA. Distal cartilage samples from 160 femurs were analysed using a macroscopic Société Française d'Arthroscopie (SFA) OA grading system. Samples representing different SFA grades were subjected to Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) histological and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) immunohistological OA grading. For a qualitative analysis three OA samples were immunostained for interleukin (IL)-1β, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and collagenase-produced COL2-3/4M neoepitopes. Patellar groove lesions were found in 48% of the femurs and were highest in calcium-deficient animals (71%, P<0.001). All three different grading systems disclosed OA in culled bulls, but no focal areas of cartilage necrosis. OARSI and HMGB1 grades were fairly concordant (Spearman's ρ=0.95, P<0.001; Cohen's κ=0.23, P<0.005), both with a slight disparity with the SFA grade (ρ=0.80 and 0.87, P<0.01; κ=0.36 and 0.46, P<0.001). IL-1β, MMP-13 and COL2-3/4M staining patterns were compatible with OA. The study showed that patellar groove lesions are common in bulls. In all SFA, OARSI and HMGB1 graded samples the lesions clearly demonstrated OA and showed OA-typical pathophysiology. Arthroscopic SFA grading showed similar changes in calcium-deficient and calcium-supplemented bulls, but in the absence of a time course study and histological data the primary nature of these lesions could not be established with certainty. PMID:24581814

  1. Lesions of the tunica media in traumatic rupture of vertebral arteries: histologic and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Pollanen, M S; Deck, J H; Boutilier, L; Davidson, G

    1992-02-01

    Discontinuous non-circumferential lesions of tunica media were observed in four cases of traumatic rupture of the vertebral artery. We hypothesize that these lesions were due to mechanical disruption of smooth muscle cells and the liberation of catabolic enzymes with subsequent degradation of the arterial media. To test this hypothesis, healthy vertebral arteries were incubated with crude extracts of bovine smooth muscle cytosol in attempt to reproduce the histological changes of the arterial media in traumatized vertebral arteries. We observed cytosol-induced degradation of tunica media, characterized by pallor of staining with the Masson's Trichrome method, which was due to catabolic enzyme activity that was effectively inhibited by heat inactivation of the cytosol. The cytosol-induced tinctorial changes were similar to the lesions of the tunica media in naturally-occurring cases of traumatic vertebral artery rupture. We conclude that although vertebral arteries can be ruptured by physical distortion alone, associated lesions of the tunica media are due to in situ trauma-associated release of heat-labile catabolic enzymes. PMID:1562907

  2. Comparison of thermal corneal lesions by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarization histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop, Norbert; Brinkmann, Ralf; Kaftan, Bjorn; Asiyo-Vogel, Mary; Engelhardt, Ralf; Birngruber, Reginald

    1996-12-01

    Corneal thermal lesions as typically applied in laser thermokeratoplasty were investigated with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarization microscopy. Both methods were used to compare the lesions with respect to the extent and degree of thermal denaturation. The coagulations wee applied on enucleated porcine eyes using a continuously emitting laser diode at a wavelength of 1.86 micrometers . The self developed OCT-system has an axial and lateral resolution of 15-20 micrometers and 26-48 micrometers , respectively, and was used to perform cross sections through the lesions. After OCT on the intact globe, the sections were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. The sections were stained with sirius red and analyzed by polarization light microscopy. The comparison of the backscattered light of the OCT image with the changes in birefringence detected with the polarization microscopy technique found to be in good agreement. Up to four changes in birefringence detected with the polarization microscopy technique found to be in good agreement.Up to four different degrees of denaturation zones could be classified in both methods. OCT findings taken from a noninvasive method and correlated with histological experiences can be used to control the extent and degree of corneal lesions and monitor their healing response.

  3. Encephalitozoon cuniculi: Grading the Histological Lesions in Brain, Kidney, and Liver during Primoinfection Outbreak in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Tovar, Luis E.; Nevárez-Garza, Alicia M.; Trejo-Chávez, Armando; Hernández-Martínez, Carlos A.; Zarate-Ramos, Juan J.; Castillo-Velázquez, Uziel

    2016-01-01

    This is the first confirmed report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) in farm meat rabbits located in Northern Mexico. Eighty young rabbits exhibited clinical signs of this zoonotic emerging disease, like torticollis, ataxia, paresis, circling, and rolling. Samples of brain, kidney, and liver were examined for histology lesions. For the first time the lesions caused by E. cuniculi were graded according to their severity (I, II, and III) and the size of the granulomas (Types A, B, and C). The main cerebral injuries were Grade III, coinciding with the presence of Type C granulomas. The cerebral lesions were located in the cortex, brain stem, and medulla. The renal lesions were also Grade III distributed throughout cortex and renal medulla, with no granuloma formation. The involvement of hypersensitivity Types III and IV is suggested. All of the rabbits were seropositive to E. cuniculi by CIA testing, suggesting that this zoonotic and emerging pathogen is widely distributed among animals intended for human consumption. We believe this work could be used as a guide when examining E. cuniculi and will provide direction to confirm the diagnosis of this pathogen. PMID:27022485

  4. Mucocele-like lesions of the breast: a clinical outcome and histologic analysis of 102 cases.

    PubMed

    Meares, Annie L; Frank, Ryan D; Degnim, Amy C; Vierkant, Robert A; Frost, Marlene H; Hartmann, Lynn C; Winham, Stacey J; Visscher, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    Mucocele-like lesions (MLLs) of the breast are characterized by cystic architecture with stromal mucin and frequent atypia, but it is unknown whether they convey long-term breast cancer risk. We evaluated 102 MLLs that were derived from a single-institution benign breast disease cohort of 13412 women who underwent biopsy from 1967 to 2001. MLLs were histologically characterized by type of lining epithelium, architecture of the lesion, associated atypical hyperplasia (AH), and incidence of breast cancer (14.8-year median follow-up). A relatively large proportion of MLLs (42%) were diagnosed in women older than 55 years. AH was significantly more frequent in MLL patient compared to the cohort overall (27% versus 5%; P < .001). Breast cancer has developed in 13 patients with MLL. This frequency is only slightly higher than population expected rates overall (standardized incidence ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-3.91) and not significantly different from women in the cohort with (nonatypical) proliferative breast lesions. Younger women (<45) with MLL had a nonsignificant increase in risk of cancer compared to the general population (standardized incidence ratio, 5.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-13.23). We conclude that MLL is an uncommon breast lesion that is often associated with coexisting AH. However, in women older than 45 years, MLLs do not convey additional risk of breast cancer beyond that associated with the presence of proliferative disease. PMID:26826407

  5. US variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus: histological lesions and genetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leyi; Hayes, Jeff; Byrum, Beverly; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was first recognized in pigs in the United States (US) in May 2013. Since then, the virus has spread to over 30 states and caused significant economic losses in the US swine industry due to the high mortality in newborn piglets less than 2 weeks of age. A mild-variant strain OH851 of PEDV in the US was first reported in January 2014. Here, we report histological changes in the small intestines of five piglets infected with the variant strain OH851 of PEDV. The lesions observed were milder, compared to the US classical strain of PEDV. Our study, for the first time, reports the histological lesions caused by the variant PEDV OH851 strain from a field case. In addition, genomic characterization demonstrated that US variant PEDV is more closely related to European-like strains in the first 1170 nt of the 5' spike gene but to US classical PEDV strains in the remaining genome, suggesting that the variant PEDV strain may derive from a recombinant event between the US classical and European-like PEDV strains. PMID:27059242

  6. Sulfur mustard inhalation induced respiratory lesions in guinea pigs: Physiological, biochemical, and histological study

    SciTech Connect

    Allon, N.; Gilat, E.; Amir, A.; Fishbine, E.; Liani, H.

    1993-05-13

    Inhalation exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) vapor causes long term damage to the respiratory system. The lesions were characterized by specific physiological, biochemical and histopathological methods. Awake 128 guinea-pigs (GP) were exposed for 10 min to SM (1200-1700 microns x min/1). Respiratory parameters were monitored per animal before, during and after the exposure using plethysmography. Biochemical and histological evaluations were performed at different time intervals for up to 7 days post exposure. SM inhalation resulted in a decrease in both respiratory rate and minute volume, and in an increase in tidal volume. These changes occurred immediately after the onset of exposure and lasted for up to 7 days. The changes in the respiratory parameters were accompanied by a massive reduction in O2 diffusion capacity. Evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid indicated neutrophil infiltration, an increase in the protein content, and in the activity of both lysosomal enzymes and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the alveolar space. In addition, a decrease in glutathione content was observed one day post exposure in the BAL fluid and the lung whereas an increase in lung glutathione content was observed 6 days later. Histological evaluation of the lungs and trachea revealed severe lesions in both tissues. Recovery was incomplete 7 days post exposure. The detailed characterization of the effect of SM inhalation offers a reliable model for the evaluation of potential therapies against SM exposure.

  7. Histological and ultrastructural studies of renal lesions in Babesia canis infected dogs treated with imidocarb.

    PubMed

    Máthé, A; Dobos-Kovács, M; Vörös, K

    2007-12-01

    Histological and electron microscopic examinations of the kidneys of 8 dogs suffering from fatal, naturally acquired Babesia canis infection and nephropathy are presented. Seven animals were treated with imidocarb dipropionate on average 4.5 days prior to death. Severe anaemia was present only in 2 cases. Degenerative histological changes observed mostly in the proximal convoluted tubules included vacuolar-hydropic degeneration, necrosis and detachment of renal tubular epithelial (RTE) cells from the basement membrane. Necrotic debris occasionally formed acidophilic casts within the tubules. In some cases, necrosis of the whole tubule was observed. Haemoglobin casts in the tubules and haemoglobin droplets in RTE cells seldom appeared. No significant histological changes were seen in the glomeruli. Ultrastructural lesions in RTE cells included nuclear membrane hyperchromatosis, karyopyknosis, karyolysis, swelling or collapse of mitochondria with fragmentation of cristae and vacuolar-hydropic degeneration in the endoplasmic reticulum and microvilli. Nuclear oedema was also observed. Many RTE cells exhibiting necrosis collapsed. Vacuolar-hydropic degeneration and necrosis were also observed in the glomerular and interstitial capillary endothelium. The severe acute tubular necrosis described in this study is probably the result of hypoxic renal injury. Systemic hypotension leading to vasoconstriction in the kidneys might be the most important cause of renal hypoxia in B. canis infections, but anaemia may also contribute to inadequate oxygenation. Imidocarb should be applied with caution in patients with possible renal involvement until further data become available on its potential nephrotoxicity in dogs. PMID:18277710

  8. Histology and clinical outcome of benign and malignant vascular lesions primary to feline cervical lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Roof-Wages, E; Spangler, T; Spangler, W L; Siedlecki, C T

    2015-03-01

    A novel form of primary feline hemangiosarcoma and additional cases of plexiform vascularization in the cervical lymph nodes are reported. Sixteen cases of feline lymphadenopathy attributed to abnormal vascular proliferation were identified and evaluated. Most of these lesions were diagnosed histologically as hemangiosarcoma. However, lesions of plexiform vascularization, with and without areas of putative malignant transformation, were also identified. Mean age of the cats was 11 years (range, 3-16 years) with most being domestic shorthair and medium hair (13). Two domestic long hair and 1 Maine Coon were identified. Excisional nodal biopsy was performed in 15 cases and incisional biopsy in 1 case. Six cats were euthanized due to their disease. Survival times ranged from ≤ 1 month to ≥ 30 months. We provide a new clinical differential for cervical lymphadenopathy in cats that is not widely recognized. Proper identification of primary nodal vascular lesions in cats will enable further characterization of clinical features and biologic behavior to determine specific therapy. PMID:24879661

  9. Histological studies of the elimination of Leishmania enriettii from skin lesions in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Monroy, A.; Ridley, D. S.; Heather, C. J.; Ridley, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Nineteen guinea-pigs were each inoculated intradermally with 10(6) amastigotes of Leishmania enriettii, and the development of the lesions was followed from Weeks 4 to 10 with a view to elucidating the histological mechanisms involved with the elimination of parasites. Electron microscopic observations were made in 1 animal. Extensive necrosis of the parasite-laden macrophages was observed in 7 out of 7 animals at 4 and 5 weeks. In the ulcerated core of the lesion at 4 weeks no intact macrophages could be identified. Very many amastigotes were extracellular. Others were present in the cytoplasm of residual macrophages the cell walls of which had disintegrated. Necrosis was less marked at 8 weeks and absent in the resolving lesions at 10 weeks. Signs of stimulation or maturation of macrophages were only apparent when parasites were few. At 4 weeks macrophages were almost all of the non-stimulated form, but cytological evidence of activation became progressively more definite and widespread from 5 to 8 weeks, starting at the periphery of the lesion. Ultrastructural observations of amastigotes suggested that there might be more than one mechanism of degradation. It appeared that the majority of parasites were released through necrosis and discharged through the ulcer, and that intracellular degradation of the remaining parasites was important mainly in the later phase before resolution. The first phase was associated mainly with plasma-cell production, the second mainly with lymphocytes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7459254

  10. Multiphoton microscopic imaging of histological sections without hematoxylin and eosin staining differentiates carcinoma in situ lesion from normal oesophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Xingshan

    2013-10-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become a powerful, important tool for tissues imaging at the molecular level. In this paper, this technique was extended to histological investigations, differentiating carcinoma in situ (CIS) lesion from normal oesophagus by imaging histological sections without hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The results show that the histology procedures of dehydration, paraffin embedding, and de-paraffinizing highlighted two photon excited fluorescence of cytoplasm and nucleolus of epithelial cell and collagen in stroma. MPM has the ability to identify the characteristics of CIS lesion including changes of squamous cells and full epithelium, identification of basement membrane, especially prominent nucleolus. The studies described here show that MPM has the potential for future retrospective studies of tumor staging by employing on histological section specimens without H&E staining.

  11. Ultrasound in differential diagnosis of periapical radiolucencies: A radiohistopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Khambete, Neha; Kumar, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound in differential diagnosis of periapical radiolucencies. Materials and Methods: Ten patients aged between 19 years and 40 years with periapical lesions associated with anterior maxillary or mandibular teeth were selected and consented for the study. Pre-operative periapical radiographs were obtained. Measurements and provisional diagnoses of the apical areas were made by two specialist observers on two separate occasions. Preoperative ultrasound examinations with Doppler flowmetry were then performed and the images assessed by two specialist observers for the size, contents, vascular supply and a provisional diagnosis made as to whether the lesion was a cyst or granuloma. Endodontic surgery was performed including curettage of the apical tissues to enable histopathological investigation, which provided the gold standard diagnosis. All measurements and findings were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: Total 10 lesions were identified in 10 patients. On periapical radiographs, lesions were readily identified but observers were unable to differentiate granuloma from cyst using either modality. Where sufficient buccal cortical bone had been resorbed, ultrasound imaging was simple but underestimated the size of the lesions compared with periapical radiographs. In all cases, the ultrasound diagnosis agreed with the histopathological gold standard. Conclusion: Ultrasonography (USG) can provide accurate information about the nature of intraosseous lesions of the jaws before any surgical procedure. It is proposed that USG with Doppler flowmetry can provide an additional diagnostic tool without invasive surgery, where treatment option is nonsurgical. PMID:25657525

  12. Peripheral Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Provirus Levels Correlate with and Predict Histological Tissue Lesion Severity in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether host immune responses in the form of serum anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses or virus replication in the form of peripheral OPP provirus levels associate with the degree of histological tissue lesions in naturally OPPV infec...

  13. Metal status in human endometrium: Relation to cigarette smoking and histological lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Rzymski, Piotr; Rzymski, Paweł; Tomczyk, Katarzyna; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Jakubowski, Karol; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Opala, Tomasz

    2014-07-15

    Human endometrium is a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue which undergoes cyclic changes and is potentially sensitive to the various endogenous and exogenous compounds supplied via the hematogenous route. As recently indicated, several metals including Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni represent an emerging class of potential metalloestrogens and can be implicated in alterations of the female reproductive system including endometriosis and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the content of five metals: Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in 25 samples of human endometrium collected from Polish females undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic curettage of the uterine cavity. The overall mean metal concentration (analyzed using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry MIP-OES) decreased in the following order: Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd. For the first time it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking significantly increases the endometrial content of Cd and Pb. Concentration of these metals was also positively correlated with years of smoking and the number of smoked cigarettes. Tissue samples with recognized histologic lesions (simple hyperplasia, polyposis and atrophy) were characterized by a 2-fold higher Cd level. No relation between the age of the women and metal content was found. Our study shows that human endometrium can be a potential target of metal accumulation within the human body. Quantitative analyses of endometrial metal content could serve as an additional indicator of potential impairments of the menstrual cycle and fertility. - Highlights: • Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are detectable in human endometrium. • Mean metal content in human endometrium decreases in Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd order. • Cigarettes smoking increases endometrial content of Cd and Pb. • Lesioned endometrial tissue was characterized by higher metal contents.

  14. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts in placental membranes: a histologic lesion of in utero hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Jerzy; Weng, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Grossly apparent and microscopically intermediate trophoblast-lined subchorionic, septal, and cell island cysts are relatively common placental findings. To analyze the clinicopathologic correlations of histologically similar but grossly inapparent microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes (mccpm), selected placental and clinical parameters of all 172 consecutive placentas with mccpm (study group, sg) and all consecutive 3743 placentas without mccpm (comparative group, cg) from years 1994 through 2005 were statistically compared; mccpm were observed in 4.3% of all placentas and in 14.9% of placentas from preeclamptic mothers from 24- to 42-week pregnancies, their gestational weeks' distribution almost mirroring that of the distribution of preeclampsia, with a peak in the middle of the 3rd trimester. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes were statistically significantly more common in patients with preeclampsia and maternal diabetes mellitus. In placentas with mccpm, decidual arteriolopathy, homogeneous placental maturation, global hypoxic pattern of placental injury, chorangiosis, placental infarction, laminar necrosis of membranes, stem obliterative endarteritis, erythroblasts of fetal blood, and decidual hemosiderosis were statistically significantly more common, while acute chorioamnionitis, villous fibrosis, and villous edema were less common (P < or = 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between sg and cg in meconium staining, retroplacental hematoma, perivillous fibrin deposition, intervillous thrombi, chronic villitis, chorangiomas, placenta accreta, amnion nodosum, and marginate/vallate placenta. Highly statistically significant associations of mccpm with preeclampsia and a cluster of placental lesions known to be linked to placental hypoxia indicate that the mccpm form in response to hypoxia, particularly in patients with

  15. Prognostic factors on periapical surgery: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Giménez, Mireia; Sánchez-Torres, Alba

    2015-01-01

    Background Analyze the most important prognostic factors when performing periapical surgery and compare the success rates of distinct authors. Introduction Periapical surgery is an approach to treat non-healing periapical lesions and it should be viewed as an extension of endodontic treatment and not as a separate entity. Material and Methods A search of articles published in Cochrane, PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus was conducted with the key words “prognostic factors”, “prognosis”, “periapical surgery”, “endodontic surgery” and “surgical endodontic treatment”. The inclusion criteria were articles including at least 10 patients, published in English, for the last 10 years. The exclusion criteria were nonhuman studies and case reports. Results 33 articles were selected from 321 initially found. Ten articles from 33 were excluded and finally the systematic review included 23 articles: 1 metaanalysis, 1 systematic review, 2 randomized clinical trials, 6 reviews, 12 prospective studies and 1 retrospective study. They were stratified according to their level of scientific evidence using the SORT criteria. Conclusions Factors associated with a better outcome of periapical surgery are patients ≤45 years old, upper anterior or premolar teeth, ≤10 sized lesions, non cystic lesions, absence of preoperative signs and symptoms, lesions without periodontal involvement, teeth with an adequate root-filling length, MTA as root-end filling material, uniradicular teeth, absence of perforating lesions, apical resection < 3 mm, teeth not associated to an oroantral fistula and teeth with only one periapical surgery. Key words:Prognostic factors, prognosis, periapical surgery, endodontic surgery and surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:26449431

  16. Periapical Disease and Bisphosphonates Induce Osteonecrosis of the Jaws in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ben; Cheong, Simon; Chaichanasakul, Thawinee; Bezouglaia, Olga; Atti, Elisa; Dry, Sarah M; Pirih, Flavia Q; Aghaloo, Tara L.; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2013-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a well-recognized complication of antiresorptive medications, such as bisphosphonates (BPs). Although ONJ is most common after tooth extractions in patients receiving high dose BPs, many patients do not experience oral trauma. Animal models utilizing tooth extractions and high BP doses recapitulate several clinical, radiographic and histologic findings of ONJ. We and others have reported on rat models of ONJ utilizing experimental dental disease in the absence of tooth extraction. These models emphasize the importance of dental infection/inflammation for ONJ development. Here, we extend our original report in the rat, and present a mouse model of ONJ in the presence of dental disease. Mice were injected with high dose zoledronic acid and pulpal exposure of mandibular molars was performed to induce periapical disease. After 8 weeks, quantitative and qualitative radiographic and histologic analyses of mouse mandibles were executed. Periapical lesions were larger in vehicle- vs. BP treated mice. Importantly, radiographic features resembling clinical ONJ, including thickening of the lamina dura, periosteal bone deposition and increased trabecular density, were seen in the drilled site of BP treated animals. Histologically, osteonecrosis, periosteal thickening, periosteal bone apposition, epithelial migration and bone exposure were present in the BP treated animals in the presence of periapical disease. No difference in TRAP+ cell numbers was observed, but round, detached, and removed from the bone surface cells were present in BP animals. Although 88% of the BP animals showed areas of osteonecrosis in the dental disease site, only 33% developed bone exposure, suggesting that osteonecrosis precedes bone exposure. Our data further emphasize the importance of dental disease in ONJ development, provide qualitative and quantitative measures of ONJ, and present a novel mouse ONJ model in the absence of tooth extraction that should be useful

  17. Study on the role of gastric Helicobacter infection in gross pathological and histological lesions of the stomach in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Szeredi, L; Palkovics, G; Solymosi, N; Tekes, L; Méhesfalvi, J

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of gastric Helicobacter infection in finishing pigs and the influence of this infection on gastric lesions was studied. Stomachs of 89 finishing pigs from 27 randomly selected herds were sampled at the slaughterhouse. Forty cases (Group A) were selected based upon the presence of gross pathological lesions in the pars oesophagea, and further 49 cases were obtained at random (Group B). Three samples of gastric tissue (junction of pars oesophagea and pars cardiaca, fundic area, and pyloric area) were collected from each stomach for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Helicobacter antigen was detected in 76 cases (85.4%). No association was found between the presence of Helicobacter in the stomach and the occurrence of gross pathological lesions in the pars oesophagea or gastritis detected on histological examination. However, a significant association was found between the occurrence of Helicobacter in the pyloric area and the presence of erosions/ulcers in the pars oesophagea (OR: 7.01, p = 0.022) in Group B. A significant association was also evident between the presence of Helicobacter and glandular lesions (dilatation of the glands + glandular abscess + degeneration of glandular epithelial cells). In conclusion, Helicobacter infection seems to be a contributing factor to pathological changes in the stomach of finishing pigs. PMID:16156132

  18. Granuloma Annulare Mimicking Sarcoidosis: Report of Patient With Localized Granuloma Annulare Whose Skin Lesions Show 3 Clinical Morphologies and 2 Histology Patterns.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R; Carlos, Casey A

    2015-07-01

    Granuloma annulare, a benign dermatosis of undetermined etiology, typically presents in a localized or generalized form. It has 3 distinctive histologic patterns: an infiltrative (interstitial) pattern, a palisading granuloma pattern, and an epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) pattern. A man whose granuloma annulare skin lesions mimicked sarcoidosis is described. His localized granuloma annulare presented with a total of 3 lesions that each had a distinctive clinical morphology: an annular lesion of individual papules, a dermal nodule, and a linear arrangement of 3 papules. Two of his lesions showed a palisading granuloma histology pattern of granuloma annulare; however, the linear papules on his posterior neck lesion demonstrated noncaseating granulomas consistent with either the epithelioid nodule histology pattern of granuloma annulare or sarcoidal granuloma compatible with sarcoidosis. A comprehensive evaluation excluded the diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on granuloma annulare, epithelioid nodule, sarcoidal granuloma, and sarcoidosis. The histology patterns of granuloma annulare-emphasizing the history and differentiating features of the epithelioid nodule pattern from cutaneous sarcoidosis-were reviewed. The epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) histology pattern of granuloma annulare is uncommon and may mimic the histology changes observed in sarcoidosis skin lesions; the absence of asteroid or other giant cell inclusions and an increase in mucin deposition between the collagen bundles favor the diagnosis of granuloma annulare. In addition, the epithelioid nodule pattern of granuloma annulare can rarely also show other histologic patterns of granuloma annulare in the same biopsy specimen or concurrently present with other clinical lesions of granuloma annulare that demonstrate a palisading granuloma, or possibly an infiltrative, histology pattern. However, the presence of an

  19. Aberrant Anatomical Variation of Maxillary Sinus Mimicking Periapical Cyst: A Report of Two Cases and Role of CBCT in Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Sisman, Yildiray; Etoz, Meryem; Bulut, Duygu Goller

    2013-01-01

    Most periapical lesions are associated with microorganisms from infected root canal systems. Maxillary sinus can pose a diagnostic dilemma radiographically because of its anatomical variation which can mimic a periapical pathosis. The aim of this study was to describe two cases of aberrant anatomical variation of the maxillary sinus that presented radiographic similarities to a periapical cyst in order to call the attention of clinicians to the fact that several different diseases are able to mimic endodontic periapical lesions. An accurate assessment of this morphology was made with the help of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). PMID:23710374

  20. Correlation of brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of spontaneously lead poisoned bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with histological lesions: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Feeney, Daniel; Armién, Anibal G; Wuenschmann, Arno; Redig, Patrick T

    2016-04-01

    Six bald eagles with severe, acute lead poisoning based on blood lead values were analyzed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain and histopathology. The aims of the study were to use MRI to locate brain lesions and correlate the changes in MRI signal with the histological character of the lesions at necropsy. All of the bald eagles presented with neurologic and non-neurologic signs suggestive of severe lead poisoning and had blood lead levels in excess of 1.0 ppm. Areas of change in image intensity in the brainstem, midbrain and cerebellum were detected in the MRI scans. Histopathology confirmed the presence of all suspected lesions. The character of the lesions suggested vascular damage as the primary insult. MRI was useful for detecting lesions and defining their three-dimensional distribution and extent. Future studies are needed to evaluate the utility of MRI for detection of lesions in less severely lead poisoned eagles and determining prognosis for treatment. PMID:27033939

  1. Perianal Median Raphe Cyst: A Rare Lesion with Unusual Histology and Localization

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Betül; Başsorgun, Cumhur İbrahim; Eren Karanis, Meryem İlkay; Elpek, Gülsüm Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Median raphe cysts present anywhere between the external urethral meatus and the anus. The cysts can occur at parameatus, glans penis, penile shaft, scrotum, or perineum. Perianal region is an extremely rare location for these lesions. Here we present a 50-year-old male patient who presented with a cystic, fluctuant lesion, located at 12 o'clock in perianal region. Microscopic examination revealed a cystic lesion with keratinized and nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, pseudostratified ciliated epithelium, and scattered goblet cells. The final diagnosis of the lesion was median raphe cyst. Ciliated cells and perianal localization in median raphe cysts are extremely rare characteristics. PMID:25793130

  2. Perianal median raphe cyst: a rare lesion with unusual histology and localization.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Betül; Başsorgun, Cumhur İbrahim; Eren Karanis, Meryem İlkay; Elpek, Gülsüm Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Median raphe cysts present anywhere between the external urethral meatus and the anus. The cysts can occur at parameatus, glans penis, penile shaft, scrotum, or perineum. Perianal region is an extremely rare location for these lesions. Here we present a 50-year-old male patient who presented with a cystic, fluctuant lesion, located at 12 o'clock in perianal region. Microscopic examination revealed a cystic lesion with keratinized and nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, pseudostratified ciliated epithelium, and scattered goblet cells. The final diagnosis of the lesion was median raphe cyst. Ciliated cells and perianal localization in median raphe cysts are extremely rare characteristics. PMID:25793130

  3. Current Concepts of Periapical Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, Stuart E

    2015-08-01

    Preoperative decision-making is vital to determine potential success of periapical surgery. Adequate exposure of the root apical region is best approached via a sulcular-type incision. Surgical procedures include resection of 2 to 3 mm of the apical portion along with root end preparation and seal. The surgeon must decide if submission of periapical tissues to pathology is indicated. PMID:26048350

  4. Effects of ganglioside G(M1) and erythropoietin on spinal cord lesions in rats: functional and histological evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa; Ferreira, Ricardo; dos Santos, Gustavo Bispo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional and histological effects of ganglioside G(M1) and erythropoietin after experimental spinal cord contusion injury. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats underwent experimental spinal cord lesioning using an NYU-Impactor device and were randomly divided into the following groups, which received treatment intraperitoneally. The G(M1) group received ganglioside G(M1) (30 mg/kg); the erythropoietin group received erythropoietin (1000 IU/kg); the combined group received both drugs; and the saline group received saline (0.9%) as a control. A fifth group was the laminectomy group, in which the animals were subjected to laminectomy alone, without spinal lesioning or treatment. The animals were evaluated according to the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale, motor evoked potential recordings and, after euthanasia, histological analysis of spinal cord tissue. RESULTS: The erythropoietin group had higher BBB scores than the G(M1) group. The combined group had the highest BBB scores, and the saline group had the lowest BBB scores. No significant difference in latency was observed between the three groups that underwent spinal cord lesioning and intervention. However, the combined group showed a significantly higher signal amplitude than the other treatment groups or the saline group (p<0.01). Histological tissue analysis showed no significant difference between the groups. Axonal index was significantly enhanced in the combined group than any other intervention (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: G(M1) and erythropoietin exert therapeutic effects on axonal regeneration and electrophysiological and motor functions in rats subjected to experimental spinal cord lesioning and administering these two substances in combination potentiates their effects. PMID:27438570

  5. Histological analysis of the repair of dural lesions with silicone mesh in rats subjected to experimental lesions

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Fernando William Figueiredo; Pohl, Pedro Henrique Isoldi; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antônio; de Paiva, Carla Peluso; dos Santos, Aline Amaro; Bianco, Bianca; Rodrigues, Luciano Miller Reis

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate inflammatory reaction, fibrosis and neovascularization in dural repairs in Wistar rats using four techniques: simple suture, bovine collagen membrane, silicon mesh and silicon mesh with suture. Methods Thirty Wistar rats were randomized in five groups: the first was the control group, submitted to dural tear only. The others underwent durotomy and simple suture, bovine collagen membrane, silicon mesh and silicon mesh with suture. Animals were euthanized and the spine was submitted to histological evaluation with a score system (ranging from zero to 3) for inflammation, neovascularization and fibrosis. Results Fibrosis was significantly different between simple suture and silicon mesh (p=0.005) and between simple suture and mesh with suture (p=0.015), showing that fibrosis is more intense when a foreign body is used in the repair. Bovine membrane was significantly different from mesh plus suture (p=0.011) regarding vascularization. Inflammation was significantly different between simple suture and bovine collagen membrane. Conclusion Silicon mesh, compared to other commercial products available, is a possible alternative for dural repair. More studies are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:26761555

  6. Fine needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) in the initial evaluation and diagnosis of palpable soft tissue lesions and with histologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Ogun, Gabriel Olabiyi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a means of evaluation of palpable soft tissue lesions is poorly utilized in our environment despite the fact that it safe, cheap, quick and easy to perform. Methods All cases of cases of palpable soft tissue lesions of the trunk and extremities where FNAB was used as the initial evaluation tool were reviewed. Furthermore, the records for corresponding cases that had open excision biopsy and ultimately had histologic diagnosis out of these cases were also retrieved and correlated with the final diagnosis from FNAB. Results Out of 142 aspirates, only 107(75.3% of cases) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study. The age range was from 0-85 years (mean = 41.2 yrs.) with a roughly equal male:female ratio. The lesions were located in the trunk -56 cases, upper arm -7, forearm -1, hand -1, thigh -28, leg -7 and the foot-7. The FNAB was diagnosed as benign in 56 (52.3%) cases, malignant in 48 (44.8%) cases and suspicious of malignancy in 3(2.8%) cases. The cases were cytomorphologically classified into the following categories: Lipomatous (32 cases), epithelia (18), spindle cell (14), inflammatory (13) pleomorphic (11), small round (6), myxoid (5), epitheloid/ polygonal (1) and others (7). The sensitivity and specificity of diagnosed cases with FNAB as either benign or malignant when correlated with histology were 95% and 100% respectively. Conclusion FNAB is a valuable tool in the initial evaluation of palpable soft tissue lesions especially in primary soft tissue neoplasms and clinically suspected metastatic carcinomas. PMID:26090002

  7. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in human apical periodontitis: Correlation with clinical and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Aleksandar; Knezevic, Aleksandra; Karalic, Danijela; Soldatovic, Ivan; Popovic, Branka; Milasin, Jelena; Andric, Miroslav

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) between apical periodontitis lesions with different clinical and histological features. Based on clinical data and history of disease, 100 human apical periodontitis lesions were categorised as either asymptomatic or symptomatic lesions. According to histological examination, lesions were divided into periapical granulomas and radicular cysts. Pulp tissues of 25 impacted wisdom teeth were used as controls. Homogenised tissue samples were centrifuged and supernatants were used for the determination of cytokine levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Significantly higher levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were found in symptomatic lesions compared with asymptomatic lesions and control tissues (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). The concentration of IL-1β was significantly higher in radicular cysts compared with periapical granulomas (P = 0.003). Symptomatic lesions, as judged by high local production of IL-1β and IL-6, represent an immunologically active stage of the disease. PMID:25163634

  8. Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia: clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Roghi, Marco; Scapparone, Chiara; Crippa, Rolando; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Angiero, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD) is a rare benign lesion, often asymptomatic, in which fibrous tissue replaces the normal bone tissue, with metaplasic bone and neo-formed cement. We present a rare case of mandibular PCOD in a woman of 55 years, who presented with moderate swelling and mobility of teeth 32-33-34. Endoral radiography showed that these teeth had been devitalized; they had deep periodontal pockets and marked radicular radiotransparency; the root apices exhibited mixed radiotransparency and radio-opacity. Clinical and radiographical findings led to a diagnosis of periapical rarefying osteitis, and the three teeth were thus extracted. Due to the persistence of swelling and slight pain post-extraction, a cone-beam computed tomographic scan was taken; this showed a mixed radiotransparent and radio-opaque lesion in the area of the extracted teeth. A bone biopsy of the affected area was taken for histopathological evaluation; a diagnosis of PCOD was rendered. This case demonstrates the importance of a full investigation when a patient presents after tooth extraction with non-healing socket, pain, and swelling. A multidisciplinary approach is required to manage these rare cases. PMID:24778071

  9. Physical, chemical, and histologic changes in dentin caries lesions of primary teeth induced by regular use of polyol chewing gums.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, K K; Chiego, D J; Allen, P; Bennett, C; Isotupa, K P; Tiekso, J; Mäkinen, P L

    1998-06-01

    A previous clinical trial showed that long-term use of saliva-stimulating polyol (xylitol and sorbitol) chewing gums was associated with arrest of dental caries in young subjects. After a 20-22-month intervention (when the subjects were 8 years old), a total of 23 primary teeth with extensive dentin caries lesions whose surface in clinical examination was found to be totally rehardened (remineralized) could be removed because the teeth were near their physiologic exfoliation time. These teeth were subjected to histologic, microhardness, and electron microscopic tests. The majority of the specimens had been remineralized from the surface by a non-cellular-mediated process within the remaining collapsed, organic extracellular matrix associated with the remaining dentinal surface. Many of the underlying dentinal tubules were filled with a matrix that had been subsequently mineralized. Dental microanalyses showed that the topmost (outer) 20-microm-thick rehardened layer of the lesions exhibited the highest Ca:P ratio, which leveled off at a depth of approximately 150 microm. The rehardened surface layer (normally <0.1 mm in thickness) was significantly (P < 0.001) harder than sound dentin and nearly as hard as sound enamel. Although the main source of the mineral present in the rehardened layer was most likely of salivary origin, some extracellular remineralization was probably mediated by odontoblasts. The results complete the dinical diagnoses of the original trial and suggest that regular use of polyol chewing gums may induce changes in dentin caries lesions, which in histologic and physiochemical studies show typical characteristics of rehardening and mineralization. PMID:9688223

  10. Initial lesions of HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma--a histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Schulze, H J; Rütten, A; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1987-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) has become a rather frequent manifestation of the previously rare disease with fatal outcome. Initial lesions of KS were studied by means of histopathology, immunohistology, and electron microscopy in order to define the earliest alterations. The histopathological changes of initial lesions were distinct, consisting of (1) discrete proliferation of capillary vessels, (2) dissection of collagen by proliferating spindle cells which formed slits, (3) atypical spindle cells arranged in an Indian file pattern, and (4) the lack of any inflammatory cellular infiltrate. Double staining with antibodies against vimentin and immunohistochemical markers for endothelial cells revealed that slits forming vimentin-positive spindle cells displayed laminin, factor VIII, and PAL-E. Atypical vimentin-positive spindle cells arranged in an Indian file pattern inconsistently expressed laminin and factor VIII, but not PAL-E. KS cells rarely stained with the lectin UEA I, not even in case of less advanced dedifferentiation. Electron microscopy showed gradual transformation between spindle cells forming slits and those having lost the ability to form incomplete vessel walls. The present findings support the view that KS develops from the endothelial cells of the blood vessels. The proliferation of atypical endothelial cells as early as in initial lesions and the lack of inflammation favors the primary neoplastic genesis of KS. PMID:3324975

  11. Macroscopic, Histologic, and Ultrastructural Lesions Associated with Avian Keratin Disorder in Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus)

    PubMed Central

    Van Hemert, C.; Armién, A. G.; Blake, J. E.; Handel, C. M.; O’Hara, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    An epizootic of beak abnormalities (avian keratin disorder) was recently detected among wild birds in Alaska. Here we describe the gross, histologic, and ultrastructural features of the disease in 30 affected adult black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Grossly, there was elongation of the rhamphotheca, with varying degrees of lateral deviation, crossing, and gapping between the upper and lower beak. Not uncommonly, the claws were overgrown and there was alopecia, scaling, and crusting of the skin. The most prominent histopathologic features in the beak included epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and core-like intrusions of necrotic debris. In affected birds, particularly those with moderate to severe beak overgrowth, there was remodeling of premaxillary and mandibular bones and various dermal lesions. Lesions analogous to those found in beaks were present in affected claws, indicating that this disorder may target both of these similar tissues. Mild to moderate hyperkeratosis occurred in other keratinized tissues, including skin, feather follicles, and, occasionally, sinus epithelium, but typically only in the presence of microbes. We did not find consistent evidence of a bacterial, fungal, or viral etiology for the beak lesions. The changes observed in affected birds did not correspond with any known avian diseases, suggesting a potentially novel hyperkeratotic disorder in wild birds. PMID:23399850

  12. Macroscopic, histologic, and ultrastructural lesions associated with avian keratin disorder in Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hemert, C.; Armién, A. G.; Blake, J.E.; Handel, C.M.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    An epizootic of beak abnormalities (avian keratin disorder) was recently detected among wild birds in Alaska. Here we describe the gross, histologic, and ultrastructural features of the disease in 30 affected adult black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Grossly, there was elongation of the rhamphotheca, with varying degrees of lateral deviation, crossing, and gapping between the upper and lower beak. Not uncommonly, the claws were overgrown, and there was alopecia, scaling, and crusting of the skin. The most prominent histopathologic features in the beak included epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and core-like intrusions of necrotic debris. In affected birds, particularly those with moderate to severe beak overgrowth, there was remodeling of premaxillary and mandibular bones and various dermal lesions. Lesions analogous to those found in beaks were present in affected claws, indicating that this disorder may target both of these similar tissues. Mild to moderate hyperkeratosis occurred in other keratinized tissues, including skin, feather follicles, and, occasionally, sinus epithelium, but typically only in the presence of microbes. We did not find consistent evidence of a bacterial, fungal, or viral etiology for the beak lesions. The changes observed in affected birds did not correspond with any known avian diseases, suggesting a potentially novel hyperkeratotic disorder in wild birds.

  13. Radial Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS) Guided Suction Catheter-Biopsy in Histological Diagnosis of Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zaric, Bojan; Stojsic, Vladimir; Carapic, Vladimir; Kovacevic, Tomi; Stojanovic, Goran; Panjkovic, Milana; Kioumis, Ioannis; Darwiche, Kaid; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Stratakos, Grigoris; Tsavlis, Drosos; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pitsiou, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Sachpekidis, Nikos; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Perin, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Background: EBUS guided trans-bronchial biopsy became routine in diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPL). Suction catheter-biopsy is a technique for obtaining a tissue sample from peripheral lung parenchyma. Aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic efficiency, feasibility and safety of EBUS guided suction catheter-biopsy (SCB) in comparison to trans-bronchial biopsy (TBB) in diagnosis of PPL. The main intention was to demonstrate non-inferiority of the technique over trans-bronchial biopsy, especially when used under navigation of the EBUS. Methods: Radial EBUS probe (UM-3R, Olympus Co, Japan.) without guiding sheath was used to navigate suction catheter and TBB forceps to the PPL. The catheter was connected to the collection canister via vacuum pump. The SCB specimens were fixed with 10% buffered formalin. Results: There were 168 patients enrolled in this study; 69.9% males and 30.1% females. Main lesion diameter was 4.1±1.9 cm. Majority of patients, 131(77.9%) were diagnosed with lung cancer. Per-biopsy calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for EBUS-SCB were 92.4%, 100%, 100% and 67.7%, respectively. Corresponding values for EBUS-TBB were 92.3%, 100%, 100% and 69.7%. Only the size of the lesion significantly influenced (p=0.005) diagnostic performance. Complications occurred in 2 patients; one pneumothorax and one excessive bleeding. Conclusion: EBUS guided SCB is efficient, feasible and safe in diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer. The technique is complementary to trans-bronchial biopsy. PMID:26722354

  14. Histological and ultrastructural evaluation of cardiac lesions in idiopathic cardiomyopathy in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Sandusky, G E; Capen, C C; Kerr, K M

    1984-01-01

    Described are pathological studies of eight dogs which died in congestive heart failure, with a clinical diagnosis of congestive cardiomyopathy. Examination revealed marked dilatation and enlargement of all four chambers of the heart. The ventricular walls were thin with small atrophic papillary muscles. Histological studies on the myocardium revealed scattered areas of myocardial necrosis, especially around the papillary muscles of the left ventricle and random scattered areas of fibrosis. Electron microscopic studies revealed fewer and disoriented myofibrils, myocytolysis, increased numbers of mitochondria with swelling and inclusions, increased glycogen granules and increased numbers of lysosomes, lipofuscin granules and lipid droplets. Mild Z-band abnormalities were found throughout the myofibers. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6713261

  15. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Chronically Inflamed Periapical Granulomas

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Kosuke; Takeichi, Osamu; Hatori, Keisuke; Imai, Kenichi; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2015-01-01

    Periapical granulomas are lesions around the apex of a tooth caused by a polymicrobial infection. Treatment with antibacterial agents is normally performed to eliminate bacteria from root canals; however, loss of the supporting alveolar bone is typically observed, and tooth extraction is often selected if root canal treatment does not work well. Therefore, bacteria and other microorganisms could be involved in this disease. To understand the pathogenesis of periapical granulomas more precisely, we focused on the association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using surgically removed periapical granulomas (n = 32). EBV DNA was detected in 25 of 32 periapical granulomas (78.1%) by real-time PCR, and the median number of EBV DNA copies was approximately 8,688.01/μg total DNA. In contrast, EBV DNA was not detected in healthy gingival tissues (n = 10); the difference was statistically significant according to the Mann-Whitney U test (p = 0.0001). Paraffin sections were also analyzed by in situ hybridization to detect EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER)-expressing cells. EBER was detected in the cytoplasm and nuclei of B cells and plasma cells in six of nine periapical granulomas, but not in healthy gingival tissues. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis for latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) of EBV using serial tissue sections showed that LMP-1-expressing cells were localized to the same areas as EBER-expressing cells. These data suggest that B cells and plasma cells in inflamed granulomas are a major source of EBV infection, and that EBV could play a pivotal role in controlling immune cell responses in periapical granulomas. PMID:25884725

  16. Extraoral periapical radiography: an alternative approach to intraoral periapical radiography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Khambete, Neha; Priya, Ekta

    2011-12-01

    It is difficult to take intraoral radiographs in some patients who are intolerable to place the film in their mouth. For these patients, Newman and Friedman recommended a new technique of extraoral film placement. Here we report various cases that diagnostic imaging was performed in patients using the extraoral periapical technique. This technique was used to obtain the radiographs for the patients with severe gag reflex, pediatric dental patients, and patients with restricted mouth opening. This technique can be recommended as an alternative to conventional intraoral periapical technique in cases where intraoral film placement is difficult to achieve. PMID:22232725

  17. Histologic and Immunohistochemical Features of the Skin Lesions in CANDLE Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Requena, Luis; Paller, Amy S; Ramot, Yuval; Richard Lee, Chyi-Chia; Vera, Angel; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Kutzner, Heinz

    2015-07-01

    Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome is a newly characterized autoinflammatory disorder, caused by mutations in PSMB8. It is characterized by early-onset fevers, accompanied by a widespread, violaceous, and often annular cutaneous eruption. Although the exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is still obscure, it is postulated that the inflammatory disease manifestations stem from excess secretion of interferons. Based on preliminary blood cytokine and gene expression studies, the signature seems to come mostly from type I interferons, which are proposed to lead to the recruitment of immature myeloid cells into the dermis and subcutis. In this study, we systematically analyzed skin biopsies from 6 patients with CANDLE syndrome by routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry methods. Skin lesions showed the presence of extensive mixed dermal and subcutaneous inflammatory infiltrate, composed of mononuclear cells, atypical myeloid cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and some mature lymphocytes. Positive LEDER and myeloperoxidase staining supported the presence of myeloid cells. Positive CD68/PMG1 and CD163 staining confirmed the existence of histiocytes and monocytic macrophages in the inflammatory infiltrate. CD123 staining was positive, demonstrating the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Uncovering the unique histopathological and immunohistochemical features of CANDLE syndrome provides tools for rapid and specific diagnosis of this disorder and further insight into the pathogenesis of this severe life-threatening condition. PMID:26091509

  18. Association of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4 genes polymorphisms with periapical pathosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Özan, Ülkü; Ocak, Zeynep; Özan, Fatih; Oktay, Elif-Aybala; Şahman, Halil; Yikilgan, İhsan; Oruçoğlu, Hasan; Er, Kürşat

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gene variations of Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, 3, and 4 on genetic susceptibility to periapical pathosis. Material and Methods One hundred patients were included in the study and divided into two groups as follows; Control Group (n=50) that have root canal treatment and no periapical lesion, Patient Group (n=50) that have root canal treatment and periapical lesion. TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR3 (c.1377C/T) and TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were genotyped by using PCR-RFLP. Genotypical analysis of control and patient groups were investigated to disclose whether there is any association between periapical lesions and gene variations. Results There are no significant statistical differences between control and patient groups according to TLR 2 and 4 gene sequence. On the contrary, CC allele detected 74% for TLR 3 in patient group, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.005). Conclusions According to these results, it can be suggested that patients with Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms could be susceptible to periapical pathosis. Key words:Toll-like receptors, periapical pathosis, endodontics. PMID:27031066

  19. Antigen recognition and presentation in periapical tissues: a role for TLR expressing cells?

    PubMed

    Desai, S V; Love, R M; Rich, A M; Seymour, G J

    2011-02-01

    Bacteria are the prime cause of periapical diseases and root canal microbiology is a well-researched area of endodontics. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are present in periapical lesions of endodontic origin and play a substantial role in recognizing, processing and presenting pathogenic antigens to the adaptive immune system such as an effective and long-lasting immune response is generated against the specific pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germ-line encoded pathogen recognition receptors (PRR) expressed by various APCs which induce their maturation, lead to gene transcription in the nucleus and the production of several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Thirteen TLRs have been discovered, 10 of which have been identified in humans so far. Preliminary studies of dental pulp tissue have demonstrated various cell types expressing different TLRs in response to commonly encountered microorganisms. However, there is little information available regarding the expression and function of the various TLRs in human periapical lesions. This review discusses the interactions of various APCs in periapical lesions and the possible roles of different TLRs and APCs in pulp/periapical pathogen recognition and presentation to the adaptive immune system in the initiation and sustaining of periapical diseases. PMID:21083574

  20. Temporary Mental Nerve Paresthesia Originating from Periapical Infection

    PubMed Central

    Genc Sen, Ozgur; Kaplan, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Many systemic and local factors can cause paresthesia, and it is rarely caused by infections of dental origin. This report presents a case of mental nerve paresthesia caused by endodontic infection of a mandibular left second premolar. Resolution of the paresthesia began two weeks after conventional root canal treatment associated with antibiotic therapy and was completed in eight weeks. One year follow-up radiograph indicated complete healing of the radiolucent periapical lesion. The tooth was asymptomatic and functional. PMID:26345692

  1. Incidence of Mast Cells in Gingival and Periapical Inflammation- A Kaleidoscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Sreedhar, Gadiputi; George, Jiji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mast cells are large granular cells that have classically been related to neutrophil stimulation during early step of inflammation. Aim The objective of this work was to identify the incidence of mast cells in inflammatory lesions like periapical granuloma, pyogenic granuloma, gingival hyperplasia. 1. To assess the staining intensity of mast cells by using different metachromatic stains. 2. To correlate the above findings histopathologically. Materials and Methods In this study, we used 5 micron thick sections from paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of previously diagnosed periapical and gingival inflammatory lesions. The sections were stained with routine H & E and metachromatic stains like Toluidine blue, Alcian blue, Aldehyde fuchsin and Giemsa. The number of mast cells was quantified. Statistical analysis was done and mast cell numbers were compared. Results In both gingival and periapical inflammatory lesions, toludine blue showed more number of mast cells followed by giemsa. Giemsa stain showed statistical significance in differentiating both periapical and gingival lesions (p<0.05) in terms of mast cell count. Moderate inflammation (46.4%) was seen in a higher propotion of gingival inflammations whereas periapical inflammatory lesions revealed severe inflammation (53.3%). In both types of inflammatory lesions, higher staining intensity was shown by toludine blue followed by giemsa which was statistically significant. Conclusion Mast cell number is inversely proportional to inflammatory response in gingival inflammatory lesions and directly proportional to inflammatory response in periapical inflammatory lesions. Although, toludine blue is found to be a better stain, giemsa has equivalent properties as that of toludine blue. PMID:27437338

  2. A suggested technique for the application of the cone beam computed tomography periapical index

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, S; Cardaropoli, M; Cotti, E

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cone beam CT (CBCT) produces undistorted three-dimensional (3D) images of the maxillofacial region with a radiation dosage lower than conventional CT. The periapical index score (PAI) is commonly used to follow up the lesions in the bone using periapical radiographs. Recently, a new PAI based on CBCT was introduced (CBCT-PAI). The aim of this technical report is to present a modified reproducible method to assess the CBCT-PAI. Methods CBCT was used to evaluate a periapical bone lesion observed in the area of tooth number 13 before treatment and 2 years after treatment. The modified CBCT-PAI was applied to both the examinations to measure the lesion. The dimensional analysis of the lesion was performed in each plane, assessing three fixed and reproducible dimensions: mesiodistal (M-D), buccolingual (B-L) and coronoapical (C-A). The images were evaluated by three mutually independent examiners. Data were collected and reported in a chart. The results were compared with each other and with the PAI score from the periapical radiographs. Results The three observers reported the same measurements of the lesion for each plane. The CBCT-PAI follow-up showed a reduction of the size of the lesion (5D vs 4D) but also an increase in the erosion of the buccal cortical plate. The comparison of CBCT-PAI with classic PAI showed the first method to be more precise. Conclusions This technical report shows how the CBCT-PAI can be applied to the CBCT exam of a periapical lesion in a reproducible way. PMID:22065800

  3. Bisphosphonate Uptake in Areas of Tooth Extraction or Periapical Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Simon; Sun, Shuting; Kang, Benjamin; Bezouglaia, Olga; Elashoff, David; McKenna, Charles E.; Aghaloo, Tara L.; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bisphosphonates (BPs) are widely used for the management of bone diseases such as osteoporosis and bone malignancy. However, osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is a serious complication of BP treatment. ONJ lesions mainly occur after extraction of teeth deemed unrestorable or around teeth with active periodontal or periapical disease. Because socket healing or dental disease shows higher bone turnover, the authors hypothesized that preferentially high BP accumulation would be observed in these areas. Materials and Methods The authors tested the uptake of fluorescein-labeled zoledronic acid (5-FAM-ZOL) in sites of tooth extraction or experimental periapical disease in mice. Maxillary molars were extracted or the crowns of mandibular molars were drilled to induce pulp exposure. Animals were injected with 5-FAM-ZOL 200 μg/kg at various times after intervention and fluorescence was measured at healthy versus intervention sites. Fluorescein injections were used as controls. Data were analyzed by t test and mixed effects linear models were constructed because the animals had repeated measurements over time and at the 2 sites. Results A statistically significant (P ≤ .001 to .002) time-dependent uptake of 5-FAM-ZOL was detected in the areas of extraction socket and in the alveolar ridge around teeth with periapical disease compared with the healthy contralateral sites of the same animals. For the 2 conditions, the uptake reached a maximum 3 days after experimental intervention and decreased thereafter. Conclusions These data suggest that sites with increased bone turnover, such as extraction sites or areas of periapical inflammation, are exposed to higher BP doses than the remaining alveolar ridge and could explain, at least in part, the susceptibility of such areas to ONJ. PMID:25262401

  4. Malpractice in dermatopathology: principles, risk mitigation, and opportunities for improved care for the histologic diagnosis of melanoma and pigmented lesions.

