Chakrapani Vasudevan; Mary Renfrew; William McGuire
In many industrialised countries, one in five women booking for antenatal care is obese. As well as affecting maternal health, maternal obesity may have important adverse consequences for fetal, neonatal and long-term health and well-being. Maternal obesity is associated with a higher risk of stillbirth, elective preterm birth and perinatal mortality. The incidence of severe birth defects, particularly neural tube
Rahman, Sajjad; Salameh, Khalil; Bener, Abdulbari; El Ansari, Walid
This retrospective study analyzed the temporal association between socioeconomic development indices and improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in the State of Qatar over a period of 35 years (1974–2008). We explored the association between reduction in poverty, improvement in maternal education, and perinatal health care on the one hand, and increased maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival on the other hand. Yearly mortality data was ascertained from the perinatal and neonatal mortality registers of the Women’s Hospital and the national database in the Department of Preventive Medicine at Hamad Medical Corporation in Doha. A total of 323,014 births were recorded during the study period. During these 35 years, there was a remarkable decline (P < 0.001) in Qatar’s neonatal mortality rate from 26.27/1000 in 1974 to 4.4/1000 in 2008 and in the perinatal mortality rate from 44.4/1000 in 1974 to 10.58/1000 in 2008. Qatar’s maternal mortality rate remained zero during 1993, 1995, and then in 1998–2000. The maternal mortality rate was 11.6/100,000 in 2008. For the rest of the years it has been approximately 10/100,000. Across the study period, the reduction in poverty, increase in maternal education, and improved perinatal health care were temporally associated with a significant improvement in maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival. The total annual births increased five-fold during the study period, with no negative impact on survival rates. Neonatal mortality rates in Qatar have reached a plateau since 2005. We also conducted a substudy to assess the association between improvements in survival rates in relation to health care investment. For this purpose, we divided the study period into two eras, ie, era A (1974–1993) during which major health care investment was in community-based, low-cost interventions, and era B (1994–2008) during which the major health care investment was in high-technology institutional interventions. Although from 1974–1993 (era A) the per capita health expenditure increased by only 19% as compared with a 137% increase in 1994–2008 (era B). The decline in neonatal and perinatal mortality rates was three times steeper during era A than in era B. The decline in neonatal and perinatal mortality rates was also significant (P < 0.001) when analyzed separately for era A and era B. We concluded that across the 35-year period covered by our study, the reduction in poverty, increased maternal education, and improved perinatal health care were temporally associated with improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in the State of Qatar. From the subanalysis of era A and era B, we concluded that low-cost, community-based interventions, on the background of socioeconomic development, have a stronger impact on maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival as compared with high-cost institutional interventions. PMID:21151678
Rahman, Sajjad; Salameh, Khalil; Bener, Abdulbari; El Ansari, Walid
This retrospective study analyzed the temporal association between socioeconomic development indices and improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in the State of Qatar over a period of 35 years (1974-2008). We explored the association between reduction in poverty, improvement in maternal education, and perinatal health care on the one hand, and increased maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival on the other hand. Yearly mortality data was ascertained from the perinatal and neonatal mortality registers of the Women's Hospital and the national database in the Department of Preventive Medicine at Hamad Medical Corporation in Doha. A total of 323,014 births were recorded during the study period. During these 35 years, there was a remarkable decline (P < 0.001) in Qatar's neonatal mortality rate from 26.27/1000 in 1974 to 4.4/1000 in 2008 and in the perinatal mortality rate from 44.4/1000 in 1974 to 10.58/1000 in 2008. Qatar's maternal mortality rate remained zero during 1993, 1995, and then in 1998-2000. The maternal mortality rate was 11.6/100,000 in 2008. For the rest of the years it has been approximately 10/100,000. Across the study period, the reduction in poverty, increase in maternal education, and improved perinatal health care were temporally associated with a significant improvement in maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival. The total annual births increased five-fold during the study period, with no negative impact on survival rates. Neonatal mortality rates in Qatar have reached a plateau since 2005. We also conducted a substudy to assess the association between improvements in survival rates in relation to health care investment. For this purpose, we divided the study period into two eras, ie, era A (1974-1993) during which major health care investment was in community-based, low-cost interventions, and era B (1994-2008) during which the major health care investment was in high-technology institutional interventions. Although from 1974-1993 (era A) the per capita health expenditure increased by only 19% as compared with a 137% increase in 1994-2008 (era B). The decline in neonatal and perinatal mortality rates was three times steeper during era A than in era B. The decline in neonatal and perinatal mortality rates was also significant (P < 0.001) when analyzed separately for era A and era B. We concluded that across the 35-year period covered by our study, the reduction in poverty, increased maternal education, and improved perinatal health care were temporally associated with improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in the State of Qatar. From the subanalysis of era A and era B, we concluded that low-cost, community-based interventions, on the background of socioeconomic development, have a stronger impact on maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival as compared with high-cost institutional interventions. PMID:21151678
Skoki?, Fahrija; Muratovi?, Selma; Radoja, Gordana
Aim To compare perinatal and maternal outcomes in Tuzla Canton during the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina with those before (1988-1991) and after (2000-2003) the war. Methods We retrospectively collected data on a total of 59?707 liveborn infants and their mothers from the databases of Tuzla University Department for Gynecology and Obstetrics and Tuzla Institute for Public Health. Data on the number of live births, stillbirths, early neonatal deaths, causes of death, gestational age, and birth weights were collected. We also collected data on the number of medically unattended deliveries, examinations during pregnancy, preterm deliveries, and causes of maternal deaths. Perinatal and maternal outcomes were determined for each study period. Results There were 23?194 live births in the prewar, 18?302 in the war, and 18?211 in the postwar period. Prewar perinatal mortality of 23.3 per 1000 live births increased to 25.8 per 1000 live births during the war (P<0.001), due to a significant increase in early neonatal mortality (10.3‰ before vs 15.1‰ after the war, P<0.001). After the war, both perinatal mortality (14.4‰) and early neonatal mortality (6.6‰) decreased (P<0.001 for both). The most frequent cause of early neonatal death during the war was prematurity (55.7%), with newborns most often dying within the first 24 hours after birth. During the war, there were more newborns with low birth weight (<2500 g), while term newborns had lower average body weight. Women underwent 2.4 examinations during pregnancy (5.4 before and 6.3 after the war, P<0.001 for both) and 75.9% had delivery attended by a health care professional (99.1% before and 99.8% after the war; P<0.001 for both). Maternal mortality rate of 65 per 100?000 deliveries during the war was significantly higher than that before (39 per 100?000 deliveries) and after (12 per 100?000 deliveries) the war (P<0.001 for both). Conclusion Perinatal and maternal mortality in Tuzla Canton were significantly higher during the war, mainly due to lower adequacy and accessibility of perinatal and maternal health care. PMID:17042063
Juárez, Sol; Revuelta-Eugercios, Bárbara A; Ramiro-Fariñas, Diego; Viciana-Fernández, Francisco
Evidence suggests that educational differences in perinatal outcomes have increased in some countries (Eastern Europe) while remained stable in others (Scandinavian countries). However, less is known about the experience of Southern Europe. This study aims to evaluate the association between maternal education and perinatal outcomes derived from birthweight (low birthweight and macrosomia) and gestational age (pre-term and post-term births) among Spaniards living in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia during the period 2001-2011 (around 19 % of births in Spain); and to evaluate whether the educational differences narrowed or widened during that period, which includes both an economic boom (2001-2008) and the global economic crisis (2009-2011). This study uses the Andalusian Population Longitudinal Database and the Vital Statistics Data provided by the Spanish National Statistics Institute. We study live and singleton births of Spanish mothers who lived in Andalusia at the time of delivery (n = 404,951). ORs with 95 % confidence intervals (crude and adjusted) were estimated using multinomial regression models. A negative educational gradient is observed in all perinatal outcomes studied (i.e., the higher the educational status, the lower the risk of negative perinatal outcomes). However, when disaggregating the sample in two periods, the gradient is only statistically significant for pre-term birth during 2001-2008, while a full gradient is observed in all perinatal indicators in the period 2009-2011 with an increase in the educational inequalities in macrosomia and post-term. Further studies are needed in order to confirm whether there is a causal association between the widening of the educational differences in perinatal outcomes and the onset of the economic crisis in Spain, or the widening can be explained by other factors, such as changes in childbearing patterns and the composition of women accessing motherhood. PMID:24374730
BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...
Exposure to high levels of arsenic has been reported to increase adverse birth outcomes including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birthweight. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints (term birthweight, preterm ...
Zack, M.; Adami, H.O.; Ericson, A. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))
This report describes an exploratory population-based study of maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia in Sweden. The Swedish National Cancer Registry ascertained 411 cases in successive birth cohorts from 1973 through 1984 recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Using the latter, we matched five controls without cancer to each case by sex and month and year of birth. Mothers of children with leukemia were more likely to have been exposed to nitrous oxide anesthesia during delivery than mothers of controls (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 1.6). Children with leukemia were more likely than controls to have Down's syndrome (OR = 32.5; 95% CI = 7.3, 144.0) or cleft lip or cleft palate (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.0, 24.8); to have had a diagnosis associated with difficult labor but unspecified complications (OR = 4.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 18.2) or with other conditions of the fetus or newborn (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.1), specifically, uncomplicated physiological jaundice (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.9); or to have received supplemental oxygen (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.3, 1.3, 4.9). Because multiple potential risk factors were analyzed in this study, future studies need to check these findings. The authors did not confirm the previously reported higher risks for childhood leukemia associated with being male, having a high birth weight, or being born to a woman of advanced maternal age.
Frances Rice; Allyson Lewis; Gordon Harold; Marianne van den Bree; Jacky Boivin; Dale F. Hay; Michael J. Owen; Anita Thapar
Background: Events during pregnancy and labour may influence the future health and well-being of offspring. Many studies rely on maternal reports of pre and peri-natal factors. Both maternal and child characteristics may potentially influence the reliability and accuracy of maternal recall. However, this has not been previously examined. Aims: To examine agreement between information from maternally reported questionnaires and medical
Adolescent pregnancies have increased over the past years and are considered a significant social and reproductive concern. This document will briefly describe trends, risk factors and maternal-perinatal outcome associated to pregnancies among young adolescents. Prevalence and trends vary from one population to another with main risk factors being low family income, poor education, lack of knowledge of reproductive health, and poor psychological family support. Maternal and perinatal outcomes also vary according to the country and the methodological design. Regardless, adverse outcomes were identified in the mother (high cesarean section rates, puerperal infections, intrapartum complications) and in the fetus (preterm birth, low birth weight and small for gestational age). PMID:18576937
M Makhseed; M Al-Sharhan; P Egbase; M Al-Essa; J. G Grudzinskas
Objective: To analyze the course of pregnancy and perinatal outcome in 31 twins, 22 sets of triplets and five quadruplet clinical pregnancies following conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedures and in relation to 58 singleton pregnancy following the same procedure. Methods: Retrospective analysis of maternal and neonatal medical records of 58 singleton, 31 twin, 22
Sullivan, Elinor L; Nousen, Elizabeth K; Chamlou, Katherine A
The environment that a developing offspring experiences during the perinatal period is markedly influenced by maternal health and diet composition. Evidence from both epidemiological studies and animal models indicates that maternal diet and metabolic status play a critical role in programming the neural circuitry that regulates behavior, resulting in long-term consequences for offspring behavior. Maternal diet and metabolic state influence the behavior of offspring directly by impacting the intrauterine environment and indirectly by modulating maternal behavior. The mechanisms by which maternal diet and metabolic profile shape the perinatal environment remain largely unknown, but recent research has found that increases in inflammatory cytokines, nutrients (glucose and fatty acids), and hormones (insulin and leptin) affect the environment of the developing offspring. Offspring exposed to maternal obesity and high fat diet consumption during development are more susceptible to developing mental health and behavioral disorders such as anxiety, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. Recent evidence suggests that this increased risk for behavioral disorders is driven by modifications in the development of neural pathways involved in behavioral regulation. In particular, research indicates that the development of the serotonergic system is impacted by exposure to maternal obesity and high fat diet consumption, and this disruption may underlie many of the behavioral disturbances observed in these offspring. Given the high rates of obesity and high fat diet consumption in pregnant women, it is vital to examine the influence that maternal nutrition and metabolic profile have on the developing offspring. PMID:23085399
Ritchie, D. C.
A province-wide study of perinatal mortality was initiated in Alberta (population 1,283,000) in 1955. The period 1955-1959 covered 182,028 total births and 4219 perinatal deaths of which 260 were from 3813 Cesarean sections. The perinatal mortality rate in Cesarean-section births in rural hospitals (101.4 per thousand Cesarean births) was compared with that for urban hospitals (55.7 per thousand). Examination of the indications for primary Cesarean section in which a perinatal death occurred showed that hemorrhage accounted for 54 out of 85 of these deaths in rural hospitals, and 49 out of 110 similar urban deaths. Of 33 perinatal deaths associated with elective repeat sections, 17 were of premature babies. Eleven of the 85 maternal deaths during 1955-1959 were associated with Cesarean section, a maternal mortality rate of 28.8 per 10,000 Cesarean section births. Preventable factors were present in 8 of the 11 cases. Hemorrhage was the primary cause of death. PMID:20327466
Santangeli, Louise; Sattar, Naveed; Huda, Shahzya S
Maternal obesity is of major consequence, affecting every aspect of maternity care including both short- and long-term effects on the health of the offspring. Obese mothers are at a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia, potentially exposing the foetus to an adverse intrauterine environment. Maternal obesity is linked to foetal macrosomia, resulting in increased neonatal and maternal morbidity. Foetal macrosomia is a result of a change in body composition in the neonate with an increase in both percentage fat and fat mass. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with childhood obesity, and this effect extends into adulthood. Childhood obesity in turn increases chances of later life obesity, thus type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. Further clinical trials of lifestyle and, potentially, pharmacological interventions in obese pregnant women are required to determine whether short- and long-term adverse effects for the mother and child can be reduced. PMID:25497183
Subramaniam, Akila; Jauk, Victoria C; Tita, Alan; Harper, Lorie M
Objective?The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between positive glucose challenge test (GCT) values and perinatal outcomes stratified by maternal body mass index (BMI). Study Design?Retrospective cohort of singleton gestations with a GCT performed at >20 weeks and documented BMI at entry to care. Subjects were classified by GCT level and BMI. Primary outcomes included large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Cochran-Armitage tests for trend and logistic regression were used to compare the GCT categories. Results?A total of 14,525 women met enrollment criteria-8,521 with a GCT?120 mg/dL and 6,004 with a GCT???120 mg/dL. When BMI?25 kg/m(2) was considered, the risks were not increased at any level of GCT for any outcome. However, for subjects with BMI???25 kg/m(2), the risk of LGA for a GCT 130 to 134 mg/dL was increased, but not at GCT of 135 to 139 mg/dL (p?0.001). Similar, but nonsignificant, trends were observed for macrosomia and shoulder dystocia. Conclusion?Increasing GCT is associated with adverse outcomes primarily in women with a BMI???25 kg/m(2). Women with a BMI???25 kg/m(2) and a GCT 135 to 140 mg/dL appear to have less risk of LGA than women with GCT 130 to 134 mg/dL, suggesting a possible effect of diagnosing and treating gestational diabetes mellitus in this group. PMID:25545448
Background Adolescent girls between 15 and 19 years give birth to around 16 million babies each year, around 11% of births worldwide. We sought to determine whether adolescent mothers are at higher risk of maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes compared with mothers aged 20–24 years in a prospective, population-based observational study of newborn outcomes in low resource settings. Methods We undertook a prospective, population-based multi-country research study of all pregnant women in defined geographic areas across 7 sites in six low-middle income countries (Kenya, Zambia, India, Pakistan, Guatemala and Argentina). The study population for this analysis was restricted to women aged 24 years or less, who gave birth to infants of at least 20 weeks’ gestation and 500g or more. We compared adverse pregnancy maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant adolescents 15-19 years, <15 years, and adults 20-24 years. Results A total of 269,273 women were enrolled from January 2010 to December 2013. Of all pregnancies 11.9% (32,097/269,273) were in adolescents 15-19 years, while 0.14% (370/269,273) occurred among girls <15 years. Pregnancy among adolescents 15-19 years ranged from 2% in Pakistan to 26% in Argentina, and adolescent pregnancies <15 year were only observed in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Compared to adults, adolescents did not show increased risk of maternal adverse outcomes. Risks of preterm birth and LBW were significantly higher among both early and older adolescents, with the highest risks observed in the <15 years group. Neonatal and perinatal mortality followed a similar trend in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, with the highest risk in early adolescents, although the differences in this age group were not significant. However, in South Asia the risks of neonatal and perinatal death were not different among adolescents 15-19 years compared to adults. Conclusions This study suggests that pregnancy among adolescents is not associated with worse maternal outcomes, but is associated with worse perinatal outcomes, particularly in younger adolescents. However, this may not be the case in regions like South Asia where there are decreasing rates of adolescent pregnancies, concentrated among older adolescents. The increased risks observed among adolescents seems more likely to be associated with biological immaturity, than with socio-economic factors, inadequate antenatal or delivery care. Trial registration number NCT01073475 PMID:26063350
Background To study maternal anxiety and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women submitted to a Multidisciplinary Program for Childbirth and Motherhood Preparation (MPCM). Methods This is a not randomized controlled trial on 67 nulliparous pregnant women divided into two groups according to participation (MPCM Group; n = 38) or not (Control Group; n = 29) in MPCM. The program consisted of 10 meetings (between the 18th and the 38th gestational week) during which educational, physiotherapeutic and interaction activities were developed. Anxiety was quantified at the beginning and at the end of the gestational period by the Trace-State Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results Initial maternal anxiety was equivalent between the groups. At the end of the gestational period, it was observed that anxiety levels increased in the Control Group and were maintained in the MPCM Group. A higher occurrence of vaginal deliveries (83.8%) and hospital discharge of three-day-older newborns (81.6%) as a result of MPCM was also significant. Levels of state-anxiety at the end of pregnancy showed a negative correlation with vaginal delivery, gestational age, birth weight and Apgar index at the first minute and positive correlation with the hospital period remaining of the newborns. Conclusion In the study conditions, MPCM was associated with lower levels of maternal anxiety, a larger number of vaginal deliveries and shorter hospitalization time of newborns. It was not related to adverse perinatal outcomes. PMID:21034460
Marshall, Nicole E.; Guild, Camelia; Cheng, Yvonne W.; Caughey, Aaron B.; Halloran, Donna R.
Objective To determine the effect of increasing maternal obesity, including superobesity (body mass index [BMI] ? 50 kg/m2), on perinatal outcomes in women with diabetes. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of birth records for all live-born nonanom-alous singleton infants ? 37 weeks’ gestation born to Missouri residents with diabetes from 2000 to 2006. Women with either pregestational or gestational diabetes were included. Results There were 14,595 births to women with diabetes meeting study criteria, including 7,082 women with a BMI > 30 kg/m2 (48.5%). Compared with normal-weight women with diabetes, increasing BMI category, especially superobesity, was associated with a significantly increased risk for preeclampsia (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5, 5.2) and macrosomia (aRR 3.0, 95% CI 1.8, 5.40). The majority of nulliparous obese women with diabetes delivered via cesarean including 50.5% of obese, 61.4% of morbidly obese, and 69.8% of superobese women. The incidence of primary elective cesarean among nulliparous women with diabetes increased significantly with increasing maternal BMI with over 33% of morbidly obese and 39% of superobese women with diabetes delivering electively by cesarean. Conclusion Increasing maternal obesity in women with diabetes is significantly associated with higher risks of perinatal complications, especially cesarean delivery. PMID:23696430
Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Paul, Repon C.; Sazzad, Hossain M. S.; Islam, M. Saiful; Parveen, Shahana; Faruque, Labib I.; Husain, Mushtuq; Ara, Khorshed; Jahan, Yasmin; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.
Background.?Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes outbreaks of jaundice associated with maternal mortality. Four deaths among pregnant women with jaundice occurred in an urban community near Dhaka, Bangladesh, in late 2008 and were reported to authorities in January 2009. We investigated the etiology and risk factors for jaundice and death. Methods.?Field workers identified suspected cases, defined as acute onset of yellow eyes or skin, through house-to-house visits. A subset of persons with suspected HEV was tested for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to HEV to confirm infection. We used logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors for HEV disease and for death. We estimated the increased risk of perinatal mortality associated with jaundice during pregnancy. Results.?We identified 4751 suspected HEV cases during August 2008–January 2009, including 17 deaths. IgM antibodies to HEV were identified in 56 of 73 (77%) case-patients tested who were neighbors of the case-patients who died. HEV disease was significantly associated with drinking municipally supplied water. Death among persons with HEV disease was significantly associated with being female and taking paracetamol (acetaminophen). Among women who were pregnant, miscarriage and perinatal mortality was 2.7 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.2–6.1) in pregnancies complicated by jaundice. Conclusions.?This outbreak of HEV was likely caused by sewage contamination of the municipal water system. Longer-term efforts to improve access to safe water and license HEV vaccines are needed. However, securing resources and support for intervention will rely on convincing data about the endemic burden of HEV disease, particularly its role in maternal and perinatal mortality. PMID:24855146
Polloni, L; Ferruzza, E; Ronconi, L; Lazzarotto, F; Toniolo, A; Bonaguro, R; Muraro, A
Maternal stress in fetal and early life has been associated with the development of respiratory allergies, but no studies exist about food allergy. Stressful events and the quality of caregiving provided, as they affect the emotional and physiologic regulation of the infant, could alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and immune system, facilitating an increased allergic response. This study aimed to investigate the influence of perinatal stress, as perceived by mothers, on developing food allergy in childhood. A survey on pregnancy and the first three months after giving birth was submitted to 59 Italian mothers of at least one child suffering from severe food allergy and one completely healthy child, for a total of 118 children examined. The presence of stressful events and the quality of perinatal period for each child were assessed retrospectively. The food allergic children's data were compared to siblings' data through inferential statistics. The results showed a significantly higher number of stressful events occurred during patients' perinatal period, compared to siblings, in particular bereavements in pregnancy and parenting difficulties in postpartum. Mothers reported harder pregnancies and more stressful, harder, and, in general, worse postpartum when referring to their food-allergic children, in comparison with their siblings (p < .05). Psychological aspects are demonstrated to be involved in the development of allergic diseases. This study constitutes the first step to examine the role of early stress and perinatal psychosocial factors in the pathogenesis of food allergy; further studies are necessary to understand individual psychological impact and its relations with genetic and biological factors. PMID:25531062
Genevieve Lambert; Donald M. Thea; Vadim Pliner; Richard W. Steketee; Elaine J. Abrams; Pamela Matheson; Pauline A. Thomas; Barbara Greenberg; Teresa M. Brown; Marukh Bamji; Marcia L. Kalish
Among a cohort of 152 infants perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and their mothers, we correlated infant outcome with maternal CD4 + lymphocyte count and the presence of maternal acquired immunodeficiency syndrome near delivery. In a subset of 50 mother-infant pairs, we also correlated infant outcome with maternal quantitative viral burden as measured by the nucleic acid
Bisognano, Maureen; Cherouny, Peter H; Gullo, Sue
The Institute for Healthcare Improvement applies a systems-focused, science-based approach to improving perinatal care. This approach is based on the pioneering work in quality improvement and statistical process control performed by Walter Shewhart and W. Edwards Deming, and it uses the Model for Improvement, a simple and effective tool for accelerating improvement. In 2008, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement articulated a Triple Aim for improvement-better care, better health for populations, and lower per capita costs. The Triple Aim has become a guiding framework throughout health care and also guides much of the work of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement's collaborative effort to improve perinatal care-the Perinatal Improvement Community-is an ideal example of work that pursues all three dimensions of the Triple Aim. The improvement method used in the community creates the foundation for the kind of cultural transformation that Perinatal Improvement Community leaders and participants have learned is necessary to make significant and lasting change. Using a systems-focused and science-based approach to improvement equips obstetricians and gynecologists with the knowledge, skills, and tools they need to improve the systems of care they work in so they can deliver the best evidence-based care to all of their patients, all of the time. PMID:25198257
Rouse, Dwight J.; Weiner, Steven J.; Bloom, Steven L.; Varner, Michael W.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Ramin, Susan M.; Caritis, Steve N.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Sorokin, Yoram; Sciscione, Anthony; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Mercer, Brian M.; Thorp, John M.; Malone, Fergal D.; Harper, Margaret; Iams, Jay D.; Anderson, Garland D.
Objective To assess maternal and perinatal outcomes as a function of second stage labor duration. Methods We assessed outcomes in nulliparous laboring women enrolled in a trial of fetal pulse oximetry. Results Of 5,341 participants, 4,126 reached the second stage. As duration of the second stage increased, spontaneous vaginal delivery rates declined, from 85% when the duration was under one hour to 9% when it was 5 hours or more. Adverse maternal outcomes significantly associated with the duration of the second stage included chorioamnionitis (overall rate 3.9%), 3rd or 4th degree perineal laceration (8.7%), and uterine atony (3.9%). Odds ratios (ORs) for each additional hour of the second stage ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. Among individual adverse neonatal outcomes, only admission to a neonatal intensive care unit was significantly associated with second stage duration (OR 1.4). Conclusions The second stage does not need to be terminated for duration alone. PMID:19788967
Willy Visser; Henk C. S. Wallenburg
Objective: To assess maternal and perinatal outcomes of expectant management with plasma volume expansion and pharmacologic vasodilatation in patients with severe pre-eclampsia remote from term. Study design\\/it: All women with severe pre-eclampsia between 20 and 32 weeks' gestation, not in labor and with a live, single fetus admitted to the University Hospital Rotterdam from 1985 to 1993 were managed with
Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres
Background The major causes of maternal and perinatal deaths are mostly pregnancy related. However, there are several predisposing factors for the increased risk of pregnancy related complications and deaths in developing countries. The objective of this review was to grossly estimate the effect of selected socioeconomic and cultural factors on maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. Methods A comprehensive literature review was conducted focusing on the effect of total fertility rate (TFR), modern contraceptive use, harmful traditional practice, adult literacy rate and level of income on maternal and perinatal mortalities. For the majority of the data, regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient were used as a proxy indicator for the association of variables with maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality. Results Although there were variations in the methods for estimation, the TFR of women in Ethiopia declined from 5.9 to 4.8 in the last fifteen years, which was in the middle as compared with that of other African countries. The preference of injectable contraceptive method has increased by 7-fold, but the unmet contraceptive need was among the highest in Africa. About 50% reduction in female genital cutting (FGC) was reported although some women's attitude was positive towards the practice of FGC. The regression analysis demonstrated increased risk of stillbirths, neonatal and maternal mortality with increased TFR. The increased adult literacy rate was associated with increased antenatal care and skilled person attended delivery. Low adult literacy was also found to have a negative association with stillbirths and neonatal and maternal mortality. A similar trend was also observed with income. Conclusion Maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth rate and neonatal mortality rate had inverse relations with income and adult education. In Ethiopia, the high total fertility rate, low utilization of contraceptive methods, low adult literacy rate, low income and prevalent harmful traditional practices have probably contributed to the high maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates. PMID:25489187
Background Skilled birth attendance and institutional delivery have been advocated for reducing maternal, perinatal and neonatal mortality (PMR and NMR). India has successfully implemented various strategies to promote skilled attendance and incentivize institutional deliveries in the last 5 years. Objectives The study evaluates the trends in institutional delivery, PMR, NMR, and their risk factors in two Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research sites, in Belgaum and Nagpur, India, between January 2010 and December 2013. Design/methods Descriptive data stratified by level of delivery care and key risk factors were analyzed for 36 geographic clusters providing 48 months of data from a prospective, population-based surveillance system that registers all pregnant permanent residents in the study area, and their pregnancy outcomes irrespective of where they deliver. Log binomial models with generalized estimating equations to control for correlation of clustered observations were used to test the trends significance Results 64,803 deliveries were recorded in Belgaum and 39,081 in Nagpur. Institutional deliveries increased from 92.6% to 96.1% in Belgaum and from 89.5% to 98.6% in Nagpur (both p<0.0001); hospital rates increased from 63.4% to 71.0% (p=0.002) and from 63.1% to 72.0% (p<0.0001), respectively. PMR declined from 41.3 to 34.6 (p=0.008) deaths per 1,000 births in Belgaum and from 47.4 to 40.8 (p=0.09) in Nagpur. Stillbirths also declined, from 22.5 to 16.3 per 1,000 births in Belgaum and from 29.3 to 21.1 in Nagpur (both p=0.002). NMR remained unchanged. Conclusions Significant increases in institutional deliveries, particularly in hospitals, were accompanied by reductions in stillbirths and PMR, but not by NMR. PMID:26063586
Background Maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria is one of the highest in the world. Near misses occur in larger numbers than maternal deaths hence they allow for a more comprehensive analysis of risk factors and determinants as well as outcomes of life-threatening complications in pregnancy. The study determined the incidence, characteristics, determinants and perinatal outcomes of near misses in a tertiary hospital in South-west Nigeria. Methods A prospective case control study was conducted at the maternity units of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife Nigeria between July 2006 and July 2007. Near miss cases were defined based on validated disease-specific criteria which included severe haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, prolonged obstructed labour, infection and severe anemia. Four unmatched controls of pregnant women were selected for every near miss case. Three categories of risk factors (background, proximate, clinical) which derived from a conceptual framework were examined. The perinatal outcomes were also assessed. Bi-variate logistic regressions were used for multivariate analysis of determinants and perinatal outcomes of near miss. Results The incidence of near miss was 12%. Severe haemorrhage (41.3%), hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (37.3%), prolonged obstructed labour (23%), septicaemia (18.6%) and severe anaemia (14.6%) were the direct causes of near miss. The significant risk factors with their odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were: chronic hypertension [OR=6.85; 95% CI: (1.96 – 23.93)] having experienced a phase one delay [OR=2.07; 95% CI (1.03 – 4.17)], Emergency caesarian section [OR=3.72; 95% CI: (0.93 – 14.9)], assisted vaginal delivery [OR=2.55; 95% CI: (1.34 – 4.83)]. The protective factors included antenatal care attendance at tertiary facility [OR=0.19; 95% CI: (0.09 – 0.37)], knowledge of pregnancy complications [OR=0.47; 95% CI (0.24 – 0.94)]. Stillbirth [OR=5.4; 95% CI (2.17 – 13.4)] was the most significant adverse perinatal outcomes associated with near miss event. Conclusions The analysis of near misses has evolved as a useful tool in the investigation of maternal health especially in life-threatening situations. The significant risk factors identified in this study are amenable to appropriate public health and medical interventions. Adverse perinatal outcomes are clearly attributable to near miss events. Therefore the findings should contribute to Nigeria’s effort to achieving MDG 4 and 5. PMID:23587107
Machado, Virgínia; Pimentel, Sónia; Pinto, Filomena; Nona, José
Objective To study the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, imaging diagnosis, and clinical outcome of perinatal stroke. Methods Data was retrospectively collected from full-term newborns admitted to the neonatal unit of a level III maternity in Lisbon with cerebral stroke, from January 2007 to December 2011. Results There were 11 cases of stroke: nine were arterial ischemic stroke and two were cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. We estimated an incidence of arterial ischemic stroke of 1.6/5,000 births and of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis of 7.2/100,000 births. There were two cases of recurrent stroke. Eight patients presented with symptoms while the remaining three were asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed. The most frequently registered symptoms (8/11) were seizures; in that, generalized clonic (3/8) and focal clonic (5/8). Strokes were more commonly left-sided (9/11), and the most affected artery was the left middle cerebral artery (8/11). Transfontanelle ultrasound was positive in most of the patients (10/11), and stroke was confirmed by cerebral magnetic resonance in all patients. Electroencephalographic recordings were carried out in five patients and were abnormal in three (focal abnormalities n=2, burst-suppression pattern n=1). Eight patients had previously identified risk factors for neonatal stroke which included obstetric and neonatal causes. Ten patients were followed up at outpatients setting; four patients developed motor deficits and one presented with epilepsy. Conclusions Although a modest and heterogeneous sample, this study emphasizes the need for a high level of suspicion when it comes to neonatal stroke, primarily in the presence of risk factors. The prevalence of neurological sequelae in our series supports the need of long-term follow-up and early intervention strategies. PMID:25993071
A matched pair cluster randomized implementation trail to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to decrease perinatal mortality and increase institution-based obstetric care among indigenous women in Guatemala: study protocol
Background Maternal and perinatal mortality continue to be a high priority problem on the health agendas of less developed countries. Despite the progress made in the last decade to quantify the magnitude of maternal mortality, few interventions have been implemented with the intent to measure impact directly on maternal or perinatal deaths. The success of interventions implemented in less developed countries to reduce mortality has been questioned, in terms of the tendency to maintain a clinical perspective with a focus on purely medical care separate from community-based approaches that take cultural and social aspects of maternal and perinatal deaths into account. Our innovative approach utilizes both the clinical and community perspectives; moreover, our study will report the weight that each of these components may have had on reducing perinatal mortality and increasing institution-based deliveries. Methods/Design A matched pair cluster-randomized trial will be conducted in clinics in four rural indigenous districts with the highest maternal mortality ratios in Guatemala. The individual clinic will serve as the unit of randomization, with 15 matched pairs of control and intervention clinics composing the final sample. Three interventions will be implemented in indigenous, rural and poor populations: a simulation training program for emergency obstetric and perinatal care, increased participation of the professional midwife in strengthening the link between traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the formal health care system, and a social marketing campaign to promote institution-based deliveries. No external intervention is planned for control clinics, although enhanced monitoring, surveillance and data collection will occur throughout the study in all clinics throughout the four districts. All obstetric events occurring in any of the participating health facilities and districts during the 18 months implementation period will be included in the analysis, controlling for the cluster design. Our main outcome measures will be the change in perinatal mortality and in the proportion of institution-based deliveries. Discussion A unique feature of this protocol is that we are not proposing an individual intervention, but rather a package of interventions, which is designed to address the complexities and realities of maternal and perinatal mortality in developing countries. To date, many other countries, has focused its efforts to decrease maternal mortality indirectly by improving infrastructure and data collection systems rather than on implementing specific interventions to directly improve outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov,http://NCT01653626. PMID:23517050
Wang, Guangwu; Izadpanah, Nazanin; Kitchen, Christina M.R.
Abstract Our aim was to elucidate the mechanism by which HIV transmission is increased following obstetrical hemorrhage. We investigated whether fetal allostimulation of maternal cells, which could occur following fetal-to-maternal hemorrhage, increases proliferation, HIV replication, and cellular activation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from HIV-infected mothers and their infants to assess maternal-fetal allostimulation. Responses were compared to allostimulation with unrelated donors. Maternal and fetal cells were cocultured to assess allogeneic stimulation. Cell proliferation was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation and cell activation was assessed via fluorochrome-labeled antibody staining and flow cytometric analysis. Virus production from HIV-infected maternal cells was quantitated by p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or by branched chain DNA assay. Allostimulation with fetal cells led to maternal cell proliferation. In women with unsuppressed viral loads, virus release was also enhanced following allostimulation of maternal cells with fetal cells. Fetal cells are capable of allogeneically stimulating maternal cells, with responses comparable to those seen following allostimulation with unrelated donors. Allostimulation of maternal cells by fetal cells results in statistically significant increases in proliferation and enhanced HIV replication, suggesting a possible physiological mechanism for mother-to-child transmission of HIV in women with obstetrical hemorrhage. PMID:19102686
P. Brocklehurst; A. Kwee
Objective: To compare perinatal outcomes, maternal outcomes, and\\u000ainterventions in labour by planned place of birth at the start of care in\\u000alabour for women with low risk pregnancies.\\u000aDesign: Prospective cohort study.\\u000aSetting: England: all NHS trusts providing intrapartum care at home, all\\u000afreestanding midwifery units, all alongside midwifery units (midwife led\\u000aunits on a hospital site with an
Price, Sarah Kye; Cohen-Filipic, Katherine
This study describes a qualitative inquiry-informing program development in a maternal and child home visiting program. Low-income women's perceptions of the meaning and experiences of depression were ascertained through focus groups and interviews. Simultaneously, the study examines staff member perceptions and roles related to depression. Specific findings from clients and staff reveal culturally situated beliefs about depression and stressful life events; comparing and contrasting these beliefs offers a novel perspective on identification and intervention for maternal depression. This study offers a foundation for a translational research agenda that will be used for program and policy development to enhance mental health services situated within maternal and child health home visiting programs. PMID:23944165
Harlap, S; Perrin, M C; Deutsch, L; Kleinhaus, K; Fennig, S; Nahon, D; Teitelbaum, A; Friedlander, Y; Malaspina, D
Some forms of epigenetic abnormalities transmitted to offspring are manifest in differences in disease incidence that depend on parent-of-origin. To explore whether such phenomena might operate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, we estimated the relative incidence of these conditions in relation to parent-of-origin by considering the two grandfathers' countries of birth. In a prospective cohort of 88,829 offspring, born in Jerusalem in 1964–76 we identified 637 cases through Israel's psychiatric registry. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for paternal and maternal grandfathers' countries of birth using proportional hazards methods, controlling for parents' ages, low social class and duration of marriage. After adjusting for multiple observations, we found no significant differences between descendants of maternal or paternal grandfathers born in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Yemen, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya/Egypt, Poland, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Germany or the USA. Those with paternal grandfathers from Romania (RR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3–2.8) or Hungary (1.6, 1.0–2.6) showed an increased incidence; however, those with maternal grandfathers from these countries experienced reduced incidence (RR=0.5, 0.3–0.8 and 0.4, 0.2–0.8). In post-hoc analyses we found that results were similar whether the comparison groups were restricted to descendants of other Europeans or included those from Western Asia and North Africa; and effects of paternal grandfathers from Romania/Hungary were more pronounced in females, while effects of maternal grandfathers from these countries were similar in males and females. These post-hoc “hypothesis-generating” findings lead one to question whether some families with ancestors in Romania or Hungary might carry a variant or mutation at a parentally imprinted locus that is altering susceptibility to schizophrenia. Such a locus, if it exists, might involve the X chromosome. PMID:19361958
Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie
To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…
Kim, Eun Jee; Park, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun
To determine which patient and maternal factors are associated with the occurrence and the severity of infantile haemangioma (IH), a single-centre retrospective observational study was conducted with 96 haemangioma patients and 143 age-matched control babies, born in the same hospital between March 2012 and March 2013. The IH patients were selected according to diagnosis from dermatologists, either consulted from the department of paediatrics or in outpatient setting. Unplanned female children whose mothers smoked and/or consumed alcohol when pregnant was more likely to have IH (p?0.0.05). The higher the birth weight, the more superficial the haemangioma (p?=?0.023), and localised lesions were more common in singleton babies (p?=?0.023) and babies conceived by normal fertilisation (p?=?0.002). The occurrence and severity of IH is not only influenced by patient factors but also by maternal factors especially care during pregnancy period. By controlling these factors, the incidence and severity of IH may be lowered. PMID:25572793
Bodnar, Lisa M.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Gernand, Alison D.; Platt, Robert W.; Parks, W. Tony; Catov, Janet M.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.
The objective of this study was to determine the association between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) before 35 weeks’ gestation. A random subcohort from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959–1965) was sampled (n = 2,629) and augmented with all remaining cases of sPTB before 35 weeks’ gestation for a total of 767 cases. Banked serum samples collected at 26 weeks’ gestation or earlier were assayed for 25(OH)D. Constructs for vascular histology and inflammatory histology were developed from placental pathology examinations. There was no relationship between 25(OH)D and sPTB among white women. Among nonwhite mothers, serum 25(OH)D levels of 30–<50, 50–<75, and ?75 nmol/L were associated with reductions of 1.0–1.6 cases of sPTB per 100 live births and 20%–30% reductions in risk of sPTB compared with 25(OH)D levels less than 30 nmol/L after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), season, and other confounders. This association was driven by inflammation-mediated cases of sPTB and sPTB cases without placental lesions. A sensitivity analysis for unmeasured confounding by exercise, fish intake, and skin color suggested some bias away from the null in the conventional results, but conclusions were generally supported. The vitamin D–sPTB relationship should be examined in modern cohorts with detailed data on skin pigmentation and other covariates. PMID:24124195
Li, Y; Townend, J; Rowe, R; Brocklehurst, P; Knight, M; Linsell, L; Macfarlane, A; McCourt, C; Newburn, M; Marlow, N; Pasupathy, D; Redshaw, M; Sandall, J; Silverton, L; Hollowell, J
Objective To explore and compare perinatal and maternal outcomes in women at ‘higher risk’ of complications planning home versus obstetric unit (OU) birth. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting OUs and planned home births in England. Population 8180 ‘higher risk’ women in the Birthplace cohort. Methods We used Poisson regression to calculate relative risks adjusted for maternal characteristics. Sensitivity analyses explored possible effects of differences in risk between groups and alternative outcome measures. Main outcome measures Composite perinatal outcome measure encompassing ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ (intrapartum stillbirth, early neonatal death, neonatal encephalopathy, meconium aspiration syndrome, brachial plexus injury, fractured humerus or clavicle) and neonatal admission within 48 hours for more than 48 hours. Two composite maternal outcome measures capturing intrapartum interventions/adverse maternal outcomes and straightforward birth. Results The risk of ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ or neonatal admission for more than 48 hours was lower in planned home births than planned OU births [adjusted relative risks (RR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.31–0.81]. Adjustment for clinical risk factors did not materially affect this finding. The direction of effect was reversed for the more restricted outcome measure ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ (RR adjusted for parity 1.92, 95% CI 0.97–3.80). Maternal interventions were lower in planned home births. Conclusions The babies of ‘higher risk’ women who plan birth in an OU appear more likely to be admitted to neonatal care than those whose mothers plan birth at home, but it is unclear if this reflects a real difference in morbidity. Rates of intrapartum related morbidity and mortality did not differ statistically significantly between settings at the 5% level but a larger study would be required to rule out a clinically important difference between the groups. PMID:25603762
Whiteman, Valerie E.; Salemi, Jason L.; Mogos, Mulubrhan F.; Cain, Mary Ashley; Aliyu, Muktar H.; Salihu, Hamisu M.
Objective. To identify factors associated with opioid use during pregnancy and to compare perinatal morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs between opioid users and nonusers. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of pregnancy-related discharges from 1998 to 2009 using the largest publicly available all-payer inpatient database in the United States. We scanned ICD-9-CM codes for opioid use and perinatal outcomes. Costs of care were estimated from hospital charges. Survey logistic regression was used to assess the association between maternal opioid use and each outcome; generalized linear modeling was used to compare hospitalization costs by opioid use status. Results. Women who used opioids during pregnancy experienced higher rates of depression, anxiety, and chronic medical conditions. After adjusting for confounders, opioid use was associated with increased odds of threatened preterm labor, early onset delivery, poor fetal growth, and stillbirth. Users were four times as likely to have a prolonged hospital stay and were almost four times more likely to die before discharge. The mean per-hospitalization cost of a woman who used opioids during pregnancy was $5,616 (95% CI: $5,166–$6,067), compared to $4,084 (95% CI: $4,002–$4,166) for nonusers. Conclusion. Opioid use during pregnancy is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and increased healthcare costs. PMID:25254116
Plumberg, Erin M.
and management practices at the University of Kansas Obstetrics (KUMC OB) clinic in regard to perinatal outcomes, and adherence to recommendations from the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG). Design: In this retrospective...
Background Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant mortality globally, including Brazil. We will evaluate whether oral magnesium citrate reduces the risk of placental dysfunction and its negative consequences for both the fetus and mother, which, in turn, should reduce the need for indicated preterm delivery. Methods/Design We will complete a multicenter, randomized double-blind clinical trial comparing oral magnesium citrate 150 mg twice daily (n?=?2000 women) to matched placebo (n?=?1000 women), starting at 121/7 to 206/7 weeks gestation and continued until delivery. We will include women at higher risk for placental dysfunction, based on clinical factors from a prior pregnancy (e.g., prior preterm delivery, stillbirth or preeclampsia) or the current pregnancy (e.g., chronic hypertension, pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus, maternal age?>?35 years or pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index?>?30 kg/m2). The primary perinatal outcome is a composite of preterm birth?37 weeks gestation, stillbirth?>?20 weeks gestation, neonatal death?28 days, or SGA birthweight?3rd percentile. The primary composite maternal outcome is preeclampsia arising?37 weeks gestation, severe non-proteinuric hypertension arising?37 weeks gestation, placental abruption, maternal stroke during pregnancy or???7 days after delivery, or maternal death during pregnancy or???7 days after delivery. Discussion The results of this randomized clinical trial may be especially relevant in low and middle income countries that have high rates of prematurity and limited resources for acute newborn and maternal care. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02032186, registered December 19, 2013. PMID:25005784
Joseph, K S; Demissie, Kitaw; Platt, Robert W; Ananth, Cande V; McCarthy, Brian J; Kramer, Michael S
Background Neonatal mortality rates among black infants are lower than neonatal mortality rates among white infants at birth weights <3000 g, whereas white infants have a survival advantage at higher birth weights. This finding is also observed when birth weight-specific neonatal mortality rates are compared between infants of smokers and non-smokers. We provide a parsimonious explanation for this paradoxical phenomenon. Methods We used data on births in the United States in 1997 after excluding those with a birth weight <500 g or a gestational age <22 weeks. Birth weight- and gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rates were calculated per convention (using total live births at each birth weight/gestational age as the denominator) and also using the fetuses at risk of death at each gestational age. Results Perinatal mortality rates (calculated per convention) were lower among blacks than whites at lower birth weights and at preterm gestational ages, while blacks had higher mortality rates at higher birth weights and later gestational ages. With the fetuses-at-risk approach, mortality curves did not intersect; blacks had higher mortality rates at all gestational ages. Increases in birth rates and (especially) growth-restriction rates presaged gestational age-dependent increases in perinatal mortality. Similar findings were obtained in comparisons of smokers versus nonsmokers. Conclusions Formulating perinatal risk based on the fetuses-at-risk approach solves the intersecting perinatal mortality curves paradox; blacks have higher perinatal mortality rates than whites and smokers have higher perinatal mortality rates than nonsmokers at all gestational ages and birth weights. PMID:15090071
Velten, Markus; Britt, Rodney D.; Heyob, Kathryn M.; Tipple, Trent E.; Rogers, Lynette K.
The preterm infant is often exposed to maternal and neonatal inflammatory stimuli and is born with immature lungs, resulting in a need for oxygen therapy. Nutritional intervention with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 6.3 g/kg of diet) has been shown to attenuate inflammation in various human diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that maternal DHA supplementation during late gestation and lactation attenuated hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mouse pups. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that DHA supplementation to the dam would reduce hyperoxic lung injury and growth deficits in a more severe model of systemic maternal inflammation, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neonatal hyperoxia exposure. On embryonic day 16, dams were placed on DHA (6.3 g DHA/kg diet) or control diets and injected with saline or LPS. Diets were maintained through weaning. At birth, pups were placed in room air or hyperoxia for 14 d. Improvements in birth weight (P < 0.01), alveolarization (P ? 0.01), and pulmonary function (P ? 0.03) at 2 and 8 wk of age were observed in pups exposed to perinatal inflammation and born to DHA-supplemented dams compared with control diet–exposed pups. These improvements were associated with decreases in tissue macrophage numbers (P < 0.01), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression (P ? 0.05), and decreases in soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products concentrations (P < 0.01) at 2 and 8 wk. Furthermore, DHA supplementation attenuated pulmonary fibrosis, which was associated with the reduction of matrix metalloproteinases 2, 3, and 8 (P ? 0.03) and collagen mRNA (P ? 0.05), and decreased collagen (P < 0.01) and vimentin (P ? 0.03) protein concentrations. In a model of severe inflammation, maternal DHA supplementation lessened inflammation and improved lung growth in the offspring. Maternal supplementation with DHA may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce neonatal inflammation. PMID:24453131
Xu, Xu; Hu, Jingjie; McGrath, Barbara C.; Cavener, Douglas R.
The liver plays a central role in regulating lipid metabolism and facilitates efficient lipid utilization and storage. We discovered that a modest increase in maternal dietary fat in mice programs triglyceride storage in the liver of their developing offspring. The activation of this programming is not apparent, however, until several months later at the adult stage. We found that the perinatal programming of adult hepatic triglyceride storage was controlled by the eIF2? kinase GCN2 (EIF2AK4) in the brain of the offspring, which stimulates epigenetic modification of the Ppar?2 gene in the neonatal liver. Genetic ablation of Gcn2 in the offspring exhibited reduced hepatic triglyceride storage and repressed expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (Ppar?2) and two lipid droplet protein genes, Fsp27 and Cidea. Brain-specific, but not liver-specific, Gcn2 KO mice exhibit these same defects demonstrating that GCN2 in the developing brain programs hepatic triglyceride storage. GCN2 and nutrition-dependent programming of Ppar?2 is correlated with trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3) in the Ppar?2 promoter region during neonatal development. In addition to regulating hepatic triglyceride in response to modest changes in dietary fat, Gcn2 deficiency profoundly impacts the severity of the obese-diabetic phenotype of the leptin receptor mutant (db/db) mouse, by reducing hepatic steatosis and obesity but exacerbating the diabetic phenotype. We suggest that GCN2-dependent perinatal programming of hepatic triglyceride storage is an adaptation to couple early nutrition to anticipated needs for hepatic triglyceride storage in adults. However, increasing the hepatic triglyceride set point during perinatal development may predispose individuals to hepatosteatosis, while reducing circulating fatty acid levels that promote insulin resistance. PMID:24130751
Simone Honikman; Thandi van Heyningen; Sally Field; Emily Baron; Mark Tomlinson
As one article in a series on Global Mental Health Practice, Simone Honikman and colleagues from South Africa provide a case study of the Perinatal Mental Health Project, which delivered mental health care to pregnant women in a collaborative, step-wise manner, making use of existing resources in primary care.