    PubMed

    High, Whitney A

    2008-06-01

    Melanoma represents a substantial source of risk within dermatology and dermatopathology. This article seeks to provide general pathologists, dermatologists and dermatopathologists with an overview of the basics principles of medical malpractice litigation, a review of the essentials of reporting and the importance of expert consultation for melanoma and pigmented lesions, and suggestions to improve quality care and reduce medicolegal risk associated with melanoma and pigmented lesions. PMID:18436070

  5. Use of ultrasound, color Doppler imaging and radiography to monitor periapical healing after endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Tikku, Aseem P; Kumar, Sunil; Loomba, Kapil; Chandra, Anil; Verma, Promila; Aggarwal, Renu

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of ultrasound, color Doppler imaging and conventional radiography in monitoring the post-surgical healing of periapical lesions of endodontic origin. Fifteen patients who underwent periapical surgery for endodontic pathology were randomly selected. In all patients, periapical lesions were evaluated preoperatively using ultrasound, color Doppler imaging and conventional radiography, to analyze characteristics such as size, shape and dimensions. On radiographic evaluation, dimensions were measured in the superoinferior and mesiodistal direction using image-analysis software. Ultrasound evaluation was used to measure the changes in shape and dimensions on the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and mesiodistal planes. Color Doppler imaging was used to detect the blood-flow velocity. Postoperative healing was monitored in all patients at 1 week and 6 months by using ultrasound and color Doppler imaging, together with conventional radiography. The findings were then analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the 3 imaging techniques. At 6 months, ultrasound and color Doppler imaging were significantly better than conventional radiography in detecting changes in the healing of hard tissue at the surgical site (P < 0.004). This study demonstrates that ultrasound and color Doppler imaging have the potential to supplement conventional radiography in monitoring the post-surgical healing of periapical lesions of endodontic origin. PMID:20881334

  6. Association between macroscopic appearance of liver lesions and liver histology in dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma: 79 cases (2004-2009).

    PubMed

    Clendaniel, Daphne C; Sivacolundhu, Ramesh K; Sorenmo, Karin U; Donovan, Taryn A; Turner, Avenelle; Arteaga, Theresa; Bergman, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Medical records for 79 dogs with confirmed splenic hemangiosarcoma (HSA) following splenectomy were reviewed for information regarding either the presence or absence of macroscopic liver lesions and the histopathological characteristics of the liver. Only 29 of 58 dogs (50%) with grossly abnormal livers had HSA metastasis. No dogs with grossly normal livers had metastasis detected on liver pathology. Gross lesions in the liver such as multiple nodules, dark-colored nodules, and active bleeding nodules were highly associated with malignancy. For the dogs in this study, performing biopsy in a grossly normal liver was a low-yield procedure in dogs with splenic HSA. PMID:25001171

  7. Mesenteric lymph node granulomatous lesions in naturally infected wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Portugal-Histological, immunohistochemical and molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Matos, A C; Andrade, S; Figueira, L; Matos, M; Pires, M A; Coelho, A C; Pinto, M L

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that wildlife reservoirs of mycobacteria are responsible for the maintenance and spreading of the infection to livestock and wildlife counterparts. Recent data report the role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis. This study was conducted to evaluate the chronic inflammatory response in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of wild boar with granulomatous lymphadenitis (n=30). Morphological parameters of the lesions were recorded. The expression of CD3 and CD79α molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Molecular genotyping and culture to identify mycobacteria were performed. The lesions consisted mainly of stage III and stage IV granulomas. CD3 and CD79α positive cells were observed in 15 (50%) and in 11 (36.6%) MLN, respectively. In these lesions, higher percentages of T lymphocytes were found and a limited number of animals exhibited a tendency for an increased percentage of B lymphocytes. Our results suggest that there are similar percentages and distribution patterns of CD3 and CD79α in the lesions, regardless of the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), M. bovis or Map-M. bovis co-infection, and confirm that wild boar is both susceptible and could be an important Map and M. bovis wild reservoir in the study area. PMID:27090622

  8. Histological Lesions and Cellular Response in the Skin of Alpine Chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) Spontaneously Affected by Sarcoptic Mange

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Claudia; Lazzarotti, Camilla; Trogu, Tiziana; Lanfranchi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Population dynamics of chamois (genus Rupicapra, subfamily Caprinae) can be influenced by infectious diseases epizootics, of which sarcoptic mange is probably the most severe in the Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra). In this study, skin lesions and cellular inflammatory infiltrates were characterized in 44 Alpine chamois affected by sarcoptic mange. Dermal cellular responses were evaluated in comparison with chamois affected by trombiculosis and controls. In both sarcoptic mange and trombiculosis, a significantly increase of eosinophils, mast cells, T and B lymphocytes, and macrophages was detected. Moreover, in sarcoptic mange significant higher numbers of T lymphocytes and macrophages compared to trombiculosis were observed. Lesions in sarcoptic mange were classified in three grades, according to crusts thickness, correlated with mite counts. Grade 3 represented the most severe form with crust thickness more than 3.5 mm, high number of mites, and severe parakeratosis with diffuse bacteria. Evidence of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity was detected in all three forms associated with diffuse severe epidermal hyperplasia. In grade 3, a significant increase of B lymphocytes was evident compared to grades 1 and 2, while eosinophil counts were significantly higher than in grade 1, but lower than in grade 2 lesions. An involvement of nonprotective Th2 immune response could in part account for severe lesions of grade 3. PMID:27403422

  9. Peribronchiolar metaplasia: a common histologic lesion in diffuse lung disease and a rare cause of interstitial lung disease: clinicopathologic features of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Junya; Franks, Teri J; Colby, Thomas V; Flaherty, Kevin R; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Hayden, Dennis; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Kazerooni, Ella A; Martinez, Fernando; Travis, William D

    2005-07-01

    Peribronchiolar metaplasia (PBM) is a histologic lesion consisting of peribronchiolar metaplasia (PBM) of bronchiolar-type epithelium. Although widely recognized, PBM has received little attention in the pathologic literature and is not known to have clinical significance. We identified 15 cases in which PBM was the only major histologic finding in surgical lung biopsies from patients with interstitial lung disease (PBM-ILD), and we reviewed the clinical, imaging, and pathologic findings. The mean age was 57 years (range, 44-74 years) with 13 females and 2 males. One patient had been a welder with fume and asbestos exposure; another had pigeon exposure. Smoking history was available for 13 patients: three current smokers, one cocaine user, two former smokers, and seven never smokers. Three patients had collagen vascular disease. One had elevated serum antinuclear antibody titers. Pulmonary function data were available for 10 patients: one obstructive, five restrictive, two mixed obstructive and restrictive, and two normal. Computerized tomography in 7 patients showed mosaic attenuation in 3 patients and air trapping in 1 patient; no bronchiectasis, septal lines, or honeycombing were seen in any cases. All 11 patients with available follow-up are alive; 4 of them have experienced symptomatic improvement (follow-up, 0.6-6.9 years; mean, 2.4 years). PBM was found focally in other interstitial lung diseases, which were assessed for this lesion: 59% of usual interstitial pneumonia (17 of 29), 50% of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (10 of 20), desquamative interstitial pneumonia (3 of 6), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (9 of 18), and 11% of respiratory bronchiolitis (2 of 18). In summary, PBM is a common histologic finding in various interstitial lung disorders. It is rarely the sole major lung biopsy finding in patients presenting with interstitial lung disease (PBM-ILD). Patients are mostly older women, with mild symptoms and CT findings. Survival appears to be

  10. Mandibular incisive canal in relation to periapical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bilginaylar, Kani; Orhan, Kaan; Uyanik, Lokman Onur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to emphasize the importance of the mandibular interforaminal neurovascular bundle with a case and make a warning to dentists and surgeons during oral and maxillofacial surgeries, such as implant replacement, bone harvesting, genioplasty, open reduction of a mandibular fracture, and cyst enucleations at this region. In this paper, we present a 58-year-old male who referred with pain and a tingling sensation on the left lower lip. After radiographical, extraoral and intraoral examinations, findings indicated the lesion to be a cyst which was related with a periapical lesion of the canine tooth and extracted socket of first premolar tooth. After removal of a cyst, the mandibular incisive nerve was documented which was in relation to cyst cavity. PMID:27041907

  11. Histological Lesions, Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and T Cell Subsets Changes of Spleen in Chicken Fed Aflatoxin-contaminated Corn

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Keying; Bai, Shiping; Ding, Xuemei; Zeng, Qiufeng; Yang, Jun; Fang, Jing; Chen, Kejie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 on pathological lesions, apoptosis, cell cycle phases and T lymphocyte subsets of spleen, and to provide an experimental basis for understanding the mechanism of aflatoxin-induced immunosuppression. A total of 900 COBB500 male broilers were randomly allocated into five groups with six replicates per group and 30 birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks and the five dietary treatments consisted of control, 25% contaminated corn, 50% contaminated corn, 75% contaminated corn and 100% contaminated corn groups. The histopathological spleen lesions from the contaminated corn groups was characterized as congestion of red pulp, increased necrotic cells and vacuoles in the splenic corpuscle and periarterial lymphatic sheath. The contaminated corn intake significantly increased relative weight of spleen, percentages of apoptotic splenocytes, induced cell cycle arrest of splenocytes, increased the percentages of CD3+CD8+ T cells and decreased the ratios of CD3+CD4+ to CD3+CD8+. The results suggest that AFB-induced immunosuppression maybe closely related to the lesions of spleen. PMID:25141002

  12. Radiographic Assessment of Bone Formation Using rhBMP2 at Maxillary Periapical Surgical Defects: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Siva; Kumar, M Hari; Vishalakshi, K; Sabitha, H

    2016-04-01

    Periapical cysts are the most common inflammatory odontogenic cysts arising from untreated dental caries with pulp necrosis and periapical infection. The choice of treatment is often influenced by various factors like size, extension of the lesion, proximity to vital structures, systemic condition and compliance of the patient too. The treatment protocol for management of periapical cysts is still under discussion and options vary from conservative treatment by means of endodontic technique to surgical treatment like decompression or a marsupialisation or even to enucleation. Large bony defect secondary to periapical surgery compromising the tooth integrity often requires bone graft to enhance bone formation and thus restoring function at the earliest. The present case series included 10 patients who had established periapical pathology secondary to history of trauma on upper anterior teeth as well patients with history of carious teeth with an apparent failure in root canal therapy. All ten patients were treated with cyst enucleation and apiceotomy along with 1.4cc Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 soaked Absorbable Collagen Sponge implantation at surgical defect. Radiographs and clinical examinations were done upto 3 months to evaluate healing. Radiographic and clinical assessments revealed bone regeneration and restoration of the maxillary surgical defects in all 10 patients. No evidence of graft failure was noted. The Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 soaked Absorbable Collagen Sponge carrier is thus proved to be a viable option for the treatment of maxillary periapical surgical defects. PMID:27190972

  13. Radiographic Assessment of Bone Formation Using rhBMP2 at Maxillary Periapical Surgical Defects: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. Hari; Vishalakshi, K.; Sabitha, H.

    2016-01-01

    Periapical cysts are the most common inflammatory odontogenic cysts arising from untreated dental caries with pulp necrosis and periapical infection. The choice of treatment is often influenced by various factors like size, extension of the lesion, proximity to vital structures, systemic condition and compliance of the patient too. The treatment protocol for management of periapical cysts is still under discussion and options vary from conservative treatment by means of endodontic technique to surgical treatment like decompression or a marsupialisation or even to enucleation. Large bony defect secondary to periapical surgery compromising the tooth integrity often requires bone graft to enhance bone formation and thus restoring function at the earliest. The present case series included 10 patients who had established periapical pathology secondary to history of trauma on upper anterior teeth as well patients with history of carious teeth with an apparent failure in root canal therapy. All ten patients were treated with cyst enucleation and apiceotomy along with 1.4cc Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 soaked Absorbable Collagen Sponge implantation at surgical defect. Radiographs and clinical examinations were done upto 3 months to evaluate healing. Radiographic and clinical assessments revealed bone regeneration and restoration of the maxillary surgical defects in all 10 patients. No evidence of graft failure was noted. The Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 soaked Absorbable Collagen Sponge carrier is thus proved to be a viable option for the treatment of maxillary periapical surgical defects. PMID:27190972

  14. Challenge in differential diagnosis of a liver mass histologically defined as a metastatic lesion from an occult primary intestinal tumour. The importance of clinical findings and the limitations of histology and molecular profiles. A case report.

    PubMed

    Gardini, A; Saragoni, L; La Barba, G; Serra, L; Calistri, D; Ulivi, P; Casadei, A; Frassineti, G L; Garcea, D

    2012-08-01

    Differential diagnosis of liver lesion in the absence of proven primary tumor is still a challenge. We experienced a case of an asymptomatic 14 cm lesion of right hemiliver in a 67 year-old man submitted to right hepatectomy in December 2010. One year before the patient underwent to endoscopic removal of a tubular adenoma of the right colon. Preoperative diagnosis was supported by ultrasound, CT scan, PET and liver biopsy. The patient received 6 cycles of preoperative chemotherapy (FOLFOX) with down-staging of the lesion diameter. Immunohistochemistry on the surgical specimen showed positivity for cytokeratins 19 and 20, CEA, MUC-2, negativity for cytokeratin 7 and a-fetoprotein. Moreover, the neoplastic cells showed a focal positivity with lower intensity for MUC-1 and MUC-5AC. The immunohistochemical profile suggested the possibility of a metastatic tumour from the large bowel, without excluding a primitive mucinous cholangiocarcinoma with intestinal phenotype. At 6 months after intervention, the patient was submitted to chemotherapy (FOLFOX). At present he is in good condition, without radiological signs of recurrence. Oncologists must evaluate the possible benefits of further adjuvant treatments based on the differential diagnosis between a primitive or metastatic liver tumour. In conclusion, correct diagnosis of liver masses is mandatory and remains a challenge that can differentiate either follow-up or surgical and adjuvant treatment. Histology and immunohistochemistry must be related to clinical findings as they may not always be sufficient to reach a correct final diagnosis, and can even be confusing. At present, molecular biology cannot be considered a helpful for diagnosis in these cases. PMID:23316620

  15. Surgical induction, histological evaluation, and MRI identification of cartilage necrosis in the distal femur in goats to model early lesions of osteochondrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Ferenc; Nissi, Mikko J.; Wang, Luning; Ellermann, Jutta M.; Carlson, Cathy S

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identify and interrupt the vascular supply to portions of the distal femoral articularepiphyseal cartilage complex (AECC) in goat kids to induce cartilage necrosis, characteristic of early lesions of osteochondrosis; then utilize MRI to identify necrotic areas of cartilage. Design Distal femora were perfused and cleared in goat kids of various ages to visualize the vascular supply to the distal femoral AECC. Vessels located on the axial aspect of the medial femoral condyle and on the abaxial side of the lateral trochlear ridge were transected in eight 4-day-old goats to induce cartilage necrosis. Goats were euthanized 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10 weeks post operatively and operated stifles were harvested. Adiabatic T1ρ relaxation time maps of the harvested distal femora were generated using a 9.4T MR scanner, after which samples were evaluated histologically. Results Interruption of the vascular supply to the medial femoral condyle caused lesions of cartilage necrosis in 6/8 goat kids that were demonstrated histologically. Adiabatic T1ρ relaxation time mapping identified these areas of cartilage necrosis in 5/6 cases. No significant findings were detected after transection of perichondrial vessels supplying the lateral trochlear ridge. Conclusions Cartilage necrosis, characteristic of early osteochondrosis, can be induced by interrupting the vascular supply to the distal femoral AECC in goat kids. The ability of high field MRI to identify these areas of cartilage necrosis in the AECC using the adiabatic T1ρ sequence suggests that this technique may be useful in the future for the early diagnosis of osteochondrosis. PMID:25463443

  16. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-01-01

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

  17. Expression analysis of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in epithelialized and non-epithelialized apical periodontitis lesions

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Everdan; Menezes, Renato; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; Figueira, Rita; Sogayar, Mari; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in apical periodontitis lesions. STUDY DESIGN Nineteen epithelialized and eighteen non-epithelialized apical periodontitis lesions were collected after periapical surgery. After histological processing, serial sectioning, H&E staining and microscopic analysis, 10 epithelialized and 10 non-epithelialized lesions were selected for immunohistochemical analysis for MMP-9 and CD 68. At least 1/3 of each specimen was frozen at −70°C for further mRNA isolation and reverse transcription into cDNA for Real-Time-PCR procedures. The relative expression of a target gene was determined in comparison with reference genes (GAPDH, HPRT, β-actin and BCRP). RESULTS Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes were stained for MMP-9 in both types of lesions, and when present, epithelial cells were also stained. The number and the ratio of MMP-9+/total cells were greater in non-epithelialized than epithelialized lesions (p=0.0001) and showed a positive correlation to CD68+/total cells (p=0.045). No significant differences were observed for MMP-9 mRNA expression between ephithelized and non-ephithelized lesions. However, when compared to healthy periapical ligaments, both types of lesions presented increased MMP-9 expression (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION The present data suggest the participation of several inflammatory cells, mainlly CD68+ cells, in the MMP-9 expression in apical periodontitis lesions. MMP-9 could be actively enroled in the ECM degradation in apical periodontitis lesions. PMID:18926740

  18. p16 staining has limited value in predicting the outcome of histological low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Sagasta, Amaia; Castillo, Paola; Saco, Adela; Torné, Aureli; Esteve, Roser; Marimon, Lorena; Ordi, Jaume; Del Pino, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of p16 staining in predicting the outcome of histological low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (LSIL/CIN1) we prospectively recruited all the patients referred to colposcopy from 2003 to 2011 due to abnormal screening test results and diagnosed with LSIL/CIN1 at biopsy (n=507). All biopsies were stained for p16 and re-evaluated after three years by the same gynecological pathologist using the LAST criteria. Follow-up was conducted every 6 months and included a Pap test (liquid-based cytology), high-risk human papillomavirus testing (Hybrid Capture 2 test), and colposcopy. The mean follow-up was 28 months. An outcome diagnosis of HSIL was defined as a histological diagnosis of high-grade SIL/CIN (HSIL/CIN2-3). The diagnosis of LSIL/CIN1 was confirmed in 416 out of 507 biopsies (82%), whereas 58 (11%) were reclassified as negative and 33 (6%) as HSIL/CIN2-3. During follow-up, 86/507 women initially diagnosed with LSIL/CIN1 (17%) showed an outcome diagnosis of HSIL/CIN2-3, with the rate of HSIL final diagnosis of 3% (2/58) in the women with biopsies reclassified as negative, 17% (70/416) in the group with confirmed LSIL and 42% (14/33) in the women with biopsies reclassified as HSIL (P<0.001). p16 was positive in 245/507 patients (48%) and in 210/416 patients (50%) with confirmed LSIL/CIN1 at re-evaluation. Although positive p16 immunostaining was associated with risk of HSIL/CIN2-3 outcome in the multivariate analysis (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-3.1; P=0.009) in the overall group of patients with LSIL/CIN1, this association was not verified in the subset of patients with confirmed LSIL/CIN1 after re-evaluation (HR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-2.6; P=0.095). In conclusion, in LSIL/CIN1 lesions p16 should be limited to equivocal cases in which HSIL/CIN2 is included in the differential diagnosis since it has low value in clinical practice as a marker of progression of

  19. P16INK4a: a potential diagnostic adjunct for prediction of high-grade cervical lesions in liquid-based cytology: with HPV testing and histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y P; Abdul Raub, S H; Mohd Dali, A Z H; Kassim, F; Visvalingam, V; Zakaria, Z; Kamaluddin, M A; Noor Akmal, S

    2016-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and its precursors. Increased expression of high-risk hrHPV viral oncogenes in abnormal cells might increase the expression of p16INK4a. We aimed to determine the role of p16INK4a in detecting hrHPV-transformed epithelial cells in liquid-based cervical cytology, and compared the results with hrHPV DNA testing by realtime polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-seven cytological samples were tested for p16INK4a immunomarker and hrHPV DNA. Test performance of both tests was determined by comparing sensitivity, specificity and predictive values using available histological follow-up data as gold standard. Of 57 samples, 36 (63.2%) showed immunoreactivity for p16INK4a and 43 (75.4%) were hrHPV-infected. A fairly low concordance rate (k = 0.504) between p16INK4a immunolabelling and hrHPV DNA status was noted. For prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and worse lesions, p16INK4a had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.5% and 60%; whereas hrHPV DNA testing had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 20%. Dual testing by combining p16INK4a and hrHPV showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 33.3%. In conclusion, p16INK4a is useful in predicting severity of the cytological abnormalities. Although p16INK4a is more specific but less sensitive than hrHPV in detecting high-grade cervical lesions, a combination of both tests failed to demonstrate significant improvement in diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and predictive value. Larger-scale prospective studies are required to assess further whether this biomarker should be routinely used as primary screening tool independently or in combination with hrHPV testing to improve diagnostic accuracy in cervical cytology. PMID:27568665

  20. Accuracy of Cone-beam Computed Tomography and Periapical Radiography in Endodontically Treated Teeth Evaluation: A Five-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Saidi, Anastasia; Naaman, Alfred; Zogheib, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of two imaging methods in detecting the apical pathology in endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods: A clinical examination from a sample of 156 teeth of patients treated by students of masters in endodontics at the Care Center of the Faculty of Dentistry at St. Joseph University, Beirut was done after 5 years of follow-up. Periradicular digital radiographs and a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)scans were taken and analyzed statistically using both the Exact Fisher tests and McNemar tests. Results: The prevalence of lesions was significantly higher with CBCT (34.8%), whereas for digital radiography (13.8%). The CBCT was revealed more precise to identify periapical lesions. As for the clinical success, the rate was 82.5%. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, CBCT was more reliable in detecting periapical lesions compared with digital periapical radiographs. PMID:25878472

  1. Circulating Microparticles and Coronary Plaque Components Assessed by Virtual Histology Intravascular Ultrasound of the Target Lesion in Patients with Stable Angina

    PubMed Central

    Min, Pil-Ki; Cho, Minhee; Hong, Sung-Yu; Kim, Jong-Youn; Choi, Eui-Young; Yoon, Young-Won; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Hong, Bum-Kee; Rim, Se-Joong; Kwon, Hyuck Moon

    2016-01-01

    High levels of microparticles (MPs) circulate in the blood of patients with atherosclerotic diseases where they can serve as potential biomarkers of vascular injury and cardiovascular outcome. We used virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) to evaluate the relationship between the levels of circulating MPs and the coronary plaque composition in patients with stable angina. We included 35 patients with stable angina (22 men, age 64 ± 9 years) and a de novo target lesion. Preintervention gray-scale and VH-IVUS analysis was performed across the target lesion. Volumetric analysis was performed over a 10-mm-long segment centered at the minimum luminal site. Blood samples were obtained from the femoral artery before coronary angioplasty. MPs were measured using a solid-phase capture assay from a commercial kit. We divided participants into either a low MPs group or high MPs group based on the median value of MPs. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the groups. The plaque burden and remodeling index were similar between the groups. The presence of VH-IVUS-derived thin-cap fibroatheroma was not different between the groups. The percentage of the necrotic core (NC) was significantly higher in the high MPs group than in the low MPs group, both in planar (17.0 ± 8.8% vs. 24.1 ± 6.9%, p = 0.012) and volumetric analyses (17.0 ± 4.8% vs. 22.1 ± 4.3%, p = 0.002). Circulating MPs were positively correlated with the percentage of the NC area at the minimal luminal site (r = 0.491, p = 0.003) and the percentage of the NC volume (r = 0.496, p = 0.002). Elevated levels of circulating MPs were associated with the amount of NC in the target lesion in those with stable angina, suggesting a potential role of circulating MPs as a biomarker for detecting unstable plaque in patients with stable angina. PMID:26812147

  2. IL-17 receptor A signaling is protective in infection-stimulated periapical bone destruction.

    PubMed

    AlShwaimi, Emad; Berggreen, Ellen; Furusho, Hisako; Rossall, Jonathan Caleb; Dobeck, Justine; Yoganathan, Subbiah; Stashenko, Philip; Sasaki, Hajime

    2013-08-15

    IL-17 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by Th17 T cells that induces a myriad of proinflammatory mediators. However, different models of inflammation report opposite functional roles of IL-17 signal in terms of its effects on bone destruction. In this study we determined the role of IL-17RA signal in bone resorption stimulated by dentoalveolar infections. Infrabony resorptive lesions were induced by surgical pulp exposure and microbial infection of mouse molar teeth. IL-17 was strongly induced in periapical tissues in wild-type (WT) mice by 7 d after the infection but was not expressed in uninfected mice. Dentoalveolar infections of IL-17RA knockout (KO) mice demonstrated significantly increased bone destruction and more abscess formation in the apical area compared with WT mice. Infected IL-17RA KO mice exhibited significantly increased neutrophils and macrophages compared with the WT littermates at day 21, suggesting a failure of transition from acute to chronic inflammation in the IL-17RA KO mice. The expression of IL-1 (both α and β isoforms) and MIP2 were significantly upregulated in the IL-17RA KO compared with WT mice at day 21 postinfection. The development of periapical lesions in IL-17RA KO mice was significantly attenuated by neutralization of IL-1β and MIP2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that IL-17RA signal seems to be protective against infection-induced periapical inflammation and bone destruction via suppression of neutrophil and mononuclear inflammation. PMID:23863904

  3. Biphasic calcium phosphate in periapical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Suneelkumar, Chinni; Datta, Krithika; Srinivasan, Manali R; Kumar, Sampath T

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) possess mineral composition that closely resembles that of the bone. They can be good bone substitutes due to their excellent biocompatibility. Biphasic calcium phosphate is a bone substitute which is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios. Studies have demonstrated the osteoconductive potential of this composition. This paper highlights the clinical use of biphasic calcium phosphate as a bone substitute in periapical surgery. PMID:20142892

  4. Evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) System: Comparison with Intraoral Periapical Radiography in Proximal Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Tavakkoli, Mohammad Amin; Karimi Vasigh, Homaoun; Azizi, Zeynab; Zarrabian, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims With the introduction of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in dentistry, a question has been raised whether the technique significantly increases the diagnostic accuracy in comparison with other techniques or not. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of CBCT modality in detecting proximal carious lesions as compared to conventional periapical radiographs. Materials and methods This diagnostic study was carried out on 84 human extracted molars and premolars. The teeth were mounted and divided in 28 blocks of 3 teeth. Periapical and CBCT images of teeth were obtained. Five observers scored the images for the detection of proximal carious lesions using a 2-point scale (caries, present; caries, absent). The gold standard was determined by histopathologic sections. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and receiver operating charac-teristics (ROC) curves were traced for observers in both systems. The results were analyzed by paired t-test. Results The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of CBCT images were 0.568, 0.835, 0.637, 0.714, 0.598 and 0.856, respectively. These parameters were 0.432, 0.837, 0.722, 0.77, 0.687 and 0.858 for the periapical conventional technique, respectively. Conclusion The CBCT images did not enhance detection of proximal caries in comparison with periapical images. PMID:22991626

  5. Skin lesions on yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares from Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf: Morphological, molecular, and histological diagnosis of infection by a capsalid monogenoid.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Stephen A; Womble, Matthew R; Maynard, Margaret K; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Arias, Cova R

    2015-12-01

    We characterize lesion-associated capsaline infections on yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, in the Gulf of Mexico by comparing our specimens with published descriptions and museum specimens ascribed to Capsala biparasiticum and its synonyms: vouchers of C. biparasiticum from parasitic copepods; the holotype of Capsala neothunni; and vouchers of Capsala abidjani. Those from parasitic copepods differed by having a small, rounded body, large anterior attachment organs, closely spaced dorsomarginal body sclerites, small testes, and a short and wide testicular field. No morphometric feature in the holotype of C. neothunni ranged outside of that reported for the newly-collected specimens, indicating conspecificity of our specimens. The specimens of C. abidjani differed by having a large anterior attachment organ, few and dendritic testes, and a short, wide testicular field. Large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S) sequences grouped our specimens and Capsala sp. as sister taxa and indicated a phylogenetic affinity of Nasicola klawei. The haptoral attachment site comprised a crater-like depression surrounded by a blackish-colored halo of extensively rugose skin, with abundant pockmarked-like, irregularly-shaped oblong or semi-circular epidermal pits surrounding these attachment sites. Histology confirmed extensive folding of epidermis and underlying stratum laxum, likely epidermal hyperplasia, foci of weak cell-to-cell adhesions among apical malpighian cells as well as that between stratum germinativum and stratum laxum, myriad goblet cells in epidermis, rodlet cells in apical layer of epidermis, and lymphocytic infiltrates and melanin in dermis. The present study comprises (i) the first published report of this parasite from yellowfin tuna captured in the Gulf of Mexico-NW Atlantic Ocean Basin, (ii) confirmation of its infection on the skin (rather than on a parasitic copepod), (iii) the first molecular data for this capsaline, and (iv) the first observations of

  6. Age estimation using intraoral periapical radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Rajpal, Pooja S.; Krishnamurthy, Vasavi; Pagare, Sandeep S.; Sachdev, Geeta D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Changes in the size of dental pulp caused by the apposition of secondary dentin and occlusal wear are morphometric parameters for estimating age. Aim: To estimate the accuracy of age evaluation by Kvaal's method and the effect of occlusal wear on age using digital intraoral periapical radiographs in a subset of the Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 teeth were radiographically evaluated using intraoral periapical digital radiographs from 50 adult patients. A few modifications were made in the design of the study compared to the original Kvaal's method. The radiographs of three teeth from each jaw were taken and morphometric measurements in ratios were analyzed, which included the pulp length to tooth length (X1), pulp length to root length (X2), pulp width to root widths at three defined levels (X3), and tooth length to root length (X4). Statistical Analysis: The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PCC) between age and the morphological variables showed that among them X1, X2, and X3 were statistically significant but not the tooth root length ratio (X4). Conclusions: The ratios X1, X2, and X3 were good indicators of age and hence a multiple linear regression model for age estimation was derived using these three variables. However, it was found that X4 was not a good indicator of age estimation in said population. PMID:27051226

  7. RNA Interference-Mediated Silencing of Atp6i Prevents Both Periapical Bone Erosion and Inflammation in the Mouse Model of Endodontic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junqing; Zhang, Lijie; Tucker, Byron; Zhu, Guochun; Sasaki, Hajime; Hao, Liang; Wang, Lin; Ci, Hongliang; Jiang, Hongbing; Stashenko, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the United States, affecting approximately 80% of children and the majority of adults. Dental caries may lead to endodontic disease, where the bacterial infection progresses to the root canal system of the tooth, leading to periapical inflammation, bone erosion, severe pain, and tooth loss. Periapical inflammation may also exacerbate inflammation in other parts of the body. Although conventional clinical therapies for this disease are successful in approximately 80% of cases, there is still an urgent need for increased efficacy of treatment. In this study, we applied a novel gene-therapeutic approach using recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Atp6i RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of Atp6i/TIRC7 gene expression to simultaneously target periapical bone resorption and periapical inflammation. We found that Atp6i inhibition impaired osteoclast function in vitro and in vivo and decreased the number of T cells in the periapical lesion. Notably, AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown gene therapy reduced bacterial infection-stimulated bone resorption by 80% in the mouse model of endodontic disease. Importantly, Atp6i+/− mice with haploinsufficiency of Atp6i exhibited protection similar to that in mice with bacterial infection-stimulated bone erosion and periapical inflammation, which confirms the potential therapeutic effect of AAV-small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-Atp6i/TIRC7. Our results demonstrate that AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown in periapical tissues can inhibit endodontic disease development, bone resorption, and inflammation, indicating for the first time that this potential gene therapy may significantly improve the health of those who suffer from endodontic disease. PMID:23166162

  8. RNA interference-mediated silencing of Atp6i prevents both periapical bone erosion and inflammation in the mouse model of endodontic disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junqing; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Lijie; Tucker, Byron; Zhu, Guochun; Sasaki, Hajime; Hao, Liang; Wang, Lin; Ci, Hongliang; Jiang, Hongbing; Stashenko, Philip; Li, Yi-Ping

    2013-04-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the United States, affecting approximately 80% of children and the majority of adults. Dental caries may lead to endodontic disease, where the bacterial infection progresses to the root canal system of the tooth, leading to periapical inflammation, bone erosion, severe pain, and tooth loss. Periapical inflammation may also exacerbate inflammation in other parts of the body. Although conventional clinical therapies for this disease are successful in approximately 80% of cases, there is still an urgent need for increased efficacy of treatment. In this study, we applied a novel gene-therapeutic approach using recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Atp6i RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of Atp6i/TIRC7 gene expression to simultaneously target periapical bone resorption and periapical inflammation. We found that Atp6i inhibition impaired osteoclast function in vitro and in vivo and decreased the number of T cells in the periapical lesion. Notably, AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown gene therapy reduced bacterial infection-stimulated bone resorption by 80% in the mouse model of endodontic disease. Importantly, Atp6i(+/-) mice with haploinsufficiency of Atp6i exhibited protection similar to that in mice with bacterial infection-stimulated bone erosion and periapical inflammation, which confirms the potential therapeutic effect of AAV-small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-Atp6i/TIRC7. Our results demonstrate that AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown in periapical tissues can inhibit endodontic disease development, bone resorption, and inflammation, indicating for the first time that this potential gene therapy may significantly improve the health of those who suffer from endodontic disease. PMID:23166162

  9. Elevated CD14 (Cluster of Differentiation 14) and Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 4 Signaling Deteriorate Periapical Inflammation in TLR2 Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Rider, Daniel; Furusho, Hisako; Xu, Shuang; Trachtenberg, Alexander J; Kuo, Winston Patrick; Hirai, Kimito; Susa, Mako; Bahammam, Laila; Stashenko, Philip; Fujimura, Akira; Sasaki, Hajime

    2016-09-01

    Apical periodontitis (periapical lesions) is an infection-induced chronic inflammation in the jaw, ultimately resulting in the destruction of apical periodontal tissue. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are prominent in the initial recognition of pathogens. Our previous study showed that TLR4 signaling is proinflammatory in periapical lesions induced by a polymicrobial endodontic infection. In contrast, the functional role of TLR2 in regulation of periapical tissue destruction is still not fully understood. Using TLR2 deficient (KO), TLR2/TLR4 double deficient (dKO), and wild-type (WT) mice, we demonstrate that TLR2 KO mice are highly responsive to polymicrobial infection-induced periapical lesion caused by over activation of TLR4 signal transduction pathway that resulted in elevation of NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa B) and proinflammatory cytokine production. The altered TLR4 signaling is caused by TLR2 deficiency-dependent elevation of CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14), which is a co-receptor of TLR4. Indeed, neutralization of CD14 strikingly suppresses TLR2 deficiency-dependent inflammation and tissue destruction in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest that a network of TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 is a key factor in regulation of polymicrobial dentoalveolar infection and subsequent tissue destruction. Anat Rec, 299:1281-1292, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27314637

  10. The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukin- 6(IL-6) and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg), ibuprofen tablets (400 mg), NAC (400 mg)/ibuprofen (200 mg) combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and post-treatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Results There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019). Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043). Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017). Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033). After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049). Conclusion The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain. PMID:23351387

  11. Diagnostic and clinical factors associated with pulpal and periapical pain.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Carlos; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Silva, Júlio Almeida; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective survey was designed to identify diagnostic subgroups and clinical factors associated with odontogenic pain and discomfort in dental urgency patients. A consecutive sample of 1,765 patients seeking treatment for dental pain at the Urgency Service of the Dental School of the Federal University of Goiás, Brazil, was selected. Inclusion criteria were pulpal or periapical pain that occurred before dental treatment (minimum 6 months after the last dental appointment), and the exclusion criteria were teeth with odontogenic developmental anomalies and missing information or incomplete records. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed to assess clinical presentation of pain complaints including origin, duration, frequency and location of pain, palpation, percussion and vitality tests, radiographic features, endodontic diagnosis and characteristics of teeth. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze association between pulpal and periapical pain and independent variables. The most frequent endodontic diagnosis of pulpal pain were symptomatic pulpitis (28.3%) and hyperreactive pulpalgia (14.4%), and the most frequent periapical pain was symptomatic apical periodontitis of infectious origin (26.4%). Regression analysis revealed that closed pulp chamber and caries were highly associated with pulpal pain and, conversely, open pulp chamber was associated with periapical pain (p<0.001). Endodontic diagnosis and local factors associated with pulpal and periapical pain suggest that the important clinical factor of pulpal pain was closed pulp chamber and caries, and of periapical pain was open pulp chamber. PMID:21861030

  12. Paresthesia of the mental nerve stem from periapical infection of mandibular canine tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Birkan Taha; Celik, Salih; Durmus, Ercan

    2008-05-01

    Sensory disturbances such as paresthesia, anesthesia, hypoesthesia, and hyperesthesia may be present in the oral cavity. Paresthesia is defined as a burning or prickling sensation or partial numbness caused by neural injury. Paresthesia in dentistry can be caused by local or systemic factors. Local factors include traumatic injuries such as mandibular fractures, expanding compressive lesions (benign or malignant neoplasia and cysts), impacted teeth, local infections (osteomyelitis, periapical, and peri-implant infections), iatrogenic lesions after tooth extractions, anesthetic injection, endodontic therapy (overfilling and apical surgery), implantology, orthodontic surgery, and preprosthetic surgery. The main purpose of this case report is to present the treatment and resolution of a mental nerve paresthesia stemming from apical pathosis of a mandibular canine tooth and the follow-up of 3 years. PMID:18442732

  13. Cyclosporin A-induced new cementum formation: a morphometric evaluation in the periapical region of rats.

    PubMed

    Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Holzhausen, Marinella; Nassar, Carlos Augusto; Nassar, Patricia Oehlmeyer

    2007-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a potent immunosuppressor used in organ transplantation and in the management of various autoimmune diseases. Recent studies have shown that CsA stimulates deposition of cementum on root surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the periapical cementum thickness and the apical foramen width in CsA-treated rats. Rats weighing 50 g were treated with a daily injection of 10 mg/kg body weight of CsA in the chow for 60 days. The cementum of the mandibular 1st molars was histologically and morphometricaly examined by analysis of 5-microm-thick serial buccolingual paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histometric and stereologic analyses revealed the presence of large amounts of cementum in all root surfaces, particularly abundant in the periapical region and obliterating the foramen. The volume density of cementoblasts did not increase. Five to 90 days after the termination of CsA therapy, there was no reduction of cementum thickness. These results suggest that cementum deposition is not reversible after cessation of CsA treatment. PMID:17639196

  14. Viruses in pulp and periapical inflammation: a review.

    PubMed

    Hernández Vigueras, Scarlette; Donoso Zúñiga, Manuel; Jané-Salas, Enric; Salazar Navarrete, Luis; Segura-Egea, Juan José; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; López-López, José

    2016-05-01

    The presence of viruses in endodontic disease has been studied in the last decade. Their presence is associated with periapical radiolucency and with clinical findings, such as pain. The aim of this review is to analyze the scientific evidence currently published about viruses in pulp and periapical inflammation, and its possible clinical implications. A literature review was carried out using the Medline/Pubmed database. The search was performed, in English and Spanish, using the following keyword combinations: virus AND endodontic; virus AND periapical; virus AND pulpitis; herpesvirus AND periapical; papillomavirus AND periapical. We subsequently selected the most relevant studies, which complied with the search criterion. A total of 21 articles were included, of which 18 detected the present of viruses in the samples. In 3 of the studies, viral presence was not found in the samples studied. The Epstein-Barr virus was found in about 41 % of cases compared to controls, in which it was present in about 2 %. The main association between viruses and endodontic pathosis is between Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus; these are found in 114 of the 406 samples of different endodontic pathosis. Some evidence supports that the Epstein-Barr virus is present in a significant number of endodontic diseases, without exact knowledge of their action in these diseases. PMID:25796386

  15. Pulpotomy of carious vital teeth with periapical involvement.

    PubMed

    Calişkan, M K

    1995-05-01

    Twenty-six permanent vital molars with carious pulp exposures and periapical involvement presenting as radiolucencies or radiopacities on radiographic examination, in patients aged between 10-24 years, were treated using an atraumatic surgical technique with calcium hydroxide alone. The healing was evaluated using clinical and radiographic criteria: absence of clinical symptoms, sensitivity of the radicular pulp, formation of a hard tissue barrier in the exposed area, resolution of periapical involvement and no intraradicular pathosis radiographically. Assessed by these criteria, successful results were achieved in 24 teeth. The observation period following pulpotomy treatment was 16-72 months. The favourable results of this study demonstrate that pulpotomy treatment in teeth with cariously exposed vital pulps and with periapical involvement may be an alternative treatment to root canal therapy. PMID:8626202

  16. [Histological techniques in oncodermatology].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Le Guellec, S; Courtade-Saïdi, M; Gangloff, D; Meresse, T; Chavoin, J-P; Grolleau, J-L; Garrido, I

    2012-04-01

    The skin oncology or "oncodermatology" requires a surgical treatment in most cases. For some surgeons, the oncodermatology takes a very important part of their practice. In the course of diagnostic and therapeutic of skin lesions, the pathologist plays now an essential role. He will guide our surgery. The techniques used by this specialist are numerous. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the different histological methods used to improve our management of skin tumors. PMID:22463986

  17. Iatrogenic Displacement of a Foreign Body into the Periapical Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Alvaro; Solís, Rodrigo; Díaz, Mariana; Vázquez, Josué

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a foreign body in the periapical tissues can cause endodontic failure by triggering an inflammatory response and a subsequent foreign body reaction. This inflammatory response, which can occur to varying degrees, appears radiographically as a radiolucency that can remain asymptomatic for many years. A foreign object can reach the apical region by accident or iatrogenic procedures during dental procedures. The aim of the present case report is to describe the endodontic surgical treatment of an iatrogenic displacement of a foreign body (a metal fragment) into the periapical tissues and to describe its clinical and radiographic follow-up over a period of 52 months. PMID:25478244

  18. Bilateral mandibular osteomyelitis mimicking periapical cysts in a patient with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Juliane Pirágine; Cadavid, Ana Maria Hoyos; Lemos, Celso Augusto; Trierveiler, Marilia; Alves, Fabio Abreu

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hemoglobin disorder that occurs more commonly among Afro-descendants. The authors report the case of a 28-year-old Afro-descendent male patient with the diagnosis of homozygotic sickle cell disease (SCD) referred for evaluation of mandibular lesions. The patient's main complaints included pain and bilateral teeth mobility. An intraoral examination revealed gingiva recession affecting the lower molars with extensive root exposure. A panoramic x-ray showed two radiolucent symmetrical periapical lesions evolving both the first and the second lower molars, bilaterally. The diagnostic hypotheses comprised odontogenic infection, among others. Besides antimicrobial therapy, the two molars of both sides were extracted and bone was collected for histopathological and microbiological analyses. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed, and Streptococcus viridans was recovered from the culture media. Mandibular osteomyelitis should be considered as a diagnosis in patients with SCD. The present case offers an alert to clinicians about the importance of knowing jaw lesions related to SCA. PMID:26558249

  19. Bilateral mandibular osteomyelitis mimicking periapical cysts in a patient with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Juliane Pirágine; Cadavid, Ana Maria Hoyos; Lemos, Celso Augusto; Trierveiler, Marilia

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hemoglobin disorder that occurs more commonly among Afro-descendants. The authors report the case of a 28-year-old Afro-descendent male patient with the diagnosis of homozygotic sickle cell disease (SCD) referred for evaluation of mandibular lesions. The patient’s main complaints included pain and bilateral teeth mobility. An intraoral examination revealed gingiva recession affecting the lower molars with extensive root exposure. A panoramic x-ray showed two radiolucent symmetrical periapical lesions evolving both the first and the second lower molars, bilaterally. The diagnostic hypotheses comprised odontogenic infection, among others. Besides antimicrobial therapy, the two molars of both sides were extracted and bone was collected for histopathological and microbiological analyses. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed, and Streptococcus viridans was recovered from the culture media. Mandibular osteomyelitis should be considered as a diagnosis in patients with SCD. The present case offers an alert to clinicians about the importance of knowing jaw lesions related to SCA. PMID:26558249

  20. Human periapical cyst-mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, M; Paduano, F; Tatullo, M

    2015-06-01

    It was recently reported that human periapical cysts (hPCys), a commonly occurring odontogenic cystic lesion of inflammatory origin, contain mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with the capacity for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. In this study, periapical inflammatory cysts were compared with dental pulp to determine whether this tissue may be an alternative accessible tissue source of MSCs that retain the potential for neurogenic differentiation. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that hPCy-MSCs and dental pulp stem cells spontaneously expressed the neuron-specific protein β-III tubulin and the neural stem-/astrocyte-specific protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in their basal state before differentiation occurs. Furthermore, undifferentiated hPCy-MSCs showed a higher expression of transcripts for neuronal markers (β-III tubulin, NF-M, MAP2) and neural-related transcription factors (MSX-1, Foxa2, En-1) as compared with dental pulp stem cells. After exposure to neurogenic differentiation conditions (neural media containing epidermal growth factor [EGF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF], and retinoic acid), the hPCy-MSCs showed enhanced expression of β-III tubulin and GFAP proteins, as well as increased expression of neurofilaments medium, neurofilaments heavy, and neuron-specific enolase at the transcript level. In addition, neurally differentiated hPCy-MSCs showed upregulated expression of the neural transcription factors Pitx3, Foxa2, Nurr1, and the dopamine-related genes tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. The present study demonstrated for the first time that hPCy-MSCs have a predisposition toward the neural phenotype that is increased when exposed to neural differentiation cues, based on upregulation of a comprehensive set of proteins and genes that define neuronal cells. In conclusion, these results provide evidence that hPCy-MSCs might be another optimal source of neural/glial cells for cell

  1. Histologic studies on the extension of the inflammatory infiltrate in human periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Moskow, B S; Polson, A M

    1991-08-01

    This study was undertaken to re-examine early and recent morphologic descriptions of gingival and periodontal inflammation based on a study of gingival biopsies and block sections of human jaws. A collection of 350 autopsy and surgically retrieved jaw sections containing multiple teeth and displaying various stages of periodontal inflammation were subjected to routine histologic preparation and analyzed with step serial sections. 105 gingival biopsies, serially sectioned, including 15 clinically normal specimens, were also studied. The results of these investigations suggest that the inflammatory lesion extends into the alveolar process and elicits a response, often before evidence of crestal resorption or connective tissue attachment loss has occurred. Similarly, deep penetrations of inflammatory cells into the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and periapical tissues, along with fibrosis and enlargement of the marrow spaces, were common findings with advancing disease. More widespread distributions of inflammatory cells than previously described were found in clinically normal gingiva, while in more inflamed gingiva, the inflammatory cell types found and their pattern of distribution varied greatly from individual to individual. These observations cast doubt on the perception of human periodontitis as a localized and marginal disease and suggest that its effects may be much more pervasive than previously thought. PMID:1894748

  2. Accuracy of digital periapical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography in detecting external root resorption

    PubMed Central

    Geha, Hassem; Sankar, Vidya; Teixeira, Fabricio B.; McMahan, Clyde Alex; Noujeim, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital intraoral radiography in diagnosing simulated small external root resorption cavities. Materials and Methods Cavities were drilled in 159 roots using a small spherical bur at different root levels and on all surfaces. The teeth were imaged both with intraoral digital radiography using image plates and with CBCT. Two sets of intraoral images were acquired per tooth: orthogonal (PA) which was the conventional periapical radiograph and mesioangulated (SET). Four readers were asked to rate their confidence level in detecting and locating the lesions. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the accuracy of each modality in detecting the presence of lesions, the affected surface, and the affected level. Analysis of variation was used to compare the results and kappa analysis was used to evaluate interobserver agreement. Results A significant difference in the area under the ROC curves was found among the three modalities (P=0.0002), with CBCT (0.81) having a significantly higher value than PA (0.71) or SET (0.71). PA was slightly more accurate than SET, but the difference was not statistically significant. CBCT was also superior in locating the affected surface and level. Conclusion CBCT has already proven its superiority in detecting multiple dental conditions, and this study shows it to likewise be superior in detecting and locating incipient external root resorption. PMID:26389057

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Periapical Radiography in Internal Root Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Zahrasadat; Moudi, Ehsan; Bijani, Ali; Mahmoudi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and periapical (PA) radiography in detecting internal root resorption. Methods and Materials: Eighty single rooted human teeth with visible pulps in PA radiography were split mesiodistally along the coronal plane. Internal resorption like lesions were created in three areas (cervical, middle and apical) in labial wall of the canals in different diameters. PA radiography and CBCT images were taken from each tooth. Two observers examined the radiographs and CBCT images to evaluate the presence of resorption cavities. The data were statistically analyzed and degree of agreement was calculated using Cohen’s kappa (k) values. Results: The mean±SD of agreement coefficient of kappa between the two observers of the CBCT images was calculated to be 0.681±0.047. The coefficients for the direct, mesial and distal PA radiography were 0.405±0.059, 0.421±0.060 and 0.432±0.056, respectively (P=0.001). The differences in the diagnostic accuracy of resorption of different sizes were statistically significant (P<0.05); however, the PA radiography and CBCT, had no statistically significant differences in detection of internal resorption lesions in the cervical, middle and apical regions. Conclusion: Though, CBCT has a higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value in comparison with conventional radiography, this difference was not significant. PMID:26843878

  4. Epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection: multinucleated epithelial giant cells in the epidermis of lesional skin biopsies from patients with acantholytic dermatoses can histologically mimic a herpes virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R.; Paravar, Taraneh; Lee, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can either be epithelial or histiocytic. Epithelial multinucleated giant cells are most often associated with herpes virus infections. Purpose: To review the histologic differential diagnosis of conditions with epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cells—since multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis are not always pathognomonic of a cutaneous herpes virus infection—and to summarize dermatoses in which herpes virus infection has been observed to coexist. Methods: Two individuals with acantholytic dermatoses whose initial lesional skin biopsies showed multinucleated epithelial giant cells suggestive of a herpes virus infection are reported. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on multinucleated giant cell (and epidermis, epithelial, and histiocytic) and herpes virus infection. Relevant papers were reviewed to discover the skin conditions with either multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis or coincident cutaneous herpes virus infection. Results: Initial skin biopsies from patients with either pemphigus vulgaris or transient acantholytic dermatosis mimicked herpes virus infection; however, laboratory studies and repeat biopsies established the correct diagnosis of their acantholytic dermatosis. Hence, epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection. Indeed, epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed not only in the presence of infection (herpes virus), but also acantholytic dermatoses and tumors (trichoepithelioma and pleomorphic basal cell carcinoma). Histiocytic multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed in patients with either giant cell lichenoid dermatitis or lichen nitidus of the palms. Conclusions: Epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cell can occur in the epidermis. Keratinocyte-derived multinucleated giant cells are most commonly associated

  5. Aetiology, classification and pathogenesis of pulp and periapical disease.

    PubMed

    López-Marcos, Joaquín F

    2004-01-01

    At present, the majority of the treatments that are performed in the clinic are due to disease entities involving the dental pulp and periapex. Dental pulp is a richly vascularized and innervated tissue, enclosed by surrounding tissues that are incapable of expanding, such as dentin. It has terminal blood flow and small-gauge circulatory access the periapex. All of these characteristics severely constrain the defensive capacity of the pulp tissue when faced with the different aggressions it may be subjected to. Pulp tissue can also be affected by a retrograde infection, arising from the secondary canaliculi, from the periodontal ligament or from the apex during the course of periodontitis. Due to the fact that periapical disease is almost inevitably preceded by pulp disease, we shall begin by describing the causes of pulp disease and will then proceed to a discussion of the causes of periapical disease. The course of illness and classification of these pathological entities will depend on the aetiology involved. We will analyse pulp necrosis and pulp degeneration that are capable of triggering reversible apical periodontitis or irreversible apical periodontitis. PMID:15580137

  6. DENTAL LESIONS IN THE LOWLAND TAPIR (TAPIRUS TERRESTRIS).

    PubMed

    Tjørnelund, Karen B; Jonsson, Lena M; Kortegaard, Hanne; Arnbjerg, Jens; Nielsen, Søren S; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-06-01

    Dental ailments, mandibular swelling, and dentoalveolar abscesses are common in tapirs, but knowledge about prevalence or etiology of these lesions in the Tapiridae family in general, and in lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in particular, is scarce. A recent study identified resorptive lesions of unknown etiology as a common problem in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). In order to investigate the type and prevalence of dental lesions occurring in lowland tapirs, and to compare these with findings with the Malayan tapir, skulls and teeth from 46 deceased lowland tapirs were visually and radiographically examined. The specimens were divided into subpopulations according to age (juveniles, young adults, adults) and origin (free-range or captive). Dental lesions were identified in 24% (11/46) of the study population. The most common pathologic findings were complicated dental fractures with associated periapical reaction (15%) and periapical reactions of various degrees without associated detectable dental pathology (13%). All these lesions likely originated from dental trauma. As in Malayan tapirs, juveniles had significantly fewer lesions than adults. This study shows that dental lesions present frequent problems for lowland tapirs, occurring both in captive and in free-ranging individuals, and indicates that increasing age should be considered a risk factor for the development of these lesions. Notably, the predominant dental problems in lowland tapirs and Malayan tapirs are not the same. PMID:26056895

  7. Retinal lesions in septicemia.

    PubMed

    Neudorfer, M; Barnea, Y; Geyer, O; Siegman-Igra, Y

    1993-12-15

    We explored the association between septicemia and specific retinal lesions in a prospective controlled study. Hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots, or Roth's spots were found in 24 of 101 septicemic patients (24%), compared to four of 99 age- and gender-matched control patients (4%) (P = .0002). There was no significant association between types of organisms or focus of infection and the presence of specific lesions. Histologic examination of affected eyes disclosed cytoid bodies in the nerve fiber layer without inflammation. A definite association between septicemia and retinal lesions was found and indicates the need for routine ophthalmoscopy in septicemic patients. PMID:8250076

  8. [The influence of orthodontic treatment on dental pulp and periapical tissues].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X W; Liang, J P

    2016-05-01

    The pathogenesis of pulpal and periapical diseases is related with not only bacterial infection but also physicochemical irritations such as trauma and thermal changes. During orthodontic therapy, the application of orthodontic forces on teeth may produce a series of changes in periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and pulpo-dentinal complex. This article reviewed the influences of orthodontic therapy on dental pulp and periapical tissues. PMID:27220394

  9. Periapical inflammation affecting coronally-inoculated dog teeth with root fillings augmented by white MTA orifice plugs.

    PubMed

    Mah, Terence; Basrani, Bettina; Santos, João M; Pascon, Elizeu A; Tjäderhane, Leo; Yared, Ghassan; Lawrence, Herenia P; Friedman, Shimon

    2003-07-01

    Placement of orifice plugs has been suggested to augment the seal of conventional root canal fillings. This study assessed in vivo the efficacy of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) plugs in preventing periapical inflammation subsequent to coronal inoculation of root-filled teeth. The two-rooted mandibular premolars of six beagle dogs were conventionally prepared and filled with gutta-percha and sealer. A white MTA orifice plug was placed into one canal in each tooth. Pulp chambers were inoculated with plaque except for 12 teeth (negative control), and restored. Radiographs were taken at regular intervals. At 10 months, dogs were killed and jaw blocks processed for histology. None of the roots revealed radiographic or histologic evidence of severe inflammation. Mild inflammation was observed in 17% and 39% of the roots with and without an orifice plug, respectively (McNemar, p > 0.05). Without development of severe inflammation, the seal augmentation efficacy of MTA orifice plugs could not be determined. PMID:12877259

  10. Oral inflammatory process and general health. Part 2: How does the periapical inflammatory process compromise general health?