J Stilwell; A Szczepura; M Mugford
This is the first of two papers describing a retrospective study of maternity hospitals in an English health region using data for the years 1977-83. The research was designed to investigate the relationship between resources (such as staff and equipment) and the outcomes of births at maternity units. Considerable variation in medical and nursing staffing levels in the units in
Feresu, Shingairai A; Harlow, Siobán D; Welch, Kathy; Gillespie, Brenda W
Background Death of an infant in utero or at birth has always been a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Infant mortality remains a challenge in the care of pregnant women worldwide, but particularly for developing countries and the need to understand contributory factors is crucial for addressing appropriate perinatal health. Methods Using information available in obstetric records for all deliveries (17,072 births) at Harare Maternity Hospital, Zimbabwe, we conducted a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of a one-year data, (1997–1998) to assess demographic and obstetric risk factors for stillbirth and early neonatal death. We estimated risk of stillbirth and early neonatal death for each potential risk factor. Results The annual frequency of stillbirth was 56 per 1,000 total births. Women delivering stillbirths and early neonatal deaths were less likely to receive prenatal care (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 2.54; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.19–2.94 and RR = 2.52; 95% CI 1.63–3.91), which for combined stillbirths and early neonatal deaths increased with increasing gestational age (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 3.98, HR = 7.49 at 28 and 40 weeks of gestation, respectively). Rural residence was associated with risk of infant dying in utero, (RR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.12–1.59), and the risk of death increased with increasing gestational age (HR = 1.04, HR = 1.69, at 28 and 40 weeks of gestation, respectively). Older maternal age was associated with risk of death (HR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.21–1.84). Stillbirths were less likely to be delivered by Cesarean section (RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.51–0.79), but more likely to be delivered as breech (RR = 4.65; 95% CI 3.88–5.57, as were early neonatal deaths (RR = 3.38; 95% CI 1.64–6.96). Conclusion The frequency of stillbirth, especially macerated, is high, 27 per 1000 total births. Early prenatal care could help reduce perinatal death linking the woman to the health care system, increasing the probability that she would seek timely emergency care that would reduce the likelihood of death of her infant in utero. Improved quality of obstetric care during labor and delivery may help reduce the number of fresh stillbirths and early neonatal deaths. PMID:15876345
Wieslaw Jedrychowski; Frederica Perera; Umberto Maugeri; Dorota Mrozek-Budzyn; Rachel L. Miller; Elzbieta Flak; Elzbieta Mroz; Ryszard Jacek; John D. Spengler
Background: As there is a scarcity of evidence on potential hazards and preventive factors for infantile eczema operating in the prenatal period, the main goal of this study was to assess the role of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the occurrence of infant eczema jointly with the possible modulating effect of maternal fish
Background To assess the association of maternal hyperuricemia with adverse pregnancy outcome and neonatal metabolic, neurologic and respiratory disturbances in normotensive singleton pregnant women. Method This prospective multicentric cohort study was conducted on 404 normotensive singleton pregnant women who were admitted for delivery in Vali-Asr and Akbar-Abadi teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Upon enrollment maternal and umbilical sera were obtained for determining uric acid levels. 1 and 5 minutes Apgar scores, the need for neonatal resuscitation and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission were recorded. In case of NICU admission a neonatal blood sample was drawn for determining uric acid, blood sugar and bilirubin levels. An intracranial ultrasound imaging was also carried out for the admittd neonates for detecting intraventricular hemorrhage. Results Maternal hyperuricemia (uric acid one standard deviation greater than the appropriate gestational age) was independently associated with preterm birth (odds ratio (OR), 3.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1 – 4.79), small for gestational age delivery (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04 – 2.57), NICU admission (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.12 – 2.94) and neonatal IVH (OR, 8.14; 95% CI, 1.11 – 87.1). Conclusions Maternal hyperuricemia in normotensive singleton pregnant women is significantly associated with preterm and SGA delivery and the development of neonatal IVH. PMID:24636149
Paschetta, Elena; Berrisford, Giles; Coccia, Floriana; Whitmore, Jennifer; Wood, Amanda G; Pretlove, Sam; Ismail, Khaled M K
Perinatal mental illness has a significant implication on maternal health, birth outcomes, and the offspring's development. Prevalence estimates of perinatal psychiatric illnesses range widely, with substantial heterogeneity in different population studies, with a lower prevalence rate in high- rather than low- or middle-income countries. Because of the potential negative impact on maternal and child outcomes and the potential lability of these disorders, the perinatal period is a critical time to identify psychiatric illnesses. Thus, obstetricians and midwives play a crucial role in assessing women's mental health needs and to refer identified women promptly for multidisciplinary specialist assessment. However, there is still limited evidence on best practice assessment and management policies during pregnancy and postpartum. This review focuses on the prevalence of common perinatal mental disorders and antenatal screening policies to identify women at risk. The effect of these conditions and their management on pregnancy, fetal outcomes, and child development are discussed. PMID:24113256
Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica; Maugeri, Umberto; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Miller, Rachel L.; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Spengler, John D.
Background As there is a scarcity of evidence on potential hazards and preventive factors for infantile eczema operating in the prenatal period, the main goal of this study was to assess the role of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the occurrence of infant eczema jointly with the possible modulating effect of maternal fish consumption. Methods The study sample consisted of 469 women enrolled during pregnancy, who gave birth to term babies (>36 weeks of gestation). Among all pregnant women recruited, personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed over 48 h in the second trimester of pregnancy. After delivery, every 3 months in the first year of the newborn's life, a detailed, standardized, face-to-face interview was administered to each mother, in the process of which a trained interviewer recorded any history of infantile eczema and data on potential environmental hazards. The estimated risk of eczema related to higher prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 >53.0 ?g/m3) and postnatal ETS as well as the protective effect of maternal fish intake were adjusted for potential confounders in a multivariable logistic regression model. Results While the separate effects of higher prenatal PM2.5 and postnatal ETS exposure were not statistically significant, their joint effect appeared to have a significant influence on the occurrence of infantile eczema [odds ratio 2.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–5.18]. With maternal fish intake of more than 205 g/week, the risk of eczema decreased by 43% (odds ratio 0.57, 95% CI 0.35–0.93). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for eczema symptoms, estimated from the Poisson regression model, was increased with both higher exposure to prenatal PM2.5 and postnatal ETS (IRR 1.55, 95% CI 0.99–2.44) and in children of atopic mothers (IRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04–1.75) but was lower in girls (IRR 0.78, 95% CI 0.61–1.00). The observed preventive effect of fish consumption on the frequency of eczema symptoms was consistent with the results of the logistic analysis (IRR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52–0.99). Conclusions The findings indicate that higher prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter combined with postnatal exposure to ETS may increase the risk of infant eczema, while maternal fish intake during pregnancy may reduce the risk of infantile eczema. PMID:21293147
Background The geographic distribution of environmental toxins is generally not uniform, with certain northern regions showing a particularly high concentration of pesticides, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. For instance, Northern Canadians are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and methylmercury (MeHg), primarily through country foods. Previous studies have reported associations between neuronal pathology and exposure to such toxins. The present investigation assessed whether perinatal exposure (gestation and lactation) of rats to a chemical mixture (27 constituents comprised of PCBs, OCs and MeHg) based on Arctic maternal exposure profiles at concentrations near human exposure levels, would affect brain levels of several inflammatory cytokines Methods Rats were dosed during gestation and lactation and cytokine levels were measured in the brains of offspring at five months of age. Hypothalamic cytokine protein levels were measured with a suspension-based array system and differences were determined using ANOVA and post hoc statistical tests. Results The early life PCB treatment alone significantly elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in rats at five months of age to a degree comparable to that of the entire chemical mixture. Similarly, the full mixture (and to a lesser degree PCBs alone) elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1b, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. The full mixture of chemicals also moderately increased (in an additive fashion) hypothalamic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?). Challenge with bacterial endotoxin at adulthood generally increased hypothalamic levels to such a degree that differences between the perinatally treated chemical groups were no longer detectable. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure at critical neurodevelopmental times to environmental chemicals at concentrations and combinations reflective of those observed in vulnerable population can have enduring consequences upon cytokines that are thought to contribute to a range of pathological states. In particular, such protracted alterations in the cytokine balance within the hypothalamus would be expected to favor marked changes in neuro-immune and hormonal communication that could have profound behavioral consequences. PMID:21745392
Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences Further Particulars: Programme and Visitor Officer (Maternity Leave Cover) Background The Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences is a national. Location Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge CB3 0EH Terms
Canario, Laurianne; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Rydhmer, Lotta
Genetic trends in maternal abilities were studied in French Large White sows. Two lines representing old-type and modern-type pigs were obtained by inseminating modern sows with semen from boars born in 1977 or 1998. Successive generations were produced by inter-se mating. The maternal performance of sows from the second generation was compared in farrowing crates. Video analysis was performed for the 1st h after the onset of 43 and 36 farrowing events, and for the 6 first hours for 23 and 21 events, in old-type and modern-type sows, respectively. Genetic trends were estimated as twice the difference in estimates between the 2 lines. The contribution of behavior to the probability of stillbirth and piglet death in the first 2 days was estimated as the percentage of deviance reduction (DR) due to the addition of behavior traits as factors in the mortality model. Sow activity decreased strongly from the 1st to the 2nd h in both lines (P < 0.001). In the first 6 h, old-type sows sat (1st parity), stood (2nd parity) and rooted (both parities) for longer than modern-type sows, which were less active, especially in 2nd parity. In modern-type sows, stillbirth was associated positively with lying laterally in the first 6 h (4.6% DR) and negatively in the 1st h (9.1% DR). First-parity old-type sows were more attentive to piglets (P = 0.003) than modern-type sows which responded more to nose contacts at 2nd parity (P = 0.01). Maternal reactivity of modern-type sows was associated with a higher risk of piglet death (4.6% DR). Respiratory distress at birth tended to be higher in modern-type piglets than in old-type piglets (P < 0.10) and was associated with a higher risk of piglet death in both lines (2.7–3.1% DR). Mobility at birth was lower in modern-type than old-type piglets (P < 0.0001). Genetic trends show that sow and piglet behaviors at farrowing have changed. Our results indicate reduced welfare in parturient modern-type sows and their newborn piglets. PMID:25520737
Sorensen, Sherrill S
This article describes the need for mock emergency drills in perinatal emergencies such as shoulder dystocia, maternal hemorrhage, and emergency cesarean section. Effective drills are a patient safety initiative to reduce medical errors and adverse events during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. Successful strategies are identified from other fields of practice to improve patient outcomes. Realistic, institutional specific scenarios for mock emergency drills result in improved team behaviors leading to better outcomes for mothers and infants. PMID:17413483
Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.
Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija
Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor ? expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway. PMID:24767307
Gustafsson, Peik; Kallen, Karin
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pre- and perinatal factors on the risk of developing attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: We investigated the medical history of 237 children (206 male; 31 female) from Malmo, Sweden born between 1986 and 1996 and in whom a diagnosis of ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical…
Myer, L; Wilkinson, D; Lombard, C; Zuma, K; Rotchford, K; Karim, S
Background: Syphilis remains a significant cause of preventable perinatal death in developing countries, with many women remaining untested and thus untreated. Syphilis testing in the clinic (on-site testing) may be a useful strategy to overcome this. We studied the impact of on-site syphilis testing on treatment delays and rates, and perinatal mortality. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial among seven pairs of primary healthcare clinics in rural South Africa, comparing on-site testing complemented by laboratory confirmation versus laboratory testing alone. Intervention clinics used the on-site test conducted by primary care nurses, with results and treatment available within an hour. Control clinics sent blood samples to the provincial laboratory, with results returned 2 weeks later. Results: Of 7134 women seeking antenatal care with available test results, 793 (11.1%) tested positive for syphilis. Women at intervention clinics completed treatment 16 days sooner on average (95% confidence interval: 11 to 21), though there was no significant difference in the proportion receiving adequate treatment at intervention (64%) and control (69%) clinics. There was also no significant difference in the proportion experiencing perinatal loss (3.3% v 5.1%; adjusted risk difference: -0.9%; 95% CI -4.4 to 2.7). Conclusions: Despite reducing treatment delays, the addition of on-site syphilis testing to existing laboratory testing services did not lead to higher treatment rates or reduce perinatal mortality. However on-site testing for syphilis may remain an important option for improving antenatal care in settings where laboratory facilities are not available. PMID:12794203
G. Dahlquist; B. Källén
Summary The nationwide Swedish Childhood Diabetes Registry, which ascertains 99% of recent-onset Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic children (0–14 years) in Sweden, was linked with the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. A matched case-control study was carried out analysing about 20 perinatal variables concerning mother and child. A total of 2757 infants who became diabetic during the period 1978–1988 were analysed. For each
The maternal and infant health care system and vital statistics in Japan are reviewed. The improvement of socioeconomic conditions, higher education for women, comprehensive health care provided by the government, regionalization for high-risk pregnancy, medical advances in the care of pregnant women and neonates, the significant decline of perinatal and neonatal mortality rates in recent decades are all contributing factors in improved maternal-infant health care. On the basis of recent statistics showing that the survival rate of extremely low birth weight infants increased over 80%, the viability limit defined by Eugenic Protection Act was amended in 1991 from 24 to 22 completed weeks of gestation. PMID:9069070
Vicente Maiques; Amparo Garc??a-Tejedor; Alfredo Perales; Clara Navarro
Objective: To study the effect of intrapartum use of fetal invasive procedures (scalp electrodes or scalp pH sampling) on perinatal transmission rate of HIV. Study design: We compared the perinatal transmission of 57 HIV pregnancies in which invasive procedures (IP) were performed with a control group of 214 pregnancies without IP. We controlled for potentially risk factors (maternal CD4 level,
Kukita, J; Yamashita, H; Minami, T; Fujita, I; Koyanagi, T; Ueda, K
Between 1980 and 1987, we investigated the outcome for 20 infants with birth weights less than 750 g, admitted to the neonatal unit of Kyushu University Hospital. All infants were delivered at the hospital. Seven infants (35%) survived and were discharged. Comparing the first and second 4 year periods, the survival rate improved from 17% (1 of 6 infants) to 43% (6 of 14 infants). Intensive perinatal care, prevention of infection and early transport of mothers of high-risk babies improved the outcome. In the long-term, among the 7 survivors, 1 had psychomotor retardation, 1 had epilepsy and the other 5 were normal neurologically. Growth in height and weight of these children remained below the -2SD levels until 2 years of age, thereafter they began to catch up. Growth in head circumference increased to a level above the -2SD value from 2 years of age. With intensive perinatal care, the outcome for infants weighting less than 750 g is improving, and good results may be expected. PMID:2127984
Salgado, Doris Martha; Rodríguez, Jairo Antonio; Lozano, Liliana del Pilar; Zabaleta, Tatiana Esther
Dengue is currently the most important viral disease transmitted by arthropods and which is hyperendemic in the Americas. An increase in the number of cases is related to dengue during pregnancy and the neonatal period. According to the gestational age in which infection occurs, there could be different manifestations in the fetus including abortion, malformations or neonatal dengue in newborns. This article presents a review regarding some cases reported worldwide, especially in the Americas, and some pathophysiologic issues related to perinatal dengue. PMID:24652245
Brazier, Ellen; Fiorentino, Renée; Barry, Saidou; Kasse, Yaya; Millimono, Sita
This article presents findings from a study on women's delivery care-seeking in two regions of Guinea. We explored exposure to interventions promoting birth preparedness and complication readiness among women with recent live births and stillbirths. Using multivariate regression models, we identified factors associated with women's knowledge and practices related to birth preparedness, as well as their use of health facilities during childbirth. We found that women's knowledge about preparations for any birth (normal or complicated) was positively associated with increased preparation for birth, which itself was associated with institutional delivery. Knowledge about complication readiness, obstetric risks, and danger signs was not associated with birth preparation or with institutional delivery. The study findings highlight the importance of focusing on preparation for all births—and not simply obstetric emergencies—in interventions aimed at increasing women's use of skilled maternity care. PMID:24821280
Dong Gyu Jang; Yun Sung Jo; Sung Jong Lee; Narinay Kim; Gui Se Ra Lee
Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of absent or reversed end-diastolic umbilical artery Doppler flow on neonatal\\u000a outcome independent of oligohydramnios, gestational age, and maternal factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods From January 2004 to March 2010 we reviewed 76 cases at our hospital, which were diagnosed with intrauterine growth restriction\\u000a (IUGR). Among those cases, the existence of absent or reversed
Howard, Elisabeth; Jolles, Diana
The National Quality Strategy, mandated by the Affordable Care Act, outlines the triple aim of better health, better care, and lower costs. Perinatal nurses are integral to the National Quality movement as care providers, leaders, and experts. The most notable accomplishments in perinatal care of the last decade relate to the endorsement of quality measures by the National Quality Forum that provide unified goals and the quality improvement frameworks provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement that help systems create action and change through education, team building, process improvement, and structure. Fourteen perinatal quality measures are currently endorsed by the National Quality Forum, 5 of which are mandated by The Joint Commission and required for accreditation. Understanding the current perinatal quality measures and the resources available for implementation is essential to nursing care delivery. Realizing the nurses' role within the quality improvement landscape and mobilizing nationally endorsed quality measures as levers for nurse-led improvement projects promise actualization of marked quality improvement in perinatal care. PMID:25919602
New Hampshire, University of
is Perinatal Loss? Miscarriage before twenty weeks Stillbirth after twenty weeks Neonatal death live birth followed by death #12;Frequency of Perinatal Loss 9% in women in their early twenties 75% in women
Ngoma, Mary S; Misir, Amita; Mutale, Wilbroad; Rampakakis, Emmanuoil; Sampalis, John S; Elong, Angela; Chisele, Sam; Mwale, Abel; Mwansa, Jonathan K; Mumba, Scholastica; Chandwe, Mula; Pilon, Richard; Sandstrom, Paul; Wu, Samantha; Yee, Kristen; Silverman, Michael S
Introduction To prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in developing countries, new World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend maternal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during pregnancy, throughout breastfeeding for 1 year and then cessation of breastfeeding (COB). The efficacy of this approach during the first six months of exclusive breastfeeding has been demonstrated, but the efficacy of this approach beyond six months is not well documented. Methods A prospective observational cohort study of 279 HIV-positive mothers was started on zidovudine/3TC and lopinavir/ritonavir tablets between 14 and 30 weeks gestation and continued indefinitely thereafter. Women were encouraged to exclusively breastfeed for six months, complementary feed for the next six months and then cease breastfeeding between 12 and 13 months. Infants were followed for transmission to 18 months and for survival to 24 months. Text message reminders and stipends for food and transport were utilized to encourage adherence and follow-up. Results Total MTCT was 9 of 219 live born infants (4.1%; confidence interval (CI) 2.2–7.6%). All breastfeeding transmissions that could be timed (5/5) occurred after six months of age. All mothers who transmitted after six months had a six-month plasma viral load >1,000 copies/ml (p<0.001). Poor adherence to cART as noted by missed dispensary visits was associated with transmission (p=0.04). Infant mortality was lower after six months of age than during the first six months of life (p=0.02). The cumulative rate of infant HIV infection or death at 18 months was 29/226 (12.8% 95 CI: 7.5–20.8%). Conclusions Maternal cART may limit MTCT of HIV to the UNAIDS target of <5% for eradication of paediatric HIV within the context of a clinical study, but poor adherence to cART and follow-up can limit the benefit. Continued breastfeeding can prevent the rise in infant mortality after six months seen in previous studies, which encouraged early COB. PMID:26140453
Mavalankar, D. V.; Trivedi, C. R.; Gray, R. H.
To estimate levels and determinants of perinatal mortality, we conducted a hospital-based surveillance and case-control study, linked with a population survey, in Ahmedabad, India. The perinatal mortality rate was 79.0 per 1000, and was highest for preterm low-birth-weight babies. The case-control study of 451 stillbirths, 160 early neonatal deaths and 1465 controls showed that poor maternal nutritional status, absence of antenatal care, and complications during labour were independently associated with substantially increased risks of perinatal death. Multivariate analyses indicate that socioeconomic factors largely operate through these proximate factors and do not have an independent effect. Estimates of attributable risk derived from the prevalence of exposures in the population survey suggest that improvements in maternal nutrition and antenatal and intrapartum care could result in marked reductions of perinatal mortality. PMID:1934237
Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Knox, G Eric
Patient injury from drug therapy is the single most common type of adverse event that occurs in the in-patient setting. When medication errors result in patient injury, there are significant costs to the patient, healthcare providers, and institution. Some medications that have a heightened risk of causing significant patient harm when they are used in error are called "high-alert medications."In 2007, the Institute for Safe Medication Practices added intravenous (IV) oxytocin to their list of high-alert medications. This is significant for perinatal care providers because oxytocin is a drug that they use quite freguently. Errors that involve IV oxytocin administration for labor induction or augmentation are most commonly dose related and often involve lack of timely recognition and appropriate treatment of excessive uterine activity (tachysystole). Other types of oxytocin errors involve mistaken administration of IV fluids with oxytocin for IV fluid resuscitation during nonreassuring (abnormal or indeterminate) fetal heart rate patterns and/or maternal hypotension and inappropriate elective administration of oxytocin to women who are less than 39 completed weeks' gestation. Oxytocin medication errors and subsequent patient harm are generally preventable. The perinatal team can develop strategies to minimize risk of maternal-fetal injuries related to oxytocin administration consistent with safe care practices used with other high-alert medications. PMID:19104313
Nunes, Julie; McFerran, Sharon
The Perinatal Patient Safety Project (PPSP) was created as a systemic strategy for creating high-reliability perinatal units by preventing identified causes of perinatal events in the clinical setting. With developmental funding from a Garfield grant, implementation of the PPSP has been completed at four pilot sites in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) Region. Its success has resulted in implementation at all perinatal units in the KPNC Region as well as being promoted by National Risk Management for nationwide implementation. PPSP emphasizes structured communication, multidisciplinary rounds, a definition of fetal well-being, and practicing for emergencies. Steps taken to create high reliability perinatal care include improved communication, patient safety focus, and satisfaction among perinatal patients, providers, and staff. PMID:21660157
Kurth, Lisa; Haussmann, Robert
Objective: To investigate a potential relationship between coincidental increases in perinatal Pitocin usage and subsequent childhood ADHD onset in an attempt to isolate a specific risk factor as an early biomarker of this neurodevelopmental disorder. Method: Maternal labor/delivery and corresponding childbirth records of 172 regionally diverse,…
Alvarez-Segura, M; Garcia-Esteve, L; Torres, A; Plaza, A; Imaz, M L; Hermida-Barros, L; San, L; Burtchen, N
The objective of this paper is to examine the association between maternal lifetime abuse and perinatal depressive symptoms. Papers included in this review were identified through electronic searches of the following databases: Pubmed Medline and Ovid, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library. Each database was searched from its start date through 1 September 2011. Keywords such as "postpartum," "perinatal," "prenatal," "depression," "violence," "child abuse," and "partner abuse" were included in the purview of MeSH terms. Studies that examined the association between maternal lifetime abuse and perinatal depression were included. A total of 545 studies were included in the initial screening. Forty-three articles met criteria for inclusion and were incorporated in this review. Quality of articles was evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa-Scale (NOS). This systematic review indicates a positive association between maternal lifetime abuse and depressive symptoms in the perinatal period. PMID:25005865
Enrique M. Ostrea; D. Kirk Knapp; Libby Tannenbaum; Anthony R. Ostrea; Al Romero; Valiollah Salari; Joel Ager
Objective: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of maternal interview, maternal hair analysis, and meconium analysis in detecting perinatal exposure to cocaine, opiate, and cannabinoid. Design\\/methods: The use of cocaine, opiate, and cannabinoid during pregnancy was determined prospectively in 58 women by 3 methods: structured maternal interview, maternal hair analysis, and meconium analyses. The results of the 3 methods were
Expanded carrier screening in reproductive medicine-points to consider: a joint statement of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, National Society of Genetic Counselors, Perinatal Quality Foundation, and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine.
Edwards, Janice G; Feldman, Gerald; Goldberg, James; Gregg, Anthony R; Norton, Mary E; Rose, Nancy C; Schneider, Adele; Stoll, Katie; Wapner, Ronald; Watson, Michael S
The Perinatal Quality Foundation and the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, in association with the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and the National Society of Genetic Counselors, have collaborated to provide education for clinicians and laboratories regarding the use of expanded genetic carrier screening in reproductive medicine. This statement does not replace current screening guidelines, which are published by individual organizations to direct the practice of their constituents. As organizations develop practice guidelines for expanded carrier screening, further direction is likely. The current statement demonstrates an approach for health care providers and laboratories who wish to or who are currently offering expanded carrier screening to their patients. PMID:25730230
Maria Tudor, Ana
Introduction The shift in epidemic trends in recent years in Romania shows new problems in regard of HIV vertical transmission, firstly in intravenous drug user's mothers co-infected with hepatitis viruses and with social problems, and secondly the children of young mothers with an old HIV infection and long antiretroviral therapy history. Materials and Methods We studied all HIV perinatal exposed children routinely followed up in the Paediatric Department of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, since January 1st 2006 till December 31st 2012. The analyses consisted of describing the birth defects and association with certain risk factors: gender, mother's age at birth and exposure to antiretrovirals in the first trimester of pregnancy. Results We analyzed 244 children born to HIV-infected mothers. The incidence of HIV infection was 16.39%. The rate of birth defects was 39.34% (96/244 cases). The most frequent findings were cardiac malformations (47/96), followed by musculoskeletal defects (24/96), neurologic defects (20/96), urogenital malformations (13/96), digestive tract defects (3/93), metabolic disorders (2/96) and genetic disorders (2/96). We found nine cases of severe congenital anomalies: complex heart defect, total congenital aganglionic megacolon, anal imperforation, Dandy-Walker syndrome, gangliosidosis, Niemann-Pick syndrome, Down syndrome, true hermaphroditism and cleft palate. Two children died during first year of life due to severe malformations. 9% of cases had associated malformations. The gender rate was in favour of males in group with birth defects (58/38) and with no birth defects (82/66). The median age at birth in mothers was 22 years, similar in both groups. The highest mean age at birth was in offspring's mothers with neurologic congenital defects 25, 15 years old, but is not statistically significant (p=0.1). In the studied period the highest number of birth defects were found in 2012, 37 children, compared with less than 15 in previous years (not statistically significant, p=0.07). In our studied patients the risk of birth defects was not statistically associated with HIV transmission or with exposure to antiretrovirals before and in first trimester of pregnancy (p=0.88). Conclusion The rate of birth defects among HIV-exposed children was not significantly associated with antiretroviral exposure, but we identify very rare and severe congenital conditions. We have noticed also a trend to increasing number of birth defects in 2012 among studied patients compared to previous years. PMID:25397447
Andrew Elimian; Uma Verma; Debra Beneck; Rebecca Cipriano; Paul Visintainer; Nergesh Tejani
Objective: To determine the perinatal effects of histologic chorioamnionitis on preterm neonates and the effectiveness of antenatal steroids in the presence of histologic chorioamnionitis.Methods: We studied neonates at our institution who weighed 1750 g or less at birth from January 1990 through December 1997. The population was stratified primarily by presence of histologic chorioamnionitis and secondarily by exposure to antenatal
Zhang, Xin; Lv, Cong-Chao; Tian, Jiang; Miao, Ru-Juan; Xi, Wei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva
We conducted a case–control study using 190 Han children with and without autism to investigate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism in China. Cases were recruited through public special education schools and controls from regular public schools in the same region (Tianjin), with frequency matching on sex and birth year. Unadjusted analyses identified seven prenatal and seven perinatal risk factors significantly associated with autism. In the adjusted analysis, nine risk factors showed significant association with autism: maternal second-hand smoke exposure, maternal chronic or acute medical conditions unrelated to pregnancy, maternal unhappy emotional state, gestational complications, edema, abnormal gestational age (<35 or >42 weeks), nuchal cord, gravidity >1, and advanced paternal age at delivery (>30 year-old). PMID:20358271
Phelan, Jeffrey P
Because obstetric care frequently is associated with the potential for liability, the purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with perinatal risk management using the concept of foreseeability of harm and its potential application to obstetric care. At the same time, this article introduces the concept of notice, and explains the critical conduct intervals that are used to gauge how well the health care teams handle obstetric emergencies. The focus then shifts to incorporate these concepts into several maternal-child health quality management programs. It is hoped that this article will result in an improvement of perinatal outcome for pregnant women and their unborn children. PMID:15777818
Wang, P D; Lin, R S
Information on perinatal deaths was obtained from 310 women by collecting detailed obstetric histories dating from marriage to the start of the survey. These histories were compared to those of 688 age matched controls. Potential risk factors, levels and time trends of perinatal mortality in Taiwan were examined and factors underlying stillbirths and early neonatal deaths were also compared using conditional logistic regression analyses. A nearly 56% decline of the perinatal mortality rate during the 35 y, approximately, prior to the survey was observed. Risk of stillbirths was increased among those who had abused illegal drugs during pregnancy, those who reported that the pregnancy was unwanted and those with Thalassemia trait. Body mass index was log-linearly related with stillbirths, with higher body mass associated with higher risk. For early neonatal deaths, those mothers aged 19 y or less, those giving birth to either their first children or to their fifth or later child, those who had their first prenatal care visit after the first three months of pregnancy were associated with increased risk in the logistic model. Those with a birth interval of less than two years and those with less education were associated with increased risk in both perinatal death groups. While some of these factors have already been associated with perinatal deaths, others have not; the new associations provide clues to mechanisms by which the risk of death increases before or after delivery. PMID:10823745
Fikree, F F; Gray, R H
A demographic survey was used to estimate the level and determinants of perinatal mortality in eight lower socio-economic squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. The perinatal mortality rate was 54.1 per 1000 births, with a stillbirth to early neonatal mortality ratio of 1:1. About 65% of neonatal deaths occurred in the early neonatal period, and early neonatal mortality contributed 32% of all infant deaths. Risk factor assessment was conducted on 375 perinatal deaths and 6070 current survivors. Poorer socio-economic status variables such as maternal and paternal illiteracy, maternal work outside the home and fewer household assets were significantly associated with perinatal mortality as were biological factors of higher parental age, short birth intervals and poor obstetric history. Multivariable logistic analysis indicated that some socio-economic factors retained their significance after adjusting for the more proximate biological factors. Population attributable risk estimates suggest that public health measures for screening of high-risk women and use of family planning to space births will not improve perinatal mortality substantially without improvement of socio-economic conditions, particularly maternal education. The results of this study indicate that an evaluation of perinatal mortality can be conducted using pregnancy histories derived from demographic surveys. PMID:8746434
Malik, S J; Mir, N A
The present study was undertaken to identify the preventable factors operative in high fetal and neonatal losses. Over a period of one year, of total of 1,600 consecutive deliveries, 1,107 were considered to be at-risk: there were 33 fetal and 31 early neonatal deaths with an overall perinatal mortality rate of 40/1,000 births. Perinatal mortality was higher in mothers who had received inadequate antenatal care and/or with bad obstetric history. Major maternal and obstetric factors associated with a high PMR were: advancing maternal age and parity, antepartum hemorrhage, diabetes, anemia, instrument and vaginal breech delivery. Overall cesarean section rate was 16.9%. Infants with a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and/or of birth weight of less than 2,500 g contributed for 56.2% and 68.7% of the total perinatal losses respectively. PMR was three fold higher among twins compared with singleton births. Identifiable causes of perinatal deaths observed were: asphyxia (31%), congenital anomalies (18.7%), sepsis (18.7%) and low birth weight (25%). It would appear that preventable factors are operative in over two third of the cases of perinatal loss and better maternal health, obstetric and neonatal care can improve the perinatal outcome in majority of the cases. PMID:1627059
Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre
We review the literature on the effects of Hurricane Katrina on perinatal health, and providing data from our own research on pregnant and postpartum women. After Katrina, obstetric, prenatal, and neonatal care was compromised in the short term, but increases in adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth, low birthweight, and maternal complications were mostly limited to highly exposed women. Both pregnant and postpartum women had rates of post-traumatic stress disorder similar to, or lower than, others exposed to Katrina, and rates of depression similar to other pregnant and postpartum populations. Health behaviors, such as smoking and breastfeeding, may have been somewhat negatively affected by the disaster, whereas effects on nutrition were likely associated with limited time, money, and food choices, and indicated by both weight gain and loss. We conclude that, with a few specific exceptions, postdisaster concerns and health outcomes for pregnant and postpartum women were similar to those of other people exposed to Hurricane Katrina. In such situations, disaster planners and researchers should focus on providing care and support for the normal concerns of the peripartum period, such as breastfeeding, depression, and smoking cessation. Contraception needs to be available for those who do not want to become pregnant. Although additional physical and mental health care needs to be provided for the most severely exposed women and their babies, many women are capable of surviving and thriving in postdisaster environments. PMID:20002425
Olaf Dammann; Alan Leviton
The search for causes of perinatal brain damage needs a solid theoretical foundation. Current theory apparently does not offer a unanimously accepted view of what constitutes a cause, and how it can be identified. We discuss nine potential theoretical misconceptions: (1) too narrow a view of what is a cause (causal production vs. facilitation), (2) extrapolating from possibility to fact
Megan V. SmithLin; Lin Shao; Heather Howell; Haiqun Lin; Kimberly A. Yonkers
Given the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes associated with a depressive disorder, the Health Resources and Services Administration’s\\u000a (HRSA) Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) from 2001–2005 devoted resources through the Federal Healthy Start Initiative\\u000a to screen pregnant women for depression and link them with services. In this report, we present the evaluation of a program\\u000a that screened for depression
D Rush; P Cassano
The joint associations of maternal cigarette smoking and social class on perinatal outcome were studied in the 1970 British birth cohort (British Births). Whereas smoking was much more frequent among women in social classes III, IV, and V, there was little difference in the birthweight decrement associated with smoking across class. Perinatal mortality, however, was increased only among smokers in
Soni and colleagues recently reported that perinatal maternal exposure to cyfluthrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, caused fetal malformations and behavioral changes in offspring, including skeletal malformations and alterations in righting reflexes and locomotion (Soni et al., 2011)...
Callister, Lynn Clark
Perinatal loss is a profound experience for childbearing families. Examples of perinatal loss include miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth, neonatal death, and other losses. Perinatal loss engenders a unique kind of mourning since the child is so much a part of the parental identity. Societal expectations for mourning associated with perinatal loss are noticeably absent. Gender differences in response to such loss, as well as sibling and grandparent grief have been identified in the literature. Descriptive studies provide information on cultural responses to perinatal loss. Nursing interventions have been refined over the past two decades as research studies have been performed, in order to more fully promote health and healing in the face of perinatal loss. These include helping to create meaning through the sharing of the story of parental loss, the facilitation of sociocultural rituals associated with loss, the provision of tangible mementos, sensitive presence, and the validation of the loss. Outcome evaluations of such interventions are recommended. PMID:16915054
Edgardo Somigliana; Paola Vigano; Annalisa Abbiati; Alessio Paffoni; Laura Benaglia; Paolo Vercellini; Luigi Fedele
Background\\/Aims: Perinatal environmental exposure may affect fetal development and reprogram the developing organism for adult-onset disease. In this case-control study, we aimed at assessing this pathogenetic model in endometriosis. Methods: Consecutive patients with a first laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis were selected as cases. Controls were women who underwent laparoscopy during the same study period, but who were found to be
Olusanya, Bolajoko O
Compared to singletons, multiple births are associated with a substantially-higher risk of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. However, little evidence exists on the perinatal profile and risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities among the survivors, especially in developing countries. This cross-sectional study, therefore, set out to determine the adverse perinatal outcomes that are potential markers for neurodevelopmental disabilities in infants with multiple gestations in a developing country. In total, 4,573 mothers, and their 4,718 surviving offspring in an inner-city maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria, from May 2005 to December 2007, were recruited. Comparisons of maternal and infant outcomes between single and multiple births were performed using multivariable logistic regression and generalized estimation equation analyses. Odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for each marker were estimated. Of the 4,573 deliveries, there were 4,416 (96.6%) singletons and 157 (3.4%) multiples, comprising 296 twins and six triplets together (6.4% of all live 4,718 infants). After adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, occupation, parity, and antenatal care, multiple gestations were associated with increased risks of hypertensive disorders and caesarean delivery. Similarly, after adjusting for potential maternal confounders, multiple births were associated with low five-minute Apgar score (OR: 1.47, 95% CI 1.13-1.93), neonatal sepsis (OR: 2.16, 95% CI 1.28-3.65), severe hyperbilirubinaemia (OR: 1.60, 95% CI 1.00-2.56), and admission to a special-care baby unit (OR: 1.56, 95% CI 1.12-2.17) underpinned by preterm delivery before 34 weeks (OR: 1.91, 95% CI 1.14-3.19), birthweight of less than 2,500 g (OR: 6.45, 95% CI 4.80-8.66), and intrauterine growth restriction (OR: 9.04, 95% CI 6.62-12.34). Overall, the results suggest that, in resource-poor settings, infants of multiple gestations are associated with a significantly-elevated risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Since these perinatal outcomes are related to the increased risk of later neurodevelopmental disabilities, multiple-birth infants merit close developmental surveillance for timely intervention. PMID:22283038
Ahamadani, F A B; Louis, H; Ugwi, P; Hines, R; Pomerleau, M; Ahn, R; Burke, T F; Nelson, B D
A field-based assessment was conducted to assess maternal and newborn health-care services, perinatal and newborn outcomes and associated risk factors at Bint Al-Huda Maternal and Newborn Teaching Hospital, a large referral hospital in southern Iraq. The multi-method approach used interviews, discussions, observation and review of perinatal and newborn outcome data. There is limited assessment of maternal vital signs, labour pattern, fetal response, and complications during pregnancy and labour. Perinatal and neonatal mortality rates are 27.4/1000 births and 30.9/1000 live births respectively. Associated neonatal mortality factors were gestational age < 37 weeks, male sex, birth weight < 2.5 kg, maternal age > 35 years, rural maternal residence and vaginal delivery. Improving birth outcomes in southern Iraq requires evidence-based clinical guidelines, additional supplies and equipment, quality improvement initiatives and in-service training. PMID:25664517
VandeVusse, Leona; Hanson, Lisa; Safdar, Nasia
The purpose of this integrative review was to identify, critique, and synthesize the maternal and neonatal evidence on the prenatal use of probiotics and prebiotics to inform perinatal health professionals. A comprehensive literature search resulted in 37 studies of prenatal probiotics and 1 on antepartal prebiotics published from 1990 through 2011 that reported maternal, fetal, and/or neonatal outcomes. The methodologic quality of the studies reviewed was high, although investigators used different probiotic combinations and inconsistently reported perinatal clinical outcomes. The extraction of perinatal outcome variables resulted in identification of 9 maternal and 5 neonatal categories. Prenatal probiotics significantly reduced the incidence of bacterial vaginosis, increased colonization with vaginal Lactobacillus and intestinal Lactobacillus rhamnosus, altered immune markers in serum and breast milk, improved maternal glucose metabolism, and reduced the incidence of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Antepartally, probiotics were associated with significantly higher counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus lactis (healthy intestinal flora) in neonatal stool. Prenatal prebiotics significantly increased maternal intestinal Bifidobacterium. No adverse events were reported and there was evidence of safety and tolerance of prenatal probiotics and prebiotics in the scientific investigations reviewed. It is recommended that in future investigations of prenatal probiotics researchers explicitly report maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:24164813
Kris Pizur-Barnekow; Stephanie Erickson
The purpose of this article is to present literature regarding perinatal posttraumatic stress disorder and to describe the implications of research findings for occupational therapy screening and treatment in early intervention practice. Changes in legislation regarding early intervention practice and family centered care are presented as a rationale for including maternal mental health screening as a standard practice in the
Osborne, Lauren M.; Monk, Catherine
Perinatal depression is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. The biological etiology of this disorder remains in question, despite considerable research into the contributions of hormonal imbalance, the role of monoamines, and dysregulation of the HPA axis. Because inflammation is known to be associated with major depression in men and non-perinatal women as well as with other important morbidities of pregnancy (such as preeclampsia, preterm birth, and gestational diabetes), and because these morbidities may correlate with perinatal depression, inflammation may be a common physiological pathway that can also help explain perinatal depression. In this paper, we review the theoretical background of inflammation in perinatal depression and then review the literature concerning immune and inflammatory factors in the etiology and course of perinatal depression. We close with recommendations for future studies in this still relatively unexplored area. Identification and understanding of a common pathophysiology between other pregnancy morbidities and perinatal depression would link physical and mental well-being, likely leading to better treatment and prevention. PMID:23608136
Varghese, Beena; Roy, Reetabrata; Saha, Somen; Roalkvam, Sidsel
Background The Yashoda program, named after a legendary foster-mother in Indian mythology, under the Norway-India Partnership Initiative was launched as a pilot program in 2008 to improve the quality of maternal and neonatal care at facilities in select districts of India. Yashodas were placed mainly at district hospitals, which are high delivery load facilities, to provide support and care to mothers and newborns during their stay at these facilities. This study presents the results from the evaluation of this intervention in two states in India. Methods Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with healthcare providers and mothers and a survey of mothers who had recently delivered within a quasi-experimental design. Fifty IDIs were done and 1,652 mothers who had delivered in the past three months were surveyed during 2010 and 2011. Results A significantly higher proportion of mothers at facilities with Yashodas (55 percent to 97 percent) received counseling on immunization, breastfeeding, family planning, danger signs, and nutrition compared to those in control districts (34 percent to 66 percent). Mothers in intervention facilities were four to five times more likely to receive postnatal checks than mothers in control facilities. Among mothers who underwent cesarean sections, initiation of breastfeeding within five hours was 50 percent higher in intervention facilities. Mothers and families also reported increased support, care and respect at intervention facilities. Conclusion Yashoda as mothers' aide thus seems to be an effective intervention to improve quality of maternal and newborn care in India. Scaling up of this intervention is recommended in district hospitals and other facilities with high volume of deliveries. PMID:24454718
Rombaldi, Renato L; Serafini, Eduardo P; Mandelli, Jovana; Zimmermann, Edineia; Losquiavo, Kamille P
The purpose was to study the perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus DNA (HPV-DNA) in 63 mother-newborn pairs, besides looking at the epidemiological factors involved in the viral DNA transmission. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnant woman, when was recruited, in cervix and clinical lesions of the vagina, vulva and perineal region; (2) in the newborn, (a) buccal, axillary and inguinal regions; (b) nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c) cord blood; (3) in the children, buccal was repeated in the 4th week and 6th and 12th month of life. HPV-DNA was identified using two methodologies: multiplex PCR (PGMY09 and MY11 primers) and nested-PCR (genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58). Perinatal transmission was considered when concordance was found in type-specific HPV between mother/newborn or mother/child. HPV-DNA genital was detected in 49 pregnant women submitted to delivery. Eleven newborns (22.4%, n = 11/49) were HPV-DNA positive. In 8 cases (16.3%, n = 8/49) there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. At the end of the first month of life three children (6.1%, n = 3/49) became HPV-DNA positive, while two remained positive from birth. In 3 cases (100%, n = 3/3) there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. In the 6th month, a child (2%, n = 1/49) had become HPV-DNA positive between the 1st and 6th month of life, and there was type specific HPV concordance of mother/newborn samples. All the HPV-DNA positive children (22.4%, n = 11/49) at birth and at the end first month of life (6.1%, n = 3/49) became HPV-DNA negative at the age of 6 months. The HPV-DNA positive child (2%, n = 1/49) from 1st to the 6th month of life became HPV-DNA negative between the 6th and 12th month of life and one child had anogenital warts. In the twelfth month all (100%, n = 49/49) the children studied were HPV-DNA negative. A positive and significant correlation was observed between perinatal transmission of HPV-DNA and the immunodepression of maternal variables (HIV, p = 0.007). Finally, the study suggests that perinatal transmission of HPV-DNA occurred in 24.5% (n = 12/49) of the cases studied. PMID:19545396
Rhoda, N R; Greenfield, D; Muller, M; Prinsloo, R; Pattinson, R C; Kauchali, S; Kerber, K
The Perinatal Problem Identification Programme (PPIP) was designed and developed in South Africa as a facility audit tool for perinatal deaths. It has been used by only a few hospitals since the late 1990s, but since the country's commitment to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4-the use of PPIP is now mandatory for all facilities delivering pregnant mothers and caring for newborns. To date 588 sites, representing 73% of the deliveries captured by the District Health Information System for South Africa, provide data to the national database at the Medical Research Council Unit for Maternal and Infant Health Care Strategies in Pretoria. PMID:25236651
Background Audit and feedback is an established strategy for improving maternal, neonatal and child health. The Perinatal Problem Identification Programme (PPIP), implemented in South African public hospitals in the late 1990s, measures perinatal mortality rates and identifies avoidable factors associated with each death. The aim of this study was to elucidate the processes involved in the implementation and sustainability of this programme. Methods Clinicians' experiences of the implementation and maintenance of PPIP were explored qualitatively in two workshop sessions. An analytical framework comprising six stages of change, divided into three phases, was used: pre-implementation (create awareness, commit to implementation); implementation (prepare to implement, implement) and institutionalisation (integrate into routine practice, sustain new practices). Results Four essential factors emerged as important for the successful implementation and sustainability of an audit system throughout the different stages of change: 1) drivers (agents of change) and team work, 2) clinical outreach visits and supervisory activities, 3) institutional perinatal review and feedback meetings, and 4) communication and networking between health system levels, health care facilities and different role-players. During the pre-implementation phase high perinatal mortality rates highlighted the problem and indicated the need to implement an audit programme (stage 1). Commitment to implementing the programme was achieved by obtaining buy-in from management, administration and health care practitioners (stage 2). Preparations in the implementation phase included the procurement and installation of software and training in its use (stage 3). Implementation began with the collection of data, followed by feedback at perinatal review meetings (stage 4). The institutionalisation phase was reached when the results of the audit were integrated into routine practice (stage 5) and when data collection had been sustained for a longer period (stage 6). Conclusion Insights into the factors necessary for the successful implementation and maintenance of an audit programme and the process of change involved may also be transferable to similar low- and middle-income public health settings where the reduction of the neonatal mortality rate is a key objective in reaching Millennium Development Goal 4. A tool for reflecting on the implementation and maintenance of an audit programme is also proposed. PMID:21958353
Whitaker, Claudia; Kavanaugh, Karen; Klima, Carrie
Extensive research exists that describes the meaning of perinatal loss to some parents, but the experience of loss from the perspective of Latino parents is not clearly understood. Additionally, current perinatal bereavement practices used often to facilitate memory-making for parents (such as viewing or holding the baby, taking photographs, or collecting mementos) are based upon research done primarily with non-Latino families. Are these common practices appropriate for this population? Because there is a paucity of research on this topic, this article describes what has been written over the past 30 years on the topic of grief and perinatal loss in Latino culture. PMID:20975393
Roberts, Lisa R; Montgomery, Susanne; Lee, Jerry W; Anderson, Barbara A
Stillbirth is a globally significant public health problem with many medical causes. There are also indirect causal pathways including social and cultural factors which are particularly salient in India's traditional society. The purpose of this study was to explore women's perceptions of stillbirth and to determine how issues of gender and power, social support, coping efforts, and religious beliefs influence perinatal grief outcomes among poor women in rural Chhattisgarh, India. Structured interviews were done face-to-face in 21 randomly selected villages among women of reproductive age (N=355) who had experienced stillbirth (n=178) and compared to those who had not (n=177), in the Christian Hospital, Mungeli catchment area. Perinatal grief was significantly higher among women with a history of stillbirth. Greater perinatal grief was associated with lack of support, maternal agreement with social norms, and younger maternal age. These predictors must be understood in light of an additional finding-distorted sex ratios, which reflect gender discrimination in the context of Indian society. The findings of this study will allow the development of a culturally appropriate health education program which should be designed to increase social support and address social norms, thereby reducing psychological distress to prevent complicated perinatal grief. Perinatal grief is a significant social burden which impacts the health women. PMID:21956647
Roberts, Lisa R; Lee, Jerry W
Perinatal grief following stillbirth is a significant social and mental health burden. We examined associations among the following latent variables: autonomy, social norms, self-despair, strained coping, and acute grief-among poor, rural women in India who experienced stillbirth. A structural equation model was built and tested using quantitative data from 347 women of reproductive age in Chhattisgarh. Maternal acceptance of traditional social norms worsens self-despair and strained coping, and increases the autonomy granted to women. Greater autonomy increases acute grief. Greater despair and acute grief increase strained coping. Social and cultural factors were found to predict perinatal grief in India. PMID:23865903
Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.
Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…
Maeno, Yasuki; Hirose, Akiko; Kanbe, Taro; Hori, Daizo
The importance of managing fetal arrhythmia has increased over the past three decades. Although most fetal arrhythmias are benign, some types cause fetal hydrops and can lead to fetal death. With the aim of improving the outcome in such cases, various studies for prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management have been published. Detailed analysis of the type of arrhythmia in utero is possible using M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. In particular, a simultaneous record of Doppler waveform at the superior venous cava and the ascending aorta has become an important and useful method of assessing the interval between atrial and ventricular contractions. Common causes of fetal tachycardia (ventricular heart rate faster than 180 bpm), are paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) with 1:1 atrioventricular (AV) relation and atrial flutter with 2:1 AV relation. Of fetal SVT, short ventriculo-atrial (VA) interval tachycardia due to atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia is more common than long VA interval. Most fetuses with tachycardia are successfully treated in utero by transplacental administration of antiarrhythmic drugs. Digoxin is widely accepted as a first-line antiarrhythmic drug. Sotalol, flecainide and amiodarone are used as second-line drugs when digoxin fails to achieve conversion to sinus rhythm. Fetal bradycardia is diagnosed when the fetal ventricular heart rate is slower than 100 bpm, mainly due to AV block. Approximately half of all cases are caused by associated congenital heart disease, and the remaining cases that have normal cardiac structure are often caused by maternal SS-A antibody. The efficacy of prenatal treatment for fetal AV block is limited compared with treatment for fetal tachycardia. Beta stimulants and steroids have been reported as effective transplacental treatments for fetal AV block. Perinatal management based on prospective clinical study protocol rather than individual experience is crucial for further improvement of outcome in fetuses with tachycardia and bradycardia. PMID:19751319
Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J
Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety. PMID:24064710
Student pregnancy and maternity: implications for higher education institutions #12;Written Unit Student pregnancy and maternity: implications for higher education institutions © Equality Challenge Unit, November 2010 Contents Introduction 1 Legal protection for students during pregnancy
MacKinnon, Anna L; Gold, Ian; Feeley, Nancy; Hayton, Barbara; Carter, C Sue; Zelkowitz, Phyllis
The present longitudinal study examined the relations between plasma oxytocin, theory of mind, and maternal interactive behavior during the perinatal period. A community sample of women was assessed at 12-14 weeks gestation, 32-34 weeks gestation, and 7-9 weeks postpartum. Oxytocin during late pregnancy was significantly positively correlated with a measure of theory of mind, and predicted theory of mind ability after controlling for parity, maternal education, prenatal psychosocial risk, and general anxiety, measured during the first trimester. Theory of mind was associated with less remote and less depressive maternal interactive behavior. Oxytocin, across all time points, was not directly related to maternal interactive behavior. However, there was a significant indirect effect of oxytocin during late pregnancy on depressive maternal behavior via theory of mind ability. These preliminary findings suggest that changes in the oxytocinergic system during the perinatal period may contribute to the awareness of social cues, which in turn plays a role in maternal interactive behavior. PMID:24995584
Piskorska-Jasiulewicz, Magdalena Maria; Witkowska-Zimny, Ma?gorzata
Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Successful application of hematopoietic stem cells in hematology has led to the search for other sources of stem cells and expanding the scale of their application. Perinatal stem cells are a versatile cell population, and they are interesting for both scientific and practical objectives. Stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in the case of genetic disorders. In this review paper we focus on the extraction and therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from perinatal tissues such as the placenta, the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and Wharton's jelly. PMID:25748624
Ombelet Willem; Peeraer Karen; Petra De Sutter; Gerris Jan; Bosmans Eugene; Martens Guy; Ruyssinck Gunther; Defoort Paul; Molenberghs Geert; Gyselaers Wilfried
A retrospective cohort study was conducted with an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) group and a naturally conceived comparison group. A total of 1655 singleton and 1102 twin ICSI births were studied with regard to perinatal outcome. Control subjects (naturally conceived pregnancies) were selected from a regional registry and were matched for maternal age, parity, place of delivery, year of birth
Ellen Burke Beckjord; Donna J Keyser; Dana Schultz; Susan L Lovejoy; Raymond Firth; Harold Alan Pincus
Depression among pregnant and postpartum women (i.e., perinatal depression) is the number one complication of childbirth.\\u000a The Allegheny County Maternal Depression Initiative aimed to bridge gaps between physical and behavioral health care and improve\\u000a the capacity of local systems of care for identifying and treating women at high risk for perinatal depression. To achieve\\u000a these goals, the collaborative adopted a
Bakketeig, L S; Hoffman, H J
Cross-sectional surveys of perinatal mortality show a U-shaped curve when plotted against parity, implying that fourth and subsequent babies are at increased risk. Our study of a large, population-based longitudinal data set shows that this result is an artefact and that perinatal mortality falls with increasing parity. Within cohorts of mothers based on attained sibship size the perinatal mortality decreases with increasing parity and increases with sibship size. These associations, which are not noticeably affected by maternal age, ssem in part to operate through an association between parity, sibship size, and birth weight. This analysis shows the importance of using longitudinal data in analysing such relations. PMID:509068
Nilofer, Angadi Rajasab; Raju, V. S.; Dakshayini, B. R.; Zaki, Syed Ahmed
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder defined as glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The complications associated with GDM can be prevented by early recognition, intense monitoring and proper treatment. Aims: The present study was done to screen the high-risk pregnancy group for GDM, to find the incidence of abnormal results on screening and to correlate the abnormal results with the maternal and fetal outcomes. The study was done in a tertiary care hospital and teaching institute. It was a prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: Selective screening for GDM was done in 150 pregnant women with high-risk factors. Screening was done with 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) after 18 weeks, and if GCT was negative then the test was repeated after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The patients who were having an abnormal GCT were subjected to 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All GDM patients were followed up and treated with diet and/or insulin therapy till delivery to know maternal and fetal outcomes. The period of study was from April 2008 to March 2009. Results: 7.3% of study population was OGCT positive. 6% of the study population was OGTT positive. Age >25 years, obesity, family history of DM, and past history of GDM were the risk factors significantly associated with GDM. One newborn had hypoglycemia and one had hyperbilirubinemia. The fetal and maternal outcome in GDM patients was good in our study due to early diagnosis and intervention. Conclusion: Women with GDM are at an increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The increased morbidity in GDM is preventable by meticulous antenatal care. PMID:22701851
Thuot, Meggie; Coursol, Marc-André; Nguyen, Sonia; Lacasse-Guay, Vanessa; Beauchesne, Marie-France; Fillion, Anne; Forget, Amélie; Kettani, Fatima-Zohra; Blais, Lucie
BACKGROUND: Only one study has investigated the combined effect of maternal asthma and obesity on perinatal outcomes; however, it did not consider small-for-gestational age and large-for-gestational age infants. OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of obesity on perinatal outcomes among asthmatic women. METHODS: A cohort of 1386 pregnancies from asthmatic women was reconstructed using three of Quebec’s administrative databases and a questionnaire. Women were categorized using their prepregnancy body mass index. Underweight, overweight and obese women were compared with normal weight women. The primary outcome was the birth of a small-for-gestational-age infant, defined as a birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age and sex. Secondary outcomes were large-for-gestational-age infants (birth weight >90th percentile for gestational age) and preterm birth (<37 weeks’ gestation). Logistic regression models were used to obtain the ORs of having small-for-gestational-age infants, large-for-gestational-age infants and preterm birth as a function of body mass index. RESULTS: The proportions of underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese women were 10.8%, 53.3%, 19.7% and 16.2%, respectively. Obese asthmatic women were not found to be significantly more at risk for giving birth to small-for-gestational-age infants (OR 0.6 [95% CI 0.4 to 1.1]), large-for-gestational-age infants (OR 1.2 [95% CI 0.7 to 2.2]) or having a preterm delivery (OR 0.7 [95% CI 0.4 to 1.3]) than normal-weight asthmatic women. CONCLUSIONS: No significant negative interaction between maternal asthma and obesity on adverse perinatal outcomes was observed. PMID:23951559
Thomas, Suzanne D; Hudgins, Jodi L; Sutherland, Donald E; Ange, Brittany L; Mobley, Sandra C
The objective of this methodology note is to examine perinatal program evaluation methods as they relate to the life course health development model (LCHD) and risk reduction for poor birth outcomes. We searched PubMed, CDC, ERIC, and a list from the Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs (AMCHP) to identify sources. We included reports from theory, methodology, program reports, and instruments, as well as reviews of Healthy Start Programs and home visiting. Because our review focused upon evaluation methods we did not include reports that described the Healthy Start Program. The LCHD model demonstrates the non-linear relationships among epigenetic factors and environmental interactions, intentionality or worldview within a values framework, health practices, and observed outcomes in a lifelong developmental health trajectory. The maternal epigenetic and social environment during fetal development sets the stage for the infant's lifelong developmental arc. The LCHD model provides a framework to study challenging maternal child health problems. Research that tracks the long term maternal-infant health developmental trajectory is facilitated by multiple, linked public record systems. Two instruments, the life skills progression instrument and the prenatal risk overview are theoretically consistent with the LCHD and can be adapted for local or population-based use. A figure is included to demonstrate a method of reducing interaction among variables by sample definition. Both in-place local programs and tests of best practices in community-based research are needed to reduce unacceptably high infant mortality. Studies that follow published reporting standards strengthen evidence. PMID:25636650
Levin, Barry E
Epidemiological studies in humans suggest that maternal undernutrition, obesity and diabetes during gestation and lactation can all produce obesity in offspring. Animal models have allowed us to investigate the independent consequences of altering the pre- versus post-natal environments on a variety of metabolic, physiological and neuroendocrine functions as they effect the development in the offspring of obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia (the ‘metabolic syndrome’). During gestation, maternal malnutrition, obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes and psychological, immunological and pharmacological stressors can all promote offspring obesity. Normal post-natal nutrition can reduce the adverse impact of some of these pre-natal factors but maternal high-fat diets, diabetes and increased neonatal access to food all enhance the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in offspring. The outcome of these perturbations of the perinatal environmental is also highly dependent upon the genetic background of the individual. Those with an obesity-prone genotype are more likely to be affected by factors such as maternal obesity and high-fat diets than are obesity-resistant individuals. Many perinatal manipulations appear to promote offspring obesity by permanently altering the development of central neural pathways, which regulate food intake, energy expenditure and storage. Given their strong neurotrophic properties, either excess or an absence of insulin and leptin during the perinatal period are likely to be effectors of these developmental changes. Because obesity is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality and because of its resistance to treatment, prevention is likely to be the best strategy for stemming the tide of the obesity epidemic. Such prevention should begin in the perinatal period with the identification and avoidance of factors which produce permanent, adverse alterations in neural pathways which control energy homeostasis. PMID:16815795
Dejong, Stephanie; Salmanian, Bahram; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A; Ruano, Rodrigo
Prenatal pertussis has become a concern once again with the reappearance of the disease in the USA. A 30-year-old mother whose pregnancy was complicated with fetal arrhythmia was referred for further evaluation in the third trimester. After initial treatment with antiarrhythmic medications due to continued irregular rhythm, she was revisited for persistent hacking cough at 38?weeks gestational age. PCR examination confirmed pertussis diagnosis. Owing to increased risk of digoxin toxicity with concurrent antibiotic administration, antiarrhythmic medication was discontinued. Delivery was induced 2?days after the initiation of azithromycin therapy to prevent the transmission of the disease to the neonate. A well-planned delivery in a patient with prenatal diagnosis prevents neonatal infection while considering the obstetrical dilemma for concurrent management of the intrauterine arrhythmia and antibiotic administration. PMID:26153285
Gunawan Supratikto; Meg E. Wirth; Endang Achadi; Surekha Cohen; Carine Ronsmans
A district-based audit of maternal and perinatal mortality began during 1994 in three provinces of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both medical and non-medical factors were documented and an effort was made to progress from merely assessing substandard care to recommending improvements in access to care and the quality of care. Extensive discussions of cases of maternal death were held during regular
In the United States, federal acts and regulations, as well as professional guidelines, clearly dictate that every pregnant woman has the right to base her maternity care decisions on accurate, up-to-date, comprehensible information. Despite these efforts, evidence suggests that informed consent within current health-care practice is restricted and inconsistently implemented. Patient access to evidence-based research is imperative under the scope of informed consent and is particularly important during a time when perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, interventions, and disparities are on the rise in the United States. This article describes the Coalition for Improving Maternity Services’ investigation of the breakdown of informed consent in maternity care. PMID:19436598
Grief following perinatal loss is just as debilitating as that following the death of an older person and may not be completely resolved for years. The physician's role in assisting parents following perinatal loss is one of a sympathetic listener and compassionate informant, but each category of perinatal loss--miscarriage, stillbirth, neonatal death and sudden infant death syndrome--requires a somewhat different approach. To be of assistance, physicians must understand the normal process of grief and the differences between the reactions of mothers, fathers and siblings. The advent of liberal attitudes to family visiting in perinatal units has helped parents better understand perinatal illness, and appropriate management in the event of perinatal death can greatly benefit the family. PMID:6871800
Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth
Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at 3 months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at 3 months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing. PMID:23216358
Duan, Guiqin; Yao, Meiling; Ma, Yating; Zhang, Wenjing
Perinatal and background risk factors for autism were identified in a cohort of autistic children in Zhengzhou, China, to formulate preventative and treatment strategies for high-risk families. In this case-control study, children were screened for suspected autism using the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). We collected perinatal histories and clinical data of 286 confirmed autistic children treated at the Third Affiliated Hospital Children?s Psychological Clinic of Zhengzhou University from 2011 to 2013. The control group consisted of 286 healthy children from area kindergartens. Maternal age>30 years, parental introversion as measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, low level of parental education, smoking, abortion threat, pregnancy complications, maternal illness during pregnancy, maternal mental health, family history of mental illness, neonatal jaundice, birth asphyxia, premature rupture of the fetal membrane, and gestational age<37 weeks were significantly higher in the autism group. These factors were significantly correlated with behavioral symptoms as measured by ABC scores (Kendall rank correlation). Birth asphyxia, neonatal jaundice, maternal age, parental introversion, family history of mental illness, abortion threat, premature delivery, and smoking were identified as independent risk factors by multivariate logistic regression. PMID:25085792
Zhang, Jun; Branch, D. Ware; Ramirez, Mildred M.; Laughon, S. Katherine; Reddy, Uma; Hoffman, Mathew; Bailit, Jennifer; Kominiarek, Michelle; Chen, Zhen; Hibbard, Judith U.
Objective To examine the effects and safety of high-dose (compared with low-dose) oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation on perinatal outcomes. Methods Data from the Consortium on Safe Labor were used. A total of 15,054 women from six hospitals were eligible for the analysis. Women were grouped based on their oxytocin starting dose and incremental dosing: 1, 2, and 4 mU/min. Duration of labor and a number of maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared among these three groups stratified by parity. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed model were used to adjust for potential confounders. Results Oxytocin regimen did not affect the rate of cesarean delivery or other perinatal outcomes. Compared to 1 mU/min, the regimens starting with 2 mU/min and 4 mU/min reduced the duration of 1st stage by 0.8 hours (95% confidence interval 0.5 – 1.1) and 1.3 hours (1.0 – 1.7), respectively, in nulliparas. No effect was observed on the second stage of labor. Similar patterns were observed in multiparas. High-dose regimen was associated with a reduced risk of meconium stain, chorioamnionitis, and newborn fever in multiparas. Conclusion High-dose oxytocin regimen (starting dose at 4 mU/min and increment of 4 mU/min) is associated with a shorter duration of first stage of labor in all parities without increasing the cesarean delivery rate or adversely affecting perinatal outcomes. PMID:21775839
Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W; Hart, Kimberly J; McCabe, Jennifer E; Williamson, J Austin; Laplante, David P; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne
A systematic investigation of the role of prenatal partner support in perinatal maternal depression was conducted. Separate facets of partner support were examined (i.e., received support and support adequacy) and a multidimensional model of support was applied to investigate the effects of distinct types of support (i.e., informational, physical comfort, emotional/esteem, and tangible support). Both main and stress-buffering models of partner support were tested in the context of prenatal maternal stress resulting from exposure to a natural disaster. Questionnaire data were analyzed from 145 partnered women using growth curve analytic techniques. Results indicate that received support interacts with maternal flood stress during pregnancy to weaken the association between stress and trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Support adequacy did not interact with stress, but was associated with levels of depressive symptoms controlling for maternal stress and received support. Results demonstrate the distinct roles of various facets and types of support for a more refined explanatory model of prenatal partner support and perinatal maternal depression. Results inform both main effect and stress buffering models of partner support as they apply to the etiology of perinatal maternal depression, and highlight the importance of promoting partner support during pregnancy that matches support preferences. PMID:25243576
Derscheid, Rachel J.; Ackermann, Mark R.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of bronchiolitis in infants and children worldwide. Many animal models are used to study RSV, but most studies investigate disease in adult animals which does not address the unique physiology and immunology that makes infants more susceptible. The perinatal (preterm and term) lamb is a useful model of infant RSV disease as lambs have similar pulmonary structure including airway branching, Clara and type II cells, submucosal glands and Duox/lactoperoxidase (LPO) oxidative system, and prenatal alveologenesis. Lambs can be born preterm (90% gestation) and survive for experimentation although both preterm and term lambs are susceptible to ovine, bovine and human strains of RSV and develop clinical symptoms including fever, tachypnea, and malaise as well as mild to moderate gross and histologic lesions including bronchiolitis with epithelial injury, neutrophil infiltration and syncytial cell formation. RSV disease in preterm lambs is more severe than in term lambs; disease is progressively less in adults and age-dependent susceptibility is a feature similar to humans. Innate and adaptive immune responses by perinatal lambs closely parallel those of infants. The model is used to test therapeutic regimens, risk factors such as maternal ethanol consumption, and formalin inactivated RSV vaccines. PMID:23202468
Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Bullock, Linda; Bhandari, Shreya; Ghazarian, Sharon; Udo, Ifeyinwa E.; Campbell, Jacquelyn
OBJECTIVES: Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy affects 0.9% to 17% of women and affects maternal health significantly. The impact of IPV extends to the health of children, including an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and the neonatal period, mental health problems, and cognitive delays. Despite substantial sequelae, there is limited research substantiating best practices for engaging and retaining high-risk families in perinatal home visiting (HV) programs, which have been shown to improve infant development and reduce maltreatment. METHODS: The Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program (DOVE) is a multistate longitudinal study testing the effectiveness of a structured IPV intervention integrated into health department perinatal HV programs. The DOVE intervention, based on an empowerment model, combined 2 evidence-based interventions: a 10-minute brochure-based IPV intervention and nurse home visitation. RESULTS: Across all sites, 689 referrals were received from participating health departments. A total of 339 abused pregnant women were eligible for randomization; 42 women refused, and 239 women were randomly assigned (124 DOVE; 115 usual care), resulting in a 71% recruitment rate. Retention rates from baseline included 93% at delivery, 80% at 3 months, 76% at 6 months, and 72% at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Challenges for HV programs include identifying and retaining abused pregnant women in their programs. DOVE strategies for engaging and retaining abused pregnant women should be integrated into HV programs’ federal government mandates for the appropriate identification and intervention of women and children exposed to IPV. PMID:24187115
Lindsay, M K
The number of perinatal AIDS cases in the United States decreased dramatically from 1985 to 1997. This public health success can be attributed to collaboration among researchers, clinicians, HIV-positive pregnant women, and advocacy groups, and to much greater knowledge about how HIV is transmitted from mothers to their infants. HIV transmission in this group can occur during the antepartum, intrapartum, or postpartum period. The strongest predictor of intrapartum transmission is maternal viral load. Antiretroviral regimens used to prevent transmission are described, including the ACTG 076 AZT regimen, abbreviated regimens, and combination therapy. The safety of anti-HIV drugs during pregnancy has not been well documented. Modified obstetrical practices, such as avoiding fetal scalp electrodes as well as artificial rupture of membranes, play a role in preventing HIV transmission during birth. PMID:11366712
Britt, Rodney D.; Faksh, Arij; Vogel, Elizabeth; Martin, Richard J.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y.S.
Wheezing and asthma are significant clinical problems for infants and young children, particularly following premature birth. Recurrent wheezing in infants can progress to persistent asthma. As in adults, altered airway structure (remodeling) and function (increased bronchoconstriction) are also important in neonatal and pediatric airway diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that airway disease in children is influenced by perinatal factors including perturbations in normal fetal lung development, postnatal interventions in the intensive care unit, and environmental and other insults in the neonatal period. Here, in addition to genetics, maternal health, environmental processes, innate immunity, and impaired lung development/function can all influence pathogenesis of airway disease in children. We summarize current understanding of how prenatal and postnatal factors can contribute to development of airway diseases in neonates and children. Understanding these mechanisms will help identify and develop novel therapies for childhood airway diseases. PMID:24090092
Periviable birth: executive summary of a Joint Workshop by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Raju, T N K; Mercer, B M; Burchfield, D J; Joseph, G F
This is an executive summary of a workshop on the management and counseling issues of women anticipated to deliver at a periviable gestation (broadly defined as 20 0/7 through 25 6/7 weeks of gestation), and the treatment options for the newborn. Upon review of the available literature, the workshop panel noted that the rates of neonatal survival and neurodevelopmental disabilities among the survivors vary greatly across the periviable gestations and are significantly influenced by the obstetric and neonatal management practices (for example, antenatal steroid, tocolytic agents and antibiotic administration; cesarean birth; and local protocols for perinatal care, neonatal resuscitation and intensive care support). These are, in turn, influenced by the variations in local and regional definitions of limits of viability. Because of the complexities in making difficult management decisions, obstetric and neonatal teams should confer prior to meeting with the family, when feasible. Family counseling should be coordinated with the goal of creating mutual trust, respect and understanding, and should incorporate evidence-based counseling methods. Since clinical circumstances can change rapidly with increasing gestational age, counseling should include discussion of the benefits and risks of various maternal and neonatal interventions at the time of counseling. There should be a plan for follow-up counseling as clinical circumstances evolve. The panel proposed a research agenda and recommended developing educational curricula on the care and counseling of families facing the birth of a periviable infant. PMID:24722647
Periviable birth: executive summary of a joint workshop by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Raju, Tonse N K; Mercer, Brian M; Burchfield, David J; Joseph, Gerald F
This is an executive summary of a workshop on the management and counseling issues of women anticipated to deliver at a periviable gestation (broadly defined as 20 0/7 through 25 6/7 weeks of gestation), and the treatment options for the newborn. Upon review of the available literature, the workshop panel noted that the rates of neonatal survival and neurodevelopmental disabilities among the survivors vary greatly across the periviable gestations and are significantly influenced by the obstetric and neonatal management practices (eg, antenatal steroid, tocolytic agents, and antibiotic administration; cesarean birth; and local protocols for perinatal care, neonatal resuscitation, and intensive care support). These are, in turn, influenced by the variations in local and regional definitions of limits of viability. Because of the complexities in making difficult management decisions, obstetric and neonatal teams should confer prior to meeting with the family, when feasible. Family counseling should be coordinated with the goal of creating mutual trust, respect, and understanding and should incorporate evidence-based counseling methods. Since clinical circumstances can change rapidly with increasing gestational age, counseling should include discussion of the benefits and risks of various maternal and neonatal interventions at the time of counseling. There should be a plan for follow-up counseling as clinical circumstances evolve. The panel proposed a research agenda and recommended developing educational curricula on the care and counseling of families facing the birth of a periviable infant. PMID:24785861
Meredith R. Golomb; Bhuwan P. Garg; Chandan Saha; Faouzi Azzouz; Linda S. Williams
The frequency of cerebral palsy, degree of disability, and predictors of disability were assessed in children in a perinatal arterial stroke database. Risk factors were assessed at the univariate level using the Pearson ?2 and Fisher exact test and at the multivariate level using logistic regression analysis. Seventy-six of 111 children with perinatal stroke (68%) had cerebral palsy, most commonly
Naima Sebaai; Jean Lesage; Abdelilah Alaoui; Jean-Paul Dupouy; Sylvie Deloof
Objective: The first aim of this work was to investigate, under basal conditions in adult male rats, the long-term consequences of perinatal maternal food restriction on the plasma concentrations of vaso- pressin (VP), aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and on plasma renin activity (PRA). Furthermore, under these same conditions, the hypothalamic VP gene expression as well as the density
Kennedy, Holly Powell
Communication and teamwork problems are leading causes of documented preventable adverse outcomes in perinatal care. An essential component of perinatal safety is the organizational culture in which clinicians work. Clinicians’ individual and collective authority to question the plan of care and take action to change the direction of a clinical situation in the patient’s best interest can be viewed as their “agency for safety.” However, collective agency for safety and commitment to support nurses in their advocacy role is missing in many perinatal care settings. This paper draws from Organizational Accident Theory, High Reliability Theory, and Symbolic Interactionism to describe the nurse’s role in maintaining safety during labor and birth in acute care settings, and suggests actions for supporting the perinatal nurse at individual, group, and systems levels to achieve maximum safety in perinatal care. PMID:20147827
Background Gut flora are important immunomodulators that may be disrupted in individuals with atopic conditions. Probiotic bacteria have been suggested as therapeutic modalities to mitigate or prevent food allergic manifestations. We wished to investigate whether perinatal factors known to disrupt gut flora increase the risk of IgE-mediated food allergies. Methods Birth records obtained from 192 healthy children and 99 children diagnosed with food allergies were reviewed retrospectively. Data pertaining to delivery method, perinatal antibiotic exposure, neonatal nursery environment, and maternal variables were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between variables of interest and subsequent food allergy diagnosis. Results Retrospective investigation did not find perinatal antibiotics, NICU admission, or cesarean section to be associated with increased risk of food allergy diagnosis. However, associations between food allergy diagnosis and male gender (66 vs. 33; p=0.02) were apparent in this cohort. Additionally, increasing maternal age at delivery was significantly associated with food allergy diagnosis during childhood (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.017 to 1.105; p=0.005). Conclusions Gut flora are potent immunomodulators, but their overall contribution to immune maturation remains to be elucidated. Additional understanding of the interplay between immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors underlying food allergy development need to be clarified before probiotic therapeutic interventions can routinely be recommended for prevention or mitigation of food allergies. Such interventions may be well-suited in male infants and in infants born to older mothers. PMID:23078601
Chris L. Gibson; Alex R. Piquero; Stephen G. Tibbetts
Several types of pre- and perinatal risk factors, such as maternal cigarette smoking, are related to various manifestations of life-course-persistent criminal offending. Studies have reported evidence of a relationship between maternal prenatal cigarette smoking and antisocial\\/criminal behavior. All of these studies, however, used white male samles, thus limiting the generalizability of research findings. In an attempt to overcome this problem,
Siamak Aghlmand; Feizollah Akbari; Aboulfath Lameei; Kazem Mohammad; Rhonda Small; Mohammad Arab
BACKGROUND: Current Iranian perinatal statistics indicate that maternity care continues to need improvement. In response, we implemented a multi-faceted intervention to improve the quality of maternity care at an Iranian Social Security Hospital. Using a before-and-after design our aim was to improve the uptake of selected evidence based practices and more closely attend to identified women's needs and preferences. METHODS:
Badell, Martina L.; Kachikis, Alisa; Haddad, Lisa B.; Nguyen, Minh Ly; Lindsay, Michael
As perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) women reach reproductive age, there is an increasing number who become pregnant. This is a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected women who delivered from June 2007 to July 2012 at our institution. Maternal demographics, HIV characteristics, and obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared. 20 PHIV and 80 SHIV pregnancies were reviewed. The groups had similar CD4+ counts, prevalence of AIDS, and use of antiretrovirals (ARV) at initiation of obstetrical care. PHIV women were significantly more likely to be younger, have a detectable viral load (35% versus 74%, P < 0.01), and have HIV-genotype resistance (40% versus 12%, P < 0.01) than the SHIV women. The median gestational age at delivery (38 weeks) and rates of obstetrical and neonatal complications were similar between the groups. While the overall rate of cesarean delivery (CD) was similar, the rates for CD due to HIV were higher in the PHIV group (64% versus 22%, P < 0.01). There was one case (5.3%) of mother-to-child transmission in the PHIV group versus two cases (2.6%) in the SHIV group. In our population, PHIV pregnant women have a higher rate of HIV-genotype resistance and higher rate of detectable viral load leading to a higher rate of CD secondary to HIV. PMID:24106419
Bolton, Jessica L; Bilbo, Staci D
Obesity is now epidemic worldwide. Beyond associated diseases such as diabetes, obesity is linked to neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Alarmingly maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption during gestation/lactation may "program" offspring longterm for increased obesity themselves, along with increased vulnerability to mood disorders. We review the evidence that programming of brain and behavior by perinatal diet is propagated by inflammatory mechanisms, as obesity and high-fat diets are independently associated with exaggerated systemic levels of inflammatory mediators. Due to the recognized dual role of these immune molecules (eg, interleukin [IL]-6, 11-1?) in placental function and brain development, any disruption of their delicate balance with growth factors or neurotransmitters (eg, serotonin) by inflammation early in life can permanently alter the trajectory of fetal brain development. Finally, epigenetic regulation of inflammatory pathways is a likely candidate for persistent changes in metabolic and brain function as a consequence of the perinatal environment. PMID:25364282
Bolton, Jessica L.; Bilbo, Staci D.
Obesity is now epidemic worldwide. Beyond associated diseases such as diabetes, obesity is linked to neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Alarmingly maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption during gestation/lactation may “program” offspring longterm for increased obesity themselves, along with increased vulnerability to mood disorders. We review the evidence that programming of brain and behavior by perinatal diet is propagated by inflammatory mechanisms, as obesity and high-fat diets are independently associated with exaggerated systemic levels of inflammatory mediators. Due to the recognized dual role of these immune molecules (eg, interleukin [IL]-6, 11-1?) in placental function and brain development, any disruption of their delicate balance with growth factors or neurotransmitters (eg, serotonin) by inflammation early in life can permanently alter the trajectory of fetal brain development. Finally, epigenetic regulation of inflammatory pathways is a likely candidate for persistent changes in metabolic and brain function as a consequence of the perinatal environment. PMID:25364282
P. Rubio; F. Rodríguez de Fonseca; R. M. Muñoz; C. Ariznavarreta; J. L. Martin-Calderón; M. Navarro
This work evaluated motor behaviors in adult male and female rats exposed to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 5 mg\\/kg) during gestation and lactation. The possibility that perinatal THC exposure induces sensitization to other drugs of abuse has also been addressed by evaluating morphine place preference conditioning (MPP) in the adult offspring. Maternal exposure to THC resulted in long-term effects on motor behaviors
Schuurmans, C; Kurrasch, D M
A simple internet search of 'maternal stress and pregnancy' turns up hundreds of hits explaining that an adverse intrauterine environment can affect fetal development and potentially lead to various learning, behavioral, and mood disorders in childhood, as well as complex diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular conditions later in life. Indeed, a growing body of literature now links several intrauterine challenges, including maternal obesity and stress, with adverse developmental outcomes in the child. Over the past 5 years, nearly 5000 publications have explored the consequences of maternal distress on young offspring, a marked increase from the 475 published studies over a comparable period 20 years ago. Yet, despite this explosion of research and widespread warnings to pregnant mothers, we still lack a basic understanding of the pathophysiology linking adverse maternal health to the onset of disease in the child, especially regarding how prenatal and perinatal challenges might affect brain development. Recent studies have begun to explore the cellular basis of the abnormal brain cytoarchitecture associated with fetal exposure to intrauterine challenges. Here, our goal is to review the scientific evidence that maternal distress interferes with key neurodevelopmental steps, as an entry point toward mapping the pathophysiology of pre- and perinatal stress on the unborn child's brain. PMID:23140231
Martin Agnoux, Aurore; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Boquien, Clair-Yves; David, Agnes; Desnots, Emmanuelle; Ferchaud-Roucher, Veronique; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile
Perinatal undernutrition affects not only fetal and neonatal growth but also adult health outcome, as suggested by the metabolic imprinting concept. Although maternal milk is the only channel through which nutrients are transferred from mother to offspring during the postnatal period, the impact of maternal undernutrition on milk composition is poorly understood. The present study investigates, in a rat model of nutritional programming, the effects of feeding an isocaloric, low-protein diet throughout gestation and lactation on milk composition and its possible consequences on offspring's growth and metabolic status. We used an integrated methodological approach that combined targeted analyses of macronutrients, free amino acid and fatty acid content throughout lactation, with an untargeted mass-spectrometric-based metabolomic phenotyping. Whereas perinatal dietary protein restriction failed to alter milk protein content, it dramatically decreased the concentration of most free amino acids at the end of lactation. Interestingly, a decrease of several amino acids involved in insulin secretion or gluconeogenesis was observed, suggesting that maternal protein restriction during the perinatal period may impact the insulinotrophic effect of milk, which may, in turn, account for the slower growth of the suckled male offspring. Besides, the decrease in sulfur amino acids may alter redox status in the offspring. Maternal undernutrition was also associated with an increase in milk total fatty acid content, with modifications in their pattern. Altogether, our results show that milk composition is clearly influenced by maternal diet and suggest that alterations in milk composition may play a role in offspring growth and metabolic programming. PMID:25935308
Murphy, Elisabeth; Best, Elizabeth
The Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service was established to improve the health of Aboriginal women during pregnancy and decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality for Aboriginal babies. The Service is delivered through a continuity-of-care model, where midwives and Aboriginal Health Workers collaborate to provide a high quality maternity service that is culturally sensitive, women centred, based on primary health-care principles and provided in partnership with Aboriginal people. An evaluation of the Service found that the program is achieving its goals in relation to the provision of antenatal and postnatal care and has demonstrated improvements in perinatal morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:22697102
This article is a continuation in the author's growing series of articles on intimacy and sexuality in the transition to parenthood and its relationship with perinatal education. So many couples in the author's perinatal education practice feel that health professionals are uncomfortable discussing sex and pregnancy. Indeed, the couples have so many questions and concerns regarding this subject; they are seeking answers so that they may better understand and cope with the changes in this aspect of their relationship. Perinatal education group encounters or special sessions are the ideal setting to discuss intimacy and sexuality during pregnancy. The objectives of this article are to provide the perinatal educator with content for the group sessions and tools for teaching strategies and activities. PMID:17273227
O'Hara, Michael W; Wisner, Katherine L
Perinatal mental illness is a significant complication of pregnancy and the postpartum period. These disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, and postpartum psychosis, which usually manifests as bipolar disorder. Perinatal depression and anxiety are common, with prevalence rates for major and minor depression up to almost 20% during pregnancy and the first 3 months postpartum. Postpartum blues are a common but lesser manifestation of postpartum affective disturbance. Perinatal psychiatric disorders impair a woman's function and are associated with suboptimal development of her offspring. Risk factors include past history of depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder, as well psychosocial factors, such as ongoing conflict with the partner, poor social support, and ongoing stressful life events. Early symptoms of depression, anxiety, and mania can be detected through screening in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Early detection and effective management of perinatal psychiatric disorders are critical for the welfare of women and their offspring. PMID:24140480
Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...
Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.
This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.
Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Bomba-Opo?, Dorota; Brazert, Jacek; Celewicz, Zbigniew; Czajkowski, Krzysztof; Karowicz-Bili?ska, Agata; Malinowska-Polubiec, Aneta; Meczekalski, B?azej; Zawiejska, Agnieszka
Maternal obesity (defined as prepregnancy maternal BMI> or = 30 kg/m2) is a risk factor strongly associated with serious perinatal complications and its prevalence has increased rapidly in a general population during the last decades. Therefore, following international approach to regulate perinatal care in this population, Group of Experts of Polish Gynecological Society developed these new guidelines concerning perinatal care in obese pregnant women, including women after bariatric surgery. The recommendations cover detailed information on specific needs and risks associated with obesity in women of reproductive age, pregnancy planning, antenatal care, screening, prophylaxis and treatment for other pregnancy complications characteristic for maternal obesity fetal surveillance, intrapartum care and post-partum follow-up. Pregnancy planning in these patients should involve dietary recommendations aiming at well balanced diet and daily caloric uptake below 2000 kcal and modest but regular physical activity with sessions every two days starting from 15 min and increased gradually to 40 min. Laboratory work-up should include tests recommended in general population plus fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance if necessary thyroid function, lipidprofile, blood pressure and ECG. Patients after bariatric surgery should allow at least one year before they conceive and have their diet fortified with iron, folic acid, calcium and vit. B12. Antenatal care should include monitoring body weight gain with a target increase in body weight less than 7 kg, thromboprophylaxis, strict monitoring of blood pressure and diagnostic for gestational diabetes in early pregnancy. Fetal ultrasonic scans should be arranged following protocols recommended by US section of Polish Gynaecological Society with additional scan assessing fetal growth performed within 7 days before delivery and aiming at assessing a risk for shoulder dystocia in a patient. Intrapartum care should be delivered in referral centers where fetal and maternal intrapartum complications can be addressed, preferably equipped with a proper medical equipment necessary to deal safely with extremely heavy individuals. Medical staff taking intrapartum care for obese parturient should be also aware of reduced reliability of methods used for intrapartum fetal surveillance, increased risk for intrapartum fetal death, maternal injuries, postpartum haemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, thrombophlebitis and infection. Pediatrician should be also available due to increased neonatal morbidity mainly due to meconium aspiration syndrome, hypoglycemia, and respiratory distress syndrome. In puerperium, medical staff should be prepared to deal with breastfeeding disturbances and increased maternal mortality. PMID:23383569
Weber, Kerstin; Canuto, Alessandra; Toma, Simona; Bonnet, Jocelyne; Epiney, Manuella; Girard, Elodie
The period of mourning after perinatal loss is not synonym for depression. The article illustrates a way of caring for bereaved parents, which takes into account the temporality and individual nature of the bereavement process. The use of rituals and symbolic gestures allows for calling into existence the loss of a human being, who is gone without leaving many reminders. Psychotherapeutic care by the liaison-psychiatric service is part of the multidisciplinary care program proposed by the maternity of the University Hospitals of Geneva. These encounters offer parents the possibility to continue to include the dead in the membership of our lives. PMID:24620464
Harbert, Mary J.; Jett, Micaela; Appelbaum, Mark; Nass, Ruth; Trauner, Doris A.
Objective. Survivors of perinatal stroke may be at risk for behavioral problems. Perinatal risk factors that might increase the likelihood of later behavior problems have not been identified. The goal of this study was to explore whether perinatal factors might contribute to behavior problems after perinatal stroke. Methods. 79 children with unilateral perinatal stroke were studied. Perinatal factors included gender, gestational age, neonatal seizures, instrumented delivery, fetal distress, acute birth problems, birth weight, and time of diagnosis. Subjects with evidence of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were excluded. Parents completed the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (Achenbach 1985). The CBCL yields T-scores in several symptom scales. We focused on Social, Thought, and Attention Problems scates. Results. Gestational age and the presence of uteroplacental insufficiency were associated with significant differences on the Thought Problems scale; Attention Problems scores approached significance for these variables. Fetal distress, neonatal seizures, or neonatal diagnosis was associated with 25–30% incidence of clinically significant T-scores on Social, Thought, and Attention Problems scales. Conclusions. Several perinatal factors were associated with a high incidence of social, thought, and behavior problems in children with perinatal stroke. These findings may be useful in anticipatory guidance to parents and physicians caring for these children. PMID:22685688
Boxall, E; Sira, J; Standish, R; Davies, P; Sleight, E; Dhillon, A; Scheuer, P; Kelly, D
Objectives: To establish natural seroconversion rates and incidence of hepatic pathology in perinatally infected hepatitis B carriers. Methods: Seventy three perinatally infected hepatitis B carriers identified through maternal screening were evaluated. Fifty three were born to parents from the Indian subcontinent, nine were Oriental, six were Afro-Caribbean, and five were white. Median follow up was 10.24 (range 2.02–20.16) years. Results: Only three of the children followed up had cleared hepatitis B surface antigen during this period, and 30% of the children had seroconverted to anti-HBe. Seroconversions to anti-HBe were observed in Asian (18/50) and white (4/5) children, but not in Oriental or Afro-Caribbean children. More girls (40%) than boys (23%) had seroconverted, but the difference was not significant. All children were asymptomatic with normal physical examination, growth, and development. Almost half (48%) of the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive children had normal hepatic transaminases and liver function. Thirty five liver biopsies were performed in children with active virus replication (HBeAg or hepatitis B virus DNA positive) who were being considered for antiviral treatment as part of a clinical trial and were scored using the Ishak method. Two thirds (62%) of the children had mild hepatitis, 60% had mild fibrosis, and 18% had moderate to severe fibrosis. There was a weak correlation between histological evidence of hepatitis and hepatic transaminase activity, implying that biochemical monitoring of hepatic disease activity may be ineffective. Conclusions: These asymptomatic hepatitis B virus carrier children remain infectious in the medium to long term with notable liver pathology. They should receive antiviral treatment to reduce infectivity and to prevent further progression of liver disease. Hepatic transaminases alone are not a reliable marker of liver pathology, and liver histology is essential before consideration for antiviral treatment. PMID:15321970
Price, Sarah Kye; Masho, Saba W
Perinatal depression screening has become an imperative for maternal and child health (MCH) home visitation programs. However, contextual life experiences and situational life stress may be equally important in determining program response. As one component of a larger research study with an urban MCH home visitation program, we examined the results from multiple measures of depression and anxiety symptoms, social support and stressful life events in a sample of 30 newly enrolled program participants. We compared commonly used tools in identifying women who were "at risk" for perinatal depression. The analysis used published and agency practice cut-off scores, examined correlations between measures, and reflected on the role of stressful life events in this assessment. In this low-income, predominantly African-American sample, the assessed tools were inconsistent in identifying "at risk" women for perinatal depression, ranging from 22 % (Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale) to 75 % (Center for Epidemiological Studies, Depression Scale) depending on the instrument. Depression and anxiety were correlated across most measures, although provider-collected data did not correlate as anticipated with other measures. The combination of screening for perinatal depression and stressful life events offered an additional perspective on possible symptom alleviation and psychosocial intervention that could occur within the home visiting program. Our experience suggests that introducing a brief inventory of stressful life events accompanying perinatal depression screening allowed for a more comprehensive understanding of women's experiences than perinatal depression screening alone. We encourage psychosocial risk screening which integrates assessment of social support, stressful life events and perinatal depression symptoms. PMID:23793488
Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Rummens, Joanna Anneke
Canadian healthcare insurance is not universal for all newcomer populations. New immigrant, refugee claimant, and migrant women face various barriers to healthcare due to the lack of public health insurance coverage. This retrospective study explored the relationships between insurance status and various perinatal outcomes. Researchers examined and compared perinatal outcomes for 453 uninsured and provincially insured women who delivered at two general hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area between 2007 and 2010. Data on key perinatal health indicators were collected via chart review of hospital medical records. Comparisons were made with regional statistics and professional guidelines where available. Four-in-five uninsured pregnant women received less-than-adequate prenatal care. More than half of them received clearly inadequate prenatal care, and 6.5% received no prenatal care at all. Insurance status was also related to the type of health care provider, reason for caesarean section, neonatal resuscitation rates, and maternal length of hospital stay. Uninsured mothers experienced a higher percentage of caesarian sections due to abnormal fetal heart rates and required more neonatal resuscitations. No significant difference was found for low birth weight, preterm birth, NCIU admissions, postpartum hemorrhage, breast feeding, or intrapartum care provided. PMID:23727901
Hamza, Iqbal; Faisst, Anja; Prohaska, Joseph; Chen, Joseph; Gruss, Peter; Gitlin, Jonathan D.
Copper plays a fundamental role in the biochemistry of all aerobic organisms. The delivery of this metal to specific intracellular targets is mediated by metallochaperones. To elucidate the role of the metallochaperone Atox1, we analyzed mice with a disruption of the Atox1 locus. Atox1?/? mice failed to thrive immediately after birth, with 45% of pups dying before weaning. Surviving animals exhibited growth failure, skin laxity, hypopigmentation, and seizures because of perinatal copper deficiency. Maternal Atox1 deficiency markedly increased the severity of Atox1?/? phenotype, resulting in increased perinatal mortality as well as severe growth retardation and congenital malformations among surviving Atox1?/? progeny. Furthermore, Atox1-deficient cells accumulated high levels of intracellular copper, and metabolic studies indicated that this defect was because of impaired cellular copper efflux. Taken together, these data reveal a direct role for Atox1 in trafficking of intracellular copper to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells and demonstrate that this metallochaperone plays a critical role in perinatal copper homeostasis. PMID:11391006
National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
Providing several examples of current research efforts, this report describes the research on maternal and child health supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The Institute conducts a coordinated program of research and research training to advance knowledge related to pregnancy and maternal health,…
Sharma, Shri Ram; Sharma, Nalini; Masaraf, Hussain; Singh, Santa A.
Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is rare in pregnancy with an estimated incidence between 1.2 and 1.9 cases per 100,000 people annually, and it is generally accepted that it carries a high maternal risk. Most reports of GBS with pregnancy are case reports only. Aim: Purpose of this retrospective study was to find the correlation between pregnancy and GBS. Settings and Design: Records of patients admitted in neurology division were analyzed in a tertiary care teaching hospital in the northeastern Indian pregnant female population with GBS between 15-49 years during the period of 2009-2013. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the records of 47 patients with pregnancy and GBS, evaluated and treated in our institute from August 2009 to December 2013. This is retrospective observational study done in North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences (NEIGRIHMS), India. Result: Predominant form of GBS was acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). The weakness started from the lower limbs in majority of patients. Ten percent of women had bifacial weakness. Most of patients had good maternal and fetal outcome. Two patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Only two patient required ventilator supports and one patient had intrauterine death (IUD) and died due to respiratory failure. Conclusion: Our results indicate that risk of GBS increases in third trimester and first 2 weeks after delivery. Demyelinating variety of GBS was common in our population. GBS natural course during pregnancy is mild and showed quick recovery. Maternal and perinatal outcome was good. PMID:26019422
Wynn, Adriane; Cabeza, Jeanne; Adachi, Kristina; Needleman, Jack; Garcia, Patricia J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.
Objective This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru’s progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. The outcomes were recorded by a trained mid-wife through telephone interviews with patients and by review of hospital records. Associations between participant demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were tested with Chi-squared, Fisher’s exact, or Student’s t-test. Results Over 37% of women experienced at least one maternal or perinatal complication, and the most frequent were hypertension/preeclampsia and macrosomia. The women in our sample had a cesarean section rate of 50.2%. Conclusion Maternal and perinatal complications are not uncommon among women in the lower socioeconomic strata of Lima. Also, the high cesarean rate underpins the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the indications for cesarean section deliveries, which could help reduce the number of unnecessary procedures and preventable complications. PMID:25806522
Martha H Roper; Jos H Vandelaer; François L Gasse
Maternal and neonatal tetanus are important causes of maternal and neonatal mortality, claiming about 180 000 lives worldwide every year, almost exclusively in developing countries. Although easily prevented by maternal immunisation with tetanus toxoid vaccine, and aseptic obstetric and postnatal umbilical-cord care practices, maternal and neonatal tetanus persist as public-health problems in 48 countries, mainly in Asia and Africa. Survival
Background The outcomes for women who give birth in hospital compared with at home are the subject of ongoing debate. We aimed to determine whether a retrospective linked data study using routinely collected data was a viable means to compare perinatal and maternal outcomes and interventions in labour by planned place of birth at the onset of labour in one Australian state. Methods A population-based cohort study was undertaken using routinely collected linked data from the New South Wales Perinatal Data Collection, Admitted Patient Data Collection, Register of Congenital Conditions, Registry of Birth Deaths and Marriages and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Eight years of data provided a sample size of 258,161 full-term women and their infants. The primary outcome was a composite outcome of neonatal mortality and morbidity as used in the Birthplace in England study. Results Women who planned to give birth in a birth centre or at home were significantly more likely to have a normal labour and birth compared with women in the labour ward group. There were no statistically significant differences in stillbirth and early neonatal deaths between the three groups, although we had insufficient statistical power to test reliably for these differences. Conclusion This study provides information to assist the development and evaluation of different places of birth across Australia. It is feasible to examine perinatal and maternal outcomes by planned place of birth using routinely collected linked data, although very large data sets will be required to measure rare outcomes associated with place of birth in a low risk population, especially in countries like Australia where homebirth rates are low. PMID:24929250
Berggren, Erica K.; Mele, Lisa; Landon, Mark B.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Ramin, Susan M.; Casey, Brian; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Sciscione, Anthony; Catalano, Patrick; Harper, Margaret; Saade, George; Caritis, Steve N.; Sorokin, Yoram; Peaceman, Alan M.; Tolosa, Jorge E.
OBJECTIVE To compare perinatal outcomes between self-identified Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or glucose intolerance. METHODS In a secondary analysis of a mild GDM treatment trial, we compared perinatal outcomes by race and ethnicity for 767 women with glucose intolerance (abnormal 50g 1-hour screen, normal 100g 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]), 371 women with mild GDM assigned to usual prenatal care, and 397 women with mild GDM assigned to treatment. Outcomes included: composite adverse perinatal outcome (neonatal death, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, hyperinsulinemia; stillbirth; birth trauma), gestational age at delivery, birthweight, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Adjusted regression models included: 100g 3-hour OGTT results; parity; gestational age, body mass index, maternal age at enrollment; and current tobacco use. RESULTS The sample of 1535 women was 68.3% Hispanic and 31.7% non-Hispanic White. Among women with glucose intolerance, Hispanic women had more frequent composite outcome (37% vs. 27%, aOR 1.62 95%CI 1.10, 2.37), with more neonatal elevated C-cord peptide (19% vs. 13%, aOR 1.79 95%CI 1.04, 3.08) and neonatal hypoglycemia (21% vs. 13%, aOR 2.04 95%CI 1.18, 3.53). Among women with untreated mild GDM, outcomes were similar by race/ethnicity. Among Hispanic women with treated mild GDM, composite outcome was similar to non-Hispanic White women (35% vs. 25%, aOR 1.62 95% CI 0.92, 2.86), but Hispanic neonates had more frequent hyperinsulinemia (21% vs. 10%, aOR 2.96 95%CI 1.33, 6.60). CONCLUSION Individual components of some neonatal outcomes were more frequent in Hispanic neonates, but most perinatal outcomes were similar between Hispanic and non-Hispanic ethnic groups. PMID:23090528
Wassimi, Spogmai; Mchugh, Nancy G. L.; Wilkins, Russell; Heaman, Maureen; Martens, Patricia; Smylie, Janet; Simonet, Fabienne; Fraser, William D; Luo, Zhong-Cheng
Objective Little is known about community remoteness in relation to birth outcomes among Indigenous populations. We assessed whether community remoteness matters for perinatal outcomes and infant mortality in Quebec First Nations communities. Study Design A retrospective cohort study of all births (n=11,033) to residents of First Nations communities in Quebec 1991–2000, using linked vital statistics data. First Nations communities were grouped by community remoteness into four zones from the least to most remote. Results Preterm birth rates declined progressively from the least remote (8.0%) to the most remote (5.7%) zones (p=0.002). In contrast, total fetal and infant mortality rose progressively from the least remote (10.4 per 1000) to the most remote (22.7 per 1000) zones (p<0.001). The excess infant mortality in the more remote zones was mainly due to higher rates of postneonatal mortality. Similar patterns were observed after adjusting for maternal age, education, parity and marital status. Substantially elevated risks in most remote communities remained for perinatal death (adjusted OR=2.1), postneonatal death (adjusted OR=2.7), and total fetal and infant death (adjusted OR=2.3). Conclusion Living in more remote First Nations communities was associated with a substantially higher risk of fetal and infant death, especially postneonatal death, despite a lower risk of preterm delivery. There is a need for more effective perinatal and infant care programs in more remote First Nations communities to reduce perinatal and infant mortality. PMID:22282717
Hazen, Andrea L.; Baker-Ericzén, Mary J.; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
Abstract Background The perinatal period provides unique opportunities to identify and intervene with the co-occurrence of perinatal depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and substance use problems. Psychosocial screening recommended for women seen in maternal child health settings tends to target single rather than multiple risk factors; there is limited research examining the co-occurrence of these issues especially in racially and ethnically diverse women across the perinatal period. These analyses explore the relationships of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics in a large, diverse sample of women. Method Women receiving perinatal services at routinely scheduled visits, including the 6-week postpartum visit, were recruited from 10 community obstetric/gynecologic clinics. Data were collected on perinatal depression, IPV, maternal substance use, and sociodemographic characteristics by bilingual, bicultural research assistants. Results A total of 1868 women were screened, 1526 (82%) Latina, 1099 (58.8%) interviewed in Spanish; 20.4% (n=382) screened positive for depressive symptoms based on an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or above, 20.9% reported harmful drinking, 4.3% reported drug use, 23% reported substance use problems, and 3.5% reported current or recent IPV. Women who were Black, Asian, Pacific Islander, or other race/ethnicity had greater odds for depressive symptoms relative to women who were Hispanic or Latino (odds ratio [OR]=1.81, p=0.005). Women reporting substance use problems (OR=2.37, p<0.0001) and IPV (OR=3.98, p<0.0001) had higher odds for depressive symptoms. Conclusion In a predominately Latina sample, 1 in 5 mothers (20.4%) screened positive for depressive symptoms and over one third (36.7%) reported one or more psychosocial issues during the perinatal period. Screening for multiple risk factors rather than just one can help clinicians tailor interventions for the successful management of psychosocial issues. PMID:23931153
Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Carroll, Julie
Deficits in auditory processing have been posited as one of the underlying neurodevelopmental consequences of maternal smoking during pregnancy that leads to later language and reading deficits. Fast auditory brainstem responses were used to assess differences in the sensory processing of auditory stimuli among infants with varying degrees of prenatal cigarette exposure. Maternal report of consumption of cigarettes and blood samples were collected in the hospital to assess exposure levels and participants were then seen at 6-months. To participate in the study, all infants had to pass the newborn hearing exam or a clinically administered ABR and have no known health problems. After controlling for participant age, maternal smoking during pregnancy was negatively related to latency of auditory brainstem responses. Of several potential covariates, only perinatal complications and maternal alcohol use were also related to latency of the ABR responses and maternal smoking level accounted for significant unique variance after controlling for these factors. These results suggest that the relationship between maternal smoking may lead to disruption in the sensory encoding of auditory stimuli. PMID:19224709
Stacy, Shaina L; Brink, LuAnn L; Larkin, Jacob C; Sadovsky, Yoel; Goldstein, Bernard D; Pitt, Bruce R; Talbott, Evelyn O
Unconventional gas drilling (UGD) has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW) well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile) had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile) had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight) or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA) and prematurity) regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g) and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63). While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD. PMID:26039051
Rashid, Cetewayo S.; Carter, Lindsay G.; Hennig, Bernhard; Pearson, Kevin J.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants whose exposure levels are associated with various health hazards. We hypothesized that in utero and lactational exposure to PCBs can cause changes in body composition and obesity in a mouse model. Pregnant mice were exposed biweekly to two concentrations of PCB 126 via oral gavage. Maternal PCB exposure did not result in heavier offspring, however, dose-dependent and sex specific changes in body composition were observed. Female offspring displayed the most susceptibility to PCB-induced alterations in body composition, having less percent lean body mass and increased adiposity compared to females born to control dams, and these effects were largely dose-dependent. In contrast to females, and independent of the exposure level of PCB 126, male offspring had reduced lean body mass but no change in fat mass compared to males born to control dams. In conclusion, perinatal PCB 126 exposure did not affect body weight, but rather modulated body composition in a dose-dependent and gender-specific manner. PMID:23741283
Stacy, Shaina L.; Brink, LuAnn L.; Larkin, Jacob C.; Sadovsky, Yoel; Goldstein, Bernard D.; Pitt, Bruce R.; Talbott, Evelyn O.