    PubMed

    Somma, F; Castagnola, R; Bollino, D; Marigo, L

    2011-01-01

    At present, the focal infection theory still has very controversial aspects. In spite of the great number of studies, there is no evidence that focal infections or even antigenic mimicry are responsible for anything other than sporadic abscesses/infections and possibly rare autoimmune disorders. linflammation of endodontic origin (i.e., apical periodontitis--AP) has not received the same attention as inflammation originating from the periodontium. Endodontics is a microbiological problem, since the bacterial infection is the "prime mover" of pulp (before) and periapical (later) disease. The aims of endodontic treatment have to be considered from a microbiological viewpoint. Considering these problems in this second part of their study, the Authors, after close examination of the virulence of microorganisms and of the host defense, analyze the endodontic infection and microbiological species. They emphasize the possibility of a relationship between periapical inflammatory lesions and bacterial endocarditis in preventing metafocal disease. Bacterial endocarditis deserves special mention because despite involving specialists of two scientific fields, its prophylaxis is almost always assigned to medical practice, and especially, to dentistry. Given the dangers of the disease, antibiotic prophylaxis is both absolutely necessary and can be very effective, and it should be used especially in clinical situations with high risk individuals. However, the ability of antibiotic therapy to prevent or reduce the frequency, magnitude or duration of bacteremia associated with a dental procedure is controversial. Studies should also be undertaken to determine to compare the efficacy of endodontic treatment with alternative therapy such as implants, prosthetic replacements or no treatment other than extraction. To date, these studies have not been carried out, and there is no evidence to support the theory that modern endodontic therapy is not safe and effective. PMID:21381498

  11. A Case of Intermittently Discharging Skin Lesion: Orodentocutaneous Fistula Demonstrated on CT Fistulography.

    PubMed

    Ranga, Upasana; Aiyappan, Senthil Kumar; Veeraiyan, Saveetha

    2014-08-01

    Orodentocutaneous fistula is a rare entity where periapical dental abscess communicates with both oral cavity and external skin. In few cases, patients presents initially with only cutaneous manifestation with no recollectable history of dental problem. Delay in diagnosis of odontogenic cause of skin lesion makes the disease more chronic and extensive. We hereby present a case of orodentocutaneous fistula that presented with intermittently discharging skin lesion and was evaluated by using CT fistulography. PMID:25302272

  12. Cone beam computed tomographic analysis of maxillary premolars and molars to detect the relationship between periapical and marginal bone loss and mucosal thickness of maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Sekerci, Ahmet-Ercan; Köse, Emre; Sisman, Yildiray

    2015-01-01

    Background This study assessed the relationship between mucosal thickness (MT) of the maxillary sinus and periodontal bone loss (PBL) and periapical condition of related teeth. We also aimed to identify the association between root apices and the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus using Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods In this study, CBCT images of 205 patients with 410 maxillary sinuses were examined, retrospectively. A total of 582 maxillary molars and 587 premolars were observed. The relationship of each root with maxillary sinus and apical lesions of these roots were classified, PBL was examined and the situations of adjacent teeth were estimated. The effect of these conditions on sinus mucosal thickness (MT) was evaluated. Results There was a significant correlation between MT of maxillary sinus and both PBL and age (r = 0.52, p=0.000 and r = 0.111, p= 0.002, respectively). The frequency of MT increased as the severity of apical lesion enlarged. A positive correlation was found between MT and degree of PBL and periapical lesions. To reveal the association between MT and pulpoperiapical condition bivariate correlation was done and a significant relationship between the pulpoperiapical condition and MT was found (r = 0.17, p=0.000). Conclusions This retrospective study showed that MT of the maxillary sinus was common among patients with PBL and MT was significantly associated with PBL and apical lesions. The relationship of maxillary sinus to adjacent teeth had also positive correlation with MT. CBCT imaging enabled better evaluation of maxillary sinus, posterior teeth and surrounding structures compared to other imaging tools. Key words:Maxillary sinus mucosal thickness, apical periodontitis, periodontal bone loss, CBCT. PMID:26241459

  13. Colorectal Subepithelial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Most of subepithelial lesion (SEL) being identified was accidentally discovered as small bulging lesion covered with normal mucosa from endoscopic screening. The type of treatment and prognosis vary depending on the type of tumor, it would be crucial to perform an accurate differential diagnosis. Since the differentiation of SEL relied on the indirect findings observed from the mucosal surface using an endoscopy only in the past, it was able to confirm the presence of lesion only but difficult to identify complex detailed nature of the lesion. However, after the endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was introduced, it became possible to identify extrinsic compression, and size of intramural tumors, internal properties and contour so that it gets possible to have differential diagnosis of lesions and prediction on the lesion whether it is malignant or benign. In addition, the use of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration and EUS-guided core biopsy made it possible to make histological differential diagnosis. This study intended to investigate endoscopic and EUS findings, histological diagnosis, treatment regimen and impression of colorectal SELs. PMID:26240803

  14. Peripheral giant cell granuloma: a potentially aggressive lesion in children.

    PubMed

    Flaitz, C M

    2000-01-01

    A slowly enlarging gingival mass with a reddish-purple surface is observed in a school-age boy. The lesion was first noted 3 months ago during a routine oral examination but recently it has increased in size and interferes with eating. A periapical radiograph demonstrated focal loss of the alveolar crestal bone in the mandibular incisor region. The diagnosis of peripheral giant cell granuloma, a benign reactive gingival lesion, is confirmed by histopathologic examination. Early detection and excision of this hyperplastic nodule is important to minimize potential dentoalveolar complications. PMID:10846736

  15. Fibro-osseous Lesions of the Jaw: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yadavalli, Guruprasad

    2011-01-01

    Fibro-osseous lesions of the maxillofacial bones comprise a diverse group of pathologic conditions that include developmental lesions, reactive or dysplastic diseases, and neoplasms. The concept of fibro-osseous lesions has evolved over the last several decades and now includes two major entities: fibrous dysplasia and ossifying fibroma. The less common lesions include florid osseous dysplasia, periapical dysplasia, focal sclerosing osteomyelitis, proliferative periostitis of Garre, and osteitis deformans. We report two cases, the first, a craniofacial polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, and the second, a juvenile ossifying fibroma of maxilla. PMID:21977383

  16. Fibro-osseous Lesions of the Jaw: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Yadavalli, Guruprasad

    2011-01-01

    Fibro-osseous lesions of the maxillofacial bones comprise a diverse group of pathologic conditions that include developmental lesions, reactive or dysplastic diseases, and neoplasms. The concept of fibro-osseous lesions has evolved over the last several decades and now includes two major entities: fibrous dysplasia and ossifying fibroma. The less common lesions include florid osseous dysplasia, periapical dysplasia, focal sclerosing osteomyelitis, proliferative periostitis of Garre, and osteitis deformans. We report two cases, the first, a craniofacial polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, and the second, a juvenile ossifying fibroma of maxilla. PMID:21977383

  17. Rare Periodontal Ligament Drainage for Periapical Inflammation of an Adjacent Tooth: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongmei; Lu, Wei; Han, Qianqian; Li, Shubo; Yang, Pishan

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To report a case with an unusual drainage route of periapical inflammation exiting through the gingival sulcus of an adjacent vital tooth and review probable factors determining the diversity of the discharge routes of periapical inflammation. Summary. An 18-year-old male patient presented with periodontal abscess of tooth 46, which was found to be caused by a periapical cyst with an acute abscess of tooth 45. During endodontic surgery, a rarely reported drainage route for periapical inflammation via the gingival sulcus of an adjacent vital tooth was observed for the first time. Complete periodontal healing of the deep pocket of tooth 46 and hiding of the periapical cyst of tooth 45 followed after root canal treatment and periapical surgery with Bio-Oss Collagen implantation on tooth 45. The drainage routes of periapical inflammation are multivariate and the diversity of drainage pathways of periapical inflammation is mainly related to factors such as gravity, barriers against inflammation, and the causative tooth itself. PMID:25587462

  18. [Metal implant sensitivity: clinical and histological presentation].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, D; Letulé, V; Schneider, J J; Flaig, M J

    2016-05-01

    Metal implant sensitivity (intolerance) can cause pain, reduced mobility, loosening of the implant and skin rashes. Knowledge of differential diagnoses, histology and appropriate diagnostics are essential for proper diagnosis. To outline typical clinical signs and histology in metal-implant-associated skin lesions we present three exemplary patients from our implant allergy outpatient department and give an overview of the current literature regarding metal implant sensitivity. In patients with a negative patch test the lymphocyte transformation test may reveal metal sensitization. Even "pure" titanium alloys may contain traces of nickel. The histology of implant-associated skin reactions goes from teleangiectatic postimplantation erythema to eczema and vasculitis. Based on the synopsis of history, clinical picture, allergological testing and histology, metal implant sensitivity can be diagnosed more precisely. PMID:27090521

  19. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Akitoshi Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  20. Immediate implants placed in fresh sockets associated to periapical infectious processes. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Camino, Juan C.; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Objetives: The development of treated implant surfaces, added to the increase of the aesthetic requirements by the patients has led to a change in the treatment protocols as well as the development of techniques such as the one-fase implants and the immediate prosthetic loading. One of the usual contraindications of the implant treatment is the presence of periapical disease associated to the tooth to be replaced. The aim of this paper is to review the published literature on immediate implant placement in extraction sockets of teeth with periapical pathology, considering the level of scientific evidence, and following the principles of medicine and evidence-based Dentistry. Material and Methods: A search of articles published between 1982 and 2012 was conducted. The search terms immediate, dental implant, extraction, infected, periapical pathology were used. Search was limited to studies in animals and humans, published in english language. Results: 16 articles were selected from a total of 438, which were stratified according to their level of scientific evidence using the SORT criteria (Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy). Studies in both animals and humans presented high rates of implant survival, but human studies are limited to a small number of cases. Discussion and Conclusions: There is a limited evidence regarding implant placement immediately to the extraction of teeth affected by chronic periapical pathology. Following analysis of the articles, and in function of their scientific quality, a type B recommendation is given in favor of the immediate implant placement in fresh sockets associated to periapical infectious processes. Key words:Immediate implant, periapical pathology. PMID:23722139

  1. Clinico-Histologic Conferences: Histology and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Phyllis A.; Friedman, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical…

  2. Using Molecular Phenotyping to Guide Improvements in the Histologic Diagnosis of T Cell-Mediated Rejection.

    PubMed

    Reeve, J; Chang, J; Salazar, I D R; Lopez, M Merino; Halloran, P F

    2016-04-01

    Recognition that some lesions typical of T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) also occur in antibody-mediated rejection requires revision of the histologic TCMR definition. To guide this process, we assessed the relative importance of various lesions and the performance of new histology diagnostic algorithms, using molecular TCMR scores as histology-independent estimates of true TCMR. In 703 indication biopsies, random forest analysis and logistic regression indicated that interstitial infiltrate (i-lesions) and tubulitis (t-lesions) were the key histologic predictors of molecular TCMR, with arteritis (v-lesions) having less importance. Histology predicted molecular TCMR more accurately when diagnoses were assigned by strictly applying the Banff rules to the lesion scores and redefining isolated v-lesion TCMR. This improved prediction from area under the curve (AUC) 0.70 with existing rules to AUC 0.80. Further improvements were achieved by introducing more categories to reflect inflammation (AUC 0.84), by summing the lesion scores (AUC 0.85) and by logistic regression (AUC 0.90). We concluded that histologic assessment of TCMR can be improved by placing more emphasis on i- and t-lesions and incorporating new algorithms for diagnosis. Nevertheless, some discrepancies between histologic and molecular diagnoses persist, partially due to the inherent nonspecificity of i- and t-lesions, and molecular methods will be required to help resolve these cases. PMID:26730747

  3. Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands

    SciTech Connect

    Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

    1980-03-01

    Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

  4. Histologic diagnosis of sodomy.

    PubMed

    Paparo, G P; Siegel, H

    1979-10-01

    A case of homicidal strangulation with sodomy is presented. Without the use of a simple routine histologic technique, the diagnosis of sodomy could not have been unequivocally substantiated. PMID:541642

  5. The histological nature of epulides in dogs.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, F J; Ligthelm, A J; Weber, A

    1992-02-01

    The histological characteristics of a series of 154 oral tumours with the clinical appearance of epulides in 129 dogs were reviewed. Diagnoses were based on current criteria in human oral pathology and compared with the original diagnoses. The histological findings suggested that the majority of epulides in the dog can be classified as focal fibrous hyperplasia (43.5 per cent), peripheral ameloblastoma (17.5 per cent), peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type) (16.9 per cent) and pyogenic granuloma (1.95 per cent). In addition, a number of other odontogenic tumours (1.95 per cent) and non-odontogenic tumours (18.2 per cent) such as fibrosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma, which are not traditionally associated with the clinical appearance of an epulis, were diagnosed. Of 74 lesions that were previously diagnosed as fibromatous and ossifying epulides, 50 (68 per cent) were reclassified as focal fibrous hyperplasia and 21 (28 per cent) as peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type). The majority of lesions (76 per cent), which were originally classified as acanthomatous epulis, were found to be peripheral ameloblastoma. In addition, three squamous cell carcinomas, two rare odontogenic tumours and two cases of focal fibrous hyperplasia were diagnosed in this classification. It was concluded that, as in man, the term epulis is a clinically descriptive term and that the renal nature of these lesions should be determined histologically. PMID:1597534

  6. Histological changes of kidney in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Shafi, Hamid; Babazadeh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic renal disorders and end-stage kidney disease in developed countries. It is the major cause of dialysis and transplantation. Failure in renal function causes wide disorders in the body. Diabetes results in wide range of alterations in the renal tissue. It is believed that early histological changes in diabetic nephropathy are detectable 2 years after diabetes is diagnosed. The glomerular alterations are the most important lesions in the diabetic nephropathy (DN). The Renal Pathology Society provides a new pathological classification for the detection of histopathology of DN. It divides diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions. Alloxan or streptozotocin induced diabetic rat is the one most widely used specie to study DN. Histological changes in the rat DN closely resemble the human disease and the most information of this review was obtained through the study of rat DN. All cell types of the kidney such as mesangial cells, podocytes and tubulointerstitial cells are liable to be affected in the event of DN. Severity of renal lesions is associated to the clinical aspect of renal outcome, but the aim of this article was only to review the histological changes of kidney in diabetes mellitus. PMID:26644877

  7. Differential localization of type I and type III procollagen messenger ribonucleic acids in inflamed periodontal and periapical connective tissues by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Larjava, H; Sandberg, M; Happonen, R P; Vuorio, E

    1990-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions of periodontal and periapical connective tissue were studied by in situ hybridization to detect cells responsible for type I and type III collagen production. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from patients with oral lesions of various stages of inflammation were hybridized with cDNA probes specific for human pro alpha 1(I) and pro alpha 1(III) collagen mRNAs, and with bacteriophage lambda DNA as a control probe. This technique permitted us to localize fibroblasts active in type I collagen synthesis in the vicinity of inflammatory infiltrates in all the samples studied. Cells containing high levels of type III collagen mRNA were seen in early abscess formation and they were particularly abundant in pyogenic granuloma and irritation fibroma. Type I collagen mRNA was prominent in gingival fibrosis. In the infrabony lesions with active inflammatory infiltrations the production of collagen was confined mostly to the periphery of the lesions. These findings give indirect evidence that cytokines liberated during the early stages of the inflammatory process stimulate expression of the type III collagen gene by fibroblasts. In chronic lesions a gradual switch from type III to type I collagen gene expression occurs. The change in collagen types appears to underlie the observed isolation of the inflammation by a collagenous capsule. In all the samples studied fibroblasts exhibited marked variation in their levels of procollagen mRNAs, supporting previous views about their heterogeneity in connective tissues. The approach presented here offers new possibilities to study cellular interactions and metabolic activities in inflammatory lesions. PMID:2296161

  8. Histological evaluation of pulp tissue from second primary molars correlated with clinical and radiographic caries findings

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan; Anwar, Khurshid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Managing dental caries in young children is demanding due to the elusions present on the right diagnostic criteria for treatment. The present study evaluated the histological status of pulp tissues extracted from primary second molar with caries involvement. Histological findings are correlated with clinical and radiographic assessment. Materials and Methods: Simple experimental study was conducted on upper or lower second primary molars with occlusal (22 teeth) or proximal (22 teeth) dental caries. Selected children were below 6 years of age. Percentage of caries involvement, residual dentin thickness (RDT), radiographic assessment of interradicular and periapical areas, clinical caries depth and signs and symptoms are the parameters considered for comparing with the histological findings. The specimens were grouped based on the nature of the inflammatory process as acute or chronic. The data were analyzed by Student t-test to compare histological types of inflammation with clinical parameters. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Four cases revealed severe acute inflammation in coronal and relatively mild acute inflammation in radicular pulp. In the rest of the specimen coronal and radicular pulp had similar acute or chronic inflammatory changes. Histological evidence of pulpitis correlated with dental caries depth of ≥80%, RDT of ≤1 mm, radiographic rarefactions in the interradicular regions and symptoms of pain. Conclusion: Primary second molars with more than two-third caries involvement with symptoms of pain histologically showed inflammation of both coronal and radicular pulp tissues in all cases. PMID:24932190

  9. Asymptomatic radiopaque lesions of the jaws: a radiographic study using cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Araki, Masao; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Matsumoto, Kunihito; Ohnishi, Masaaki; Honda, Kazuya; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CT) were used to analyze asymptomatic radiopaque lesions in the jaw bones and determine the diagnostic relevance of the lesions based on their relationships to teeth and site of origin. One hundred radiopaque lesions detected between 1998 and 2002 were examined by both panoramic radiography and cone-beam CT. On the basis of panoramic radiographs, the region was classified as periapical, body, or edentulous, and the site was classified as molar or premolar. Follow-up data from medical records were available for only 36 of these cases. The study protocol for simultaneous use of cone-beam CT was approved by the ethics review board of our institution. A large majority of radiopaque lesions were observed in premolar and molar sites of the mandible; 60% of lesions were periapical, 24% were in the body, and 16% were in the edentulous region. An interesting type of radiopaque lesion, which we named a pearl shell structure (PSS), was observed on cone-beam CT in 34 of the 100 lesions. The PSS is a distinctive structure, and this finding on cone-beam CT likely represents the start of bone formation before bone sclerosis. PMID:22167028

  10. Reliability of linear distance measurement for dental implant length with standardized periapical radiographs.

    PubMed

    Wakoh, Mamoru; Harada, Takuya; Otonari, Takamichi; Otonari-Yamamoto, Mika; Ohkubo, Mai; Kousuge, Yuji; Kobayashi, Norio; Mizuta, Shigeru; Kitagawa, Hiromi; Sano, Tsukasa

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of distance measurements of implant length based on periapical radiographs compared with that of other modalities. We carried out an experimental trial to compare precision in distance measurement. Dental implant fixtures were buried in the canine and first molar regions. These were then subjected to periapical (PE) radiography, panoramic (PA) radiography, conventional (CV) and medical computed (CT) tomography. The length of the implant fixture on each film was measured by nine observers and degree of precision was statistically analyzed. The precision of both PE radiographs and CT tomograms was closest at the highest level. Standardized PE radiography, in particular, was superior to CT tomography in the first molar region. This suggests that standardized PE radiographs should be utilized as a reliable modality for longitudinal and linear distance measurement, depending on implant length at local implantation site. PMID:17344618

  11. [The diagnostic value of oblique technique for periapical radiography and its usefulness in endodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak, Teresa; Wilk, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of the intraoral X-rays in the oblique projection during the endodontic treatment is described in this study. The rules concerning the positioning of the X-ray tube, intraoral film and the examined tooth, necessary to obtain images in mesial and distal oblique projections are discussed. The usefulness of the aforementioned projections in visualizing the anatomy, anomalies as well as periapical changes of the dental roots and canals during the endodontic treatment is presented. PMID:19839519

  12. Prevalence of oral lesions in a selected Vietnamese population.

    PubMed

    Nair, R G; Samaranayake, L P; Philipsen, H P; Graham, R G; Itthagarun, A

    1996-02-01

    Clinical examination of the oral and peri-oral regions of a cohort of 550 Vietnamese living in a refugee camp in Hong Kong was conducted. They comprised 216 (39 per cent) males and 334 (61 per cent) females and their age ranged from 2 to 60 years. A positive clinical finding was observed in 14 per cent, 35 males and 43 females. The most common condition observed was periapical infection (36 per cent), either with an abscess or a sinus. Other lesions noted include mucocele (10 per cent), traumatic ulcers (9 per cent), tori, either palatal (6 per cent) or mandibular (3 per cent), lymph node enlargement (7 per cent), pulp polyp (6 per cent), angular cheilitis (4 per cent), papillomas (3 per cent), cellulitis (3 per cent) and herpes lesions (2 per cent), 7 out of 9 (78 per cent) mucoceles were found in females. No malignant lesions were noted. PMID:8744917

  13. Malignant hyperechoic breast lesions at ultrasound: A pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Tiang, Stephen; Metcalf, Cecily; Dissanayake, Deepthi; Wylie, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Malignant breast lesions are typically hypoechoic at sonography. However, a small subgroup of hyperechoic malignant breast lesions is encountered in clinical practice. We present a pictorial essay of a number of different hyperechoic breast malignancies with mammographic, sonographic and histopathologic correlation. Suspicious sonographic features in a hyperechoic lesion include inhomogeneity in echogenic pattern, an irregular margin, posterior acoustic shadowing and internal vascularity. A hyperechoic lesion at ultrasound does not discount the need to undertake histological assessment of a mammographically suspicious lesion. PMID:27216965

  14. Role of matrix metalloproteinases in dental caries, pulp and periapical inflammation: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Atul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of more than 25 secreted and membrane bound enzymes that represent class of enzymes responsible for degradation of pericellular substrates. They have been isolated from dentine, odontoblasts, pulp and periapical tissue. They play an important role in dentine matrix formation, modulating caries progression and secondary dentine formation. Earlier microbial proteolytic enzymes were believed to be responsible for degradation of dentine organic matrix, but lately the accumulated body of evidence suggests that MMPs have an important role in the process. During normal tissue modelling, differentiation during development, in modulating the cell behaviour, maintaining homeostasis and in numerous extracellular pathologic conditions, MMPs tends to be an equally important participant. Odontoblasts secrete some of the essential MMPs for both physiologic and pathologic conditions. MMPs also appear to be a participant in the process of reversible and irreversible pulpitis. Although they tend to have low expression and activity in adult tissues but at the onset of any destructive pathologic process, their production shoots up. They appear to have a significant presence during times of inflammation in the periapical region as well. We take a look at the various factors and evidence pointing towards the role of MMPs in the progression of caries, pulpal and periapical inflammation. PMID:26605147

  15. Cells Isolated from Human Periapical Cysts Express Mesenchymal Stem Cell-like Properties

    PubMed Central

    Marrelli, Massimo; Paduano, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human periapical cysts, which we have termed hPCy-MSCs. These cells have a fibroblast-like shape and adhere to tissue culture plastic surfaces. hPCy-MSCs possess high proliferative potential and self-renewal capacity properties. We characterised the immunophenotype of hPCy-MSCs (CD73+, CD90+, CD105+, CD13+, CD29+, CD44+, CD45-, STRO-1+, CD146+) by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. hPCy-MSCs possess the potential to differentiate into osteoblast- and adipocyte-like cells in vitro. Multi-potentiality was evaluated with culture-specific staining and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis for osteo/odontogenic and adipogenic markers. This is the first report to indicate that human periapical cysts contain cells with MSC-like properties. Taken together, our findings indicate that human periapical cysts could be a rich source of MSCs. PMID:24250252

  16. Role of matrix metalloproteinases in dental caries, pulp and periapical inflammation: An overview.

    PubMed

    Jain, Atul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of more than 25 secreted and membrane bound enzymes that represent class of enzymes responsible for degradation of pericellular substrates. They have been isolated from dentine, odontoblasts, pulp and periapical tissue. They play an important role in dentine matrix formation, modulating caries progression and secondary dentine formation. Earlier microbial proteolytic enzymes were believed to be responsible for degradation of dentine organic matrix, but lately the accumulated body of evidence suggests that MMPs have an important role in the process. During normal tissue modelling, differentiation during development, in modulating the cell behaviour, maintaining homeostasis and in numerous extracellular pathologic conditions, MMPs tends to be an equally important participant. Odontoblasts secrete some of the essential MMPs for both physiologic and pathologic conditions. MMPs also appear to be a participant in the process of reversible and irreversible pulpitis. Although they tend to have low expression and activity in adult tissues but at the onset of any destructive pathologic process, their production shoots up. They appear to have a significant presence during times of inflammation in the periapical region as well. We take a look at the various factors and evidence pointing towards the role of MMPs in the progression of caries, pulpal and periapical inflammation. PMID:26605147

  17. Isolated lesions of gingiva: A case series and review.

    PubMed

    Bharathi, D Radha; Sangamithra, S; Arun, K V; Kumar, T S S

    2016-01-01

    Isolated lesions of gingiva arise in succession to the hyperinflammatory reactions in response to the underlying local irritants. Despite their overlapping clinical and histological features, these lesions are distinctive regarding their biological behavior. Recurrence has been reported after surgical excision because of the incomplete removal of underlying local irritants. This article describes the clinical and histological features of four localized gingival lesions, adding a note on their molecular pathogenesis and surgical management. PMID:27307678

  18. Isolated lesions of gingiva: A case series and review

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, D. Radha; Sangamithra, S.; Arun, K. V.; Kumar, T.S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Isolated lesions of gingiva arise in succession to the hyperinflammatory reactions in response to the underlying local irritants. Despite their overlapping clinical and histological features, these lesions are distinctive regarding their biological behavior. Recurrence has been reported after surgical excision because of the incomplete removal of underlying local irritants. This article describes the clinical and histological features of four localized gingival lesions, adding a note on their molecular pathogenesis and surgical management. PMID:27307678

  19. Histologic classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or rare mixed oligodendroglial-astrocytic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), III (anaplastic), or IV (glioblastoma). Other gliomas generally have a more circumscribed growth pattern, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) and ependymal tumors (WHO grade I, II, or III) as the most frequent representatives. This chapter provides an overview of the histology of all glial neoplasms listed in the WHO 2016 classification, including the less frequent "nondiffuse" gliomas and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. For multiple decades the histologic diagnosis of these tumors formed a useful basis for assessment of prognosis and therapeutic management. However, it is now fully clear that information on the molecular underpinnings often allows for a more robust classification of (glial) neoplasms. Indeed, in the WHO 2016 classification, histologic and molecular findings are integrated in the definition of several gliomas. As such, this chapter and Chapter 6 are highly interrelated and neither should be considered in isolation. PMID:26948349

  20. Hamartomatous tongue lesions in children.

    PubMed

    Kreiger, Portia A; Ernst, Linda M; Elden, Lisa M; Kazahaya, Ken; Alawi, Faizan; Russo, Pierre A

    2007-08-01

    The incidence and spectrum of tongue lesions in children, in particular tongue hamartomas, is relatively unknown. We report a retrospective review of all tongue lesions seen at a major tertiary care children's hospital over an 18-year period with an emphasis on describing tongue hamartomas. A total of 135 tongue lesions were identified. Vascular/lymphatic lesions (36/135) were the most common followed by mucus extravasation phenomenon (22/135). Interestingly, hamartomatous lesions (18/135) were the third most common lesion category identified. Lingual hamartomas were predominantly submucosal in location and were classified histologically by tissue composition as follows: neurovascular (2/18), smooth muscle predominant (5/18), fat predominant (1/18), and smooth muscle and fat containing (10/18). All 5 smooth muscle predominant hamartomas also contained vasculature, and 1 case additionally contained salivary gland tissue. The single fat predominant hamartoma additionally contained vessels and salivary gland. The final 10 hamartomas contained varying amounts of both smooth muscle and fat, and also admixed combinations of vessels, nerves, and salivary glands. Two of these 10 cases additionally contained foci of choristomatous elements, including cutaneous adnexal structures and cartilage. Most patients with hamartomatous lesions were young, 2 years or less. Eight cases were congenital in origin. Females outnumbered males by 2:1. The majority of lesions (16/18) were dorsal in location, and 4 patients had a syndromic association, all oral-facial-digital syndrome. PMID:17667541

  1. A 5 year retrospective study of biopsied jaw lesions with the assessment of concordance between clinical and histopathological diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Peker, Elif; Öğütlü, Faruk; Karaca, İnci Rana; Gültekin, Elif Sibel; Çakır, Merve

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The jaw can be affected by several lesions that manifest in the oral cavity, but little is known about their distribution patterns in various populations. Aims and Objectives: This study presents the frequency and distribution of biopsied jaw lesions recorded in Faculty of Dentistry and gathers the information including provisional and final diagnosis of the lesions. Material and Methods: Biopsy of 1938 lesions (2008–2013) was reviewed and 1473 lesions were included in this study. The provisional diagnosis and histopathological validations of lesions were compared. Data on the location of the lesion, as well as patient demographics, were also evaluated. The lesions were divided into three major groups as 1 - developmental/reactive and inflammatory lesions of the jaw, 2 - cystic lesion and 3 - tumor and tumor-like lesions. Statistical Analysis: The variables were recorded and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results and Observations: Three hundred and ninety-six lesions were in Group 1 and periapical granuloma was the most frequent diagnosis. Seven hundred and eighty-nine lesions were in Group 2 and the radicular cyst was the most frequent diagnosis. Two hundred and eighty-eight lesions were in Group 3 and the keratocystic odontogenic tumor was the most frequent. Two hundred and ninety-one biopsied lesions were in disagreement with respect to the diagnoses on clinical and histopathological examination. Conclusion: Consequently, a provisional diagnosis of some of the malignant lesions was reactive, inflammatory, cystic or benign lesions, therefore the importance of evaluation of the specimen is emphasized. PMID:27194866

  2. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of alveolar bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Vessoni Iwaki, Lilian Cristina; Da Silva, Mariliani Chicarelli; Tonin, Renata Hernandes

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different radiographic methods in the assessment of proximal alveolar bone loss (ABL). Materials and Methods: ABL, the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest, was measured in 70 mandibular human teeth – directly on the mandibles (control), using conventional periapical radiography with film holders (Rinn XCP and Han-Shin), digital periapical radiography with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, conventional panoramic, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Three programs were used to measure ABL on the images: Image tool 3.0 (University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA), Kodak Imaging 6.1 (Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1, Carestream Health®, Rochester, NY, USA), and i-CAT vision 1.6.20. Statistical analysis used ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. Results: The tomographic images showed the highest means, whereas the lowest were found for periapical with Han-Shin. Controls differed from periapical with Han-Shin (P < 0.0001). CBCT differed from panoramic (P = 0.0130), periapical with Rinn XCP (P = 0.0066), periapical with Han-Shin (P < 0.0001), and digital periapical (P = 0.0027). Conventional periapicals with film holders differed from each other (P = 0.0007). Digital periapical differed from conventional periapical with Han-Shin (P = 0.0004). Conclusions: Conventional periapical with Han-Shin film holder was the only method that differed from the controls. CBCT had the closest means to the controls. PMID:25191066

  3. A comparison between xeroradiography and conventional radiography in the diagnosis of endodontic lesions.

    PubMed

    Barkhordar, R A; Kempler, D

    1988-10-01

    Detection of periapical bone pathosis is an important part of the diagnostic process in dentistry. Xeroradiographs and E-speed films were taken to evaluate and to compare the diagnostic value for the radiographic interpretation of periapical lesions. Thirty-four patients undergoing endodontic treatment were chosen. Simultaneous exposures of the radiographic film and the xeroradiographic plates were made. The samples were viewed and categorized by the examiners using the following scores: 0 = unacceptably poor, 1 = poor but diagnostic, 2 = adequate for diagnostic information, and 3 = optimal for diagnostic information. A paired sample t test was performed on the result of the evaluation by the two examiners, and both showed that there were no significant difference at p less than 0.05 between xeroradiography and conventional radiography. A two-sample t test was performed on the means of the two examiner's evaluation, and there was no significant difference at p less than 0.05 between the means. PMID:3186224

  4. Radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) of the nonpalpable breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Zgajnar, J; Hocevar, M; Frkovic-Grazio, S; Hertl, K; Schweiger, E; Besic, N

    2004-01-01

    Standard localization techniques of the nonpalpable breast lesions (guide wire, carbon, skin marking) have several disadvantages. Radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) was recently proposed as a better alternative resulting in wider surgical margins and lower average specimen weight. The aim of our study was to compare ROLL to our previously published series of the standard guidewire localization, performed at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana. ROLL was performed in 110 nonpalpable breast lesions. Human serum albumin macroaggregats, marked with 1.8-5.5 MBq 99mTc was injected in the nonpalpable lesion. During surgery the radioactive breast tissue was excised using hand held gamma probe. Nonpalpable breast lesions were excised in all 110 patients. The definitive histology revealed 32 invasive carcinomas, 19 DCIS, 5 LCIS in and 54 benign breast lesions. Mean specimen weight was 40 g which is less in comparison to 53 g of the guidewire series (p=0.002). Surgical margins were clear in 36/51 (70%) invasive breast cancer or DCIS patients and close or involved in 15/51 (30%) patients. Compared to the guidewire series, where 41/92 (44%) margins were clear and 51/92 (56%) were close or involved, the difference was statistically significant (p=0.005). ROLL proved to be superior to guidewire localization in our series, allowing excision of the nonpalpable breast lesion with wider surgical margins despite lower average specimen weight. PMID:15640944

  5. Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marla N

    2016-08-01

    Vascular lesions in childhood are comprised of vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors encompass neoplasms of the vascular system, of which infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common. Vascular malformations, on the other hand, consist of lesions due to anomalous development of the vascular system, including the capillary, venous, arterial, and lymphatic systems. Capillary malformations represent the most frequent type of vascular malformation. IHs and vascular malformations tend to follow relatively predictable growth patterns in that IHs grow then involute during early childhood, whereas vascular malformations tend to exhibit little change. Both vascular tumors and vascular malformations can demonstrate a wide range of severity and potential associated complications necessitating specialist intervention when appropriate. Evaluation and treatment of the most common types of vascular lesions are discussed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e299-e305.]. PMID:27517358

  6. HISTOLOGICAL PROGRESSION OF HEPATIC NEOPLASIA IN RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI')

    EPA Science Inventory

    The histological progression of hepatic neoplasia has not been as systematically studied in rainbow trout as it has been in rodents. Two putative preneoplastic lesions have been identified, the eosinophilic focus and the basophilic focus, but whether these correspond to similar l...

  7. Periapical repair after root canal filling with different root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Tanomaru, Juliane Maria Guerreiro; Leonardo, Mario Roberto; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate periapical repair after root canal filling with different endodontic sealers. Sixty-four root canals from dog s teeth were filled, divided into 4 groups (n=16). Root canals were instrumented with K-type files and irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Root canals were filled in the same session by active lateral condensation of the cones and sealers: Intrafill, AH Plus, Roeko Seal and Resilon/Epiphany System. After 90 days, the animals were euthanized and the tissues to be evaluated were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. For histopathological analysis, the following parameters were evaluated: inflammatory process, mineralized tissue resorption, and apical mineralized tissue deposition. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that Intrafill had less favorable results in terms of apical and periapical repair, compared to the other sealers (p<0.05). AH Plus, Roeko Seal, and Epiphany sealers had similar and satisfactory results (p>0.05). In conclusion, AH Plus and the materials Roeko Seal and Epiphany are good options for clinical use in Endodontics. PMID:20126907

  8. A radiographic study of the effect of various retrograde fillings on periapical healing after replantation.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, J O; Pitt Ford, T R

    1994-12-01

    An effective retrograde sealing procedure places great demands upon both technique and materials. Prevention of micro-leakage, biocompatibility and stability of the material in the apical tissues are very important. To evaluate potential retrograde filling materials, a replantation model has been developed in which extracted permanent molars were replanted in monkeys after apicectomy of each root, preparation of a 2-mm deep retrograde cavity and its sealing with various dental materials. Prior to retro-filling the remaining pulp was exposed to saliva. Apicected molars which were infected and did not receive retrograde fillings served as positive controls. Periapical healing was evaluated radiographically after 8 weeks based on planimetric measurements of the size of the periapical radiolucency. The following dental materials were tested: amalgam, glass ionomer cement, calcium-hydroxide lining cement, AH 26 root canal sealer, various zinc oxide-eugenol cements, Cavit, and gutta-percha with various sealers. The materials which were associated with better apical healing than the infected controls were glass ionomer cement, Cavit, and the zinc oxide-eugenol cements. When plain zinc oxide-eugenol or IRM were combined with a gutta-percha core, healing was best and not statistically different from normal apices. It was concluded that radiographic assessment at 8 weeks of molar teeth retrograde filled prior to replantation could be a valuable method for discrimination of potentially useful materials in vivo. PMID:7867616

  9. Diffuse peritoneal deciduosis mimicking metastatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baroni Cruz, Dennis; Dhamer, Thricy; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich; Dupont, Roberta Finkler

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman with an uneventful antenatal period underwent a caesarean section for breech presentation. At laparotomy, there were multiple yellowish elastic nodules distributed along the parietal peritoneal surface, totalling over 30 lesions and worrying the surgical team. The conclusive diagnosis of peritoneal deciduosis was supported by pathological analysis (histology and immunohistochemistry). The present case reports an uncommon presentation of diffuse peritoneal deciduosis mimicking metastatic lesions. PMID:24526201

  10. Malignancy and the benign lymphoepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G; Bernacki, E G; Rice, D H; Stebler, M E

    1975-02-01

    The benign lymphoepithelial lesion of salivary glands is now considered the histological hallmark of a variety of clinical and pathological disorders affecting salivary tissues. Malignancy arising in the lesion is uncommon, but may take origin in either the epithelial or lymphoreticular components. Lymphomas and pseudolymphomas associated with salivary gland lymphoepithelial lesions have been predominately extra-salivary and strongly correlated with Sjögren's syndrome. Epithelial malignancy has not been associated with autoimmunity and with few exceptions has been of the anaplastic type. This report presents two patients with intra-salivary lymphomas arising in a benign lymphoepithelial lesion of salivary glands and a patient with anaplastic carcinoma arising in the epithelial islands of the lesion. The fourth patient manifested pseudolymphomatous lymphoreticular hyperplasia in lung and submandibular gland and illustrates the possible multiple organ involvement that may occur in patients with benign lymphoepithelial lesion, even without clinical evidence of concommitant autoimmune disorders. PMID:1172885

  11. Calcified Cystic Lesion of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Meng, Zhi-Xin; Hong, Jian-Guo; Zhi, Xu-Ting

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesion is a relatively uncommon condition with an estimated prevalence of 2 % in the general population. In the past two decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of pancreatic cystic lesions because of the widespread use of high-resolution imaging, as well as the aging of the population. Pancreatic cystic lesions cover a wide spectrum of pathology and can range from obviously benign to borderline malignant potential lesions to overt malignancy. Though the presence of mural nodules, septa-like structures, or calcification on imaging examination contributes to the differential diagnosis, preoperatively determining the biological nature of these cystic lesions is sometimes challenging. In this paper, we report a rare case of pancreatic cystic lesion with an egg-shell like calcification. Complete resection was performed and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of calcified pancreatic pseudocyst. PMID:26992398

  12. [Foot lesions].

    PubMed

    Stelzner, C; Schellong, S; Wollina, U; Machetanz, J; Unger, L

    2013-11-01

    The foot is the target organ of a variety of internal diseases. Of upmost importance is the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). Its complex pathophysiology is driven by the diabetic neuropathy, a vastly worsening effect is contributed by infection and ischemia. Seemingly localised lesions have the potential for phlegmone and septicaemia if not diagnosed and drained early. The acral lesions of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) have unique features as well. However, their life-threatening potential is lower than that of DFS even if the limb is critical. Notably, isolated foot lesions with a mere venous cause may arise from insufficient perforator veins; the accompanying areas of haemosiderosis will lead the diagnostic path. Cholesterol embolization (blue toe syndrome, trash foot) elicits a unique clinical picture and will become more frequent with increasing numbers of catheter-based procedures. Finally, descriptions are given of podagra and of foot mycosis as disease entities not linked to perfusion. The present review focuses on the depiction of disease and its diagnosis, leaving therapeutic considerations untouched. PMID:24114468

  13. Renal lesions of nondomestic felids.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, K M; Newman, S J; White, L A; Rohrbach, B W; Ramsay, E C

    2011-05-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the occurrence of renal lesions in a variety of nondomestic felids, necropsy cases from 1978 to 2008 were reviewed from a municipal zoo and a large cat sanctuary for those in which the kidneys were examined histologically. Seventy exotic felids were identified (25 tigers, 18 lions, 6 cougars, 5 leopards, 3 snow leopards, 3 clouded leopards, 3 Canadian lynx, 2 ocelots, 2 bobcats, 2 cheetahs, 1 jaguar), and their histologic renal lesions were evaluated and compared. The most common lesion was tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN); 36 of 70 (51%) cats were affected to some degree. Lymphocytic interstitial nephritis was the most common lesion in the tigers (9 of 25, 36%) and was rarely seen in other species. Although the renal pelvis was not available for all cats, 28 of 47 (60%) had some degree of lymphocytic pyelitis. There was no significant association between the presence of pyelitis and that of TIN. Only 1 cat had pyelonephritis. Renal papillary necrosis was present in 13 of 70 (19%) cats and was significantly associated with historical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment (odds ratio, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 26.8). Only 1 cat (lion) had amyloid accumulation, and it was restricted to the corticomedullary junction. Primary glomerular lesions were absent in all cats. Intraepithelial pigment was identified in many of the cats but was not correlated with severity of TIN. Despite several previous reports describing primary glomerular disease or renal amyloidosis in exotic felids, these lesions were rare to absent in this population. PMID:20876911

  14. A Comparison of Web Page and Slide/Tape for Instruction in Periapical and Panoramic Radiographic Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, John B.; Platin, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    Compared self-guided slide/tape (ST) and Web page (WP) instruction in normal radiographic anatomy of periapical and panoramic images using objective test performance and subjective preferences of 74 freshman dental students. Test performance was not different between image types or presentation technologies, but students preferred WP for…

  15. Tumefactive fibro-inflammatory lesions of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Wold, L E; Weiland, L H

    1983-07-01

    Seven patients had tumefactive inflammatory fibrous lesions of the head similar in histologic appearance to Riedel's thyroiditis, sclerosing mediastinitis, and retroperitoneal fibrosis. Five patients were females, and the mean age at presentation was 48 years. Four patients presented clinically with a mass. Histologically, these lesions were characterized by an admixture of mature fibrous tissue and an inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes and scattered polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Initially, all patients had been treated surgically. Two patients received radiation therapy when recurrent disease could not be controlled surgically. Five of the six patients on whom follow-up information was available were alive at follow-up that ranged from 14 to 49 months (mean 29). These lesions are distinct histologically from desmoid tumors, fibromatoses, and nodular fasciitis. The spectrum of fibrosclerosing lesions (Riedel's thyroiditis, idiopathic mediastinal fibrosis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, and sclerosing cholangitis) probably includes this group of tumefactive inflammatory fibrous lesions of the head. PMID:6614311

  16. Proposed Clinico-Pathological Classification for Oral Exophytic Lesions.

    PubMed

    Santosh, Arvind Babu Rajendra; Boyd, Doryck; Laxminarayana, Kumaraswamy Kikeri

    2015-09-01

    Oral exophytic lesions often have proven to be diagnostically challenging due to the varied clinical presentation. The exophytic growth of the oral lesions is due to the type of pathology and histological changes. Careful clinical interpretation with a better histological understanding of exophytic lesions may ease the diagnosis from the differential diagnosis panel. The purpose of proposing classification system is to categorize the exophytic lesions of interest under specific clinical and/or histological explanation; and this will eventually lead to better understanding of the pathological condition that is described. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such classification system available for oral exophytic lesions and hence proposal of classification system is attempted in this study. Further, proposing a new classification system is not just to influence the academic contribution, but also to assist at greatest extent for diagnosis during clinical practice. PMID:26501030

  17. Proposed Clinico-Pathological Classification for Oral Exophytic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Doryck; Laxminarayana, Kumaraswamy Kikeri

    2015-01-01

    Oral exophytic lesions often have proven to be diagnostically challenging due to the varied clinical presentation. The exophytic growth of the oral lesions is due to the type of pathology and histological changes. Careful clinical interpretation with a better histological understanding of exophytic lesions may ease the diagnosis from the differential diagnosis panel. The purpose of proposing classification system is to categorize the exophytic lesions of interest under specific clinical and/or histological explanation; and this will eventually lead to better understanding of the pathological condition that is described. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such classification system available for oral exophytic lesions and hence proposal of classification system is attempted in this study. Further, proposing a new classification system is not just to influence the academic contribution, but also to assist at greatest extent for diagnosis during clinical practice. PMID:26501030

  18. A comparative study of cone-beam computed tomography and digital periapical radiography in detecting mandibular molars root perforations

    PubMed Central

    Haghanifar, Sina; Moudi, Ehsan; Mesgarani, Abbas; Bijani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiography in the detection of mesial root perforations of mandibular molars. Materials and Methods In this in vitro study, 48 mandibular molars were divided into 4 groups. First, the mesial canals of all the 48 teeth were endodontically prepared. In 2 groups (24 teeth each), the roots were axially perforated in the mesiolingual canal 1-3 mm below the furcation region, penetrating the root surface ("root perforation"). Then, in one of these 2 groups, the mesial canals were filled with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. Mesial canals in one of the other 2 groups without perforation (control groups) were filled with the same materials. The CBCT and periapical radiographs with 3 different angulations were evaluated by 2 oral and maxillofacial radiologists. The specificity and sensitivity of the two methods were calculated, and P<0.05 was considered significant. Results The sensitivity and specificity of CBCT scans in the detection of obturated root canal perforations were 79% and 96%, respectively, and in the case of three-angled periapical radiographs, they were 92% and 100%, respectively. In non-obturated root canals, the sensitivity and specificity of CBCT scans in perforation detection were 92% and 100%, respectively, and for three-angled periapical radiographs, they were 50% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion For perforation detection in filled-root canals, periapical radiography with three different horizontal angulations would be trustworthy, but it is recommended that CBCT be used for perforation detection before obturating root canals. PMID:24944960

  19. Jaw Intraosseous Lesions Biopsied Extracted From 1998 to 2010 in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, Shokoofeh; Shojaei, Setareh; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Modabbernia, Shirin; Bakhtiary, Esmaeel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Jaw bones might be potential locations for different lesions. Differences in prevalence and the type of lesions can help in designing and programming prevention procedures in health care centers. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of intraosseous lesions in the jaws of patients referred to diagnostic and therapeutic centers in Hamadan during 1990-2010. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was carried out in Hamadan in 2011. Data sheets of the subjects were used to collect all the data of patients with intraosseous lesions, including their age, gender, location of the lesion, the radiographic view of lesions, and their type and histopathological diagnoses. Data were analyzed with SPSS, using means and frequencies. Results: A total of 284 intraosseous lesions were reported in our study. The mean age of the subjects was 28.8 ± 15.2 years. The lesions were distributed in males and females almost similarly. The most prevalent lesions were cystic lesions (54.58%), manifestations of systemic conditions in jaw bones (18.3%), benign tumors (15.5%), malignant lesions (6.7%), and inflammatory lesions (4.92%), in a descending order. The most common cystic lesion was radicular cyst; the most common manifestation of systemic conditions in jaw bones was central giant cell granuloma; the most common benign tumor was ameloblastoma; the most common malignant lesion was osteosarcoma; and the most common inflammatory lesion was periapical granuloma. Conclusions: Our data provided information on the prevalence and types of intraosseous lesions among an Iranian population. This study provided baseline information to help in designing and programming procedures in health care centers in every community so that preventive therapeutic measures can be adopted. PMID:26328061

  20. [Effect of final washing in a small volume of water on processing of periapical radiographs].

    PubMed

    Silveirae Souza, E M; Taga, E M; Tavano, O

    1990-01-01

    The main goal this research was to find out the effectiveness of the final wash in periapical X-ray films. Spectrophotometry determined the residues of sodium hyposulphite taken as a positive sign for the effectiveness of wash on developed films. Three different kinds of film, two Kodak and one Agfa were used. Films were different sensibility and underwent tests. Two containers, one for the intermediate and other for the final wash were used in the first test; in the second, only one container was used for both washes. A residue of 0.4 mg of sodium hyposulphite was considered acceptable. On the three films used, the acorent of sodium hyposulphite detected was inferior to 0.4 mg in the first test, after 5 minutes exposure, nevertheless the small volume of water used. The second test showed a with range of variation in results and so it not recommend. PMID:2135445

  1. Use of extraoral periapical radiography in Indian population: technique and case reports.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Khambete, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Performing intraoral radiography in certain patients is difficult as these patients are unable to tolerate intraoral film placement. To assist such patients a new technique has been innovated using extraoral film placement. Use of this technique has been documented in Caucasian and Taiwanese populations. In this paper we report use of this technique for Indian population. We have done about 40 cases using this technique and have found the average angulation for maxillary (-25+/-5 degrees) and mandibular (-15+/-5 degrees) teeth for Indian population. We recommend use of this technique in the personal dental clinics where panoramic radiographic machines are not readily available. Here we report the technique and cases where diagnostic imaging was performed in patients using the extraoral periapical technique. PMID:23965461

  2. Age estimation by pulp/tooth ratio in canines by peri-apical X-rays.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, Roberto; Ferrante, Luigi; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Bonfiglioli, Benedetta; Rastelli, Elisa; Cingolani, Mariano

    2007-01-01

    Estimation of age in individuals has received considerable attention in forensic science, in which it is a widely used method for individual identification, together with paleo-demographic analyses to establish mortality patterns in past populations. The present investigation, which is a continuation of a previously published pilot study, was conducted to examine the possible application of the pulp/tooth area ratio by peri-apical images as an indicator of age at death. A total of 200 peri-apical X-rays of upper and lower canines were assembled from 57 male and 43 female skeletons of Caucasian origin, aged between 20 and 79 years. They belong to the Frassetto osteological collection of Sassari (Sardinia) and are housed in the Museum of Anthropology, Department of Experimental and Evolutionistic Biology, University of Bologna. For each skeleton, dental maturity was evaluated by measuring the pulp/tooth area ratio on upper (x(1)) and lower (x(2)) canines. Very good agreement was found between intraobserver measurements. Statistical analysis was performed in order to obtain multiple regression formulae for dental age calculation, with chronological age as dependent variable, and gender, and upper and lower canines as independent variables. Stepwise regression analysis showed that gender did not contribute significantly to the fit (p=0.881) whereas variables x(1) and x(2) and the first-order interaction between them did. These two variables explained 92.5% of variations in estimated chronological age and the residual standard error was 4.06 years. Lastly, two simple linear regression equations were obtained for age estimation using canines from the maxilla and mandible separately. Both models explained 86% of variations in estimated chronological age and allowed an age-at-death estimate with a residual standard error of about 5.4 years. PMID:17209930

  3. Periapical Microsurgery: The effect of root dentinal defects on short and long term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Tawil, Peter Z.; Saraiya, Veeral M.; Galicia, Johnah C.; Duggan, Derek J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this prospective clinical study is to evaluate the clinical outcome of endodontic microsurgery on roots exhibiting the presence or absence of dentinal defects at one year and three-year follow up period. Methods 155 teeth were treated with periapical microsurgery using a modern microsurgical protocol in a private practice setting. The root apices were resected and inspected for dentinal defects with a Surgical Operating Microscope and a 0.8mm head diameter LED microscope diagnostic probe light. After inspection, retrograde preparations were performed using ultrasonic tips and retrograde fillings were placed. Follow up visits occurred at one year and three years post-operatively. The primary outcome measure employed was the change in the radiographic apical bone density and the secondary outcome measure used was the absence of clinical symptoms. Results Out of the 155 treated teeth, a total of 134 teeth were assessed at the one-year follow-up and 127 teeth at the three-year evaluation. The “Intact” group had 94.8% healed at one year and 97.3% healed at three years. The “Dentinal Defect” group had 29.8% healed at one year and 31.5% healed at three years. The baseline root condition of either “Dentinal Defect” or “Intact” showed a statistical difference in the healing outcome at both one year and at three years. Conclusions This prospective periapical microsurgery study showed a significant superior clinical outcome for intact roots when compared to roots with dentinal defects at both 1 year and at 3 years post-operatively. PMID:25282374

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of Inverted and Unprocessed Digitized Periapical Radiographs for Detection of Peri-Implant Defects

    PubMed Central

    Pourhashemi, Seyed Jalal; Kiani, Mohammad Taghi; Emami, Raheleh; Kharazifard, Mohamad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of inverted and unprocessed digitized periapical radiographs for detection of peri-implant defects. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 osteotomy sites were prepared in three groups of control, study group 1 with 0.425 mm defects and study group 2 with 0.725 mm defects using the SIC and Astra Tech drill systems with 4.25mm and 4.85mm diameters. Small and large defects were randomly created in the coronal 8mm of 20 implant sites; implants (3.4mm diameter, 14.5mm length) were then placed. Thirty periapical (PA) radiographs were obtained using Digora imaging system (Soredex Corporation, Helsinki, Finland), size 2 photostimulable storage phosphor (PSP) plate sensors (40.0mm×30.0mm) and Scanora software. Unprocessed images were inverted using Scanora software by applying image inversion and a total of 60 images were obtained and randomly evaluated by four oral and maxillofacial radiologists. Data were analyzed using the t-test. Results: Significant differences were observed in absolute and complete sensitivity and specificity of the two imaging modalities for detection of small and large defects (P<0.05). Unprocessed digital images had a higher mean in terms of absolute sensitivity for detection of small defects, complete sensitivity for detection of large peri-implant defects and definite rule out of defects compared with inverted images. Conclusion: Unprocessed digital images have a higher diagnostic value for detection of small and large peri-implant defects and also for definite rule out of defects compared with inverted images. PMID:27123016

  5. Variable histopathology of discovertebral lesion (spondylodiscitis) of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Reidbord, H E; Kraus, D R; Eisenbeis, C H

    1990-01-01

    Extensive discovertebral lesion is an infrequent complication of long-standing ankylosing spondylitis. Reported histopathological descriptions vary from predominantly inflammatory to fibrous granulation with reactive bone formation. We report variable histological findings in four symptomatic patients with extensive discovertebral lesions who required spinal fusion. PMID:2347137

  6. PROPOSED DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distinguishing hyperplastic lesions from neoplasia in the thyroid of bony fishes has been debated by scientists for about one hundred years. As early as the first decade of the last century, the histological interpretation of some of the striking proliferative lesions observed in...