Unconventional gas drilling (UGD) has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007–2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW) well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile) had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile) had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight) or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA) and prematurity) regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g) and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10–1.63). While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD. PMID:26039051
Gilbert, Ruth E; Tookey, Pat A
Aim To compare perinatal morbidity and mortality for babies delivered in water with rates for babies delivered conventionally (not in water). Design Surveillance study (of all consultant paediatricians) and postal survey (of all NHS maternity units). Setting British Isles (surveillance study); England and Wales (postal survey). Subjects Babies born in the British Isles between April 1994 and March 1996 who died perinatally or were admitted for special care within 48 hours of birth after delivery in water or after labour in water followed by conventional delivery (surveillance study); babies delivered in water in England and Wales in the same period (postal survey). Main outcome measures Number of deliveries in water in the British Isles that resulted in perinatal death or in admission to special care within 48 hours of birth; and proportions (of such deliveries) of all water births in England and Wales. Results 4032 deliveries (0.6% of all deliveries) in England and Wales occurred in water. Perinatal mortality was 1.2/1000 (95% confidence interval 0.4 to 2.9) live births; 8.4/1000 (5.8 to 11.8) live births were admitted for special care. No deaths were directly attributable to delivery in water, but 2 admissions were for water aspiration. UK reports of mortality and special care admission rates for babies of women considered to be at low risk of complications during delivery who delivered conventionally ranged from 0.8/1000 (0.2 to 4.2) to 4.6/1000 (0.1 to 25) live births and from 9.2 (1.1 to 33) to 64/1000 (58 to 70) live births respectively. Compared with regional data for low risk, spontaneous, normal vaginal deliveries at term, the relative risk for perinatal mortality associated with delivery in water was 0.9 (99% confidence interval 0.2 to 3.6). Conclusions Perinatal mortality is not substantially higher among babies delivered in water than among those born to low risk women who delivered conventionally. The data are compatible with a small increase or decrease in perinatal mortality for babies delivered in water. Key messagesData on adverse effects of delivery in water have been limited Perinatal mortality and risk of admission for special care is similar for babies delivered in water and for low risk deliveries that do not take place in waterThe risk of perinatal mortality for babies delivered in water is similar to the risk for babies born by normal vaginal delivery to women at low risk of adverse outcomeDelivery in water may have caused water aspiration in two babies and contributed to snapped umbilical cord in five PMID:10454400
Uskokovic, Lila Milica
This study compared maternal lifestyle variables pertinent to the perinatal period in groups of chemically dependent mothers and drug-free mothers. Twenty-nine cocaine -abusing mothers were compared to 29 drug-free mothers carefully matched on age, race, education, and primipara versus multipara status. The drug history of each chemically dependent woman was explicitly documented. The chemically dependent group was subdivided into two groups, mothers who abused cocaine and those who abused cocaine with concomitant opiate use. Each of these two subgroups was compared to its respective matched drug-free control group. Finally, a comparison was made between the two drug subgroups. All subjects were interviewed within 48 hours after delivery using the following measures: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (A-State), Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale, The Self-Esteem Scale, Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitude Questionnaire, The Neonatal Perception Inventory, The Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Events Scale, Maternal Social Support Index, and Short Marital Adjustment Test. A t-test analysis revealed significant differences (p <.05) between the total experimental group and its matched control group on state anxiety, depression, self-esteem, maternal adjustment and attitudes, and life events. An analysis of covariance indicated that life events was the only significant variable when the influence of all other variables was removed. Comparisons made between each drug subgroup and its respective matched control group showed similar results, except that those who abused opiates with cocaine did not differ from their controls on depression and maternal adjustment and attitudes. No significant differences were obtained in the drug subgroup comparisons. These results identify increased life events and specific negative affect states that clinical intervention programs should address to assure the best possible outcome for chemically dependent mothers and their infants.
Francesc Figueras; Josep Figueras; Eva Meler; Elisenda Eixarch; Oriol Coll; Eduard Gratacos; Jason Gardosi; Xavier Carbonell
Objective: Fetal growth restriction is associated with adverse perinatal outcome but is often not recognised antenatally, and low birthweight centiles based on population norms are used as a proxy instead. This study compared the association between neonatal morbidity and fetal growth status at birth as determined by customised birthweight centiles and currently used centiles based on population standards.Design: Retrospective cohort
Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen
The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…
V Y Yu; R Joseph; B Bajuk; A Orgill; J Astbury
The perinatal histories of 50 very low birthweight infants weighing 1500 g, or less, with necrotizing enterocolitis were compared with those of the remaining 325 very low birthweight infants who were admitted to this hospital during a four year study period. Many factors previously reported to be associated with necrotizing enterocolitis were found with equal frequency in both groups of
Mitanchez, Delphine; Yzydorczyk, Catherine; Simeoni, Umberto
In the epidemiologic context of maternal obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), the incidence of gestational diabetes has significantly increased in the last decades. Infants of diabetic mothers are prone to various neonatal adverse outcomes, including metabolic and hematologic disorders, respiratory distress, cardiac disorders and neurologic impairment due to perinatal asphyxia and birth traumas, among others. Macrosomia is the most constant consequence of diabetes and its severity is mainly influenced by maternal blood glucose level. Neonatal hypoglycemia is the main metabolic disorder that should be prevented as soon as possible after birth. The severity of macrosomia and the maternal health condition have a strong impact on the frequency and the severity of adverse neonatal outcomes. Pregestational T2D and maternal obesity significantly increase the risk of perinatal death and birth defects. The high incidence of maternal hyperglycemia in developing countries, associated with the scarcity of maternal and neonatal care, seriously increase the burden of neonatal complications in these countries. PMID:26069722
Mitanchez, Delphine; Yzydorczyk, Catherine; Simeoni, Umberto
In the epidemiologic context of maternal obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), the incidence of gestational diabetes has significantly increased in the last decades. Infants of diabetic mothers are prone to various neonatal adverse outcomes, including metabolic and hematologic disorders, respiratory distress, cardiac disorders and neurologic impairment due to perinatal asphyxia and birth traumas, among others. Macrosomia is the most constant consequence of diabetes and its severity is mainly influenced by maternal blood glucose level. Neonatal hypoglycemia is the main metabolic disorder that should be prevented as soon as possible after birth. The severity of macrosomia and the maternal health condition have a strong impact on the frequency and the severity of adverse neonatal outcomes. Pregestational T2D and maternal obesity significantly increase the risk of perinatal death and birth defects. The high incidence of maternal hyperglycemia in developing countries, associated with the scarcity of maternal and neonatal care, seriously increase the burden of neonatal complications in these countries. PMID:26069722
Volberg, Vitaly; Harley, Kim G.; Aguilar, Raul S.; Rosas, Lisa G.; Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Davé, Veronica; Phan, Nguyet; Lustig, Robert H.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina
Objectives To 1) determine whether perinatal factors (including maternal anthropometry and nutrition and early life growth measures) are associated with adiponectin and leptin levels in 9-year-old children, and 2) assess relationships between adiponectin, leptin and concurrent lipid profile in these children. Methods We measured plasma adiponectin and leptin for 146 mother - 9-year-old child pairs from the ongoing longitudinal birth cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS). Data on perinatal factors, including sociodemographics, maternal anthropometry and nutrition, and early life child growth were collected during pregnancy, birth and 6-month visits. Results Greater rate of weight and length gain during the first 6 months of life were associated with lower adiponectin in 9-year-olds (?=?2.0, P=0.04; ?=?8.2, P=0.02, respectively) adjusting for child BMI. We found no associations between child adipokine levels and either maternal calorie, protein, total fat, saturated fat, fiber, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption during pregnancy or children’s concurrent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food intake. Lipid profile in 9-year-old children closely reflected adiponectin but not leptin levels after adjustment for child BMI. Additionally, we report that child adipokine levels were closely related to their mothers’ levels at the 9-year-visit. Conclusion Overall, our results support the hypothesis that early life factors may contribute to altered adipokine levels in children. PMID:23325579
Li, De-Kun; Heyman, Melvin B.; Bayless, Theodore M.; Abramson, Oren; Herrinton, Lisa J.
Background The majority of studies that report early life risk factors for pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) do not account for potential confounding, which can lead to spurious associations and incorrect inferences. Aims To assess the relationship between prenatal and perinatal characteristics and the risk of pediatric-onset IBD accounting for potential confounding. Methods We conducted a nested case–control study of 189 cases aged ?18 years and 3,080 age- and membership-matched controls born at a Kaiser Permanente Northern California facility between 1984 and 2006. The cases were diagnosed with IBD between 1996 and 2006 and diagnosis was confirmed by chart review. We obtained prenatal and perinatal characteristics from the electronic clinical records of the mother and child. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the associations between these factors and risk of incident IBD, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. Results In analyses accounting for confounding, maternal IBD (odds ratio [OR] 5.1, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.0–12.9) and white race (OR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.6–3.2) were the only factors statistically associated with pediatric-onset IBD. Maternal respiratory infection during pregnancy (OR 2.0, 95 % CI 1.0–4.0), age < 20 years (OR 2.0, 95 % CI 0.8–4.7) and gestational hypertension (OR 1.7, 95 % CI 1.0–2.7) were associated with pediatric-onset IBD, but did not achieve statistical significance. Conclusions Maternal history of IBD and race were the only characteristics of those that we examined that were associated with the development of pediatric IBD in this well-documented population of cases and matched controls. PMID:22447434
Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Kaharuza, Frank; Murokora, Daniel
The attainment of United Nations Millennium Development Goal 5 has proven elusive for many countries. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality require concerted evidence-based efforts from all key players, including professional organizations. The Association of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Uganda used the results of maternal and perinatal death review to develop and pilot advocacy programs with parliamentarians, media, and government that aimed to improve maternal and newborn health in Uganda. This work translated to further parliamentary debate on the topic, increased resource allocation by government, and improved media-related public education. PMID:25124100
Purkerson-Parker, S; McDaniel, K L; Moser, V C
Heptachlor is a persistent cyclodiene pesticide that affects GABAergic function. Recent reports indicate that heptachlor exposure also alters dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and function in adult mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether gestational, perinatal, and/or adolescent heptachlor exposure in rats altered dopamine-receptor and DAT binding. Adolescent exposure to dieldrin was included to evaluate the generality of the findings. Sprague-Dawley rats received doses (po) ranging from 0 to 8.4 mg/kg/day of heptachlor, or dieldrin, 3 mg/kg/day, during different developmental periods. There were dose-related decreases in maternal weight gain and pup survival, as well as delayed righting reflex, at heptachlor doses > or =3 mg/kg/day. There were no changes in striatal dopamine receptor-D1 ([(3)H]SCH-23390) and -D2 ([(3)H]spiperone) binding in preweanling pups exposed perinatally to heptachlor, and no differences in the response of adult rats to the motor activity-increasing effects of d-amphetamine. However, there were significant (27-64%) increases in striatal DAT binding of [(3)H]mazindol in preweanling rats exposed only gestationally. In rats exposed perinatally and/or during adolescence, there were also increases (34-65%) in striatal DAT binding at postnatal days (PND) 22, 43, and 128. Adolescent exposure to dieldrin also increased DAT binding. In other rats exposed perinatally and throughout adolescence, even the lowest dose of heptachlor 0.3 mg/kg/d increased DAT binding on PND 130. The DAT affinity for mazindol was unchanged in heptachlor-exposed striata. In vitro binding studies indicated that heptachlor (> or =10 microM) displaced mazindol binding. Thus, gestational, perinatal, and/or adolescent exposure to heptachlor produced an increase in DAT binding as early as PND 10, and this change persisted into adulthood. PMID:11719704
Moser, V C; Shafer, T J; Ward, T R; Meacham, C A; Harris, M W; Chapin, R E
The developing nervous system has been identified as a potential target of pesticide exposure. Heptachlor is a cyclodiene pesticide that was widely used for many years, and for which inadvertent exposure to children and fetuses took place in the early 1980s; yet little is known regarding the developmental neurotoxicity of it and other cyclodienes. The aim of this study was to determine whether perinatal heptachlor exposure results in persistent alterations in nervous system function. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were dosed from gestational day (GD) 12 to postnatal day (PND) 7, whereupon the rat pups were dosed directly until PND 21 (group A) or PND 42 (group B). Dose levels were 0, 0.03, 0.3, or 3 mg/kg/day, po. There were no dose-related effects on maternal weight, litter size, or pup growth. GABA(A) receptor binding (using [(35)S] tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate; TBPS) and GABA-stimulated Cl- flux were evaluated in control and high-dose brain tissues taken on PND 7, 21, and 43. The B(max) values for [(35)S]-TBPS binding in brainstem, but not cortex, were decreased in female rats across all ages tested. There were no such changes in male rats, nor were K(D) values altered in either tissue or gender. GABA-stimulated Cl- flux was decreased in female cortex synaptoneurosomes only on PND 21. The ontogeny of the righting response (PND 2-5) was delayed in the high-dose females. All subsequent testing took place a week to months after dosing ceased. The functional observational battery (FOB) showed treatment-related, but not necessarily dose-related, changes in different aspects of the rat's reactivity and activity levels. Group-A rats also showed altered within-session habituation of motor activity. There were no heptachlor-related differences in motor activity following challenge with a range of chlordiazepoxide doses. Cognitive assessments were conducted in both groups of rats. There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups in a one-trial passive avoidance test, although there was a trend toward less learning. In group B, rats (both sexes), heptachlor altered spatial learning in the Morris water maze during two weeks of daily training (2 trials/day). On probe trials, heptachlor-treated rats did not show significant preference for the correct quadrant (all dose groups in males, high dose in females). These rats did not show alterations on subsequent working-memory training (where the platform position was relearned each day). Thus, perinatal exposure to heptachlor produced neurochemical and persistent neurobehavioral changes, including alterations in spatial learning and memory. PMID:11248144
Background Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Susceptibility is believed to be the interaction of genetic heritability and environmental factors. The synchronous rises in autism/ASD prevalence and paracetamol (acetaminophen) use, as well as biologic plausibility have led to the hypothesis that paracetamol exposure may increase autism/ASD risk. Methods To explore the relationship of antenatal paracetamol exposure to ASD, population weighted average autism prevalence rates and paracetamol usage rates were compared. To explore the relationship of early neonatal paracetamol exposure to autism/ASD, population weighted average male autism prevalence rates for all available countries and U.S. states were compared to male circumcision rates – a procedure for which paracetamol has been widely prescribed since the mid-1990s. Prevalence studies were extracted from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Summary of Autism/ASD Prevalence Studies database. Maternal paracetamol usage and circumcision rates were identified by searches on Pub Med. Results Using all available country-level data (n?=?8) for the period 1984 to 2005, prenatal use of paracetamol was correlated with autism/ASD prevalence (r?=?0.80). For studies including boys born after 1995, there was a strong correlation between country-level (n?=?9) autism/ASD prevalence in males and a country’s circumcision rate (r?=?0.98). A very similar pattern was seen among U.S. states and when comparing the 3 main racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. The country-level correlation between autism/ASD prevalence in males and paracetamol was considerably weaker before 1995 when the drug became widely used during circumcision. Conclusions This ecological analysis identified country-level correlations between indicators of prenatal and perinatal paracetamol exposure and autism/ASD. State level correlation was also identified for the indicator of perinatal paracetamol exposure and autism/ASD. Like all ecological analyses, these data cannot provide strong evidence of causality. However, biologic plausibility is provided by a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence linking paracetamol metabolism to pathways shown to be important in autism and related developmental abnormalities. Taken together, these ecological findings and mechanistic evidence suggest the need for formal study of the role of paracetamol in autism. PMID:23656698
Peoples-Sheps, M D; Siegel, E; Guild, P A; Cohen, S R
With the advent of the Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant, both maternal and child health programs and crippled children's (CC) programs at the State level have assumed greater responsibility for identifying populations in need, planning appropriate services for them, and monitoring progress toward program objectives. To determine the capabilities of eight Southeastern States to produce and apply the data necessary to accomplish those tasks, a survey of data systems available to, and used by, perinatal and CC programs in the Southeast was undertaken. Findings of the survey suggested that the data available to perinatal programs were more useful for planning and evaluation than those available to CC programs, primarily due to the vital statistics data systems in each State. The major data management needs of the region include (a) measuring the health status of populations served by public perinatal programs, (b) measuring services received by population groups considered in need of public perinatal care, (c) estimating the incidence and prevalence of handicapping conditions among children, and (d) measuring the outcomes of CC programs. If these shortcomings are addressed, the programs will be in better positions for effective planning and evaluation. To improve data management and utilization capabilities, the programs may need to engage technical assistance and consultation from sources outside their service-oriented agencies. PMID:2940616
Carroli, Guillermo; Zavaleta, Nelly; Donner, Allan; Wojdyla, Daniel; Faundes, Anibal; Velazco, Alejandro; Bataglia, Vicente; Langer, Ana; Narváez, Alberto; Valladares, Eliette; Shah, Archana; Campodónico, Liana; Romero, Mariana; Reynoso, Sofia; de Pádua, Karla Simônia; Giordano, Daniel; Kublickas, Marius; Acosta, Arnaldo
Objective To assess the risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. Design Prospective cohort study within the 2005 WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health. Setting 410 health facilities in 24 areas in eight randomly selected Latin American countries; 123 were randomly selected and 120 participated and provided data Participants 106?546 deliveries reported during the three month study period, with data available for 97?095 (91% coverage). Main outcome measures Maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with intrapartum or elective caesarean delivery, adjusted for clinical, demographic, pregnancy, and institutional characteristics. Results Women undergoing caesarean delivery had an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity compared with women undergoing vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 2.5) for intrapartum caesarean and 2.3 (1.7 to 3.1) for elective caesarean). The risk of antibiotic treatment after delivery for women having either type of caesarean was five times that of women having vaginal deliveries. With cephalic presentation, there was a trend towards a reduced odds ratio for fetal death with elective caesarean, after adjustment for possible confounding variables and gestational age (0.7, 0.4 to 1.0). With breech presentation, caesarean delivery had a large protective effect for fetal death. With cephalic presentation, however, independent of possible confounding variables and gestational age, intrapartum and elective caesarean increased the risk for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care (2.1 (1.8 to 2.6) and 1.9 (1.6 to 2.3), respectively) and the risk of neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge (1.7 (1.3 to 2.2) and 1.9 (1.5 to 2.6), respectively), which remained higher even after exclusion of all caesarean deliveries for fetal distress. Such increased risk was not seen for breech presentation. Lack of labour was a risk factor for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care and neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge for babies delivered by elective caesarean delivery, but rupturing of membranes may be protective. Conclusions Caesarean delivery independently reduces overall risk in breech presentations and risk of intrapartum fetal death in cephalic presentations but increases the risk of severe maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in cephalic presentations. PMID:17977819
Goodman, Janice H; Prager, Joanna; Goldstein, Richard; Freeman, Marlene
An integrated approach addressing maternal depression and associated mother-infant relationship dysfunction may improve outcomes. This study tested Perinatal Dyadic Psychotherapy (PDP), a dual-focused mother-infant intervention to prevent/decrease maternal postpartum depression and improve aspects of the mother-infant relationship related to child development. Women recruited from hospital postpartum units were screened using a three-stage process. Forty-two depressed first-time mothers and their 6-week-old infants were enrolled and randomized to receive the PDP intervention or usual care plus depression monitoring by phone. The intervention consisted of eight home-based, nurse-delivered mother-infant sessions consisting of (a) supportive, relationship-based, mother-infant psychotherapy, and (b) a developmentally based infant-oriented component focused on promoting positive mother-infant interactions. Data collected at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up included measures of maternal depression, anxiety, maternal self-esteem, parenting stress, and mother-infant interaction. Depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses decreased significantly, and maternal self-esteem increased significantly across the study time frame with no between-group differences. There were no significant differences between groups on parenting stress or mother-infant interaction at post-intervention and follow-up. No participants developed onset of postpartum depression during the course of the study. PDP holds potential for treating depression in the context of the mother-infant relationship; however, usual care plus depression monitoring showed equal benefit. Further research is needed to explore using low-intensity interventions as a first step in a stepped care approach and to determine what subset of at-risk or depressed postpartum mothers might benefit most from the PDP intervention. PMID:25522664
Rechenberg, Kaitlyn; Humphries, Debbie
Depression is the leading cause of mental disability worldwide. Women who are depressed during pregnancy are at a higher risk for preterm delivery, preeclampsia, birth difficulties, and postpartum depression. The treatment of depression in conventional medicine has focused on physiological factors that lead to impaired neurotransmitter function and treatments to improve neurotransmitter function. Pharmaceutical substances pose risks for pregnant and lactating women, and lower risk options are preferred. Micronutrients, including certain B vitamins, folate, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play a role in the synthesis and absorption of neurotransmitters. Experimental studies suggest that supplementation with specific micronutrients may alleviate depressive symptoms and improve birth outcomes in patients with perinatal depression. Alternative treatments for depression, including nutritional supplements, are an important treatment option for depressive symptoms while limiting potential side effects and treatment costs. This article explores the biological basis of perinatal depression and reviews the potential benefits of non-pharmacological interventions. PMID:23766734
Marecki, M; Heeb, K; Zitka, W
Protozoan infections represent an area of concern for advanced practice nurses, particularly those working in rural areas or urban environments with refugee populations and those caring for patients with immunodeficiency-related diseases. Some of these infections have major effects on the fetus and neonate yet pose minimal problems to the mother. Protozoan infections are increasing in prevalence because of poor sanitation, overcrowding, increased foreign travel, and high-risk sexual behaviors. There is a need for public education to promote awareness and prevention of such infections. This emerging public health problem has been reported sporadically in the medical and perinatal nursing literature. This paucity of information may be partly due to the difficulty in diagnosing and managing these infections in the perinatal patient. The article discusses the more common infections caused by protozoa, amebae, and sporozoa: trichomoniasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and toxoplasmosis. PMID:9214949
Nauman Kiyani, Asad; Khushdil, Arshad; Ehsan, Azra
Objective: To determine various perinatal factors leading to birth asphyxia among term newborns in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: In a cross sectional study, a total of 196 asphyxiated cases were selected through consecutive non-probability sampling technique from neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary care Military Hospital in Pakistan from 1st December 2012 to 1st December 2013. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate means, standard deviations and frequencies. Stratification with respect to maternal age, gestational age, newborns weight, parity and gravidity was done and post stratification chi-square test was applied to find statistical significance. Findings: Out of 196 cases, 125 (64%) were males and 71 females (36%). Mean maternal age was 27.04+4.97 years and gestational age of babies was 39.86+1.24 weeks. Majority (57.14 %) of 112 mothers were 1-3 para and ?4 parity was recorded in 84 (42.86%) cases. Majority (64.80%) of the 127 mothers were 1-3 gravida while 69 (35.20%) had ?4 gravidity, mean of 3.45+0.87. Mode of delivery as a factor leading to birth asphyxia was found in 32.14% (n=63) cesarean section, 44.39% (n=87) spontaneous vertex delivery, and instrumental delivery in 23.47% (n= 46). Prolonged second stage of labor reported in 72% (n=141), 29.08% (n=57) had prolonged rupture of membranes, 7.65% (n=15) had meconium staining, 5.61% (n=11) had multiple births, 21.94% (n=43) had maternal fever, and 58.84% (n=113) had anemia at delivery. Conclusion: Birth asphyxia is a preventable problem and long term neurological sequelae almost untreatable. Timely identification of the perinatal risk factors and their prompt solution can prevent and reduce the neonatal morbidity and mortality from birth asphyxia. Early identification of high-risk cases with improved antenatal and perinatal care can further decrease such high mortality. PMID:25793074
J A Mills; Y Lin; Y C MacNab; E D Skarsgard; ED Skarsgard
Objective:To identify perinatal risk variables predictive of outcome in gastroschisis.Study Design:Gastroschisis cases were collected over a 3-year period from a national database. Risk variables evaluated included gestational age (GA), birth weight, time of birth, admission illness severity (score for neonatal acute physiology-II, SNAP-II) score, and abdominal closure type. Mortality and survival outcomes were analyzed. Multivariate analyses were performed.Result:In all, 239
Neonatal stroke is a diverse clinical entity. Terminology and aetiology described in the literature are very varied. While\\u000a numerous risk factors are cited, only few case–control studies have investigated them in a systematic fashion. This equipoise\\u000a extends to the investigational and management profile of perinatal stroke too. Controversy persists about the suitability\\u000a of detailed haematological thrombophilia workup in the neonatal
B. Kahana; E. Sheiner; A. Levy; S. Lazer; M. Mazor
Objectives: To determine obstetric risk factors and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by umbilical cord prolapse. Methods: A population-based study was performed comparing all deliveries complicated by cord prolapse to deliveries without this complication. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression models. Results: Prolapse of the umbilical cord complicated 0.4% (n=456) of all deliveries included in the study (n=121227).
Mark A. Klebanoff; Richard J. Levine; John D. Clemens; Diana G. Wilkins
To determine whether the third-trimester maternal serum concentration of paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, is associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational age infant (birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age, gender, and ethnicity) and whether this association differs by smoking, the authors studied 2,515 women who participated in the Collaborative Perinatal Project from 1959 to 1966. The women
Swanson, Richard W.
The author reviews use of maternal counting of fetal movements as an antenatal screening test. This test appears to be a sensitive indicator of fetal well-being and a useful method for preventing inexplicable stillbirths. Evidence suggests that it should be considered a routine antenatal screening test for all pregnant women, and not just for those at high risk for perinatal morbidity and mortality. Screening should begin at 28 weeks gestation. PMID:21253142
Batool Azra Haider; Mohammad Yawar Yakoob; Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Objectives\\/background Given the widespread prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, supplementation with multiple micronutrients\\u000a rather than iron-folate alone, could be of potential benefit to the mother and the fetus. These benefits could relate to prevention\\u000a of maternal complications and reduction in other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as small-for-gestational age (SGA) births,\\u000a low birth weight, stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal mortality. This
Fernández-López, David; Natarajan, Niranjana; Ashwal, Stephen; Vexler, Zinaida S
The incidence of perinatal stroke is high, similar to that in the elderly, and produces a significant morbidity and severe long-term neurologic and cognitive deficits, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, neuropsychological impairments, and behavioral disorders. Emerging clinical data and data from experimental models of cerebral ischemia in neonatal rodents have shown that the pathophysiology of perinatal brain damage is multifactorial. These studies have revealed that, far from just being a smaller version of the adult brain, the neonatal brain is unique with a very particular and age-dependent responsiveness to hypoxia–ischemia and focal arterial stroke. In this review, we discuss fundamental clinical aspects of perinatal stroke as well as some of the most recent and relevant findings regarding the susceptibility of specific brain cell populations to injury, the dynamics and the mechanisms of neuronal cell death in injured neonates, the responses of neonatal blood–brain barrier to stroke in relation to systemic and local inflammation, and the long-term effects of stroke on angiogenesis and neurogenesis. Finally, we address translational strategies currently being considered for neonatal stroke as well as treatments that might effectively enhance repair later after injury. PMID:24667913
Romero, J; Muñiz, J; Logica Tornatore, T; Holubiec, M; González, J; Barreto, G E; Guelman, L; Lillig, C H; Blanco, E; Capani, F
Perinatal asphyxia represents an important cause of severe neurological deficits including delayed mental and motor development, epilepsy, major cognitive deficits and blindness. However, at the moment, most of the therapeutic strategies were not well targeted toward the processes that induced the brain injury during perinatal asphyxia. Traditionally, experimental research focused on neurons, whereas astrocytes have been more related with the damage mechanisms of perinatal asphyxia. In this work, we propose to review possible protective as well as deleterious roles of astrocytes in the asphyctic brain with the aim to stimulate further research in this area of perinatal asphyxia still not well studied. PMID:24172702
Margolis, A.; VÃ¡zquez, R.; Mendoza, G.; Zignago, A.; LÃ³pez, A.; LuciÃ¡n, H.
In this article, new uses of the Perinatal Information System at the Uruguayan Social Security health care facilities are described. The perinatal information system has been in place for over 13 years, with about 40 thousand clinical records on electronic files. A newly created Web interface allows a distributed access to existing perinatal information within the National Social Security Wide Area a Network. Perinatal data is also exported to a management information system, allowing to dynamically answer questions and make managerial decisions, and eventually link these data with other sources. Future steps regarding clinical information systems are outlined. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10566481
Margolis, A; Vázquez, R; Mendoza, G; Zignago, A; López, A; Lucián, H
In this article, new uses of the Perinatal Information System at the Uruguayan Social Security health care facilities are described. The perinatal information system has been in place for over 13 years, with about 40 thousand clinical records on electronic files. A newly created Web interface allows a distributed access to existing perinatal information within the National Social Security Wide Area a Network. Perinatal data is also exported to a management information system, allowing to dynamically answer questions and make managerial decisions, and eventually link these data with other sources. Future steps regarding clinical information systems are outlined. PMID:10566481
Tosello, Barthélémy; Dany, Lionel; Bétrémieux, Pierre; Le Coz, Pierre; Auquier, Pascal; Gire, Catherine; Einaudi, Marie-Ange
Background When an incurable fetal condition is detected, some women (or couples) would rather choose to continue with the pregnancy than opt for termination of pregnancy for medical reasons, which, in France, can be performed until full term. Such situations are frequently occurring and sometimes leading to the implementation of neonatal palliative care. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the practices of perinatal care french professionals in this context; to identify the potential obstacles that might interfere with the provision of an appropiate neonatal palliative care; and, from an opposite perspective, to determine the criteria that led, in some cases, to offer this type of care for prenatally diagnosed lethal abnormality. Methods We used an email survey sent to 434 maternal-fetal medicine specialists (MFMs) and fetal care pediatric specialists (FCPs) at 48 multidisciplinary centers for prenatal diagnosis (MCPD). Results Forty-two multidisciplinary centers for prenatal diagnosis (87.5%) took part. In total, 102 MFMs and 112 FCPs completed the survey, yielding response rate of 49.3%. One quarter of professionals (26.2%) estimated that over 20% of fetal pathologies presenting in MCPD could correspond to a diagnosis categorized as lethal (FCPs versus MFMs: 24% vs 17.2%, p = 0.04). The mean proportion of fetal abnormalities eligible for palliative care at birth was estimated at 19.30% (± 2.4) (FCPs versus MFMs: 23.4% vs 15.2%, p = 0.029). The degree of diagnostic certainty appears to be the most influencing factor (98.1%, n = 207) in the information provided to the pregnant woman with regard to potential neonatal palliative care. The vast majority of professionals, 92.5%, supported considering the practice of palliative care as a regular option to propose antenatally. Conclusions Our study reveals the clear need for training perinatal professionals in perinatal palliative care and for the standardization of practices in this field. PMID:25978417
Kawwass, Jennifer F.; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Session, Donna R.; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J.
OBJECTIVE To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02–14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of pre-term birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. CONCLUSION Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART. PMID:23812461
Funke, Simone; Gardeitchik, Thatjana; Kouwenberg, Dorus; Mohamed, Miski; Wortmann, Saskia B; Korsch, Eckhard; Adamowicz, Maciej; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wevers, Ron A; Horvath, Adrienne; Lefeber, Dirk J; Morava, Eva
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a rapidly growing family of inborn errors. Screening for CDG in suspected cases is usually performed in the first year of life by serum transferrin isoelectric focusing or mass spectrometry. Based on the transferrin analysis patients can be biochemically diagnosed with a type 1 or type 2 transferrin pattern, and labeled as CDG-I, or CDG-II. The diagnosis of CDG is frequently delayed due to the highly variable phenotype, some cases showing single organ involvement and others mimicking syndromes, like skeletal dysplasia, cutis laxa syndrome, or congenital muscle dystrophy. The aim of our study was to evaluate perinatal abnormalities and early discriminative symptoms in 58 patients consecutively diagnosed with diverse CDG-subtypes. Neonatal findings and clinical features in the first months of life were studied in 36 children with CDG-I and 22 with CDG-II. Maternal complications were found in five, small for gestational age in nine patients. Five children had abnormal neonatal screening results for hypothyroidism. Congenital microcephaly and neonatal seizures were common in CDG-II. Inverted nipples were uncommon with 5 out of 58 children. Dysmorphic features were mostly nonspecific, except for cutis laxa. Early complications included feeding problems, cardiomyopathy, thrombosis, and bleeding. Cases presenting in the neonatal period had the highest mortality rate. Survival in CDG patients is highly dependent on early intervention therapy. We recommend low threshold screening for glycosylation disorders in infants with neurologic symptoms, even in the absence of abnormal fat distribution. Growth retardation and neonatal bleeding increase suspicion for CDG. PMID:23401092
Blondel, Béatrice; Drewniak, Nicolas; Zeitlin, Jennifer
Background: The number of maternity units has declined in France, raising concerns about the possible impact of increasing travel distances on perinatal health outcomes. We investigated impact of distance to closest maternity unit on perinatal mortality. Methods: Data from the French National Vital Statistics Registry were used to construct foetal and neonatal mortality rates over 2001–08 by distance from mother’s municipality of residence and the closest municipality with a maternity unit. Data from French neonatal mortality certificates were used to compute neonatal death rates after out-of-hospital birth. Relative risks by distance were estimated, adjusting for individual and municipal-level characteristics. Results: Seven percent of births occurred to women residing at ?30?km from a maternity unit and 1% at ?45?km. Foetal and neonatal mortality rates were highest for women living at <5?km from a maternity unit. For foetal mortality, rates increased at ?45?km compared with 5–45?km. In adjusted models, long distance to a maternity unit had no impact on overall mortality but women living closer to a maternity unit had a higher risk of neonatal mortality. Neonatal deaths associated with out-of-hospital birth were rare but more frequent at longer distances. At the municipal-level, higher percentages of unemployment and foreign-born residents were associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: Overall mortality was not associated with living far from a maternity unit. Mortality was elevated in municipalities with social risk factors and located closest to a maternity unit, reflecting the location of maternity units in deprived areas with risk factors for poor outcome. PMID:24390464
Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Pinborg, Anja
Children born after assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have an increased risk of several adverse perinatal outcomes compared with their naturally conceived peers. This has various causes such as higher multiple birth rates, parental characteristics and higher maternal age, with more being nulliparous. Furthermore the in-vitro techniques, the controlled ovarian stimulation, culture media, and possibly additional freezing or vitrification procedures seem to play a role. However, when analyzing the perinatal trends over time, the differences between ART and naturally conceived children appear to have diminished. This is probably due to ART being more accessible and therefore couples have shorter duration of infertility before referral to ART; hence couples are nowadays less reproductively ill than in the past. A refinement of both clinical and laboratory skills during the past three decades of assisted reproduction may be another explanation. However, caution should be taken, as we do not yet know the full consequences of the observed increase in fetal growth and potential epigenetic changes in the early embryonic stages of fetal development. PMID:24840403
Bowser, Corinna S; Kaye, Jean; Leier, Tim U; Chorney, Valeriy; Nathawad, Rita; Chernichenko, Natalya; Shin, Ann; Pragaspathy, Bhavadarani; Moallem, Jack
The progression of HIV disease may be affected by co-infection with other viruses. This study investigates the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); cytomegalovirus (CMV); herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2; hepatitis A, B, and C (HA, HB, HC); and tuberculosis in perinatally HIV-infected children. Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay (EIA) against EBV, CMV, HSV 1 and 2, HAV HBV HCV, and skin testing with purified protein derivative was performed on 45 perinatally HIV-infected children. CMVwas positive in 51%, EBVin 93.3%, HSV-1 in 62.2%, HSV-2 in 48.9%, HAV in 15.6%, HBVand HCV in 6.7% and PPD in 0%. HSV-2 prevalence was higher in females and Hispanics. The prevalence of CMV, EBV HSV-1, and tuberculosis was equivalent to rates reported in the general population. Prevalence of HSV-2 was significantly higher than in the general population (p < 0.001). Higher rates of HSV-2 infection and hepatitis may be secondary to high maternal co-infection rate and subsequent vertical transmission. PMID:17696043
Myles, Ranell L; Artstein-McNassar, Melissa; Dean, Hazel D; Bohannon, Beverly; Melville, Sharon K; Yeager, Richard; Wheeling, John; Rose, Charles E; Zhu, Julia; Dominguez, Kenneth L
We examined differences in HIV-infected U.S.-born and foreign-born black mothers who delivered perinatally HIV-exposed and -infected children during 1995-2004 in the Pediatric Spectrum of HIV Disease Project, a longitudinal cohort study. Prevalence ratios were calculated to explain differences in perinatal HIV prevention opportunities comparing U.S.-born to foreign-born and African-born to Caribbean-born black mothers. U.S.-born compared with foreign-born HIV-infected black mothers were significantly more likely to have used cocaine or other non-intravenous illicit drugs, exchanged money or drugs for sex, known their HIV status before giving birth, received intrapartum antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis, and delivered a premature infant; and were significantly less likely to have received prenatal care or delivered an HIV-infected infant. African-born compared with Caribbean-born black mothers were more likely to receive intrapartum ARV prophylaxis. These differences by maternal geographical origin have important implications for perinatal HIV transmission prevention, and highlight the validity of disaggregating data by racial/ethnic subgroups. PMID:24841594
Schwarze, Juan-Enrique; Crosby, Javier A; Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando
Embryo cryopreservation is an integral part of assisted reproduction techniques; it allows the sequential transfer of all embryos, thus diminishing the risk of multiple pregnancies and associated perinatal complications. To address concerns about the safety of this procedure, neonatal outcome after 43,070 fresh embryo transfers was compared with 12,068 frozen-thawed embryo transfers (FET). After adjusting for maternal age, gestational age, embryo development at time of transfer, number of babies born and gestational order, FET was not found to be associated with an increase in perinatal mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81 to 3.62); preterm birth (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.18); or extreme preterm birth (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.06). Furthermore, after correcting for known confounding factors, FET was found to be associated with an increase in neonatal weight of 39.7?g (95% CI 1.54 to 64.10; P < 0.0001). Embryo cryopreservation was, therefore, not associated with an increase in the risk of poor perinatal outcome. PMID:25982094
Abe, Eghe; Omo-Aghoja, Lawrence O
Maternal mortality remains a major challenge in Nigeria. This retrospective study was conceptualized to document the number and pattern of obstetric deaths at the Central Hospital, Benin City, over a ten year period, to identify common causes of maternal deaths and proffer relevant interventions. The overall maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was 518/100,000. MMR was 30 times higher in unbooked as compared to the booked patients, while 60% of maternal deaths occurred within 24 hours of admission. The leading direct causes of maternal deaths were sepsis, hemorrhage, obstructed labor and preeclampsia/eclampsia, while the major indirect causes are institutional difficulties and anaemia. Low literacy, high poverty levels, extremes of parity and non-utilization of maternity services were associated with maternal mortality. Recommendations are made for public enlightenment campaign and advocacy activities aimed at mobilizing resources for reducing maternal mortality. Also, female education and poverty alleviation programmes will contribute to the reduction of the burden of maternal mortality. PMID:19435010
Léonhardt, Marion; Matthews, Stephen G; Meaney, Michael J; Walker, Claire-Dominique
Maternal adversity is associated with long-lasting consequences on cognitive development, behavior and physiological responses in rat offspring. Few studies have examined whether repeated maternal stress produces repeated activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in mothers and whether it modifies maternal behavior. Here, we tested a novel model of perinatal stress using repeated exposure to "purely" psychological stressors throughout the gestation and lactation periods in rats. We first tested the diurnal influences of repeated 1-h strobe light exposure on maternal corticosterone secretion. Despite the hyporesponsiveness to stress documented in late pregnant and lactating mothers, we observed an enhanced response to strobe light in the afternoon compared to the morning in stressed mothers during lactation. Next, dams were exposed to 24-h forced foraging followed by 10-h wet bedding during the diurnal peak of corticosterone secretion. Although no corticosterone responses to forced foraging and wet bedding were observed, the combination of both stressors had a significant effect on maternal behavior. Mother-pup interactions were significantly altered during the first 8 days of lactation. Taken together, these findings suggest that lactating mothers maintain responsiveness to specific and repeated psychological stressors, in particular at the time of the diurnal peak in corticosterone secretion. Depending on the stressor applied, either neuroendocrine activation or changes in maternal behavior might be important determinants of the long-term consequences in the offspring. The combination of forced foraging, wet bedding and strobe light might represent a novel model of mild maternal adversity using "purely" psychological stressors. PMID:17034794
A proposed new interpretation and revised definition of perinatal mortality. Perinatal mortality rate is a commonly used index, which reflects the quality of obstetrical and neonatological care. Relying on critical remarks considered for his study, the author believes that a novel classification should be developed in order to redefine the term perinatal mortality and pregnancy-related losses. The author points out that intrauterine death during pregnancy cannot be associated with fatal incidents about birth, because the former precedes the latter. While regarding the cases of intrauterine death at late pregnancy as being important specific indicators, the author proposes excluding them from the cases covered by the term perinatal mortality. Furthermore, the author argues that all cases of neonatal death, that is, those at birth and those occurring in the first 28 days of life should be regarded as cases of perinatal mortality. It is reasonable to extend perinatal period this way, because due to a more advanced neonatological care, immature preterm babies may be lost 6 or even 27 days after birth. A novel interpretation of perinatal mortality, not including the cases of intrauterine death at late pregnancy, but including all cases of neonatal mortality makes perinatal mortality rate a more exact qualifier of obstetrical and neonatological care. PMID:16610618
Gillberg, Christopher; Cederlund, Mats
Objective: Study familial and pre- and perinatal factors in Asperger Syndrome (AS). Methods: Hundred boys with AS had their records reviewed. "Pathogenetic subgroups" were defined according to presence of medical syndromes/chromosomal abnormalities, indices of familiarity, and pre- and perinatal risk factors predisposing to brain damage. Results:…
Jean-Baptiste Braquenier; Etienne Quertemont; Ezio Tirelli; Jean-Christophe Plumier
Epidemiologic studies suggested a possible link between prenatal exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) and long-term mental delay and some behavioral troubles. Experimental studies in rats and mice have confirmed that a relatively short exposure to low doses of OP such as chlorpyrifos (CPF) during specific perinatal periods decreased anxiety-like behaviors. In the present study, we report that chronic perinatal exposure
Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Byars, Anna W.; Jacola, Lisa M.; Schapiro, Mark B.; Schmithorst, Vince J.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Holland, Scott K.
Objective: Functional MRI was used to determine differences in patterns of cortical activation between children who suffered perinatal left middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke and healthy children performing a silent verb generation task. Methods: Ten children with prior perinatal left MCA stroke (age 6-16 years) and ten healthy age matched…
Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.
Background: In some previous studies, prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines such as 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p´-DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has been associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in children. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), p,p´-DDE, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p´-DDT), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs with offspring obesity during childhood. Methods: The analysis was based on a subsample of 1,915 children followed until 7 years of age as part of the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). The CPP enrolled pregnant women in 1959–1965; exposure levels were measured in third-trimester maternal serum that was collected before these organochlorines were banned in the United States. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using age- and sex-specific cut points for BMI as recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Results: Adjusted results did not show clear evidence for an association between organochlorine exposure and obesity; however, a suggestive finding emerged for dieldrin. Compared with those in the lowest quintile (dieldrin, < 0.57 ?g/L), odds of obesity were 3.6 (95% CI: 1.3, 10.5) for the fourth and 2.3 (95% CI: 0.8, 7.1) for the highest quintile. Overweight and BMI were unrelated to organochlorine exposure. Conclusions: In this population with relatively high levels of exposure to organochlorines, no clear associations with obesity or BMI emerged. Citation: Cupul-Uicab LA, Klebanoff MA, Brock JW, Longnecker MP. 2013. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines and childhood obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1103–1109;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205901 PMID:23799652
Igwegbe, Anthony Osita; Eleje, George Uchenna; Udegbunam, Onyebuchi Izuchukwu
Background: Uterine rupture has continued to be a catastrophic feature of obstetric practice especially in the low-resource settings. This study determined the incidence, predisposing factors, treatment options and feto-maternal outcome of ruptured uterus. Materials and Methods: A 10-year retrolective study of all cases of uterine ruptures that were managed in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria between 1st January, 2001 and 31st December, 2010 was undertaken. The proforma was initially used for data collection, which was transferred to a data sheet before entering them into the Epi-info software. Analysis was done using Epi info 2008 (version 3.5.1). Results: Out of 5,585 deliveries over the study period, 47 had uterine rupture, giving an incidence of 0.84% or 1 in 119 deliveries. All the patients were multiparous and majority (63.8%) was unbooked. Traumatic (iatrogenic) rupture predominated (72.1%). Uterine repair with (55.8%) or without (34.9%) bilateral tubal ligation was the commonest surgery performed. Case fatality rate was 16.3%, while the perinatal mortality rate was 88.4%. Average duration of hospitalization following uterine rupture was 10.3 days. Conclusion: Uterine rupture constituted a major obstetric emergency in the study hospital and its environs. The incidence, maternal and perinatal mortalities were high. The traumatic/iatrogenic ruptures constituted the majority of cases, hence, majority of the cases are preventable. There is therefore a dire need for education of our women on health-related issues, utilization of available health facilities, adequate supervision of labour and provision of facilities for emergency obstetric care. PMID:24665158
Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Jourdain, Gonzague; Siriungsi, Wasna; Decker, Luc; Khamduang, Woottichai; Le Cœur, Sophie; Sirinontakan, Surat; Somsamai, Rosalin; Pagdi, Karin; Hemvuttiphan, Jittapol; McIntosh, Kenneth; Barin, Francis; Lallemant, Marc
Summary Objectives The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and factors associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected Thai pregnant women and the rate of HCV transmission to their infants. Patients and methods Study subjects included 1435 HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants, enrolled in a perinatal HIV prevention trial, and a control group of 448 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Women were screened for HCV antibodies with an enzyme immunoassay. Positive results were confirmed by recombinant immunoblot and HCV RNA quantification. Infants were tested for HCV antibodies at 18 months or for HCV RNA at between 6 weeks and 6 months. Results Of the HIV-infected women, 2.9% were HCV-infected compared to 0.5% of HIV-uninfected women (p = 0.001). Only history of intravenous drug use was associated with HCV infection in HIV-infected women. Ten percent of infants born to co-infected mothers acquired HCV. The risk of transmission was associated with a high maternal HCV RNA (p = 0.012), but not with HIV-1 load or CD4 count. Conclusions Acquisition of HCV through intravenous drug use partially explains the higher rate of HCV infection in HIV-infected Thai women than in HIV-uninfected controls. Perinatal transmission occurred in 10% of infants of HIV–HCV-co-infected mothers and was associated with high maternal HCV RNA. PMID:20047847
Shenassa, Edmond D.; Papandonatos, George D.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Buka, Stephen L.
Background Compelling evidence links maternal smoking during pregnancy with elevated risk of nicotine dependence among the offspring. However, no study to date has examined the maternal smoking during pregnancy-nicotine dependence link among sibling-pairs discordant for maternal smoking during pregnancy. We tested two hypotheses that, if supported, suggest that the maternal smoking during pregnancy-nicotine dependence link may be physiologically mediated. Methods Study participants were adult offspring of women enrolled in the Providence and Boston sites of the Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959–1966). Approximately 10% of these adult offspring (average age: 39.6 years) were enrolled in the New England Family Study (n = 1,783), a follow-up study that oversampled families with multiple siblings. Logistic regression models predicting maternal smoking during pregnancy risk on various prospectively collected smoking and marijuana use outcomes, including nicotine dependence, were fit using models that allowed between-mother effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy exposure to differ from within-mother effects. In the absence of significant effect heterogeneity, we calculated a combined estimate. Results Maternal smoking during pregnancy predicted progression from weekly smoking to nicotine dependence (odds ratio = 1.4 [95% confidence interval = 1.2, 1.8]), but not weekly smoking or progression to marijuana dependence. Conclusions Current evidence from sibling-pairs discordant for maternal smoking during pregnancy is consistent with previous reports of a dose–response association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and nicotine dependence, as well as of up-regulation of nicotine receptors among animals exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy. Together, they provide support for the existence of a physiologically mediated link between maternal smoking during pregnancy and nicotine dependence. PMID:25767988
Keskin, Müge; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Söylemez, Feride
Objective We aimed to evaluate the perinatal outcomes of women diagnosed with gestational hypertension and no proteinuria according to the gestational weeks. Methods We included women diagnosed with gestational hypertension between 2010 and 2014 at our institution and excluded the patients with preeclampsia and chronic hypertension. Women with gestational hypertension were grouped according to the gestational weeks. One group consisted of the pregnancies between 37 and 38*6, whereas the other group included pregnancies between 39 and 41 weeks. Then the outcomes of these pregnancies were compared with healthy women who had delivery between the same weeks (37–38*6 weeks and 39–41 weeks). We analyzed the mode of delivery, birth weight, and neonatal outcomes of these pregnancies. Results First and fifth minute Apgar scores were significantly decreased in women with gestational hypertension who had delivery between 39 and 41 weeks compared to healthy subjects (respectively, p = 0.005 and p = 0.033). Perinatal outcomes were adversely affected if the time of delivery was beyond 39 weeks in pregnancies complicated with gestational hypertension. Conclusion We concluded that perinatal outcomes were adversely affected if the time of delivery was beyond 39 weeks in pregnancies complicated with gestational hypertension, and outcomes of such pregnancies can be improved if time for delivery is <39 weeks.