  7. Value of Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) Endoscopy in the Early Diagnosis of Laryngeal Cancer and Precancerous Lesions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-03

    Chronic Inflammation of Hypopharynx; Hoarseness; Macroscopic Laryngeal Lesions; Histological Confirmation of Dysplasia; Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Carcinoma of Larynx; Invasive Carcinoma of Hypo Pharynx; Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

  8. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gompertz, Macarena; Morales, Claudia; Aldana, Hernán; Castillo, Jaime; Berger, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases. PMID:26675058

  9. Histologic characterization of the cat middle ear: in sickness and in health.

    PubMed

    Sula, M M; Njaa, B L; Payton, M E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish microscopic normal in the middle ear of the cat while concurrently characterizing gross and microscopic lesions reflecting spontaneous otitis media. Both ears from 50 cats were examined grossly and processed for histologic examination of the external, middle, and internal ear on a single slide. Gross lesions of the middle ear were present in 14 of 100 (14%) and included turbid fluid, frank pus, hemorrhage, and fibrous thickening of the auricular mucoperiosteum. Histologically, 48 of 100 (48%) ears had evidence of ongoing or previous inflammatory middle ear disease, including proteinaceous fluid; vascular ectasia; expansion of the auricular mucoperiosteum by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages; cholesterol clefts; hemorrhage; fibrin; granulation tissue; membranous pseudo-glands; fibrosis; proliferation and/or osteolysis of the tympanic and septum bullae. Histologic lesions were identified in 34 of 100 ears (34%) lacking gross evidence of disease. Ears were classified histologically as either normal (52/100 [52%]) or diseased (48/100 [48%]). Diseased ears were further classified as mild to moderate (37/100 [37%]) or severely (11/100 [11%]) affected. Internal ear involvement was present in 11 of 100 (11%) ears. Histologic evidence of middle ear disease in cats is far greater than gross lesions or clinical literature suggests; further investigation and correlation of clinical and histologic disease are warranted. With minimal additional preparation, diagnostic specimens may be readily prepared and evaluated for this integral sensing organ. PMID:24280942

  10. Atypical fibroxanthoma: a histological and immunohistochemical review of 171 cases.

    PubMed

    Beer, Trevor W; Drury, Paul; Heenan, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    The clinical and histological features of 171 atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) from a single institution in Western Australia are outlined. This area experiences high levels of solar radiation, and all assessable biopsies showed solar elastosis. Patients were aged between 41 and 97 years (median age 74), with 76% of tumors occurring in men (male to female ratio approximately 3 to 1). Most tumors were small, with a median diameter of 10 mm and a range of 4-35 mm. Only 5% exceeded 20 mm in diameter. Most AFX were well-circumscribed dermal lesions, with limited invasion of subcutis in a minority. Histological variants identified included keloidal (n = 8), clear cell (n = 3), and granular cell (n = 3), plaque like (n = 4), and myxoid (n = 1). Bland cytological appearances (spindle cell nonpleomorphic AFX) were noted in 5 tumors, with osteoclast-like giant cells in 2. Features suggesting regression were present in 22 cases. Two cases recurred locally, none metastasized. No tumors expressed melanocytic or epithelial markers. Seventy-four percent of cases expressed smooth muscle actin, typically strongly and diffusely. No AFX stained with desmin. Only 1 of 50 cases was CD117 positive. In conclusion, AFX may show a wide range of histological appearances, and a panel of immunohistochemical markers is essential to make the correct diagnosis. Histological mimics, such as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, must be carefully excluded. Specific diagnosis is important because there seems to be a very low risk of recurrence or metastasis despite the frequently alarming histology. PMID:20526171

  11. Radiation-induced sarcoma of the breast in a female adolescent. Case report with histologic and therapeutic considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.; Bianchi, A.; Jakate, S.M.

    1988-06-15

    A 14-year-old girl developed a radiation-induced sarcoma of the left breast after successful combined surgical and radiation therapy of a left adrenal carcinoma when she was 9 months old. The breast lesion was histologically described as a stromal sarcoma with fibrosarcomatous and myxosarcomatous areas. The second primary lesion and local recurrence of this was treated with surgery. At each recurrence the tumor became more aggressive both clinically and histologically, and eventually proved fatal.

  12. Natural root caries: a histologic and microradiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wefel, J S; Clarkson, B H; Heilman, J R

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the detailed histopathology of naturally occurring root caries. Fifty extracted human teeth exhibiting some degree of root caries were sectioned longitudinally and examined with transmitted light, polarized light and microradiography. The occurrence of the histological zones of dentinal caries was tabulated and revealed a lesion body in all cases. Light microscopy showed the same basic features as microradiography and was most useful when the sections were imbibed in quinoline. A structureless area below the main body of the lesion was observed in 77% of the cases when using quinoline. This fluid more clearly defined the extent of the lesion and may show a "phenolic reaction" when using polarized light microscopy. Partial radiopaque surface layers were observed in almost 80% of the sections. This study has described the detailed histopathology of root caries, and aids in the development of model systems to evaluate this emerging dental health problem. PMID:3930671

  13. Appearance Normalization of Histology Slides

    PubMed Central

    Niethammer, Marc; Borland, David; Marron, J. S.; Woosley, John; Thomas, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearances across slides, that is very effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols, and to slide fading. The approach is validated using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. PMID:25360444

  14. Utility of Extra-Oral Aiming Device in Imaging Periapical Regions of Posterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    P, Ramaswamy; B, Smitha; G, Uday

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intraoral film placement and the film holding equipments are not acceptable by many due to varied reasons. Objective: To evaluate the utility of extra-oral aiming device developed by Chia-hui chen for imaging the periapical regions of posterior teeth employing the technique suggested by saberi et al. Materials and Methods: The study subjects included 20 patients in the age group of 10-35 y. The subjects were further subdivided according to the area to be imaged into four groups, with 5 in each. Imaging was done using the device developed by chia-hui chen, with the method employed by newmann and saberi et al., The radiographs were then interpreted for complete coverage of the anatomical structure. The findings were recorded and subjected to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical analysis. Results: The visibility of imaging area was more in mandible (95%) than maxilla (86.5%). The overall accuracy was 90.75%. These findings were statistically non-significant (F- 2.152 & P-0.134). Among the reason for reduced accuracy, overlapping of the opposite arch (4%) was more common and the horizontal overlapping (0.5%) was least common. Conclusion: This technique is not meant to replace conventional intraoral radiography. It is a useful supplementary aid to our clinical practice. PMID:25478448

  15. Benign neck masses showing restricted diffusion: Is there a histological basis for discordant behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abanti; Bhalla, Ashu S; Sharma, Raju; Kumar, Atin; Sharma, Meher; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Thakar, Alok; Sharma, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) evolved as a complementary tool to morphologic imaging by offering additional functional information about lesions. Although the technique utilizes movement of water molecules to characterize biological tissues in terms of their cellularity, there are other factors related to the histological constitution of lesions which can have a significant bearing on DWI. Benign lesions with atypical histology including presence of lymphoid stroma, inherently increased cellularity or abundant extracellular collagen can impede movement of water molecules similar to malignant tissues and thereby, show restricted diffusion. Knowledge of these atypical entities while interpreting DWI in clinical practice can avoid potential misdiagnosis. This review aims to present an imaging spectrum of such benign neck masses which, owing to their distinct histology, can show discordant behavior on DWI. PMID:26981226

  16. Chondro-Osseous Lesions of Soft Tissue.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soo-Jin; Horvai, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Soft tissue lesions can contain bone or cartilage matrix as an incidental, often metaplastic, phenomenon or as a diagnostic feature. The latter category includes a diverse group ranging from self-limited proliferations to benign neoplasms to aggressive malignancies. Correlating imaging findings with pathology is mandatory to confirm that a tumor producing bone or cartilage, in fact, originates from soft tissue rather than from the skeleton. The distinction can have dramatic diagnostic and therapeutic implications. This content focuses on the gross, histologic, radiographic, and clinical features of bone or cartilage-producing soft tissue lesions. Recent discoveries regarding tumor-specific genetics are discussed. PMID:26297064

  17. Histological findings in human brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, A. C.; Bothwell, P. W.

    1967-01-01

    The histological findings in 14 cases of brucellosis are described. Unusual findings include the occurrence of brucellosis in a patient with Hodgkin's disease and in another with lymphosarcoma. A patient with hepatic cirrhosis apparently due to brucellosis is included in the series. Images PMID:5632572

  18. Strongyloidiasis histologically mimicking eosinophilic folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Serafinella P; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Guarneri, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of strongyloidiasis in an Italian patient, who has always lived in Sicily. The patient presented with marked blood eosinophilia and an itching maculo-papular eruption, histologically simulating eosinophilic folliculitis. The clinical resolution was achieved after albendazol therapy. PMID:15319162

  19. Histological evolution of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Takako; Yoshida, Yuji; Kitasato, Yasuhiko; Yoshimi, Michihiro; Koga, Takaomi; Tsuruta, Nobuko; Minami, Masato; Harada, Taishi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Fujita, Masaki; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Nagata, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the histological evolution in the development of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE). Methods and results We examined four patients who had undergone surgical lung biopsy twice, or who had undergone surgical lung biopsy and had been autopsied, and in whom the histological diagnosis of the first biopsy was not PPFE, but the diagnosis of the second biopsy or of the autopsy was PPFE. The histological patterns of the first biopsy were cellular and fibrotic interstitial pneumonia, cellular interstitial pneumonia (CIP) with organizing pneumonia, CIP with granulomas and acute lung injury in cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Septal elastosis was already present in the non-specific interstitial pneumonia-like histology of case 1, but a few additional years were necessary to reach consolidated subpleural fibroelastosis. In case 3, subpleural fibroelastosis was already present in the first biopsy, but only to a small extent. Twelve years later, it was replaced by a long band of fibroelastosis. The septal inflammation and fibrosis and airspace organization observed in the first biopsies were replaced by less cellular subpleural fibroelastosis within 3–12 years. Conclusions Interstitial inflammation or acute lung injury may be an initial step in the development of PPFE. PMID:25234959

  20. Histologic Technician. Laboratory Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for histologic technician is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each task…

  1. Reordering Histology to Enhance Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerongen, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In redesigning the preclinical curriculum and shifting from a discipline-based approach to an organ system-based approach, faculty at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson took the opportunity to restructure the sequence of introductory histology content to make it more engaging and relevant. In this article, the author describes…

  2. The relevance of clinical and radiographic features of jaw lesions: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Juliane Piragine; Lemos, Celso Augusto; Miniello, Thais Gimenez; Alves, Fabio Abreu

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out in a Brazilian population and the aim was to describe the prevalence and the clinic-radiographical features of jaw lesions. In addition, a comparison between the main diagnosis hypothesis and final diagnosis was accessed. A prospective study which evaluated all patients with jaw lesions diagnosed in an Oral Diagnosis Center, between August 2013 and October 2014. A total of 450 patients were observed for the first time, and 130 had some type of jaw lesion. The mean age of the patients was 35.2 years ± 17.86. Among these, 71 were women (54.62%) and 87 were Caucasian (66.92%). The mandible was affected more frequently (71.43%) than the maxilla (28.57%). Swelling and pain were the most frequent clinical signs and symptoms and were observed in 60 (42.85%) and 38 (27.14%) cases, respectively. The panoramic x-ray was the main radiographic exam utilized (88.57%). Radiolucent lesions accounted for 89 cases (63.57%) and the unilocular form was present in 114 cases (81.43%). A total of 93 cases had histopathological analyses and the periapical cyst was the most frequent lesion. In the other 47 lesions, the diagnosis was conducted by clinical and radiographic management. Bone lesions were frequent, being noted on first visit in approximately 30% of patients; in 1/3 of the cases, the diagnoses were completed with a combination of clinical and radiographic exams. PMID:27556683

  3. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Cantisani, Vito; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Ignee, Andre; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sparchez, Zeno; Sporea, Ioan; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) in comparison to other multilocular benign focal liver lesions (FLL). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with histologically proven HEHE and 45 patients with histologically proven multilocular benign FLL were retrospectively reviewed. Four radiologists assessed the CEUS enhancement pattern in consensus. RESULTS: HEHE manifested as a single (n = 3) or multinodular (n = 22) FLL. On CEUS, HEHE showed rim-like (18/25, 72%) or heterogeneous hyperenhancement (7/25, 28%) in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement (25/25, 100%) in the portal venous and late phases (PVLP), a sign of malignancy. Eighteen patients showed central unenhanced areas (18/25, 72%); in seven patients (7/25, 28%), more lesions were detected in the PVLP. In contrast, all patients with hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia showed hyperenhancement as the most distinctive feature (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: CEUS allows for characterization of unequivocal FLL. By analyzing the hypoenhancement in the PVLP, CEUS can determine the malignant nature of HEHE. PMID:27217705

  4. Bisphosphonate-Induced Osteonecrosis of the Maxilla Resembling a Persistent Endodontic Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Mosaferi, Hossein; Fazlyab, Mahta; Sharifi, Sanaz; Rahimian, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from pain in the anterior maxillary region, presented to the clinic. Examination revealed a draining sinus tract in the buccal vestibule of the maxilla in the left anterior segment and expansion in the middle of palate. On conventional radiographic examination the lesion was initially assumed to be a periapical problem related to the incisors but subsequently it was diagnosed to be a bisphosphonate osteonecrosis. Conclusion: Acquiring a comprehensive medical history from the patients, conducting the clinical vitality tests and most importantly being familiar with the non-odontogenic lesions that can be side effects of specific medications are important requirements for reaching a correct diagnosis. PMID:26843881

  5. A Series of Oral Lesions Presenting to an Otolaryngology Department.

    PubMed

    Khan, S U; O'Connor, T E; Keogh, I J

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to assess the incidence and intraoral distribution of different mucosal lesions in a representative population. Retrospective review of clinical notes and assessment of histology reports of patients were performed, who presented with different oral lesions to University Hospital Galway, between January 2007 and December 2008.Of the 106 histology reports evaluated, 94 were identified as benign lesions while 12 were malignant lesions. 96 of these patients were referred from G.P services, 6 patients were referred from other departments while 4 patients came through emergency department by self referral. The numbers and incidence of the commonest lesions in order of frequency were chronic inflammation 20 (18.8%), papilloma 19 (17.1%), fibroma 09 (8.4%), mucocele 09 (8.4%) and leukoplakia 08 (7.5%).We concluded that majority of the presented oral lesions are benign (88.%). Chronic inflammation (18.8%) is the commonest benign oral lesion and all white lesions which represents 34% of oral lesions are not true leukoplakia. PMID:26182801

  6. Evaluation of dental expertise with intra-oral peri-apical view radiographs for forensic identification

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Kanwalpreet Kaur; Bhullar, Ramandeep S.; Balagopal, Sundaresan; Ganesh, Arathi; Rajan, Mathan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identification of a dead person is important in starting the investigation into the circumstances of death. In the absence of forensic odontologist, it is vital that general dentists are able to compare the ante mortem-post mortem (AM-PM) records and with their ability, correctly interpret the individuality of the person. Aims: This study wascarried out to find out the accuracy with which undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate dentists can do this comparison, using the simulated AM-PM intra-oral peri-apical (IOPA) view radiographs. Setting and Design: A total of 60 investigators of which 20 undergraduate students, 20 general dentists, 20 post-graduate dentists viewed 10 pairs of simulated AM and PM radiographs and recorded their findings. Materials and Methods: Ten pairs of simulated AM-PM IOPA view radiographs were given to 60 dentists to investigate their discriminatory potential for dental identification purposes. The results were statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis: χ2 -test and Mann-Whitney U-test were carried out to compare the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the three types of examiners (UG, G, PG). Results: The results showed sensitivity of 59.8%, specificity of 62.6%, accuracy of 61% for undergraduate students, sensitivity of 86.6%, specificity of 87.5%, accuracy of 87% for graduate doctors, sensitivity of 89.3%, specificity of 92.3% and accuracy of 90.5% for post-graduate doctors respectively. Conclusion: Inexperienced investigators in forensic identification showed fairly acceptable results, therefore, introduction of forensic odontology in an undergraduate course may help general dentists to provide better service, if required, in the absence of a forensic odontologist. PMID:25177139

  7. In vitro assessment of the accuracy of extraoral periapical radiography in root length determination

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Muhammad Rizwan; Khan, Farhan Raza; Rahman, Munawwar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of extra oral periapical radiography in obtaining root length by comparing it with the radiographs obtained from standard intraoral approach and extended distance intraoral approach. Materials and Methods: It was an in vitro, comparative study conducted at the dental clinics of Aga Khan University Hospital. ERC exemption was obtained for this work, ref number 3407Sur-ERC-14. We included premolars and molars of a standard phantom head mounted with metal and radiopaque teeth. Radiation was exposed using three radiographic approaches: Standard intraoral, extended length intraoral and extraoral. Since, the unit of analysis was individual root, thus, we had a total of 24 images. The images were stored in VixWin software. The length of the roots was determined using the scale function of the measuring tool inbuilt in the software. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19.0 and GraphPad software. Pearson correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman test was applied to determine whether the tooth length readings obtained from three different approaches were correlated. P = 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: The correlation between standard intraoral and extended intraoral was 0.97; the correlation between standard intraoral and extraoral method was 0.82 while the correlation between extended intraoral and extraoral was 0.76. The results of Bland–Altman test showed that the average discrepancy between these methods is not large enough to be considered as significant. Conclusions: It appears that the extraoral radiographic method can be used in root length determination in subjects where intraoral radiography is not possible. PMID:27011737

  8. Appearance normalization of histology slides.

    PubMed

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown. PMID:25863518

  9. Successful treatment of chronic periapical osteomyelitis in a Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) using comprehensive endodontic therapy with apicoectomy.

    PubMed

    Kilgallon, Conor P; Bicknese, Beth; Fagan, David A

    2010-12-01

    Although necrobacillosis remains a common condition of captive macropods, there have been limited reports of successful treatment modalities by which it can be treated. Comprehensive endodontic therapy with apicoectomy has been used reliably in human and domestic animal dentistry. This report describes a case of periapical osteomyelitis involving a mandibular incisor in a Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) that was successfully treated using these techniques in conjunction with low-level laser therapy at 810 nm, which was used for decontamination of the pulp cavity, anti-inflammatory, and biostimulatory effects. PMID:21370653

  10. Foot Lesions in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison): Pathologic and Epidemiologic Characteristics on 4 Danish Farms.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, A; Hammer, A S; Jensen, H E; Bonde-Jensen, N; Lassus, M M; Agger, J F; Larsen, P F

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate gross and histologic lesions and epidemiologic factors of foot lesions in farmed mink. The feet of 1159 mink from 4 Danish farms were examined and lesions described. Swabs from the lesions were taken from 27 mink for microbiology, and tissue samples from a representative spectrum of feet with and without lesions (n= 22) were examined histologically. Feet were grouped according to gross inspection: no lesions (55.1%), hair loss (7.1%), hyperkeratosis (35.8%), and crusting (5.3%). Lesions were predominantly located in plantar metatarsal skin (98.1%). Staphylococci were the most prevalent microorganisms cultured from the lesions. There was a significant association between presence of lesions and sex (P< .0001), age (P< .0001), and color type (P= .023). Lesion size was significantly different between hair loss and crusts and between hyperkeratosis and crusts (P< .0001). Histologically, lesions included varying degrees of orthokeratotic to parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and granulomatous to pyogranulomatous dermatitis with trichogranulomas as a dominant feature in all mink. The gross and microscopic lesions were comparable to physically induced changes in other species that develop as a response to repetitive friction or pressure. The condition may have an impact on animal welfare in mink production. PMID:26333293

  11. Granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions.

    PubMed

    Rossiello, Luigi; Palla, Marco; Aiello, Francesco Saviero; Baroni, Adone; Satriano, Rocco Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a 7-year history of gradually enlarging plaques on his face and trunk. The first lesions had developed on both sides of the forehead and the left cheekbone (Figure 1). Four years later similar lesions appeared on his neck and back. He presented a histologic report of a biopsy specimen from a facial plaque performed 5 years earlier that was diagnostic for granuloma faciale. He had different treatments such as topical steroids and cryotherapy without improvement. The appearance of new lesions on his trunk and the gradual enlarging of the old lesions convinced the patient to seek further treatment. Physical examination revealed dusky, violaceous plaques and papules, 0.5 to 2 cm, well-circumscribed, slightly elevated, and located on the face and trunk, with mild pruritus (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Laboratory investigations, including complete blood cell count, VDRL test, antinuclear antibody test, biochemical parameters, and chest x-ray, did not reveal any abnormalities. A skin biopsy taken from the upper part of the back showed similar features to the facial lesion, detected 5 years before, revealing a dense, polymorphous infiltrate involving mid and deep dermis and displaying a diffuse and perivascular pattern (Figure 3A). A narrow grenz zone of normal collagen was consistently observed between dermal infiltrate and epidermis as well as around the pilosebaceous follicles (Figure 3A). The infiltrate mainly consisted of eosinophils and lymphocytes, but neutrophils (often displaying leukocytoclasis), macrophages, and plasma cells were also present (Figures 3B, 3C). Some mast cells were also identified by staining with toluidine blue (Figure 3D). Perivascular infiltrates were often seen, sometimes penetrating vessel walls and in association with leukocytoclasis. Hyalinization of vessel walls, extravasation of red blood cells around capillaries, and nuclear dust were also noted. The epidermis did not show any remarkable change except for

  12. Apical actinomycosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Actinomycosis has increasingly been recognized as a cause of persistent or recurrent periapical disease associated with endodontic therapy. After conventional root canal therapy of the lower left first and second molars, a 24-year-old woman presented with a persistent periapical lesion associated with one of the sinus tracts. The lesion was surgically removed, and actinomycosis was diagnosed on the basis of biopsy results. The clinical and histologic features of this rare condition are discussed. PMID:21044422

  13. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chibinski, Ana Cláudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Letícia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosário de Arruda Moura; de Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; de Moraes, Luiz Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. Materials and Methods A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. Results The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. Conclusion A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment. PMID:27051635

  14. Histological aspects of cervical ripening.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, M; Shimizu, T; Sasai, Y

    1976-02-01

    There is a close relationship between the rate of the uterine cervix opening during parturition and the presence or absence of a completely ripened cervix. In order to learn the basic pattern of the ripening of cervix, histological and histochemical studies were performed on the human uterine cervix during pregnancy. It was noted that the collagen bundles disintegrated into fine fibers and also underwent quantitative changes during the ripening process of the cervix. During pregnancy, the number of connective tissue cells was increased, but that of mast cells was decreased. Acid mucopolysaccharides in the cervical ground substance were found to increase in late pregnancy. PMID:136067

  15. Giant Solitary Synovial Chondromatosis Mimicking Chondrosarcoma: Report of a Rare Histologic Presentation and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Khodamorad; Barbuto, Richard; Shirazi, Mehdi Ramezan; Abolghasemian, Mansour

    2015-08-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a benign lesion of the synovium, and giant solitary synovial chondromatosis (GSSCM) is a rare presentation of it. In this article, we describe clinical, imaging, and pathologic features of a hip GSSCM with an unusual histologic presentation. PMID:26251946

  16. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  17. Histology of the first fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.

  18. Comparison of periapical radiography with cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of vertical root fractures in teeth with metallic post

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; da Silva, Mariliani Chicarelli; Sabio, Sergio; Albino, Paulo Ricardo Febrairo

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting vertical root fracture (VRF) in tooth with metallic post (MP). Materials and Methods: Twenty endodontically-treated teeth received MPs, artificial fractures were created in 10 teeth, and they were all examined with tomography and radiography. The sample consisted of periapical radiography with post and without post, and tomography with post and without post; each group with five fractured and five non-fractured teeth. The images were evaluated by three dental/maxillofacial radiologists and statistical validations were carried out using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of the area under the ROC (Az) of tomography with post (Az = 0.953) and without post (Az = 0.956) were significantly higher than those of periapical radiography with post (Az = 0.753) and without post (Az = 0.778). Conclusion: CBCT was more accurate than conventional periapical radiography in detecting VRF. PMID:24944444

  19. Quantitative analysis of colorectal mucosal lesions by autofluorescence endoscopy: discrimination of carcinomas from other lesions.

    PubMed

    Arita, Keiko; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Kawano, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Shin; Maeyama, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Junya; Akagi, Yoshito; Watanabe, Yasutomo; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Tsuruta, Osamu; Sata, Michio

    2011-07-01

    A newly developed autofluorescence (AF) imaging technique was applied during colonoscopy in a clinical setting. This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the clinical feasibility of applying AF endoscopy for distinguishing colorectal lesions. A total of 54 colorectal mucosal lesions obtained from 43 patients who underwent both white-light and AF endoscopy and were treated by endoscopy or surgery were assessed. Of the lesions, 11 were hyperplastic polyps, 30 were adenomas and 13 were carcinomas. To quantify the AF intensity, a color-contrast index (CCI) was determined and evaluated in relation to the histology, size and shape of each lesion. CCI was significantly associated with the histology and size of the lesions, but not their shape. CCI increased as the malignant potential increased (in the order of hyperplastic polyps→adenomas→carcinomas), irrespective of the lesion size (r=0.797, p<0.0001 for size>8 mm; r=0.622, p=0.0045 for size>8 mm but >15 mm; r=0.644, p=0.0071 for size>15 mm). In each size group, CCI tended to be higher for carcinomas than for adenomas, and also higher for adenomas than for hyperplastic polyps. CCI allowed discrimination of adenomas/carcinomas from hyperplastic polyps with 95.3% sensitivity and 63.6% specificity (cut-off value, 14.5), and of colorectal carcinomas from adenomas with 84.6% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity (cut-off value, 28.0). These results suggest that the quantitative analysis of AF intensity using CCI is helpful to discriminate among different types of colorectal mucosal lesions, including carcinomas. PMID:21573495

  20. Brain lesion induced by 1319nm laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zaifu; Chen, Hongxia; Wang, Jiarui; Chen, Peng; Ma, Ping; Qian, Huanwen

    2010-11-01

    The laser-tissue interaction has not been well defined at the 1319 nm wavelength for brain exposure. The goal of this research effort was to identify the behavioral and histological changes of brain lesion induced by 1319 nm laser. The experiment was performed on China Kunming mice. Unilateral brain lesions were created with a continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser (1319nm). The brain lesions were identified through behavioral observation and histological haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining method. The behavior change was observed for a radiant exposure range of 97~773 J/cm2. The histology of the recovery process was identified for radiant exposure of 580 J/cm2. Subjects were sacrificed 1 hour, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 months, 7 months and 13 months after laser irradiation. Results showed that after laser exposure, behavioral deficits, including kyphosis, tail entasia, or whole body paralysis could be noted right after the animals recovered from anesthesia while gradually disappeared within several days and never recurred again. Histologically, the laser lesion showed a typical architecture dependent on the interval following laser treatment. The central zone of coagulation necrosis is not apparent right after exposure but becomes obvious within several days. The nerotic tissue though may persist for a long time, will finally be completely resorbed. No carbonization granules formed under our exposure condition.

  1. The Impact of Histologic Variants on FSGS Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Meliambro, Kristin; Campbell, Kirk N.

    2014-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common glomerular disease leading to end-stage renal disease. The clinical course is highly variable with disparate responses to therapeutic intervention and rates of progression. Histologic variant subtype has been commonly used as a prognostic and therapeutic guide in the clinical management of FSGS. The tip lesion is widely considered to portend the most favorable prognosis and to be the most responsive to steroid therapy. Conversely, the collapsing lesion, more prevalent in patients of African descent, is associated with steroid resistance and higher risk of disease progression. In the 10 years since the Columbia classification system for FSGS was published, some retrospective and one prospective study explored the impact of histologic variants at the time of biopsy on FSGS outcomes. The results largely validate its clinical predictive value with respect to treatment response, though its utility in cases recurring after kidney transplantation is still unknown. Sampling and interpretation errors are additional sources of caution. More research is needed to fully define reproducible prognostic and therapeutic markers for this polymorphic disorder.

  2. An integrated model supporting histological and biometric responses as predictive biomarkers of fish health status

    SciTech Connect

    Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo; Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-06

    In this work, an experimental system of histological (branchial lesions) biomarkers and biometric data in catfish (Sciades herzbergii) was modeled. The fish were sampled along known pollution areas (S1) and from environmental protect areas (S2) in São Marcos' Bay, Brazil. Gills were fixed in 10% formalin and usual histological techniques were used in the first gill arch right. The lesions were observed by light microscopy. There were no histopathological changes in animals captured at reference site (S1). However, in the catfish collected in the potentially contaminated area (S2) was observed several branchial lesions, such as lifting of the lamellar epithelium, fusion of some secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of epithelial cells and lamellar aneurysm. The analysis using the biometric data showed significant differences, being highest in fish analyzed in the reference area. This approach revealed spatial differences related with biometric patterns and morphological modifications of catfish.

  3. An integrated model supporting histological and biometric responses as predictive biomarkers of fish health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo; Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    In this work, an experimental system of histological (branchial lesions) biomarkers and biometric data in catfish (Sciades herzbergii) was modeled. The fish were sampled along known pollution areas (S1) and from environmental protect areas (S2) in São Marcos' Bay, Brazil. Gills were fixed in 10% formalin and usual histological techniques were used in the first gill arch right. The lesions were observed by light microscopy. There were no histopathological changes in animals captured at reference site (S1). However, in the catfish collected in the potentially contaminated area (S2) was observed several branchial lesions, such as lifting of the lamellar epithelium, fusion of some secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of epithelial cells and lamellar aneurysm. The analysis using the biometric data showed significant differences, being highest in fish analyzed in the reference area. This approach revealed spatial differences related with biometric patterns and morphological modifications of catfish.

  4. Could magnetic resonance provide in vivo histology?

    PubMed Central

    Dominietto, Marco; Rudin, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of a suspected tumor lesion faces two basic problems: detection and identification of the specific type of tumor. Radiological techniques are commonly used for the detection and localization of solid tumors. Prerequisite is a high intrinsic or enhanced contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue. Identification of the tumor type is still based on histological analysis. The result depends critically on the sampling sites, which given the inherent heterogeneity of tumors, constitutes a major limitation. Non-invasive in vivo imaging might overcome this limitation providing comprehensive three-dimensional morphological, physiological, and metabolic information as well as the possibility for longitudinal studies. In this context, magnetic resonance based techniques are quite attractive since offer at the same time high spatial resolution, unique soft tissue contrast, good temporal resolution to study dynamic processes and high chemical specificity. The goal of this paper is to review the role of magnetic resonance techniques in characterizing tumor tissue in vivo both at morphological and physiological levels. The first part of this review covers methods, which provide information on specific aspects of tumor phenotypes, considered as indicators of malignancy. These comprise measurements of the inflammatory status, neo-vascular physiology, acidosis, tumor oxygenation, and metabolism together with tissue morphology. Even if the spatial resolution is not sufficient to characterize the tumor phenotype at a cellular level, this multiparametric information might potentially be used for classification of tumors. The second part discusses mathematical tools, which allow characterizing tissue based on the acquired three-dimensional data set. In particular, methods addressing tumor heterogeneity will be highlighted. Finally, we address the potential and limitation of using MRI as a tool to provide in vivo tissue characterization. PMID:24454320

  5. Feature-based analysis of mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in histological tissue sections

    PubMed Central

    Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Valkonen, Mira; Nykter, Matti; Visakorpi, Tapio; Latonen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes work presented at the Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology 2015, in Linköping, Sweden. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) represents premalignant tissue involving epithelial growth confined in the lumen of prostatic acini. In the attempts to understand oncogenesis in the human prostate, early neoplastic changes can be modeled in the mouse with genetic manipulation of certain tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. As with many early pathological changes, the PIN lesions in the mouse prostate are macroscopically small, but microscopically spanning areas often larger than single high magnification focus fields in microscopy. This poses a challenge to utilize full potential of the data acquired in histological specimens. We use whole prostates fixed in molecular fixative PAXgene™, embedded in paraffin, sectioned through and stained with H&E. To visualize and analyze the microscopic information spanning whole mouse PIN (mPIN) lesions, we utilize automated whole slide scanning and stacked sections through the tissue. The region of interests is masked, and the masked areas are processed using a cascade of automated image analysis steps. The images are normalized in color space, after which exclusion of secretion areas and feature extraction is performed. Machine learning is utilized to build a model of early PIN lesions for determining the probability for histological changes based on the calculated features. We performed a feature-based analysis to mPIN lesions. First, a quantitative representation of over 100 features was built, including several features representing pathological changes in PIN, especially describing the spatial growth pattern of lesions in the prostate tissue. Furthermore, we built a classification model, which is able to align PIN lesions corresponding to grading by visual inspection to more advanced and mild lesions. The classifier allowed both determining the probability of early histological changes for uncategorized

  6. Feature-based analysis of mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in histological tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Valkonen, Mira; Nykter, Matti; Visakorpi, Tapio; Latonen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes work presented at the Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology 2015, in Linköping, Sweden. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) represents premalignant tissue involving epithelial growth confined in the lumen of prostatic acini. In the attempts to understand oncogenesis in the human prostate, early neoplastic changes can be modeled in the mouse with genetic manipulation of certain tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. As with many early pathological changes, the PIN lesions in the mouse prostate are macroscopically small, but microscopically spanning areas often larger than single high magnification focus fields in microscopy. This poses a challenge to utilize full potential of the data acquired in histological specimens. We use whole prostates fixed in molecular fixative PAXgene™, embedded in paraffin, sectioned through and stained with H&E. To visualize and analyze the microscopic information spanning whole mouse PIN (mPIN) lesions, we utilize automated whole slide scanning and stacked sections through the tissue. The region of interests is masked, and the masked areas are processed using a cascade of automated image analysis steps. The images are normalized in color space, after which exclusion of secretion areas and feature extraction is performed. Machine learning is utilized to build a model of early PIN lesions for determining the probability for histological changes based on the calculated features. We performed a feature-based analysis to mPIN lesions. First, a quantitative representation of over 100 features was built, including several features representing pathological changes in PIN, especially describing the spatial growth pattern of lesions in the prostate tissue. Furthermore, we built a classification model, which is able to align PIN lesions corresponding to grading by visual inspection to more advanced and mild lesions. The classifier allowed both determining the probability of early histological changes for uncategorized

  7. Virtual histology and color flow intravascular ultrasound in peripheral interventions.

    PubMed

    Diethrich, Edward B; Irshad, Khalid; Reid, Donald B

    2006-09-01

    The quality and interpretation of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging has been revolutionized in recent years by two new and major advances: virtual histology and color flow IVUS. Virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VHIVUS) is a catheter-based technology where IVUS is generated from the transducer on the catheter tip and the reflected signals from the artery wall produce a color-coded map of the arterial disease. Different histological constituents of the plaque produce different reflected signals and these are assigned different colors (dark green, fibrous; yellow/green, fibrofatty; white, calcified; red, necrotic lipid core plaque). This color-coded map assists the interventionalist in understanding more fully how the lesion will behave at the moment of treatment, whether it will resist complete stent deployment or be liable to embolization. Originally introduced for coronary interventions, VHIVUS is now being applied to peripheral situations. Because it provides a detailed and close-proximity view of plaque, its potential to improve the safety and efficacy of carotid endoluminal repair is stimulating substantial interest. Similarly, color flow IVUS provides greater understanding for the operator of blood flow, and the interface between the vessel wall and the blood stream, lumen size, and success of treatment. Color flow IVUS does not use the Doppler effect, but creates real-time images that resemble color flow Doppler ultrasound. These two technological advances in IVUS have greatly improved the ability of the endovascular specialist to understand the arterial disease they are treating and to assess the completion of treatment. PMID:16996418

  8. Retrospective study of biopsied head and neck lesions in a cohort of referral Taiwanese patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A study of the whole spectrum of biopsied head and neck (HN) diseases in Taiwan has not yet been performed. Therefore, the current study aimed to provide updated information about HN lesions in a cohort of referral Taiwanese patients for histopathological examination. Methods HN lesions (2000–2011) in patients with records of age, sex, and histological diagnoses were retrieved from the Oral Pathology Department of the institution. These lesions were classified into four main categories: tumor/tumor-like reactive lesions, cystic/pseudocystic lesions, inflammatory/infective lesions, and others/miscellaneous lesions. Results A total of 37,210 HN lesions were included in the current study. Most of these lesions were distributed in the group of tumor/tumor-like reactive lesions, followed by the groups of inflammatory/infective lesions, cystic/pseudocystic lesions, and others/miscellaneous lesions. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common HN lesion, and was also the most frequent malignant lesion among the referral patients. Conclusion It was worthy of note that squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders comprised high percentages of all HN lesions for the present cohort of referral patients. PMID:25047214

  9. Ghost cell lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Jimson, Sudha; Masthan, K. M. K.; Balachander, N.

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms. PMID:26015694

  10. [Surprising white lesions].

    PubMed

    Nolte, J W; van der Waal, I

    2011-09-01

    A 46-year-old man appeared with white lesions of the oral cavity. A previously taken biopsy revealed no classifying diagnosis and treatment with mouth rinse produced no improvement. A new biopsy was taken, on which the pathologist performed additional tests. This resulted in the diagnosis 'syphilis'. The patient was treated with benzylpenicillin and the oral white lesions disappeared. Although nowadays syphilis is rare, special attention is required when noticing these kinds of lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:21957637

  11. A case of bacteremia caused by Dialister pneumosintes and Slackia exigua in a patient with periapical abscess.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Young Jin; Gu, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hee Joo

    2016-04-01

    Dialister pneumosintes and Slackia exigua are both obligatory anaerobe and known to be associated with periodontal diseases and other oral infection. We report a case of blood stream infection caused by D. pneumosintes and S. exigua. This occurred in a 78-year-old female patient that presented with general weakness and fever. We revealed that she had a periapical absecess. The blood culture was positive for D. pneumosintes and S. exigua; however, identifying them was challenging. Ultimately, 16S rRNA sequencing was used to identify the organisms. The patient recovered after being treated with ceftriaxone and clindamycin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bacteremia caused by mixed infection of D. pneumosintes and S. exigua. PMID:26612007

  12. Noninvasive methods for determining lesion depth from vesicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Braue, Ernest H; Graham, John S; Doxzon, Bryce F; Hanssen, Kelly A; Lumpkin, Horace L; Stevenson, Robert S; Deckert, Robin R; Dalal, Stephen J; Mitcheltree, Larry W

    2007-01-01

    Before sulfur mustard (HD) injuries can be effectively treated, assessment of lesion depth must occur. Accurate depth assessment is important because it dictates how aggressive treatment needs to be to minimize or prevent cosmetic and functional deficits. Depth of injury typically is assessed by physical examination. Diagnosing very superficial and very deep lesions is relatively easy for the experienced burn surgeon. Lesions of intermediate depth, however, are often problematic in determining the need for grafting. This study was a preliminary evaluation of two noninvasive bioengineering methodologies, laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and indocyanine green fluorescence imaging (ICGFI), to determine their ability to accurately diagnose depth of sulfur mustard lesions in a weanling swine model. Histological evaluation was used to assess the accuracy of the imaging techniques in determining burn depth. Six female weanling swine (8-12 kg) were exposed to 400 microl of neat sulfur mustard on six ventral sites for 2, 8, 30, or 60 minutes. This exposure regimen produced lesions of varying depths from superficial to deep dermal. Evaluations of lesion depth using the bioengineering techniques were conducted at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exposure. After euthanasia at 72 hours after exposure, skin biopsies were taken from each site and processed for routine hematoxylin and eosin histological evaluation to determine the true depth of the lesion. Results demonstrated that LDPI and ICGFI were useful tools to characterize skin perfusion and provided a good estimate of HD lesion depth. Traditional LDPI and the novel prototype ICGFI instrumentation used in this study produced images of blood flow through skin lesions, which provided a useful assessment of burn depth. LDPI and ICGFI accurately predicted the need for aggressive treatment (30- and 60-minute HD lesions) and nonaggressive treatment (2- and 8-minute HD lesions) for the lesions generated in this study. Histological

  13. Age estimation by pulp/tooth ratio in canines by mesial and vestibular peri-apical X-rays.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, Roberto; Ferrante, Luigi; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Bonfiglioli, Benedetta; Rastelli, Elisa; Cingolani, Mariano

    2007-09-01

    Changes in the size of the pulp canal, caused by apposition of secondary dentine, are the best morphometric parameters for estimating age by X-rays. The apposition of secondary dentine is the most frequently used method for age estimation in adult subjects. In two previous papers, we studied the application of the pulp/tooth area ratio by peri-apical X-rays as an indicator of age at death. The aim of the present study was to test the accuracy of age evaluation by combined analysis of labio-lingual and mesial peri-apical X-rays of lower and upper canines. A total of 200 such X-rays were assembled from 57 male and 43 female skeletons of Caucasian origin, aged between 20 and 79 years. For each skeleton, dental maturity was evaluated by measuring the pulp/tooth area ratio according to labio-lingual and mesial X-rays on upper (x(1), x(2)) and lower (x(3), x(4)) canines. Very good agreement was found between intra-observer measurements. Statistical analysis showed that all variables x(1), x(2), x(3), and x(4) and the first-order interaction between x(1) and x(3) contributed significantly to the fit, so that they were included in the regression model, yielding the following regression formula: Age = 120.737 - 337.112x(1) - 79.709x(2) - 364.534x(3) - 65.655x(4) + 1531.918x(1)x(3) . The residual standard error of estimated ages was 3.62 years, with 94 degrees of freedom, and the median of the residuals was -0.155 years, with an interquartile range of 4.96 years. The accuracy of the method was ME = 2.8 years, where ME is the mean prediction error. The model also explained 94% of total variance (R(2) = 0.94). PMID:17680998

  14. Diagnostic Value of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Periapical Radiography In Detection of Vertical Root Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ezzodini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Razavi, Seyed Hossein; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vertical root fracture (VRF) is the longitudinal fracture of the root in endodontically treated teeth. Considering the limitations of two-dimensional radiographic images in detection of VRF and introduction of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), this study was designed to find the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CBCT and periapical (PA) radiography in detection of VRFs. Methods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional in vitro study on 80 extracted human single canal teeth including 40 maxillary and 40 mandibular teeth. After standardized endodontic treatment of the roots, VRF was induced in half of the teeth in each group, and other half were left without fracture. Teeth were inserted in dry maxillary and mandibular alveoli. PA radiographs and CBCT images were taken from the specimens. Data were analyzed with SPSS software. The McNemar test was used to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of images, and kappa coefficient was used to assess the degree of agreement between the observers. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Sensitivity and specificity values of CBCT were 97.5% and 95%, respectively. However, for PA radiography the sensitivity and specificity were 67.5% and 92.5%, in order of appearance. Accuracy of CBCT (96.25%) and PA radiography (80%) in both jaws were significantly different (P=0.022). Two methods were not significantly different when testing specificity (P=0.298). Conclusion: This study showed that the sensitivity and accuracy of CBCT in detection of vertical root fracture are higher than periapical radiography. CBCT can be recommended to be used in detection of vertical root fractures. PMID:25834597

  15. Renal histology in diabetic nephropathy: A novel perspective.

    PubMed

    Sahay, M; Mahankali, R K; Ismal, K; Vali, P S; Sahay, R K; Swarnalata, G

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease all over the world. India has a high incidence and prevalence of diabetes and >30% have nephropathy. Recently, a histological classification has been proposed. This study analyzed the renal histology in 114 diabetic patients with renal dysfunction. Nearly 75% of patients had DN. Fifty five (63.95%) were males. Mean duration of diabetes was 7.04 ± 4.9 years. Mean serum creatinine in study group was 5.2 ± 2.9 mg/dl, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 23.43 ± 21.48 ml/min/1.732 m(2). Forty eight patients (55.81%) had diabetic retinopathy (DR); prevalence of DR was more in patients who had diabetes for > 10 years than patients who had diabetes for <6 years (P = 0.022). The most common histological class was Class IV observed in 37 (43.02. %) cases, Class III DN in 24 (27.90%) cases, Class IIa and Class IIb in 11 (12.79%) cases each and Class I DN in 3 (3.48%) cases. Higher histological class was associated with higher proteinuria, lower glomerular filtration rate (P < 0.001) and was more likely to be associated with retinopathy (P = 0.012) and hypertension (P = 0.0003) but did not correlate with duration of diabetes (P = 0.85). There was a poor correlation between retinopathy and DN. Biopsy helps to stage the renal lesions in diabetics with renal dysfunction. PMID:25097335

  16. Benign liver lesions: grey-scale and contrast-enhanced ultrasound appearances

    PubMed Central

    Obaro, A E

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is often the first point of detection of liver lesions, with up to 75% of liver lesions detected at ultrasound having benign histology. In 2012, NICE issued recommendations that ultrasound contrast be used for the evaluation of incidentally discovered liver lesions. This has been demonstrated to provide a rapid and cost-effective evaluation for incidental liver lesions, in many cases precluding the need for further CT or MRI scans. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the ultrasound features of benign liver lesions, and to demonstrate their further characterisation with contrast ultrasound.

  17. Generation and 3-Dimensional Quantitation of Arterial Lesions in Mice Using Optical Projection Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Low, Lucinda; Wu, Junxi; Miller, Eileen; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Walker, Brian R.; Webb, David J.; Hadoke, Patrick W. F.

    2015-01-01

    The generation and analysis of vascular lesions in appropriate animal models is a cornerstone of research into cardiovascular disease, generating important information on the pathogenesis of lesion formation and the action of novel therapies. Use of atherosclerosis-prone mice, surgical methods of lesion induction, and dietary modification has dramatically improved understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to disease development and the potential of new treatments. Classically, analysis of lesions is performed ex vivo using 2-dimensional histological techniques. This article describes application of optical projection tomography (OPT) to 3-dimensional quantitation of arterial lesions. As this technique is non-destructive, it can be used as an adjunct to standard histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Neointimal lesions were induced by wire-insertion or ligation of the mouse femoral artery whilst atherosclerotic lesions were generated by administration of an atherogenic diet to apoE-deficient mice. Lesions were examined using OPT imaging of autofluorescent emission followed by complementary histological and immunohistochemical analysis. OPT clearly distinguished lesions from the underlying vascular wall. Lesion size was calculated in 2-dimensional sections using planimetry, enabling calculation of lesion volume and maximal cross-sectional area. Data generated using OPT were consistent with measurements obtained using histology, confirming the accuracy of the technique and its potential as a complement (rather than alternative) to traditional methods of analysis. This work demonstrates the potential of OPT for imaging atherosclerotic and neointimal lesions. It provides a rapid, much needed ex vivo technique for the routine 3-dimensional quantification of vascular remodelling. PMID:26067588

  18. Histological study of skin damage by 2.0 μm laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Thomsen, Sharon L.; O'Dell, Daniel C.; Thomas, Robert J.; Welch, Ashley J.

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the histopathologic effect on the skin of 2.0 μm wavelength laser with various exposure conditions 48 hours after irradiation. Histological sections of lesions were created at, below and beyond the threshold for grossly apparent thermal lesions. These lesions were studied to 1)identify and define the microscopically apparent threshold lesions, 2)determine the mechanisms producing the gross and microscopic threshold lesions in the skin, and 3)map the extent and severity of the lesions. Grossly apparent threshold lesion were defined as persistent surface redness at 48 hours. Histologically, these lesions showed relatively severe thermal damage in both the epidermis and the dermis. Damage included death and necrosis of the epidermal cells and endothelial necrosis, intravascular thrombosis as well as perivascular edema and inflammation in dermal blood vessels. The collagen bundles below the epidermis were slightly swollen but there was no change in birefringence image intensity. For each threshold lesion, three quantitative parameters were measured to map the extent of thermal damage: 1) the width of necrotic epidermis, 2) the depth measured from the epidermal/dermal junction to the deepest extent of thrombosis, and 3) the depth measured from the epidermal/dermal junction to the deepest extent of perivascular inflammation and edema. Birefringence change of dermal collagen which occurred at powers above threshold was another measurable damage marker which indicated coagulation of collagen bundles. These quantitative histopathologic data for skin damage associated with the transient temperature profiles and irradiation parameters provided important information to mathematically derive rate process coefficients for thermal damage and formulate mathematical tissue damage models for each cutaneous damage effect.

  19. Histological features of the gastric mucosa in children with primary bile reflux gastritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bile reflux is one of the primary factors involved in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal lesions in patients with chronic gastritis; however, little is known about the exact histological features of bile reflux and its contributions to gastric mucosal lesions in this disease, especially in children with primary bile reflux gastritis (BRG). The aim of this study was to investigate the classic histological changes of the gastric mucosa in children with primary BRG. Methods The Bilitec 2000 was used for 24 h monitoring of gastric bile in 59 children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The histological characteristics of the gastric mucosa were examined and scored. Results Thirteen of the 59 patients had a helicobacter pylori infection and were excluded; therefore, 46 cases were included in this study. The positive rate of pathological duodenogastric reflux was significantly higher in patients with foveolar hyperplasia than those without foveolar hyperplasia; however, the rate was significantly lower in patients with vascular congestion than those without vascular congestion. The longest reflux time and the total percentage time of bile reflux were significantly lower in patients with vascular congestion than those without vascular congestion. A total of 9 types of histological changes were analyzed using a binary logistic regression. Foveolar hyperplasia and vascular congestion in the superficial layer became significant variables in the last step of the stepwise regression. Conclusions Foveolar hyperplasia was associated with the severity of bile reflux, suggesting that it is a histological feature of primary BRG in children, while vascular congestion may be a protective factor. PMID:22289498

  20. Preinvasive lesions

    Cancer.gov

    This definition is for allocation of lesions with preinvasive/borderline properties. It is currently aimed at newly identified neoplasms, which may be similar to those described in humans. In mouse pathology, many adenomas may be preinvasive/borderline lesions. However, their inclusion in the preinvasive category can be justified only upon development of better diagnostic criteria.

  1. Noninfectious penile lesions.

    PubMed

    Teichman, Joel M H; Sea, Jason; Thompson, Ian M; Elston, Dirk M

    2010-01-15

    Family physicians commonly diagnose and manage penile cutaneous lesions. Noninfectious lesions may be classified as inflammatory and papulosquamous (e.g., psoriasis, lichen sclerosus, angiokeratomas, lichen nitidus, lichen planus), or as neoplastic (e.g., carcinoma in situ, invasive squamous cell carcinoma). The clinical presentation and appearance of the lesions guide the diagnosis. Psoriasis presents as red or salmon-colored plaques with overlying scales, often with systemic lesions. Lichen sclerosus presents as a phimotic, hypopigmented prepuce or glans penis with a cellophane-like texture. Angiokeratomas are typically asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, red or blue papules, whereas lichen nitidus usually produces asymptomatic pinhead-sized, hypopigmented papules. The lesions of lichen planus are pruritic, violaceous, polygonal papules that are typically systemic. Carcinoma in situ should be suspected if the patient has velvety red or keratotic plaques of the glans penis or prepuce, whereas invasive squamous cell carcinoma presents as a painless lump, ulcer, or fungating irregular mass. Some benign lesions, such as psoriasis and lichen planus, can mimic carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma. Biopsy is indicated if the diagnosis is in doubt or neoplasm cannot be excluded. The management of benign penile lesions usually involves observation or topical corticosteroids; however, neoplastic lesions generally require surgery. PMID:20082512

  2. Spitz/Reed nevi: a review of clinical-dermatoscopic and histological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Ana F.; Lopes, Jose M.; Azevedo, Filomena; Mota, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spitz/Reed nevi are melanocytic lesions that may mimic melanoma at clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathological levels. Management strategies of these lesions remain controversial. Objectives: We aim a correlation among clinical-dermatoscopic and histological features of a series of Spitz/Reed nevi diagnosed during 7 years at the Department of Dermatology. Methods: Clinical, dermatoscopic and histological features of Spitz/Reed nevi diagnosed at our tertiary hospital from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed in order to seek correlation. Results: All described dermatoscopic patterns for Spitz/Reed nevi were found among the 47 enrolled patients; starburst and atypical/multicomponent patterns prevailed (57.4%). Reticular pattern predominated among children younger than 12 years, whereas homogeneous pattern was more frequent in patients older than 12 years, although these differences were not statistically significant (P=0.785). Among histological atypical lesions, all dermatoscopic patterns were represented, but the atypical/multicomponent predominated (56.3%). Two out of 11 dermatoscopically atypical lesions did not show histopathological counterpart. Conclusions: The excision of Spitz/Reed nevi in adults is supported, given the inability to accurately predict those with histopathological atypia, based on clinical and dermatoscopic features, which may raise concern about malignancy. PMID:27222770

  3. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolated from Refractory Endodontic Lesions Are Opportunistic Pathogens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Sadia A.; Clarke, Douglas; Do, Thuy; Gilbert, Steven C.; Mannocci, Francesco; Beighton, David

    2010-01-01

    The predominant cultivable microbiota from 20 refractory endodontic lesions (9 with abscesses and 11 without abscesses) were determined, and Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis were among the most predominant organisms. The number of species identified from lesions with abscesses (14.1 ± 2.6) was significantly greater (P < 0.001) than the number from lesions without abscesses (7.4 ± 5.9). Comparison of perioral isolates using repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR of the same species from the same subjects demonstrated that the endodontic and skin populations were significantly different. The P. acnes isolates were typed on the basis of recA gene sequence comparison, and only three types (types I, II, and III) were identified among 125 isolates examined. However, we found that type I (type IA and IB) isolates were primarily isolated from the skin, while types II and III were significantly more likely to be isolated from the endodontic lesions (P < 10−10). We found that the robustness of the recA phylotypes was not strong by comparing the partial gene sequences of six putative virulence determinants, PAmce, PAp60, PA-25957, PA-5541, PA-21293, and PA-4687. The resulting neighbor-joining trees were incongruent, and significant (phi test; P = 2.2 × 10−7) evidence of recombination was demonstrated, with significant phylogenetic heterogeneity being apparent within the clusters. P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolated from refractory endodontic infections, with or without periapical abscesses, are likely to be nosocomial infections. PMID:20739494

  4. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Krakowski, Andrew C; Naheedy, John H; Kruk, Peter G; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  5. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  6. Extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, James; Galea, Samuel; Galea, Joseph; Schembri, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old man on warfarin for aortic valve replacement presented with recurrent episodes of melaena. An initial oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) was normal, as were red cell scanning and colonoscopy. It was a third OGD that revealed the cause of the melaena—a vascular lesion in the duodenum, at the junction between D1 and D2. An extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion was diagnosed, and the lesion was injected with epinephrine and tattooed. Over the following months, episodes of bleeding recurred despite further attempts at injection. Percutaneous radiologically assisted embolisation of the gastroduodenal artery, and eventually duodenotomy and oversuturing of the lesion were performed to no avail. The patient has undergone over 10 endoscopies, and has received over 70 units of packed red cells to date, since his initial presentation 6 years ago. Attempts to stop the bleeding permanently have been difficult, highlighting the complexity of managing such a lesion. PMID:25216921

  7. Comparative histology of pineal calcification.

    PubMed

    Vígh, B; Szél, A; Debreceni, K; Fejér, Z; Manzano e Silva, M J; Vígh-Teichmann, I

    1998-07-01

    The pineal organ (pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri) contains several calcified concretions called "brain sand" or acervuli (corpora arenacea). These concretions are conspicuous with imaging techniques and provide a useful landmark for orientation in the diagnosis of intracranial diseases. Predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium salts, corpora arenacea are numerous in old patients. In smaller number they can be present in children as well. The degree of calcification was associated to various diseases. However, the presence of calcified concretions seems not to reflect a specific pathological state. Corpora arenacea occur not only in the actual pineal tissue but also in the leptomeninges, in the habenular commissure and in the choroid plexus. Studies with the potassium pyroantimonate (PPA) method on the ultrastructural localization of free calcium ions in the human pineal, revealed the presence of calcium alongside the cell membranes, a finding that underlines the importance of membrane functions in the production of calcium deposits. Intrapineal corpora arenacea are characterized by a surface with globular structures. Meningeal acervuli that are present in the arachnoid cover of the organ, differ in structure from intrapineal ones and show a prominent concentric lamination of alternating dark and light lines. The electron-lucent lines contain more calcium than the dark ones. There is a correlation between the age of the subject and the number of layers in the largest acervuli. This suggests that the formation of these layers is connected to circannual changes in the calcium level of the organ. The histological organization of the human pineal is basically the same as that of mammalian experimental animals. Pineal concretions present in mammalian animal species are mainly of the meningeal type. Meningeal cells around acervuli contain active cytoplasmic organelles and exhibit alkaline phosphatase reaction in the rat and mink, an indication of a presumable

  8. Comparative Histology of Plasma Treated Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Kyle

    2009-10-01

    Atmospheric plasmas applied in surgical settings have unique characteristics found in histological results from animal tissue studies. This is evident in both ex vivo bench tissue tests and in vivo fresh tissue. Examples of these histological features are presented as results of a comparative study between plasma treated, common medical argon coagulation, and electrosurgery.

  9. Reproducibility of histologic classification of gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Palli, D.; Bianchi, S.; Cipriani, F.; Duca, P.; Amorosi, A.; Avellini, C.; Russo, A.; Saragoni, A.; Todde, P.; Valdes, E.

    1991-01-01

    A panel review of histologic specimens was carried out as part of a multi-centre case-control study of gastric cancer (GC) and diet. Comparisons of diagnoses of 100 GCs by six pathologists revealed agreement in histologic classification for about 70-80% of the cancers. Concordance was somewhat higher when using the Lauren rather than the Ming or World Health Organization classification systems. Histologic types from reading biopsy tissue agreed with those derived from surgical specimens for 65-75% of the 100 tumours. Intra-observer agreement in histologic classification, assessed by repeat readings up to 3 years apart by one pathologist, was 95%. The findings indicate that, although overall concordance was good, it is important to standardise diagnoses in multi-centre epidemiologic studies of GC by histologic type. PMID:2039701

  10. Nonneoplastic nasal lesions in rats and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Monticello, T M; Morgan, K T; Uraih, L

    1990-01-01

    Rodents are commonly used for inhalation toxicology studies, but until recently the nasal passages have often been overlooked or only superficially examined. The rodent nose is a complex organ in which toxicant-induced lesions may vary, depending on the test compound. A working knowledge of rodent nasal anatomy and histology is essential for the proper evaluation of these responses. Lack of a systematic approach for examining rodent nasal tissue has led to a paucity of information regarding nonneoplastic lesions in the rodent nose. Therefore, slides from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) were examined, and the literature was reviewed to assemble the spectrum of nonneoplastic rodent nasal pathology. Presented are lesions associated with the various types of epithelia lining the rodent nasal cavity plus lesions involving accessory nasal structures. Even though there are anatomic and physiologic differences between the rodent and human nose, both rats and mice provide valuable animal models for the study of nasal epithelial toxicity, following administration of chemical compounds. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PLATE 23. PLATE 24. PLATE 25. PLATE 26. PLATE 27. PLATE 28. PLATE 29. PLATE 30. PLATE 31. PLATE 32. PLATE 33. PLATE 34. PLATE 35. PLATE 36. PLATE 37. PLATE 38. PMID:2200665

  11. [Acute hepatic lesion caused by Giardia lamblia].

    PubMed

    Sotto, A; Alvarez, J L; García, B; Pomar, F; Cendán, A

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of 20 rats infested by Giardia muris in which a histologic study was made of the liver, as well as of 25 patients with giardiasis and elevated alanine-aminotransferase levels. Patients with positive A or B hepatitis markers, cholelithiasis or history of drug or alcohol use were excluded. Tests of liver function and liver biopsy were performed and antiparasite therapy was given during three months of follow-up, after which the liver biopsy was repeated. Humoral alterations were compared to those of 30 patients with acute viral hepatitis (15 type A and 15 type B) over the same periods of time. In 20% of the rats, nonspecific liver lesions were found. In the patients liver enzymes and the thymol test normalized a month after treatment and serum bile acids became normal in the third month. The liver biopsy demonstrated hepatic damage in 94% of the patients (in 20 cases cell lesions and in 12 cases inflammatory lesions) which regressed in the third month, the follow-up biopsy being normal after eradication of the parasite was confirmed. The comparative study with viral hepatitis showed highly significant differences in all the variables studied during the follow-up stage. Emphasis is placed on the importance of this lesion and its differential diagnosis to prevent its progression to chronic liver disease. PMID:2334580

  12. The Management of a Persistent Periapical Lesion Caused by an Apicomarginal Defect, Associated with a Root End Fracture in an Endodontically Treated Tooth: A Clinical Report

    PubMed Central

    S., Shruthi; Patel, Punit Vaibhav; Kumar, Sheela

    2012-01-01

    This is a case report of the presentation and the management of an apicomarginal defect which was associated with a root end fracture in an endodontically treated tooth. In spite of a successful Root Canal Treatment (RCT), if the fractured root end is left intact, considering inadverdent ankylosis or resorption, it may progress to the development of a bony dehiscence. PMID:23285470

  13. Platelet-rich plasma supplemented revascularization of an immature tooth associated with a periapical lesion in a 40-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Shah, Naseem; Logani, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The present case report is the first of its kind that documents the successful outcome of "revascularization," a regeneration-based treatment protocol in a mature adult patient. It belies the myth that "revascularization" should only be done in children and young, adolescent patients. The misconception that stem cells number as well as viability in older age group patients will not allow revascularization to be successful is also contradicted by this case. The paper highlights all the mechanisms that come into play and the enhancing of regenerative response by supplementation with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PMID:24707409

  14. Traumatic bone cyst suggestive of a chronic periapical abscess: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Bill

    2011-08-01

    Traumatic bone cysts can mimic the signs and symptoms of an endodontic lesion. This case reports on a 19-year-old male patient who was referred for endodontic assessment of a symptomatic tooth with a gingival swelling and a draining sinus at the furcation of a mandibular second molar. Radiographically, a periradicular radiolucency is evident. A prior history of trauma as well as removal of the wisdom teeth was determined. After careful diagnosis unnecessary endodontic intervention was avoided. Surgical exploration, curettage and the generation of a blood clot resulted in healing at the 6 month review appointment. The tooth remained responsive to pulp sensibility testing at that time. PMID:21771187

  15. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  16. Oral Lesions in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  17. Distinct patterns of peritumoral histological findings in subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Saito, Michihiro; Imada, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Sata, Naohiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Maetani, Iruru; Fukushima, Noriyoshi

    2015-10-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are primary pancreatic neoplasms that can act as precursors to invasive adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The peritumoral stroma has been increasingly recognized to play an important role in many types of tumors. Therefore, to investigate the clinicopathological significance of the peritumoral stroma in IPMNs, we examined the histological features of the peritumoral stroma in each subtype and histological grade of IPMNs. Eighty-two patients with IPMN, who underwent surgical resection, were reviewed clinicopathologically. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (86 lesions in total) were histologically subclassified into gastric (n = 51), intestinal (n = 22), pancreatobiliary (n = 11), and oncocytic (n = 2) subtypes. Peritumoral histological features between the gastric and intestinal subtypes were evaluated by each histological grade. The results showed that subepithelial edema and inflammatory cell infiltration were more commonly observed in the gastric subtype (74% and 79%, respectively) than in the intestinal subtype (12% and 25%, respectively) of low-grade IPMNs. On the other hand, mucus lakes were more commonly observed in the intestinal subtype (100%) than in the gastric subtype (0%) of high-grade IPMNs. In addition, pancreatobiliary subtype IPMNs tended to exhibit acute inflammation such as neutrophil predominance. This study showed that peritumoral histological features differed among subtypes of IPMNs from low-grade tumors. These differences suggest the possibility that each subtype of IPMNs has a distinct mechanism from an early stage of tumor progression, which is reflected in the properties of the peritumoral stroma. PMID:26265194

  18. Immediate placement of single implant simultaneously with immediate loading in a fresh socket associated to periapical infection: A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Serra-Pastor, Blanca; Chust-López, Cesar; Fons-Font, Antonio; Ferreiroa, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Early restoration of the masticatory function, phonatory and aesthetics is some of the current goals of the therapy based on endosseous implants. Facing the classic protocols of implant insertion, which recommend a period of several months between extraction and implant placement, alternatives have been developed that demonstrate that immediate implant placement after tooth extraction permits adequate osseointegration, even in those cases where there is a periapical disease. The immediate restoration of implants after placement is a possibility where aesthetic requirements are high. This article presents a case with immediate implant placement and immediate loading of a first upper premolar with prior periapical pathology due to a vertical fracture. The immediate prosthetic was performed using the extracted crown, which is adapted to be attached to a titanium temporary abutment using a resin cement. After a 4 month healing period work began on the final prosthetic crown. The screw crown was made of zirconium oxide with a covering feldspathic ceramic. At the 12-month follow-up, there were no mechanical or biological complications. The patient gave high satisfaction marks for the overall treatment, giving visual analogue scale score of nine. Immediate post-extraction implants have arisen as an alternative to traditional implants on completely healed bone. Their main aim is to reduce treatment time and number of surgical procedures, along with other objectives such as reduced bone re-absorption and improved aesthetics. Key words:Post-extraction implants, immediate loading prosthetic, implant-retained prosthesis, periapical disease, vertical fracture. PMID:25810833

  19. Immediate placement of single implant simultaneously with immediate loading in a fresh socket associated to periapical infection: A clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Serra-Pastor, Blanca; Chust-López, Cesar; Fons-Font, Antonio; Ferreiroa, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Early restoration of the masticatory function, phonatory and aesthetics is some of the current goals of the therapy based on endosseous implants. Facing the classic protocols of implant insertion, which recommend a period of several months between extraction and implant placement, alternatives have been developed that demonstrate that immediate implant placement after tooth extraction permits adequate osseointegration, even in those cases where there is a periapical disease. The immediate restoration of implants after placement is a possibility where aesthetic requirements are high. This article presents a case with immediate implant placement and immediate loading of a first upper premolar with prior periapical pathology due to a vertical fracture. The immediate prosthetic was performed using the extracted crown, which is adapted to be attached to a titanium temporary abutment using a resin cement. After a 4 month healing period work began on the final prosthetic crown. The screw crown was made of zirconium oxide with a covering feldspathic ceramic. At the 12-month follow-up, there were no mechanical or biological complications. The patient gave high satisfaction marks for the overall treatment, giving visual analogue scale score of nine. Immediate post-extraction implants have arisen as an alternative to traditional implants on completely healed bone. Their main aim is to reduce treatment time and number of surgical procedures, along with other objectives such as reduced bone re-absorption and improved aesthetics. Key words:Post-extraction implants, immediate loading prosthetic, implant-retained prosthesis, periapical disease, vertical fracture. PMID:25810833

  20. Working Length Determination Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography, Periapical Radiography and Electronic Apex Locator in Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, André Luiz Gomide; de Alencar, Ana Helena Gonçalves; Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo; Decurcio, Daniel Almeida; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the accuracy of working length (WL) determination using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), conventional periapical radiographies and electronic apex locator. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted during root canal treatment of 19 patients with a total of 30 single-rooted teeth diagnosed with apical periodontitis. After taking the initial parallel periapical radiographies, the initial file was advanced into the canal until the WL was detected by the apex locator. Subsequently, the WL was measured and WL radiographies were taken with the file set in the canal. Afterwards, CBCT images were acquired. These three measurements were tabulated and compared and the data were analyzed using the Friedman test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The mean values for WL determination by electronic apex locator, periapical radiograph and CBCT images were 22.25, 22.43 and 22.65, respectively which was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Working length determination using CBCT images was precise when compared to radiographic method and electronic apex locator. PMID:27471524

  1. Talar Dome Lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... be helpful in reducing the pain and inflammation. Physical therapy . Range-of-motion and strengthening exercises are beneficial once the lesion is adequately healed. Physical therapy may also include techniques to reduce pain and ...

  2. Hypervascular liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Aya; Maturen, Katherine E; Tye, Grace A; Liu, Yueyi I; Parti, Naveen N; Desser, Terry S

    2009-10-01

    Hypervascular hepatocellular lesions include both benign and malignant etiologies. In the benign category, focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma are typically hypervascular. In addition, some regenerative nodules in cirrhosis may be hypervascular. Malignant hypervascular primary hepatocellular lesions include hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma, and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Vascular liver lesions often appear hypervascular because they tend to follow the enhancement of the blood pool; these include hemangiomas, arteriovenous malformations, angiosarcomas, and peliosis. While most gastrointestinal malignancies that metastasize to the liver will appear hypovascular on arterial and portal-venous phase imaging, certain cancers such as metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, carcinoid, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors) tend to produce hypervascular metastases due to the greater recruitment of arterial blood supply. Finally, rare hepatic lesions such as glomus tumor and inflammatory pseudotumor may have a hypervascular appearance. PMID:19842564

  3. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  4. Evaluation of Parotid Lesions.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Edward C; Mallen-St Clair, Jon; St John, Maie A

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis of a parotid lesion is broad, and the otolaryngologist must consider inflammatory, neoplastic, autoimmune, traumatic, infectious, or congenital causes. A comprehensive history and physical examination, in conjunction with judicious use of radiographic imaging (MRI, computed tomography, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine studies), laboratory studies, and pathologic analysis (fine-needle aspiration, core biopsy, incisional biopsy), facilitates making an accurate diagnosis. This article reviews the key history and physical elements and adjunctive diagnostic tools available for working up parotid lesions. PMID:26902978

  5. Multiple Osteolytic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Several systemic diseases initially present with various oral manifestations. Investigation of these oral symptoms may at times lead to the diagnosis of grave underlying life-threatening conditions. We present one such case, where the patient manifested with gross enlargement of the mandible, along with lesions in the lower limbs. These lesions were the initial manifestation and on further investigations the patient was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. PMID:24516769

  6. [What lesions of the myometrium are responsible for hemorrhage?].

    PubMed

    Delarue, T; Masson, C; Maheo, A; Foissey, A

    1988-11-01

    Based on a personal series of 54 cases of endo-uterine haemorrhage with normal endometrium, the authors show that lesions of the myometrium which may result in haemorrhages, consist mainly of interstitial or submucous myomas and adenomyosis, i.e. lesions on which medical treatments are ineffective. Ultrasonography, but mainly clinical data and hysterography very often demonstrate the lesions and are sufficient to indicate a hysterectomy or a myomectomy. The problem is more difficult when the clinical, ultrasonographic and hysterographic work-up is negative or barely evocative. In these cases, after ruling out certain functional haemorrhages or a haemorrhagic disease, it is useful to take an histological sample of the endometrium either by curettage or biopsy, on an ambulatory basis (using Inocurette for instance). If this examination is normal, hysterectomy is indicated, because, in their experience, there are such lesions of the myometrium, that recurrence of the haemorrhages is inevitable. PMID:3206094

  7. Polymorphous light eruption. Experimental reproduction of skin lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzle, E.; Plewig, G.; Hofmann, C.; Roser-Maass, E.

    1982-07-01

    The clinical features of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) are reviewed from the literature with special emphasis on the experimental reproduction of skin lesions. Our clinical experience with 180 patients is reported. In forty-three patients a newly developed UVA provocation test was performed. UVA, free of sunburn radiation (50-100 J/cm2), was administered, sometimes repeatedly up to four times, to large sites of previously involved skin. With this technic the reproduction of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions was possible in 90% of this group of forty-three patients. The diagnosis was substantiated by microscopic examination of genuine and experimentally induced lesions. Characteristic histologic features of PLE are described. Phototesting with large doses of UVA aids in confirming the diagnosis of PLE. Hitherto, this diagnosis depended often on exclusion of other dermatoses. Eusolex 8021, a UVA-effective sunscreen, blocked eruptions of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions. An effective means of treatment is offered by PUVA therapy.

  8. Percutaneous Trucut lung biopsy in the diagnosis of localised pulmonary lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, B D; Thorpe, R S; Kitchener, P G; McCann, B G; Pilling, J R

    1984-01-01

    In a prospective evaluation of percutaneous Trucut needle biopsy for localised intrathoracic lesions in 89 patients histological specimens were obtained in 81. Malignancy was diagnosed in 66 cases. Subsequently definitive histological reports were available in 18 of these patients with complete concordance of malignant cell type. Sixteen patients had non-malignant histological appearances, which were later confirmed objectively in six. In three patients there was no follow up information, but in the remainder the clinical course was entirely consistent with the histological appearances of the biopsy specimens. Adequate specimens were obtained from only two of the five lesions less than 2 cm in diameter. Lesions deeper than 8 cm from the site of biopsy were associated with significantly more haemorrhagic complications than more superficial lesions. Comparison with other series indicates that Trucut needle biopsy which produces histological specimens has greater diagnostic accuracy than cytological techniques for both malignant and non-malignant localised lesions. It is concluded that this technique has a definite place in the investigation of this common problem in carefully selected patients provided that strict attention is paid to the details of the technique. PMID:6463928

  9. Petrous Apex Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Amedee, Ronald G.; Gianoli, Gerard J.; Mann, Wolf J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to detail our experience in treating 69 patients over the past 6 years with pathologic processes involving the petrous apex. These included 25 (36%) primary petrous apex lesions, 40 (58%) lesions that involved the petrous apex by direct invasion from an adjacent region, and four (6%) lesions that were the result of metastatic spread from a distant site. Although lesions of the petrous apex are uncommon, they may present significant morbidity to the patient. The symptoms elicited by these lesions are usually vague and nonlocalizing in the early stages but may progress to include multiple cranial neuropathies. Successful results are contingent on early diagnosis, which requires a high index of suspicion and use of appropriate imaging modalities. Thorough preoperative assessment with use of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and carotid arteriography is essential to plan the surgical approach. We present this collection of patients in order to aid in the further preoperative characterization of the differences in primary and secondary lesions of the petrous apex. PMID:17170919

  10. Targeted Ultrasound for MR-Detected Lesions in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung Hee; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Ko, Kyungran; Choi, Nami

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the usefulness of targeted ultrasound (US) in the identification of additional suspicious lesions found by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in breast cancer patients and the changes in treatment based on the identification of the lesions by the use of targeted US. Materials and Methods One-hundred forty nine patients who underwent breast MR imaging for a preoperative evaluation of breast cancer between January 2002 and July 2004 were included in the study. We searched all cases for any additional lesions that were found initially by MR imaging and investigated the performance of targeted US in identifying the lesions. We also investigated their pathological outcomes and changes in treatment as a result of lesion identification. Results Of the 149 patients with breast cancer, additional suspicious lesions were detected with MR imaging in 62 patients (42%). Of the 69 additional lesions found in those 62 patients, 26 (38%) were confirmed as cancers by histology. Thirty-eight lesions in 31 patients were examined with targeted US and were histologically revealed as cancers in 18 (47%), high risk lesions in two (5%), benign lesions in 15 (39%), and unidentified lesions in three (8%). The cancer rate was statistically higher in lesions with a US correlate than in lesions without a US correlate (p = 0.028). Of 31 patients, the surgical plan was altered in 27 (87%). The use of targeted US justified a change in treatment for 22 patients (81%) and misled five patients (19%) into having an unnecessary surgical excision. Conclusion Targeted US can play a useful role in the evaluation of additional suspicious lesions detected by MR imaging in breast cancer patients, but is limited in lesions without a US correlate. PMID:18071277

  11. Intrinsic brainstem schwannoma – A rare clinical entity and a histological enigma

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anil Kumar; Savardekar, Amey R.; Nandeesh, B. N.; Arivazhagan, A.; Rao, Malla Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Intraparenchymal schwannomas arising in the brainstem are very rare, and only eight cases have been reported in literature till now. We report an intraparenchymal brainstem schwannoma presenting with the classical clinical presentation of an intrinsic brainstem lesion, and discuss its clinicoradiological characteristics and histological origins. We highlight the importance of an intraoperative frozen section diagnosis in such cases. Intraoperative tissue diagnosis significantly may alter the surgical strategy, which should be aimed at near total intracapsular decompression of the schwannoma. PMID:27114669

  12. Unicystic Ameloblastoma: A Perception for the Cautious Interpretation of Radiographic and Histological Findings.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shelly

    2015-10-01

    The term Unicystic Ameloblastoma (UA) refers to those cystic lesions that show clinical and radiological characteristics of an odontogenic cyst but on histological examination show a typical ameloblastomatous epithelium lining part of the cyst cavity, with or without luminal and/or mural tumor growth. Till date, lot of controversies exist among oral surgeons and oral pathologists regarding this entity. An attempt is being made here to discuss all the diagnostic dilemmas associated with UA. PMID:26454399

  13. Intrinsic brainstem schwannoma - A rare clinical entity and a histological enigma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anil Kumar; Savardekar, Amey R; Nandeesh, B N; Arivazhagan, A; Rao, Malla Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Intraparenchymal schwannomas arising in the brainstem are very rare, and only eight cases have been reported in literature till now. We report an intraparenchymal brainstem schwannoma presenting with the classical clinical presentation of an intrinsic brainstem lesion, and discuss its clinicoradiological characteristics and histological origins. We highlight the importance of an intraoperative frozen section diagnosis in such cases. Intraoperative tissue diagnosis significantly may alter the surgical strategy, which should be aimed at near total intracapsular decompression of the schwannoma. PMID:27114669

  14. Basal cell carcinoma: clues to its presence in histologic sections when the initial slide is nondiagnostic.

    PubMed

    Haupt, H M; Stern, J B; Dilaimy, M S

    2000-09-01

    Initial sections of skin biopsies may not be diagnostic of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Are there histologic predictors of BCC that should prompt deeper sections? Ninety-four cases in which the clinical diagnosis was BCC or "rule-out BCC," and the initial histologic slides were nondiagnostic, were submitted for deeper sections on three additional slides. Of the 94 cases, 50 (53%) demonstrated BCC on deeper sections. This relatively high incidence suggests that deeper sections should be taken in all cases of clinically suspected BCCs unless alternate histologic findings adequately account for the clinical lesion. The results of this study suggest that additional sections are more likely to yield BCC when the initial nondiagnostic slide demonstrates focal epidermal atypia, equivocal adnexae, stromal fibrosis, empty dermal space, and microcalcifications, criteria which may be useful in determining the need to do deeper sections in cases in which BCC is not clinically suspected. PMID:10976705

  15. White sponge naevus with minimal clinical and histological changes: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alberta; Favia, Gianfranco

    2006-05-01

    White sponge naevus (WSN) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that predominantly affects non-cornified stratified squamous epithelia: oral mucosa, oesophagus, anogenital area. It has been shown to be related to keratin defects, because of mutations in the genes encoding mucosal-specific keratins K4 and K13. We illustrate three cases diagnosed as WSN, following the clinical and histological criteria, with unusual appearance. They presented with minimal clinical and histological changes that could be misleading in the diagnosis. The patients showed diffuse irregular plaques with a range of presentations from white to rose coloured mucosae involving the entire oral cavity. In one case the lesion was also present in the vaginal area. The histological findings included epithelial thickening, parakeratosis and extensive vacuolization of the suprabasal keratinocytes, confirming WSN diagnosis. Clinical presentation and histopathology of WSN are discussed in relation to the differential diagnosis of other oral leukokeratoses. PMID:16630298

  16. Graphs and Grammars for Histology: An Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Prewitt, Judith M. S.

    1979-01-01

    The invention of the microscope disclosed a whole new world, that of the hitherto invisibly small. Histologic evidence as revealed by the microscope has become a cornerstone of medical diagnosis, and efforts are now being made to lay foundations so that the medical visual information processing burden can be alleviated significantly by cost-effective automation. This paper lays image processing foundations by presenting a graph-theoretic and syntactic model for the analysis of histologic patterns, and presents results to date.

  17. [Therapy-resistant aggressive cystic lesion of the mandible].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, C M; Bergstrand, S; Lund, J-A; Viset, T

    2011-10-01

    Several extensive surgical interventions of a cystic lesion in the left mandible were followed by recurrences. The lesion extended from the primary mandibular region into the area of pterygopalatine fossa finally infiltrating the orbital region and the skull base. Histological results could never demonstrate a malignancy with certainty. Due to the patient's poor general condition, the refusal for further surgical inventions and due to the malignoma-like growth pattern radiation treatment was performed. However, this had no effect on tumor progression. PMID:21845481

  18. Widespread telomere instability in prostatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Tu, LiRen; Huda, Nazmul; Grimes, Brenda R; Slee, Roger B; Bates, Alison M; Cheng, Liang; Gilley, David

    2016-05-01

    A critical function of the telomere is to disguise chromosome ends from cellular recognition as double strand breaks, thereby preventing aberrant chromosome fusion events. Such chromosome end-to-end fusions are known to initiate genomic instability via breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Telomere dysfunction and other forms of genomic assault likely result in misregulation of genes involved in growth control, cell death, and senescence pathways, lowering the threshold to malignancy and likely drive disease progression. Shortened telomeres and anaphase bridges have been reported in a wide variety of early precursor and malignant cancer lesions including those of the prostate. These findings are being extended using methods for the analysis of telomere fusions (decisive genetic markers for telomere dysfunction) specifically within human tissue DNA. Here we report that benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and prostate cancer (PCa) prostate lesions all contain similarly high frequencies of telomere fusions and anaphase bridges. Tumor-adjacent, histologically normal prostate tissue generally did not contain telomere fusions or anaphase bridges as compared to matched PCa tissues. However, we found relatively high levels of telomerase activity in this histologically normal tumor-adjacent tissue that was reduced but closely correlated with telomerase levels in corresponding PCa samples. Thus, we present evidence of high levels of telomere dysfunction in BPH, an established early precursor (PIN) and prostate cancer lesions but not generally in tumor adjacent normal tissue. Our results suggest that telomere dysfunction may be a common gateway event leading to genomic instability in prostate tumorigenesis. . PMID:25917938

  19. Imaging Granulomatous Lesions with Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B.E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors. Methods Two patients with granulomas, tophi and granuloma annulare (GA), respectively, were photographed digitally, OCT-scanned and biopsied in the said order. Normal skin was OCT-scanned for comparison, but not biopsied. The OCT images from each lesion were compared with their histologic images as well as with OCT images with similar characteristics obtained from nonmelanoma skin tumors. Results The OCT images of the tophi showed hyperreflective, rounded cloud-like structures in dermis, their upper part sharply delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. The deeper areas appeared blurred. The crystalline structures were delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. OCT images of GA showed two different structures in dermis: a hyporeflective rounded one, and one that was lobulated and wing-like. Conclusion Granulomatous tissue surrounding urate deposits appeared as a clear hyporeflective fringe surrounding a light, hyperreflective area. The urate crystals appeared as hyperreflective areas, shielding the deeper part of dermis, meaning OCT could only visualize the upper part of the lesions. The lobulated, wing-like structure in GA may resemble diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as seen on histology. The rounded structure in GA may represent an actual granuloma or either diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as described above. This case suggests that OCT images granulomatous tissue as absorbent, hyporeflective areas, and urate crystals appear as reflective areas, obscuring the underlying tissue. In GA a new image shape looking like a wing has been found. The frequency, specificity and sensitivity of this new pattern in OCT imaging will require further studies. PMID:22493578

  20. Histological validation of near-infrared reflectance multispectral imaging technique for caries detection and quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsone, Silvia; Taylor, Andrew; Gomez, Juliana; Pretty, Iain; Ellwood, Roger; Dickinson, Mark; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Zakian, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) multispectral imaging is a novel noninvasive technique that maps and quantifies dental caries. The technique has the ability to reduce the confounding effect of stain present on teeth. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative NIR multispectral imaging system for caries detection and assessment against a histological reference standard. The proposed technique is based on spectral imaging at specific wavelengths in the range from 1000 to 1700 nm. A total of 112 extracted teeth (molars and premolars) were used and images of occlusal surfaces at different wavelengths were acquired. Three spectral reflectance images were combined to generate a quantitative lesion map of the tooth. The maximum value of the map at the corresponding histological section was used as the NIR caries score. The NIR caries score significantly correlated with the histological reference standard (Spearman's Coefficient=0.774, p<0.01). Caries detection sensitivities and specificities of 72% and 91% for sound areas, 36% and 79% for lesions on the enamel, and 82% and 69% for lesions in dentin were found. These results suggest that NIR spectral imaging is a novel and promising method for the detection, quantification, and mapping of dental caries.

  1. Radiolucent rim as a possible diagnostic aid for differentiating jaw lesions.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam; Rahmani, Somayeh; Jafari, Soudeh; Parvaei, Parvin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we formulate a new proposal that complements previous classifications in order to assist dental practitioners in performing a differential diagnosis based on patients' radiographs. We used general search engines and specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, MedLine Plus, Science Direct, Scopus, and well-recognized textbooks to find relevant studies by using keywords such as "jaw disease," "jaw lesions," "radiolucent rim," "radiolucent border," and "radiolucent halo." More than 200 articles were found, of which 70 were broadly relevant to the topic. We ultimately included 50 articles that were closely related to the topic of interest. When the relevant data were compiled, the following eight lesions were identified as having a radiolucent rim: periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, cemento-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. We propose a novel subcategory, jaw lesions with a radiolucent rim, which includes eight entities. The implementation of this new category can help improve the diagnoses that dental practitioners make based on patients' radiographs. PMID:26730374

  2. Radiolucent rim as a possible diagnostic aid for differentiating jaw lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Rahmani, Somayeh; Jafari, Soudeh; Parvaei, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we formulate a new proposal that complements previous classifications in order to assist dental practitioners in performing a differential diagnosis based on patients' radiographs. We used general search engines and specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, MedLine Plus, Science Direct, Scopus, and well-recognized textbooks to find relevant studies by using keywords such as "jaw disease," "jaw lesions," "radiolucent rim," "radiolucent border," and "radiolucent halo." More than 200 articles were found, of which 70 were broadly relevant to the topic. We ultimately included 50 articles that were closely related to the topic of interest. When the relevant data were compiled, the following eight lesions were identified as having a radiolucent rim: periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, cemento-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. We propose a novel subcategory, jaw lesions with a radiolucent rim, which includes eight entities. The implementation of this new category can help improve the diagnoses that dental practitioners make based on patients' radiographs. PMID:26730374

  3. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Conventional Intraoral Periapical and Direct Digital Radiographs in Detecting Interdental Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Suragimath, Girish; Jaishankar, H.P.; Kulkarni, Prasad; Bijjaragi, Shobha C.; Sangle, Varsha Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microorganisms, resulting in destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Progressive loss of alveolar bone is the salient feature of periodontal disease. Accurate detection of periodontal disease with the use of radiographs helps in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Aims: The present study aims to compare the efficacy of conventional intraoral periapical (IOPA) and direct digital radiographs (RVG) in detecting interdental alveolar bone loss using intrasurgical (IS) measurements as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients elected to undergo periodontal flap surgery with periodontitis computing to 60 interdental alveolar defects on mandibular first molars were considered. IOPA and RVG were captured using standardized techniques. Bone loss measurements in IOPA and RVG were compared to the IS measurements. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was carried out using student t test and ANOVA with the help of SPSS software and p-value <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Both IOPA and RVG underestimated the bone loss measurements when compared to IS measurements which was statistically significant (p<0.0001). Bone loss measurements in RVG were closer to IS measurements than IOPA. Conclusion: Both the radiographic techniques IOPA and RVG underestimated bone loss by 1.5–2.5 mm. RVG was superior to IOPA for the detection of interdental bone loss due to reduced time and radiation exposure to obtain the same diagnostic information. PMID:25859522

  4. Age estimation by pulp/tooth ratio in lateral and central incisors by peri-apical X-ray.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; Cunha, E; Wasterlain, S N; De Luca, S; Sassaroli, E; Pagliara, F; Nuzzolese, E; Cingolani, M; Ferrante, L

    2013-07-01

    Since 2004, several papers on the analysis of the apposition of secondary dentine have been published. The aim of this paper was to study a sample of peri-apical X-ray images of upper and lower incisors, both lateral and medial, to examine the application of pulp/tooth area ratio as an indicator of age. A sample of 116 individuals, 62 men and 54 women, aged between 18 and 74 years, was studied. Data were fitted with age as a linear function of the pulp/tooth ratio of incisors. The total variance explained by the regression equation ranged from 51.3% of age, when lower lateral incisors were used as explanatory variable, to 81.6% when upper lateral incisors were used. The accuracy of the corresponding regression model yielded ME = 8.44 and 5.34 years, respectively. These results show that, although incisors are less reliable than canines or lower premolars, they can be used to estimate age-at-death when the latter are absent. PMID:23756528

  5. Synchronous Ipsilateral Parotid Tumors with Cytologic-Histologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Gvozdjan, Kristina; Groth, John V; Patel, Tushar N; Guzman, Grace; David, Odile; Cabay, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Synchronous ipsilateral tumor formation within a major salivary gland is a very rare event. In this case, a 54-year-old female tobacco smoker presented with a slowly enlarging left parotid gland. Computed tomography of the neck demonstrated a solid mass superficial to a cystic mass in the deep lobe of the gland. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration yielded oncocytic cells, lymphoid cells, and granular debris along with rare cohesive groups of basaloid cells. Parotidectomy was performed, and the resected gland was found to contain two adjacent but distinct masses. One mass, a predominantly solid, well-circumscribed lesion composed of ribbons of double-layered oncocytic cells and a lymphoid stroma with germinal center formation, was a Warthin tumor. The other mass, a predominantly cystic lesion composed of cords and nests of basaloid cells with associated deposits of basement membrane-like material, was a basal cell adenoma of the membranous type. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of synchronous Warthin tumor and basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland with cytologic-histologic correlation attributable to each tumor. PMID:26440804

  6. Ophidian Spectaculitis and Spectacular Dysecdysis: A Histologic Description.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, M O; Bertelsen, M F; Heegaard, S; Garner, M M

    2015-11-01

    The histologic features of abnormal spectacles in 60 snakes from the 5 families of Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Pythonidae, and Viperidae are described in a retrospective study conducted on specimens submitted to a private diagnostic service during a period of 15 years. Fifty-two snakes had inflammatory reactions in the spectacle. The stroma and outer epithelium of the spectacle were the layers most often involved in inflammatory disease. Lesions of the outer epithelium included edema, hyperkeratosis, and granulocyte infiltration occasionally with bacterial colonies and fungal elements. The stroma had infectious agents and inflammatory reactions in vessels and between the collagen fibrils. The inner epithelium had varying degrees of hyperplasia and hypertrophy, but no infectious agents were seen. Infectious agents in these cases included mites, bacterial disease, fungal disease, or a combination of bacterial and fungal disease. Special stains identified the bacteria most commonly involved to be Gram-positive cocci. Thirteen snakes had dysecdysis of the spectacle. Of these, 5 displayed a concurrent inflammatory reaction of the spectacle, while the remaining 8 snakes had extra keratin layers on a spectacle with an otherwise normal appearance. These keratin layers were attached to serocellular crusts located on the inner surface of the periocular scales. The cause for dyskeratotic lesions of the spectacle was not always apparent, and concurrent acariasis, other forms of dermatitis, trauma, suboptimal husbandry, and visceral disease were considered possible contributing factors. It was notable that only 4% of the submitted cases were found to have spectaculitis and/or spectacular dysecdysis. PMID:26077780

  7. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  8. Periapical inflammation after coronal microbial inoculation of dog roots filled with gutta-percha or resilon.

    PubMed

    Shipper, Guy; Teixeira, Fabricio B; Arnold, Roland R; Trope, Martin

    2005-02-01

    A dog model was used to assess and compare in vivo the efficacy of gutta-percha and AH26 sealer versus Resilon with Epiphany primer and sealer [Resilon "Monoblock" System (RMS)] filled roots in preventing apical periodontitis subsequent to coronal inoculation with oral microorganisms. There were 56 vital roots in the premolars of seven adult beagle dogs aseptically instrumented, filled, and temporized. The roots were randomly divided into four experimental groups (Coronal Leakage Model) and one negative control group and filled as follows: group 1-lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH26 sealer (n=12); group 2-vertical condensation of gutta-percha and AH26 sealer (n=12); group 3-lateral condensation of RMS (n=12); group 4-vertical condensation of RMS (n=10); negative control (n=10)-gutta-percha and AH26 sealer or RMS root fillings using lateral or vertical condensation techniques as in groups 1 to 4. Positive control-57 additional premolar roots were instrumented, infected and not filled (beginning of the Entombment Model experiment). The premolars in groups 1 to 4 were accessed again, inoculated with dental plaque scaled from the dog's teeth, and temporized. This fresh innoculum of microorganisms was repeated on two more occasions at monthly intervals. The teeth in the negative control group were not accessed again and remained undisturbed. On the 14-wk postcoronal inoculation, dogs were euthanized, and jaw blocks prepared for histologic evaluation under a light microcope. Mild inflammation was observed in 82% (18 of 22) of roots filled with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer that was stastistically more than roots filled with RMS (19% or 4 of 21) and roots in the negative control (22% or 2 of 9) (McNemar paired analysis, p < 0.05). The Resilon "Monoblock" System was associated with less apical periodontitis, which may be because of its superior resistance to coronal microleakage. PMID:15671816

  9. Tuberculosis-like lesions arising from the use of Freund's complete adjuvant in an owl monkey (Aotus sp)

    SciTech Connect

    Malaga, Carlos A.; Weller, Richard E.; Broderson, J R.; Gozalo, Alfonso S.

    2004-04-01

    An apparently normal, non-tuberculin-reacting, splenectomized owl monkey presented tuberculosis-like lesions of the lung at necropsy. Histological and bacteriological examination failed to demonstrate the presence of acid-fast organisms. Retrospective inquiry showed the animal had been inoculated using complete Freund's Adjuvant during a malaria vaccine trial. Lesions observed were compatible with lipid embolism of the adjuvant in the lungs.

  10. Endocarditis-associated brain lesions in slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Karstrup, C C; Jensen, H E; Aalbæk, B; Leifsson, P S; Boye, M; Agerholm, J S

    2011-05-01

    Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs). The brains of 20 slaughter pigs with spontaneously arising LSVE and 11 controls were examined by sectioning half of a formalin-fixed brain into 4mm slices for histological examination. The aetiology of the endocarditis was determined by bacteriological and, in some cases, by fluorescence in-situ hybridization examinations. These examinations identified 11 cases of Streptococcus suis, six cases of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, one Streptococcus spp. and two cases that remained aetiologically undetermined. One of the S. suis cases had a dual infection with S. suis in the aortic valve lesions and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in the atrioventricular valve lesions. Renal infarcts were present in eight cases. Focal encephalitis was found in 12 cases, with the number of lesions ranging from one to 11. Most pigs had less than four microscopical lesions. Acute lesions were characterized by focal microabscesses without observable bacteria. Chronic lesions were characterized by astrocytosis and focal accumulation of mononuclear leucocytes. An infarct was observed in one animal. Perivascular inflammation was seen in 14 cases, mostly as two or three lesions, while focal leptomeningitis was found in eight cases. EABLs are therefore common in slaughter pigs with LSVE. The number of lesions per animal is small, which may explain the limited attention paid to this sequela of LSVE. EABLs have rarely been reported in domestic animals and mostly in patients with neurological signs. The frequent occurrence of EABLs in slaughter pigs suggests that this pathology should be investigated in other animal species with LSVE. PMID:21168147

  11. Multiparametric MRI of Epiphyseal Cartilage Necrosis (Osteochondrosis) with Histological Validation in a Goat Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luning; Nissi, Mikko J.; Tóth, Ferenc; Shaver, Jonah; Johnson, Casey P.; Zhang, Jinjin; Garwood, Michael; Carlson, Cathy S.; Ellermann, Jutta M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate multiple MRI parameters in a surgical model of osteochondrosis (OC) in goats. Methods Focal ischemic lesions of two different sizes were induced in the epiphyseal cartilage of the medial femoral condyles of goats at 4 days of age by surgical transection of cartilage canal blood vessels. Goats were euthanized and specimens harvested 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10 weeks post-op. Ex vivo MRI scans were conducted at 9.4 Tesla for mapping the T1, T2, T1ρ, adiabatic T1ρ and TRAFF relaxation times of articular cartilage, unaffected epiphyseal cartilage, and epiphyseal cartilage within the area of the induced lesion. After MRI scans, safranin O staining was conducted to validate areas of ischemic necrosis induced in the medial femoral condyles of six goats, and to allow comparison of MRI findings with the semi-quantitative proteoglycan assessment in corresponding safranin O-stained histological sections. Results All relaxation time constants differentiated normal epiphyseal cartilage from lesions of ischemic cartilage necrosis, and the histological staining results confirmed the proteoglycan (PG) loss in the areas of ischemia. In the scanned specimens, all of the measured relaxation time constants were higher in the articular than in the normal epiphyseal cartilage, consistently allowing differentiation between these two tissues. Conclusions Multiparametric MRI provided a sensitive approach to discriminate between necrotic and viable epiphyseal cartilage and between articular and epiphyseal cartilage, which may be useful for diagnosing and monitoring OC lesions and, potentially, for assessing effectiveness of treatment interventions. PMID:26473611

  12. Histological types of polypoid cutaneous melanoma II.

    PubMed

    Knezević, Fabijan; Duancić, Vjekoslav; Sitić, Sanda; Horvat-Knezević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Ramić, Snjezana; Kostović, Kresimir; Ramljak, Vesna; Vrdoljak, Danko Velemir; Stanec, Mladen; Bozović, Angelina

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which histological types of melanoma can clinically and morphologically appear as polypoid melanomas. In 645 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma we have analyzed criteria for diagnosis of polypoid cutaneous melanoma and afterwards we have analyzed growth phase in each polypoid melanoma, histological type of atypical melanocytes, the number of epidermal ridges which are occupied by atypical melanocytes, and distribution according to age, sex and location, as well as the disease free survival. According to the criteria for polypoid melanomas we have found 147 (22.8%) polypoid cutaneous melanomas. Analyzing the growth phases, histological types of atypical melanocytes and the number of affected epidermal ridges in the group of polypoid melanomas we have ascertained 2 (1.4%) ALMs, 4 (2.8%) LMMs, 42 (28.6%) SSMs and 99 (67.2%) NMs. Our conclusion is that polypoid cutaneous melanomas are morphological forms of various histological melanoma types (ALM, LMM, SSM and NM) and they can all display polypoid morphological form. Polypoid cutaneous melanomas are most often of nodular histological type. PMID:18217457

  13. [Gastritis from a histological point of view].

    PubMed

    Vieth, M; Stolte, M

    2006-06-01

    Since the rediscovery of spiral-shaped gastric bacteria in 1983 by Warren and Marshal numerous detailed facts have enlarged our knowledge base for a better understanding of gastritis. The WHO classified Helicobacter as a class 1 carcinogen. Helicobacter plays a role in many diseases of the upper GI tract (gastric and duodenal ulcer, MALT lymphoma, and gastric cancer). Knowledge of the interaction between bacterium and host led to an improvement of the diagnosis of gastritis. Unfortunately endoscopy, histology, and patient's symptoms do not correlate with each other. Therefore, gastritis is a purely histological diagnosis. A histological diagnosis always needs to be accompanied by an etiological cause of the inflammation. Only when this information is given a clinical consequence can be drawn from a histological diagnosis. In Germany the so-called ABCD scheme of gastritis is widely used (A: autoimmune gastritis, B: bacterial gastritis, C: chemical reactive gastritis, D: other forms of gastritis). At least two antrum and two corpus biopsies (matrix diagnostics) are necessary to reach representative tissue with an acceptable probability. If less than these four (minimal standard) biopsies are taken, the histological diagnosis will remain uncertain. PMID:16612608

  14. Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Claudia; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Manthey, Suzanne; Rentsch, Barbe; Rammelt, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate and assess bone regeneration in sheep in combination with new implant materials classical histological staining methods as well as immunohistochemistry may provide additional information to standard radiographs or computer tomography. Available published data of bone defect regenerations in sheep often present none or sparely labeled histological images. Repeatedly, the exact location of the sample remains unclear, detail enlargements are missing and the labeling of different tissues or cells is absent. The aim of this article is to present an overview of sample preparation, staining methods and their benefits as well as a detailed histological description of bone regeneration in the sheep tibia. General histological staining methods like hematoxylin and eosin, Masson-Goldner trichrome, Movat's pentachrome and alcian blue were used to define new bone formation within a sheep tibia critical size defect containing a polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffold implanted for 3 months (n = 4). Special attention was drawn to describe the bone healing patterns down to cell level. Additionally one histological quantification method and immunohistochemical staining methods are described. PMID:24504113

  15. Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants

    PubMed Central

    Rentsch, Claudia; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Manthey, Suzanne; Rentsch, Barbe; Rammelt, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate and assess bone regeneration in sheep in combination with new implant materials classical histological staining methods as well as immunohistochemistry may provide additional information to standard radiographs or computer tomography. Available published data of bone defect regenerations in sheep often present none or sparely labeled histological images. Repeatedly, the exact location of the sample remains unclear, detail enlargements are missing and the labeling of different tissues or cells is absent. The aim of this article is to present an overview of sample preparation, staining methods and their benefits as well as a detailed histological description of bone regeneration in the sheep tibia. General histological staining methods like hematoxylin and eosin, Masson-Goldner trichrome, Movat’s pentachrome and alcian blue were used to define new bone formation within a sheep tibia critical size defect containing a polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffold implanted for 3 months (n = 4). Special attention was drawn to describe the bone healing patterns down to cell level. Additionally one histological quantification method and immunohistochemical staining methods are described. PMID:24504113

  16. Systematic phenotyping and correlation of biomarkers with lung function and histology in lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Isis E; Amarie, Oana V; Mutze, Kathrin; Königshoff, Melanie; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2016-05-15

    To date, phenotyping and disease course prediction in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) primarily relies on lung function measures. Blood biomarkers were recently proposed for diagnostic and outcome prediction in IPF, yet their correlation with lung function and histology remains unclear. Here, we comprehensively assessed biomarkers in liquid biopsies and correlated their abundance with lung function and histology during the onset, progression, and resolution of lung fibrosis, with the aim to more precisely evaluate disease progression in the preclinical model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Importantly, the strongest correlation of lung function with histological extent of fibrosis was observed at day 14, whereas lung function was unchanged at days 28 and 56, even when histological assessment showed marked fibrotic lesions. Although matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), MMP-9, and PAI-1 were significantly elevated in broncheoalveolar lavage of fibrotic mice, only soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) was elevated in the peripheral blood of fibrotic mice and was strongly correlated with the extent of fibrosis. Importantly, tissue-bound ICAM-1 was also elevated in lung homogenates, with prominent staining in hyperplastic type II alveolar epithelial and endothelial cells. In summary, we show that lung function decline is not a prerequisite for histologically evident fibrosis, particularly during the onset or resolution thereof. Plasma levels of sICAM-1 strongly correlate with the extent of lung fibrosis, and may thus be considered for the assessment of intraindividual therapeutic studies in preclinical studies of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26993522

  17. Impact of Lesion Location on the Progression of Osteoarthritis in a Rat Knee Model

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, Derrick M.; Harrison, Ryan K.; Siston, Robert A.; Agarwal, Sudha; Flanigan, David C.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how surgically created acute full-thickness cartilage defects of similar size and location created on the medial versus lateral femoral condyle influence progression of spontaneous cartilage lesions in a rat model. Full-thickness cartilage defects of 1 mm were surgically created on the medial or lateral femoral condyles on the right leg of 20 rats (n =10/group). Ten rats served as controls. Spontaneous lesion progression on the ipsilateral and contralateral surfaces was examined using a high-resolution digital camera along with H&E and Safranin-O staining. Chondral defects were scored grossly and histologically. Control femur displayed no cartilage disruption. Surgically treated knees exhibited created and spontaneous cartilage defects with no evidence of healing unless subchondral bone was penetrated. Ipsilateral spontaneous lesions on the lateral condyle were significantly more severe on average (p =0.009) compared to medial lesions on gross examination. Histological examination found contralateral lesions on the lateral surface following surgically created medial lesions to be more severe (p =0.057) compared to contralateral lesions. A trend toward more susceptible chondral damage to the lateral condyle was observed following acute lesion creation on either medial or lateral condyles. Mechanisms behind this pattern of spontaneous lesion development are unclear, requring further investigation. PMID:25376614

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in 40 dogs with histologically confirmed intracranial tumours.

    PubMed

    Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Marti; Gaitero, Lluís; Zamora, Angels; Añor, Sònia

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 40 dogs with histologically confirmed primary and secondary intracranial tumours were reviewed. Forty-one tumours were diagnosed by means of MR imaging (MRI). MRI findings allowed diagnosis of a neoplastic lesion in 37/41 cases. Based on MRI features, differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions was possible in 24/27 (89%) primary brain tumours and in 13/14 (92%) secondary brain tumours. Diagnosis of tumour type based on MRI features was correct in 19/27 (70%) primary tumours and in 13/14 secondary tumours. The results of this study show that MRI is a good diagnostic imaging modality to detect neoplastic lesions and to diagnose tumour type in dogs. However, as some neoplasms show equivocal MRI features the technique has limitations in the detection of some intracranial tumours and in predicting tumour type. PMID:19914851

  19. Genital lesions following bestiality.

    PubMed

    Mittal, A; Shenoi, S D; Kumar, K B; Sharma, P V

    2000-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution. PMID:20877040

  20. The International Histological Classification of Tumours*

    PubMed Central

    Sobin, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the development of the WHO project on the histological classification of tumours, which has included the establishment of several collaborating centres and has involved more than 300 pathologists in over 50 countries. The project has resulted in the publication, over the last 14 years, of 25 volumes in the first series of the International Histological Classification of Tumours (IHCT), each giving a classification of tumours specific to a certain site. The classifications are based primarily on the microscopic characteristics of the tumours and are concerned with morphologically identifiable cell types and histological patterns as seen by means of light microscopy and conventional staining techniques. The article also describes the relationship between IHCT and other classification and coding systems and assesses possible future developments that may result from new approaches to diagnosis. PMID:6978190

  1. Near-IR multi-modal imaging of natural occlusal lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dustin; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2009-02-01

    Reflectance and transillumination imaging show demineralization with high contrast in the near-IR. The objective of this study is to use lesion size and contrast acquired in reflectance and transillumination near-infrared imaging modes to estimate the severity of natural occlusal caries lesions. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared (NIR) light can be used to effectively image artificial carious lesions. However, its efficacy on natural lesions requires further exploration. Fifty extracted teeth with varying amounts of occlusal decay were examined using a NIR imaging system operating at 1310-nm. Image analysis software was used to calculate contrast values between sound and carious tooth structure. After imaging, teeth were histologically sampled at 1-mm intervals in order to determine lesion depth. Lesion contrast in transillumination mode significantly increased with lesion depth (p<0.001), while lesion contrast in reflectance mode did not increase. The lesion area demonstrated a significant increase with lesion severity in both imaging modes. These results suggest that lesion contrast and area can be used to estimate lesion severity in NIR images.

  2. Descriptive Analysis of Oligometastatic Lesions Treated With Curative-Intent Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Milano, Michael T. Katz, Alan W.; Schell, Michael C.; Philip, Abraham; Okunieff, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To characterize oligometastases in patients enrolled on two prospective pilot studies, treating oligometastases with hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery to cranial lesions. Methods and Materials: We describe the characteristics and local control (LC) of 293 lesions in 121 patients with five or fewer metastases treated with stereotactic body radiation and/or cranial stereotactic radiosurgery. For each lesion, the primary cancer site, tumor histology, site of metastasis, gross tumor volume, and prescribed dose were ascertained. The prescribed dose is expressed by the biologically effective dose in 2-Gy fractions (BED2), calculated using the linear quadratic model, assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 10. Results: Lung lesions were significantly smaller than other lesions in our cohort, whereas liver lesions were significantly larger, possibly reflecting a detection and/or referral bias. The 2-year and 4-year tumor LC rates were 77% and 73% respectively. A larger gross tumor volume was significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with worse lesion LC. Lesions originating from primary pancreatic, biliary or liver cancer exhibited significantly poorer LC, as did lesions from colorectal cancer. Lesions from breast cancer were better controlled. A higher BED2 did not correlate with improved tumor control. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation to aggressively treat oligometastatic lesions results in good local tumor control. Bulkier lesions are more difficult to control and may benefit from dose escalation.