Background Previous studies on the mortality rate of omphalocele are limited. The risk of death of non-isolated omphalocele and that of cases of omphalocele that are diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound are unclear. This study aimed to estimate the perinatal mortality of pregnancies with omphalocele. This study also examined the potential risk of death of non-isolated omphalocele and that of cases that are prenatally diagnosed by ultrasound. Methods Data were retrieved from the national birth defects registry in China, for 1996–2006. Multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between perinatal mortality and selected maternal and fetal characteristics. Results Among 827 cases of omphalocele, 309 (37.4%) cases resulted in termination of pregnancy and stillbirth, and 124 (15.0%) cases resulted in death in the first 7 days after delivery, yielding a perinatal mortality rate of 52.4% (95% CI: 49.0–55.8%). The late fetal death rate (LFDR) of omphalocele that was diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound was 15.91-fold (AOR: 15.91, 95% CI: 10.18–24.87) higher than that of postnatally diagnosed cases. The LFDR of non-isolated omphalocele was 2.64-fold (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.62–4.29) higher than that of isolated cases. For the early neonatal death rate, neonates with non-isolated omphalocele had a 2.96-fold (AOR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.82–4.81) higher risk than isolated cases, but the difference between prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and postnatal diagnosis was not significant. Conclusions Selected fetal characteristics are significantly associated with the perinatal risk of death from omphalocele. Our findings suggest that improving pregnancy and delivery care, as well as management for omphalocele are important. PMID:24953381
Cubo, Esther; Hortigüela, Montesclaros; Jorge-Roldan, Sandra; Ciciliani, Selva Esther; Lopez, Patricia; Velasco, Leticia; Sastre, Emilio; Ausin, Vanesa; Delgado, Vanesa; Saez, Sara; Gabriel-Galán, José Trejo; Macarrón, Jesús
Background While current research suggests that genetic factors confer the greatest risk for the development of tic disorders, studies of environmental factors are relatively few, with a lack of consistent risk factors across studies. Our aim is to analyze the association of tic disorders with exposure to prenatal and perinatal morbidity. Methods This was a nested case–control study design. Cases and controls were selected and identified from a mainstream, school-based sample. The diagnosis of tic disorders was assigned by a movement disorder neurologist using ‘Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision’ criteria, and neuropsychiatric comorbidities were screened using the Spanish computerized version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scale. Information regarding the exposure to pre-perinatal risk factors was collected by a retrospective review of the birth certificates. Logistic regression analyses were then performed to test the association of tic disorders with pre-perinatal risk factors. Results Out of 407 participants, complete pre-perinatal data were available in 153 children (64 with tics and 89 without tics). After adjusting for family history of tics, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, body mass index, prenatal infection, and coexisting comorbid neuropsychiatric disturbances, tic disorders were associated with prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio [OR]?=?3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–7.60, p?=?0.007), and cesarean section (OR?=?5.78, 95% CI 1.60–20.91, p?=?0.01). Discussion This nested case–control study of children with tic disorders demonstrates higher adjusted odds for tics in children with exposure to cesarean delivery and maternal smoking. Longitudinal, population-based samples are required to confirm these results. PMID:25562036
Shannon M. Bennett; Brett T. Litz; Shira Maguen; Jill T. Ehrenreich
Perinatal loss is a unique and potentially traumatizing experience that can leave bereaved parents struggling with a host of mental health difficulties. In this exploratory study of the predictors and mental health outcomes associated with perinatal loss, we examined a cohort of women who experienced a perinatal loss within the previous 5 years. Results suggest perinatal loss is associated with
Background Environmental factors during perinatal development may influence developmental plasticity and disease susceptibility via alterations to the epigenome. Developmental exposure to the endocrine active compound, bisphenol A (BPA), has previously been associated with altered methylation at candidate gene loci. Here, we undertake the first genome-wide characterization of DNA methylation profiles in the liver of murine offspring exposed perinatally to multiple doses of BPA through the maternal diet. Results Using a tiered focusing approach, our strategy proceeds from unbiased broad DNA methylation analysis using methylation-based next generation sequencing technology to in-depth quantitative site-specific CpG methylation determination using the Sequenom EpiTYPER MassARRAY platform to profile liver DNA methylation patterns in offspring maternally exposed to BPA during gestation and lactation to doses ranging from 0 BPA/kg (Ctr), 50 ?g BPA/kg (UG), or 50 mg BPA/kg (MG) diet (N?=?4 per group). Genome-wide analyses indicate non-monotonic effects of DNA methylation patterns following perinatal exposure to BPA, corroborating previous studies using multiple doses of BPA with non-monotonic outcomes. We observed enrichment of regions of altered methylation (RAMs) within CpG island (CGI) shores, but little evidence of RAM enrichment in CGIs. An analysis of promoter regions identified several hundred novel BPA-associated methylation events, and methylation alterations in the Myh7b and Slc22a12 gene promoters were validated. Using the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, a number of candidate genes that have previously been associated with BPA-related gene expression changes were identified, and gene set enrichment testing identified epigenetically dysregulated pathways involved in metabolism and stimulus response. Conclusions In this study, non-monotonic dose dependent alterations in DNA methylation among BPA-exposed mouse liver samples and their relevant pathways were identified and validated. The comprehensive methylome map presented here provides candidate loci underlying the role of early BPA exposure and later in life health and disease status. PMID:24433282
Nelson, A M; Firpo, A; Kamenga, M; Davachi, F; Angritt, P; Mullick, F G
HIV infection in women and children is a special problem in Zaire and in other countries where heterosexual transmission is predominant. Nearly half of the cases of HIV infection are in women 15 to 30 years old and as many as seven infected infants may be born each year. Whether or not infected at birth, these children have mothers, and often fathers, who are infected and likely to die while they are still very young. Such orphaned children, as well as those whose families cannot provide adequate food and health care, add to the problematic economies of developing countries. The problems of children of HIV-infected mothers in developing countries may be compounded further by factors directly related to their mother's disease. Infected mothers who are sick may produce insufficient levels of antibodies and be unable to provide their children with adequate natural passive immunity before birth. Their infants may also receive inadequate levels of breast-milk-derived antibodies possibly enhancing their already increased susceptibility to perinatal infections, and lastly, the volume of breast milk produced by these mothers may be inadequate for the nutrition of these infants. All these factors may further compromise the already difficult task of distinguishing those infants of HIV-infected mothers who are ill because they are infected from those who are ill because of their mother's disease. Regardless of the mechanisms accounting for the increased vulnerability of infants of HIV--seropositive and AIDS-afflicted mothers to perinatal infections, infant mortality can be expected to increase significantly as a direct consequence of the progression of the HIV pandemic throughout Africa and possibly other developing countries; this in populations already with a total under five-years-of-age mortality rate exceeding 15%. The association of chorioamnionitis with HIV seropositivity and with the clinical status of the mother seems to suggest that impaired maternal immunity increases the risk of premature birth, its consequent lower birth weight, and to HIV or other perinatally acquired infections. The identification of women at higher risk of chorioamnionitis and their treatment might provide a means to decrease the risk of premature delivery and possibly reduce the rate of HIV transmission to their infants. The pathologic changes in organs of infants and children with HIV infection require in-depth, systematic study to better define the natural history of perinatal HIV disease and infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1606299
Vogel, Elizabeth R; Britt, Rodney D; Trinidad, Mari Charisse; Faksh, Arij; Martin, Richard J; MacFarlane, Peter M; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S
Lung diseases, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), wheezing, and asthma, remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population, particularly in the setting of premature birth. Pulmonary outcomes in these infants are highly influenced by perinatal exposures including prenatal inflammation, postnatal intensive care unit interventions, and environmental agents. Here, there is strong evidence that perinatal supplemental oxygen administration has significant effects on pulmonary development and health. This is of particular importance in the preterm lung, where premature exposure to room air represents a hyperoxic insult that may cause harm to a lung primed to develop in a hypoxic environment. Preterm infants are also subject to increased episodes of hypoxia, which may also result in pulmonary damage and disease. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the effects of oxygen on the developing lung and how low vs. high oxygen may predispose to pulmonary disease that may extend even into adulthood. Better understanding of the underlying mechanisms will help lead to improved care and outcomes in this vulnerable population. PMID:25594569
Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S
Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion. PMID:24826979
Shorey, Shefaly; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Chong, Yap Seng; He, Hong-Gu
Maternal parental self-efficacy is a crucial factor for facilitating the smooth transition into motherhood, particularly for primiparas. The aims of this study were to examine the predictors of maternal parental self-efficacy and its relationship with social support, postnatal depression (PND), and socio-demographic variables of primiparas during the early postnatal period. A descriptive correlational study design was adopted. The instruments, Perceived Maternal Parental Self-Efficacy, Perinatal Infant Care Social Support, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, were used to collect data from a purposive sample of 122 primiparas on the day of discharge (1-3 days post delivery) in a tertiary public hospital in Singapore. There were significant correlations among maternal parental self-efficacy, social support, and postnatal depression. The main predictors of maternal parental self-efficacy were social support, ethnicity, maternal age, and family income. The maternal parental self-efficacy, social support, and PND should be routinely assessed to provide necessary support to needy mothers. PMID:24906360
Mesko, Natasha; Osrin, David; Tamang, Suresh; Shrestha, Bhim P; Manandhar, Dharma S; Manandhar, Madan; Standing, Hilary; Costello, Anthony M de L
Background Maternal, perinatal and neonatal mortality rates remain high in rural areas of developing countries. Most deliveries take place at home and care-seeking behaviour is often delayed. We report on a combined quantitative and qualitative study of care seeking obstacles and practices relating to perinatal illness in rural Makwanpur district, Nepal, with particular emphasis on consultation strategies. Methods The analysis included a survey of 8798 women who reported a birth in the previous two years [of whom 3557 reported illness in their pregnancy], on 30 case studies of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and on 43 focus group discussions with mothers, other family members and health workers. Results Early pregnancy was often concealed, preparation for birth was minimal and trained attendance at birth was uncommon. Family members were favoured attendants, particularly mothers-in-law. The most common recalled maternal complications were prolonged labour, postpartum haemorrhage and retained placenta. Neonatal death, though less definable, was often associated with cessation of suckling and shortness of breath. Many home-based care practices for maternal and neonatal illness were described. Self-medication was common. There were delays in recognising and acting on danger signs, and in seeking care beyond the household, in which the cultural requirement for maternal seclusion, and the perceived expense of care, played a part. Of the 760 women who sought care at a government facility, 70% took more than 12 hours from the decision to seek help to actual consultation. Consultation was primarily with traditional healers, who were key actors in the ascription of causation. Use of the government primary health care system was limited: the most common source of allopathic care was the district hospital. Conclusions Major obstacles to seeking care were: a limited capacity to recognise danger signs; the need to watch and wait; and an overwhelming preference to treat illness within the community. Safer motherhood and newborn care programmes in rural communities, must address both community and health facility care to have an impact on morbidity and mortality. The roles of community actors such as mothers-in-law, husbands, local healers and pharmacies, and increased access to properly trained birth attendants need to be addressed if delays in reaching health facilities are to be shortened. PMID:12932300
Gelfand, Amy A.; Croen, Lisa A.; Torres, Anthony R.; Wu, Yvonne W.
The cause of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke is unknown in most cases. We explored whether genetic polymorphisms modify the risk of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. In a population-based case-control study of 1997–2002 births at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we identified 13 white infants with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. Controls included 86 randomly selected white infants. We genotyped polymorphisms in 9 genes involved in inflammation, thrombosis or lipid metabolism that have been previously linked with stroke, and compared genotype frequencies in case and control individuals. We tested the following polymorphisms: TNF-?-308, IL-6, lymphotoxin A, factor V Leiden, MTHFR 1298 and 667, prothrombin 20210, and apolipoprotein E ?2 and ?4 alleles. Patients with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke were more likely than controls to have at least one apolipoprotein E ?4 allele (54% vs. 25%, p=0.03). More patients with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke carried two ?4 alleles than did controls (15% vs. 2%, p=0.09), though this finding was not statistically significant. Proinflammatory and prothrombotic polymorphisms were not associated with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke in this small study. The apolipoprotein E polymorphism may confer genetic susceptibility for perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. Larger population-based studies are needed to confirm this finding. PMID:23290018
Grigg, J; Arnon, S; Chase, A; Silverman, M
Neither the origin of leucocytes in the premature newborn airway nor their relationship to perinatal factors has been adequately determined. In order to sample airway cells, modified bronchoalveolar lavage was performed on 74 intubated infants of < 32 weeks' gestation and < 24 hours of age. Cells were counted, stained and, in a small separate group of six infants, four boys and two girls, probed for the Y chromosome with suitable control samples. Perinatal risk factors for increased airway cellularity were analysed by multiple regression. Premature rupture of membranes of more than 24 hours' duration was independently associated with increased numbers of airway leucocytes (n = 74). More than 90% of airway leucocytes from four boys with pulmonary inflammation were positive for the Y chromosome indicating that the cells were of fetal rather than maternal origin. Images PMID:8346952
Repokari, Leena; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Poikkeus, Piia; Tiitinen, Aila; Vilska, Sirpa; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Sinkkonen, Jari; Almqvist, Frederick; Tulppala, Maija
In this prospective controlled study, the authors examined (a) parenting experiences among couples with successful assisted reproduction treatment (ART; n = 367) and fertile spontaneously conceiving controls (n = 371) and (b) the impact of ante- and perinatal factors and child characteristics on parenting experiences. The results show that positive mothering experiences increased more during the 1st year of parenting and were generally higher among ART mothers than control mothers. No differences were found between ART fathers and controls in their fathering experience. Unpleasant birth experiences, low birth weight, and difficulty soothing the child were associated with high levels of parental stress in the control group, but this was not so among the ART parents. Psychosocial interventions in maternal care should take into account the various meanings that couples give to the history of infertility and conception and ante- and perinatal experiences. PMID:17176203
Lassi, Zohra S; Das, Jai K; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Annually around 40 million mothers give birth at home without any trained health worker. Consequently, most of the maternal and neonatal mortalities occur at the community level due to lack of good quality care during labour and birth. Interventions delivered at the community level have not only been advocated to improve access and coverage of essential interventions but also to reduce the existing disparities and reaching the hard to reach. In this paper, we have reviewed the effectiveness of care delivered through community level inputs for improving maternal and newborn health outcomes. We considered all available systematic reviews published before May 2013 on the pre-defined community level interventions and report findings from 43 systematic reviews. Findings suggest that home visitation significantly improved antenatal care, tetanus immunization coverage, referral and early initiation of breast feeding with reductions in antenatal hospital admission, cesarean-section rates birth, maternal morbidity, neonatal mortality and perinatal mortality. Task shifting to midwives and community health workers has shown to significantly improve immunization uptake and breast feeding initiation with reductions in antenatal hospitalization, episiotomy, instrumental delivery and hospital stay. Training of traditional birth attendants as a part of community based intervention package has significant impact on referrals, early breast feeding, maternal morbidity, neonatal mortality, and perinatal mortality. Formation of community based support groups decreased maternal morbidity, neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality with improved referrals and early breast feeding rates. At community level, home visitation, community mobilization and training of community health workers and traditional birth attendants have the maximum potential to improve a range of maternal and newborn health outcomes. There is lack of data to establish effectiveness of outreach services, mass media campaigns and community education as standalone interventions. Future efforts should be concerted on increasing the availability and training of the community based skilled health workers especially in resource limited settings where the highest burden exists with limited resources to mobilize. PMID:25209692
Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.
Context Adverse perinatal circumstances have been associated with increased risk of autism. Women exposed to childhood abuse experience more adverse perinatal circumstances than women unexposed, but whether abuse is associated with autism in offspring is unknown. Objective To determine whether maternal exposure to childhood abuse is associated with risk of autism, and whether possible increased risk is accounted for by higher prevalence of adverse perinatal circumstances among abused women, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use, intimate partner abuse, prior abortion, pregnancy less than 37 weeks, low birth weight, alcohol use, and smoking during pregnancy. Design and Setting Nurses’ Health Study II, a population-based longitudinal cohort of 116,430 women. Patients or Other Participants Participants with data on childhood abuse and child’s autism status (97% White). Controls were randomly selected from among children of women who did not report autism in offspring (N mothers of children with autism = 451; N mothers of children without autism=52,498). Main Outcome Measure Autism spectrum disorder, assessed by maternal report, validated with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in a subsample. Results Exposure to abuse was associated with increased risk of autism in children in a monotonically increasing fashion. The highest level of abuse was associated with the greatest prevalence of autism (1.8% versus 0.7% in women not abused, P = 0.005) and the greatest risk for autism adjusted for demographic factors (risk ratio=3.7, 95% confidence interval=2.3, 5.8). All adverse perinatal circumstances were more prevalent in women abused except low birth weight. Adjusted for perinatal factors, the association of maternal abuse with autism was slightly attenuated (highest level of abuse, risk ratio = 3.0, 95% confidence interval=1.9, 4.9). Conclusions We identify an intergenerational association between childhood exposure to abuse and risk for autism in the subsequent generation. Adverse perinatal circumstances accounted for only a small portion of this increased risk. PMID:23553149
This paper discusses the analyses of antecedent correlates of the behavior of 60 infants as measured by the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale on the third day after birth. The data include two sets of antecedent variables: maternal adaptation to pregnancy as reported in prenatal interviews and measured describing the conditions of labor and…
Penelope A. Demas; Mayris P. Webber; Drph Ellie E. Schoenbaum; Jeremy Weedon; Janis Mcwayne; Mph Elizabeth Enriquez; Mahrukh Bamji; Genevieve Lambert; Donald M. Thea
ABSTRACT. Objective. To describe the extent of ad- herence to the recommended neonatal zidovudine (ZDV) regimen administered to infants who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV and to determine which maternal factors are associated with compliance. Methods. HIV-infected women,(n,87) who were participating in a larger study of perinatal transmission at 3
Christian, Lisa M
It is well-established that psychological stress promotes immune dysregulation in nonpregnant humans and animals. Stress promotes inflammation, impairs antibody responses to vaccination, slows wound healing, and suppresses cell-mediated immune function. Importantly, the immune system changes substantially to support healthy pregnancy, with attenuation of inflammatory responses and impairment of cell-mediated immunity. This adaptation is postulated to protect the fetus from rejection by the maternal immune system. Thus, stress-induced immune dysregulation during pregnancy has unique implications for both maternal and fetal health, particularly preterm birth. However, very limited research has examined stress-immune relationships in pregnancy. The application of psychoneuroimmunology research models to the perinatal period holds great promise for elucidating biological pathways by which stress may affect adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal health, and fetal development. PMID:21787802
Micali, Nadia; Treasure, Janet
The aim of this paper was to review the literature on the biological effects of a maternal eating disorder (ED) (and relevant comorbidities) in pregnancy on mothers and in particular on the foetus. We also aimed to highlight possible mechanisms of risk for long-term consequences in the offspring. Relevant literature was searched for using PubMed, PsychInfo and Google Scholar and manually through relevant research papers. The consequences of maternal EDs in pregnancy on EDs symptoms, psychopathology and perinatal outcomes are discussed. A developmental model of possible risk mechanisms for adverse long-term nutritional and psychopathological outcomes in the offspring is proposed. Maternal EDs during pregnancy are likely to have important long-term biological effects on the foetus. Further research needs to clarify potential biological risk mechanisms highlighted in this review. PMID:19851992
The epidemic of substance abuse, which has swept through much of the world, has len behind a trail of devastated lives and\\u000a families. Alcohol and substance abuse by women during pregnancy has also been reported to be widespread and can affect the\\u000a unborn fetus with the potential for life-long disabilities. While the magnitude of the perinatal substance abuse has been
Cohain, Judy Slome
Based on accurate randomized controlled studies, the correct evidence-based recommendation would be for women not to undergo prenatal ultrasound except to assist with turning a breech baby to head down, evaluating ectopic pregnancy and directing the needle during amniocentesis and fetal blood transfusions. First and second trimester organ scans, biophysical profile (BPP), amniotic fluid index (AFI), placental grading 0-III and Doppler umbilical, uterine and fetal artery velocity testing have been tested in randomized controlled studies on tens of thousands of women. They are used to attempt to predict suspected fetal growth restriction (FGR or IUGR), suspected placental insufficiency and suspected postdate pregnancy. They are unable to predict those with sufficient accuracy to direct management that will reduce the number of stillbirths or improve perinatal mortality rates and in most settings result in increased cesarean rates as a result of failed induction. PMID:22856081
Arnold, L; Kirby, A
Current and future health-care trends create many challenges for perinatal nurses. A new mind set is required for the profession not only to accommodate the paradigm shift but provide leadership in designing a new future for health care. Interestingly, it has been predicted that the movement toward achieving healthier communities will result in a decentralized, community-based, nonhierarchical system that will not be male dominated. Nurses will be called on to participate in the development and implementation of health-care programs rather than assume a passive, recipient role. On the brink of the 21st century, nursing is in a position to emerge as a leader in providing cost-effective, needs-based, health-care services aimed at improving the health status of a community. PMID:8637803
Main, Elliott K; Goffman, Dena; Scavone, Barbara M; Low, Lisa Kane; Bingham, Debra; Fontaine, Patricia L; Gorlin, Jed B; Lagrew, David C; Levy, Barbara S
Hemorrhage is the most frequent cause of severe maternal morbidity and preventable maternal mortality and therefore is an ideal topic for the initial national maternity patient safety bundle. These safety bundles outline critical clinical practices that should be implemented in every maternity unit. They are developed by multidisciplinary work groups of the National Partnership for Maternal Safety under the guidance of the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care. The safety bundle is organized into four domains: Readiness, Recognition and Prevention, Response, and Reporting and System Learning. Although the bundle components may be adapted to meet the resources available in individual facilities, standardization within an institution is strongly encouraged. References contain sample resources and "Potential Best Practices" to assist with implementation. PMID:26091046
He, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Heng-Rui
Perinatal period and adolescence are critical for brain development, which is the biological basis of an individual's sexual orientation and sexual behavior. In this study, animals were divided into two groups and their sexual orientations were observed: one group experienced drug treatments during the perinatal period, and the other group was castrated at puberty. The results showed that estradiol treatment had no effect on mature male offspring's sexual orientations, but 9 days and 14 days of clomiphene citrate treatment significantly increased the chance of homosexuality and effeminized behavior. In addition, the sexual orientation of mature normal male offspring, which were castrated when they were 21 days old,was not significant different from the control animals. These findings suggest that the inhibition of perinatal estrogen activities could suppress individual male-typical responses, enhance female-typical responses and induce homosexual orientations. Moreover, the masculinizing effects of estrogen were more obvious during perinatal period than adolescence. PMID:24115661
Laliani, N E; Titishvili, N A; Srbiladze, Ts V
The problems developed in the perinatal period are the main reason of a delay of psycho-motor development. Early revealing and adequate conducting of the perinatal period, definition of existing or expected problems and intervention preventive measures allows avoiding or reducing possible pathological conditions, their complications and their consequences. The goal of investigation was to reveal interrelation between perinatal (features of pregnancy, features of delivery, intrauterine chronic hypoxic condition and intrauterine acute hypoxic condition) risk factors and problems of psychomotor development. The cohort of 331 newborn infants was investigated. A close interrelation between perinatal risk factors (features of pregnancy, features of delivery, intrauterine chronic hypoxic condition and intrauterine acute hypoxic condition) and problems of psychomotor development was revealed. It was found that early reveal of existing or expected problems together with intervention of preventive measures allow avoiding or reducing possible pathological conditions, their complications and their consequences. PMID:18487693
Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.
Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal…
Sockol, Laura E; Epperson, C Neill; Barber, Jacques P
Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others' judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period. PMID:24643422
Cecilia Jevitt; Lauren Zapata; Monalisa Harrington; Estrellita Berry
BACKGROUND:The reported rates of perinatal depression range from 10% to 15%. Many communities have limited resources for diagnosis and treatment of depression.OBJECTIVE:The purposes of this descriptive study were to evaluate the feasibility of screening women over time for perinatal depression and making appropriate referrals for diagnosis and treatment.DESIGN:Registered nurses, including community health nurses and a midwife, attempted to screen clients
McGee, D C
When a major urban hospital received notice it would no longer have resident physicians to serve its perinatal population, nurses and physicians joined forces with a private university to develop a curriculum for advanced level caregivers. This willingness to rise to a challenge helped to create the Perinatal Nurse Practitioner Program and has paved the way for other needed inpatient nurse practitioner roles. PMID:7500190
Nicholson, Wanda K.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Brancati, Frederick L.
Our objective was to test the hypothesis that intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes [GDM] predicts childhood growth independent of the effect on infant birthweight. We conducted a prospective analysis of 28,358 mother-infant pairs who enrolled in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959 and 1965. The offspring were followed until age 7. Four hundred and eighty-four mothers (1.7%) had GDM. The mean birthweight was 3.2 kg (range 1.1–5.6 kg). Maternal characteristics (age, education, race, family income, pre-pregnancy body mass index and pregnancy weight gain) and measures of childhood growth (birthweight, weight at ages 4, and 7) differed significantly by GDM status (all P < 0.05). As expected, compared to their non-diabetic counterparts, mothers with GDM gave birth to offspring that had higher weights at birth. The offspring of mothers with GDM were larger at age 7 as indicated by greater weight, BMI and BMI z-score compared to the offspring of mothers without GDM at that age (all P < 0.05). These differences at age 7 persisted even after adjustment for infant birthweight. Furthermore, the offspring of mothers with GDM had a 61% higher odds of being overweight at age 7 compared to the offspring of mothers without GDM after adjustment for maternal BMI, pregnancy weight gain, family income, race and birthweight [OR = 1.61 (95%CI:1.07, 1.28)]. Our results indicate that maternal GDM status is associated with offspring overweight status during childhood. This relationship is only partially mediated by effects on birthweight. PMID:21327952
Tamrakar, S R
With the advent of ultrasound as a means of providing quality antenatal care, there is an increase in the diagnosis of nuchal cord in fetuses. The major cause of foetal or neonatal death during labor and in postpartum period is birth asphyxia and tight nuchal cord is a cause of birth asphyxia. Whilst there are instances in which fetuses with 3 to 4 loops of cord around the neck have been delivered by normal vaginal delivery, some cases have to be delivered by caesarean section due to foetal distress caused by a single loop of cord around the neck. The reason for conducting this study was also to analyze the incidence and other aspects of nuchal cord. Dhulikhel Hospital labour registry was reviewed between Jan 2010 and Dec 2011. A total of 289 cases with at least one loop of nuchal cord were recorded as study case. For comparison, 965 controls were randomly selected from the 4219 unaffected singleton births delivered during the same time period. Of 1254 neonates, nuchal cord was present at 6.85% of deliveries (n = 289). Of these the incidence was 6.57% at preterm, 49.13% at term, 39.79% at postdated and 4.50% at postterm. A total of 151 had one loop and 138 had two or more loops. There was significant difference in the maternal age and birth weight of among three groups (control, with one loop and with two or more loops) in this study (p = 0.002) and (p = 0.000) respectively. However, the incidence was not affected by caste, parity, gestational age, antenatal site, neonatal intensive care unit admission and other perinatal complications. Most were primigravida (62.98%) and about 85.12% were delivered vaginally but caesarean section had to be done in 30 cases. And 2.8% cases required neonatal intensive care unit admission for prematurity. Obstetrician working in the periphery should refer the clients to a tertiary care center to confirm a suspicion of nuchal cord (non-engaged foetal head, decreased foetal movements, meconium stained liquor, foetal distress or malpresentation etc.) and also as a routine basis for ultrasound. Clients with confirmed complication should be managed in tertiary hospitals or institutions with the facility of ultrasound, cardiotocography and emergency surgery. This would improve the health of both the mother and fetus. PMID:24592793
Taha, T. E.; Gray, R. H.
Hospital- and community-based studies were conducted in central Sudan to investigate the association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality. The cases were 197 stillbirths in the hospital and 36 perinatal deaths in the community; the controls were 812 liveborn, normal-birth-weight infants in the hospital, and 1505 liveborn infants who survived for the first 7 days after birth in the community. The odds ratio (OR) of perinatal death associated with pesticide exposure was estimated using multiple logistic regression. There was a consistent and significant association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in the hospital (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-2.8) and the community populations (adjusted OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.4). The OR was significantly higher among women engaged in farming (3.6; 95% CI: 1.6-8.0), but not among women in nonfarming occupations (1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.3). The estimated attributable risks of perinatal death owing to pesticide exposure were 22.6% for hospital stillbirths and 15.7% for community perinatal deaths; but among women engaged in farming in the hospital population the attributable risks were substantially higher (34.5%). PMID:8324850
A M De los Santos-Garate; M Villa-Guillen; D Villanueva-García; M L Vallejos-Ruíz; M T Murguía-Peniche
Objective:The objective of this study is to identify adverse perinatal outcomes associated with pregnancies at or beyond 40 weeks.Study Design:Retrospective cohort study conducted in Mexico, with information obtained from the NEOSANO's Perinatal Network Database from April 2006 to April 2009. Multiple births, babies with inaccurate gestational age or babies with congenital malformations were excluded. Logistic regression models were used to
Wan, Hin T; Zhao, Yin G; Leung, Pik Y; Wong, Chris K C
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally present in the environment and are widely distributed in human populations and wildlife. The chemicals are ubiquitous in human body fluids and have a long serum elimination half-life. The notorious member of PFAAs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is prioritized as a global concerning chemical at the Stockholm Convention in 2009, due to its harmful effects in mammals and aquatic organisms. PFOS is known to affect lipid metabolism in adults and was found to be able to cross human placenta. However the effects of in utero exposure to the susceptibility of metabolic disorders in offspring have not yet been elucidated. In this study, pregnant CD-1 mice (F0) were fed with 0, 0.3 or 3 mg PFOS/kg body weight/day in corn oil by oral gavage daily throughout gestational and lactation periods. We investigated the immediate effects of perinatal exposure to PFOS on glucose metabolism in both maternal and offspring after weaning (PND 21). To determine if the perinatal exposure predisposes the risk for metabolic disorder to the offspring, weaned animals without further PFOS exposure, were fed with either standard or high-fat diet until PND 63. Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured while HOMA-IR index and glucose AUCs were reported. Our data illustrated the first time the effects of the environmental equivalent dose of PFOS exposure on the disturbance of glucose metabolism in F1 pups and F1 adults at PND 21 and 63, respectively. Although the biological effects of PFOS on the elevated levels of fasting serum glucose and insulin levels were observed in both pups and adults of F1, the phenotypes of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were only evident in the F1 adults. The effects were exacerbated under HFD, highlighting the synergistic action at postnatal growth on the development of metabolic disorders. PMID:24498028
Weiss, S H; Louria, D B
The HIV problem will inexorably increase over the next decade, with an increasing proportionate impact upon women and children over the next decade. HIV will become endemic, essentially worldwide. Some regions in the developed world may be relatively spared if current trends continue. This may reduce the willingness to expend necessary resources, particularly if trends toward increasing isolationism continue. There are already signs of a world becoming "bored" with AIDS and the chronicity of a difficult problem. This engenders an atmosphere ripe for increasing discrimination, with the development of loopholes in protective legislation. Already in the United States, some lawsuits concerning health care access among employees have been decided in the employer's favor, permitting them to restrict access to health insurance, despite other regulations which might have protected such workers. Similarly, some HIV-infected health care workers have been dismissed or lost their privileges in the 1990s, despite passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act as well as preceding legislation. It remains to be seen how society will cope with these complicated issues. The view of AIDS in 2004 presented above is pessimistic. There are some important rays of hope. Recent innovative vaccine work and new theoretical models may put us on the road to success, both with preventive and therapeutic vaccines. In particular, the first success in eliciting protection against vaginal HIV exposure, albeit partial, was reported in mid 1993. In a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in vivo experimental model, cellular immunity to SIV was induced in macaques without their developing any signs of SIV infection. These macaques after rechallenge with low-dose SIV remained free of detectable SIV, so there may be an element of protection associated with specific cellular immune responses to immunodeficiency viruses. However, very high-dose SIV rechallenge experiments in similar macaques still led to acquisition of active SIV infection, suggesting that any such protection was only partial. It is also possible that cellular immune protection may be of varying efficacy against different types of exposure, particularly parenteral versus mucosal (such as sexual) exposures. There is also reason for specific optimism concerning interventions that might directly reduce the risk of perinatal transmission. Data from studies of twins suggest that a substantial proportion of perinatal transmission does not occur until after labor has commenced. Thus, caesarian sections may potentially reduce the risk of transmission to the fetus in some cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8013184
Canty, Timothy G.; Leopold, George R.; Wolf, Deborah A.
The increased use of ultrasonography in the management and evaluation of pregnancy has provided a unique opportunity to observe the anatomy of the developing fetus from 12 weeks gestation until term. Twenty-eight surgically important anatomic abnormalities have been diagnosed in utero by sonographic examinations at our affiliated institutions over the past three and a half years. These include ascites (five cases), gastroschisis (four cases), omphalocele (three cases), sacrococcygeal teratoma, cystic hygroma, hydrocele, duodenal atresia, multicystic kidney (two cases each), and one each of jejunal atresia, conjoined twins, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, urethral valves, urethral agenesis, and hydronephrosis secondary to reflux. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonographic examination has signifcantly improved perinatal management. Elective caesarean section has benefited infants with lesions causing dystocia, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma, omphalocele, and conjoined twins. Advance notification of surgeons and neonatalogists has reduced the delays of postnatal evaluation and treatment that contribute, significantly, to complications and death. In addition, transfer of the pregnant mother carrying an infant with a significant surgical anomaly to a center with facilities for neonatal surgery and specialized postoperative care can be properly planned for in advance. In the near future, intrauterine fetal surgery or palliative intervention may provide increased salvage of patients with obstructive uropathy and diaphragmatic hernia, both of which carry high mortality rates secondary to in utero damage. Sonography has proven useful in following the dilatation of either intestinal or urinary tract structures in utero. In our hands, maternal sonography has improved the surgical care of the newborn and may open a new frontier of intrauterine fetal surgery in the future. ImagesFig. 1a.Fig. 1b.Fig. 2a.Fig. 2b.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6a.Fig. 6b.Fig. 6c.Fig. 7a.Fig. 7b.Fig. 8. PMID:6455975
Sullivan, Elinor L.; Nousen, Elizabeth K.; Chamlou, Katherine A.; Grove, Kevin L.
Maternal diet and metabolic state are important factors in determining the environment experienced during perinatal development. Epidemiological studies and evidence from animal models provide evidence that a mother’s diet and metabolic condition are important in programming the neural circuitry that regulates behavior, resulting in a persistent impact on the offspring’s behavior. Potential mechanisms by which maternal diet and metabolic profile influence the perinatal environment include placental dysfunction and increases in circulating factors such as inflammatory cytokines, nutrients (glucose and fatty acids) and hormones (insulin and leptin). Maternal obesity and high-fat diet (HFD) consumption exposure during development have been observed to increase the risk of developing serious mental health and behavioral disorders including anxiety, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. The increased risk of developing these behavioral disorders is postulated to be due to perturbations in the development of neural pathways that regulate behavior, including the serotonergic, dopaminergic and melanocortinergic systems. It is critical to examine the influence that a mother’s nutrition and metabolic profile have on the developing offspring considering the current and alarmingly high prevalence of obesity and HFD consumption in pregnant women.
Claudia von Both; Albrecht Jahn; Steffen Fleßa
The following paper presents the methodology and results of a costing exercise of maternal health services in Tanzania. The\\u000a main objective of this study was to determine the actual costs of antenatal and obstetric care in different health institutions\\u000a in a district in Tanzania as a basis of more efficient resource allocation. A costing tool was developed that allows the
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
consumption before pregnancy and fetal growth: evidence for an association in overweight women. The EDEN questionnaires on their usual diet in the year before and during the last three months of pregnancy (n 1805. For overweight women (n 464), a higher= consumption before pregnancy was associated with higher fetal biparietal
George, Kuryan; Prasad, Jasmin; Singh, Daisy; Minz, Shanthidani; Albert, David S; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Joseph, K S; Jayaraman, Jyothi; Kramer, Michael S
Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA) live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and < 1% in Nova Scotia when the Indian standard was used. In Kaniyambadi, low birth weight, preterm birth and perinatal mortality rates did not decrease between 1990 and 2005. SGA rates in Kaniyambadi declined significantly when SGA was based on the Indian standard but not when it was based on the Canadian standard. Maternal mortality rates fell by 85% (95% confidence interval 57% to 95%) in Kaniyambadi between 1986–90 and 2001–05. Perinatal mortality rates were 11.7 and 2.6 per 1,000 total births and cesarean delivery rates were 6.0% and 20.9% among live births ? 2,500 g in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories. PMID:19203384
Bobi?, Mirna Vukovi?; Habek, Dubravko; Habek, Jasna ?erkez
In the present study, the impact of the potential perinatal epidemiological factors on preeclampsia development was assessed. This clinical study included 55 pregnant women with preeclampsia and control group of 50 healthy pregnant women. Positive family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus or thromboembolic disease was recorded in 50% of women with preeclampsia versus 28% of control group women. Positive personal history of this disease was recorded in 15% of women with preeclampsia, whereas all control group women had negative personal history of preeclampsia. Dietary habits, i.e. the intake of meat and meat products, fruit and vegetables, coffee and alcohol drinks were similar in the two groups, without statistically significant differences. The women with preeclampsia and control women reported comparable habits; there was no difference in the consumption of meat, fruit, vegetables, coffee and alcohol, smoking, use of folate and oral hormonal contraception before pregnancy, or in physical activity as the potential risk factors for preeclampsia in current pregnancy. However, personal and family history of vascular disease proved to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of preeclampsia, emphasizing the need of lifestyle and dietary modifications with healthy dietary habits, while avoiding adverse habits in pregnancy. PMID:26058236
West, Kristi L; Ramer, Jan; Brown, Janine L; Sweeney, Jay; Hanahoe, Erin M; Reidarson, Tom; Proudfoot, Jeffry; Bergfelt, Don R
This study evaluated circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones in relation to age, sex, pregnancy status, and perinatal loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) under human care. A total of 373 blood samples were collected from 60 individual dolphins housed at nine aquariums/oceanariums. Serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were analyzed with commercial RIA kits validated for use with dolphins. While the effect of age was indicated by higher (P<0.0001) concentrations of total and free T4 and T3 in juveniles than adults, the effect of sex on thyroid hormones was inconclusive. The effect of pregnancy was indicated by higher (P<0.035) total and free T4 and T3 during early pregnancy compared to non-pregnancy. For both successful and unsuccessful pregnancy outcomes, maternal concentrations of thyroid hormones were highest during early, intermediate during mid, and lowest during late pregnancy (P<0.07 to P<0.0001). Compared to live and thriving births, concentrations of total and free T4 and total T3 were lower (P<0.08 to P<0.001) in dolphins with perinatal loss. Lower concentrations ranged from 10% to 14% during early, 11% to 18% during mid, and 23% to 37% during late pregnancy. In conclusion, the effects of age, reproductive status and stage of pregnancy on thyroid hormone concentrations are necessary factors to take into account when assessing thyroid gland function. Since perinatal loss may be associated with hypothyroidism in dolphins, analysis of serum T4 and T3 should be considered for those dolphins that have a history of pregnancy loss. PMID:24321177
Yang, Ting; Zhuang, Lei; Rei Fidalgo, António M.; Petrides, Evgenia; Terrando, Niccolo; Wu, Xinmin; Sanders, Robert D.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Johnson, Mark R.; Maze, Mervyn; Ma, Daqing
It is not possible to identify all pregnancies at risk of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Many women use some form of analgesia during childbirth and some anesthetic agents have been shown to be neuroprotective when used as analgesics at subanesthetic concentrations. In this study we sought to understand the effects of two anesthetic agents with presumptive analgesic activity and known preconditioning-neuroprotective properties (sevoflurane or xenon), in reducing hypoxia-induced brain damage in a model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. The analgesic and neuroprotective effects at subanesthetic levels of sevoflurane (0.35%) or xenon (35%) were tested in a rat model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. Analgesic effects were measured by assessing maternal behavior and spinal cord dorsal horn neuronal activation using c-Fos. In separate experiments, intrauterine fetal asphyxia was induced four hours after gas exposure; on post-insult day 3 apoptotic cell death was measured by caspase-3 immunostaining in hippocampal neurons and correlated with the number of viable neurons on postnatal day (PND) 7. A separate cohort of pups was nurtured by a surrogate mother for 50 days when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed. Both anesthetic agents provided analgesia as reflected by a reduction in the number of stretching movements and decreased c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Both agents also reduced the number of caspase-3 positive (apoptotic) neurons and increased cell viability in the hippocampus at PND7. These acute histological changes were mirrored by improved cognitive function measured remotely after birth on PND 50 compared to control group. Subanesthetic doses of sevoflurane or xenon provided both analgesia and neuroprotection in this model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. These data suggest that anesthetic agents with neuroprotective properties may be effective in preventing HIE and should be tested in clinical trials in the future. PMID:22615878
Briand, Nelly; Le Coeur, Sophie; Jourdain, Gonzague; Hotrawarikarn, Somboon; Sirinontakan, Surat; Hinjiranandana, Temsiri; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Traisathit, Patrinee; McIntosh, Kenneth; Lallemant, Marc
The evolution of hematological parameters in HIV-1-exposed uninfected infants according to various durations of perinatal zidovudine exposure was studied. We used data prospectively collected among 1122 HIV-uninfected formula-fed infants born to HIV-infected mothers who participated in a clinical trial to prevent perinatal transmission in Thailand (PHPT-1). Infants were exposed to different durations of zidovudine both in utero and after birth. Hemoglobin level and leukocyte, absolute neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were measured at birth and at 6 weeks of age. The association between hematological parameters at birth and the duration of zidovudine exposure in utero was studied using a linear regression model, and changes between birth and 6 weeks of age and the duration of postnatal zidovudine exposure using mixed effects models. At birth, the hemoglobin level was lower in newborns exposed to zidovudine for more than 7.5 weeks in utero (adjusted regression coefficient: -0.6?g/dl; 95% confidence interval: -1.1 to -0.1). Six weeks after birth, the hemoglobin level had decreased faster in infants administered zidovudine for more than 4 weeks (adjusted regression coefficient: -0.1?g/dl; 95% confidence interval: -0.2 to -0.1). The duration of perinatal zidovudine exposure was not associated with the evolution of leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. Despite the differences in hemoglobin levels, grade 3 or 4 anemia did not significantly differ by maternal or infant zidovudine duration. The clinical impact appeared modest, but longer exposure may warrant close monitoring. PMID:20854205
Le Coeur, Sophie; Jourdain, Gonzague; Hotrawarikarn, Somboon; Sirinontakan, Surat; Hinjiranandana, Temsiri; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Traisathit, Patrinee; McIntosh, Kenneth; Lallemant, Marc
Abstract The evolution of hematological parameters in HIV-1-exposed uninfected infants according to various durations of perinatal zidovudine exposure was studied. We used data prospectively collected among 1122 HIV-uninfected formula-fed infants born to HIV-infected mothers who participated in a clinical trial to prevent perinatal transmission in Thailand (PHPT-1). Infants were exposed to different durations of zidovudine both in utero and after birth. Hemoglobin level and leukocyte, absolute neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were measured at birth and at 6 weeks of age. The association between hematological parameters at birth and the duration of zidovudine exposure in utero was studied using a linear regression model, and changes between birth and 6 weeks of age and the duration of postnatal zidovudine exposure using mixed effects models. At birth, the hemoglobin level was lower in newborns exposed to zidovudine for more than 7.5 weeks in utero (adjusted regression coefficient: ?0.6?g/dl; 95% confidence interval: ?1.1 to ?0.1). Six weeks after birth, the hemoglobin level had decreased faster in infants administered zidovudine for more than 4 weeks (adjusted regression coefficient: ?0.1?g/dl; 95% confidence interval: ?0.2 to ?0.1). The duration of perinatal zidovudine exposure was not associated with the evolution of leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. Despite the differences in hemoglobin levels, grade 3 or 4 anemia did not significantly differ by maternal or infant zidovudine duration. The clinical impact appeared modest, but longer exposure may warrant close monitoring. PMID:20854205
Brown, Laura D; Green, Alice S; Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J
Maternal dietary protein supplementation to improve fetal growth has been considered as an option to prevent or treat intrauterine growth restriction. However, in contrast to balanced dietary supplementation, adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who received high amounts of dietary protein supplementation have been observed. The responsible mechanisms for these adverse outcomes are unknown. This review will discuss relevant human and animal data to provide the background necessary for the development of explanatory hypotheses and ultimately for the development therapeutic interventions during pregnancy to improve fetal growth. Relevant aspects of fetal amino acid metabolism during normal pregnancy and those pregnancies affected by IUGR will be discussed. In addition, data from animal experiments which have attempted to determine mechanisms to explain the adverse responses identified in the human trials will be presented. Finally, we will suggest new avenues for investigation into how amino acid supplementation might be used safely to treat and/or prevent IUGR. PMID:21196387
Kollée, L A A
Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent neurodevelopmental disturbances may occur. The most at risk for vitamin-B12 deficiency are breast-fed infants ofveganist and vegetarian mothers. Mothers who cover their skin prevent exposure to the sun and may consequently be at risk for vitamin-D deficiency, as well as putting their offspring at risk. In prenatal and perinatal care, it is important to take the maternal dietary history in order to be able to prevent or treat these disorders. Guidelines for obstetrical and neonatal care should include the topic of vitamin deficiency. PMID:16553044
Chang, Shu-Chen; Chen, Chung-Hey
Music therapy has been used in the care of patients in a variety of fields, to decrease anxiety and enhance health, and has shown promising results. It is reported that pregnancy and childbirth may result in stressful consequences for some women. This article describes the systematic applications of music therapy to perinatal women and their families. The use of music for the childbearing family is appropriate because it enhances learning, improves the birth experience, and promotes closer relationships. The labor nurses are charged with the tasks of assuring the positive aspects of pregnancy and childbirth and meeting the demands of the women in these stressful situations. In order to create a caring environment, we suggest that music therapy be incorporated into standard maternity care. PMID:15614664
Amanda Carr; Alison Pike
The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting
Background While progress has been made in reducing neonatal mortality in Guatemala, stillbirth and maternal mortality rates remain high, especially among the indigenous populations, which have among the highest adverse pregnancy-related mortality rates in Guatemala. Methods We conducted a prospective study in the Western Highlands of Guatemala from 2010 through 2013, enrolling women during pregnancy with follow-up through 42-days postpartum. All pregnant women were identified and enrolled by study staff in the clusters in the Chimaltenango region for which we had 4 years of data. Enrolment usually occurred during the antenatal period; women were also visited following delivery and 42-days postpartum to collect outcomes. Measures of antenatal and delivery care were also obtained. Results Approximately four thousand women were enrolled annually (3,869 in 2010 to 4,570 in 2013). The stillbirth rate decreased significantly, from 22.0 per 1000 births (95% CI 16.6, 29.0) in 2010 to 16.7 (95% CI 13.5, 20.6) in 2013 (p-value 0.0223). The perinatal mortality rate decreased from 43.9 per 1,000 births (95% CI 36.0, 53.6) to 31.6 (95% CI 27.2, 36.7) (p-value 0.0003). The 28-day neonatal mortality rate decreased from 28.9 per 1000 live births (95% CI 25.2, 33.2) to 21.7 (95% CI 17.5, 26.9), p-value 0.0004. The maternal mortality rate was 134 per 100,000 in 2010 vs. 113 per 100,000 in 2013. Over the same period, hospital birth rates increased from 30.0 to 50.3%. Conclusions In a relatively short time period, significant improvements in neonatal, fetal and perinatal mortality were noted in an area of Guatemala with a history of poor pregnancy outcomes. These changes were temporally related to major increases in hospital-based delivery with skilled birth attendants, as well as improvements in the quality of delivery care, neonatal care, and prenatal care. PMID:26062407
Ross, Randal G; Freedman, Robert
Endophenotypes are disease-associated phenotypes that are thought to reflect the neurobiological or other mechanisms that underlie the more overt symptoms of a psychiatric illness. Endophenotypes have been critical in understanding the genetics, neurobiology, and treatment of schizophrenia. Because psychiatric illnesses have multiple causes, including both genetic and nongenetic risk factors, an endophenotype linked to one of the mechanisms may be expressed more frequently than the disease itself. However, in schizophrenia research, endophenotypes have almost exclusively been studied in older adolescents or adults who have entered or passed through the age of risk for the disorder. Yet, schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder where prenatal development starts a cascade of brain changes across the lifespan. Endophenotypes have only minimally been utilized to explore the perinatal development of vulnerability. One major impediment to the development of perinatally-useful endophenotypes has been the established validity criteria. For example, the criterion that the endophenotype be more frequently present in those with disease than those without is difficult to demonstrate when there can be a decades-long period between endophenotype measurement and the age of greatest risk for onset of the disorder. This article proposes changes to the endophenotype validity criteria appropriate to perinatal research and reviews how application of these modified criteria helped identify a perinatally-usable phenotype of risk for schizophrenia, P50 sensory gating, which was then used to propose a novel perinatal primary prevention intervention. PMID:25943124
The Arabidopsis MEDEA gene is required in maternal tissues to restrict cell proliferation in embryos. Molecular characterisation indicates that MEDEA encodes a Polycomb-group protein, particularly intriguing as MEDEA's maternal effects may be a consequence of genomic imprinting.
Lewis, Jocelyn Renee
committing the criminal act of maternal neonaticide. These media representations of maternal neonaticide could impact the criminal justice system and public policy. Questions of accuracy, gendered understandings of crime and gendered understanding...
Burstyn, Igor; Kuhle, Stefan; Allen, Alexander C; Veugelers, Paul
Fetal growth restriction and maternal smoking during pregnancy are independently implicated in lowering intellectual attainment in children. We hypothesized that only reduction of fetal growth that is attributable to extrinsic causes (e.g., maternal smoking) affects intellectual development of a child. Cross-sectional survey of 3,739 students in Nova Scotia (Canada) in 2003 was linked with the perinatal database, parental interviews on socio-demographic factors and the performance on standardized tests when primarily 11-12 years of age, thereby forming a retrospective cohort. Data was analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression with correction for clustering of children within schools. The risk of poor test result among children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) to mothers who smoked was 29.4%, higher than in any other strata of maternal smoking and fetal growth. The adjusted odds ratio among SGA children born to mothers who smoked was the only one elevated compared to children who were not growth restricted and born to mothers who did not smoke (17.0%, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.02, 2.09). Other perinatal, maternal and socio-demographic factors did not alter this pattern of effect modification. Heterogeneity of etiology of fetal growth restriction should be consider in studies that address examine its impact on health over life course. PMID:22470300
P. H. T. Cartlidge; J. H. Stewart
The perinatal mortality rate is widely used as a summary statistic for evaluating the effectiveness of perinatal care. Since October, 1992, it has been a legal requirement in England and Wales to register fetal deaths at 24-27 completed weeks of gestation as stillbirths (in addition to those after 28 weeks), thereby altering the definition of perinatal death. In a cohort
Craswell, Alison; Moxham, Lorna; Broadbent, Marc
This paper presents research undertaken as part of a larger research project to examine the factors that influence midwives when entering perinatal data. A grounded theory methodology was used to undertake qualitative interviews with 15 participants from 12 different hospitals across Queensland, Australia using three different systems for perinatal data collection. The findings surrounding accountability are presented revealing that a shift in governance relating to responsibility and accountability is not occurring in midwifery units across Queensland. Without assignation of responsibility for entries and accountability for mistakes or omissions, perinatal data records can be left incomplete or inaccurate. Increasing use of electronic health records and creation of digital hospitals indicates these issues are highly relevant in planning for these services. PMID:25087522
Rosenzweig, Jason M.; Lei, Jun; Burd, Irina
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a potent inflammatory cytokine that can be produced by a variety of cell types throughout the body. While IL-1 is a central mediator of inflammation and response to infection, the role of IL-1 signaling in adult and pediatric brain injury is becoming increasingly clear. Although the mechanisms of IL-1 expression are largely understood, the downstream effects and contributions to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are poorly defined. Here, we present a review of mechanisms of IL-1 signaling with a focus on the role of IL-1 in perinatal brain injury. We highlight research models of perinatal brain injury and the use of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) as an agent of therapeutic potential in preventing perinatal brain injury due to exposure to inflammation. PMID:25340046
Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Freeman, Marlene P
Complementary and alternative medicine therapies are increasingly sought out by people with psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, we review the evidence for several commonly used CAM therapies (i.e. omega-3 fatty acids, folate, S-adenosyl-methionine, St John's Wort, bright light therapy, exercise, massage, and acupuncture) in the treatment of perinatal depression. A number of these treatments may be reasonable to consider for women during pregnancy or postpartum, but the safety and efficacy of these relative to standard treatments must still be systematically determined. Evidence-based use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies treatments for perinatal depression is discussed. Adequately powered systematic studies are necessary to determine the role of complementary and alternative medicine therapies in the treatment of perinatal depression. PMID:24041861
Hollowell, J; Pillas, D; Rowe, R; Linsell, L; Knight, M; Brocklehurst, P
Objectives?To evaluate the impact of maternal BMI on intrapartum interventions and adverse outcomes that may influence choice of planned birth setting in healthy women without additional risk factors. Design?Prospective cohort study. Setting?Stratified random sample of English obstetric units. Sample?17 230 women without medical or obstetric risk factors other than obesity. Methods?Multivariable log Poisson regression was used to evaluate the effect of BMI on risk of intrapartum interventions and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes adjusted for maternal characteristics. Main outcome measures?Maternal intervention or adverse outcomes requiring obstetric care (composite of: augmentation, instrumental delivery, intrapartum caesarean section, general anaesthesia, blood transfusion, 3rd/4th degree perineal tear); neonatal unit admission or perinatal death. Results?In otherwise healthy women, obesity was associated with an increased risk of augmentation, intrapartum caesarean section and some adverse maternal outcomes but when interventions and outcomes requiring obstetric care were considered together, the magnitude of the increased risk was modest (adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02–1.23, for BMI > 35 kg/m2 relative to low risk women of normal weight). Nulliparous low risk women of normal weight had higher absolute risks and were more likely to require obstetric intervention or care than otherwise healthy multiparous women with BMI > 35 kg/m2 (maternal composite outcome: 53% versus 21%). The perinatal composite outcome exhibited a similar pattern. Conclusions?Otherwise healthy multiparous obese women may have lower intrapartum risks than previously appreciated. BMI should be considered in conjunction with parity when assessing the potential risks associated with birth in non-obstetric unit settings. PMID:24034832
Della Seta, Daniele; Minder, Isabelle; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Farabollini, Francesca
In mammals, endogenous estrogens are crucial for sexual differentiation during the perinatal period, and the modulation in adulthood of many neuroendocrine and behavioral functions involved in reproduction. In rats, the estrogenic environment during pregnancy and lactation affects directly maternal behavior. This experiment was aimed to test whether the exposure to the estrogenic compound bisphenol-A (BPA; 0.040 mg/kg/die, orally) of adult female rats, from mating to weaning of the pups, could alter maternal behavior. An appropriate methodology was applied to reveal differences in the behavior of dams directed to male and female pups, testing the dams on postnatal days 3-4 and 8-9. Results show different maternal behavioral patterns towards male and female pups of control mothers, with more ano-genital licking to males than to females. Exposure of mothers to BPA modified their behavior, reducing specific components of maternal behavior, both active and passive, irrespective of the sex of pups and the period of observation. This experiment shows that maternal behavior is affected by a prolonged exposure to a low dose of BPA during pregnancy and lactation, thus suggesting an effect on neural circuits in adulthood. PMID:15811589
Basu, Anna P
Perinatal stroke is the commonest cause of hemiplegic cerebral palsy. No standardised early intervention exists despite evidence for a critical time window for activity-dependent plasticity to mould corticospinal tract development in the first few years of life. Intervention during this unique period of plasticity could mitigate the consequences of perinatal stroke to an extent not possible with later intervention, by preserving the normal pattern of development of descending motor pathways. This article outlines the broad range of approaches currently under investigation. Improved early detection and outcome prediction remain important goals, despite significant progress in this area. PMID:24528276
In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…
The meeting discussed two main areas concerning maternal anthropometry in developing countries: (1) how various anthropometric indicators can be best utilized for assessing and monitoring the nutritional status of women at different times in their reproductive lives, and (2) the predictive value of various anthropometric indicators for identifying benefit or risk for maternal and perinatal/neonatal health and nutritional outcomes of pregnancy. The indicators discussed were prepregnancy weight, height, weight gain in pregnancy, arm circumference, weight-for-height and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2). Some 50 experts reached consensus on the tools for assessing maternal nutritional status for widespread field application in developing countries, and on priority research needs. This Memorandum summarizes the general recommendations which have important and immediate field applications, as well as priority research issues related to specific indicators. PMID:1959155
Patricia Jeffery; Roger Jeffery
This paper uses a close reading of villagers’ responses to the death in childbirth of a Muslim woman to raise questions about India’s current policy emphasis on institutional delivery as a means of reducing maternal mortality. After introducing the context and methods of our research, we describe recent policy interventions related to maternal health, including the National Rural Health Mission
Olufemi T Oladapo; Mustafa A Lamina; Tuminu A Fakoya
BACKGROUND: Health institutions need to contribute their quota towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) with respect to maternal health. In order to do so, current data on maternal mortality is essential for careproviders and policy makers to appreciate the burden of the problem and understand how best to distribute resources. This study presents the magnitude and distribution
Sundquist, Kristina; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Sundquist, Jan
Background The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in early life has increased in recent decades, but the relevant risk factors remain largely unknown. We examined perinatal and family risk factors for NHL in childhood through young adulthood. Methods We conducted a national cohort study of 3?571?574 individuals born in Sweden in 1973–2008 who were followed for incidence of NHL through 2009 (ages 0–37 years). Detailed information on perinatal and family characteristics and NHL diagnoses were obtained from national birth and cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between perinatal and family variables and NHL; P values are from two-sided tests. Results There were 936 NHL case patients identified in 66.3 million person-years of follow-up. Independent risk factors for NHL included family history of NHL in either a sibling (adjusted HR = 9.84; 95% CI = 2.46 to 39.41; P = .001) or parent (adjusted HR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.38; P = .007); high fetal growth (for ?2 SDs relative to 0 to <1 SD from the mean: adjusted HR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.25; P = .002); older maternal age (adjusted HR for each 5-year increment = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.19; P trend = .004); low birth order (adjusted HR for each increment of one birth = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.84 to 0.99; P trend = .02); and male sex (adjusted HR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.38 to 1.80; P < .001). Male sex was associated with onset of NHL before 15 years of age but not with later-onset NHL, whereas the other risk factors did not vary by age at diagnosis. No association was found between gestational age at birth, twinning, paternal age, or parental education and NHL. Conclusion In this large national cohort study, family history of NHL, high fetal growth, older maternal age, low birth order, and male sex were independent risk factors for NHL in early life. PMID:22623506
Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Ucha, Marcos; Ambrosio, Emilio
Marihuana is the most widely consumed illicit drug, even among adolescents and pregnant women. Given the critical developmental processes that occur in the adolescent and fetal nervous system, marihuana consumption during these stages may have permanent consequences on several brain functions in later adult life. Here, we review what is currently known about the long-term consequences of perinatal and adolescent cannabinoid exposure. The most consistent findings point to long-term impairments in cognitive function that are associated with structural alterations and disturbed synaptic plasticity. In addition, several neurochemical modifications are also evident after prenatal or adolescent cannabinoid exposure, especially in the endocannabinoid, glutamatergic, dopaminergic and opioidergic systems. Important sexual dimorphisms are also evident in terms of the long-lasting effects of cannabinoid consumption during pregnancy and adolescence, and cannabinoids possibly have a protective effect in adolescents who have suffered traumatic life challenges, such as maternal separation or intense stress. Finally, we suggest some future research directions that may encourage further advances in this exciting field. PMID:25960036
Pariente, Gali; Peles, C; Perri, Zvi H; Baumfeld, Yael; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Koifman, Arie; Weintraub, Adi Y; Hershkovitz, Reli
Abstract Objective: To detect factors that are associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) among deliveries of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and to identify perinatal outcomes of deliveries of SGA infants complicated with MSAF. Methods: A population-based study comparing deliveries of SGA neonates with and without MSAF was conducted. Deliveries occurred during the years 1988-2007 at the Soroka University Medical Center. Risk factors for MSAF among SGA infants were evaluated. Incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes were compared between deliveries of SGA neonates with and without MSAF. Results: During the study period 9583 deliveries were of SGA neonates. Of these, 16.6% (n?=?1597) were complicated with MSAF. Among SGA neonates, older maternal age, multiparty, lack of prenatal care and weight were significantly associated with MSAF. Having delivered an SGA infant with MSAF was associated with decreased rates of induction of labor and increased rates of labor dystocia, delivery by cesarean section and fetal distress. Using multivariable regression models, having delivered an SGA infant with MSAF was independently associated with fetal distress. Conclusion: Among SGA neonates, deliveries complicated with MSAF are associated with additional adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25005860
Rouse, Matthew H; Goodman, Sherryl H
Accumulating evidence suggests that antenatal depression predicts infants' negative affectivity, albeit with variable effect sizes. With a prospective longitudinal design, we sought to explain that variability by addressing questions about timing of the depression across pregnancy and the early postpartum, the role of high symptom levels relative to diagnosed depression, comorbidity with anxiety, and the potential mediating role of neuroendocrine functioning. Primiparous women (n=77) with histories of depression prior to pregnancy were assessed for cortisol levels monthly beginning by mid-pregnancy. Depression symptom levels and diagnostic status were similarly assessed monthly in pregnancy and also until infants reached three months of age, when mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised to measure infant negative affectivity. Antenatal depression symptoms and infant negative affectivity were positively associated (r=.39). Controlling for depression symptom levels in other trimesters, only second trimester depression symptoms predicted higher infant negative affectivity (?=.44). With postpartum depression symptom levels in the model, only antenatal depression symptoms predicted infant negative affectivity (?=.45). In the context of depression, neither antenatal anxiety symptoms nor anxiety disorder diagnosis were associated with infant NA scores. The hypothesized role of elevated maternal cortisol as a mechanism for the association between antenatal depression and infant NA was not supported. Our findings contribute to efforts to more precisely identify infants of perinatally depressed mothers who are at greater risk for elevated negative affectivity, suggesting a window of vulnerability in mid pregnancy and the need for further study of potential mechanisms. PMID:25459792
Sockol, Laura E; Battle, Cynthia L
The Attitudes Toward Motherhood (AToM) Scale was developed to assess women's beliefs about motherhood, a specific risk factor for emotional distress in perinatal populations. As the measure was initially developed and validated for use among first-time mothers, this study assessed the reliability and validity of the AToM Scale in a sample of multiparous women. Maternal attitudes were significantly associated with symptoms of depression, even after controlling for demographic, cognitive, and interpersonal risk factors. Maternal attitudes were also associated with symptoms of anxiety after controlling for demographic risk factors, but this association was not significant after accounting for cognitive and interpersonal risk factors. Compared to primiparous women from the initial validation study of the AToM Scale, multiparous women reported lower levels of social support and marital satisfaction. The relationships between cognitive and interpersonal risk factors and symptoms of depression and anxiety were comparable between multiparous and primiparous women. PMID:25712795
Placental buffering of maternal steroid hormone effects on fetal and yolk hormone levels: a comparative study of a viviparous lizard, Sceloporus jarrovi, and an oviparous lizard, Sceloporus graciosus.
Painter, Danika; Jennings, David H; Moore, Michael C
We investigated maternal-fetal hormone transfer in the mountain spiny lizard, Sceloporus jarrovi, a viviparous species with a simple chorioallantoic placenta. In one experiment, we examined the effect of elevated maternal progesterone on fetal and yolk hormone levels. Progesterone implants increased maternal progesterone nearly 100-fold; however, the resulting increase in fetal and yolk progesterone was only about 2% of that seen in mothers, providing evidence that the placenta buffers hormone diffusion. In addition, some effects of progesterone treatment differed between male and female fetuses, suggesting that this buffering may differ between the sexes. In a second experiment, we examined the relationship between maternal and fetal hormone levels in viviparous versus oviparous species. We measured endogenous progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, and corticosterone levels in pregnant S. jarrovi and their fetuses and neonates, and in gravid S. graciosus (an oviparous congener) and their fetuses and hatchlings. No clear relationship was identified between maternal and fetal or hatchling S. graciosus hormone levels. However, the data for S. jarrovi suggest that maternal hormones may inhibit perinatal hormone secretion. These findings indicate that, despite the relatively recent evolutionary origin and simple structure of the S. jarrovi placenta, mechanisms for placental mediation of the maternal-fetal endocrine relationship have evolved. Although the placenta appears to buffer hormone transport, maternal hormones can affect fetal and yolk hormone levels, suggesting that disruption of endocrine regulation could be a physiological cost of the evolution of viviparity. PMID:12383438
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using the partograph to follow labour and delivery, with the objective to improve health care and reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and death. The partograph consists of a graphic representation of labour and is an excellent visual resource to analyze cervix, uterine contraction and foetal presentation in relation to time. However, poor utilization of the partograph was found in the public health institutions which reflect poor monitoring of mothers in labour and/or poor pregnancy outcome. Methods A retrospective document review was undertaken to assess the completion of the modified WHO partograph during labour in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 420 of the modified WHO partographs used to monitor mothers in labour from five public health institutions that provide maternity care were reviewed. A structured checklist was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Frequency distributions, cross-tabulations and a graph were used to describe the results of the study. Results All facilities were using the modified WHO partograph. The correct completion of the partograph was very low. From 420 partographs reviewed across all the five health facilities, foetal heart rate was recorded into the recommended standard in 129(30.7%) of the partographs, while 138 (32.9%) of cervical dilatation and 87 (20.70%) of uterine contractions were recorded to the recommended standard. The study did not document descent of the presenting part in 353 (84%). Moulding in 364 (86.7%) of the partographs reviewed was not recorded. Documentation of state of the liquor was 113(26.9%), while the maternal blood pressure was recorded to standard only in 78(18.6%) of the partographs reviewed. Conclusions This study showed a poor completion of the modified WHO partographs during labour in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The findings may reflect poor management of labour or simply inappropriate completion of the instrument and indicate the need for pre-service and periodic on-job training of health workers on the proper completion of the partograph. Regular supportive supervision, provision of guidelines and mandatory health facility policy are also needed in support of a collaborative effort to reduce maternal and perinatal deaths. PMID:23597239
Joann OLeary; Jane Warland
This article addresses the notion of intentional parenting from the viewpoint of bereaved parents. Information comes from the authors' qualitative research with parents who experienced a perinatal loss. Parents provide a different perspective of intentionality: that of valuing their children's life as a gift and not taking their parenting responsibility lightly. Their descriptions of intentional behaviors, beginning in pregnancy, support
McConnell, Edwina A.
Survey responses from 48 perinatal nurses found that most learned about medical devices by reading manuals; 75% had received inservice training; and 95% learned from other staff. Inadequate knowledge was related to fear of causing patient harm. Initial learning method influenced what was learned, and hands-on experience was considered efficacious.…
Groenendaal, F.; Van Hof-Van Duin, J.
Study of the visual development of 38 infants, children, and youths who were neurologically impaired following perinatal hypoxia found that all children showed impairments of 1 or more visual functions, though visual development continued and visual improvements were demonstrated up to age 16. (Author/JDD)
U. Roessmann; P. Gambetti
Astrocytic reaction to various types of pre-and perinatal damage in the brain was studied using the immunohistochemical method for glial fibrillary acidic protein. The reactive gliosis could be detected as early as 20 weeks gestation. Reactive proliferation of the astrocytes could be seen already at 4 days after the insult. In addition to reacting to focal lesions, the astrocytes also
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
"Zero to Three is a single focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that because the perinatal periodfrom the later stages of pregnancy through the first 6 months of the infants lifeis a period of…
The predominant perspective on perinatal family labour supply in the theoretical and empirical economics literature is that careers and children are simultaneous choices, so conditioning on the prenatal career ambitions of individuals, and particularly women, the event of a birth has little or no effect on labour market behaviour. There are, of course, many reasons to believe that this “allor-
Fattuoni, Claudia; Palmas, Francesco; Noto, Antonio; Fanos, Vassilios; Barberini, Luigi
Perinatal asphyxia is defined as an oxygen deprivation that occurs around the time of birth, and may be caused by several perinatal events. This medical condition affects some four million neonates worldwide per year, causing the death of one million subjects. In most cases, infants successfully recover from hypoxia episodes; however, some patients may develop HIE, leading to permanent neurological conditions or impairment of different organs and systems. Given its multifactor dependency, the timing, severity and outcome of this disease, mainly assessed through Sarnat staging, are of difficult evaluation. Moreover, although the latest newborn resuscitation guideline suggests the use of a 21% oxygen concentration or room air, such an approach is still under debate. Therefore, the pathological mechanism is still not clear and a golden standard treatment has yet to be defined. In this context, metabolomics, a new discipline that has described important perinatal issues over the last years, proved to be a useful tool for the monitoring, the assessment, and the identification of potential biomarkers associated with asphyxia events. This review covers metabolomics research on perinatal asphyxia condition, examining in detail the studies reported both on animal and human models. PMID:25898414
Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George; Shenassa, Edmond; Rodriguez, Daniel; Niaura, Raymond; LeWinn, Kaja; Lipsitt, Lewis P.; Buka, Stephen L.
Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is an independent risk factor for offspring nicotine dependence (ND), but mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated prenatal glucocorticoid (cortisol) and androgen (testosterone) associations with offspring ND over 40 years, and the possibility that prenatal glucocorticoids and androgens would mediate links between MSDP and offspring ND. Methods Participants were 1,086 mother-adult offspring pairs (59% female) from the New England Family Study, a 40-year longitudinal follow up of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. MSDP was assessed prospectively at each prenatal visit. Maternal cortisol, testosterone, and cotinine (nicotine metabolite), were assayed from third trimester maternal sera. Offspring lifetime ND was assessed via structured interview. Results Significant bivariate associations emerged for: a) MSDP/cotinine and lifetime ND, and b) maternal cortisol and lifetime ND, for daughters only. In multivariate models, maternal cortisol and MSDP/cotinine remained significantly and independently associated with increased odds of daughters’ lifetime ND. However, cortisol did not mediate the MSDP-lifetime ND relation. No associations emerged between maternal testosterone and offspring ND. Conclusions Results provide the first evidence in support of prenatal glucocorticoid programming of adult ND over 40 years in daughters only. Our study highlights two independent prenatal pathways leading to increased risk for ND in daughters: elevated prenatal glucocorticoids and MSDP/nicotine exposure. Daughter-specific effects of glucocorticoid and MSDP programming over 40 years highlight the breadth and persistence of sexually dimorphic programming effects in humans. Results do not support androgen programming of offspring ND. PMID:24034414
Associations of Body Mass Index (Maternal BMI) and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus with Neonatal and Maternal Pregnancy Outcomes in a Multicentre European Database (Diabetes and Pregnancy Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention)
Vellinga, Akke; Zawiejska, A.; Harreiter, J.; Buckley, B.; Di Cianni, G.; Lapolla, A.; Corcoy, R.; Simmons, D.; Adelantado, J. M.; Damm, P.; Desoye, G.; Devlieger, R.; Hill, D.; Kautzky-Willer, A.; Klemetti, M.; Mathiesen, E.; Rebollo, P.; Snoek, F.; Tikkanen, M.; Timmerman, D.; van Assche, A.; van Poppel, M.; Wender-Oegowska, E.; Dunne, F.
Objective. Assess the impact of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and obesity on neonatal and maternal pregnancy outcomes. Methods. Cross-sectional data (3343 pregnancies) from seven European centres were included in a multilevel analysis of the association between GDM/obesity and caesarean section, macrosomia and neonatal morbidities. Results. Comparison of databases identified reporting differences between countries due to the inclusion of true population based samples or pregnancies from specialised tertiary centres, resulting in higher prevalences of GDM for some countries. The analysis showed that obesity and GDM were independent risk factors of perinatal complications. Only BMI had a dose-dependent effect on the risk of macrosomia and caesarean section. Both obesity (BMI > 30?kg/m2) and GDM were independent risk factors of neonatal morbidities. Conclusions. Obesity and GDM were independent risk factors of perinatal complications. The effect of the worldwide obesity and diabetes epidemic is extending to the next generation. PMID:24527262
Dorea, J G; Cruz-Granja, A C; Lacayo-Romero, M L; Cuadra-Leal, J
Umbilical cord and venous blood samples were collected at the time of delivery from 52 mothers living in urban and rural areas of the Atoya River basin, Nicaragua. In a subsample of 24 mothers that delivered by Cesarean section, abdominal adipose tissue samples were also collected, as was breast milk later in lactation. Cord and venous blood sera were analyzed for 13 organochlorine pesticides: 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (pp'-DDT); 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (pp'-DDE); pp'-dichlorophenyldichlorodiene (pp'-DDD); alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH); beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH); gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH); delta-hexachlorocyclohexane (delta-HCH); toxaphene; dieldrin; endrin; aldrin; heptachlor; and heptachlor epoxide. In venous blood only pp'-DDE (100% of samples), pp'-DDT (1.92%), dieldrin (15.38%), heptachlor (15.38%), gamma-HCH (7.69%), beta-HCH (11.53%), and delta-HCH (1.92%) were found, whereas in cord blood only pp'-DDE (100%), pp'-DDT (3.84%), dieldrin (19.23%), and heptachlor (9.16%), were found. The persistent DDT metabolite pp'-DDE, present in all samples of blood serum, adipose tissue, and breast milk, was studied in relation to maternal characteristics such as body mass index (BMI), age, lactation experience, and fetal pesticide acquisition. Mean venous (7.12 microg/g) and cord (6.39 microg/g) pp'-DDE concentrations were not significantly different but were significantly correlated. pp'-DDE in maternal adipose tissue was positively correlated with pp'-DDE in cord blood (P=0.0001) and breast milk (P<0.0001) and marginally correlated with changes in BMI (r=-0.03088; P=0.06). There was a higher proportion of samples (58%) with a greater concentration of DDE in venous than in cord blood. Although DDE accumulation may be less during fetal development than during breast feeding, exposure during embryogenesis may be more important than during the postnatal period. PMID:11453673
Jenster, Meike; Bonifacio, Sonia L.; Ruel, Theodore; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Tam, Emily W.; Partridge, John Colin; Barkovich, A. James; Ferriero, Donna M.; Glass, Hannah C.
Background Perinatal infection may potentiate brain injury among children born preterm. The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal and/or neonatal infection are associated with adverse outcomes among term neonates with encephalopathy. Methods Cohort study of 258 term newborns with encephalopathy whose clinical records were examined for signs of maternal infection (chorioamnionitis) and infant infection (sepsis). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between infection, pattern and severity of injury on neonatal MRI, as well as neurodevelopment at 30 months (neuromotor exam, or Bayley Scales of Infant Development II MDI <70 or Bayley III cognitive score <85). Results Chorioamnionitis was associated with lower risk of moderate-severe brain injury (adjusted OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1–0.7, P=0.004), and adverse cognitive outcome in children when compared to no chorioamnionitis. Children with signs of neonatal sepsis were more likely to exhibit watershed predominant injury than those without (P=0.007). Conclusions Among neonates with encephalopathy, chorioamnionitis was associated with a lower risk of brain injury and adverse outcomes, whereas signs of neonatal sepsis carried an elevated risk. The etiology of encephalopathy and timing of infection and its associated inflammatory response may influence whether infection potentiates or mitigates injury in term newborns. PMID:24713817
Phenylketonuria is a genetic disease affecting 1:10,000 to 14,000 live births. In NSW there is an average of nine cases diagnosed each year (Dietitians Working Party 1996). This paper discusses the management of phenylketonuria, and in particular the value of breastfeeding, complemented with a low phenylalanine infant formula, in facilitating easier maintenance of satisfactory phenylalanine blood levels. The 'diet for life' approach to managing phenylketonuria is to avoid long-term neurological deficits and, in particular, the risk that maternal PKU, which is not under strict dietary control, will have adverse effects on infants born of mothers with the disease. There have been 31 successful pregnancies to 1997 managed by the Nutrition and Dietetics Department of The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney. The Maternal PKU diet is presented with the case of a client with phenylketonuria who has achieved two normal pregnancies and breastfed her second child for six months. PMID:11550601
Robertson, Nicola J; Thayyil, Sudhin; Cady, Ernest B; Raivich, Gennadij
Neonatal brain injury remains a devastating condition, with poor outcomes despite the institution of an effective neuroprotective strategy of therapeutic hypothermia. There is an urgent need to develop additional neuroprotective strategies and to tailor our clinical predictive ability for families and their infants. Such goals could be more readily achieved if reliable early clinical indicators or biomarkers existed. This review will explore the relation between magnetic resonance (MR) imaging biomarkers and the degree of brain pathology observed in our translational piglet model of perinatal asphyxia. We also suggest biomarker relevance at a cellular level. The review will describe the development needed to optimize and simplify the use of biomarkers to speed up future trials of neuroprotection. PMID:25055862
Becquet, Renaud; Marston, Milly; Dabis, François; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Gray, Glenda; Coovadia, Hoosen M.; Essex, Max; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Jackson, Debra; Coutsoudis, Anna; Kilewo, Charles; Leroy, Valériane; Wiktor, Stefan Z.; Nduati, Ruth; Msellati, Philippe; Zaba, Basia; Ghys, Peter D.; Newell, Marie-Louise
Background Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates of infant survival by timing of HIV-infection (perinatally or postnatally) are thus needed. Methodology/Principal Findings A pooled analysis was conducted of individual data of all available intervention cohorts and randomized trials on prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission in Africa. Studies were right-censored at the time of infant antiretroviral initiation. Overall mortality rate per 1000 child-years of follow-up was calculated by selected maternal and infant characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves by child's HIV infection status and timing of HIV infection. Individual data from 12 studies were pooled, with 12,112 children of HIV-infected women. Mortality rates per 1,000 child-years follow-up were 39.3 and 381.6 for HIV-uninfected and infected children respectively. One year after acquisition of HIV infection, an estimated 26% postnatally and 52% perinatally infected children would have died; and 4% uninfected children by age 1 year. Mortality was independently associated with maternal death (adjusted hazard ratio 2.2, 95%CI 1.6–3.0), maternal CD4<350 cells/ml (1.4, 1.1–1.7), postnatal (3.1, 2.1–4.1) or peri-partum HIV-infection (12.4, 10.1–15.3). Conclusions/Results These results update previous work and inform future UNAIDS modelling by providing survival estimates for HIV-infected untreated African children by timing of infection. We highlight the urgent need for the prevention of peri-partum and postnatal transmission and timely assessment of HIV infection in infants to initiate antiretroviral care and support for HIV-infected children. PMID:22383946
Liu, Jianghong; Tuvblad, Catherine; Li, Linda; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.
This study aims to assess the validity of maternal recall for several perinatal variables 8–10 years after pregnancy in a twin sample. Retrospective information was collected 8–10 years after the delivery event in a cohort of mothers from the University of Southern California Twin Study (N = 611) and compared with medical records for validity analysis. Recall of most variables showed substantial to perfect agreement (? = 0.60–1.00), with notable exceptions for specific medical problems during pregnancy (? ? 0.40) and substance use when mothers provided continuous data (e.g., number of cigarettes per day; r ? 0.24). With the exception of delivery method, neonatal intensive care unit admission, birth weight, neonatal information, and post-delivery complications were also recalled with low accuracy. For mothers of twins, maternal recall is generally a valid measure for perinatal variables 10 years after pregnancy. However, caution should be taken regarding variables such as substance use, medical problems, birth length, and post-delivery complications. PMID:23725849
Thomas C. Evans; Craig P. Hunter
Early development of many species depends on the temporal and spatial control of maternal gene products. This review discusses the control of maternal mRNAs that encode regulators of C. elegans embryogenesis. In the C. elegans embryo, maternal mRNA regulation is crucial to the patterning of early cell fates. Translational control of key mRNAs spatially organizes cell signaling pathways, localizes transcription
Kumar, Achal; Paliwal, Vimal Kumar; Agarwal, Vikas; Neyaz, Zafar; Lal, Hira; Goel, Gaurav
Introduction: About one-half of children with Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS) have history of birth hypoxia or other perinatal event but the knowledge about clinical, radiological profile and severity of epilepsy in these children as compared to those without a perinatal event is not known. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one children with LGS were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups: One group with the perinatal event and other group without evidence of the perinatal event. We hypothesized that LGS with the perinatal event will have an early age of onset of LGS, more motor deficits and abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and more severe epilepsy. Results: There were 17 children in the perinatal event group and 14 in the other group. The mean age of onset of illness was significantly earlier in the perinatal event group (P < 0.05). More children in the perinatal event group had delayed milestones (P < 0.05), had higher seizure frequency (P < 0.05) however; there was no significant difference in number of anti-epileptic drugs consumed, motor deficits or MRI abnormalities. Conclusion: LGS children with the perinatal event have more severe epilepsy with early onset of disease and delayed milestones. History of perinatal insult in these children may help in predicting prognosis in LGS.
Kidanto, Hussein L; Mogren, Ingrid; van Roosmalen, Jos; Thomas, Angela N; Massawe, Siriel N; Nystrom, Lennarth; Lindmark, Gunilla
Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR). Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133) with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care). The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient. Results The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors. Conclusion There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality. PMID:19765312
Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.
Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined the effect of these two risk factors on measures of attentional control, motor inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine motor coordination in a group of 81 children with ADHD, aged from 8 to 18 years. The neuropsychological battery included the Connors’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT), the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test, the Beery Visual-Motor Integration Test, and the Purdue Pegboard Test. Results: Heavy maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with slower reaction times (p < .002), and reaction time variability (p < .007) on the CPT. Conclusions: This study suggests a persistent negative effect of heavy prenatal maternal smoking on attentional control in children with ADHD. Future studies should examine the neurobiological basis and determine the degree to which inherited genetic susceptibility factors contribute to this finding. PMID:20616372
Beckmann, C A
An overview of the social and economic climates and the healthcare delivery systems of Brazil is presented. The Brazilian healthcare system is discussed, with particular attention directed to the status of nursing and to the perinatal health-care delivery system. Examples of Brazilian perinatal health-care practices are provided. PMID:3650322
Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.
Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…
Chasela, Charles S.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Kayira, Dumbani; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Kourtis, Athena P.; Martinson, Francis; Tegha, Gerald; Knight, Rodney J.; Ahmed, Yusuf I.; Kamwendo, Deborah D.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Kacheche, Zebrone; Soko, Alice; Wiener, Jeffrey B.; Fiscus, Susan A.; Kazembe, Peter; Mofolo, Innocent A.; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Sichali, Dorothy S.; van der Horst, Charles M.
Background We evaluated the efficacy of a maternal triple-drug antiretroviral regimen or infant nevirapine prophylaxis for 28 weeks during breast-feeding to reduce postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Malawi. Methods We randomly assigned 2369 HIV-1–positive, breast-feeding mothers with a CD4+ lymphocyte count of at least 250 cells per cubic millimeter and their infants to receive a maternal antiretroviral regimen, infant nevirapine, or no extended postnatal antiretroviral regimen (control group). All mothers and infants received perinatal prophylaxis with single-dose nevirapine and 1 week of zidovudine plus lamivudine. We used the Kaplan–Meier method to estimate the cumulative risk of HIV-1 transmission or death by 28 weeks among infants who were HIV-1–negative 2 weeks after birth. Rates were compared with the use of the log-rank test. Results Among mother–infant pairs, 5.0% of infants were HIV-1–positive at 2 weeks of life. The estimated risk of HIV-1 transmission between 2 and 28 weeks was higher in the control group (5.7%) than in either the maternal-regimen group (2.9%, P = 0.009) or the infant-regimen group (1.7%, P<0.001). The estimated risk of infant HIV-1 infection or death between 2 and 28 weeks was 7.0% in the control group, 4.1% in the maternal-regimen group (P = 0.02), and 2.6% in the infant-regimen group (P<0.001). The proportion of women with neutropenia was higher among those receiving the antiretroviral regimen (6.2%) than among those in either the nevirapine group (2.6%) or the control group (2.3%). Among infants receiving nevirapine, 1.9% had a hypersensitivity reaction. Conclusions The use of either a maternal antiretroviral regimen or infant nevirapine for 28 weeks was effective in reducing HIV-1 transmission during breast-feeding. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00164736.) PMID:20554982
Rivera, Heidi M.; Christiansen, Kelly J.; Sullivan, Elinor L.
Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa), and impairments in cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption display hyperactivity, impairments in social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose), hormones (leptin, insulin), and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor). Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic systems. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavior are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions.
Matturri, Luigi; Mauri, Maria; Elena Ferrero, Maria; Lavezzi, Anna Maria
Objective: To evaluate the involvement of alterations of the central autonomic nervous system, particularly of the brainstem and cerebellum, in a wide set of victims of sudden and unexplained perinatal and infant death. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 63 stillbirths, 28 neonatal deaths and 140 suspected SIDS. The victims were subjected to in-depth anatomopathological examination following appropriate guidelines. The protocol included, in particular, the histological evaluation on serial sections of the cardiorespiratory autonomic nervous system. Results: A diagnosis of “unexplained death” was established for 217 of the 231 victims (59 stillbirths, 28 newborns and 130 SIDS). In a very high percentage of these deaths (84%) we observed one or more anomalies of the nuclei and/or structures of the brainstem and cerebellum related to vital functions. Conclusion: Unexpected perinatal loss should not be regarded as a separate entity from SIDS, given the common neuropathological substrates. PMID:19018308
Klepatsky, A; Mahlmeister, L
It is commonly accepted in American law that an adult of sound mind has the right of self-determination, that is, the right to say what is to be done to his or her own body. This includes the right to accept and refuse treatment for most medical problems or disorders. During the perinatal period, the woman may be asked to submit to procedures and medications for herself and her fetus/ neonate. Nurses must be sure that patients or parents have given valid consent to any type of touching done in the course of nursing care. Furthermore, nurses must be certain that women have given informed consent to the certified nurse-midwife, nurse practitioner, or physician for any treatments or procedures that have inherent risks. The article defines and describes the concepts of consent and informed consent and examines the roles and responsibilities of perinatal nurses in these processes. PMID:9214950
Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda
Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205
M. Colleen Stainton
A longitudinal study with a phenomenological approach revealed mismatched perceptions between caregivers and women in high-risk perinatal care. The participants were 27 women, 20 of which were recruited during a high-risk pregnancy and 7 who were recruited following the birth of a high-risk newborn. Interviews and diaries were analyzed to gain understanding of the subjective experience of being in a
Iakovtsova, A F; Markovski?, V D; Vasiuta, V S; Sorokina, I V; Gubina-Vakulik, G I; Omel'chenko, O A; Potapova, N I
Perinatal pathology may become the cause of diseases in children and adults. Cardiovascular system of the foetus and placental vessels are examined in the toxicosis of the pregnancy, hypertension of pregnant mothers, immunological system and sex glands in large foetus, thyroid and sex glands of newborns. It is suggested that early atherosclerosis, myocardiopathy, sexual disturbances, endocrinopathy, immunodeficient states are consequences of pathological or "prepathological" development of certain organs and systems of the foetus. PMID:2285360
Miller, Lisa A
Recent data reveal communication issues and organizational culture to be key factors in adverse perinatal outcomes. Hierarchical communication is common in healthcare and can be a significant impediment to safe care. Principles of teamwork employed by other industries, such as aviation and the military, can be appropriately applied to healthcare. This article provides a brief introduction to Crew Resource Management as well as a listing of print, multimedia, and Web resources for clinicians interested in promoting cultural change and effective teamwork. PMID:15796424
Kowalski, K; Gennaro, S; McGee, D; Murphy, C R; Littleton, L
This article chronicles the development of the perinatal nurse practitioner (PNNP) role in providing care to high-risk obstetric patients in ambulatory and inpatient settings. Factors in the health care delivery system as well as the philosophic basis of the role are discussed. This role was modeled after neonatal nurse practitioners. Curriculum examples and role competencies are identified. Four programs are currently in existence with several more in the planning stages PMID:8699358
Arnold, L; Gennaro, S; Kirby, A; Atendido, M; Laverty, M; Brooten, D
Efforts to reduce overall health care costs, improve efficiency and enhance patient and provider satisfaction have stimulated the design and evaluation of new models of practice. The Perinatal Evaluation Center, a nurse practitioner-staffed service providing triage and evaluation for obstetrical patients, was developed to address the competing demands of health care redesign. The service has yielded improved outcomes in measures of efficiency and satisfaction. PMID:7745536
Heidi W. Reynolds; Barbara Janowitz; Rick Homan; Laura Johnson
Objective: The objective of this study was to highlight the value of preventing unintended pregnancies among HIV-infected women as a strategy to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Goal: The goal of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of family planning programs to avert HIV-positive births with the cur- rent programmatic emphasis: prenatal care services that provide and promote nevirapine for
Dubravko Habek; Jasna ?erkez Habek; Ante Barbir; Mira Barbir; Paula Grani?
. \\u000a This study assessed perinatal outcome in pregnancies with accidentally diagnosed fetal grasping of the umbilical cord (FGUC)\\u000a on ultrasonography (US) in late gestation as a possible cause of fetal hypoxia due to mechanical occlusion of umbilical circulation.\\u000a In this retrospective clinical study, routine antenatal US examination revealed FGUC from 32 to 41 weeks of gestation in seven\\u000a normal single pregnancies.
Mofenson, Lynne M; Cotton, Mark F
The great success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV in high resource countries, and now in low resource countries, has changed the face of the HIV epidemic in children from one of near certain mortality to that of a chronic disease. However, these successes pose new challenges as perinatally HIV-infected youth survive into adulthood. Increased survival of HIV-infected children is associated with challenges in maintaining adherence to what is likely life-long therapy, and in selecting successive antiretroviral drug regimens, given the limited availability of pediatric formulations, limitations in pharmacokinetic and safety data of drugs in children, and the development of extensive drug resistance in multi-drug-experienced children. Pediatric HIV care must now focus on morbidity related to long-term HIV infection and its treatment. Survival into adulthood of perinatally HIV-infected youth in high resource countries provides important lessons about how the epidemic will change with increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children in low resource countries. This series of papers will focus on issues related to management of perinatally infected youth and young adults. PMID:23782484
Somerville, Susanne; Dedman, Kellie; Hagan, Rosemary; Oxnam, Elizabeth; Wettinger, Michelle; Byrne, Shannon; Coo, Soledad; Doherty, Dorota; Page, Andrew C
The purpose of this study is to develop a scale (Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale, PASS) to screen for a broad range of problematic anxiety symptoms which is sensitive to how anxiety presents in perinatal women and is suitable to use in a variety of settings including antenatal clinics, inpatient and outpatient hospital and mental health treatment settings. Women who attended a tertiary obstetric hospital in the state of Western Australia antenatally or postpartum (n = 437) completed the PASS and other commonly used measures of depression and anxiety. Factor analysis was used to examine factor structure, and ROC analysis was used to evaluate performance as a screening tool. The PASS was significantly correlated with other measures of depression and anxiety. Principal component analyses (PCA) suggested a four-factor structure addressing symptoms of (1) acute anxiety and adjustment, (2) general worry and specific fears, (3) perfectionism, control and trauma and (4) social anxiety. The four subscales and total scale demonstrated high to excellent reliabilities. At the optimal cutoff score for detecting anxiety as determined by ROC analyses, the PASS identified 68 % of women with a diagnosed anxiety disorder. This was compared to the EPDS anxiety subscale which detected 36 % of anxiety disorders. The PASS is an acceptable, valid and useful screening tool for the identification of risk of significant anxiety in women in the perinatal period. PMID:24699796
Xu, Fengqiu; Du, Xiaodong; Xie, Lili
Objective: To determine whether education level and occupation are risk factors of vaginitis in pregnant women and to investigate relationship between vaginitis occurrence during pregnancy and perinatal mortality rates. Methods: A total of 319 women of early pregnancy or mid-pregnancy were enrolled. Six specimens were collected from posterior fornix of each pregnant woman and then cultured for identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, intestinal bacteria, general bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and chlamydia, respectively. Results: The pregnant women in the “elementary school or below” group and the “middle school” group had significantly higher incidences of vaginitis compared with the pregnant women in the groups of “high school”, “skill education”, and “college or above”. The pregnant women in the groups of “Worker”, “Government employee”, “Company employee”, and “Professionals” had significantly lower vaginitis incidences. The women with infections of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, intestinal bacteria, and general bacteria had higher perinatal mortalities (0.063 ± 0.011, 0.052 ± 0.012, and 0.017 ± 0.008, respectively) than women with infections of fungi, mycoplasma, and Chlamydia (0.002 ± 0.007, 0.003 ± 0.004, and 0.001 ± 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Education level and occupation are risk factors related to incidences of vaginitis in pregnant women. The bacteria-related vaginitis is a major reason of perinatal mortality.
Background. Shift-work is suggested to affect fetal development negatively. In particular, maternal hormonal disturbance arising from sleep deprivation or circadian rhythm changes may disturb fetal growth or lead to complications during pregnancy. Exposure to constant light is an environmental stressor that can affect the circadian system and has been shown to induce neurochemical and behavioral changes when used during the prenatal and/or postnatal period in experimental animals. However, studies investigating long-term effects of constant light in the offspring are sparse. Methods. An accidental power outage resulted in pregnant females being housed under constant light (LL) conditions for seven days of the offspring perinatal development (embryonic day 20 to postnatal day 4). The long-term effects of constant light on the behavior in the adult offspring were assessed by means of open field, object recognition, and water maze tests. Results. In adulthood, LL-animals displayed an intact recognition memory and no deficits in spatial learning or memory. In the open field test, LL-animals exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior, observed as significantly more thigmotaxis and less ambulation. These results were confirmed in the other behavioral tests as the LL-animals spent less time exploring the objects in the object recognition test, and showed thigmotactic behavior also in the water maze test. Conclusion. The results confirm that early life experience can cause changes in brain development that shape brain function and add to the sparse literature on long-term effects of constant light conditions during perinatal development on specific behaviors in adulthood. PMID:23902426
Koppenol, Astrid; Delezie, Evelyne; Parmentier, Henk K; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (?-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n?=?120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). At 28 weeks of age, the eggs produced were incubated to obtain 720 chicks (n?=?180 per group). All broiler chicks were fed a control diet and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Blood samples were taken at different time points after immunisation with human serum albumin (HuSA) in Freund's adjuvant to determine the acute phase response, antibody response and cytokine production. Addition of EPA to the maternal diet was associated with greater ovotransferrin concentrations post-immunisation, compared to other groups. Altering the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA or EPA:DHA in the maternal diet did not affect the offspring in terms of production of caeruloplasmin, ?1-acid glycoprotein, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-12 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Dietary manipulation of the maternal diet did not influence the specific antibody response to HuSA or NDV, nor did it alter the levels of natural antibody binding to keyhole limpet haemocyanin in the offspring. Thus, maternal supplementation with n-3 PUFAs played a minor role in perinatal programming of the immune response of broiler chickens. PMID:25576140
Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Eze, Justus Ndulue; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe
Background The global rise in cesarean delivery rate has been a major source of public health concern. Aim To appraise the cesarean deliveries and the associated fetal and maternal outcomes. Materials and methods The study was a case series with data collected retrospectively from the records of patients delivered by cesarean section at the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki over a 10-year period, from January 2002 to December 2011. Ethical approval was obtained. Results Of 14,198 deliveries, 2,323/14,198 (16.4%) were by cesarean deliveries. The overall increase of cesarean delivery was 11.1/10 (1.1%) per annum from 184/1,512 (12.2%) in 2002 to 230/986 (23.3%) in 2011. Of 2,097 case folders studied, 1,742/2,097 (83.1%) were delivered at term, and in 1,576/2,097 (75.2%), the cesarean deliveries were emergencies. The common indications for cesarean delivery were previous cesarean scars 417/2,097 (19.9%) and obstructed labor 331/2,097 (15.8%). There were 296 perinatal deaths, giving a perinatal mortality rate of (296/2,197) 134.7/1,000 births. Also, 129/2,097 (6.1%) maternal case fatalities occurred, giving a maternal mortality rate of 908.6/100,000 total births. Hemorrhage 57/129 (44.2%) and sepsis 41/129 (32.6%) were the major causes. Conclusion The study recorded a significant increase in cesarean delivery rate. Previous cesarean scars and obstructed labors were the main indications. Perinatal and maternal case fatalities were huge. Hence, there is need for continued community education for its reduction. PMID:25999769
Christine L Roberts; Jane B Ford; Charles S. Algert; Jane C Bell; Judy M Simpson; Jonathan M. Morris
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is too rare in high income countries to be used as a marker of the quality of maternity care. Consequently severe maternal morbidity has been suggested as a better indicator. Using the maternal morbidity outcome indicator (MMOI) developed and validated for use in routinely collected population health data, we aimed to determine trends in severe adverse maternal
Liu, Cindy H; Tronick, Ed
To examine factors associated with provider-patient conversations regarding prenatal and postpartum depressed mood. This study included 3,597 White, African American, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander NYC resident women who completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey from 2004-2007, a population-based assessment of patient and health care characteristics. Social determinants including race, nativity, maternal age, prenatal health care setting, and payment type were associated with patient report of having had a conversation about perinatal mood with their provider. Compared to Whites, Asian/Pacific Islanders were less likely to have this conversation (OR = 0.7, CI = 0.5-0.9). Older (OR = 0.6, CI = 0.4-0.9), non-US born (OR = 0.6, CI = 0.5-0.8), and women receiving care from a private doctor or HMO clinic (OR = 0.7, CI = 0.6-0.9) were less likely to have this conversation compared to their respective counterparts. Those who paid for their prenatal care primarily through personal income or through an expanded Medicaid program for prenatal care compared to those who did not were more likely to have had a conversation about mood with their providers. Health care providers and public health advocates should be aware that non-US born women were less likely to have conversations about mood than US born women. However, young mothers shown to be at risk for perinatal depression were more likely to have these conversations compared to older women. Protocols for assessing and educating patients about perinatal mood should be evaluated to improve conversation rates for those receiving care through private doctors and managed care organizations. Income and prenatal care assistance funds may play separate and important roles in provider-patient conversations. PMID:21681636
Perinatal Exposure to ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Triggers Profound Defects in T Cell Differentiation and Function in Fetal and Postnatal Stages of Life, Including Decreased Responsiveness to HIV Antigens
Lombard, Catherine; Hegde, Venkatesh L.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Marijuana abuse is very prominent among pregnant women. Although marijuana cannabinoids have been shown to exert immunosuppression in adults, virtually nothing is known about the effects of marijuana use during pregnancy on the developing immune system of the fetus and during postnatal life. We noted that murine fetal thymus expressed high levels of the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Moreover, perinatal exposure to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) had a profound effect on the fetus as evidenced by a decrease in thymic cellularity on gestational days 16, 17, and 18 and postgestational day 1 and marked alterations in T cell subpopulations. These outcomes were reversed by CB1/CB2 antagonists, suggesting that THC-mediated these effects through cannabinoid receptors. Thymic atrophy induced in the fetus correlated with caspase-dependent apoptosis in thymocytes. Thymic atrophy was the result of direct action of THC and not based on maternal factors inasmuch as THC was able to induce T cell apoptosis in vitro in fetal thymic organ cultures. It is noteworthy that perinatal exposure to THC also had a profound effect on the immune response during postnatal life. Peripheral T cells from such mice showed decreased proliferative response to T cell mitogen as well as both T cell and antibody response to HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120 antigens. Together, our data demonstrate for the first time that perinatal exposure to THC triggers profound T cell dysfunction, thereby suggesting that the offspring of marijuana abusers who have been exposed to THC in utero may be at a higher risk of exhibiting immune dysfunction and contracting infectious diseases including HIV. PMID:21831965
Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C; Measelle, Jeffrey
We investigated the effects of timing and the course of maternal perinatal depressive symptoms on mother-infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response profiles during an attachment stressor, as well as on within-dyad synchrony of stress profiles: coordination of HPA and sympathetic nervous system and infant-mother HPA attunement. Mothers (n = 86) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale during pregnancy (Time 1 [T1]) and at 5 months (T2) and 18 months (T3) postnatal. At T3 mother-infant dyads completed the Strange Situation, and four saliva samples collected from both mothers and infants were assayed for cortisol and ?-amylase. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to predict mother-infant cortisol response trajectories and within-dyad synchronies by main and interactive effects of T1-T3 Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores. Main effects of earlier (T1, T2) depressive symptoms predicted mothers' cortisol trajectories and coordination, and interactions of T1 with postnatal (T2 and T3) symptoms predicted infants' cortisol trajectories, coordination, and attunement. Decomposition of interactions revealed more marked effects on infant cortisol trajectories when the mother shifted from higher to lower depressive symptoms (or vice versa) across the perinatal period. Shifts from lower to higher symptoms also predicted inverse coordination of cortisol with salivary ?-amylase and greater attunement of infant with mother cortisol. Implications for the development and transmission of stress dysregulation are discussed. PMID:23786693
R. J Biggar; J. J Goedert; P. G Miotti; T. E Taha; L Mtimavalye; A Justesen; J. D Chiphangwi; R Broadhead; F Yellin; G Liomba; W Miley; D Waters
SummaryBackground Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 contributes significantly to infant mortality. Exposure in the birth canal may account for some transmission. We examined the efficacy of a birth canal washing procedure in reducing perinatal transmission in Malawi.Methods The infection status of infants of 3327 control women (conventional delivery procedures) was compared with that of 3637 infants
Jun Zhang; Mark A. Klebanoff
Low blood pressure during pregnancy has been associated with poor perinatal outcomes. However, whether this association is causal or is due to confounding has never been carefully assessed. The authors used data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a large prospective cohort study in 12 hospitals in the United States from 1959 to 1966. A total of 28,095 subjects were included.