  3. The clinical effectiveness of reflectance optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Messadi, Diana V; Younai, Fariba S; Liu, Hong-Hu; Guo, Gao; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2014-09-01

    Optical spectroscopy devices are being developed and tested for the screening and diagnosis of oral precancer and cancer lesions. This study reports a device that uses white light for detection of suspicious lesions and green-amber light at 545 nm that detect tissue vascularity on patients with several suspicious oral lesions. The clinical grading of vascularity was compared to the histological grading of the biopsied lesions using specific biomarkers. Such a device, in the hands of dentists and other health professionals, could greatly increase the number of oral cancerous lesions detected in early phase. The purpose of this study is to correlate the clinical grading of tissue vascularity in several oral suspicious lesions using the Identafi(®) system with the histological grading of the biopsied lesions using specific vascular markers. Twenty-one patients with various oral lesions were enrolled in the study. The lesions were visualized using Identafi(®) device with white light illumination, followed by visualization of tissue autofluorescence and tissue reflectance. Tissue biopsied was obtained from the all lesions and both histopathological and immunohistochemical studies using a vascular endothelial biomarker (CD34) were performed on these tissue samples. The clinical vascular grading using the green-amber light at 545 nm and the expression pattern and intensity of staining for CD34 in the different biopsies varied depending on lesions, grading ranged from 1 to 3. The increase in vascularity was observed in abnormal tissues when compared to normal mucosa, but this increase was not limited to carcinoma only as hyperkeratosis and other oral diseases, such as lichen planus, also showed increase in vascularity. Optical spectroscopy is a promising technology for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities; however, further investigations with a larger population group is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions from

  4. The clinical effectiveness of reflectance optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of oral lesions

    PubMed Central

    Messadi, Diana V; Younai, Fariba S; Liu, Hong-Hu; Guo, Gao; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy devices are being developed and tested for the screening and diagnosis of oral precancer and cancer lesions. This study reports a device that uses white light for detection of suspicious lesions and green–amber light at 545 nm that detect tissue vascularity on patients with several suspicious oral lesions. The clinical grading of vascularity was compared to the histological grading of the biopsied lesions using specific biomarkers. Such a device, in the hands of dentists and other health professionals, could greatly increase the number of oral cancerous lesions detected in early phase. The purpose of this study is to correlate the clinical grading of tissue vascularity in several oral suspicious lesions using the Identafi® system with the histological grading of the biopsied lesions using specific vascular markers. Twenty-one patients with various oral lesions were enrolled in the study. The lesions were visualized using Identafi® device with white light illumination, followed by visualization of tissue autofluorescence and tissue reflectance. Tissue biopsied was obtained from the all lesions and both histopathological and immunohistochemical studies using a vascular endothelial biomarker (CD34) were performed on these tissue samples. The clinical vascular grading using the green–amber light at 545 nm and the expression pattern and intensity of staining for CD34 in the different biopsies varied depending on lesions, grading ranged from 1 to 3. The increase in vascularity was observed in abnormal tissues when compared to normal mucosa, but this increase was not limited to carcinoma only as hyperkeratosis and other oral diseases, such as lichen planus, also showed increase in vascularity. Optical spectroscopy is a promising technology for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities; however, further investigations with a larger population group is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions

  5. Appendicitis in Dar es Salaam, histological pattern.

    PubMed

    Mbembati, N A; Lema, L E; Mwakyoma, H A; Ussiri, E V

    1996-03-01

    Histology of 378 appendicectomy specimens submitted to the Histopathology Department of Muhimbili Medical Centre from its surgical wards over a 10 year period (1985 to 1994) were reviewed. There were 185 cases (48.9 pc) of acute appendicitis, 101 cases (26.7 pc) of chronic appendicitis, 74 (19.6 pc) normal appendices and 13 cases (3.5 pc) schistosomal appendicitis. There were two cases of tuberculous appendicitis and two cases of mucocele of the appendix. Apart from the high frequency of chronic appendicitis the histological findings in this study compare well with findings reported from other studies. PMID:8653771

  6. Dermal filler complications: a clinicopathologic study with a spectrum of histologic reaction patterns.

    PubMed

    El-Khalawany, Mohamed; Fawzy, Sameh; Saied, Asmaa; Al Said, Mohammed; Amer, Ahmed; Eassa, Bayoumi

    2015-02-01

    Although dermal fillers are generally accepted as safe and well-tolerable cosmetic tools, adverse reaction still forms a prognostic problem. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinicopathologic patterns of dermal filler complications in our center. A 5-year single-center study that included patients complained from filler complications and referred to the dermatopathology unit in Al-Azhar University for histologic assessment. The study included 38 female patients with an average age of 47 years. The mean onset of complications was 14.6 ± 5.27 months after injection. The injected material included hyaluronic acid (18.4%), silicone (52.6%), bovine collagen (15.8%) and polyacrylamide hydrogel (13.2%). Most lesions were located on the face (55.3%), less commonly on the hands (18.4%), buttocks (21%), and rarely on the vulva (5.3%). The clinical spectrum included indurated plaque (23.7%), nodular lesion (31.6%), inflammatory mass (15.8%), atrophic lesion (10.5%), skin discoloration (13.1%) and ulceration (5.3%). Histologically, granulomatous reaction was the major finding, either a foreign body granuloma (34.2%) or infectious granuloma (13.2%). Other histologic reactions included dermal pseudocysts with chronic inflammation (26.3%), dermal fibrosis (15.8%), and eosinophilic panniculitis (10.5%). Our results confirmed that dermal fillers could be manifested with variable clinical presentations and show different histologic reactions. Because of long-standing duration until complications occur, history taking is crucial and should be emphasized in every suspected patient. It is hoped that this article will increase awareness for recognition of these variable complications and help select the appropriate therapy. PMID:25553966

  7. Five myofibrillar lesion types in eccentrically challenged, unloaded rat adductor longus muscle--a test model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. L.; Balog, E. M.; Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Sarcomere disruptions are observed in the adductor longus (AL) muscles following voluntary reloading of spaceflown and hindlimb suspension unloaded (HSU) rat, which resemble lesions in eccentrically challenged muscle. We devised and tested an eccentric contraction (ECCON) test system for the 14-day HSU rat AL. Six to 7 hours following ECCON, ALs were fixed to allow immunostaining and electron microscopy (EM). Toluidine blue-stained histology semithin sections were screened for lesion density (#/mm2). Serial semithin sections from the ECCON group were characterized for myosin immunointensity of lesions. Five myofibrillar lesion types were identified in histological semithin sections: focal contractions; wide A-bands; opaque areas; missing A-bands; and hyperstretched sarcomeres. Lesion density by type was greater for ECCON than NonECCON ALs (P< or =0.05; focal contractions and opaque regions). Lesion density (#-of-all-five-types/mm2) was significantly different (ECCON: 23.91+/-10.58 vs. NonECCON: 5.48+/-1.28, P< or =0.05; ECCON vs. SHAM: 0.00+/-0.00; P< or = 0.025). PostECCON optimal tension decreased (Poi-drop, 17.84+/-4.22%) and was correlated to lesion density (R2=0.596), but prestretch tension demonstrated the highest correlation with lesion density (R2=0.994). In lesions, the darkly staining A-band lost the normally organized thick filament alignment to differing degrees across the different lesion types. Ranking the five lesion types by a measure of lesion length deformation (hypercontracted to hyperstretched) at the light microscopy level, related to the severity of thick filament registry loss across the lesion types at the electron microscopic level. This ranking suggested that the five lesion types seen in semithin sections at the light level represented a lesion progression sequence and paralleled myosin immunostaining loss as the distorted A-band filaments spread across the hyperlengthening lesion types. Lesion ultrastructure indicated damage involved

  8. Accuracy and reliability of pulp/tooth area ratio in upper canines by peri-apical X-rays.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, A C; Michel-Crosato, E; Biazevic, M G H; Galić, I; Merelli, V; De Luca, S; Cameriere, R

    2014-11-01

    Due to the real need for careful staff training in age assessment, in order to improve capacity, consistency and competence, new research on the reliability and repeatability of methods frequently used in age assessment are required. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to test the accuracy of this method for age estimation; second, to obtain data on the reliability of this technique. A sample of 81 peri-apical radiographs of upper canines (44 men and 37 women), aged between 19 and 74years, was used; the teeth were taken from the osteological collection of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy). Three blinded observers used the technique in order to perform the age estimation. The mean real age of the 81 observations was 37.21 (CI95% 34.37 40.05), and estimated ages ranged from 36.65 to 38.99 (CI95%-Ex1 35.42; 41.28; CI95%-Ex2 33.89; 39.41; CI95%-Ex3 35.92; 42.06). The module differences found by the three observers were 3.43, 4.24 and 4.45, respectively for Ex1×Ex2, Ex1×Ex3 and Ex2×Ex3. The module differences observed among real and observed ages were 2.55 (CI95% 1.90; 3.20), 2.22 (CI95% 1.65; 2.78) and 4.39 (CI95% 3.80; 5.75), respectively for Ex1, Ex2 and Ex3. No differences were observed among measurements. This technique can be reproduced and repeated after proper training, since it was found high reliability and accuracy. PMID:25092574

  9. Comparison of Conventional and Standardized Bone Densitometry around Implants in Periapical Radiographs during a Three Months Period

    PubMed Central

    Naser, Asieh Zamani; Etemadi, Shahab; Rismanchian, Mansour; Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Tavakoli, Mohammadbagher

    2011-01-01

    Background: Comparing continuous films taken at different timescales is a way to study the alveolar bone changes around the implant over time. One of the important concerns in quantitative analysis of the alveolar bone changes over the time is to reduce variations in the X-ray imaging geometry and image density. Methods: Using a modified XCP film holder together with the bite recording material, parallel periapical radiographs were taken from the implants placements of 16 patients in four steps. Densities of radiographs were measured in a conventional way using the video densitometry device. The same films were also scanned; sequential radiographic density of each patient was homogenised and the density was measured. Density changes obtained in both methods were compared. The data were evaluated using ANOVA, paired t-test and Pearson correlation (α = 0.05). Results: In the conventional method of densitometry, the average densities were as follows: before operation 1.0044, after one week 0.9600, after one month 0.9469 and after three months 0.9398. Also, in the standard method of densitometry, the average densities were as follows: before operation 111.7013, after one week 113.4225, after one month 119.4075 and after three months 131.1162. Average density in conventional densitometry were not significantly different in various time stages (P = 0.395). But, the standard densitometry method showed a significant difference (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The average density obtained at different stages in the standard densitometry showed a gradual increase in the bone density in the entire process. Standardising the patient's consecutive radiographic images is essential for quantitative measurements over the time. PMID:22132013

  10. [Pigmented lesions of the genital mucosa].

    PubMed

    Hengge, U R; Meurer, M

    2005-06-01

    Pigmented lesions of the genital mucosa are more frequent in women than in men. They represent a spectrum of different benign entities. A biopsy is always recommended when the diagnosis cannot be made with certainty on clinical examination and dermatoscopy. Differential diagnostic considerations include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi and syndromes featuring lentigines. Malignant melanomas of the penis and vulva are uncommon tumors which usually appear in elderly patients. They frequently present as painless palpable nodules at routine examination. The treatment consists of excision with histological control of the margins. An aggressive surgical approach has not been shown to prolong the poor 5-year survival. Cooperation with gynecologists and urologists is essential for the optimal management of such patients. PMID:15905972

  11. Spontaneous lesions and parasites of the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A L; Porter, D D; Ash, L R

    1975-12-01

    Four-hundred-eighty Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus [Uclp:(MON)], most of which were experimentally infected with filarial worms, were examined for spontaneous lesions. Previously unrecognized lesions included cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, duodenal adenocarcinoma, malignant blue nevus, hepatic choleangiocarcinoma, malignant hemangiopericytoma of the uterus, ovarian teratoma, chronic interstitial nephritis, renal cortical retention cysts, splenic hemangiomas, and various histologic abnormalities of the lung. Previously reported lesions also seen in the present study were a malignant melanoma, adrenal cortical adenoma or carcinoma, uterine leiomyoma, sebaceous gland adenoma, hepatic lymphangioma, and renal hemangioma. Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) and Tyrophagus castellani (Acarina) were accidentally recovered from experimental animals. Tritichomonas caviae and a species of Entamoeba were the most common intestinal protozoa. Tyzzer's disease, however, was clearly the most significant infectious disease of gerbils in the UCLA School of Public Health colony. PMID:1207042

  12. Histochemical identification of malignant and premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebow, Charles; Maloney, M. J.

    1991-06-01

    Malignant and transforming cells can be identified by biochemical parameters which can be used to localize lesions in situ for laser surgery. These cells express unique proteins, proteins in unusual quantities, or other biochemical alterations which can be utilized to image lesions of such cells. Several methods have been identified, both in vitro and in vivo, to identify such lesions. Several antibodies were examined for their properties of tissue identification, including CEA, F36/22, and AE1/AE3. F36/22, an antibody developed by M. T. Chu against human breast cancer cells, associated with two lines of oral cancer (KB and HCPC), and against two naturally occurring human oral squamous cell cancers. CEA, an antibody developed against human colon cancer, also reacted against both cell lines and both pathological samples. AE1/AE3, developed against normal fibrous components, also reacted against the samples, but in a much less regular manner. F36/22 associated with the histologically identifiably most dedifferentiated cells at the leading edge of the invading cancer. CEA, on the other hand, associated with more quiescent, older, established cancer cells. This demonstrates that antibodies developed against cancers of different organs can be used to identify a wide variety of cancers, and may have prognostic value. F36/22 coupled to fluorescein was used to identify oral cancer cells. Other properties of cancers and developing cancers can also be exploited to identify cancers, including their over-expression of tyrosine kinase and tyrosine kinase stimulating hormones such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). A model of premalignant lesion produced in the hamster buccal cheek pouch with 6 week application of DMBA over-expresses constitutive tyrosine kinase which can be demonstrated biochemically. This initiated lesion can be promoted to frank cancer by growth factors released in response to laser surgery. Preliminary results suggest that these lesions can be identified by

  13. Evaluation of thermal and cryo lesions by diffusion-weighted MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Daniel, Bruce; Bouley, Donna; Sommer, Graham; Butts Pauly, Kim

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to further investigate the approach of DWI to estimate the cell viability immediately after treatment. In this work, we reported the result from 12 canine prostate experiments underwent cryoablation or hyperthermic therapy. The lesion detected by diffusion-weighted imaging was evaluated through apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, image contrast, and lesion contour compared to contrast enhanced imaging and histology.

  14. Evaluation of premalignant and malignant lesions by fluorescent light (VELscope)

    PubMed Central

    Sawan, Dania; Mashlah, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was the early detection of premalignant and malignant oral soft lesions by fluorescent light (VELscope). Materials and Methods: A total of 748 patients were evaluated through clinical and fluorescent light analysis of the entire oral cavity. Any lesion that was detected underwent a surgical excision biopsy as the golden standard for the detection of the lesion's histology; then a comparison was made between the results to assure the efficacy of the fluorescent light analysis outcome. Results: About 9.4% of the lesions detected were abnormal lesions and 83.09% had loss of fluorescent light effect. Based on the use of surgical biopsy, the machine had a sensitivity of 74.1% and a specificity of 96.3%. According to the statistical analysis, the P value was much lower than 0.05, so we can conclude that at 95% confidence level, there was significant agreement between VELscope results and biopsy results. Kappa coefficient value was approximately 0.5, which means that the strength of the agreement was medium. Conclusion: VELscope can be used as a clinical diagnostic aid in the detection of premalignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity. In addition, it helps in the detection of the borders in both surgical biopsy and surgical excision. PMID:26236687

  15. Solitary Nodular Lesion of Tongue- A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Sarada, P.; Reddy, C.H. Sampath; A.K, Patil; Kurra, Saritha

    2014-01-01

    The solitary, nodular lesions of the oral mucosa present a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist with their analogous presentation. The lesions that appear on the tongue, a soft muscular organ are distinct and even rarer with varied manifestations. Oral mucosa presents lesions of the tongue in all age groups that may range from a small nodular swelling and ulcer formation in an infant of a few days old to an ulcer or a lesion in a 70-year-old. The reason for the appearance of an ulcer may be trauma to the soft tissues in an infant may be due to the presence of natal teeth to the presence of a sharp tooth in the older individuals. These lesions have to be clinically and histologically correlated for the final outcome of the diagnosis, so that there is no chance of any recurrence. We present a unique case of a solitary nodular lesion on the ventral surface of tongue On a 6 year female, where there was a recurrence after surgical excision and after an unusual therapy of non surgical resolution, no recurrence was observed. PMID:24701550

  16. Solitary nodular lesion of tongue- a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Sarada, P; Reddy, C H Sampath; A K, Patil; Kurra, Saritha

    2014-02-01

    The solitary, nodular lesions of the oral mucosa present a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist with their analogous presentation. The lesions that appear on the tongue, a soft muscular organ are distinct and even rarer with varied manifestations. Oral mucosa presents lesions of the tongue in all age groups that may range from a small nodular swelling and ulcer formation in an infant of a few days old to an ulcer or a lesion in a 70-year-old. The reason for the appearance of an ulcer may be trauma to the soft tissues in an infant may be due to the presence of natal teeth to the presence of a sharp tooth in the older individuals. These lesions have to be clinically and histologically correlated for the final outcome of the diagnosis, so that there is no chance of any recurrence. We present a unique case of a solitary nodular lesion on the ventral surface of tongue On a 6 year female, where there was a recurrence after surgical excision and after an unusual therapy of non surgical resolution, no recurrence was observed. PMID:24701550

  17. [Natural history of precursor lesions of cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Tranbaloc, P

    2008-06-01

    Precursor lesions of invasive cancer of uterine cervix begin at the squamocolumnar junction. On this zone in permanent transformation, human papillomavirus (HPV) gives condylomatous lesions, pure or associated with neoplasic transformation of the epithelium. For 50 years, various histological classifications have been proposed. First, four groups have been designed: light, moderate, severe dysplasia and in situ carcinoma. Secondly, Richart proposed the cervix intraepithelial neoplasia classification (CIN) with three grades (1 to 3) according to their severity. Progression from CIN 1 to CIN 3 and invasive carcinoma is admitted and is consistent with the concept of lesional continuum. However, because of the elevated rate of spontaneous regression of CIN 1, it is probably a lesion of very low potential aggressivity and its role as a precursor is uncertain. Now two groups of different evolutivity are currently considered: low grade and high grade lesions. The last one's, at the opposite of the first, are monoclonal, have major epithelial abnormalities with sometimes abnormal mitoses and are frequently aneuploid. Aggressivity depends on the persistence of HR HPV more than on progressive morphologic transformation. By integrating in-host genoma, it induces modifications on cellular cycle proteins. Revelation by immunohistochemistry brings help to diagnosis of high grade lesions when traditional morphology is ambiguous. PMID:18539071

  18. Estrogen Stimulates Homing of Endothelial Progenitor Cells to Endometriotic Lesions.

    PubMed

    Rudzitis-Auth, Jeannette; Nenicu, Anca; Nickels, Ruth M; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2016-08-01

    The incorporation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into microvessels contributes to the vascularization of endometriotic lesions. Herein, we analyzed whether this vasculogenic process is regulated by estrogen. Estrogen- and vehicle-treated human EPCs were analyzed for migration and tube formation. Endometriotic lesions were induced in irradiated FVB/N mice, which were reconstituted with bone marrow from FVB/N-TgN (Tie2/green fluorescent protein) 287 Sato mice. The animals were treated with 100 μg/kg β-estradiol 17-valerate or vehicle (control) over 7 and 28 days. Lesion growth, cyst formation, homing of green fluorescent protein(+)/Tie2(+) EPCs, vascularization, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed by high-resolution ultrasonography, caliper measurements, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Numbers of blood circulating EPCs were assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro, estrogen-treated EPCs exhibited a higher migratory and tube-forming capacity when compared with controls. In vivo, numbers of circulating EPCs were not affected by estrogen. However, estrogen significantly increased the number of EPCs incorporated into the lesions' microvasculature, resulting in an improved early vascularization. Estrogen further stimulated the growth of lesions, which exhibited massively dilated glands with a flattened layer of stroma. This was mainly because of an increased glandular secretory activity, whereas cell proliferation and apoptosis were not markedly affected. These findings indicate that vasculogenesis in endometriotic lesions is dependent on estrogen, which adds a novel hormonally regulated mechanism to the complex pathophysiology of endometriosis. PMID:27315780

  19. Psammomatous Melanotic Schwannoma: A Challenging Histological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Merat, Rastine; Szalay-Quinodoz, Ildiko; Laffitte, Emmanuel; Kaya, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Psammomatous melanotic schwannoma (PMS) is a rare pigmented tumor that can be part of the Carney complex. Here, we describe the case of a 35-year-old female patient presenting an isolated subcutaneous PMS. Histopathological analysis could not formally exclude the malignant nature of the tumor. The challenging histological diagnosis and consequently the management of the patient are described. PMID:27047937

  20. Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

    This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

  1. Demyelinative chiamal lesions.

    PubMed

    Spector, R H; Glaser, J S; Schatz, N J

    1980-12-01

    To clarify the clinical syndrome of demyelinative chiasmal involvement, six case histories were analyzed and the literature was reviewed. This entitity is characterized by especial predilection for women in the third to fifth decades; visual deficites of a chiasmal pattern that may be modest to marked, with a generallly good prognosis for functional recovery; and other signs and symptoms, not necessarily severe, of scattered lesions of the neuraxis. Neuroradiological studies, especially laminography of the sellar area and computerized tomography, must be employed to rule out a suprasellar mass lesion. The efficacy of systemic corticosteroid therapy is moot, but it seems reasonable to use such agents during acute stages, especially where vision is severely reduced on both sides. PMID:7447764

  2. Pathology of sarcoptic mange in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes): macroscopic and histologic characterization of three disease stages.

    PubMed

    Nimmervoll, Helena; Hoby, Stefan; Robert, Nadia; Lommano, Elena; Welle, Monika; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious skin disease that can have a devastating impact on affected wild mammal populations. There are notable variations in the clinical and pathologic picture of sarcoptic mange among species and among conspecifics. However, the origin of these variations is unclear. We propose a classification scheme for skin lesions associated with Sarcoptes scabiei infestation to provide a basis for a subsequent risk factor analysis. We conducted a case-control study focused on macroscopic and histologic examination of the skin, using 279 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) found dead or shot in Switzerland between November 2004 and February 2006. All animals were submitted to gross necropsy following a detailed protocol. Selection criteria for cases (n=147) vs. controls (n=111) were the presence or absence of mange-like lesions, mite detection by isolation or histologic examination, and serologic testing for S. scabiei antibodies. Characteristic features of mange lesions were scored macroscopically in all foxes and histologically in 67 cases and 15 controls. We classified skin lesions and associated necropsy findings into three types of mange: A) early stage (n=45): focal-extensive skin lesions, thin crusts, mild to moderate alopecia, few mites, numerous eosinophils, and mild lymph node enlargement; B) hyperkeratotic, fatal form (n=86): generalized skin lesions, thick crusts with or without alopecia, foul odor, abundance of mites, numerous bacteria and yeasts, numerous lymphocytes and mast cells, severe lymph node enlargement, and emaciation; C) alopecic, healing form (n=16): focal lesions, no crusts, severe alopecia, hyperpigmentation and lichenification, absence of mites, mixed cell infiltration, and rare mild lymph node enlargement. We hypothesize that after stage A, the animal either enters stage B and dies, or stage C and survives, depending on largely unknown extrinsic or intrinsic factors affecting the host ability to control mite infestation. PMID

  3. Superimposed linear psoriasis: differential therapeutic response of linear and nonlinear lesions.

    PubMed

    Seitz, C S; Garbaraviciene, J; Bröcker, E-B; Hamm, H

    2009-07-01

    Linear psoriasis is a very unusual clinical variation of psoriasis. Typical clinical features include early onset of erythematosquamous lesions along Blaschko's lines, ability to elicit psoriatic features, absence of pruritus and positive family history for psoriasis. Recently, the term 'superimposed linear psoriasis' was coined for cases with development of nonlinear psoriatic lesions at predilection sites in later life. We report a 19-year-old woman meeting all criteria for the diagnosis of superimposed linear psoriasis including typical histological features. Remarkably, treatment with topical steroids and dithranol cleared the psoriatic lesions on predilection sites whereas the linear lesions were resistant to topical therapy. Linear psoriatic lesions are believed to be caused by genetic alterations in early embryogenesis leading to loss of heterozygosity at a gene locus involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Comparison of mosaic keratinocytes derived from linear lesions with wild-type keratinocytes from the same person may therefore allow identification of key regulatory genes. PMID:19094135

  4. Discrimination between benign and malignant lesions of the breast using ultrasound disparity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.; Carlson, Donald L.; Birnbaum, Julia A.

    2001-05-01

    A technique called disparity mapping (DM) processes pairs of ultrasound B-scan images collected while a sonographer varies the probe pressure slightly on the breast surface. Dm measures the apparent displacement of the tissue about each image point and subsequently constructs a correlation map which represents the similarity between the speckle patterns around each point. The continuity of the lesion perimeter in the correlation image is used to separate benign from malignant lesions, with high continuity corresponding well with benign lesions and highly segmented perimeters correlating with malignancies. Twenty five solid masses were evaluated, and the results were compared with histology from core or surgical biopsy, or with cytology from fine needle aspiration. The results analyzed all lesions correctly (15 cancers and 10 benign lesions). There were no false positives or false negatives. The results suggest that DM may be a useful tool in digitally diagnosing breast lesions and consequently in reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies.

  5. Novel lesion detection aids.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Longbottom, C; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A

    2009-01-01

    Several non-invasive and novel aids for the detection of (and in some cases monitoring of) caries lesions have been introduced in the field of 'caries diagnostics' over the last 15 years. This chapter focusses on those available to dentists at the time of writing; continuing research is bound to lead to further developments in the coming years. Laser fluorescence is based on measurements of back-scattered fluorescence of a 655-nm light source. It enhances occlusal and (potentially) approximal lesion detection and enables semi-quantitative caries monitoring. Systematic reviews have identified false-positive results as a limitation. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence is another sensitive method to quantitatively detect and measure mineral loss both in enamel and some dentine lesions; again, the trade-offs with lower specificity when compared with clinical visual detection must be considered. Subtraction radiography is based on the principle of digitally superimposing two radiographs with exactly the same projection geometry. This method is applicable for approximal surfaces and occlusal caries involving dentine but is not yet widely available. Electrical caries measurements gather either site-specific or surface-specific information of teeth and tooth structure. Fixed-frequency devices perform best for occlusal dentine caries but the method has also shown promise for lesions in enamel and other tooth surfaces with multi-frequency approaches. All methods require further research and further validation in well-designed clinical trials. In the future, they could have useful applications in clinical practice as part of a personalized, comprehensive caries management system. PMID:19494675

  6. The Effect of Maternal Thrombophilia on Placental Abruption: Histologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Kinzler, Wendy L.; Prasad, Vinay; Ananth, Cande V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if the histology of placental abruption differs by maternal thrombophilia status. Study design This was a multicenter, case-control study of women with abruption and delivering at ≥20 weeks’ gestation, collected as part of the ongoing New Jersey-Placental Abruption Study. Women were identified by clinical criteria of abruption. Maternal blood was collected postpartum and tested for anticardiolipin antibodies, and mutations in the Factor V Leiden and prothrombin genes. Cases were comprised of women with an abruption and a positive thrombophilia screen. Controls were comprised of women with an abruption and a negative thrombophilia screen. All placental histology was systematically reviewed by two perinatal pathologists, blinded to the abruption status. Results A total of 135 women with placental abruption were identified, of which 63.0% (n=85) had at least one diagnosed maternal thrombophilia. There were increases in the rates of meconium-stained membranes (7.9% versus 2.1%, P=0.015) and decidual necrosis (4.5% versus 2.1%, P=0.023) when a maternal thrombophilia was diagnosed. Although there was no difference in the overall presence of infarcts between the 2 groups (27.0% versus 38.3%, P=0.064), the presence of an old infarct was more common among women with a positive thrombophilia screen (83.3% versus 44.4%, P=0.003). Conclusion Placental abruption with a positive maternal thrombophilia screen is associated with higher rates of old placental infarcts and decidual necrosis compared with abruption when thrombophilia is not diagnosed. These lesions suggest a chronic etiology of placental abruption in the presence of a maternal thrombophilia. PMID:19330709

  7. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Marx, Alexander; Schuster, Alexander K.; Schad, Lothar R.; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions. Methods and Results In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin—3,3’-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images. Validation To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images. Context Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics. PMID:26717571

  8. Prevention of Biliary Lesions That May Occur During Radiofrequency Ablation of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, Frédéric; Elias, Dominique; Rauch, Philippe; Zarnegar, Rasa; Leroux, Agnès; Stines, Joseph; Verhaeghe, Jean-Luc; Guillemin, François; Carteaux, Jean Pierre; Villemot, Jean Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To prevent bile duct injury by using a cold 5% glucose isotonic solution cooling in the bile ducts when radiofrequency (RF) is performed in a porcine model. Summary Background Data: Complications that may arise during liver RF ablation include biliary stenosis and abscesses. Methods: The RITA 1500 generator was used for the experiments. Two lesions were performed in the left liver. The pigs were killed 1 or 3 weeks after the procedure. An ex vivo cholangiogram was obtained by direct injection into the main bile duct. Samples of RF lesions, of liver parenchyma near and at a distance from the RF lesions, underwent pathologic studies. Two groups of 20 pigs each were treated: one without perfusion of the bile ducts and the other with perfusion of cold 5% glucose isotonic solution into the bile ducts. The Pringle maneuver was used in 50% of the RF procedures. Radiologic lesions were classified as biliary stenosis, complete interruption of the bile duct, or extravasation of the radiologic contrast liquid. Results: Histologic lesions of the bile ducts were observed near the ablated RF lesion site and at a distance from the RF lesions when a Pringle maneuver was performed. Radiologic and histologic lesions of the bile ducts were significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) when the bile ducts were cooled. Conclusions: Cooling of the bile ducts with a cold 5% glucose isotonic solution significantly protects the intrahepatic bile ducts from damages caused by the heat generated by RF when performed close to the bile ducts. PMID:16371740

  9. Histological Classification and Differential Diagnosis of Nonepisodic Angioedema With Eosinophilia: A Clinicopathologic Study of 12 Cases With Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Goto, Keisuke; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Tanese, Keiji; Oshitani, Yoshimi; Kaku, Yo; Kaneko, Rie; Takama, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Misawo; Tanaka, Masaru

    2016-02-01

    Nonepisodic angioedema with eosinophilia (NEAE) is a rare condition characterized with monoepisodic angioedema, a nonfebrile state, eosinophilia, normal serum IgM levels, and lack of internal organ involvement. The histology of this disease is not yet well known. The purpose of this study was to characterize the histopathologic features of NEAE. Twelve cases of clinically confirmed NEAE were retrieved from 6 institutions, and these cases were reviewed regarding the clinical data and histopathology, particularly regarding granulomatous lesions. The authors demonstrated that the histology of NEAE can be classified into 3 patterns that of eosinophilic granulomatous panniculitis (7/12 cases), eosinophilic dermatitis without granuloma formation (3/12 cases), and invisible dermatosis (2/12 cases). Six of the 7 granulomatous cases showed the characteristic eosinophilic granulomatous lesions containing individual necrotic adipocytes with membranous fat changes, which could be a differential clue to the diagnosis of NEAE. Review of the previously reported cases (n = 37) revealed that the histological classification could be adaptable to these reported cases. The authors should recognize the histological variation of NEAE and distinguish it from the histological mimickers, including eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, erythema nodosum, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and episodic angioedema with eosinophilia. PMID:26709973

  10. Spontaneous and antiviral-induced cutaneous lesions in chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Grigorescu, Ioana; Dumitrascu, Dan Lucian

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To describe spontaneous, or interferon (IFN)- or immunization-induced skin lesions in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of all the papers presenting case reports of dermatological lesions in patients with chronic HBV infection was carried out. We included only patients with histologically proven skin lesions that appeared in the normal course of hepatitis B infection, or after immunization for hepatitis B or antiviral treatment. RESULTS: We found 44 papers on this topic, reporting 151 cases. About 2% of patients with hepatitis B infection, mainly men, presented with skin lesions. Among patients with chronic hepatitis B, vasculitis and essential mixed cryoglobulinemia seemed to be the most frequent skin lesion (53.3%), followed by papular changes, rashes and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, skin carcinoma and Henoch-Schönlein purpura were rare. IFN treatment seemed to be effective against HBV-associated and immunoglobulin-complex-mediated disease (vasculitis). Two cutaneous lesions (lichen planus and granuloma annulare) were described after hepatitis B vaccination. Systemic lupus and lupus-like lesions were the most frequently encountered lesions after antiviral treatment. Immunosuppressive and steroid therapy ameliorates lichen planus lesions in 50% of cases. CONCLUSION: Vasculitis was the most frequent spontaneous skin lesion found in chronic hepatitis B. Lichen planus was most frequent after immunization and lupus/lupus-like lesions after IFN. PMID:25400473

  11. Assessment of the Focal Hepatic Lesions Using Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Oussous, Siham Ait; Boujraf, Saïd; Kamaoui, Imane

    2016-01-01

    The goal is assessing the diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) method efficiency in characterizing focal hepatic lesions (FHLs). About 28-FHL patients were studied in Radiology and Clinical Imaging Department of our University Hospital using 1.5 Tesla MRI system between January 2010 and June 2011. Patients underwent hepatic MRI consisting of dynamic T1- and T2-weighted imaging. The dMRI was performed with b-values of 200 s/mm2 and 600 s/mm2. About 42 lesions measuring more than 1 cm were studied including the variation of the signal according to the b-value and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The diagnostic imaging reference was based on standard MRI techniques data for typical lesions and on histology after surgical biopsy for atypical lesions. About 38 lesions were assessed including 13 benign lesions consisting of 1 focal nodular hyperplasia, 8 angiomas, and 4 cysts. About 25 malignant lesions included 11 hepatocellular carcinoma, 9 hepatic metastases, 1 cholangiocarcinoma, and 4 lymphomas. dMRI of soft lesions demonstrated higher ADC of 2.26 ± 0.75 mm2/s, whereas solid lesions showed lower ADC 1.19 ± 0.33 mm2/s with significant difference (P = 0.05). Discrete values collections were noticed. These results were correlated to standard MRI and histological findings. Sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 84% were found in diagnoses of malignant tumors with an ADC threshold of 1.6 × 10−3 mm2/s. dMRI is important characterization method of FHL. However, it should not be used as single criteria of hepatic lesions malignity. MRI, clinical, and biological data must be correlated. Significant difference was found between benign and solid malignant lesions without threshold ADC values. Hence, it is difficult to confirm ADC threshold differentiating the lesion classification. PMID:27186537

  12. Improving diagnosis of atraumatic splenic lesions, part I: nonneoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zina J; Oh, Sarah K; Chernyak, Victoria; Flusberg, Milana; Rozenblit, Alla M; Kaul, Bindu; Stein, Marjorie W; Mazzariol, Fernanda S

    2016-01-01

    Focal atraumatic splenic lesions often pose a diagnostic challenge on cross-sectional imaging. They can be categorized based on etiology as nonneoplastic (reviewed in Part I), benign neoplastic, and malignant neoplastic lesions. Lesions can also be characterized based on prevalence as common, uncommon, and rare. Familiarity with pertinent clinical parameters, etiology, pathology, prevalence, and ancillary features such as splenomegaly, concomitant hepatic involvement, and extrasplenic findings, in addition to knowledge of imaging spectra of these lesions, can improve diagnostic confidence. Since the nonneoplastic lesions are usually easily recognized, it is critical that the radiologist identifies them avoiding unnecessary work up. PMID:27317223

  13. A study on the dependence of exposure dose reduction and image evaluation on the distance from the dental periapical X-ray machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Kyu-Ji; Shin, Jae-Woo; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Lim, Chang-Seon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Kim, Young-Jae

    2013-11-01

    Reducing the exposure dose from a periapical X-ray machine is an important aim in dental radiography. Although the radiation exposure dose is generally low, any radiation exposure is harmful to the human body. Therefore, this study developed a method that reduces the exposure dose significantly compared to that encountered in a normal procedure, but still produces an image with a similar resolution. The correlation between the image resolution and the exposure dose of the proposed method was examined with increasing distance between the dosimeter and the X-ray tube. The results were compared with those obtained from the existing radiography method. When periapical radiography was performed once according to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the measured skin surface dose was low at 7 mGy or below. In contrast, the skin surface dose measured using the proposed method was only 1.57 mGy, showing a five-fold reduction. These results suggest that further decreases in dose might be achieved using the proposed method.

  14. Malignant skin lesions in Oshogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, Ganiyu Oyediran; Olaitan, Peter Babatunde; Komolafe, Akinwumi Oluwole; Olaofe, Olaejirinde Olaniyi; Akinyemi, Hezekiah Adebola Morakinyo; Suleiman, Oreoluwa Adeola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to retrospectively assess the prevalence of some of skin malignancies in our environment and to provide a data base for creating awareness for prevention and early detection of the diseases in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these skin lesions in our environment. Methods This is a retrospective study of all histologically diagnosed malignant skin lesions which presented at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital Osogbo Osun State between January 2006 and December 2010. Results Ninety- eight patients presented with skin cancers out of which 60 (61.2%)were males and 38 (38.8%) were females. Malignant melanoma ranked highest followed by squamous cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma and basal cell carcinoma in that order. Malignant melanoma affects male more than female and it commonly affects lower limbs. Conclusion Skin malignancies pose a burden to the economy of the country. Efforts should be directed toward prevention, early diagnosis and management in order to abolish or reduce morbidity, as well as mortality associated with late presentation of people in the developing countries. PMID:26161176

  15. Morphological and histological characteristics of mammary dysplasias occurring in cell dissociation-derived murine mammary outgrowths

    SciTech Connect

    Ethier, S.P.; Adams, L.M.; Ullrich, R.L.

    1984-10-01

    The morphological and histological characteristics of ductal dysplasias that were observed in mammary outgrowths derived from monodispersed mammary cells of carcinogen-treated mice are described. Mammary outgrowths were derived by injecting either 10(4) or 10(5) enzymatically dissociated mammary cells, obtained from control or carcinogen-treated BALB/c mice, into gland-free mammary fat pads of syngeneic hosts. The mammary dysplasias observed varied considerably in morphological and histological characteristics. The majority of the lesions were ductal in origin and were associated with epithelial hyperplasia which ranged from mild hyperplasia, in which only a few extra layers of epithelium were present, to severe hyperplasia, in which the ducts and end buds were occluded and distended with epithelial cells. In addition, papillary and lobular lesions were observed which were also associated with varying degrees of hyperplasia. The range of mammary dysplasias observed in these outgrowths closely resembles that of lesions associated with the pathogenesis of mammary carcinoma in mice, rats, and humans.

  16. Cystic Lesions of the Mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Daniel; Suby-Long, Thomas; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    Cystic lesions are commonly seen in the mediastinum, and they may arise from virtually any organ. The vast majority of these lesions are benign and result in no symptoms. When large, cysts may produce symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures. The most common mediastinal cysts are pericardial and foregut duplication cysts. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance are routinely used to evaluate these lesions. Although computed tomography offers superior spatial resolution, magnetic resonance is useful in differentiating cysts that contain proteinaceous material from solid lesions. Occasionally, cysts arise from solid lesions, such as thymoma or teratoma. Although cysts are alike in appearance, location helps narrowing the differential diagnoses. PMID:27261346

  17. [Multifocal Vitelliform Retinal Lesion].

    PubMed

    Streicher, T; Špirková, J; Ilavská, M

    2015-06-01

    The authors present retrospective follow up of patient with bilateral multifocal vitelliform retinal lesion during the 18 years period. At this time, spontaneous improvement of objective picture on retina and subjective visual troubles was observed. It is probable, that this case is a part of the same symptom complex as a variant of Best´s hereditary disease. This conclusion was based on initial stadium of phenotypical expressivity and additional evaluations. The course and outcomes of visual functions were different. The hereditary transmission was not confirmed. PMID:26201364

  18. Parametrization histological grade white adipose tissue of the breast by the cubic spline interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Leslie A.; Narea, Freddy J.; Cedeño, Fernando; Muñoz, Aaron A.; Reigosa, Aldo; Bravo, Kelly

    2013-11-01

    The noninvasive optical techniques have attracted considerable interest in recent years, because these techniques provide lot of information on the structure and composition of biological tissues more quickly and painlessly, in this study classifies the degrees of histological differentiation of neoplastic tissue of the breast in white adipose tissue samples through numerical pametrización of the diffuse reflection spectra using the Fourier series approximation. The white adipose tissue is irradiated with the spectrophotometer MiniScan XEplus and it from a mastectomy of patients with aged 38 and 50 who have a cancer lesion in the breast. The samples were provided by the pathologist with theirs medical report, it which we indicate the histological grade of tumor. We performed a parameterization algorithm where the classification criterion is the modulus of the minimum difference between the numerical approximation coefficients ai and average numerical approximation coefficients obtained for each histological grade ¯ al. Is confirmed that the cubic spline interpolation this low-power computing lets classified into histological grades with 91% certainty the tissues under study from |ai - ¯ al|

  19. Microvascular MRI and unsupervised clustering yields histology-resembling images in two rat models of glioma

    PubMed Central

    Coquery, Nicolas; Francois, Olivier; Lemasson, Benjamin; Debacker, Clément; Farion, Régine; Rémy, Chantal; Barbier, Emmanuel Luc

    2014-01-01

    Imaging heterogeneous cancer lesions is a real challenge. For diagnosis, histology often remains the reference, but it is widely acknowledged that biopsies are not reliable. There is thus a strong interest in establishing a link between clinical in vivo imaging and the biologic properties of tissues. In this study, we propose to construct histology-resembling images based on tissue microvascularization, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accessible source of contrast. To integrate the large amount of information collected with microvascular MRI, we combined a manual delineation of a spatial region of interest with an unsupervised, model-based cluster analysis (Mclust). This approach was applied to two rat models of glioma (C6 and F98). Six MRI parameters were mapped: apparent diffusion coefficient, vessel wall permeability, cerebral blood volume fraction, cerebral blood flow, tissular oxygen saturation, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. Five clusters, defined by their MRI features, were found to correspond to specific histologic features, and revealed intratumoral spatial structures. These results suggest that the presence of a cluster within a tumor can be used to assess the presence of a tissue type. In addition, the cluster composition, i.e., a signature of the intratumoral structure, could be used to characterize tumor models as histology does. PMID:24849664

  20. Correlation between histological grade and positron emission tomography parameters in cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mocciaro, Vanessa; Scollo, Paolo; Stefano, Alessandro; Gieri, Stefania; Russo, Giorgio; Scibilia, Giuseppe; Cosentino, Sebastiano; Murè, Gabriella; Baldari, Sara; Sabini, Maria Gabriella; Fraggetta, Filippo; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Ippolito, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in cervical cancer glucose metabolism for different levels of cellular differentiation. The metabolic activity was measured by standardized uptake value (SUV), SUV normalized to lean body mass, metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET). A correlation study of these values could be used to facilitate therapeutic choice and to improve clinical practice and outcome. This study considered 32 patients with diagnosed cervical cancers, at different International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages. Glucose metabolism was assessed by PET examination, and histological specimens were examined to determine their initial grade of differentiation. A correlation study of these values was evaluated. Histological examination showed that all cases were of squamous cell carcinoma. Regarding the differentiation of the tumor, 19 well- to moderately-differentiated tumors and 13 poorly-differentiated tumors were determined. Negative findings for correlations between metabolic parameters and initial grade of histological differentiation were found, and considering that histological grade has been shown to have no consistent prognostic value in cervical cancer treatment, PET imaging could play a significant role in cervical cancer prognosis. PMID:27446445

  1. An expert system for histological typing and grading of invasive breast cancer. First set up.

    PubMed

    van Diest, P J; Belien, J A; Baak, J P

    1992-06-01

    This article describes the set up of a rule-based expert system for histologic typing and grading of invasive breast cancer, which is designed to be a user-friendly tool that may be helpful for teaching and to support diagnosis making. The system raises questions and offers fixed choices to the user (usually yes/no) until a histologic diagnosis can be made with reasonable probability or enough data are available to assign a grade. As to histologic typing, the expert system is able to make the following diagnoses: ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, colloidal carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and invasive cribriform carcinoma. If the diagnosis "ductal carcinoma" is arrived, the system offers the option to assign a histologic grade to the lesion. A first evaluation of the system in 30 cases (five each of the different subtypes) with unequivocal diagnoses by two human experts showed that the system classified 29 of the tumours in the same way as the human experts. The discrepancy case was solved after adding one rule to the system. Ten cases where a discrepancy existed between the original diagnosis of a referring centre and a reviewing human expert were all classified by the expert system in the same way as the human expert. The expert system thus seems to perform well. Further plans for evaluating, modifying and expanding the system are disclosed. PMID:1329049

  2. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of benign eyelid lesions: Is a dedicated nurse-led service safe and effective?

    PubMed

    Mohite, Abhijit A; Johnson, Andria; Rathore, Deepa S; Bhandari, Kamal; Crossman, Richard; Mehta, Purnima; Ahluwalia, Harpreet S

    2016-08-01

    This article compares an independent nurse-led benign lesion service with a doctor-led one, and assesses the impact of clinician seniority on diagnostic accuracy rates. Retrospective review of benign lesions referred to a teaching hospital and managed in either a doctor- or nurse-led lid service. All lesions were diagnosed clinically, excised and then sent for histological diagnosis. Lesions were categorized into subtypes. Pre-excision clinical diagnoses were compared with histological diagnoses. Sensitivity, specificity and missed malignancy rates were calculated for each subtype. Accuracy was compared between different grades of doctors and a specialist nurse. 264 and 332 lesions were managed in a doctor-led and nurse-led service, respectively. Rates of accurate sub-typing were 79.6% and 80.4% in the doctor- and nurse-led services, respectively (p > 0.05). Clinician seniority had no bearing. Missed malignancies or pre-malignancies accounted for 1.1% and 1.5% of lesions in the doctor and nurse-led services, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the remaining misdiagnoses were benign lesions of another subtype (13.6%) or non-specific histological findings (5.0%) and 98.6% of lesions were confirmed as benign on histology. Overall sensitivity and specificity values were: benign epithelial proliferations 95.6% and 92.2%, epidermal inclusion cysts 92.2% and 88.0%, xanthelasma 97.5% and 100.0%, cysts of Moll 66.7% and 96.6%, naevi 39.4% and 99.8% and molluscum 20.0% and 99.8%, respectively. A dedicated nurse-led service is as effective in managing a range of clinically benign lid lesions as a doctor-led one, and clinician seniority has little impact on the diagnostic accuracy of these lesions. PMID:27322204

  3. Tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesion of the head and neck treated with steroids: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hostalet, F; Hellin, D; Ruiz, J A

    2003-04-01

    Tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesion is an idiopathic fibrosclerosing disorder of the head and neck region that clinically simulates a malignant process, but is histologically benign. This lesion is believed to be part of a broader fibrosclerotic syndrome that includes idiopathic mediastinal and retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing cholangitis and Riedel's thyroiditis. The tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesion differs from other fibrosing conditions encountered in the head and neck region: fibromatoses, nodular fasciitis and fibrosarcomas. Although there is no optimum treatment, steroid therapy is suggested as the first line of management. Our patient was treated with corticosteroids and had a favourable response, supporting this approach as the initial treatment. PMID:12709810

  4. A radiological approach to benign and malignant lesions of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Harmon, M; Arrigan, M; Toner, M; O'Keeffe, S A

    2015-04-01

    There is a wide range of pathological conditions that affect the mandible. Although some lesions demonstrate characteristic imaging features, many of the pathological processes encountered in the mandible often exhibit similar imaging appearances resulting in uncertainty for the reporting radiologist. Many mandibular lesions remain impossible to distinguish without histological analysis. Therefore, this review aims to reassure the radiologist that although imaging findings may not always lead to a specific diagnosis, they narrow the differential diagnosis and guide further work-up. In this regard, we aim to provide a clinically useful framework and approach for radiologists to use when they encounter lesions within the mandible. PMID:25559378

  5. PROLIFERATIVE LESIONS IN SWIMBLADDER OF JAPANESE MEDAKA ORYZIAS LATIPES AND GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirteen cases of proliferative lesions of the swimbladder were encountered in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata from about 10,000 medaka and 5,000 guppies used in carcinogenicity tests and histologically examined. Two of the four cases from medaka and...

  6. Xanthogranulomatous hypophysitis: a rare and often mistaken pituitary lesion

    PubMed Central

    Gopal-Kothandapani, Jaya Sujatha; Bagga, Veejay; Wharton, Stephen B; Connolly, Daniel J; Sinha, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Summary Xanthogranulomatous hypophysitis (XGH) is a very rare form of pituitary hypophysitis that may present both clinically and radiologically as a neoplastic lesion. It may either be primary with an autoimmune aetiology and can occur in isolation or as a part of autoimmune systemic disease or secondary as a reactive degenerative response to an epithelial lesion (e.g. craniopharyngioma (CP), Rathke's cleft cyst, germinoma and pituitary adenomas) or as a part of a multiorgan systemic involvement such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or granulomatosis. It may also present with a variation of symptoms in children and adults. Our case series compares the paediatric and adult presentations of XGH and the differential diagnoses considered in one child and two adult patients, highlighting the wide spectrum of this condition. Endocrine investigations suggested panhypopituitarism in all three patients and imaging revealed a suprasellar mass compressing the optic chiasm suggestive of CP or Rathke's cleft cyst in one patient and non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma in two patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, histological analysis revealed necrotic material with a xanthogranulomatous reaction confirming XGH in two patients and a necrobiotic granulomatous chronic inflammatory infiltrate with neutrophils in one patient, which is not typical of current descriptions of this disorder. This case series describes the wide spectrum of XGH disease that is yet to be defined. Mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences may indicate XGH and diagnosis is confirmed by histology. Histological variation may indicate an underlying systemic process. Learning points XGH is a rare form of pituitary hypophysitis with a wide clinical and histological spectrum and can mimic a neoplastic lesion.XGH primarily presents with growth arrest in children and pubertal

  7. Immune response and histology of humoral rejection in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    González-Molina, Miguel; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Caballero, Abelardo; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Leon, Miriam; Fuentes, Laura; Hernandez, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive immune response forms the basis of allograft rejection. Its weapons are direct cellular cytotoxicity, identified from the beginning of organ transplantation, and/or antibodies, limited to hyperacute rejection by preformed antibodies and not as an allogenic response. This resulted in allogenic response being thought for decades to have just a cellular origin. But the experimental studies by Gorer demonstrating tissue damage in allografts due to antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes activated against polymorphic molecules were disregarded. The special coexistence of binding and unbinding between antibodies and antigens of the endothelial cell membranes has been the cause of the delay in demonstrating the humoral allogenic response. The endothelium, the target tissue of antibodies, has a high turnover, and antigen-antibody binding is non-covalent. If endothelial cells are attacked by the humoral response, immunoglobulins are rapidly removed from their surface by shedding and/or internalization, as well as degrading the components of the complement system by the action of MCP, DAF and CD59. Thus, the presence of complement proteins in the membrane of endothelial cells is transient. In fact, the acute form of antibody-mediated rejection was not demonstrated until C4d complement fragment deposition was identified, which is the only component that binds covalently to endothelial cells. This review examines the relationship between humoral immune response and the types of acute and chronic histological lesion shown on biopsy of the transplanted organ. PMID:27267916

  8. Effective topical delivery systems for corticosteroids: dermatological and histological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Eroğlu, İpek; Azizoğlu, Erkan; Özyazıcı, Mine; Nenni, Merve; Gürer Orhan, Hande; Özbal, Seda; Tekmen, Işıl; Ertam, İlgen; Ünal, İdil; Özer, Özgen

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing skin disease with severe eczematous lesions. Long-term topical corticosteroid treatment can induce skin atrophy, hypopigmentation and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) increase. A new treatment approach was needed to reduce the risk by dermal targeting. For this purpose, Betamethasone valerate (BMV)/Diflucortolone valerate (DFV)-loaded liposomes (220-350 nm) were prepared and incorporated into chitosan gel to obtain adequate viscosity (∼13 000 cps). Drugs were localized in stratum corneum + epidermis of rat skin in ex-vivo permeation studies. The toxicity was assessed on human fibroblast cells. In point of in-vivo studies, pharmacodynamic responses, treatment efficacy and skin irritation were evaluated and compared with previously prepared nanoparticles. Liposome/nanoparticle in gel formulations produced higher paw edema inhibition in rats with respect to the commercial cream. Similar skin blanching effect with commercial creams was obtained via liposome in gels although they contain 10 times less drug. Dermatological scoring results, prognostic histological parameters and suppression of mast cell numbers showed higher treatment efficiency of liposome/nanoparticle in gel formulations in AD-induced rats. TEWL and erythema measurements confirmed these results. Overview of obtained results showed that liposomes might be an effective and safe carrier for corticosteroids in skin disease treatment. PMID:25259424

  9. Histologic differences between cryothermic and hyperthermic therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coad, James E.; Bischof, John C.

    2003-06-01

    Minimally invasive cryothermic and hyperthermic therapies are being increasingly used to destroy dysfunctional and neoplastic tissues in several organ systems. This report morphologically compares the acute tissue response that follow cryothermic and microwave therapy in porcine kidneys. Three cryothermic and hyperthermic groups of treated kidneys were pooled from other studies for evaluation: 1) in vitro treated non-perfused, 2) in situ treated with 2-hour post in vivo perfusion, and 3) in situ treated with 3-day or 7-day post in vivo perfusion. The cryolesions showed uniform central coagulative-type necrosis and interstitial hemorrhage. The hyperthermic lesions showed central thermal fixation and a rim of coagulative necrosis. The cryothermic and hyperthermic lesions both had a similar narrow transition zone of partial cell injury. The cryothermic lesions developed a wound healing response that advanced into the central lesion. In contrast, the heat-treated tissues lacked a prominent wound healing response and appeared to resist breakdown/repair by the body. Thus, the tissue effects of and response to cryothermic and heat injury appear to be different.

  10. Significance of retinal laser lesion location and subretinal hemorrhage in bridging choroidal neovascular complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuschereba, Steven T.; Clarkson, Donna R.; Valo, Lynn M.; Brown, Jeremiah, Jr.; Stuck, Bruce E.