Andrew Craig; Ning Ling Luo; Douglas J Beardsley; Nasiema Wingate-Pearse; David W Walker; A. Roger Hohimer; Stephen A Back
The development of a rodent model in the perinatal rat or mouse that reproduces the principal features of human perinatal white matter injury (periventricular leukomalacia) has been hampered by uncertainty about the developmental window in the rodent that coincides temporally with cerebral white matter development in the premature infant. We recently determined oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage progression in human cerebral white
Gregory A. Lodygensky; Terrie E. Inder; Jeffrey J. Neil
Brain injury occurring in the perinatal period is an important etiology of subsequent neurodevelopmental disabilities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a tool that is used to evaluate the nature of brain injury in the human infant. MRI techniques have also been applied to various animal models of perinatal injury. The most commonly used model is the immature rat, but there
F. J. Stanley; L. Watson
OBJECTIVE--To analyse the trends in stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and cerebral palsy in all infants born in Western Australia from 1967 to 1985. To relate these trends to changes in perinatal care, particularly in relation to avoidance of intrapartum asphyxia in term infants and the increased survival of low birthweight infants. DESIGN--Descriptive epidemiological study calculating population rates for perinatal deaths and
Objective: To evaluate optic nerve morphology in children with various conditions caused by adverse events during prenatal and\\/or perinatal life and to investigate whether optic nerve morphology can reveal brain lesions associated with these conditions, as well as provide insight into the etiology and timing of the prenatal and perinatal damage. Methods and patients: A digital image analysis technique was
E. Thanassoulis; A. Boussofiane; R. G. Dyson
This paper explores the use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess units providing perinatal care in England and estimate performance targets for them. DEA is a modelling methodology for deriving the relative efficiency of units where there are multiple incommensurate inputs and outputs. The paper proposes a plausible set of inputs and outputs for perinatal care in which the
Senturk, Vesile; Hanlon, Charlotte; Medhin, Girmay; Dewey, Michael; Araya, Mesfin; Alem, Atalay; Prince, Martin; Stewart, Robert
Background Little is known of the relationship between perinatal somatic and common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms and impaired functioning in women from settings where the burden of undernutrition and infectious disease morbidity is high. Methods A population-based sample of 1065 women from Butajira, Ethiopia, was recruited in pregnancy (86.4% of those eligible) and reassessed two months postnatal (954 with singleton, live infants). At both time-points, women were administered a modified version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (locally-validated) to assess somatic and CMD symptoms, respectively. Negative binomial regression was used to investigate associations of CMD and somatic symptoms with functional impairment (World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Scale, version-II), after adjusting for maternal anthropometric measures, physical ill-health and sociodemographic factors. Results In pregnancy, somatic and CMD symptoms were independently associated with worse maternal functional impairment after adjustment for confounders (WHODAS-II score multiplied by 1.09 (95%CI 1.06, 1.13) and 1.11 (95%CI 1.08, 1.14) respectively for each additional symptom). In the postnatal period, the size of association between somatic symptoms and functional impairment was diminished, but the association with CMD symptoms was virtually unchanged (multiplier value 1.04 (95%CI 1.00, 1.09) and 1.11 (95%CI 1.07, 1.16) respectively). Limitations Use of largely self-report measures. Conclusions Somatic and CMD symptoms were independently associated with functional impairment in both pregnancy and the postnatal period, with CMD symptoms showing a stronger and more consistent association. This emphasises the public health relevance of both CMD and somatic symptoms in the perinatal period. PMID:22196052
PhD Thomas B Brody (NIH Laboratory of Neurochemistry)
The maternally transcribed genes section of the award-winning and comprehensive site: Interactive fly. It thoroughly discusses genes, tissues, biochemical paths, and developmental processes in the fruit fly, Drosophila.
Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F C; Richardson, Jeanita W; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Sharps, Phyllis W
A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478
Tabb, Karen M.; Gavin, Amelia R.; Guo, Yuqing; Huang, Hsiang; Debiec, Kate; Katon, Wayne
Introduction Perinatal suicidality, i.e., thoughts of death, suicide attempts, or self-harm during the period immediately before and up to 12 months after the birth of a child, is a significant public health concern. Few investigations have examined the patients’ own views and experiences of maternal suicidal ideation. Methods Between April and October 2010, we identified 14 patient participants at a single university-based medical center for a follow-up, semi-structured interview if they screened positive for suicidal ideation on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) short-form. In-depth interviews followed a semi-structured interview guide. We transcribed all interviews verbatim and analyzed transcripts using thematic network analysis. Results Participants described the experience of suicidality during pregnancy as related to somatic symptoms, past diagnoses, infanticide, family psychiatric history (e.g., completed suicides and family member attempts), and pregnancy complications. The network of themes included the perinatal experience, patient descriptions of changes in mood symptoms, illustrations of situational coping, and reported mental health service use. Implications The interview themes suggested that in this small sample, pregnancy represented a critical time period to screen for suicide and to establish treatment for the mothers in our study. These findings may assist health care professionals in the development of interventions designed to identify, assess, and prevent suicidality among perinatal women. PMID:23879461
Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio L; Silverman, Marni N
Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three maternal behavioral lifestyle factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical fitness during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how regular physical activity and exercise can be an effective buffer against stress- and inflammatory-related disorders. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying mechanisms of protection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:25451133
Oladapo, Olufemi T; Adetoro, Olalekan O; Fakeye, Oluwarotimi; Ekele, Bissallah A; Fawole, Adeniran O; Abasiattai, Aniekan; Kuti, Oluwafemi; Tukur, Jamilu; Ande, Adedapo BA; Dada, Olukayode A
Background The lack of reliable and up-to-date statistics on maternal deaths and disabilities remains a major challenge to the implementation of Nigeria's Road Map to Accelerate the Millennium Development Goal related to Maternal Health (MDG-5). There are currently no functioning national data sources on maternal deaths and disabilities that could serve as reference points for programme managers, health advocates and policy makers. While awaiting the success of efforts targeted at overcoming the barriers facing establishment of population-based data systems, referral institutions in Nigeria can contribute their quota in the quest towards MDG-5 by providing good quality and reliable information on maternal deaths and disabilities on a continuous basis. This project represents the first opportunity to initiate a scientifically sound and reliable quantitative system of data gathering on maternal health profile in Nigeria. Objective The primary objective is to create a national data system on maternal near miss (MNM) and maternal mortality in Nigerian public tertiary institutions. This system will conduct periodically, both regionally and at country level, a review of the magnitude of MNM and maternal deaths, nature of events responsible for MNM and maternal deaths, indices for the quality of care for direct obstetric complications and the health service events surrounding these complications, in an attempt to collectively define and monitor the standard of comprehensive emergency obstetric care in the country. Methods This will be a nationwide cohort study of all women who experience MNM and those who die from pregnancy, childbirth and puerperal complications using uniform criteria among women admitted in tertiary healthcare facilities in the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. This will be accomplished by establishing a network of all public tertiary obstetric referral institutions that will prospectively collect specific information on potentially fatal maternal complications. For every woman enrolled, the health service events (care pathways) within the facility will be evaluated to identify areas of substandard care/avoidable factors through clinical audit by the local research team. A summary estimate of the frequencies of MNM and maternal deaths will be determined at intervals and indicators of quality of care (case fatality rate, both total and cause-specific and mortality index) will be evaluated at facility, regional and country levels. Management Overall project management will be from the Centre for Research in Reproductive Health (CRRH), Sagamu, Nigeria. There will be at least two meetings and site visits for efficient coordination of the project by regional coordinators and central coordinating staff. Data will be transferred electronically by hospital and regional coordinators and managed at the Data Management Unit of CRRH, Sagamu, Nigeria. Expected outcomes The outcome of the study would provide useful information to the health practitioners, policy-makers and international partners on the strengths and weaknesses of the infrastructures provided for comprehensive emergency obstetric care in Nigeria. The successful implementation of this project will pave way for the long-awaited Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths that would guide the formulation and or revision of obstetric policies and practices in Nigeria. Lessons learnt from the establishment of this data system can also be used to set up similar structures at lower levels of healthcare delivery in Nigeria. PMID:19508717
Laliani, N E; Tatishvili, N A
The incidence of perinatal problems in infants might be the one of the main reasons in delayed psychomotor development. The most predictive for future delay in psychomotor development are the pathology of pregnancy and delivery, an intra-uterine infection, incomplete pregnancy and the hypoxic--ischemic injury of the brain. Adequate conduct of the perinatal period, definition of existing or expected problems and preventive measures allows avoiding or reducing pathological conditions and possible future consequences. The goal of the investigation was to determine the structural features of perinatal risk factors contributing to the future delay in psychomotor development. 348 newborns during 24 months have been examined. It was concluded that perinatal risk factors contribute in the structure of future delay of psychomotor development significantly. Early revealing and adequate conducting of the perinatal period, definition of existing or expected problems and adequate measures allows to avoid or reduce possible pathological conditions, their complications and their consequences. PMID:18560036
Xue-Yan, L I; Song, Y U; Qing-Qing, W U
Objective To explore the risk factors of velamentous umbilical cord insertion(VCI)and the impact of VCI on perinatal outcomes. Methods The clinical data of 588 VCI patients who were treated in Beijing Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital from January 2006 to January 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. In addition,61,143 non-VCI subjects were enrolled as the control group. The possible risk factors of VCI and the impact of VCI on perinatal outcomes were analyzed. In addition,the causes of perinatal deaths were analyzed. Results The gemellary pregnancy,multiple pregnancy,in vitro fitilization(IVF),placenta praevia,and placenta succenturiata/placenta bipartite were found to be the risk factors of VCI. The incidences of low birth weight,intrauterine growth restriction,asphyxia of newborns,deaths of fetuses or neonates,and single umbilical artery in the VCI group were significantly higher than those in the control group(all P<0.05). In 678 perineonates with VCI,the total death toll of perineonates was 7(1.0%),among whom the death causes included angiorrhexis of placenta praevia(n=1),preterm birth and low birth weight(n=3),torsion of cord(n=1),prolapse of cord(n=1),and placental abruption(n=1). Conclusions The risk factors of VCI should be carefully monitored. A diagnosis of VCI,if any,should be correctly made by using modern ultrasound techniques before delivery,so as to lower the mortality of perineonates. PMID:26149153
Oladapo, Olufemi T; Lamina, Mustafa A; Fakoya, Tuminu A
Background Health institutions need to contribute their quota towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) with respect to maternal health. In order to do so, current data on maternal mortality is essential for careproviders and policy makers to appreciate the burden of the problem and understand how best to distribute resources. This study presents the magnitude and distribution of causes of maternal deaths at the beginning of the 21st century in a Nigerian referral hospital and derives recommendations to reduce its frequency. Methods A retrospective descriptive analysis of all cases of maternal deaths at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Southwest Nigeria between 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2005. Results There were 75 maternal deaths, 2509 live births and 2728 deliveries during the study period. Sixty-three (84.0%) of the deaths were direct maternal deaths while 12 (16.0%) were indirect maternal deaths. Major causes of deaths were hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (28.0%), haemorrhage (21.3%) and sepsis (20.0%). Overall, eclampsia was the leading cause of deaths singly accounting for 24.0% of all maternal deaths. Abortion and HIV-related mortality accounted for 1.3% and 4.0% of maternal deaths, respectively. The maternal mortality ratio of 2989.2 per 100,000 live births was significantly higher than that reported for 1988–1997 in the same institution. Up to 67/794 (8.4%) patients referred from other facilities died compared to 8/1934 (0.4%) booked patients (OR: 22.1; 95% CI: 10.2–50.1). Maternal death was more likely to follow operative deliveries than non-operative deliveries (27/545 vs 22/2161; OR: 5.07; 95% CI: 2.77–9.31). Conclusion At the middle of the first decade of the new millennium, a large number of pregnant women receiving care in this centre continue to die from preventable causes of maternal death. Adoption of evidence-based protocol for the management of eclampsia and improvement in the quality of obstetric care for unbooked emergencies would go a long way to significantly reduce the frequency of maternal deaths in this institution. PMID:16529649
Jerdee, Theodore; Newman, Beverley; Rubesova, Erika
An abnormal location, distribution, volume, or appearance of meconium is associated with a spectrum of bowel abnormalities, including atresia, obstruction, perforation, fistula, aganglionosis, immaturity, and absorptive dysfunction. This review discusses the fetal and perinatal imaging of these entities, their differential diagnoses, clinical significance, and appropriate imaging workup. Understanding the spectrum of normal and abnormal, specific and nonspecific appearances of meconium and its associated abnormalities on imaging will provide a practical, useful framework for performing and interpreting imaging studies and guiding clinical management. PMID:26001945
Shivani Khandelwal; Mitra Dhanaraj; Atul Khandelwal
Purpose To test the reliability of the admission test to identify the compromised fetus and thus reduce the neonatal morbidity and\\u000a mortality by early intervention.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A prospective analysis over a period of 1 year from December 2007 to December 2008 included 100 antepartum patients and were\\u000a evaluated for perinatal outcome in two groups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results In both low and high risk groups the incidence
Vercoustre, L; Nizard, J
The aim of this review was to revisit the evaluation of risk of foetal and neonatal mortality at term. We analyse the meaning of term period and difficulty to determine the normal duration of the pregnancy. Specific complications associated with post term and the statistic approach of the perinatal risk are analysed, together with various mortality rates and especially the prospective risk introducing foetal term as a new concept. We study various aspect and evolution of non specific morbidity of the term period. An optimal decision for term management should involve pregnant women and the analysed parameters should be taken into consideration. PMID:17537588
Efficacy of zidovudine and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin for reducing perinatal HIV transmission from HIV-infected women with advanced disease: results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185.
Stiehm, E R; Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Nugent, R; Moye, J; Glenn Fowler, M; Mathieson, B J; Reichelderfer, P; Nemo, G J; Korelitz, J; Meyer, W A; Sapan, C V; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, M J; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, W T; Hammill, H
Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185 evaluated whether zidovudine combined with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) infusions administered monthly during pregnancy and to the neonate at birth would significantly lower perinatal HIV transmission compared with treatment with zidovudine and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) without HIV antibody. Subjects had baseline CD4 cell counts =500/microL (22% had counts <200/microL) and required zidovudine for maternal health (24% received zidovudine before pregnancy). Transmission was associated with lower maternal baseline CD4 cell count (odds ratio, 1.58 per 100-cell decrement; P=.005; 10.0% vs. 3.6% transmission for count <200 vs. >/=200/microL) but not with time of zidovudine initiation (5.6% vs. 4.8% if started before vs. during pregnancy; P=. 75). The Kaplan-Meier transmission rate for HIVIG recipients was 4. 1% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-6.7%) and for IVIG recipients was 6.0% (2.8%-9.1%) (P=.36). The unexpectedly low transmission confirmed that zidovudine prophylaxis is highly effective, even for women with advanced HIV disease and prior zidovudine therapy, although it limited the study's ability to address whether passive immunization diminishes perinatal transmission. PMID:9952362
Laplante, David P.; Brunet, Alain
Little is known about how prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) influences risks of asthma in humans. In this small study, we sought to determine whether disaster-related PNMS would predict asthma risk in children. In June 1998, we assessed severity of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec Ice Storm. Lifetime asthma symptoms, diagnoses, and corticosteroid utilization were assessed when the children were 12 years old (N = 68). No effects of objective hardship or timing of the exposure were found. However, we found that, in girls only, higher levels of prenatal maternal subjective distress predicted greater lifetime risk of wheezing (OR = 1.11; 90% CI = 1.01–1.23), doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR = 1.09; 90% CI = 1.00–1.19), and lifetime utilization of corticosteroids (OR = 1.12; 90% CI = 1.01–1.25). Other perinatal and current maternal life events were also associated with asthma outcomes. Findings suggest that stress during pregnancy opens a window for fetal programming of immune functioning. A sex-based approach may be useful to examine how prenatal and postnatal environments combine to program the immune system. This small study needs to be replicated with a larger, more representative sample. PMID:24895550
Wright, Harry T.
Some viruses, such as rubella and human cytomegalovirus, are known to cross the placental barrier and infect the fetus. In other cases of maternal viral infections, such as herpes simplex, evidence for transplacental passage is less convincing and fetal damage or neonatal disease may be coincidental or associated with perinatal infection. Certain cases of fetal or neonatal disease following maternal viral infections may be associated with disease in the mother which affects her metabolic processes or the placenta in such a way as to interfere with development of the fetus and infant. The possible effects of transplacental viral infections are several. Fetal loss may occur by means of abortion or stillbirth. There may be infection of the fetus, with clinical manifestations such as rash, or without clinical manifestations. The infant may be born with congenital defects, including such deformities as cataracts, cardiac anomalies, mental retardation or cerebral palsy. Although a number of maternal viral diseases have been etiologically incriminated in congenital defects, only two—rubella and cytomegalovirus infection—are definitely proved to be associated with anomalies or mental retardation in infants. PMID:5957431
Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Das, Jai K
The global burden of undernutrition remains high with little evidence of change in many countries. We reviewed the evidence of the potential nutritional interventions and estimated their effect on nutrition-related outcomes of women and children. Among the maternal interventions, daily iron supplementation results in a 69% reduction in incidence of anemia, 20% in incidence of low birthweight (LBW) and improves mean birthweight. MMN supplementation during pregnancy has been shown to significantly decrease the number of LBW infants by 14% and small for gestational age (SGA) by 13%. Balanced protein-energy supplementation reduces the incidence of SGA by 32% and risk of stillbirths by 38%. Antimalarials when given to pregnant women increase the mean birthweight significantly and were associated with a 43% reduction in LBW and severe antenatal anemia by 38%. Among the neonatal and child interventions, educational/counseling interventions increased exclusive breastfeeding by 43% at 4-6 weeks and 137% at 6 months. Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) reduces all-cause mortality by 24% and results in a 14% reduction in the risk of infant mortality at 6 months. Intermittent iron supplementation in children reduces the risk of anemia by 49% and iron deficiency by 76%, and significantly improves hemoglobin and ferritin concentration. Preventive zinc supplementation in populations at risk of zinc deficiency decreases morbidity from childhood diarrhea and acute lower respiratory infections, and increases linear growth and weight gain among infants and young children. Among the supportive interventions, hand washing with soap significantly reduces diarrhea morbidity by 48%, though it depends on access to water. The effect of water treatment on diarrhea morbidity also appears similarly large with a 17% reduction. Recent research has established linkages of preconception interventions with improved maternal, perinatal and neonatal health outcomes, and it has been suggested that several proven interventions recommended during pregnancy may be even more effective if implemented before conception. These proven interventions, if scaled up have the potential to reduce the global burden of undernutrition substantially. PMID:24504207
While much has been written on the need for faculty maternity leave policies in institutions of higher learning, the development of such policies is difficult given inherent administrative complexities and multiple approval processes. As a result, many institutions have either no policy or one that is inadequate or out of compliance with…
Karatayev, Olga; Lukatskaya, Olga; Moon, Sang-Ho; Guo, Wei-Ran; Chen, Dan; Algava, Diane; Abedi, Susan; Leibowitz, Sarah F
Clinical studies demonstrate frequent co-existence of nicotine and alcohol abuse and suggest that this may result, in part, from the ready access to and intake of fat-rich diets. Whereas animal studies show that high-fat diet intake in adults can enhance the consumption of either nicotine or ethanol and that maternal consumption of a fat-rich diet during pregnancy increases operant responding for nicotine in offspring, little is known about the impact of dietary fat on the co-abuse of these two drugs. The goal of this study was to test in Long-Evans rats the effects of perinatal exposure to fat on the co-use of nicotine and ethanol, using a novel paradigm that involves simultaneous intravenous (IV) self-administration of these two drugs. Fat- vs. chow-exposed offspring were characterized and compared, first in terms of their nicotine self-administration behavior, then in terms of their nicotine/ethanol self-administration behavior, and lastly in terms of their self-administration of ethanol in the absence of nicotine. The results demonstrate that maternal consumption of fat compared to low-fat chow during gestation and lactation significantly stimulates nicotine self-administration during fixed-ratio testing. It also increases nicotine/ethanol self-administration during fixed-ratio and dose-response testing, with BEC elevated to 120 mg/dL, and causes an increase in breakpoint during progressive ratio testing. Of particular note is the finding that rats perinatally exposed to fat self-administer significantly more of the nicotine/ethanol mixture as compared to nicotine alone, an effect not evident in the chow-control rats. After removal of nicotine from the nicotine/ethanol mixture, this difference between the fat- and chow-exposed rats was lost, with both groups failing to acquire the self-administration of ethanol alone. Together, these findings suggest that perinatal exposure to a fat-rich diet, in addition to stimulating self-administration of nicotine, causes an even greater vulnerability to the excessive co-use of nicotine and ethanol. PMID:25979531
McKnight, Jason Ray
fetal growth (reviewed in Satterfield et al. 2010). Maternal obesity is also a risk factor for congenital abnormalities, because obesity during pregnancy can affect embryogenesis (Galtier-Dereure et al. 2000; Ramachenderan et al. 2008). Data from... the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke showed an increase of major congenital abnormalities of 35% when mothers were overweight and 37.5% when obese (Naeye 1990). The most common abnormality is neural tube defects...
Denihan, Niamh M.; Boylan, Geraldine B.; Murray, Deirdre M.
Metabolomics, the latest “omic” technology, is defined as the comprehensive study of all low molecular weight biochemicals, “metabolites” present in an organism. As a systems biology approach, metabolomics has huge potential to progress our understanding of perinatal asphyxia and neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, by uniquely detecting rapid biochemical pathway alterations in response to the hypoxic environment. The study of metabolomic biomarkers in the immediate neonatal period is not a trivial task and requires a number of specific considerations, unique to this disease and population. Recruiting a clearly defined cohort requires standardised multicentre recruitment with broad inclusion criteria and the participation of a range of multidisciplinary staff. Minimally invasive biospecimen collection is a priority for biomarker discovery. Umbilical cord blood presents an ideal medium as large volumes can be easily extracted and stored and the sample is not confounded by postnatal disease progression. Pristine biobanking and phenotyping are essential to ensure the validity of metabolomic findings. This paper provides an overview of the current state of the art in the field of metabolomics in perinatal asphyxia and neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. We detail the considerations required to ensure high quality sampling and analysis, to support scientific progression in this important field. PMID:25802843
St-Arneault, Kate; De Montigny, Francine; Villeneuve, Raymond
Mothers' physical and mental health, as well as their socio-economic status, are currently acknowledged as determining factors in the health and development of young children in Quebec. It is thus not surprising to find that the majority of government perinatal and early childhood initiatives are directed toward mothers. Yet, fathers today are increasingly involved in the care and education of their children, and scientific studies have shown that their involvement is just as crucial as that of mothers. It is recognized that a father's involvement optimizes the physical, cognitive, affective and social development of his children. The purpose of this text is to examine how fathers are taken into account in two public perinatal and early childhood policies. It has been found that fathers are virtually absent from Quebec government's objectives and orientations, and when they do appear, no concrete means are offered to reach them. Considering that health care workers have difficulty offering truly inclusive services to fathers, recommendations with regard to inclusion of fathers in public policies are necessary in order to optimize the health of children and their families. PMID:24735694
Reinhard, J.; Hanker, L.; Sänger, N.; Yuan, J.; Louwen, F.
Introduction: Rates for caesarean section are on the rise and the reasons for this are being discussed worldwide. As the data is unclear, the identification of additional predictive factors for caesarean section is important as caesarean sections are closely linked to maternal and neonatal morbidity. The aim of the study was to identify predictive factors for the transfer of the neonate to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) depending on the mode of delivery. The study investigated the neonatal transfer rates for singleton and twin pregnancies delivered at ??36?+?0 weeks of gestation. Material and Methods: The data of all singleton (n?=?4181) and twin pregnancies (n?=?305 neonates), delivered between 1 January 2009 and 31 March 2012 in the OB/Gyn Department of the University Hospital Frankfurt/M, Germany, (perinatal center level 1) were evaluated. The indications for transfer to the NICU and possible predictive factors were evaluated. Results: Our study found a two times lower neonatal transfer rate for vaginal deliveries of pregnant women without risk factors compared to women with risk factors. The following neonatal transfer rates to the NICU were noted for singleton pregnancies: 4.7?% without risk factors, 8.3?% high-risk pregnancy, 6.2?% vaginal breech delivery, 9.3?% forceps delivery, 10?% elective primary caesarean section and 14?% secondary caesarean section. There was a statistically signific PMID:24771918
Göçmen, Ahmet; Güven, ?irin; Ba?ci, Simge; Çekmez, Yasemin; ?anl?kan, Fatih
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare maternal and fetal outcomes of spontaneously conceived and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) twin pregnancies that were admitted to our obstetric clinic and delivered between January 1, 2011 to November 1, 2014. Material method: A total of 84 twin pregnancies were enrolled for the study and divided into two groups: group 1 as IVF (n = 19) and group 2 as spontaneously conceived (n = 65) twin pregnancies. Data of neonatal various morbidities needs neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and maternal morbidities such as preeclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum bleeding, gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) were collected by hospital records. Results: There were no statistical difference between two groups regarding hypertension related to pregnancy, intrauterine growth retardation, Apgar scores, NICU needs, birth weight and height (P > 0.05). The rate of premature rupture of membranes, maternal age, antenatal anemia and premature birth were detected higher in IVF group when compared with the other group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Although twin pregnancies, regardless of conception method are high risk pregnancies in terms of obstetric and perinatal outcomes, premature rupture of membranes, maternal age, antenatal anemia and premature birth risks are higher in IVF twin pregnancies.
St-Cyr, Sophie; McGowan, Patrick O.
Perinatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term alterations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. The capacity for adaptation to adversity in early life depends in part on the life history of the animal. This study was designed to examine the behavioral and neural response in adult offspring to prenatal exposure to predator odor: an ethologically-relevant psychological stressor. Pregnant mice were exposed daily to predator odors or distilled water control over the second half of the pregnancy. Predator odor exposure lead to a transient decrease in maternal care in the mothers. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anti-predator behavior, a predator-odor induced decrease in activity and, in female offspring, an increased corticosterone (CORT) response to predator odor exposure. We found a highly specific response among stress-related genes within limbic brain regions. Transcript abundance of Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) was elevated in the amygdala in adult female offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers. In the hippocampus of adult female offspring, decreased Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcript abundance was correlated with a site-specific decrease in DNA methylation in Bdnf exon IV, indicating the potential contribution of this epigenetic mechanism to maternal programming by maternal predator odor exposure. These data indicate that maternal predator odor exposure alone is sufficient to induce an altered stress-related phenotype in adulthood, with implications for anti-predator behavior in offspring.
Maternal complications and poor perinatal outcome are highly associated with nonutilisation of antenatal and delivery care services and poor socioeconomic conditions of the patient. It is essential that all pregnant women have access to high quality obstetric care throughout their pregnancies. Present longitudinal study was carried out to compare utilization of maternal and child health care services by urban and rural primigravida females. A total of 240 study participants were enrolled in this study. More illiteracy and less mean age at the time of marriage were observed in rural population. Poor knowledge about prelacteal feed, colostrums, tetanus injection and iron-follic acid tablet consumption was noted in both urban and rural areas. Very few study participants from both areas were counselled for HIV testing before pregnancy. More numbers of abortions (19.2%) were noted in urban study participants compared to rural area. Thus utilization of maternal and child health care (MCH) services was poor in both urban and rural areas. A sustained and focussed IEC campaign to improve the awareness amongst community on MCH will help in improving community participation. This may improve the quality, accessibility, and utilization of maternal health care services provided by the government agencies in both rural and urban areas. PMID:24977099
Cox, Laura A.; Li, Cun; Glenn, Jeremy P.; Lange, Kenneth; Spradling, Kimberly D.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Jansson, Thomas
Maternal undernutrition increases the risk of perinatal complications and predisposes offspring to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in placental function play a role in linking altered maternal nutrition in pregnancy to the subsequent development of adult disease. The susceptibility for disease in response to an adverse intrauterine environment differs distinctly between boys and girls, with girls typically having better outcomes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that regulation of the placental transcriptome by maternal nutrient reduction (NR) is dependent on fetal sex. We used a nonhuman primate model of NR in which maternal global food intake was reduced by 30% in baboons starting at gestational day (GD) 30. At GD 165 (term = GD 183), placental genome expression profiling of 6 control (n = 3 females, 3 males) and 6 nutrient restricted (n = 3 females, 3 males) fetuses was carried out followed by bioinformatic analysis. Surprisingly, there was no coordinated placental molecular response to decreased nutrient availability when analyzing the data without accounting for fetal sex. In contrast, female placentas exhibited a highly coordinated response that included upregulation of genes in networks, pathways, and functional groups related to programmed cell death and downregulation of genes in networks, pathways, and functional groups associated with cell proliferation. These changes were not apparent in the male placentas. Our data support the concept that female placentas initiate complex adaptive responses to an adverse intrauterine environment, which may contribute to increased survival and better pregnancy outcomes in girls. PMID:24047701
Koch, Elard; Thorp, John; Bravo, Miguel; Gatica, Sebastián; Romero, Camila X.; Aguilera, Hernán; Ahlers, Ivonne
Background The aim of this study was to assess the main factors related to maternal mortality reduction in large time series available in Chile in context of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Methods Time series of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) from official data (National Institute of Statistics, 1957–2007) along with parallel time series of education years, income per capita, fertility rate (TFR), birth order, clean water, sanitary sewer, and delivery by skilled attendants were analysed using autoregressive models (ARIMA). Historical changes on the mortality trend including the effect of different educational and maternal health policies implemented in 1965, and legislation that prohibited abortion in 1989 were assessed utilizing segmented regression techniques. Results During the 50-year study period, the MMR decreased from 293.7 to 18.2/100,000 live births, a decrease of 93.8%. Women's education level modulated the effects of TFR, birth order, delivery by skilled attendants, clean water, and sanitary sewer access. In the fully adjusted model, for every additional year of maternal education there was a corresponding decrease in the MMR of 29.3/100,000 live births. A rapid phase of decline between 1965 and 1981 (?13.29/100,000 live births each year) and a slow phase between 1981 and 2007 (?1.59/100,000 live births each year) were identified. After abortion was prohibited, the MMR decreased from 41.3 to 12.7 per 100,000 live births (?69.2%). The slope of the MMR did not appear to be altered by the change in abortion law. Conclusion Increasing education level appears to favourably impact the downward trend in the MMR, modulating other key factors such as access and utilization of maternal health facilities, changes in women's reproductive behaviour and improvements of the sanitary system. Consequently, different MDGs can act synergistically to improve maternal health. The reduction in the MMR is not related to the legal status of abortion. PMID:22574194
Gernand, Alison D.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Klebanoff, Mark A.
Context: Inconsistent associations between maternal vitamin D status and fetal size have been published in small studies. Objective: Our objective was to examine the association between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and measures of newborn and placental weight. Design and Setting: We measured maternal 25(OH)D in mothers from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, an observational cohort conducted in 12 U.S. medical centers from 1959 to 1965. Participants: Women delivering singleton, term, live births with 25(OH)D measured at a gestation of 26 wk or less (n = 2146). Main Outcome Measures: Birth weight, ponderal index, placental weight, the placental to fetal weight ratio, and small for gestational age were measured. Hypotheses were formulated after data collection. Results: After confounder adjustment, mothers with 25(OH)D of 37.5 nmol/liter or greater gave birth to newborns with 46 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 9–82 g] higher birth weights and 0.13 cm (0.01–0.25 cm) larger head circumferences compared with mothers with less than 37.5 nmol/liter. Birth weight and head circumference rose with increasing 25(OH)D up to 37.5 nmol/liter and then leveled off (P < 0.05). No association was observed between 25(OH)D and ponderal index, placental weight, or the placental to fetal weight ratio. Maternal 25(OH)D of 37.5 nmol/liter or greater vs. less than 37.5 nmol/liter in the first trimester was associated with half the risk of small for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio 0.5; 95% CI 0.3–0.9), but no second-trimester association was observed. Conclusions: Maternal vitamin D status is independently associated with markers of physiological and pathological growth in term infants. Adequately powered randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether maternal vitamin D supplementation may improve fetal growth. PMID:23162094
Giordano, Juliana C.; Parpinelli, Mary A.; Cecatti, Jose G.; Haddad, Samira M.; Costa, Maria L.; Surita, Fernanda G.; Pinto e Silva, Joao L.; Sousa, Maria H.
Objective Maternal mortality (MM) is a core indicator of disparities in women’s rights. The study of Near Miss cases is strategic to identifying the breakdowns in obstetrical care. In absolute numbers, both MM and occurrence of eclampsia are rare events. We aim to assess the obstetric care indicators and main predictors for severe maternal outcome from eclampsia (SMO: maternal death plus maternal near miss). Methods Secondary analysis of a multicenter, cross-sectional study, including 27 centers from all geographic regions of Brazil, from 2009 to 2010. 426 cases of eclampsia were identified and classified according to the outcomes: SMO and non-SMO. We classified facilities as coming from low- and high-income regions and calculated the WHO’s obstetric health indicators. SPSS and Stata softwares were used to calculate the prevalence ratios (PR) and respective 95% confidence interval (CI) to assess maternal characteristics, clinical and obstetrical history, and access to health services as predictors for SMO, subsequently correlating them with the corresponding perinatal outcomes, also applying multiple regression analysis (adjusted for cluster effect). Results Prevalence of and mortality indexes for eclampsia in higher and lower income regions were 0.2%/0.8% and 8.1%/22%, respectively. Difficulties in access to health care showed that ICU admission (adjPR 3.61; 95% CI 1.77–7.35) and inadequate monitoring (adjPR 2.31; 95% CI 1.48–3.59) were associated with SMO. Conclusions Morbidity and mortality associated with eclampsia were high in Brazil, especially in lower income regions. Promoting quality maternal health care and improving the availability of obstetric emergency care are essential actions to relieve the burden of eclampsia. PMID:24825164
Kryski, Katie R.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Semple, Deborah L.
The relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and maternal language was examined in a community sample of 50 mothers of infants age 3-12 months. It was hypothesized that higher maternal symptoms of ADHD would be related to lower quality of maternal language use. Recordings of mothers' speech were coded for complexity and elaboration of speech…
Hull, Kimmelin; Montgomery, Kristen S; Vireday, Pamela; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen
This column features excerpts from a recent series of articles from the Lamaze International research blog, Science & Sensibility. The eight-part series examined the issue of maternal obesity from various perspectives, incorporating writings from Kimmelin Hull, a physician assistant, a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator, and the community manager of Science & Sensibility; Kristen Montgomery, a nursing professor at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte; Pamela Vireday, a childbirth educator and blogger; and Kathleen Kendall-Tackett, a health psychologist, lactation consultant, and writer/speaker. The authors of the blog series, titled "Maternal Obesity from All Sides," reviewed current research about risks associated with maternal obesity as well as the humanistic issues and lived experiences of pregnant women of size. PMID:22942626
Hull, Kimmelin; Montgomery, Kristen S.; Vireday, Pamela; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen
This column features excerpts from a recent series of articles from the Lamaze International research blog, Science & Sensibility. The eight-part series examined the issue of maternal obesity from various perspectives, incorporating writings from Kimmelin Hull, a physician assistant, a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator, and the community manager of Science & Sensibility; Kristen Montgomery, a nursing professor at the University of North Carolina–Charlotte; Pamela Vireday, a childbirth educator and blogger; and Kathleen Kendall-Tackett, a health psychologist, lactation consultant, and writer/speaker. The authors of the blog series, titled “Maternal Obesity from All Sides,” reviewed current research about risks associated with maternal obesity as well as the humanistic issues and lived experiences of pregnant women of size. PMID:22942626
Ruhm, Christopher J.
This study investigates how maternal employment is related to the cognitive development and body weight of 10 and 11 year olds, controlling for a wide variety of child, mother and family characteristics. The results suggest that limited market work benefits youths who are relatively “disadvantaged” and even long hours, which occur infrequently, are unlikely to leave them much worse off. By contrast, maternal labor supply is estimated to have more uniformly harmful consequences for “advantaged” adolescents. The negative cognitive effects for these youths probably partly occur because maternal labor supply reduces the time spent in enriching home environments. Some of the growth in obesity may be related to determinants of excess weight common to the child and mother. PMID:19830269
van Eerden, L; Zeeman, G G; Page-Christiaens, G C M; Vandenbussche, F; Oei, S G; Scheepers, H C J; van Eyck, J; Middeldorp, J M; Pajkrt, E; Duvekot, J J; de Groot, C J M; Bolte, A C
Objective Maternal morbidity, either pregnancy related or pre-existent, can become life threatening and of such severity as to warrant termination of pregnancy (TOP). In this situation, chances of fetal survival are usually poor, either because of low gestational age and/or because of the fetal effects of the maternal condition. Examples include severe growth restriction in pre-eclampsia and intrauterine infection due to the very early preterm prelabour rupture of membranes. There are very few reports on the prevalence of TOP for maternal indication at the limits of fetal viability. We investigated the prevalence of and indications for TOP on maternal indication in the 10 tertiary care centres in the Netherlands during the past decade. Study design We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of all women who underwent TOP for maternal indications between 22 and 27 completed weeks of gestation in all 10 tertiary care centres from 2000 to 2009. Results During the study period, there were 1?929?470 deliveries; 163?052 (8.4%) of these took place in one of the 10 tertiary care centres and 177 pregnancies were terminated for severe maternal disease, 131 for hypertensive disorders, 29 for intrauterine infection and 17 for other reasons. The mean gestational age at TOP was 171?days (243/7)±10?days. No maternal deaths were recorded. The overall perinatal mortality was 99.4%. Conclusions Over a 10-year period, TOP for maternal indications was performed in 1 in 1000 deliveries in the 10 Dutch tertiary care centres. Hypertensive disorders comprised three-quarters of the cases. PMID:24939810
Jennifer M. Best
Background: Intrauterine infection with rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), parvovirus B19 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may occur following maternal infection. Diagnosis of congenital infection in the neonate is dependant on the appropriate laboratory techniques being used. Prenatal diagnosis of intrauterine infection may also be indicated. Herpes simplex virus (HSV), HIV-1, VZV, enteroviruses, hepatitis B (HBV)
Maternal mortality continues to be high and maternal nutrition poor in the developing world. However, the specific role of\\u000a nutrition in affecting maternal health and survival remains unclear. Recent trials provide support for a specific and perhaps\\u000a important place for nutrition in reducing the burden of maternal mortality in developing countries. Specific nutrition interventions\\u000a have been shown to be efficacious
Gail A. Bernstein; Ann E. Layne; Elizabeth A. Egan; Lara P. Nelson
The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother–child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and\\/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic
Austin, Marie-Paule; Priest, Susan R; Sullivan, Elizabeth A
Background Mental health conditions arising in the perinatal period, including depression, have the potential to impact negatively on not only the woman but also her partner, infant, and family. The capacity for routine, universal antenatal psychosocial assessment, and thus the potential for reduction of morbidity, is very significant. Objectives To evaluate the impact of antenatal psychosocial assessment on perinatal mental health morbidity. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register, the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group’s Trials Register (CCDAN TR-Studies), HSRProj in the National Library of Medicine (USA), and the Current Controlled Trials website: http://www.controlled trials.com/ and the UK National Research Register (last searched March 2008). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility; they also extracted data from included trials and assessed the trials for potential bias. Main results Two trials met criteria for an RCT of antenatal psychosocial assessment. One trial examined the impact of an antenatal tool (ALPHA) on clinician awareness of psychosocial risk, and the capacity of the antenatal ALPHA to predict women with elevated postnatal Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) scores, finding a trend towards increased clinician awareness of ‘high level’ psychosocial risk where the ALPHA intervention had been used (relative risk (RR) 4.61 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99 to 21.39). No differences between groups were seen for numbers of women with antenatal EDS scores, a score of greater than 9 being identified by ALPHA as of concern for depression (RR 0.69 95% CI 0.35 to 1.38); 139 providers. The other trial reported no differences in EPS scores greater than 12 at 16 weeks postpartum between the intervention (communication about the EDS scores with the woman and her healthcare providers plus a patient information booklet) and the standard care groups (RR 0.86 95% CI 0.61 to 1.21; 371 women). Authors’ conclusions While the use of an antenatal psychosocial assessment may increase the clinician’s awareness of psychosocial risk, neither of these small studies provides sufficient evidence that routine antenatal psychosocial assessment by itself leads to improved perinatal mental health outcomes. Further studies with better sample size and statistical power are required to further explore this important public health issue. It will also be important to examine outcomes up to one year postpartum not only for mother, but also infant and family. PMID:18843682
Lewis, Jocelyn Renee
homicides occurring when the child is less than 1 year old (see Figure 3). In addition, a parent is the perpetrator in most homicides of children under age 5 (see Figure 4). Among children under age 5 in the United States who were murdered from 1976... (1984-1996). They defined maternal infanticide as “all killings by mothers of their own children who were newborn to one year in age” (Gauthier, et al. 2003: 398). The study found maternal infanticide to be the most typical form of female perpetrated...
Ramo?lu, Mehmet Gökhan; Kavuncuo?lu, Sultan; Özbek, Sibel; Aldemir, Esin
Aim: The objective of this study was to examine perinatal and neonatal properties of preterm infants with a corrected age of 24–36 months who were born as a result of spontaneous and in vitro fertilization multiple pregnancies, to interrogate somatic growth properties of these infants and evaluate the factors which had an impact by comparing groups. Material and Methods: A total of 125 children with a birth weight below 2 500 g and a gestational age below the 37th gestational week 60 of whom were born as a result of in vitro fertilization multiple pregnancies and 65 of whom were born as a result of spontaneous multiple pregnancies were included in the study. Maternal age and morbidity, early rupture of membranes, birth weigth, gestational week, gender, APGAR score, hospitalization reasons in the neonatal period, requirement for intensive care, frequency of congenital anomaly, outpatient follow-up status, rehospitalization and socioeconomic levels were interrogated in the patients. Detailed physical examination and current height, weight and head circumference measurements were performed and the findings were placed in the growth curves of Neyzi et al. Ethics committee approval was received for this study from the ethics committee of Bak?rköy Gynecology Obstetrics and Pediatrics Education and Research Hospital (12.10.2010; no:305). Results: The rate of cesarean section, mean maternal age, the rate of chronic disease in the mother and the rate of maternal disease which occured during pregnancy were significantly higher in the in vitro fertilization group (p<0.05). While no difference was found in mean gestational age, birth weight, rate of hospitalization, time of hospitalization, frequency of follow-up in the intensive care unit, rates of congenital anomaly and rehospitalization, APGAR score in the 5th minute was significantly higher in the in vitro fertilization group. The socioeconomical score was not different between the groups, but the in vitro fertilization group presented more regularly for outpatient follow-up visits. Height, head circumference measurements and mean current weight were found to be significantly higher in the in vitro fertilization group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The fact that there was no difference in the rate of hospitalization, time of hospitalization, frequency of follow-up in the intensive care unit, rates of congenital anomaly and rehospitalization was attributed to the fact that the study and control groups were composed of only multiple pregnancies and preterms.
Ridout, D; Sandberg, S; Santosh, P
Background Despite decades of research, the aetiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD) remains largely unknown. Next to a strong genetic component, increasing evidence suggests additional adverse impact of environmental factors, two of which have, although controversially, withstood meta-analysis: gestational exposure to smoking (OR 2.39) and low birth weight (OR 2.64). Several studies have investigated a possible association between prenatal exposure to alcohol and ADHD, although the matter is complicated due to foetal alcohol syndrome disorders (FASD) with ADHD-like symptoms. Questions Can an estimate of the effect of gestational exposure to alcohol for ADHD be determined? What is the relevance of primary care services in screening and intervention in mild to moderate drinking in pregnant women? Method MEDLINE, Cinahl, PsychInfo, EMBASE (1995–2008) were searched for articles in English, supplemented by a manual search. Out of 23 reviewed studies, three were included in the metaanalysis; one further study was added to undertake a sub-analysis comparing severe versus mild alcohol consumption. Summary odds ratios (OR) were extracted and fixed/random-effects meta-analysis were used for combining the OR's. Heterogeneity across the studies was formally assessed using Cochran's Q. Results An OR of 2.33 (95% CI, 1.18–4.61), (z = 2.43, p = 0.02) suggests that exposed children are 2.33 times more likely to have ADHD than non exposed children. Discussion Our meta-analysis suggests that children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy are at risk for ADHD. However, evidence is sparse and it remains uncertain whether a causal association exists. Further research is needed into dose–response relationship, timing of exposure, influence of genetic factors involved in maternal alcohol abuse and the role of FASD in ADHD-like symptoms. If a detrimental effect of mild to moderate drinking on the offspring is supported by stronger evidence, primary care services could have a major role in prevention and early intervention. This would be in addition to their already established role in helping heavy drinking mothers.
Ellen M Wells; Lynn R Goldman; Jeffery M Jarrett; Benjamin J Apelberg; Julie B Herbstman; Kathleen L Caldwell; Rolf U Halden; Frank R Witter
Evidence suggests selenium concentrations outside the nutritional range may worsen cardiovascular health. This paper examines the relationship between selenium and maternal blood pressure (BP) among 270 deliveries using umbilical cord serum as a proxy for maternal exposure levels. Multivariable models used linear splines for selenium and controlled for gestational age, maternal age, race, median household income, parity, smoking, and prepregnancy
Chim, Stephen S. C.; Lee, Wing S.; Ting, Yuen H.; Chan, Oi K.; Lee, Shara W. Y.; Leung, Tak Y.
Background Spontaneous preterm birth (SPB, before 37 gestational weeks) is a major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. Studies on SPB have been hampered by the limited availability of markers for SPB in predelivery clinical samples that can be easily compared with gestational age-matched normal controls. We hypothesize that SPB involves aberrant placental RNA expression, and that such RNA transcripts can be detected in predelivery maternal plasma samples, which can be compared with gestational age-matched controls. Principal Findings Using gene expression microarray to profile essentially all human genes, we observed that 426 probe signals were changed by >2.9-fold in the SPB placentas, compared with the spontaneous term birth (STB) placentas. Among the genes represented by those probes, we observed an over-representation of functions in RNA stabilization, extracellular matrix binding, and acute inflammatory response. Using RT-quantitative PCR, we observed differences in the RNA concentrations of certain genes only between the SPB and STB placentas, but not between the STB and term elective cesarean delivery placentas. Notably, 36 RNA transcripts were observed at placental microarray signals higher than a threshold, which indicated the possibility of their detection in maternal plasma. Among them, the IL1RL1 mRNA was tested in plasma samples taken from 37 women. It was detected in 6 of 10 (60%) plasma samples collected during the presentation of preterm labor (?32.9 weeks) in women eventually giving SPB, but was detected in only 1 of 27 (4%) samples collected during matched gestational weeks from women with no preterm labor (Fisher exact test, p?=?0.00056). Conclusion We have identified 36 SPB-associated RNA transcripts, which are possibly detectable in maternal plasma. We have illustrated that the IL1RL1 mRNA was more frequently detected in predelivery maternal plasma samples collected from women resulting in SPB than the gestational-age matched controls. PMID:22496790
Maternal and newborn outcomes in Pakistan compared to other low and middle income countries in the Global Network’s Maternal Newborn Health Registry: an active, community-based, pregnancy surveillance mechanism
Background Despite global improvements in maternal and newborn health (MNH), maternal, fetal and newborn mortality rates in Pakistan remain stagnant. Using data from the Global Network’s Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR) the objective of this study is to compare the rates of maternal mortality, stillbirth and newborn mortality and levels of putative risk factors between the Pakistani site and those in other countries. Methods Using data collected through a multi-site, prospective, ongoing, active surveillance system to track pregnancies and births in communities in discrete geographical areas in seven sites across six countries including Pakistan, India, Kenya, Zambia, Guatemala and Argentina from 2010 to 2013, the study compared MNH outcomes and risk factors. The MNHR captures more than 60,000 deliveries annually across all sites with over 10,000 of them in Thatta, Pakistan. Results The Pakistan site had a maternal mortality ratio almost three times that of the other sites (313/100,000 vs 116/100,000). Stillbirth (56.5 vs 22.9/1000 births), neonatal mortality (50.0 vs 20.7/1000 livebirths) and perinatal mortality rates (95.2/1000 vs 39.0/1000 births) in Thatta, Pakistan were more than twice those of the other sites. The Pakistani site is the only one in the Global Network where maternal mortality increased (from 231/100,000 to 353/100,000) over the study period and fetal and neonatal outcomes remained stagnant. The Pakistan site lags behind other sites in maternal education, high parity, and appropriate antenatal and postnatal care. However, facility delivery and skilled birth attendance rates were less prominently different between the Pakistani site and other sites, with the exception of India. The difference in the fetal and neonatal outcomes between the Pakistani site and the other sites was most pronounced amongst normal birth weight babies. Conclusions The increase in maternal mortality and the stagnation of fetal and neonatal outcomes from 2010 to 2013 indicates that current levels of antenatal and newborn care interventions in Thatta, Pakistan are insufficient to protect against poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. Delivery care in the Pakistani site, while appearing quantitatively equivalent to the care in sites in Africa, is less effective in saving the lives of women and their newborns. By the metrics available from this study, the quality of obstetric and neonatal care in the site in Pakistan is poor. Trial registration The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov [NCT01073475]. PMID:26062610
Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Vieth, Reinhold
Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition that is present in 40% to 80% of pregnant women. There is emerging evidence that vitamin D deficiency may be a risk modifying factor for many chronic diseases, including osteomalacia, rickets, multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, heart disease, type 1 diabetes, and cancer. Heightened susceptibility to these diseases may originate in early life during the development of tissue structure and function. It is suspected that biologic mechanisms can "memorize" the metabolic effects of early nutritional environment through fetal and neonatal imprinting. Inadequate vitamin D nutrition during perinatal life may establish a poor foundation that may produce long-term threats to human health. This review summarizes the risks of vitamin D deficiency for human health and provides the current vitamin D recommendations for mothers and their newborns. PMID:20974417
Jenkins, Trisha A.