    2003-06-01

    Purpose: To determine funduscopic criteria that will help predict when bridging choroidal neovascular (CNV) complexes will develop after laser retinal trauma and to define early preventive treatment targets. Methods: Ten rhesus monkeys were used and retinal lesions were produced by Nd:YAG exposures (20ns, 1-2mJ, 1064nm, min. spot size) simulating human accidental laser trauma to the central fundus. Funduscopy and fluorescein/ICG angiography were conducted at day 1, 4, and 14, and at 2 and 4 months, and animals terminated for histologic evaluation. Predisposition for bridging fibrovascular complexes was evaluated for single lesions, two small lesions showing coalescing hemorrhages, and multiple lesions involved with large field subretinal and vitreous hemorrhages. Results: Elevated CNVs were present in all single lesions with confined subretinal hemorrhages. All lesion sets that showed initial and small coalescing subretinal hemorrhages formed bridging CNV scars. No bridging CNVs occurred in lesion sets involving a vitreous hemorrhage adjacent to a confined, but small subretinal hemorrhage. In large field subretinal hemorrhages involving multiple laser lesions, complex CNV formation occurred. Extensive secondary photoreceptor losses occurred in confined hemorrhage and CNV zones. Conclusion: Trauma presenting with evidence of coalescing and confined subretinal hemorrhages between two adjacent lesions has a high chance of forming choroidal neovascular bridge complexes between the involved lesions. CNV formation may be related to the long residence time, break down products, and clearance processes of extravasated blood. Removal of trapped blood and curtailing angiogenesis and cellular proliferation may be helpful treatment strategies.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF PERIRADICULAR LESIONS IN NORMAL AND DIABETIC RATS

    PubMed Central

    Armada-Dias, Luci; Breda, Jorge; Provenzano, José Claudio; Breitenbach, Marisa; Rôças, Isabela das Neves; Gahyva, Sérgio Márcio Motta; Siqueira, José Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Evidence suggests that diabetic patients are more significantly affected by problems of endodontic origin. This study sought to radiographically and histologically examine the development of periradicular inflammation in control and in diabetic rats after induction of pulpal infection. The pulps of the mandibular first molars of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were exposed and left in contact with their oral cavities for 21 and 40 days. Afterwards, the animals were sacrificed, the mandibles were surgically removed, fixed in formalin and then radiographed in a standardized position. The radiographic images of the periradicular lesions were scanned and computerized images were evaluated for the total area of the lesions using a specific software. Representative specimens were also prepared for histopathological analysis. Radiographic analysis revealed that diabetic rats presented significantly larger periradicular lesions when compared with control rats, regardless of the experimental period (p<0.05). Histopathological examination of representative specimens revealed larger periradicular lesions and more severe inflammatory exudate in the group of diabetic rats when compared with the control group. Data from the present study indicated that diabetic rats can be more prone to develop large periradicular lesions, possibly due to reduction in the defense ability against microbial pathogens. PMID:19089060

  12. Composition of Human Peri-implantitis and Periodontitis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Carcuac, O.; Berglundh, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences in cellular characteristics of human peri-implantitis and periodontitis lesions. Two groups of patients were included: 40 patients with generalized severe chronic periodontitis and 40 patients presenting with severe peri-implantitis. Soft tissue biopsies were obtained from diseased sites (probing pocket depth ≥ 7 mm with bleeding on probing) and prepared for histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. In contrast to periodontitis samples, peri-implantitis lesions were more than twice as large and contained significantly larger area proportions, numbers, and densities of CD138-, CD68-, and MPO-positive cells than periodontitis lesions. Peri-implantitis lesions also extended to a position that was apical of the pocket epithelium and not surrounded by noninfiltrated connective tissue. They further presented with significantly larger densities of vascular structures in the connective tissue area lateral to the infiltrated connective tissue than within the infiltrate. This study suggests that peri-implantitis and periodontitis lesions exhibit critical histopathologic differences, which contribute to the understanding of dissimilarities in onset and progression between the 2 diseases. PMID:25261052

  13. Magnetic resonance guided localization and biopsy of suspicious breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, U; Kopka, L; Grabbe, E

    1998-02-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being used increasingly as a complementary diagnostic modality in breast imaging of preselected patients. The exclusion of multicentricity before surgery and the differentiation between a scar and a carcinoma are well-accepted indications of this method. Problems result when suspicious lesions found with MRI cannot be visualized with mammography or ultrasonography. In these cases, MRI-based guidance systems are needed to guide needle biopsy or allow localization of the lesion before surgery. At our institution, 167 MR-guided interventions (35 percutaneous biopsies and 132 preoperative localizations) have been performed with the use of different types of add-on devices during the past 3 years. Percutaneous biopsy (31 fine needle aspiration and four core biopsies) revealed 24 benign and 8 malignant lesions, 3 biopsies were insufficient. Histologic examination after MR-guided wire localization showed benign findings in 68 lesions (52%) and malignancy in 64 lesions (48%). Technical aspects, experiences, advantages, and disadvantages of our system as well as those of other devices are reported and discussed. MR-compatible equipment for interventions of the breast is demonstrated. In conclusion, we perform MR-guided interventions of the breast routinely in indicated cases at a rate of approximately 3-5% for all patients undergoing diagnostic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast. PMID:9617901

  14. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates. PMID:25765523

  15. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  16. OSTEOCHONDROSIS IN THE DISTAL FEMURS OF AN ADULT RETICULATED GIRAFFE (GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS RETICULATA): MACROSCOPIC, RADIOLOGIC, AND HISTOLOGIC FINDINGS.

    PubMed

    Basu, Christopher; Stoll, Alexander L; Dixon, Jonathon; Molenaar, Fieke Marije; Flach, Edmund; Smith, Ken C

    2016-03-01

    An adult male reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was presented for postmortem examination. During radiologic examination of the hindlimbs, osseous cyst-like lesions were detected in both medial femoral condyles. These lesions were subsequently examined macroscopically and histologically. The gross appearance suggested a diagnosis of bilateral osteochondrosis that was confirmed with histopathologic examination. This finding has not previously been reported in giraffes. Macroscopic visualization of the major limb joints, including the femorotibial joints, is therefore encouraged in future postmortem examinations of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis), and further assessment of clinical significance is required. PMID:27010303

  17. A combined post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histological study of multiple sclerosis pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kolasinski, James; Chance, Steven A.; DeLuca, Gabriele C.; Esiri, Margaret M.; Chang, Eun-Hyuk; Palace, Jacqueline A.; McNab, Jennifer A.; Jenkinson, Mark; Miller, Karla L.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory neurological condition characterized by focal and diffuse neurodegeneration and demyelination throughout the central nervous system. Factors influencing the progression of pathology are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that anatomical connectivity influences the spread of neurodegeneration. This predicts that measures of neurodegeneration will correlate most strongly between interconnected structures. However, such patterns have been difficult to quantify through post-mortem neuropathology or in vivo scanning alone. In this study, we used the complementary approaches of whole brain post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histology to assess patterns of multiple sclerosis pathology. Two thalamo-cortical projection systems were considered based on their distinct neuroanatomy and their documented involvement in multiple sclerosis: lateral geniculate nucleus to primary visual cortex and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to prefrontal cortex. Within the anatomically distinct thalamo-cortical projection systems, magnetic resonance imaging derived cortical thickness was correlated significantly with both a measure of myelination in the connected tract and a measure of connected thalamic nucleus cell density. Such correlations did not exist between these markers of neurodegeneration across different thalamo-cortical systems. Magnetic resonance imaging lesion analysis depicted clearly demarcated subcortical lesions impinging on the white matter tracts of interest; however, quantitation of the extent of lesion-tract overlap failed to demonstrate any appreciable association with the severity of markers of diffuse pathology within each thalamo-cortical projection system. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging metrics in both white matter tracts were correlated significantly with a histologically derived measure of tract myelination. These data demonstrate for the first time the relevance of functional

  18. The spindle-shaped cells in cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. Histologic simulators include factor XIIIa dermal dendrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Nickoloff, B. J.; Griffiths, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm that develops as multifocal lesions, often involving the skin, characterized by a complex histologic picture including numerous vascular spaces, perivascular and interstitial spindle-shaped cells, and extravasated erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Using an antibody against factor XIIIa, which identifies dermal dendrocytes, numerous factor XIIIa-positive dermal dendrocytes were detected among the spindle-shaped cells in 12 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated, and five non-AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. The factor XIIIa-positive dermal dendrocytes were also increased in histologic simulators of Kaposi's sarcoma such as dermatofibroma, angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma, granuloma annulare, and early wound healing, but were absent in keloids. The increased number of dermal dendrocytes, which are often in an angiocentric configuration and which also express CD4, lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and Leu M3 in Kaposi's sarcoma, may be important to the angioproliferative response. The results suggested that the spindle-shaped cells that are present in a variety of cutaneous lesions are dermal dendrocytes and belong to the reticuloendothelial system, unlike other mesenchymal cell types such as the endothelial cell. Apparently a diverse array of stimuli, including human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and trauma, can stimulate the accumulation of factor XIIIa expressing dermal dendrocytes in the skin. These cells can then participate in different stages of a variety of cutaneous alterations including Kaposi's sarcoma, dermatofibroma, granuloma annulare, and early wound healing. Thus, the factor XIIIa-positive dermal dendrocyte is a common cellular denominator among diverse clinical entities that share some histologic features. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 p797-a PMID:2573283

  19. The spindle-shaped cells in cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. Histologic simulators include factor XIIIa dermal dendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, B J; Griffiths, C E

    1989-11-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm that develops as multifocal lesions, often involving the skin, characterized by a complex histologic picture including numerous vascular spaces, perivascular and interstitial spindle-shaped cells, and extravasated erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Using an antibody against factor XIIIa, which identifies dermal dendrocytes, numerous factor XIIIa-positive dermal dendrocytes were detected among the spindle-shaped cells in 12 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated, and five non-AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. The factor XIIIa-positive dermal dendrocytes were also increased in histologic simulators of Kaposi's sarcoma such as dermatofibroma, angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma, granuloma annulare, and early wound healing, but were absent in keloids. The increased number of dermal dendrocytes, which are often in an angiocentric configuration and which also express CD4, lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and Leu M3 in Kaposi's sarcoma, may be important to the angioproliferative response. The results suggested that the spindle-shaped cells that are present in a variety of cutaneous lesions are dermal dendrocytes and belong to the reticuloendothelial system, unlike other mesenchymal cell types such as the endothelial cell. Apparently a diverse array of stimuli, including human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and trauma, can stimulate the accumulation of factor XIIIa expressing dermal dendrocytes in the skin. These cells can then participate in different stages of a variety of cutaneous alterations including Kaposi's sarcoma, dermatofibroma, granuloma annulare, and early wound healing. Thus, the factor XIIIa-positive dermal dendrocyte is a common cellular denominator among diverse clinical entities that share some histologic features. PMID:2573283

  20. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A biopsy service’s experience with 104 solitary, multiple and recurrent lesions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a clinically significant cystic lesion of odontogenic origin. This study aimed to retrospectively review and describe the clinicopathologic features of KCOT and to objectively compare the clinical and histological features of solitary, multiple and recurrent KCOT in a Saudi Arabian population. Material and Methods Biopsy request forms, pathology records and archival materials (all histological slides) of 104 cases of KCOT from 75 patients were retrieved. Demographic and clinical details as well as histological evaluation were analyzed and compared between the 3 groups using chi-squared or Mann-Whitney tests of association as appropriate. Results Significant differences were noted in the age of presentation, location and association with impaction between multiple and solitary cases. Histologically, there was a difference in the mitotic count, presence of satellite cysts and proliferating odontogenic epithelium between solitary and multiple lesions. There was no difference between the KCOT that later recurred and solitary lesion which did not recur even when matched clinically for age, sex and location. There were differences when solitary KCOT that later recurred or recurrent KCOT were compared with multiple lesions. Multiple lesions still had more significant proliferative activity parameters than solitary recurrence-related KCOT. Conclusions KCOTs in Saudi Arabians are not different from those reported from other parts of the world. Clinical and histological analyses showed multiple KCOT is different from its solitary recurrent or non-recurrent counterparts and has a higher proliferative activity than both. Clinicohistologic features alone cannot wholly explain the behavior of KCOT. Key words:Descriptive study, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontogenic keratocyst, solitary, multiple, recurrent. PMID:27475695

  1. UK guidance for the pathological reporting of serrated lesions of the colorectum.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Adrian C; Shepherd, Neil A

    2015-08-01

    Bowel cancer screening programmes have highlighted to endoscopists and clinicians the spectrum of serrated colorectal lesions. One of the most significant developments has been the recognition that sessile serrated lesions (SSLs), while bearing histological resemblance to hyperplastic polyps (HPs), may be associated with the enhanced development of epithelial dysplasia and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Different minimum criteria exist for the diagnosis of SSLs and their differentiation from HPs. Furthermore, the spectrum of terminology used to describe the entire range of serrated lesions is wide. This variability has impaired interobserver agreement during their histopathological assessment. Here, we provide guidance for the histopathological reporting of serrated lesions, including a simplified nomenclature system. Essentially, we recommend use of the following terms: HP, SSL, SSL with dysplasia, traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) and mixed polyp. It is hoped that this standardisation of nomenclature will facilitate studies of the biological significance of serrated lesions in terms of the relative risk of disease progression. PMID:25934843

  2. Andersson lesion in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Dhakad, Urmila; Das, Siddharth K

    2013-01-01

    A middle-aged male patient developed acute back pain and a lumbar vertebral lesion following trivial physical trauma. The lesion was considered as tuberculous on vertebral x-rays and MRI. After biopsy of the lesion and spinal fixation, the patient was kept on empirical antituberculous treatment (ATT) to which he did not respond. On re-evaluation he was diagnosed to have an Andersson lesion in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). ATT was stopped and he was successfully managed by rest, steroids, methotrexate and sulfasalazine. A careful look at the patient's plain x-ray spine and awareness about the lesion can avoid misdiagnosis of this characteristic vertebral lesion found in AS. PMID:23559648

  3. Virtual histology assessment of coronary atheroma influences treatment strategy in the young acute coronary syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Ormerod, Julian; Johnston, Tom; Ramcharitar, Steve

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman having significant risk factors for ischaemic heart disease was admitted with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Coronary angiography revealed a non-flow limiting lesion in her right coronary artery with the rest of her arteries unremarkable. Risk stratification of the culprit lesion in the right coronary artery through intravascular ultrasound virtual histology demonstrated that the rupture plaque had less than 5% necrotic core with low vulnerability indices. This important finding suggested that the re-rupture risk was low so aggressive pharmacological treatment that can influence the plaque characteristics was instigated in preference to mechanical plaque sealing with a coronary stent. At a year of follow-up the patient was well and had no further events. PMID:24477714

  4. Virtual histology assessment of coronary atheroma influences treatment strategy in the young acute coronary syndrome patient

    PubMed Central

    Ormerod, Julian; Johnston, Tom; Ramcharitar, Steve

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman having significant risk factors for ischaemic heart disease was admitted with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Coronary angiography revealed a non-flow limiting lesion in her right coronary artery with the rest of her arteries unremarkable. Risk stratification of the culprit lesion in the right coronary artery through intravascular ultrasound virtual histology demonstrated that the rupture plaque had less than 5% necrotic core with low vulnerability indices. This important finding suggested that the re-rupture risk was low so aggressive pharmacological treatment that can influence the plaque characteristics was instigated in preference to mechanical plaque sealing with a coronary stent. At a year of follow-up the patient was well and had no further events. PMID:24477714

  5. Cutaneous leishmaniasis with unusual clinical and histological presentation: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Moravvej, Hamideh; Barzegar, Mohammadreza; Nasiri, Soheila; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Mohebali, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Old world cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) usually causes a single, self-healing and uncomplicated lesion mainly on the exposed area of body. This report presents four cases of OWCL from Iran that misdiagnosed with sarcoidosis, lymphoma, and acne agminata. Two out of four patients showed a history of purplish red plaques for at least 5 years who misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis because of histological and clinical characteristics. The other one presented with flesh-colored nodules disseminated all over his skin that was misdiagnosed as lymphoma for ten years. The last patient was misdiagnosed as acne agminata due to tuberculoid reactions in examination of the lesion biopsy. All the patients responded to the treatment with meglumine antimonate. PMID:23690110

  6. Severe Foot Lesions in Dairy Goats Associated with Digital Dermatitis Treponemes.

    PubMed

    Crosby-Durrani, H E; Clegg, S R; Singer, E; Angell, J W; Evans, N J; Carter, S D; Blundell, R J; Duncan, J S

    2016-05-01

    Treponeme-associated foot disease has been described in cattle with digital dermatitis and sheep with contagious ovine digital dermatitis. In this study, severe foot lesions in dairy goats associated with digital dermatitis treponemes (i.e. Treponema medium, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema pedis) were characterized macroscopically, radiographically and histologically. The main macroscopic foot lesion was of extensive solar ulceration with or without exophytic papilliform hyperkeratosis. Radiographically, the distal phalanx and distal sesamoid bones were severely damaged and remodelled. Histologically, the lesion was categorized as a chronic lymphoplasmacytic, suppurative and ulcerative pododermatitis. Immunohistochemistry identified the spirochaetal microorganisms located extracellularly in the superficial horn. Study limitations mean that the treponeme bacteria could not be considered the sole or causal agents in the cases described. PMID:27162082

  7. Histological and molecular biology diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in a patient without history of travel to endemic areas – Case report

    PubMed Central

    L’Ollivier, C.; González, L.M.; Gárate, T.; Martin, L.; Martha, B.; Duong, M.; Huerre, M.; Cuisenier, B.; Harrison, L.J.S.; Dalle, F.; Bonnin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: in endemic areas, neurocysticercosis appears mainly as a single, large, spherical and non-enhancing intracranial cyst. Case presentation: an atypical case of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in a French Caucasian, without history of travel to endemic areas, was confirmed by histology and molecular speciation. Imaging was atypical, showing several hook-bearing scolices visible in the cyst, while the serology employed was non-contributary. Conclusions: NCC should be considered when multiple taeniid scolices are observed within the same cystic lesion. PMID:23193531

  8. Focal lesions in normal liver.

    PubMed

    Semelka, Richard C; Martin, Diego R; Balci, N Cem

    2005-10-01

    A variety of lesions occur in the normal liver. This review will describe the most common benign, malignant, and infectious lesions. Illustration will be made of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the most common of these. Due to the high accuracy for liver lesion detection and characterization, and the intrinsic safety of the modality, MR should be considered the primary imaging tool to investigate liver diseases. PMID:16174062

  9. Histological study of wound healing in rats following He-Ne and GaAlAs laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Martha S.; Zezell, Denise M.; Maldonado, Edison P.; Viera, Nilson D., Jr.; Carbone, Karin; Pellegrini, Cleusa M. R.; Zorn, Telma M. T.

    1998-12-01

    The influence of low-intensity linearly polarized visible ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm) and near infrared ((lambda) equals 797 nm) laser radiation on healing of skin wounds was compared histologically. Three round lesions measuring about 6 mm in diameter were created at the end of the spinal column of 20 rats divided in two groups of 10 animals by burning the rat back skin with liquid nitrogen. Lesions #1 and #2 were illuminated using He-Ne or GaAlAs laser radiation. The laser polarization was aligned with the rat spinal direction in lesion #1, lesion #2 with the perpendicular relative orientation and lesion #3 was not irradiated (control). The animals were irradiated with a total dose of 1 J/cm2 on day 3, 8, 11 and 14. After each irradiation, two rats from each group were killed to obtain morphological information. On day 17 the last rats were killed. The irradiated lesions presented a significant acceleration on the wound repair compared to the control. The results showed that the relative orientation of the electric field has an essential role on the healing process if exposure is visible light. On the other hand, no morphological difference was observed between illuminated lesions by near infrared radiation with respect to polarization orientation.

  10. The histological aspects of fillers complications.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ute S; Clerici, Thierry J

    2004-12-01

    The histological aspects of resorbable heterologous fillers (bovine collagen, acid hyaluronique), autologous fillers (lipofilling, dermis-fat graft), biodegradable fillers (New-Fill), and permanent fillers (silicone, Artecoll, Evolution, Aquamid, DermaLive, DermaDeep, Bioplastique, Paraffin) are described. This article relates the morphological aspect of these materials, the normal tissue reaction after injection, and its chronological evolution as the morphological aspects from the different side effects, more frequently observed for the permanent fillers. They mainly consist of granulomatous reactions which may appear long after injection. PMID:15745233

  11. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  12. Stress-induced cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Braem, M; Lambrechts, P; Vanherle, G

    1992-05-01

    The increasing occurrence of dental lesions at the cervical surfaces requires more knowledge of the causes of the process. Acidic and abrasive mechanisms have clearly been documented as causes but the stress theory by Lee and Eakle is still controversial. This report describes several incidences of possible stress-induced lesions according to the characteristics described by Lee and Eakle. The occurrences of subgingival lesions lend credence to the stress-induction theory by exclusion of other superimposing etiologic factors. With the current concepts, a perceptive approach to the treatment of cervical lesions can be executed. PMID:1527763

  13. Pigmented lesion of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  14. Quantitative Mapping of Trimethyltin Injury in the Rat Brain Using Magnetic Resonance Histology

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, G. Allan; Calabrese, Evan; Little, Peter B.; Hedlund, Laurence; Qi, Yi; Badea, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The growing exposure to chemicals in our environment and the increasing concern over their impact on health have elevated the need for new methods for surveying the detrimental effects of these compounds. Today’s gold standard for assessing the effects of toxicants on the brain is based on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained histology, sometimes accompanied by special stains or immunohistochemistry for neural processes and myelin. This approach is time-consuming and is usually limited to a fraction of the total brain volume. We demonstrate that magnetic resonance histology (MRH) can be used for quantitatively assessing the effects of central nervous system toxicants in rat models. We show that subtle and sparse changes to brain structure can be detected using magnetic resonance histology, and correspond to some of the locations in which lesions are found by traditional pathological examination. We report for the first time diffusion tensor image-based detection of changes in white matter regions, including fimbria and corpus callosum, in the brains of rats exposed to 8 mg/Kg and 12 mg/Kg trimethyltin. Besides detecting brain-wide changes, magnetic resonance histology provides a quantitative assessment of dose-dependent effects. These effects can be found in different magnetic resonance contrast mechanisms, providing multivariate biomarkers for the same spatial location. In this study, deformation-based morphometry detected areas where previous studies have detected cell loss, while voxel-wise analyses of diffusion tensor parameters revealed microstructural changes due to such things as cellular swelling, apoptosis, and inflammation. Magnetic resonance histology brings a valuable addition to pathology with the ability to generate brain-wide quantitative parametric maps for markers of toxic insults in the rodent brain. PMID:24631313

  15. Surgical management of a failed internal root resorption treatment: a histological and clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Mehrdad, Leili; Nosrat, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the successful surgical management of a failed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) orthograde obturation of a tooth with a history of impact trauma and perforated internal root resorption. A symptomatic maxillary lateral incisor with a history of perforation due to internal root resorption and nonsurgical repair using MTA was referred. Unintentional overfill of the defect with MTA had occurred 4 yr before the initial visit. The excess MTA had since disappeared, and a radiolucent lesion adjacent to the perforation site was evident radiographically. Surgical endodontic retreatment was performed using calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement as a repair material. Histological examination of the lesion revealed granulation tissue with chronic inflammation, and small fragments of MTA encapsulated within fibroconnective tissue. At the one and two year follow up exams, all signs and symptoms of disease had resolved and the tooth was functional. Complete radiographic healing of the lesion was observed two years after the initial visit. This case report illustrates how the selection of an appropriate approach to treatment of a perforation can affect the long term prognosis of a tooth. In addition, extrusion of MTA into a periradicular lesion should be avoided. PMID:24790928

  16. [Anatomo-pathologic lesions and gas exchange abnormalities in COPD].

    PubMed

    Barberà, J A; Rodriguez-Roisin, R

    1995-05-15

    Pulmonary emphysema and bronchiolar abnormalities are the most characteristic histological lesions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are mainly due to ventilation-perfusion mismatching. Under stable clinical conditions, both intrapulmonary shunt and limitation of oxygen transport from the alveoli to the capillary do not play a critical role in the observed arterial oxygen pressure. During acute exacerbations, ventilation-perfusion inequality worsens, and some cases show mild to moderate shunting. Under these conditions extrapulmonary factors such as breathing pattern, cardiac output, and oxygen uptake have a crucial role in influencing the arterial oxygen pressure. PMID:7659964

  17. Detection of Intraplaque Hemorrhage in Mouse Atherosclerotic Lesions.

    PubMed

    Sluimer, Judith C; Gijbels, Marion J; Heeneman, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Intraplaque hemorrhage is defined as the presence of fresh or lysed erythrocytes, iron deposits in macrophages, and/or a fibrin clot in an atherosclerotic plaque. These features can be detected by hematoxylin and eosin, Martius scarlet Blue, and Perl's iron histological stainings. It is noteworthy that intraplaque hemorrhage is only present in murine atherosclerotic plaques after additional interventions or additional genetic traits affecting matrix degradation or thrombosis. In this chapter, we describe methods to detect intraplaque hemorrhage in mouse atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:26445801

  18. Pulmonary vascular lesions in the toxic oil syndrome in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Segoviano, P; Esteban, A; Martínez-Cabruja, R

    1983-01-01

    A histological study was made of pulmonary arteries at the necropsies of nine patients who died after the ingestion of denatured rapeseed oil during the epidemic which occurred in Spain in May 1981. Lesions found in the elastic pulmonary arteries were characterised by pronounced intimal proliferation of an oedematous nature, accumulation of large vacuolated cells within the media, and loss of vascular smooth muscle. In muscular pulmonary arteries there was pronounced medial hypertrophy and intimal proliferation, which was so severe in one case that it completely occluded the arterial lumen. Foamy cells were found in the intima. Muscularisation was seen in the walls of pulmonary arterioles. Images PMID:6648850

  19. Classification of Tumor Histology via Morphometric Context.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hang; Borowsky, Alexander; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-06-23

    Image-based classification of tissue histology, in terms of different components (e.g., normal signature, categories of aberrant signatures), provides a series of indices for tumor composition. Subsequently, aggregation of these indices in each whole slide image (WSI) from a large cohort can provide predictive models of clinical outcome. However, the performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical and biological variations that are always present in a large cohort. In this paper, we propose two algorithms for classification of tissue histology based on robust representations of morphometric context, which are built upon nuclear level morphometric features at various locations and scales within the spatial pyramid matching (SPM) framework. These methods have been evaluated on two distinct datasets of different tumor types collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the experimental results indicate that our methods are (i) extensible to different tumor types; (ii) robust in the presence of wide technical and biological variations; (iii) invariant to different nuclear segmentation strategies; and (iv) scalable with varying training sample size. In addition, our experiments suggest that enforcing sparsity, during the construction of morphometric context, further improves the performance of the system. PMID:24319324

  20. The "PIP problem": clinical and histologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Correia-Sá, Inês; Rodrigues-Pereira, Pedro; Marques, Marisa

    2013-10-01

    Implants from Poly Implant Prothése (PIP), the French manufacturer, showed increased risk of implant rupture and silicone leakage through the shell. Concerns also exist about the potential irritant behavior of silicone gel filler in these implants. This report presents the clinical, histologic, and microbiologic characteristics of a capsule and a siliconoma from a patient with a ruptured PIP implant. A 41-year-old woman submitted to breast augmentation in 2005 with PIP silicone gel implants presented with a recent history of progressive asymmetric breast enlargement and an enlarged lymph node on her right axilla. No capsular contracture was observed. A breast ultrasonography showed intra- and extracapsular ruptures of the right implant. The woman underwent explantation. Histologic analysis of the breast capsules showed a thin capsule with a chronic, mild inflammatory response. Microbiologic analysis showed no bacterial agent. The irritant behavior of the PIP silicone gel previously described was not able to produce capsular contracture or an exuberant inflammatory reaction. Studies to evaluate the potential risks of the silicone gel and to define the hazards for women implanted with those prostheses are urgently needed. PMID:23943050

  1. Molecular histology in skin appendage morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Widelitz, R B; Jiang, T X; Noveen, A; Ting-Berreth, S A; Yin, E; Jung, H S; Chuong, C M

    1997-08-15

    Classical histological studies have demonstrated the cellular organization of skin appendages and helped us appreciate the intricate structures and function of skin appendages. At this juncture, questions can be directed to determine how these cellular organizations are achieved. How do cells rearrange themselves to form the complex cyto-architecture of skin appendages? What are the molecular bases of the morphogenesis and histogenesis of skin appendages? Recently, many new molecules expressed in a spatial and temporal specific manner during the formation of skin appendages were identified by molecular biological approaches. In this review, novel molecular techniques that are useful in skin appendage research are discussed. The distribution of exemplary molecules from different categories including growth factors, intracellular signaling molecules, homeobox genes, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix molecules are summarized in a diagram using feather and hair as models. We hope that these results will serve as the ground work for completing the molecular mapping of skin appendages which will refine and re-define our understanding of the developmental process beyond relying on morphological criteria. We also hope that the listed protocols will help those who are interested in this venture. This new molecular histology of skin appendages is the foundation for forming new hypotheses on how molecules are mechanistically involved in skin appendage development and for designing experiments to test them. This may also lead to the modulation of healing and regeneration processes in future treatment modalities. PMID:9297695

  2. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible. PMID:23745019

  3. Cystic lesions of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Hruban, Ralph H.; Fukushima, Noriyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Summary In contrast to the relatively uniform pathology and the unyielding dismal outcome associated with infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, cystic lesions have a broad spectrum of gross and microscopic pathologies, and a range of clinical outcomes. The common cystic lesions of the pancreas are reviewed with emphasis on practical tips for distinguishing between the main entities. PMID:20953247

  4. Are We Throwing Histology out with the Microscope? A Look at Histology from the Physician's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    A trend in medical schools across the United States is the refurbishing of histology laboratories with digital microscopy systems. Although such systems may reduce curricular time, they do not teach basic microscope skills, and students who learn solely with these systems may be less prepared for their practices or specialties, particularly in…

  5. Computed tomography-guided bone biopsies for evaluation of proliferative vertebral lesions in two boa constrictors (Boa constrictor imperator).

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo; Nardini, Giordano; Corlazzoli, Daniele; Fonti, Paolo; Rossier, Christophe; Della Salda, Leonardo; Schilliger, Lionel; Vignoli, Massimo; Bongiovanni, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Two boa constrictors (Boa constrictor imperator) presented with paresis of the trunk originating cranial to the cloaca. Radiographs were consistent with proliferative bone lesions involving several vertebrae. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated the presence of lytic/expansile lesions. Computed tomography-guided biopsies of the lesions were performed without complications. Histology was consistent with bacterial osteomyelitis and osteoarthritis. Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella sp. and Pseudomonas sp.) were isolated from cultures of the biopsies. Medical treatment with specific antibiotics was attempted for several weeks in both cases without clinical or radiographic improvements. The animals were euthanized, and necropsy confirmed the findings observed upon CT. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the use of CT-guided biopsies to evaluate proliferative vertebral lesions in snakes. In the present report, CT-guided biopsies were easily performed, and both histologic and microbiologic results were consistent with the final diagnosis. PMID:25632696

  6. Familial canine dermatomyositis. Initial characterization of the cutaneous and muscular lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Hargis, A. M.; Haupt, K. H.; Hegreberg, G. A.; Prieur, D. J.; Moore, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Familial canine dermatomyositis is a recently identified disease of collie dogs that resembles human juvenile dermatomyositis. The lesions in the skin and muscles obtained by biopsy from two litters of dogs were characterized for the purpose of determining the similarity of the lesions to those of human dermatomyositis. The cutaneous lesions began between 7 and 11 weeks of age and were present on the face, lips, ears, and skin over bony prominences of the limbs, feet, sternum, and tip of the tail. Histologically the cutaneous lesions frequently consisted of vesicles, pustules, and ulcers on the lips, face, and ears. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, and macrophages were present throughout the dermis. Neutrophils and lymphocytes were also present in and around vessels. Between 13 and 19 weeks of age generalized muscle atrophy was noted. The muscle lesions consisted of interstitial lymphocyte, plasma cell, macrophage, and neutrophil accumulation; myofiber degeneration, regeneration, and atrophy; and fibrosis. Perivascular neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were also seen. Histologically, the lesions resembled those present in human juvenile dermatomyositis; and these observations, coupled with clinical, immunologic, and clinical pathologic observations presented elsewhere, suggest that familial canine dermatomyositis is an appropriate and potentially useful model for human juvenile dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:6465285

  7. Narrow-band imaging observation of colorectal lesions using NICE classification to avoid discarding significant lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Santa; Iwatate, Mineo; Sano, Wataru; Hasuike, Noriaki; Kosaka, Hidekazu; Ikumoto, Taro; Kotaka, Masahito; Ichiyanagi, Akihiro; Ebisutani, Chikara; Hisano, Yasuko; Fujimori, Takahiro; Sano, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the risk of failing to detect diminutive and small colorectal cancers with the “resect and discard” policy. METHODS: Patients who received colonoscopy and polypectomy were recruited in the retrospective study. Probable histology of the polyps was predicted by six colonoscopists by the use of NICE classification. The incidence of diminutive and small colorectal cancers and their endoscopic features were assessed. RESULTS: In total, we found 681 cases of diminutive (1-5 mm) lesions in 402 patients and 197 cases of small (6-9 mm) lesions in 151 patients. Based on pathology of the diminutive and small polyps, 105 and 18 were non-neoplastic polyps, 557 and 154 were low-grade adenomas, 18 and 24 were high-grade adenomas or intramucosal/submucosal (SM) scanty invasive carcinomas, 1 and 1 were SM-d carcinoma, respectively. The endoscopic features of invasive cancer were classified as NICE type 3 endoscopically. CONCLUSION: The risk of failing to detect diminutive and small colorectal invasive cancer with the “resect and discard” strategy might be avoided through the use of narrow-band imaging observation with the NICE classification scheme and magnifying endoscopy. PMID:25512769

  8. Histological and biochemical effects of cadmium exposure in the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)

    SciTech Connect

    Versteeg, D.J.; Giesy, J.P.

    1986-02-01

    Cadmium effects on the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were assessed histologically and biochemically and the effects were compared with effects on the ecologically relevant parameters of growth and survival. Growth and survival were monitored and tissues were removed for histopathological assessment of toxicant effects in a 163-day chronic exposure. The biochemical effects of cadmium were determined in a 32-day subchronic exposure. Exposure of fish to cadmium in hard water (363 mg Cd/liter) caused significant reductions in growth at 3.9 and 12.7 mg Cd/liter. Mortality was significantly increased over controls at 12.7 mg Cd/liter. Histopathological lesions were observed in gill tissue from fish exposed to 3.9 and 12.7 mg Cd/liter at all times during the chronic exposure. No histopathological lesions were observed in any internal organ during this exposure. In a 32-day subchronic exposure, cadmium caused significant increases in serum acid phosphatase and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase activities. Serum aspartate and alanine transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were not increased by cadmium exposure. Liver lysosomal membranes were destabilized by cadmium exposure. This indicates an alteration in lysosome function. The utility of biochemical and histological procedures for estimating safe concentrations of environmental pollutants are discussed.

  9. Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men

    PubMed Central

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Rollison, Dana E.; Stockwell, Heather; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto Jose C.; Baggio, Maria L.; Salmerón, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All lesions were sampled by swabbing the surface of the lesion with a pre-wetted Dacron swab and taking a shave biopsy. HPV genotyping was performed using Linear Array for swab samples and INNO-LiPA for biopsy samples. The kappa and McNemar statistics were used to compare the concordance of detecting HPV types in swab and biopsy samples. Both sampling methods had high agreement for detection of HPV DNA in condyloma (87.8% agreement) and PeIN (100% agreement). There was also high concordance for detection of HPV16 (kappa = 1.00) and HPV18 (kappa = 1.00) in PeIN, however, agreement was low to moderate for detecting HPV6 (kappa = 0.31) and HPV11 (kappa = 0.56) in condyloma. Low to moderate agreement was also observed between sampling methods for detecting individual HPV types in the non-condyloma and lesions with an indefinite histology. The results suggest that obtaining a biopsy in addition to swabbing the surface of a lesion may provide additional information about specific HVP types associated with male genital lesions. PMID:23852680

  10. Extra-palmoplantar lesions associated with palmoplantar pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T

    2009-11-01

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by sterile pustules predominantly involving the palms and soles of middle-aged women. In contrast, regions other than the palms and soles are occasionally affected, manifesting scaly erythemas which resemble psoriasis, and solitary pustules are also seen. Some of these extra-palmoplantar lesions are induced by the Koebner phenomenon or occur after focal infections like tonsillitis. The tenderness and inflammation of the extra-palmoplantar lesions in PPP are milder than in psoriasis. Histological features show mild acanthosis of the epidermis with parakeratosis and mild infiltration of inflammatory cells in the upper dermis. On the other hand, severe pustular lesions are occasionally seen in the palms and soles of the patients with pustular psoriasis. These findings suggest a close relationship between PPP and psoriasis; however, different genetic, environmental, and immunological factors are likely to be involved. Recently, understanding of psoriasis pathophysiology has greatly progressed, and the concept of psoriasis pathogenesis is currently viewed as complicated responses between infiltrating leucocytes and the resident skin, via a number of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and mediators produced in the skin under regulation of cellular immune systems. By contrast, the pathogenesis of PPP has been poorly investigated. This paper reviews findings of the clinicopathophysiology of PPP, making a focus on the extra-palmoplantar lesions. PMID:19453807

  11. Dentition and lesion history.

    PubMed

    Eggertsson, H; Ferreira-Zandona, A

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a process that typically keeps recurring throughout life, and the consequences are too often seen as irreversible damage to the dentition. At various stages of life, different parts of the dentition are affected, and the effects continue to be seen in the dentition long after the events took place. They bear witness to previous occurrences of this process throughout the lifetime of an individual. This chapter reviews the linkage between the caries process and the dental caries lesion history of the human dentition. The prevalence and distribution of the caries burden are very variable and closely tied to cultural aspects. In the primary dentition, income and education have been found to be inversely associated with: (1) any early childhood caries and (2) the maxillary incisor caries pattern. A positive association between these caries patterns and minority ethnicity/race status was also identified. These patterns are different from those of the permanent dentition. Well-documented changes in caries prevalence have been observed throughout history, most closely tied to availability and amount of refined sugar consumed. Changes in caries rates are also well documented in the 20th century, mainly with the advent of fluoride in several forms, first as a steep decline and recently as being relatively unchanged. It is likely that there will be dramatic changes in the rates and distribution of dental caries in the future, due to changes in behavioural factors and therapeutic measures. The description drawn is based on the dental caries pattern experienced in modern western societies. PMID:19494678

  12. Spectrum of prostatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate gland of male reproductive system is about the size of walnut and surrounds the urethra. Most frequently encountered diseases affecting prostate are Prostatitis, Benign prostatic hyperplasia and Prostatic cancer .Our objective of study was to evaluate the spectrum and correlation of prostatic lesions with presenting complaints of patient. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Pathology Department of Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences during the period of 1st January 2010 to December 2012. Pathology department of Dow Medical College collected specimens from both Civil Hospital and Lyari General Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Specimens were taken through transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy and radical prostatectomy. A questionnaire was made and information including name, age, ward name of hospital, laboratory number, clinical diagnosis and symptoms were noted in it. Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result During the targeted months, 48 prostatic specimens were received with a mean age of 65.7 + -7.6 years. Common presenting complains were urinary retention in 23(47.9%) patients, followed by dribbling in 12(25%). Out of 48 patients, 42 have Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and 6 have Prostatic Adenocarcinoma. Both Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma were more prevalent in the age group of 60-70 years. Conclusion Frequency of prostatic cancer is on the rise and measures should be taken for its early detection. Screening protocols and awareness programs need to be introduced. Screening programs should be focused on level of androgens and molecular pathogenesis. PMID:24063260

  13. Photopneumatic Technology in Acne Treatment and Skin Rejuvenation: Histological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Tokuya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent reports indicate that a variety of light-based devices have been used for acne treatment and skin rejuvenation. A new technology combining intense pulsed light with negative pressure, photopneumatic technology, has recently attracted interest. The present study assessed acne treatment and skin rejuvenation with this novel approach Subjects and Methods: Acne, 450 nm tip. Five Japanese volunteers (1 male, 4 female; mean age 28.6 yr; skin type III) with mild to moderate/moderate active acne participated. The face was treated with 2 sessions, 2 weeks apart. Biopsies were obtained immediately after the first session and 1 week after the second session, and routinely processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rejuvenation, profusion tip with topical preparation. In 5 Japanese volunteers (3 male, 2 female; mean age 37.6 yr, skin type III), the volar aspect of both forearms was treated with the 530 nm head at P6 (around 12 J/cm2). The left arm was then treated with a pre-infused profusion tip and vacuum only. Four sessions were given, 14-day intervals. Biopsies were taken from both arms 2 weeks after the 2nd session and 3 weeks after the 4th session. One-half of each biopsy was assessed with histo-and immunohistochemistry, and the other with TEM. Results Acne trial: A combination of physical extraction of comedones, mild photothermal damage of the follicle and damage to identified bacilli was noted post-treatment, with macroscopic improvement of the skin. Rejuvenation with profusion: Significant morphological and immunohistochemical differences were seen between the control and profusion-treated arms at the first assessment. These differences became less significant at the 2nd assessment. Conclusions Macroscopically and histologically, photopneumatic technology improved acne lesions, suggesting a synergistic effect between the components of the technology. In skin rejuvenation, the profusion therapy accelerated the regenerative

  14. Histological study of excimer laser on carotid artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavantes, Maria C.; Pasqualucci, C. A.; Zamorano, Lucia J.

    1992-06-01

    The employment of photoablative effect on coronary artery angioplasty has been a new exciting field as a treatment option. Guided by good results in the literature, our group decided to study the laser/tissue interaction on carotid arteries with the intent of a less invasive treatment of intracranial and extracranial obstructed disease in vascular neurosurgery. We studied human cartoid arteries from ten male autopsy specimens with an average age of 53 years (34 - 37 years old) which a total of 22 laser applications were performed. Using the same repetition rate and energy, 20 Hz and 30 mJ, we compared the effect of the laser energy on 'normal' and 'pathologic' areas of the carotid arteries. The pathologic specimens, presenting calcified and non-calcified plaques, the same as the macroscopical 'normal' specimens, were submitted to the energy of the Excimer Laser with 308 nm wavelength. The laser beam was delivered perpendicularly through continuous flushing of saline on the targeted artery wall varying from 200 to 400 pulses. Histological studies were done and statistical analysis was performed. The results showed that the depth of penetration varied from 113 micrometers to 1200 micrometers , with a width of the lesion ranging from 150 micrometers - 1500 micrometers . In our study we found that the range between non-effective and destructive effect caused by the laser was around 400 pulses. We encountered minimal degree of carbonization while lasering on calcified plaques. We concluded that Excimer laser is a feasible and secure tool to prevent thermical complications of laser treatment, which will allow neurosurgeons in the future athermic laser angioplasty. Progress in this field must rely on further in vitro and in vivo research, before it can be clinically applied as well as improvements in delivery systems.

  15. Rheumatoid neuropathy: a histological and electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Weller, R. O.; Bruckner, F. E.; Chamberlain, M. Anne

    1970-01-01

    Peripheral nerves in five patients with rheumatoid neuropathy were examined electrophysiologically and by sural nerve biopsy. There was close correlation between the clinical severity of the disease and the degree of nerve damage found histologically and by EMG. Group 1 patients with a mild distal sensory neuropathy showed varying degrees of axonal degeneration in the large myelinated fibres and some segmental demyelination. Group 2 patients with a severe, rapidly progressive sensori-motor neuropathy had extensive loss of myelinated fibres. In one case all the large fibres had degenerated. The second case had lost both large and small myelinated fibres together with many of the non-myelinated axons. The major nerve damage in both groups appeared to be axonal degeneration but some segmental demyelination was detected. Occlusive vascular disease in the vasa nervorum was considered to be the major cause of the nerve damage. Images PMID:4320255

  16. The Histological Slides and Drawings of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lopez, Pablo; Garcia-Marin, Virginia; Freire, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Ramón y Cajal's studies in the field of neuroscience provoked a radical change in the course of its history. For this reason he is considered as the father of modern neuroscience. Some of his original preparations are housed at the Cajal Museum (Cajal Institute, CSIC, Madrid, Spain). In this article, we catalogue and analyse more than 4,500 of Cajal's histological preparations, the same preparations he used during his scientific career. Furthermore, we catalogued Cajal's original correspondence, both manuscripts and personal letters, drawings and plates. This is the first time anyone has compiled an account of Cajal's enormous scientific production, offering some curious insights into his work and his legacy. PMID:20339483

  17. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008-2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC. PMID:27472385

  18. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008–2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC. PMID:27472385

  19. Prognostic Implication of Predominant Histologic Subtypes of Lymph Node Metastases in Surgically Resected Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Kenichi; Sato, Katsuaki; Tomizawa, Kenji; Takemoto, Toshiki; Iwasaki, Takuya; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) proposed a new classification for lung adenocarcinoma (AD) based on predominant histologic subtypes, such as lepidic, papillary, acinar, solid, and micropapillary; this system reportedly reflects well outcomes of patients with surgically resected lung AD. However, the prognostic implication of predominant histologic subtypes in lymph nodes metastases is unclear so far. In this study, we compared predominant subtypes between primary lung tumors and lymph node metastatic lesions in 24 patients with surgically treated lung adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastases. Additionally, we analyzed prognostic implications of these predominant histologic subtypes. We observed several discordance patterns between predominant subtypes in primary lung tumors and lymph node metastases. Concordance rates were 22%, 64%, and 100%, respectively, in papillary-, acinar-, and solid-predominant primary lung tumors. We observed that the predominant subtype in the primary lung tumor (HR 12.7, P = 0.037), but not that in lymph node metastases (HR 0.18, P = 0.13), determines outcomes in patients with surgically resected lung AD with lymph node metastases. PMID:25371901

  20. Prognostic implication of predominant histologic subtypes of lymph node metastases in surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Suda, Kenichi; Sato, Katsuaki; Shimizu, Shigeki; Tomizawa, Kenji; Takemoto, Toshiki; Iwasaki, Takuya; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) proposed a new classification for lung adenocarcinoma (AD) based on predominant histologic subtypes, such as lepidic, papillary, acinar, solid, and micropapillary; this system reportedly reflects well outcomes of patients with surgically resected lung AD. However, the prognostic implication of predominant histologic subtypes in lymph nodes metastases is unclear so far. In this study, we compared predominant subtypes between primary lung tumors and lymph node metastatic lesions in 24 patients with surgically treated lung adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastases. Additionally, we analyzed prognostic implications of these predominant histologic subtypes. We observed several discordance patterns between predominant subtypes in primary lung tumors and lymph node metastases. Concordance rates were 22%, 64%, and 100%, respectively, in papillary-, acinar-, and solid-predominant primary lung tumors. We observed that the predominant subtype in the primary lung tumor (HR 12.7, P = 0.037), but not that in lymph node metastases (HR 0.18, P = 0.13), determines outcomes in patients with surgically resected lung AD with lymph node metastases. PMID:25371901

  1. Identification of ex-vivo confocal scanning microscopic features and their histological correlates in human skin.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Daniela; Ruini, Cristel; Mathemeier, Leonie; Dietrich, Andreas; Ruzicka, Thomas; von Braunmühl, Tanja

    2016-04-01

    Ex-vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is an emerging diagnostic tool allowing fast and easy microscopic tissue examination. The first generation of ex-vivo devices have already shown promising results in the ex-vivo evaluation of basal cell carcinoma compared to Mohs surgery. Nevertheless, for the diagnostics of pathological skin lesions the knowledge of normal skin features is essential. Therefore we examined 50 samples of healthy skin from various donor sites including head and neck (n = 25), trunk (n = 10), upper (n = 10) and lower extremities (n = 5) using a new generation ex-vivo CLSM device offering three different laser wavelengths and compared the findings to the corresponding histological sections. In correlation with the histopathology we identified different layers of the epidermis, differentiated keratinocytes from melanocytes and described in detail skin appendages including hair follicle, sebaceous and sweat glands. Furthermore, structures of the dermis and subcutis were illustrated. Additionally, artefacts and pitfalls occurring with the use of ex-vivo CLSM have been documented. The study offers an overview of the main ex-vivo CLSM skin characteristics in comparison to the standard histological examination and helps to recognize and avoid common artefacts. Anatomy of a hair follicle in the reflectance mode (RM) CLSM, fluorescence mode (FM) CLSM and in a routine hematoxylin-eosin stained histological section (H). PMID:25996548

  2. Carpet Lesions Detected at CT Colonography: Clinical, Imaging, and Pathologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Vu P.; Weiss, Jennifer M.; Kennedy, Gregory D.; Kim, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe carpet lesions (laterally spreading tumors ≥ 3 cm) detected at computed tomographic (CT) colonography, including their clinical, imaging, and pathologic features. Materials and Methods The imaging reports for 9152 consecutive adults undergoing initial CT colonography at a tertiary center were reviewed in this HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board–approved retrospective study to identify all potential carpet lesions detected at CT colonography. Carpet lesions were defined as morphologically flat, laterally spreading tumors 3 cm or larger. For those patients with neoplastic carpet lesions, CT colonography studies were analyzed to determine maximal lesion width and height, oral contrast material coating, segmental location, and computer-aided detection (CAD) findings. Demographic data and details of clinical treatment in these patients were reviewed. Results Eighteen carpet lesions in 18 patients (0.2%; mean age, 67.1 years; eight men, 10 women) were identified and were subsequently confirmed at colonoscopy and pathologic examination among 20 potential flat masses (≥3 cm) prospectively identified at CT colonography (there were two nonneoplastic rectal false-positive findings). No additional neoplastic carpet lesions were found in the cohort undergoing colonoscopy after CT colonography and/or surgery (there were no false-negatives). Mean lesion width was 46.5 mm (range, 30–80 mm); mean lesion height was 7.9 mm (range, 4–14 mm). Surface retention of oral contrast material was noted in all 18 cases. All but two lesions were located in the distal rectosigmoid or proximal right colon. At CAD, 17 (94.4%) lesions were detected (mean, 6.2 CAD marks per lesion). Sixteen lesions (88.9%) demonstrated advanced histologic features, including a villous component (n = 11), high-grade dysplasia (n = 4), and invasive cancer (n = 5). Sixteen patients (88.9%) required surgical treatment for complete excision. Conclusion CT colonography can effectively

  3. Histologic features associated with tritrichomonas foetus-induced colitis in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Yaeger, M J; Gookin, J L

    2005-11-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a venereal pathogen of naturally bred cattle. In domestic cats, T. foetus colonizes the colon, resulting in chronic, large-bowel diarrhea. The infection is prevalent among young, densely housed cats, and there is no effective treatment. To the authors' knowledge, the characteristic microscopic lesions of T. foetus infection in naturally infected cats have not been described. The aim of the study reported here was to characterize the histologic changes in the colon of seven cats with T. foetus infection and chronic diarrhea. All cats were 1 year old or younger (mean, 6.7 +/- 1.7 months), and a diagnosis of T. foetus infection was made on the basis of direct fecal smear examination (five cats), fecal culture in InPouch TF medium (four cats), single-tube nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of DNA extracted from feces (two cats), or observation of trichomonads in sections of colon followed by PCR confirmation on DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue (two cats). The presence of colonic trichomonads was the most diagnostic histologic feature. Organisms were identified in all cats, but in only 24 of 43 (56%) sections of colon. Trichomonads were generally present in close proximity to the mucosal surface and less frequently in the lumen of colonic crypts. The presence of colonic trichomonads was consistently associated with mild-to-moderate lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic colitis, crypt epithelial cell hypertrophy, hyperplasia and increased mitotic activity, loss of goblet cells, crypt microabscesses, and attenuation of the superficial colonic mucosa. In two of the cats, histologic lesions were more severe and were associated with invasion of trichomonads into the lamina propria and/or deeper layers of the colon. PMID:16301576

  4. Spleen Histologic Appearance in Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Analysis of 17 Cases.

    PubMed

    Furudoï, Adeline; Gros, Audrey; Stanislas, Sophie; Hamidou, Mohamed; Furudoï, Enio; Oksenhendler, Éric; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Viallard, Jean-François; Parrens, Marie

    2016-07-01

    Histologic and phenotypic analyses of splenectomy samples from 17 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) showed the following nonspecific, evocative, white-pulp lesions: white-pulp hyperplasia (WPH) with reactive follicles, giant follicles (GFs), marginal zone hyperplasia, periarteriolar T-zone hyperplasia (PATH) and/or granulomas, which enabled us to discern 2 groups: the first (n=6) composed of WPH with reactive follicles without granulomas, and the second (n=9) characterized by the presence of granulomas with or without WPH. All specimens were Epstein-Barr virus negative by in situ hybridization. Molecular analyses revealed a polyclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) rearrangement (n=12). WPH-only patients were mostly female individuals and younger at CVID onset, diagnosis, and splenectomy, but their interval between the first symptom and diagnosis was longer; they had more associated infectious events, autoimmune disease, pulmonary complications, and liver regenerative nodular hyperplasia; their IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations were also higher. Granuloma-group patients were mostly male individuals; were older at CVID onset, diagnosis, and splenectomy; had disseminated granulomatous disease, but infectious events, autoimmune disease, pulmonary complications, and liver regenerative nodular hyperplasia were less common; their immunoglobulin concentrations were lower. Histologic comparisons between the WPH-only and granuloma groups showed more intense WPH and more intense marginal zone hyperplasia and fewer GFs in the former versus more developed PATH and more common GFs in the latter. The results of this novel comparative study of the histologic patterns of 17 CVID patients' evocative splenic lesions suggested different biological and clinical profiles. PMID:27158760

  5. Adrenal lymphangioma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of a rare lesion.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Carla L; Banerjee, Priya; Carney, Erin; Sharma, Rajni; Netto, George J

    2011-07-01

    Adrenal lymphangiomas, also known as cystic adrenal lymphangiomas, are rare, benign vascular lesions that usually remain asymptomatic throughout life. Although previously adrenal lymphangioma lesions were primarily found at autopsy, they are currently detected during imaging work-up for unrelated causes and are likely to imitate other adrenocortical or adrenal medullary neoplasms. We aimed to retrospectively review all adrenal lymphangioma cases at our hospital and further document their lymphatic origin by immunohistochemical staining. A search of surgical pathology records (1984-2008) was conducted. All hematoxylin and eosin sections were retrieved from archives and reviewed by 2 pathologists in the study. Clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records. Representative paraffin-embedded sections from each case were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies D2-40 and AE1/AE3. A total of 9 adrenal lymphangioma cases were identified (6 women and 3 men). All 9 patients were adults at time of diagnosis with a mean age of 42 years (range, 28-56 years). There were 7 white patients, 1 African American patient, and 1 Asian patient. The average size of an adrenal lymphangioma lesion was 4.9 cm (range, 2.0-13.5 cm). Adrenal lymphangioma was twice more frequently located on the right side (6 right-sided and 3 left-sided). Clinically, 4 (44%) of the 9 lesions presented with abdominal, flank, or back pain. One lymphangioma was found during work-up for labile hypertension. The remaining 4 lesions (44%) were asymptomatic and incidentally found during imaging studies for unrelated causes. Surgical removal was achieved by total adrenalectomy in 8 of the 9 lesions and by partial adrenalectomy in the remaining case. No evidence of recurrence or development of a contralateral lesion was encountered in any of the patients. Histologically, our adrenal lymphangiomas showed a typical multicystic architecture with dilated spaces lined by

  6. Image Guided Focal Therapy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Visible Prostate Cancer: Defining a 3-Dimensional Treatment Margin Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Histology Co-Registration Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Le Nobin, Julien; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Villers, Arnauld; Orczyk, Clément; Deng, Fang-Ming; Melamed, Jonathan; Mikheev, Artem; Rusinek, Henry; Taneja, Samir S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared prostate tumor boundaries on magnetic resonance imaging and radical prostatectomy histological assessment using detailed software assisted co-registration to define an optimal treatment margin for achieving complete tumor destruction during image guided focal ablation. Materials and Methods Included in study were 33 patients who underwent 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging before radical prostatectomy. A radiologist traced lesion borders on magnetic resonance imaging and assigned a suspicion score of 2 to 5. Three-dimensional reconstructions were created from high resolution digitalized slides of radical prostatectomy specimens and co-registered to imaging using advanced software. Tumors were compared between histology and imaging by the Hausdorff distance and stratified by the magnetic resonance imaging suspicion score, Gleason score and lesion diameter. Cylindrical volume estimates of treatment effects were used to define the optimal treatment margin. Results Three-dimensional software based registration with magnetic resonance imaging was done in 46 histologically confirmed cancers. Imaging underestimated tumor size with a maximal discrepancy between imaging and histological boundaries for a given tumor of an average ± SD of 1.99 ± 3.1 mm, representing 18.5% of the diameter on imaging. Boundary underestimation was larger for lesions with an imaging suspicion score 4 or greater (mean 3.49 ± 2.1 mm, p <0.001) and a Gleason score of 7 or greater (mean 2.48 ± 2.8 mm, p = 0.035). A simulated cylindrical treatment volume based on the imaging boundary missed an average 14.8% of tumor volume compared to that based on the histological boundary. A simulated treatment volume based on a 9 mm treatment margin achieved complete histological tumor destruction in 100% of patients. Conclusions Magnetic resonance imaging underestimates histologically determined tumor boundaries, especially for lesions with a high imaging suspicion score and a high Gleason

  7. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Mattigatti, Sudha; Managoli, Noopur A; Rairam, Surabhi G; Patil, Ashwini M

    2013-01-01

    Abfraction or Theory of Abfraction is a theory explaining the non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). It suggests that they are caused by flexural forces, usually from cyclic loading; the enamel, especially at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), undergoes this pattern of destruction by separating the enamel rods. Clinical aspect importance of these ineart lesions are at most important to be detected for early intervention and treatment modalities as options during the progression of the disease. How to cite this article: Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Mattigatti S, Managoli NA, Rairam SG, Patil AM. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):142-5. PMID:24324319

  8. Nerve lesioning with direct current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

  9. Confocal imaging of benign and malignant proliferative skin lesions in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Salvador; Rajadhyaksha, Milind M.; Anderson, R. Rox

    1999-06-01

    Near-infrared confocal reflectance microscopy (CM) provides non- invasive real-time images of thin en-face tissue sections with high resolution and contrast. Imaging of cells, nuclei, other organelles, microvessels, and hair follicles has been possible at resolution comparable to standard histology, to a maximum depth of 250-300 μm in human skin in vivo. We have characterized psoriasis as a prototype of benign proliferative skin conditions, and non-pigmented skin malignancies in vivo based on their unstained, native histologic features using CM. Our data shows that reflectance CM may potentially diagnose and morphometrically evaluate proliferative skin lesions in vivo.

  10. Clinical Outcome of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Detected Additional Lesions in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Gi-Won; Yi, Mi Suk; Lee, Byoung Kil; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome of additional breast lesions identified with breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in breast cancer patients. Methods A total of 153 patients who underwent breast MRI between July 2006 and March 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-three patients (21.6&) were recommended for second-look ultrasound (US) for further characterization of additional lesions detected on breast MRI and these patients constituted our study population. Results Assessment for lesions detected on breast MRI consisted of the following: 25 benign lesions (73.5&), two indeterminate (5.9%), and seven malignant (20.6%) in 33 patients. Second-look US identified 12 additional lesions in 34 lesions (35.3%) and these lesions were confirmed by histological examination. Of the 12 lesions found in the 11 patients, six (50.0%) including one contralateral breast cancer were malignant. The surgical plan was altered in 18.2% (six of 33) of the patients. The use of breast MRI justified a change in treatment for four patients (66.7%) and caused two patients (33.3&) to undergo unwarranted additional surgical procedures. Conclusion Breast MRI identified additional multifocal or contralateral cancer which was not detected initially on conventional imaging in breast cancer patients. Breast MRI has become an indispensable modality in conjunction with conventional modalities for preoperative evaluation of patients with operable breast cancer. PMID:22031803

  11. Advanced MRI Techniques in the Evaluation of Complex Cystic Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Popli, Manju Bala; Gupta, Pranav; Arse, Devraj; Kumar, Pawan; Kaur, Prabhjot

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this research work was to evaluate complex cystic breast lesions by advanced MRI techniques and correlating imaging with histologic findings. METHODS AND MATERIALS In a cross-sectional design from September 2013 to August 2015, 50 patients having sonographically detected complex cystic lesions of the breast were included in the study. Morphological characteristics were assessed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI along with diffusion-weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy were used to further classify lesions into benign and malignant categories. All the findings were correlated with histopathology. RESULTS Of the 50 complex cystic lesions, 32 proved to be benign and 18 were malignant on histopathology. MRI features of heterogeneous enhancement on CE-MRI (13/18), Type III kinetic curve (13/18), reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (18/18), and tall choline peak (17/18) were strong predictors of malignancy. Thirteen of the 18 lesions showed a combination of Type III curve, reduced apparent diffusion coefficient value, and tall choline peak. CONCLUSIONS Advanced MRI techniques like dynamic imaging, diffusion-weighted sequences, and MR spectroscopy provide a high level of diagnostic confidence in the characterization of complex cystic breast lesion, thus allowing early diagnosis and significantly reducing patient morbidity and mortality. From our study, lesions showing heterogeneous contrast enhancement, Type III kinetic curve, diffusion restriction, and tall choline peak were significantly associated with malignant complex cystic lesions of the breast. PMID:27330299

  12. MRI of Focal Liver Lesions.

    PubMed

    Albiin, Nils

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI has more advantages than ultrasound, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, or any other imaging modality in diagnosing focal hepatic masses. With a combination of basic T1 and T2 weighted sequences, diffusion weighted imaging, DWI, and hepatobiliary gadolinium contrast agents, that is gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB), most liver lesions can be adequately diagnosed. Benign lesions, as cyst, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH or adenoma, can be distinguished from malignant lesions. In a non-cirrhotic liver, the most common malignant lesions are metastases which may be hypovascular or hypervascular. In the cirrhotic liver hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, is of considerable importance. Besides, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other less common malignancies has to be assessed. In this review, the techniques and typical MRI features are presented as well as the new algorithm issued by American Association for the Study of the Liver Diseases (AASLD). PMID:23049491

  13. Electrocautery for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Cancer.gov

    Results from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at treating potentially precancerous anal lesions in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  14. Histology of salmonid testes during maturation.

    PubMed

    Dziewulska, Katarzyna; Domagała, Józef

    2003-03-01

    The commonly applied classification systems of fish gonad maturity divide the maturation process into certain stages. However, the scales do not entirely reflect the continuity of the maturation process. Based on light microscope observations, the paper describes a comprehensive pattern of testicular transformations during maturation. The study was carried out on precocious underyearling and 1-year-old males of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.), 1-year-old males of salmon (Salmo salar L.), and males of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.) aged from 7 months to 4 years. A total of 821 gonads collected during all seasons of the year were examined. The fish were fixed in Bouin's fluid. Histological slides of the mid-part of the gonad were made using the standard paraffin technique. The 3-6 microm sections were stained with Heidenhain haematoxylin. Histological changes of testes during maturation were similar in the three species studied. Immature and resting gonads contained type A spermatogonia in lobules only. The appearance of cystic structures containing type B spermatogonia in the lobules signalled the beginning of the sexual cycle in male gonads. Type B spermatogonia underwent synchronous mitotic divisions resulting in an increase in the total number of spermatogonia. As the spermatogenesis continued, the gonads showed a gradual increase in the number of cysts containing cells at all the spermatogenetic stages: type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa. The well-formed spermatozoa were released to the lobule lumen once the Sertoli cells and spermatozoa connections broke up and the cyst disappeared. This was a continuous process observed throughout the spawning season. The spermatozoa were moved to the efferent duct. While some of the germ cells were completing spermatogenesis, the lobules contained less and less cysts with type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, and spermatids; eventually all

  15. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  16. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of bone lesions of the jaws: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Musu, Davide; Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Campisi, Girolamo; Cotti, Elisabetta

    2016-07-01

    The diagnostic use of ultrasonography in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery has previously been described in the literature. Considering that ultrasonography may be useful for the diagnosis of bone lesions of the jaws, a systematic review was carried out to examine the evidence. This review determined that ultrasonography has been used effectively for the diagnosis of infective and/or inflammatory lesions, cysts, nonodontogenic tumors, odontogenic tumors, and arteriovenous malformations and for the differential diagnosis of lesions of endodontic origin, compared with the gold standard of histologic analysis. Ultrasonography may be a viable adjunct to other special tests for the diagnosis of intraosseous lesions of the jaws, as it is noninvasive and does not involve ionizing radiation exposure of the patient. PMID:27260284

  17. Cardiac lesions induced by testosterone: protective effects of dexrazoxane and trimetazidine.

    PubMed

    Belhani, Dalila; Fanton, Laurent; Vaillant, Fanny; Descotes, Jacques; Manati, Waheed; Tabib, Alain; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Timour, Quadiri

    2009-06-01

    Further to our previous observation of post-mortem cardiac lesions after sudden death in several athletes with a history of anabolic steroid abuse, this study was intended to reproduce these lesions in rabbits administered testosterone oenanthate, a prototypic anabolic steroid abused by athletes, and to provide evidence for the protective effects of trimetazidine and dexrazoxane that are used as antianginal and cardioprotective drugs, respectively. Groups of six rabbits each were administered saline, testosterone, or a combination of testosterone and either trimetazidine or dexrazoxane for 3 months. Histologic cardiac lesions including necrosis, misshapen cell nuclei, interstitial and endocardial fibrosis, lymphocytic infiltrates, and vascular dystrophies were observed in testosterone-treated rabbits. In contrast, no significant lesions were observed in the animals treated with testosterone combined with either trimetazidine or dexrazoxane. This is the first study providing evidence for testosterone cardiotoxicity following sub-chronic exposure in laboratory animals. In addition, these results suggest the protective role of trimetazidine and dexrazoxane. PMID:19484391

  18. Skin Biopsy in Netherton Syndrome: A Histological Review of a Large Series and New Findings.

    PubMed

    Leclerc-Mercier, Stephanie; Bodemer, Christine; Furio, Laetitia; Hadj-Rabia, Smail; de Peufeilhoux, Laetitia; Weibel, Lisa; Bursztejn, Anne-Claire; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Ortonne, Nicolas; Molina, Thierry Jo; Hovnanian, Alain; Fraitag, Sylvie

    2016-02-01

    Netherton syndrome (NS) is a severe genetic skin disorder, with often delayed or misleading clinical signs. The histological features of skin biopsies, usually described as a psoriasiform hyperplasia, have only been reported in isolated case reports or small case series. The aim of this study is to define, for the first time, the precise histological pattern of cutaneous lesions, in a large cohort of skin biopsies from confirmed NS patients. The study included 80 consecutive skin biopsies from 67 patients taken between January 1995 and June 2014. All were from confirmed NS patients with either a negative lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI) immunohistochemistry and/or molecular confirmation by identified mutation in SPINK5. In this cohort, the most frequent histological finding was also psoriasiform hyperplasia, but there were additional, less common, or previously unreported findings, including compact parakeratosis with large nuclei, subcorneum or intracorneum splitting, presence of clear cells in the upper epidermis or stratum corneum, dyskeratosis, dermal infiltrate with neutrophils and/or eosinophils, and dilated blood vessels in the superficial dermis. An early confirmation of the diagnosis of NS is essential for improved patient management. Thus, in the situation of a patient with an unknown skin disorder and non specific clinical presentation, the dermatopathologist may now be able to suggest the diagnosis of NS based on these newly reported characteristics. However, LEKTI immunohistochemistry remains the essential diagnostic investigation in cases with misleading or nonspecific histological features and is mandatory for the definitive diagnosis of NS in all patients. PMID:26825155

  19. Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Tailoring Resection to Histologic Subtype.

    PubMed

    Cable, Matthew G; Randall, R Lor

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas comprise tumors originating from mesenchymal or connective tissue. Histologic grade is integral to prognosis. Because sarcoma management is multimodal, histologic subtype should inform optimum treatment. Appropriate biopsy and communication between surgeon and pathologist can help ensure a correct diagnosis. Treatment often involves surgical excision with wide margins and adjuvant radiotherapy. There is no consensus on what constitutes an adequate margin for histologic subtypes. An appreciation of how histology corresponds with tumor biology and surgical anatomic constraints is needed for management of this disease. Even with the surgical goal of wide resection being obtained, many patients do not outlive their disease. PMID:27591492

  20. Pineal lesions: a multidisciplinary challenge.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Manfred; Emami, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The pineal region is a complex anatomical compartment, harbouring the pineal gland surrounded by the quadrigeminal plate and the confluents of the internal cerebral veins to form the vein of Galen. The complexity of lesions in that region, however, goes far beyond the pineal parenchyma proper. Originating in the pineal gland, there are not only benign cysts but also numerous different tumour types. In addition, lesions such as tectal gliomas, tentorial meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas arise from the surrounding structures, occupying that regions. Furthermore, the area has an affinity for metastatic lesions. Vascular lesions complete the spectrum mainly as small tectal arteriovenous malformations or cavernous haemangiomas.Taken together, there is a wide spectrum of lesions, many unique to that region, which call for a multidisciplinary approach. The limited access and anatomical complexity have generated a spectrum of anatomical approaches and raised the interest for neuroendoscopic approaches. Equally complex is the spectrum of treatment modalities such as microsurgery as the main option but stereotactic radiosurgery as an alternative or adjuvant to surgery for selected cases, radiation as for germinoma (see below) and or combinatorial chemotherapy, which may need to precede any other ablative technique as constituents.In this context, we review the current literature and our own series to obtain a snapshot sentiment of how to approach pineal lesions, how to interrelate alternative/competing concepts and review the recent technological advances. PMID:25411146

  1. Hearing disorders in brainstem lesions.

    PubMed

    Celesia, Gastone G

    2015-01-01

    Auditory processing can be disrupted by brainstem lesions. It is estimated that approximately 57% of brainstem lesions are associated with auditory disorders. However diseases of the brainstem usually involve many structures, producing a plethora of other neurologic deficits, often relegating "auditory symptoms in the background." Lesions below or within the cochlear nuclei result in ipsilateral auditory-processing abnormalities detected in routine testing; disorders rostral to the cochlear nuclei may result in bilateral abnormalities or may be silent. Lesions in the superior olivary complex and trapezoid body show a mixture of ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral abnormalities, whereas lesions of the lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, and medial geniculate body do not affect peripheral auditory processing and result in predominantly subtle contralateral abnormalities that may be missed by routine auditory testing. In these cases psychophysical methods developed for the evaluation of central auditory function should be employed (e.g., dichotic listening, interaural time perception, sound localization). The extensive connections of the auditory brainstem nuclei not only are responsible for binaural interaction but also assure redundancy in the system. This redundancy may explain why small brainstem lesions are sometimes clinically silent. Any disorder of the brainstem (e.g., neoplasms, vascular disorders, infections, trauma, demyelinating disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, malformations) that involves the auditory pathways and/or centers may produce hearing abnormalities. PMID:25726288

  2. Unusual lesions of the mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuddin, Fatima; Khadilkar, Urmila N; Saha, Debarshi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study unusual lesions in the mediastinum, which do not originate from the thymus, lymph nodes, neural tissues or germ cells, and tissues that normally engender pathologic lesions in the mediastinum. Materials and Methods: Of the 65 cases seen, 12 unusual lesion were encountered in a 5½ year period from 2006 to 2011. Results: Two cases of nodular colloid goiter and one each of the mediastinal cyst, undifferentiated carcinoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) affected the anterosuperior mediastinum. In the middle mediastinum, one case each of the mesothelioma, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), and pleomorphic sarcoma (PS) was seen. One case of meningeal melanocytoma (Mme) and primary pleural liposarcoma (PL) involved the posterior mediastinum. Persistent disease was seen in LCH after 2 years. Of all the cases with malignant lesions, only the patient with SCC was alive after 1 year. Conclusion: The cases of primary and SCC, LCH, melanocytoma, liposarcoma and PS, and GIST are unexpected and very rarely have paradigms in the mediastinum. Radiologic impression and knowledge of the compartment where these lesions arose from hardly assisted in arriving at a definitive opinion as the lesions were not typical of this location. A high index of suspicion and the immunohistochemical profile facilitated the final diagnosis. PMID:26664161

  3. Simulation of spiculated breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Alrehily, Faisal; Pinto, R. Ferrari; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials are a promising new approach increasingly used for the evaluation and comparison of breast imaging modalities. A key component in such an assessment paradigm is the use of simulated pathology, in particular, simulation of lesions. Breast mass lesions can be generally classified into two categories based on their appearance; nonspiculated masses and spiculated masses. In our previous work, we have successfully simulated non-spiculated masses using a fractal growth process known as diffusion limited aggregation. In this new work, we have extended the DLA model to simulate spiculated lesions by using features extracted from patient DBT images containing spiculated lesions. The features extracted included spicule length, width, curvature and distribution. This information was used to simulate realistic looking spicules which were attached to the surface of a DLA mass to produce a spiculated mass. A batch of simulated spiculated masses was inserted into normal patient images and presented to an experienced radiologist for review. The study yielded promising results with the radiologist rating 60% of simulated lesions in 2D and 50% of simulated lesions in DBT as realistic.

  4. DNA lesions: A thermodynamic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, G.E.; Breslauer, K.J.

    1994-12-31

    The studies described in this paper are part of an overall program project entitled {open_quotes}The Chemistry and Biology of Exocyclic DNA Adducts and Oxidative DNA Damage.{close_quotes}. Initially, all the project leaders discuss and agree on biologically interesting lesions to target for study. Then begins the process of developing the chemistry required to synthesize modified nucleosides that either correspond to or model the damage sites of interest. Such modified nucleotides then are incorporated into oligonucleotides that are hybridized to their complements, thereby forming lesion-containing duplex structures. In any given duplex, the identity of the lesion-opposing nucleoside on the complementary strand is systematically altered, thereby allowing us to evaluate the impact on duplex properties of the identity of the base opposite the lesion. For comparative purposes, the undamaged parent Watson-Crick duplex also is synthesized. Such families of DNA duplexes are then sent for independent physiochemical characterizations. Armed with an extensive body of biophysical data, one then searches for correlations between the physiochemical influences of the lesions on duplex properties and the biological consequences of each lesion. At this stage, our approach is highly empirical. Ultimately, we hope that our studies will reveal correlations between physiochemical properties and biological consequences such that we will develop predictive powers and gain insight into the mechanisms of recognition, repair, and mutagenesis.

  5. Derivation and validation of murine histologic alterations resembling asthma, with two proposed histologic grade parameters

    PubMed Central

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Shome, Goutam; Sutherland, Mhairi; McGlone, John J

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective was to define murine histologic alterations resembling asthma in a BALB/c OVA model and to suggest grading criteria. Identified were six salient histologic findings in lungs with putative allergic inflammation: 1) bronchoarterial space inflammation; 2) peri-venular inflammation; 3) inflammation about amuscular blood vessels; 4) inter-alveolar space inflammation, not about capillaries; 5) pleural inflammation; and 6) eosinophils within the inflammatory aggregates. An initial study comprised six groups of twelve mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, sensitized; 3) stressed, challenged; 4) not physically stressed, control; 5) not physically stressed, sensitized; 6) not physically stressed, challenged. A second study comprised four experimental groups of twenty mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, challenged; 3) not physically stressed, control; 4) not physically stressed, challenged. A third study evaluated two grading criteria, 1) the proportion of non-tracheal respiratory passages with inflammatory aggregates and 2) mitoses in the largest two non-tracheal respiratory passages, in five groups of five mice each, evaluated at different times after the last exposure. Results The first study suggested the six histological findings might reliably indicate the presence of alterations resembling asthma: whereas 82.4% of mice with a complete response had detectable interleukin (IL)-5, only 3.8% of mice without one did; whereas 77.8% of mice with a complete response were challenged mice, only 6.7% of mice without complete responses were. The second study revealed that the six histological findings provided a definition that was 97.4% sensitive and 100% specific. The third study found that the odds of a bronchial passage's having inflammation declined 1) when mitoses were present (OR = 0.73, 0.60 - 0.90), and 2) with one day increased time (OR = 0.75, 0.65 - 0.86). Conclusion A definition of murine histologic alterations resembling

  6. Pretreatment biopsy for histological diagnosis and induction therapy in thymic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Jie; Gu, Zhitao; Zhang, Hongdian; Ma, Zhao; Liu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was to investigate the value of pretreatment biopsy for histological diagnosis and induction therapies in the management of locally advanced thymic malignancies. Methods The clinical pathological data of patients with thymic tumors in the Chinese Alliance for Research in Thymomas (ChART) who underwent biopsy before treatment from 1994 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The application trend of preoperative histological diagnosis and its influence on treatment outcome were analyzed. Results Of 1,902 cases of thymic tumors, 336 (17.1%) had undergone biopsy for histological diagnosis before therapeutic decision was decided. In recent years, percentage of pretreatment histological diagnosis significantly increased in the later ten years than the former during the study period (P=0.008). There was also a significant increase in thoracoscopy/mediastinoscopy/E-BUS biopsy as compared to open biopsy (P=0.029). Survival in Patients with preoperative biopsy for histology had significantly higher stage lesions (P=0.000) and higher grade malignancy (P=0.000), thus a significantly lower complete resection rate (P=0.000) and therefore a significantly worse survival than those without preoperative biopsy (P=0.000). In the biopsied 336 patients, those who received upfront surgery had significantly better survival than those received surgery after induction therapy (P=0.000). In stage III and IVa diseases, the R0 resection rate after induction therapies increased significantly as compared to the surgery upfront cases (65.5% vs. 46.2%, P=0.025). Tumors downstaged after induction had similar outcomes as those having upfront surgery (92.3% vs. 84.2%, P=0.51). However, tumors not downstaged by induction had significantly worse prognosis than those downstaged (P=0.004), and fared even worse than those having definitive chemoradiation without surgery (37.2% vs. 62.4%, P=0.216). Conclusions It is crucial to get histological diagnosis for thymoma before

  7. Are histologic studies of adenotonsillectomy really necessary?

    PubMed

    Rebechi, Giseli; Pontes, Thiago Euênio; Braga, Elias Lobo; Matos, Willian Maduel; Rebechi, Fernando; Matsuyama, Cícero

    2013-10-01

    Introduction In most ear, nose, and throat services, it is routine to send the material extracted from tonsillectomy for histologic study to research malignancy, to analyze suspect material, or to provide medical-legal documentation. Recent studies have shown that this routine analysis is dispensable. Objective To evaluate the actual need and perform a cost-benefit analysis of routine histopathologic examination in tonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy. Methods A retrospective observational study evaluated the charts of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenoidectomy from January 2008 to September 2009 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology CEMA-SP. Costs of this test for the public health system were analyzed and the literature reviewed. Results We studied 281 patients between 2 and 22 years of age; 142 (50.5%) were male and 139 (49.5%) were female. Of the surgeries, 201 were adenotonsillectomies (71.5%), 41 were tonsillectomies (14.5%), and 39 were adenoidectomies (14%). The most common indication for surgery was recurrent infection (63.3%). None of study patients had clinical suspicion of malignancy. The tests showed a cost of R$20.03 per tonsil analyzed. Conclusion Routine histopathologic examination in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy is dispensable and increases the cost of the surgeries. PMID:25992042

  8. Are Histologic Studies of Adenotonsillectomy Really Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Rebechi, Giseli; Pontes, Thiago Euênio; Braga, Elias Lobo; Matos, Willian Maduel; Rebechi, Fernando; Matsuyama, Cícero

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In most ear, nose, and throat services, it is routine to send the material extracted from tonsillectomy for histologic study to research malignancy, to analyze suspect material, or to provide medical-legal documentation. Recent studies have shown that this routine analysis is dispensable. Objective To evaluate the actual need and perform a cost–benefit analysis of routine histopathologic examination in tonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy. Methods A retrospective observational study evaluated the charts of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenoidectomy from January 2008 to September 2009 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology CEMA-SP. Costs of this test for the public health system were analyzed and the literature reviewed. Results We studied 281 patients between 2 and 22 years of age; 142 (50.5%) were male and 139 (49.5%) were female. Of the surgeries, 201 were adenotonsillectomies (71.5%), 41 were tonsillectomies (14.5%), and 39 were adenoidectomies (14%). The most common indication for surgery was recurrent infection (63.3%). None of study patients had clinical suspicion of malignancy. The tests showed a cost of R$20.03 per tonsil analyzed. Conclusion Routine histopathologic examination in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy is dispensable and increases the cost of the surgeries. PMID:25992042

  9. Spermatogenesis in Leptodactylus chaquensis. Histological study.

    PubMed

    Iruzubieta Villagra, Ana Lucrecia; Cisint, Susana Beatriz; Crespo, Claudia Alejandra; Medina, Marcela Fátima; Ramos, Inés; Fernández, Silvia Nélida

    2014-08-01

    The organization and the histological characteristics of Leptodactylus chaquensis testis throughout the reproductive cycle were analyzed in the presented study. Gonads of adult males, processed with routine techniques for optical microscopy, revealed that during the reproductive period the seminiferous tubules were characterized by presentation of a large number of cysts, germ cells at the same maturation stage supported by Sertoli cells. All the germ line cells were also present in the postreproductive period and maintained their morphological characteristics. Primary spermatogonia were large-sized cells found isolated or in small groups. The rest of the cells of the germ line formed cysts. Secondary spermatogonia showed morphological characteristics similar to their predecessors, although they were smaller. Primary and secondary spermatocytes showed images of the different stages of the first and second meiotic division respectively. One finding was the presence of intercytoplasmic bridges between the secondary spermatocytes. Primary spermatids were rounded cells with an acrosomal vesicle associated with the nucleus and had cysts that were characterized by large intercellular spaces. Secondary spermatids were elongated cells with a well defined acrosome, which in the spermatozoa had the shape of an arrowhead. Another peculiar characteristic of this species was the fusion of the walls of the seminiferous tubule with the efferent duct that formed a path for spermatozoa during spermiation. The presence in the seminiferous tubules of all stages of the spermatogenic line during the two periods of the cycle studied indicated that Leptodactylus chaquensis had a potentially continuous reproductive cycle. PMID:23171585

  10. Histological investigations on the Tyrolean Ice Man.

    PubMed

    Hess, M W; Klima, G; Pfaller, K; Künzel, K H; Gaber, O

    1998-08-01

    The 5,200-year-old Tyrolean Ice Man discovered in 1991 in the Otztal Alps is the world's most ancient known human glacier mummy. Histological investigation was aimed at 1) optimizing specimen preparation and 2) documenting the preservation state of (sub)cellular components. Minute pieces of frozen tissue were removed endoscopically from rib bone and cartilage, major blood vessels, oral cavity and alimentary tract, liver, spleen, diaphragm, respiratory system, femoral muscle and nerve, sympathetic trunk, brain, and skin. Double fixation with glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide and embedding in Epon/Araldite epoxy resins proved to be the method of choice for both light and transmission electron microscopy combined with classical histochemistry. In particular, mild evacuation of the desiccated tissue was determined to be essential to ensure homogeneous infiltration with fixatives and resins; as a result, sections of excellent quality could be obtained with any kind of sample. With regard to the preservation degree of (sub)cellular components, distinct tissue-specific patterns were observed. There were highly intact skeletal and connective tissues proper, however, most interestingly, there were remarkably intact nervous tissue components as well. By contrast, epithelial, muscle, and reticular connective tissues as well as blood had generally disintegrated due to autolysis, freeze/thaw damage, and adipocere formation. For a tentative interpretation of these patterns, we considered general aspects of cryopreservation, such as physicochemical properties of subcellular constituents and tissue physiology. PMID:9712480

  11. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of benign and malignant cutaneous lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Troyanova, P. P.; Stoyanova, V. P.; Avramov, Lachezar A.

    2005-04-01

    The goals of this work were investigation of pigmented skin lesions by the method of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectra were obtained from malignant and benign skin lesions after excitation with nitrogen laser at 337 nm, namely: benign nevi, dysplastic nevi, malignant melanoma (MM), keratopapilloma, base-cell papilloma and base-cell carcinoma, as well as from healthy skin areas near to the lesion that were used posteriori to reveal changes between healthy and lesion skin spectra. Initially lesions were classified by ABCD-dermatscopic method. All suspicious lesions were excised and were investigated histologically. Spectrum of healthy skin consists of one main maximum at 470-500 nm spectral region and secondary maxima at in the regions round 400 and 440 nm. In the cases of nevi and melanoma significant decrease of fluorescence intensity, which correlated with the type of pigment lesion was observed. This reduction of the signal is related to the accumulation of melanin in the lesions that re-absorb strongly the fluorescence from native skin fluorophores in whole visible spectral region. In cases of papilloma and base-cell carcinoma an intensity decrease was also observed, related to accumulation of pigments in these cutaneous lesions. An relative increase of the fluorescence peak at 440 nm were registered in the case of base-cell carcinoma, and appearance of green fluorescence, related to increase of keratin content in benign papilloma lesions were detected. The results, obtained in this investigation of the different pigment lesions could be used for better comprehension of the skin optical properties. The fluorescence spectroscopy of the human skin are very prominent for early diagnosis and differentiation of cutaneous diseases and gives a wide range of possibilities related to real-time determination of existing pathological condition.

  12. Descriptive data on cancerous lung lesions detected by auto-fluorescence bronchoscope: A five-year study

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Asmitananda; Gao, Lin; Ren, Hui; Yang, Tian; Chen, Tianjun; Chen, Mingwei

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Auto-fluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) has been used for the identification and localization of intra-epithelial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions within the bronchus. OBJECTIVES: To determine the applicability of AFB for the detection and localization of precancerous and cancerous lesions, in addition to analyzing the morphologic presentation, their association to histological type and the variation between genders. METHODS: A five-year study involving 4983 patients, who underwent routine bronchoscopy [B] examination in a local tertiary teaching hospital, was done. The B examination was performed under intratracheal lidocaine, and samples were obtained using suitable approach. One thousand four hundred and eighty-five pathologically confirmed lung cancer patients were included in the study. The following parameters were studied: Morphological presentation, biopsy sites, histology. Differences between the groups were analyzed using Chi square test. RESULT: One thousand four hundred and eighty-five patients who had hyperplasia or neoplastic lesions were further confirmed as lung cancer pathologically. Lung cancer was more commonly found in the right lung (51.58% vs. 42.82%). The lesion occurred more frequently in the upper lobe than the lower lobe (44.17% vs. 22.42%). Male patients with squamous cell carcinoma showed upper lobe involvement more commonly, while the left main bronchus was more commonly involved in female patients. Adenocarcinoma mostly involved lesion of the upper lobe. Squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma were the major proliferative types (80.15% and 76.16% respectively). CONCLUSION: AFB is efficient in the detection of pre-invasive and invasive lung lesions. The morphological presentation is associated to the histological type. There is variation in the presentation and histology of cancerous lung lesions between genders. PMID:22347346

  13. Melatonin prevents learning disorders in brain-lesioned newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Bouslama, M; Renaud, J; Olivier, P; Fontaine, R H; Matrot, B; Gressens, P; Gallego, J

    2007-12-12

    Perinatal brain injuries often result in irreversible learning disabilities, which manifest in early childhood. These injuries are chiefly ascribable to marked susceptibility of the immature brain to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. No treatments are available. One well-characterized model of perinatal brain injuries consists in injecting the glutamate analog ibotenate into the brain of 5-day-old mice. The resulting excitotoxic lesions resemble the hypoxic-ischemic gray-matter lesions seen in full-term and near-term newborns, as well as the white-matter lesions of preterm newborns. We previously reported that these lesions disrupted odor preference conditioning in newborn mice. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the neuroprotector melatonin in preventing learning disabilities in newborn mice with ibotenate-induced brain injury. In postnatal day (P) 6-P7 pups, we tested psychomotor reflexes, spontaneous preference for maternal odors as an index of memory, ultrasonic vocalization responses to stroking as an index of sensitivity to tactile stimuli, and conditioned preference for an odor previously paired with stroking as an index of learning abilities. Without melatonin, conditioning was abolished, whereas spontaneous odor preference, psychomotor reflexes, and sensitivity to tactile stimuli were normal. Thus, abolition of conditioning was not associated with sensorimotor impairments. Histological analysis confirmed the efficacy of melatonin in reducing white-matter lesions induced by ibotenate. Furthermore, treatment with melatonin protected the ability to develop conditioning. Thus, melatonin, which easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and has been proven safe in children, may be effective in preventing learning disabilities caused by perinatal brain injuries in human preterm infants. PMID:17950543

  14. [Aortic inflammatory lesions in Behçet's disease].

    PubMed

    Desbois, A-C; Wechsler, B; Cacoub, P; Saadoun, D

    2016-04-01

    The arterial lesions affect about 10% of patients with Behçet's disease (BD). Aortic inflammatory involvement includes predominantly aortic aneurysmal lesions affecting most often the abdominal aorta. They account for the severity of the disease and are a leading cause of death when they hit the aorta or pulmonary arteries. Within the arterial lesions of BD, aortic involvement is, with femoral lesions, the most common site involved (18-28% of patients with vascular disease). Unlike other large vessels vasculitis (i.e. giant cell arteritis and Takayasu's arteritis) diffuse aortitis is observed in less than 5% of patients with BD. Aortic lesions of BD may be asymptomatic (systematic imaging or occasionally associated with other vascular event) or be revealed by the occurrence of abdominal, thoracic or lumbar pain, or an aortic valve insufficiency. Fever is frequently associated. Increase in acute phase reactants is common in these patients. Histological analysis may show infiltration by lymphocytes, neutrophils and plasma cells in the media and adventitia and a proliferation of the vasa vasorum in the media as well as a fibroblastic proliferation. In the later phase, a fibrous thickening of the media and adventitia is observed as well as a proliferation and thickening of the vasa vasorum. The therapeutic management should always include a medical treatment for the control of inflammation (corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and/or biotherapy) and often an endovascular or surgical treatment if the aneurysm is threatening. The choice between endovascular or surgical treatment is considered case by case, depending on the experience of the team, anatomical conditions and of the clinical presentation. In this review, we provide a detailed and updated review of the literature to describe the aortic inflammatory damage associated with Behçet's disease. PMID:26611428

  15. Multiple liver lesions in a patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome secondary to polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Putra, Juan; Toor, Arifa; Noce, Todd A; Thung, Swan N; Suriawinata, Arief A; Lisovsky, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia and nodular regenerative hyperplasia are occasionally seen in patients with hepatic venous outflow obstruction as a consequence of circulatory stress in the liver. In addition, neoplastic processes such as hepatic adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and metastatic disease may arise in these patients. Histologic evaluation is necessary when imaging modalities are unable to distinguish these lesions. We present a case of multiple hepatic lesions, suspicious for metastases, in a patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome secondary to polycythemia vera. However, the biopsy findings were consistent with focal nodular hyperplasia. Budd-Chiari syndrome may be associated with multiple nodules of focal nodular hyperplasia, which may be difficult to diagnose radiologically. PMID:26019042

  16. Jellyfish Envenomation Presenting with Delayed Identical Cutaneous Lesions in a Mother and Child.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Aditi; Sengupta, Sujata

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish envenomation can present with local cutaneous lesions both immediate and delayed. While the immediate reaction is toxin mediated, an immune mechanism is responsible for the delayed eruptions. This is a report of a mother and child who developed identical papular lesions in a bizarre, linear distribution after coming in contact with jellyfish almost simultaneously while on holiday. Histology showed focal basal cell degeneration along with peri-vascular and peri-appendageal lympho-mononuclear infiltrate. Both patients responded well to topical tacrolimus. PMID:26538698

  17. Degenerative lesions in the articular cartilage after meniscectomy: preliminary experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Berjon, J J; Munuera, L; Calvo, M

    1991-03-01

    Articular cartilage degeneration was studied in an experimental model including 68 knees of adult dogs on which five different types of medial meniscectomy had been performed with a followup period of 10 to 450 days. The results were assessed by macroscopic, radiologic, and histologic methods. The degenerative lesions increased proportionally to the amount of meniscal tissue resected and the duration of observation. These lesions proved to be more intense at the tibial plateau compared to the femoral condyle. For both joint surfaces the predominant location was the central zone. Considering the degenerative process by the articular cartilage after total meniscectomy, maximum preservation of meniscal tissue is recommended. PMID:2002520

  18. Early-stage hemangioblastoma presenting as a small lesion with significant edema in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Nie, Quanmin; Guo, Pin; Shen, Lin; Li, Xiaoxiong; Qiu, Yongming

    2015-03-01

    Hemangioblastomas are benign tumors that are frequently associated with peritumoral cysts; however, their early characteristics before cyst formation remain unclear. In this article, the authors present a novel case of a cerebellar hemangioblastoma presenting as a small solid lesion with significant edema. Surgery was performed to resect the tumor, and a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed complete excision of the mass and resolution of the cerebellar edema. Histological examination confirmed that the lesion was a hemangioblastoma. This is the only report in the literature to describe the imaging and histopathologic characteristics of an initial hemangioblastoma in the cerebellum. PMID:25699527

  19. Jellyfish Envenomation Presenting with Delayed Identical Cutaneous Lesions in a Mother and Child

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Aditi; Sengupta, Sujata

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish envenomation can present with local cutaneous lesions both immediate and delayed. While the immediate reaction is toxin mediated, an immune mechanism is responsible for the delayed eruptions. This is a report of a mother and child who developed identical papular lesions in a bizarre, linear distribution after coming in contact with jellyfish almost simultaneously while on holiday. Histology showed focal basal cell degeneration along with peri-vascular and peri-appendageal lympho-mononuclear infiltrate. Both patients responded well to topical tacrolimus. PMID:26538698

  20. Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

    2013-08-01

    No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

  1. Lip enhancement: surgical alternatives and histologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Niechajev, I

    2000-03-01

    This study included 66 consecutive patients, 58 women and 8 men, who underwent 86 surgical procedures on the lips during 1989-1998. Lip enlargement was performed in 59 patients, and lip reduction was performed in 7 patients. Indications were purely aesthetic in 61 cases and reconstructive in 5 cases. The following surgical techniques were used for lip augmentation: implantation of crystal silicone, polyacrylamide hydrogel, Gore-Tex tubes, autologous fat, and dermis-fat graft. A new instrument originally designed by the author, the dermis-fat graft passer, significantly speeded up and facilitated execution of the latter procedure. Other operations included V-Y plasty, lip lifting by buffalo horn excision, lip lengthening by frenulum plasty, and lip reduction by wavy tangential excision. Eighty-six percent of patients could be followed up; the mean length of follow-up was 4.2 years. Use of silicone microparticles (Bioplastique) was abandoned because of the tendency for lumping. Polyacrylamide gel is promising because of its ease of use, and Gore-Tex tubes are promising because of their ability to create and accentuate the Cupid's bow form for the upper lip. However, these products are new, and follow-up studies with longer observation times are needed to reach definite conclusions. Of these studied methods, autologous fat transplant was found to be particularly useful for enlargement and restoration in cases of age-related atrophy of the lips and perioral tissues. Dermis-fat grafting was the most efficient, versatile, and reliable method of lip enlargement. Long-term survival of transplanted autologous tissues was confirmed by histologic studies of biopsy specimens. PMID:10724279

  2. Histologic remission: the ultimate therapeutic goal in ulcerative colitis?

    PubMed

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Bressenot, Aude; Kampman, Wendy

    2014-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease of the mucosal layer, and activity of the disease is assumed to be related to mucosal appearance. Mucosal healing has emerged as a major therapeutic goal in UC. Whether mucosal healing should be the ultimate therapeutic goal in these patients is unknown. Even when endoscopy suggests mucosal healing, evidence of histologic activity has been observed. Histologic healing requires complete recovery of the colonic mucosa, with absence of inflammation or structural changes. Histologic improvements have been linked with improved clinical outcomes, such as a reduced risk of relapse and need for surgery/hospitalization and a reduced risk of developing cancer. Hence, there is a rationale for aiming for histologic remission in UC. Numerous methods of classification of histologic activity in UC have been proposed, although only some of these are widely used. We review the current definitions of histologic remission, the range of scoring systems most commonly used, and the evidence of histologic improvement that is available from the latest therapies for UC. We also highlight questions that will require careful consideration if histologic remission is to become more widely used as an end point in clinical trials and a treatment goal in clinical practice. PMID:23911875

  3. Image-based histologic grade estimation using stochastic geometry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petushi, Sokol; Zhang, Jasper; Milutinovic, Aladin; Breen, David E.; Garcia, Fernando U.

    2011-03-01

    Background: Low reproducibility of histologic grading of breast carcinoma due to its subjectivity has traditionally diminished the prognostic value of histologic breast cancer grading. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness and reproducibility of grading breast carcinomas with automated computer-based image processing that utilizes stochastic geometry shape analysis. Methods: We used histology images stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) from invasive mammary carcinoma, no special type cases as a source domain and study environment. We developed a customized hybrid semi-automated segmentation algorithm to cluster the raw image data and reduce the image domain complexity to a binary representation with the foreground representing regions of high density of malignant cells. A second algorithm was developed to apply stochastic geometry and texture analysis measurements to the segmented images and to produce shape distributions, transforming the original color images into a histogram representation that captures their distinguishing properties between various histological grades. Results: Computational results were compared against known histological grades assigned by the pathologist. The Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) similarity metric and the K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classification algorithm provided correlations between the high-dimensional set of shape distributions and a priori known histological grades. Conclusion: Computational pattern analysis of histology shows promise as an effective software tool in breast cancer histological grading.

  4. Promoting Rapid Learning in the Histology Laboratory by Integrating Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Vonnie

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of incorporating technology in the histology laboratory by using high-resolution video-imaging equipment (VIE). The study sought to determine if (1) the VIE would allow students to more easily and rapidly find histological structures over more conventional methods, and (2) if they could find the structures with the…

  5. Bowenoid papulosis: clinical and histological study of eight cases.

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, E; Vilata, J J; Sanchez, J L; Lloret, A; Fortea, J M

    1987-01-01

    Eight cases of bowenoid papulosis are reported. The clinical diagnoses were confirmed by histology. In one case an immunoperoxidase method showed the presence of papillomavirus antigen in the nucleus of the most superficial epidermal cells. We consider bowenoid papulosis to be a condition with specific features that distinguish it clinically and histologically from carcinoma in situ and condylomata acuminata. Images PMID:3034760

  6. Herpesviral Hematopoietic Necrosis in Goldfish in Switzerland: Early Lesions in Clinically Normal Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Giovannini, S; Bergmann, S M; Keeling, C; Lany, C; Schütze, H; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2016-07-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 is a pathogen of goldfish, inducing a disease referred to as herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis. The disease is described so far in Japan, North America, Taiwan, Australia, the United Kingdom, and recently also Italy. Here the authors describe histologic lesions in clinically affected fish in comparison with clinically normal but virus DNA-positive goldfish in Switzerland. While necrosis or enhanced single-cell necrosis in the hematopoietic tissue in the pronephros or mesonephros was evident in dead and sick animals, in clinically normal goldfish, only single-cell necrosis was observed. Virus DNA was demonstrated in dead as well as clinically affected and subclinically infected goldfish by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. This study identifies the presence of goldfish herpesvirus in Switzerland and highlights the fact that the virus might be more widespread than assumed, as clinically normal goldfish can also carry cyprinid herpesvirus 2, showing histologically similar lesions but of lesser extent and severity. PMID:26553521

  7. Might the Masson trichrome stain be considered a useful method for categorizing experimental tendon lesions?

    PubMed

    Martinello, Tiziana; Pascoli, Francesco; Caporale, Giovanni; Perazzi, Anna; Iacopetti, Ilaria; Patruno, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Strain injuries of tendons are the most common orthopedic injuries in athletic subjects, be they equine or human. When the tendon is suddenly damaged, an acute inflammatory phase occurs whereas its repetitive overloading may cause chronic injuries. Currently the criteria used for grading injuries are general and subjective, and therefore a reliable grading method would be an improvement. The main purpose of this study was to assess qualitatively the histological pattern of Masson trichrome stain in healthy and injured tendons; indeed, the known "paradox" of Masson staining was used to create an evaluation for the matrix of tendons, following experimental lesions and natural repair processes. A statistically significant difference of aniline-staining between healthy and lesioned tendons was observed. Overall, we think that the Masson staining might be regarded as an informative tool in discerning the collagen spatial arrangement and therefore the histological characteristics of tendons. PMID:25733060

  8. Spectrum of the Breast Lesions With Increased 18F-FDG Uptake on PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Lu, Jianping; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Interpretation of 18F-FDG PET/CT studies in breast is challenging owing to nonspecific FDG uptake in various benign and malignant conditions. Benign conditions include breast changes in pregnancy and lactation, gynecomastia, mastitis, fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, intraductal papilloma, and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Among malignancies, invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma are common histological types of breast carcinoma. Rarely, other unusual histological types of breast carcinomas (eg, intraductal papillary carcinoma, invasive micropapillary carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, and metaplastic carcinoma), lymphoma, and metastasis can be the causes. Knowledge of a wide spectrum of hypermetabolic breast lesions on FDG PET/CT is essential in accurate reading of FDG PET/CT. The purpose of this atlas article is to demonstrate features of various breast lesions encountered at our institution, both benign and malignant, which can result in hypermetabolism on FDG PET/CT imaging. PMID:26975010

  9. Spectrum of the Breast Lesions With Increased 18F-FDG Uptake on PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Lu, Jianping; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-07-01

    Interpretation of F-FDG PET/CT studies in breast is challenging owing to nonspecific FDG uptake in various benign and malignant conditions. Benign conditions include breast changes in pregnancy and lactation, gynecomastia, mastitis, fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, intraductal papilloma, and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Among malignancies, invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma are common histological types of breast carcinoma. Rarely, other unusual histological types of breast carcinomas (eg, intraductal papillary carcinoma, invasive micropapillary carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, and metaplastic carcinoma), lymphoma, and metastasis can be the causes. Knowledge of a wide spectrum of hypermetabolic breast lesions on FDG PET/CT is essential in accurate reading of FDG PET/CT. The purpose of this atlas article is to demonstrate features of various breast lesions encountered at our institution, both benign and malignant, which can result in hypermetabolism on FDG PET/CT imaging. PMID:26975010

  10. [Focal liver lesion, incidental finding].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Jenssen, C

    2012-10-01

    The differential diagnosis of incidentally found Focal Liver Lesions (FLL) is complex. Screening procedures so far are only defined for patients with liver cirrhosis. Characterization of a FLL begins as soon as it is detected. Taking patients history and thorough clinical examination are essential. An imaging procedure that is used to detect liver masses should also allow the examiner to determine whether the lesion is benign or malignant. Conventional B-mode US and colour Doppler imaging are effective at detecting and characterizing typical liver cysts and calcifications. Laboratory data, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and imaging guided liver biopsy are complementary methods.Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) is a well established diagnostic imaging technique for a variety of indications and applications. One of the most important applications is in the liver where it is frequently a first-line technique for the detection and diagnosis (characterization) of focal liver lesions (FLL). In this setting the accurate differentiation of benign from malignant lesions is critical to ensure the patient undergoes the appropriate therapeutic option. This has been documented in recently published guidelines, in particular in terms of the enhancement patterns of the most common FLL hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia hepatocellular adenoma and their differentiation from malignant lesions. In this article the role of CEUS in the characterization of incidentally found FLL is described. PMID:23033169

  11. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers. PMID:26394319

  12. Dermoscopy of Grover's disease: Variability according to histological subtype.

    PubMed

    Errichetti, Enzo; De Francesco, Vincenzo; Pegolo, Enrico; Stinco, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Distinguishing Grover's disease from other papular dermatoses is often a troublesome task. According to two relatively recent case reports, dermoscopy may be useful in assisting the diagnosis of such a disorder by showing a peculiar pattern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermoscopic features of Grover's disease in a larger series of patients and correlate dermoscopy with histopathological findings. Seven patients with histopathologically confirmed Grover's disease were included in the study, with three of them displaying a Darier-like histology and the remaining four cases having a spongiotic histological pattern. The results of our study suggest that Grover's disease may display different features according to the histological subtype, with a central star-shaped/branched polygonal/roundish-oval brownish area surrounded by a whitish halo being characteristic of the Darier-like histological subtype and whitish scales over a reddish-yellowish background being characteristic of the spongiotic histological subtype. PMID:26892381

  13. Histological Study of Fresh Versus Frozen Semitendinous Muscle Tendon Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Alexandre Carneiro; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Pereira, João Alberto Ramos Maradei; França Bisneto, Edgard N.; Giovani, Arlete Mazzini Miranda; Oliveira, Claudia Regina G. C. M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to histologically analyze allografts from cadaveric semitendinous muscle after cryopreservation at −80°C in comparison to a control group kept at only −4°C to test the hypothesis that the histological characteristics of the tissue are maintained when the tendons are kept at lower temperatures. METHODS: In a tissue bank, 10 semitendinous tendons from 10 cadavers were frozen at −80ºC as a storage method for tissue preservation. They were kept frozen for 40 days, and then a histological study was carried out. Another 10 tendon samples were analyzed while still “fresh”. RESULTS: There was no histological difference between the fresh and frozen samples in relation to seven variables. CONCLUSIONS: Semitendinous muscle tendon allografts can be submitted to cryopreservation at −80ºC without suffering histological modifications. PMID:20360921

  14. A bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (Nora's lesion) of metatarsus, a histopathological and etiological puzzlement.

    PubMed

    Doganavsargil, Basak; Argin, Mehmet; Sezak, Murat; Kececi, Burcin; Pehlivanoglu, Burcin; Oztop, Fikri

    2014-12-01

    Nora's lesion (bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation) is a rare, benign lesion that is composed of differing amounts of cartilage, bone, and spindle cells and an unusual form of calcified cartilage so-called "blue bone". Whether it represents a reactive proliferation or a neoplastic lesion still remains controversial. We present a 24-year-old woman having a 4.5cm two lobulated mass attached to second metatarsus of her left foot. The lesion was hyperintense on magnetic resonance imaging and accompanied by an extensive soft tissue and bone marrow edema. In resection specimen, smaller lobule appeared stuck-on the cortex while the larger one had a broader base and a 0.4cm cartilaginous cap-like formation. The histological picture was best fit to Nora's lesion however showed less fibroblastic tissue and cartilaginous pleomorphism. The lesion also showed areas with cortical invasion and a small focus of fracture callus accompanied by adjacent medullary edema and fat necrosis. The case is presented with the comparative radiologic, macroscopic and microscopic findings for its diagnostic difficulties and etiopathogenetic considerations in favour of a maturation phenomenon in parosteal ostecartilaginous lesions irrespective of the cause. PMID:25245639

  15. [Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasms type 2A (Sipple's syndrome). An early clinical marker].

    PubMed

    Chabre, O; Labat-Moleur, F; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Stoebner, P; Sobol, H; Bachelot, I

    1992-02-22

    We report the association of a cutaneous lesion with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) in three patients from a French family. These lesions are very similar to those previously described in an Italian and an American MEN 2A family and called cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. In all three families the patients presented with a pruritic and pigmented cutaneous lesion localized unilaterally on the upper back. However, in the French family the patients also complained of paroxysmal pain in the same area, in which we could elicit a touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features in the upper back is known as Notalgia Paresthetica (NP). NP is believed to represent a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal nerve rami. Unlike the two previously reported families, the histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of the skin biopsies of the French patients did not show any amyloid material. This suggests that the presence of amyloid may not be a constant feature of the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A. We consider these lesions as a form of dorsal neuropathy rather than a cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. Whatever their origin, these cutaneous lesion usually precede the appearance of the neoplastic lesions of MEN 2A. They may act as an early clinical marker that must be searched for in each subject at risk for MEN 2A. In addition, all patients presenting with NP should be screened for MEN 2A. PMID:1348355

  16. Optoacoustic monitoring of real-time lesion formation during radiofrequency catheter ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Genny A.; Bay, Erwin; Deán-Ben, Xosé L.; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Current radiofrequency cardiac ablation procedures lack real-time lesion monitoring guidance, limiting the reliability and efficacy of the treatment. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that optoacoustic imaging can be applied to develop a diagnostic technique applicable to radiofrequency ablation for cardiac arrhythmia treatment with the capabilities of real-time monitoring of ablated lesion size and geometry. We demonstrate an optoacoustic imaging method using a 256-detector optoacoustic imaging probe and pulsed-laser illumination in the infrared wavelength range that is applied during radiofrequency ablation in excised porcine myocardial tissue samples. This technique results in images with high contrast between the lesion volume and unablated tissue, and is also capable of capturing time-resolved image sequences that provide information on the lesion development process. The size and geometry of the imaged lesion were shown to be in excellent agreement with the histological examinations. This study demonstrates the first deep-lesion real-time monitoring for radiofrequency ablation generated lesions, and the technique presented here has the potential for providing critical feedback that can significantly impact the outcome of clinical radiofrequency ablation procedures.

  17. Brain lesions and eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Uher, R; Treasure, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses. Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded. Results: Although simple changes in appetite and eating behaviour occur with hypothalamic and brain stem lesions, more complex syndromes, including characteristic psychopathology of eating disorders, are associated with right frontal and temporal lobe damage. Conclusions: These findings challenge the traditional view that eating disorders are linked to hypothalamic disturbance and suggest a major role of frontotemporal circuits with right hemispheric predominance in the pathogenesis. PMID:15897510

  18. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

  19. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: Dispelling Confusing Pathology Terminology: Recognition and Interpretation of Selected Rodent Renal Tubule Lesions.

    PubMed

    Seely, John Curtis; Frazier, Kendall S

    2015-06-01

    Renal tubule lesions often prove troublesome for toxicologic pathologists because of the diverse nature and interrelated cell types within the kidney and the presence of spontaneous lesions with overlapping morphologies similar to those induced by renal toxicants. Although there are a number of guidance documents available citing straightforward diagnostic criteria of tubule lesions for the pathologist to refer to, most are presented without further advice on the when to or to the why and the why not of diagnosing one lesion over another. Documents presenting diagnostic perspectives and recommendations derived from an author's experience are limited since guidance documents are generally based on descriptive observations. In this Regulatory Forum opinion piece, the authors attempt to dispel confusing renal tubule lesion terminology in laboratory animal species by suggesting histological advice on the recognition and interpretation of these complex entities. PMID:25869578

  20. The Role of Elastosonography in the Differentiation of Parotid Gland Lesions: Report of Three Cases and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Idil Gunes; Ergun, Onur; Kurt, Aydin; Sahin, Mustafa; Hekimoğlu, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The parotid gland is the mostly affected site among major salivary gland tumors in up to 85% of cases. Preoperative knowledge of the tumour nature is crucial since it influences the surgical procedure and patient’s morbidity, especially the risk of facial nerve palsy. Ultrasonography is commonly used as the first line imaging modality for the salivary gland lesions. A pitfall is that the histologic pleomorphism often reflects an imaging pleomorphism. Case Report Herein we aimed to present the role of elastosonography in three parotid lesions: a case of benign pleomorphic adenoma, a Wharthin’s tumour and a malignant parotid tumour. Conclusions Our findings show that malignant parotid lesion was the stiffest lesion according to elastosonography. Wharthin’s tumour demonstrated soft elastosonographic features. The pleomorphic adenoma was also interpreted as stiff by elastosonography suggesting that the elastosonographic features of pleomorphic adenoma may resemble those of malignant lesions limiting the utility of the technique. PMID:25386225