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that, at least in part, events occurring within the intrauterine or perinatal environment at critical times of brain development underlies emergence of the psychosis observed during adulthood, and brain pathologies that are hypothesized to be from birth. All potential risks stimulate activation of the immune system, and are suggested to act in parallel with an underlying genetic liability, such that an imperfect regulation of the genome mediates these prenatal or early postnatal environmental effects. Epidemiologically based animal models looking at environment and with genes have provided us with a wealth of knowledge in the understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and give us the best possibility for interventions and treatments for schizophrenia. PMID:23805069
Lai, Philip T; Reilly, Judy S
Children with perinatal stroke (PS) provide a unique opportunity to understand developing brain-behavior relations. Previous research has noted distinctive differences in behavioral sequelae between children with PS and adults with acquired stroke: children fare better, presumably due to the plasticity of the developing brain for adaptive reorganization. Whereas we are beginning to understand language development, we know little about another communicative domain, emotional expression. The current study investigates the use and integration of language and facial expression during an interview. As anticipated, the language performance of the five and six year old PS group is comparable to their typically developing (TD) peers, however, their affective profiles are distinctive: those with right hemisphere injury are less expressive with respect to affective language and affective facial expression than either those with left hemisphere injury or TD group. The two distinctive profiles for language and emotional expression in these children suggest gradients of neuroplasticity in the developing brain. PMID:26117314
St James-Roberts, I
Several professional groups share an interest in the effects of prenatal and perinatal adversities on children's development. The aim is to present a conceptual and methodological framework which will foster multidisciplinary study in this area. Recent evidence and principles about early life adversities, and developmental processes, are reviewed. The limitations of studies which address discrete variables at single points in time are highlighted. The proposal is that reproductive adversities are most effectively conceptualized as perturbations of infants' endogenous and social regulatory systems, which lead to adaptive developmental processes. The origins of maladaptations are to be found not simply in fixed, within-the-child, characteristics but in an understanding of regulatory processes; particularly the regulatory exchange between child and caregivers. A study is used to illustrate the translation of the model into research design. PMID:3304694
Habek, Dubravko; Habek, Jasna Cerkez; Barbir, Ante; Barbir, Mira; Grani?, Paula
This study assessed perinatal outcome in pregnancies with accidentally diagnosed fetal grasping of the umbilical cord (FGUC) on ultrasonography (US) in late gestation as a possible cause of fetal hypoxia due to mechanical occlusion of umbilical circulation. In this retrospective clinical study, routine antenatal US examination revealed FGUC from 32 to 41 weeks of gestation in seven normal single pregnancies. Upon FGUC findings, fetal condition was followed up every second day by repeat US findings of FGUC, and then by Doppler parameters of fetoplacental circulation measurement of resistance index in umbilical artery (URI) and middle cerebral artery (CRI), and cardiotocography (CTG), and perinatal outcome (peripartal cardiotocography, 5-min Apgar score, umbilical arterial blood pH, occurrence of meconium amniotic fluid, need of additional treatment at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and mode of pregnancy termination (cesarean section, forceps or vacuum extraction-VE for hypoxia). After delivery, neonatal neurosonography and neonatal complications related to pregnancy or birth were evaluated. All URI values were increased, resulting from persistent FGUC and elevated umbilical arterial RI. CRI showed great oscillations in the values for gestational age and decreased CRI. In two cases, cerebral/umbilical ratio was less than 1, indicating initial vasocentralization as a fetal compensatory mechanism for hypoxia. In these cases, a pathological peripartal CTG and pH 7.23, indicative of preacidosis, were verified. All children were discharged from NICU as healthy, free from neurological lesions, with the exception of the latter, who had dystonia syndrome and mild motor deficit as a sign of peripartal hypoxia. Although it probably belongs to normal reflexes, intermittent FGUC should be US controlled. Persistent FGUC should be considered pathological for its possible hypoxic effect and umbilical circulation obstruction. These pregnant women should be hospitalized and closely monitored, as in part confirmed by the present study. PMID:14504868
Becerra, Tracy Ann
autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: a standard measureeffect measure modification of the air pollution and autismmeasures suggest a link between Autistic Disorder and traffic-related exposures during pregnancy. Ideally, future autism and
Bastian, Thomas W; Lassi, Katie C; Anderson, Grant W; Prohaska, Joseph R
Copper, iron and iodine/thyroid hormone (TH) deficiencies disrupt brain development. Neonatal Cu deficiency causes Fe deficiency and may impact thyroidal status. One purpose of these studies was to determine the impact of improved iron status following Cu deficiency by supplementing the diet with iron. Cu deficiency was produced in pregnant Holtzman [Experiment 1 (Exp. 1)] or Sprague-Dawley [Experiment 2 (Exp. 2)] rats using two different diets. In Exp. 2, dietary Fe content was increased from 35 to 75 mg/kg according to NRC guidelines for reproduction. Cu-deficient (CuD) Postnatal Day 24 (P24) rats from both experiments demonstrated lower hemoglobin, serum Fe and serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. However, brain Fe was lower only in CuD P24 rats in Exp. 1. Hemoglobin and serum Fe were higher in Cu adequate (CuA) P24 rats from Exp. 2 compared to Exp. 1. Cu- and TH-deficient rats from Exp. 2 exhibited a similar sensorimotor functional deficit following 3 months of repletion. Results suggest that Cu deficiency may impact TH status independent of its impact on iron biology. Further research is needed to clarify the individual roles for Cu, Fe and TH in brain development. PMID:21239157
Bastian, Thomas W.; Lassi, Katie C.; Anderson, Grant W.; Prohaska, Joseph R.
Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and iodine/thyroid hormone (TH) deficiencies disrupt brain development. Neonatal Cu deficiency causes Fe deficiency and may impact thyroidal status. One purpose of these studies was to determine the impact of improved iron status following Cu deficiency by supplementing the diet with iron. Cu deficiency was produced in pregnant Holtzman (Exp. 1) or Sprague Dawley (Exp. 2) rats using two different diets. In Exp. 2, dietary Fe content was increased from 35 to 75 mg/kg according to NRC guidelines for reproduction. Cu deficient (CuD) postnatal day 24 (P24) rats from both experiments demonstrated lower hemoglobin, serum Fe, and serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. However, brain Fe was lower only in CuD P24 rats in Exp. 1. Hemoglobin and serum Fe were higher in Cu adequate (CuA) P24 rats from Exp. 2 compared to Exp. 1. Cu and TH deficient rats from Exp. 2 exhibited a similar sensorimotor functional deficit following three months of repletion. Results suggest that Cu deficiency may impact TH status independent of its impact on iron biology. Further research is needed to clarify the individual roles for Cu, Fe, and TH in brain development. PMID:21239157
Jan L. Lyche; Erik Ropstad; Hans J. S. Larsen; Janneche Utne Skaare; Aage Tverdal; Grethe M. Johansen
Pregnant does (10 goats\\/group) were dosed orally either with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 (98 µg\\/kg body weight\\/d) or PCB 126 (ng\\/kg body weight\\/d) dissolved in corn oil or with corn oil only (control group) from gestation day (GD) 60 until delivery. An additional group (n = 5) of pregnant does received the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.4 µg\\/kg body weight\\/d)
Julie A. Leis; Tamar Mendelson; Deborah F. Perry; S. Darius Tandon
IntroductionThe objective of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions of mental health services as a barrier to service use among low-income, urban, perinatal African-American clients of home visiting programs.
Dunn, P M
Following in the footsteps of Billard and Ballantyne, Edith Potter founded from the 1930s onwards the modern subspecialty of perinatal pathology. Her name is eponymously linked with the facial characteristics of infants with bilateral renal agenesis. PMID:17712193
Smith, Renee; Wilkins, Megan
Over the past three decades, perinatal HIV infection in the United States has evolved from a fatal disease to a manageable chronic illness. As the majority of youth with perinatal HIV infection age into adolescence and adulthood, management of this stigmatizing, transmittable disease in the backdrop of a cadre of environmental stressors presents challenges beyond those of other chronic illnesses. The neurologic and neuropsychological consequences of this neurotropic virus have important implications for the successful navigation of responsibilities related to increasingly independent living of this aging population. This article will review the neurologic and neuropsychological consequences of perinatal HIV infection and concomitant factors in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy and will provide an overview of the neuropathology, pathogenesis, neuroimaging findings, and treatment of perinatal HIV infection, as well as recommendations for service provision and future research. PMID:24697320
Background Through the World Health Assembly Resolution, ‘Health of Migrants’, the international community has identified migrant health as a priority. Recommendations for general hospital care for international migrants in receiving-countries have been put forward by the Migrant Friendly Hospital Initiative; adaptations of these recommendations specific to maternity care have yet to be elucidated and validated. We aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring migrant-friendly maternity care (MFMC) which could be used in a range of maternity care settings and countries. Methods This study was conducted in four stages. First, questions related to migrant friendly maternity care were identified from existing questionnaires including the Migrant Friendliness Quality Questionnaire, developed in Europe to capture recommended general hospital care for migrants, and the Mothers In a New Country (MINC) Questionnaire, developed in Australia and revised for use in Canada to capture the maternity care experiences of migrant women, and combined to create an initial MFMC questionnaire. Second, a Delphi consensus process in three rounds with a panel of 89 experts in perinatal health and migration from 17 countries was undertaken to identify priority themes and questions as well as to clarify wording and format. Third, the draft questionnaire was translated from English to French and Spanish and back-translated and subsequently culturally validated (assessed for cultural appropriateness) by migrant women. Fourth, the questionnaire was piloted with migrant women who had recently given birth in Montreal, Canada. Results A 112-item questionnaire on maternity care from pregnancy, through labour and birth, to postpartum care, and including items on maternal socio-demographic, migration and obstetrical characteristics, and perceptions of care, has been created - the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) – in three languages (English, French and Spanish). It is completed in 45 minutes via interview administration several months post-birth. Conclusions A 4-stage process of questionnaire development with international experts in migrant reproductive health and research resulted in the MFMCQ, a questionnaire measuring key aspects of migrant-sensitive maternity care. The MFMCQ is available for further translation and use to examine and compare care and perceptions of care within and across countries, and by key socio-demographic, migration, and obstetrical characteristics of migrant women. PMID:24916892
David E. Shapiro; Rhoda S. Sperling; Laurent Mandelbrot; Paula Britto; Bethann E. Cunningham
Objective: To identify modifiable obstetric factors associated with the failure of zidovudine chemoprophylaxis to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission.Methods: We analyzed data from Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076, a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial that demonstrated that a zidovudine regimen could prevent perinatal HIV-1 transmission. We estimated the zidovudine treatment effect using the relative reduction
G. E. Alan Dever; Leah T. Smith; Bunnie V. Stamps
Introduction: A marketing\\/business model using non-traditional Quality of Life measures was developed to assess perinatal health status on a micro-geographic level. This perinatal health status needs assessment study for Georgia South Central Region was conducted for the years 1994–1999. The model may be applied to any geographic unit in the U.S. – from a block group level to a state
N. van Wijk; E. Rijntjes; Heijning van de B. J
Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the present study, behavioural effects of perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism were assessed during development in both male and female offspring
Federico Allemand; Federica Reale; Marco Sposato; Alessandro Allemand
BACKGROUND: The issue concerning neurologic outcome in patients with perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (H.I.E) has inspired many studies which tried to identify adequate prognostic factors. Our work aims to find among neonatal parameters: - factors which help to predict the risk to develop both Cerebral Palsy (CP) and secondary Epilepsy at one year of age in subjects affected by perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic
The work of perinatal nurses sometimes includes emergencies involving death, or near death, which can leave health care providers with feelings of stress and grief. After experiencing a particularly stressful period, nurses at our organization identified processes to help themselves recover and to support each other. The result of this work is a written plan to facilitate the support of perinatal nurses after critical events. This article describes the development and implementation of this plan. PMID:24548497
Bogg, Lennart; Wang, Keli; Diwan, Vinod
Health sector reforms in China, instituted starting in 1985, have centred on cost recovery, with fee-for-service revenue replacing public budget funding. The share of public funding for maternal health services was reduced greatly, forcing an increasing proportion of pregnant women to pay for deliveries and treatment of pregnancy-related complications out of pocket, as most had no health insurance to cover these costs. This study aimed to identify socio-economic variables associated with utilisation of essential maternal health services and linked to health sector reforms in China, with a focus on cost recovery. A retrospective household survey (n = 5756) was carried out in six counties in three provinces of Central China in 1995. Antenatal service utilisation continued to improve in 1990-95, but only in relation to the number of visits, which were pre-paid if the woman was participating in a maternal pre-payment scheme or covered by another health insurance scheme. Significant decreases were found in the utilisation of skilled attendance at delivery and hospital delivery, as well as differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriages and stillbirths) between women paying out of pocket and those covered by insurance. This study confirms a strong association between utilisation of delivery services and financing variables of amount of savings in the bank, maternal pre-payment schemes and health insurance. It also shows the critical importance of out-of-pocket, fee-for-service payments for maternity care as a barrier to the utilisation of these services. PMID:12557646
van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf
Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016
Miller, Suellen; Belizán, José M
The death of a woman in pregnancy and childbirth is globally considered an individual tragedy and a human rights violation. Given the inequities in death that occur to marginalized, poor, and vulnerable women in low and middle income countries, there is no doubt that maternal death is a horrific injustice. However, the long term global burden of disease goes far beyond this tragedy. Recent research is demonstrating that there are disastrous consequences in infant and child mortality, loss of economic opportunities, spiraling cycles of poverty in the families and communities where women die giving birth. The journal Reproductive Health has published a supplement "The True Cost of Maternal Death," which includes original research from two major study groups. Harvard's Francois-Xavier Bagnoud (FXB) Center for Health and Human Rights conducted a multi-country, mixed methods study of the impact of maternal mortality on newborn health and survival, family functioning, interrupted education and economic degradation in four high maternal mortality countries, Tanzania, South Africa, Malawi, and Ethiopia. A collaborative group from Family Care International (FCI), the International Center of Research on Women (ICRW), and the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI)-Center for Disease Control (CDC)-Research Collaboration conducted research into true costs of maternal death in Kenya. These articles demonstrate the enormous costs that ripple out from the maternal death, and the intergenerational and multi-sectorial disruptions related to maternal mortality. It is important in this period of post-MDG strategy planning period that donors, governments, and NGOs be aware not only of the individual level tragedy of the loss of a mother's life, but also the financial and health costs associated with maternal mortality, and to keep the focus on maternal health as a key issue in all aspects of development, not just health. PMID:26081494
I. A. Kelmanson
The study aimed to identify risk factors of sleep disturbances in 2-month-old infants. It comprised 198 infants (86 boys,\\u000a 112 girls) who were singletons born in St. Petersburg, Russia, in 2007. The mothers were asked to complete questionnaires\\u000a addressing major infant, maternal, and demographic characteristics. Preexisting medical records were scrutinized. The mothers\\u000a were requested to describe infant sleep troubles. The baby was defined as
Morales, W J; Washington, S R; Lazar, A J
Six hundred ninety-eight patients with premature rupture of the membranes between 26 and 34 weeks were managed expectantly without the use of tocolytics or corticosteroids. Of these, 92 (13 per cent) developed chorioamnionitis. Although latency period (defined as the time from rupture of the membranes to the onset of labor) had no correlation with the incidence of chorioamnionitis, the mean latency period was significantly shorter for those gestations complicated by infection. The risk of chorioamnionitis was found to be inversely related to gestational age. The length of labor, once chorioamnionitis was diagnosed, had no correlation with neonatal outcome, but the development of chorioamnionitis led to a statistically significant increase in neonatal mortality, infection rate, incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and five-minute Apgar score less than 7. Maternal endometritis and other complications of infection were increased in the presence of chorioamnionitis, especially in patients delivered by Cesarean section. Useful predictors of early chorioamnionitis were maternal leukocytosis, fetal tachycardia, and elevated maternal C-reactive protein titers. PMID:3505603
Rondinelli, June; Long, Kathleen; Seelinger, Connie; Crawford, Cecelia L; Valdez, Regina
As nurses provide holistic support, their own comfort in caring for parents and families experiencing perinatal loss must be considered. Study results showed that, although education is essential, experience independently predicted comfort in delivering perinatal bereavement care. Evidence from this study promotes the discussion of how nurse educators can structure professional development programs to best transfer the experience and confidence of perinatal nurses who are already comfortable with bereavement care to nurses who are not. PMID:25993455
Background Every year an estimated three million neonates die globally and two hundred thousand of these deaths occur in Pakistan. Majority of these neonates die in rural areas of underdeveloped countries from preventable causes (infections, complications related to low birth weight and prematurity). Similarly about three hundred thousand mother died in 2010 and Pakistan is among ten countries where sixty percent burden of these deaths is concentrated. Maternal and neonatal mortality remain to be unacceptably high in Pakistan especially in rural areas where more than half of births occur. Method/Design This community based cluster randomized controlled trial will evaluate the impact of an Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) package in the intervention arm compared to standard of care in control arm. Perinatal and neonatal mortality are primary outcome measure for this trial. The trial will be implemented in 20 clusters (Union councils) of District Rahimyar Khan, Pakistan. The EmONC package consists of provision of maternal and neonatal health pack (clean delivery kit, emollient, chlorhexidine) for safe motherhood and newborn wellbeing and training of community level and facility based health care providers with emphasis on referral of complicated cases to nearest public health facilities and community mobilization. Discussion Even though there is substantial evidence in support of effectiveness of various health interventions for improving maternal, neonatal and child health. Reduction in perinatal and neonatal mortality remains a big challenge in resource constrained and diverse countries like Pakistan and achieving MDG 4 and 5 appears to be a distant reality. A comprehensive package of community based low cost interventions along the continuum of care tailored according to the socio cultural environment coupled with existing health force capacity building may result in improving the maternal and neonatal outcomes. The findings of this proposed community based trial will provide sufficient evidence on feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness to the policy makers for replicating and scaling up the interventions within the health system Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01751945 PMID:23800194
Tarasoff, Lesley A
Although pregnancy and childbirth have significant identity and health implications for all women, perinatal research has focused primarily on nondisabled women. In this article, I provide a review of literature regarding the perinatal care experiences of women with physical disabilities. I found that many women with physical disabilities encounter attitudinal, informational, physical, and financial barriers during the perinatal period that contribute to poor care experiences and may subsequently affect health outcomes. In an effort to improve perinatal care experiences and outcomes, I offer recommendations to address the barriers identified in the literature, including increased disability content in medical school curricula. PMID:23998776
Hoffmann, Christopher J; Mashabela, Fildah; Cohn, Silvia; Hoffmann, Jennifer D; Lala, Sanjay; Martinson, Neil A; Chaisson, Richard E
Introduction Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of liver-related mortality. Newborn vaccination, maternal antiviral therapy and administering hepatitis B immune globulin shortly after birth can greatly reduce the risk of perinatal and infant infection. However, evidence-based policy regarding these interventions in Africa is hampered by gaps in knowledge of HBV epidemiology. We describe maternal chronic hepatitis B (CHB) prevalence and infant infection during the first year of life within a cohort of women living with HIV. Methods We recruited and prospectively followed pregnant women living with HIV and their infants from prenatal clinics in an urban area of South Africa. Hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies and HBV DNA were assessed in all women. Hepatitis B testing was also performed at 6 and 52 weeks for all infants born to mothers with either positive surface antigen or detectable HBV DNA. Results We enrolled 189 women with a median age of 29 years and median CD4 count of 348 cells/mm3. Fourteen had a positive surface antigen (7.4%), of which six were positive for “e” antigen. An additional three had detectable HBV DNA without positive surface antigen. One infant developed CHB and three others had evidence of transmission based on positive HBV DNA assays. HBV vaccinations were delivered at six weeks of life to all infants. Conclusions Our findings highlight the risk of peripartum HBV transmission in this setting. Approaches to reducing this transmission should be considered. PMID:24855985
Lemche, Erwin; Joraschky, Peter; Klann-Delius, Gisela
In a longitudinal natural language development study in Germany, the acquisition of verbal symbols for present persons, absent persons, inanimate things and the mother-toddler dyad was investigated. Following the notion that verbal referent use is more developed in ostensive contexts, symbolic play situations were coded for verbal person reference by means of noun and pronoun use. Depending on attachment classifications at twelve months of age, effects of attachment classification and maternal language input were studied up to 36 months in four time points. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, except for mother absence, maternal verbal referent input rates at 17 and 36 months were stronger predictors for all referent types than any of the attachment organizations, or any other social or biological predictor variable. Attachment effects accounted for up to 9.8% of unique variance proportions in the person reference variables. Perinatal and familial measures predicted person references dependent on reference type. The results of this investigation indicate that mother-reference, self-reference and thing-reference develop in similar quantities measured from the 17-month time point, but are dependent of attachment quality. PMID:23810985
Rohde, L A; Busnello, E; Wolf, A; Zomer, A; Shansis, F; Martins, S; Tramontina, S
In this prospective study, a sample of 86 postpartum women was compared with a sample of 75 women from a random period of 8 consecutive days out of puerperium. Symptoms were evaluated each day using the Blues Questionnaire. Postpartum women and women out of puerperium showed a different distribution of percentile scores on the scale on the third, fourth and fifth days. The postpartum symptom peak occurred on the fifth day. Symptoms more significantly associated with the third, fourth and fifth postpartum days were overemotionalism and oversensitivity. It is concluded that maternity blues in Brazilian women appear to be characterized by maternal mental state alterations occurring on the third, fourth and fifth days postpartum. MB seems to be better defined as an emotional oversensitivity syndrome of cross-cultural dimension than as depression. PMID:9111856
Boskabadi, Hassan; Omidian, Masoud; Tavallai, Shima; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Parizadeh, Mostafa; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon AA
Background: Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of mortality and permanent neurological and developmental deficit. Early and accurate diagnosis would help to establish the likely prognosis and may also help in determining the most appropriate treatment. Studies in experimental animal models suggest that a protein called Hsp70 may be a good and potentially useful marker of cellular stress that may be clinically useful in determining the presence of neonatal asphyxia. Objectives: Regarding the importance of early and accurate diagnosis of asphyxia, we conducted this study, which is the first investigation of the comparison of the serum Hsp70 antigen level between asphyxiated and healthy infants. Patients and Methods: In this observational study, the serum concentrations of Hsp70 antigen were compared between neonates suffering from perinatal asphyxia (n = 50) and normal neonates (n = 51). The inclusion criteria for the cases were neonates who had reached term and had at least two clinical criteria of asphyxia. Exclusion criteria were babies with gestational age < 37 weeks, infants with congenital abnormalities or positive blood culture. Exclusion criteria in this group were the requirement to hospital stay during first week of the life or babies whose mothers had difficulties during pregnancy or delivery. Term neonates without major anomalies who had asphyxia during delivery were enrolled in the first six hours after delivery, and control group consisted of healthy term neonates without problems and normal delivery process in the first week of life. The cord blood was taken during labor to measure Hsp70 antigen level by using an in-house ELISA (The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Results: The median values of serum anti Hsp70 titers were significantly higher in asphyxiated neonates compared with non-asphyxiated neonates (0.36 [0.04 - 1.14] vs 0.24 [0.01 - 0.63]). At cutoff point = 0.3125 ng/mL, sensitivity was 58% and specificity 76% based on ROC curve. Conclusions: A significant difference between the serum concentrations of Hsp70 of the control and patient group was observed in this study. It is inferred serum concentrations of Hsp70 antigen may be a useful marker for the early diagnosis of that prenatal hypoxia. PMID:26196004
Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Cudd, Timothy A; Meininger, Cynthia J; Spencer, Thomas E
Nutrition is the major intrauterine environmental factor that alters expression of the fetal genome and may have lifelong consequences. This phenomenon, termed "fetal programming," has led to the recent theory of "fetal origins of adult disease." Namely, alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status may result in developmental adaptations that permanently change the structure, physiology, and metabolism of the offspring, thereby predisposing individuals to metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. Animal studies show that both maternal undernutrition and overnutrition reduce placental-fetal blood flows and stunt fetal growth. Impaired placental syntheses of nitric oxide (a major vasodilator and angiogenesis factor) and polyamines (key regulators of DNA and protein synthesis) may provide a unified explanation for intrauterine growth retardation in response to the 2 extremes of nutritional problems with the same pregnancy outcome. There is growing evidence that maternal nutritional status can alter the epigenetic state (stable alterations of gene expression through DNA methylation and histone modifications) of the fetal genome. This may provide a molecular mechanism for the impact of maternal nutrition on both fetal programming and genomic imprinting. Promoting optimal nutrition will not only ensure optimal fetal development, but will also reduce the risk of chronic diseases in adults. PMID:15333699
Morrison, Joanna; Basnet, Machhindra; Budhathoki, Bharat; Adhikari, Dhruba; Tumbahangphe, Kirti; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Groce, Nora
Objective there is little evidence about disabled women?s access to maternal and newborn health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and care seeking. Our study explores disabled women?s experiences of maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Design we used a qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews. Setting rural Makwanpur District of central Nepal. Participants we purposively sampled married women with different impairments who had delivered a baby in the past 10 years from different topographical areas of the district. We also interviewed maternal health workers. We compared our findings with a recent qualitative study of non-disabled women in the same district to explore the differences between disabled and non-disabled women. Findings married disabled women considered pregnancy and childbirth to be normal and preferred to deliver at home. Issues of quality, cost and lack of family support were as pertinent for disabled women as they were for their non-disabled peers. Health workers felt unprepared to meet the maternal health needs of disabled women. Key conclusions and implications for practice integration of disability into existing Skilled Birth Attendant training curricula may improve maternal health care for disabled women. There is a need to monitor progress of interventions that encourage institutional delivery through the use of disaggregated data, to check that disabled women are benefiting equally in efforts to improve access to maternal health care. PMID:24768318
McPake, Barbara; Koblinsky, Marge
Technical interventions for maternal healthcare are implemented through a dynamic social process. Peoples' behaviours--whether they be planners, managers, providers, or potential users--influence the outcomes. Given the complexity and unpredictability inherent in such dynamic processes, the proposed cause-and-effect relationships in any one context cannot be directly transferred to another. While this is true of all health services, its importance is magnified in maternal healthcare because of the need to involve multiple levels of the health system, multiple types of care providers from the highly skilled specialist to community-level volunteers, and multiple technical interventions, without the ability to measure significant change in the outcome, the maternal mortality ratio. Patterns can be followed however, in terms of outcomes in response to interventions. From these case studies of implementation of maternal health programmes across five states of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, some patterns stand out and seem to apply virtually everywhere (e.g., failure of systems to post staff in difficult areas) while others require more data to understand the observed patterns (e.g., response to financial incentives for improving maternal health systems; instituting available accessible safe blood). The patterns formed can provide guidance to programme managers as to what aspects of the process to track and micro-manage, to policy-makers as to what features of a context may particularly influence impacts of alternative maternal health strategies, and to governments more broadly as to the factors shaping dynamic responses that might themselves warrant intervention. PMID:19489409
Technical interventions for maternal healthcare are implemented through a dynamic social process. Peoples' behaviours—whether they be planners, managers, providers, or potential users—influence the outcomes. Given the complexity and unpredictability inherent in such dynamic processes, the proposed cause-and-effect relationships in any one context cannot be directly transferred to another. While this is true of all health services, its importance is magnified in maternal healthcare because of the need to involve multiple levels of the health system, multiple types of care providers from the highly skilled specialist to community-level volunteers, and multiple technical interventions, without the ability to measure significant change in the outcome, the maternal mortality ratio. Patterns can be followed however, in terms of outcomes in response to interventions. From these case studies of implementation of maternal health programmes across five states of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, some patterns stand out and seem to apply virtually everywhere (e.g. failure of systems to post staff in difficult areas) while others require more data to understand the observed patterns (e.g. response to financial incentives for improving maternal health systems; instituting available accessible safe blood). The patterns formed can provide guidance to programme managers as to what aspects of the process to track and micro-manage, to policy-makers as to what features of a context may particularly influence impacts of alternative maternal health strategies, and to governments more broadly as to the factors shaping dynamic responses that might themselves warrant intervention. PMID:19489409
Tukur, Jamilu; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Ishaku, Salisu Mohammed; Araoyinbo, Idowu; Okereke, Ekechi; Babatunde, Ayodeji Oginni
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a new low-cost strategy for the introduction of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) for preeclampsia and eclampsia in low-resource areas will result in improved maternal and perinatal outcomes. Doctors and midwives from ten hospitals in Kano, Nigeria, were trained on the use of MgSO4. The trained health workers later conducted step-down training at their health facilities. MgSO4, treatment protocol, patella hammer, and calcium gluconate were then supplied to the hospitals. Data was collected through structured data forms. The data was analyzed using SPSS software. From February 2008 to January 2009, 1,045 patients with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia were treated. The case fatality rate for severe preeclampsia and eclampsia fell from 20.9 % (95 % CI 18.7-23.2) to 2.3 % (95 % CI 1.5-3.5). The perinatal mortality rate was 12.3 % as compared to 35.3 % in a center using diazepam. Introduction of MgSO4 in low-resource settings led to improved maternal and fetal outcomes in patients presenting with severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Training of health workers on updated evidence-based interventions and providing an enabling environment for their practice are important components to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in developing countries. PMID:22956402
Glasser, Saralee; Tanous, Mary; Shihab, Shihab; Goldman, Nofar; Ziv, Arnona; Kaplan, Giora
Perinatal depression, a prevalent condition with negative consequences for the mother, infant and family, has been reported in many countries. This study aimed to assess the scope of depressive symptoms among pregnant and postnatal Israeli Arab women and to identify possible risk factors. Data were collected from a screening program at 58 Mother-Child Health Care clinics in northern Israel from June to December, 2009. Participants included 1,254 pregnant and 2,326 postnatal women. The rate of antenatal depressive symptoms, i.e., a score of ?10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was 20.8%. Women attending clinics with primarily religious or traditional populations had lower rates antenatally than did those described as secular. During the postnatal period 16.3% of the women scored ?10 on the EPDS. The rate of postnatal depressive symptoms was significantly higher among women living in Moslem than Druze communities (EPDS ? 10: 19.0% vs. 13.4%, respectively, P = 0.01). Postnatally, there were no significant differences according to SES cluster, community size, or religious orientation. The rate of antenatal and postnatal depression among Arab women in northern Israel was somewhat higher than that of Jewish Israeli women in the same region, and considerably lower than that of Arab Bedouin women in southern Israel. Given the differences in their life styles and circumstances, health policy authorities should be informed regarding the needs of these various sub-populations. PMID:21735141
Prohaska, Joseph R.; Gybina, Anna A.
Experiments performed with Holtzman rats demonstrated that brain iron (Fe) was lower by postnatal day 13 (P13) in pups born and nursed by dams that began copper-deficient (?Cu) treatment at embryonic day 7. Transcardial perfusion of P24– P26 males and females to remove blood Fe contamination revealed that brain Fe was still 20% lower in ?Cu than +Cu rats. Estimated blood content of brain for ?Cu rats was greater than for +Cu rats; for all groups, values ranged between 0.43 and 1.03%. Using group-specific data and regression analyses, r = 0.99, relating blood Fe to hemoglobin, brain Fe in non-perfused rats in a replicate study was lower by 33% at P13 and 39% at P24 in ?Cu rats. Brain extracts from these rats and from P50 rats from a post-weaning model were compared by immunobloting for transferrin receptor (TfR1). P24 brain ?Cu/+Cu TfR1 was 3.08, suggesting that brains of ?Cu rats were indeed Fe deficient. This ratio in P13 rats was 1.44, p < 0.05. No change in P50 ?Cu rat brain TfR1 or Fe content was detected despite a 50% reduction in plasma Fe. The results suggest that brain Fe accumulation depends on adequate Cu nutriture during perinatal development. PMID:15836628
Yu, Haiyan; Qi, Xiaorong; Wang, Xiaodong
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a special fragment formed by the binding of glucose to the C chain or D chain of hemoglobin A and as a result of non-enzymatic catalysis of mature hemoglobin and glucose, which is an indicator used to evaluate the blood glucose control in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Recent researches indicated that HbA1c could be applied in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregnancy combined DM, and increasing of HbA1c was close associated with adverse outcomes of women with pregnancy combined DM and GDM. HbA1c was reported to have a significant importance in monitoring congenital malformation, abortion, perinatal mortality, preeclampsia, postpartum abnormal glucose metabolism, vascular complications and so on, which could be a test item during the second trimester. Sensitivity of HbA1c in diagnoses of DM is lower than oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), thus OGTT is still the golden standard of GDM. Emphasis should be put on standardization of detection and threshold of HbA1c and establishment of HbA1c normal ranges of different trimesters, when HbA1c is used to diagnose pregnancy combined DM and GDM, and evaluate effects of treatments. PMID:25663962
Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Puga, Ana; Farhat, Sepideh; Ma, Yifei
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common in HIV-infected adults, little is known about children. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of and risks for HPV of the oral mucosal and external genital areas in nonsexually active (NSA) perinatally (P) HIV+ children and compare with HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children. A convenience sample attending a pediatric clinic were enrolled. Samples for HPV were obtained from the oral and anogenital areas and tested for one of 37 HPV types. The mean age of the 48 PHIV+ children was 14.3±3.9 years vs. 6.2±4.8 for the 52 HEU (p<0.001). Of the 23 PHIV+ girls, 30.4% had anogenital and 17% had oral HPV, and of the 27 HEU girls, 2 (7.4%) anogenital and 0 had oral HPV. Of the boys, 4/23 (17.4%) and 1/25 (4%) PHIV+ had anogenital and oral HPV, respectively, and 3/24 (12.5%) and 1/25 (4%) HEU had anogenital and oral HPV, respectively. Rates of HPV did not differ by age among the PHIV+, whereas older HEU were more likely to have HPV than younger HEU (p=0.07). This large age gap precluded statistical comparison by HIV status. The presence of HPV in NSA PHIV+ children may have implications regarding HPV vaccination efficacy. PMID:24460009
Puga, Ana; Farhat, Sepideh; Ma, Yifei
Abstract Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common in HIV-infected adults, little is known about children. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of and risks for HPV of the oral mucosal and external genital areas in nonsexually active (NSA) perinatally (P) HIV+ children and compare with HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children. A convenience sample attending a pediatric clinic were enrolled. Samples for HPV were obtained from the oral and anogenital areas and tested for one of 37 HPV types. The mean age of the 48 PHIV+ children was 14.3±3.9 years vs. 6.2±4.8 for the 52 HEU (p<0.001). Of the 23 PHIV+ girls, 30.4% had anogenital and 17% had oral HPV, and of the 27 HEU girls, 2 (7.4%) anogenital and 0 had oral HPV. Of the boys, 4/23 (17.4%) and 1/25 (4%) PHIV+ had anogenital and oral HPV, respectively, and 3/24 (12.5%) and 1/25 (4%) HEU had anogenital and oral HPV, respectively. Rates of HPV did not differ by age among the PHIV+, whereas older HEU were more likely to have HPV than younger HEU (p=0.07). This large age gap precluded statistical comparison by HIV status. The presence of HPV in NSA PHIV+ children may have implications regarding HPV vaccination efficacy. PMID:24460009
Perrone, Serafina; Tataranno, Luisa M; Stazzoni, Gemma; Ramenghi, Luca; Buonocore, Giuseppe
Abstract Oxidative stress (OS) occurs at birth in all newborns as a consequence of the hyperoxic challenge due to the transition from the hypoxic intrauterine environment to extrauterine life. Free radical (FRs) sources such as inflammation, hyperoxia, hypoxia, ischaemia-reperfusion, neutrophil and macrophage activation, glutamate and free iron release, all increases the OS during the perinatal period. Newborns, and particularly preterm infants, have reduced antioxidant defences and are not able to counteract the harmful effects of FRs. Energy metabolism is central to life because cells cannot exist without an adequate supply of ATP. Due to its growth, the mammalian brain can be considered as a steady-state system in which ATP production matches ATP utilisation. The developing brain is particularly sensitive to any disturbances in energy generation, and even a short-term interruption can lead to long-lasting and irreversible damage. Whenever energy failure develops, brain damage can occur. Accumulating evidence indicates that OS is implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases, such as intraventricular haemorrhage, hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and epilepsy. PMID:23968388
Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash
Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health. PMID:23229211
Hidenobu Ohta; Shanhai Xu; Takahiro Moriya; Masayuki Iigo; Tatsuya Watanabe; Norimichi Nakahata; Hiroshi Chisaka; Takushi Hanita; Tadashi Matsuda; Toshihiro Ohura; Yoshitaka Kimura; Nobuo Yaegashi; Shigeru Tsuchiya; Hajime Tei; Kunihiro Okamura; Naomi Rogers
BackgroundIt is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD) cycle.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus
Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Farnia, Fataneh; Ungerleider, Charles
Research Findings: This article addresses the mediating role of early childhood home enrichment in the association between maternal education and academic achievement in the reading and math of 1,093 children aged 7 (Grade 1). Data were extracted from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development database. We used the bootstrapping…
Heidi Gazelle; Tamara Spangler
It was hypothesized that the relation between early anxious solitude and subsequent peer relations would be moderated by early relational (maternal sensitivity) and individual factors (child school readiness). Participants were 1364 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Anxious solitude was assessed by child care providers from 2
Gazelle, Heidi; Spangler, Tamara
It was hypothesized that the relation between early anxious solitude and subsequent peer relations would be moderated by early relational (maternal sensitivity) and individual factors (child school readiness). Participants were 1364 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth…
Jousse, Céline; Muranishi, Yuki; Parry, Laurent; Montaurier, Christophe; Even, Patrick; Launay, Jean-Marie; Carraro, Valérie; Maurin, Anne-Catherine; Averous, Julien; Chaveroux, Cédric; Bruhat, Alain; Mallet, Jacques; Morio, Béatrice; Fafournoux, Pierre
Epidemiological findings indicate that transient environmental influences during perinatal life, especially nutrition, may have deleterious heritable health effects lasting for the entire life. Indeed, the fetal organism develops specific adaptations that permanently change its physiology/metabolism and that persist even in the absence of the stimulus that initiated them. This process is termed “nutritional programming”. We previously demonstrated that mothers fed a Low-Protein-Diet (LPD) during gestation and lactation give birth to F1-LPD animals presenting metabolic consequences that are different from those observed when the nutritional stress is applied during gestation only. Compared to control mice, adult F1-LPD animals have a lower body weight and exhibit a higher food intake suggesting that maternal protein under-nutrition during gestation and lactation affects the energy metabolism of F1-LPD offspring. In this study, we investigated the origin of this apparent energy wasting process in F1-LPD and demonstrated that minimal energy expenditure is increased, due to both an increased mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and an increased mitochondrial density in White Adipose Tissue. Importantly, F1-LPD mice are protected against high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Clearly, different paradigms of exposure to malnutrition may be associated with differences in energy expenditure, food intake, weight and different susceptibilities to various symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome. Taken together these results demonstrate that intra-uterine environment is a major contributor to the future of individuals and disturbance at a critical period of development may compromise their health. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms may give access to useful knowledge regarding the onset of metabolic diseases. PMID:25118945
Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.
Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study, were used to investigate associations between maternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Maternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed in 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Maternal anxiety,…
Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin
We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…
Costa, Natalie M.; Weems, Carl F.
This study tested a model of the association between maternal and child anxiety that views mother and child attachment beliefs and children's perceptions of maternal control as mediators of the association. The study was conducted with mothers and their children aged 6 to 17 (N = 88). Maternal anxiety was significantly associated with child…
Sokol, R J; Chik, L
Though several perinatal expert systems are extant, the use of artificial intelligence has, as yet, had minimal impact in medical computing. In this evaluation of the potential of AI techniques in the development of a computer based "Perinatal Consultant," a "top down" approach to the development of a perinatal knowledge base was taken, using as a source for such a knowledge base a 30-page manuscript of a chapter concerning high risk pregnancy. The UNIX utility "style" was used to parse sentences and obtain key words and phrases, both as part of a natural language interface and to identify key perinatal concepts. Compared with the "gold standard" of sentences containing key facts as chosen by the experts, a semiautomated method using a nonmedical speller to identify key words and phrases in context functioned with a sensitivity of 79%, i.e., approximately 8 in 10 key sentences were detected as the basis for PROLOG, rules and facts for the knowledge base. These encouraging results suggest that functional perinatal expert systems may well be expedited by using programming utilities in conjunction with AI tools and published literature. PMID:3221284
Lamb, Elizabeth H
The loss of any pregnancy through miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth, or neonatal death presents as a significant life crisis for any woman and has far-reaching implications into a couple's future aspirations. Planning another pregnancy after dealing with a perinatal loss is difficult and plagued by ambivalence, doubts, and insecurities. Despite this ambivalence, a majority of women do become pregnant within a year following a perinatal loss. Four recurring issues surrounding perinatal loss and subsequent pregnancy have been identified in this literature review: the effect of the grief process on the subsequent pregnancy; parental coping mechanisms during the subsequent pregnancy; replacement or vulnerable child syndrome; and parenting issues with the subsequent live-born child. Issues surrounding anxiety as a coping mechanism during a pregnancy following a perinatal loss are documented consistently in the literature; however, less is known about the impact that a loss has on parenting behaviors with subsequent children. Further research is imperative to examine these issues in more detail so that evidence-based practices can be established and updated. Health care providers are in a unique position to assist these couples in dealing with the issues that a perinatal loss may place on subsequent pregnancies. By providing a reassuring and supportive environment, women can achieve a positive pregnancy outcome with the correct tools to decrease anxiety and enhance attachment to the subsequent healthy child. PMID:17273295
Daly, Megan E.; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)
In 1997, suckling mammals were flown in space for the first time as part of the NIH.R3 experiment sponsored jointly by NIH (National Institutes of Health) and NASA. Six rat dams and litters (Rattus norvegicus) were launched on an eight-day Space Shuttle mission at each of three postnatal ages (P5, P8, and P15). Dams and litters (N = 10 pups/litter) were housed within modified Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs). Comparisons were made to ground controls. Dams and litters were videotaped daily in flight. The P8 and P15 flight litters showed excellent survival (99%) and weight gain relative to AEM ground controls, whereas P5 litters showed reduced survival (0% and 60%, respectively) and weight gain (less than 40% AEM). To examine the possibility that failures of maternal care contributed to P5 results, we analyzed the dams' in-flight nursing, licking and retrieving from four video segments ranging from twelve to fifteen minutes in length with control data derived from multiple ground segments. Video analyses revealed clear evidence of maternal care in flight. For P5 dams, frequency and duration of nursing and licking bouts fell within or above one standard deviation of control values. Retrieving was noted in the P5 and P8 groups only. The observed results suggest that factors other than maternal care contributed to the low survival rates and body weight gains of the P5 flight offspring.
Li, D-K; Ferber, J R; Odouli, R
Background/Objectives: In-utero exposures through adverse fetal programming are emerging as an important contributing factor to the epidemic of childhood obesity. This study examines the impact of in-utero exposure to caffeine on the risk of childhood obesity in offspring. Subjects/Methods: A prospective study of pregnant women with 15 years follow-up of their offspring was conducted to examine the impact of in-utero exposure to caffeine on the risk of childhood obesity. Maternal caffeine intake was prospectively ascertained during pregnancy and outcome measures (body mass index (BMI)) were ascertained from medical charts, with 17 BMI measurements per child, on average, during the follow-up period. Potential confounders including known perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity were adjusted for using the generalized estimating equations model with repeated measurements. Results: After controlling for potential confounders, compared with those without caffeine exposure, in-utero exposure to caffeine overall is associated with 87% increased risk of childhood obesity: odds ratio (OR) =1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–3.12. This association demonstrated a dose–response relationship: OR=1.77 (1.05–3.00) for maternal daily caffeine intake <150?mg per day, OR=2.37 (1.24–4.52) for caffeine intake ?150?mg per day during pregnancy, respectively. We also observed a linear relationship: every one unit increase (log10 scale) in the amount of maternal caffeine intake was associated with 23% increased risk of obesity in offspring. The dose–response relationship appears stronger for persistent obesity than for transitory obesity (occasional high BMI), and for girls than for boys. Conclusions: We observed an association of in-utero exposure to caffeine with increased risk of childhood obesity. If this observation is further replicated in other studies, the finding will contribute to the understanding of fetal programming of childhood diseases and development of intervention strategy to prevent childhood obesity. PMID:25388405
Sun, Congshan; Velazquez, Miguel A; Marfy-Smith, Stephanie; Sheth, Bhavwanti; Cox, Andy; Johnston, David A; Smyth, Neil; Fleming, Tom P
Mammalian extra-embryonic lineages perform the crucial role of nutrient provision during gestation to support embryonic and fetal growth. These lineages derive from outer trophectoderm (TE) and internal primitive endoderm (PE) in the blastocyst and subsequently give rise to chorio-allantoic and visceral yolk sac placentae, respectively. We have shown maternal low protein diet exclusively during mouse preimplantation development (Emb-LPD) is sufficient to cause a compensatory increase in fetal and perinatal growth that correlates positively with increased adult-onset cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioural disease. Here, to investigate early mechanisms of compensatory nutrient provision, we assessed the influence of maternal Emb-LPD on endocytosis within extra-embryonic lineages using quantitative imaging and expression of markers and proteins involved. Blastocysts collected from Emb-LPD mothers within standard culture medium displayed enhanced TE endocytosis compared with embryos from control mothers with respect to the number and collective volume per cell of vesicles with endocytosed ligand and fluid and lysosomes, plus protein expression of megalin (Lrp2) LDL-family receptor. Endocytosis was also stimulated using similar criteria in the outer PE-like lineage of embryoid bodies formed from embryonic stem cell lines generated from Emb-LPD blastocysts. Using an in vitro model replicating the depleted amino acid (AA) composition found within the Emb-LPD uterine luminal fluid, we show TE endocytosis response is activated through reduced branched-chain AAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine). Moreover, activation appears mediated through RhoA GTPase signalling. Our data indicate early embryos regulate and stabilise endocytosis as a mechanism to compensate for poor maternal nutrient provision. PMID:24504338
Bodnar, Lisa M.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Catov, Janet M.; Roberts, James M.; Platt, Robert W.; Diesel, Jill C.; Klebanoff, Mark A.
Background We sought to determine the association between maternal vitamin D status at ?26 weeks gestation and the risk of preeclampsia separately by clinical subtype. Methods We conducted a case-cohort study among women enrolled at 12 U.S. sites from 1959 to 1966 in the Collaborative Perinatal Project. In 717 women who later developed preeclampsia (560 mild and 157 severe cases) and in 2986 mothers without preeclampsia, we measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at ?26 weeks gestation (median 20.9 weeks) over 40 years later using liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results Half of women in the subcohort had 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L. Maternal 25(OH)D 50–<75 nmol/L was associated with a reduction in the absolute and relative risk of preeclampsia and mild preeclampsia compared with 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L, but the effects were no longer present after adjustment for confounders including race, prepregnancy body mass index, and parity. For severe preeclampsia, 25(OH)D ?50 nmol/L was associated with a reduction of 3 cases per 1,000 pregnancies (adjusted RD ?.003, 95% CI: ?.005, .0002) and a 40% reduction in risk (adjusted RR .65, 95% CI .43, .98) compared with 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L. The conclusions were the same after restricting to women with 25(OH)D measured at <22 weeks gestation and after formal sensitivity analyses for unmeasured confounding. Conclusions Maternal vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for severe preeclampsia, but it is not associated with preeclampsia overall or its mild subtypes. Contemporary cohorts with large numbers of severe preeclampsia cases are needed to confirm or refute these findings. PMID:24457526
Amit, Agrawal; Kumar, Aravind
Objective: Assessment of serum Zinc in LBW (Low Birth Weight) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates in relation to their maternal zinc level. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital of central India between August 2011 to July 2012. Serum samples were collected from the eligible LBW (preterm & term IUGR) and term AGA healthy neonates and their mothers for zinc level estimation. Serum zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Newborn of mothers having any medical illness, on any medication, with anaemia (Hb <10 gm/dl) were excluded from the study. Neonates with any perinatal insult were also excluded. Results: Out of 100 newborn-mother pairs enrolled in the study, 46 newborns (18 preterm and 28 term IUGR) with birth weight <2.5kg comprised the case group and rest 54 term AGA newborns (birth weight >2.5kg) were categorized as control group. Mean serum zinc level was significantly low in LBW neonates (83.45±16.74 ?g/dl) in comparison to term AGA newborns (93.74±19.95 ?g/dl), (p-value <0.05). Similarly, zinc level was also low in mothers of LBW babies (67.02±15.99 ?g/dl) in comparison to mothers of term AGA newborns (83.59±18.46 ?g/dl), (p-value < 0.05). Low maternal zinc levels were significant correlated with lower serum zinc in LBW neonates (Pearson correlation value - 0.938). However, maternal zinc levels have shown no significant correlation with neonatal serum zinc levels in term AGA (0.029). Conclusion: LBW neonates and their mothers have significant zinc deficiency as compared to term AGA neonates and their mothers and this deficiency is correlated with zinc deficiency in mothers of these LBW neonates. PMID:25738050
Patterson, Tucker A. [Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Twaddle, Nathan C. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Roegge, Cindy S. [Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Callicott, Ralph J. [U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Priority One Services Corp, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Doerge, Daniel R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used as the monomer for polycarbonate plastic and in epoxy resins for food can liners. Worldwide biomonitoring studies consistently find a high prevalence of BPA conjugates in urine (> 90%) in amounts consistent with aggregate exposure at levels below 1 ?g/kg bw/d. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure concurrently the pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) deuterated BPA (d6) in maternal and fetal rhesus monkey serum, amniotic fluid, and placenta following intravenous injection in the dam (100 ?g/kg bw). Internal exposures of the fetus to aglycone d6-BPA (serum AUC) were attenuated by maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism to less than half that in the dam. Levels of aglycone and conjugated d6-BPA measured in whole placenta were consistent with a role in metabolic detoxification. The monotonic elimination of aglycone d6-BPA from the fetal compartment accompanied by persistent conjugate levels provides further evidence arguing against the hypothesis that BPA conjugates are selectively deconjugated by either the placenta or fetus. These results also provide benchmarks to guide the interpretation of human cord blood, amniotic fluid, and placenta sampling and measurement strategies as a basis for estimating fetal exposures to BPA. This study in a non-human primate model provides additional pharmacokinetic data for use in PBPK modeling of perinatal exposures to BPA from food contact, medical devices, and other environmental sources. - Highlights: ? Maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism attenuate fetal exposure to BPA. ? Serum AUC for aglycone BPA in fetal monkeys is less than half of that in the dam. ? BPA profiles in monkey fetus rule out selective deconjugation and accumulation. ? BPA levels in monkey placenta are similar to other metabolically active tissues. ? Some published human cord blood data for BPA are inconsistent with these measurements.
Muhammad N. Bustan; Ann L. Coker
OBJECTIVES. Reduced options for fertility control over the past decade have increased the rates of unwanted pregnancy. We evaluated whether a woman's negative attitude toward her pregnancy increased the risk of perinatal mortality, in a large, prospective cohort study. METHODS. The association between attitude toward the pregnancy and perinatal mortality was evaluated in a longitudinal cohort study of 8823 married,
Raye-Ann deRegnier; Jeffrey D. Long; Michael K. Georgieff; Charles A. Nelson
Proper prenatal and postnatal nutrition is essential for optimal brain development and function. The early use of event-related potentials enables neuroscientists to study the development of cognitive function from birth and to evaluate the role of specific nutrients in development. Perinatal iron deficiency occurs in severely affected infants of diabetic mothers. In animal models, severe perinatal iron deficiency targets the
Eckerman, Carol O.; Hsu, Hui-Chin; Molitor, Adriana; Leung, Eleanor H. L.; Goldstein, Ricki F.
Compared arousal during peekaboo game of low birthweight infants with higher or lower perinatal risk to that of healthy full-term infants. Found that low birthweight babies showed less positive arousal, more negative arousal, and three mixtures of behavioral cues than full-term babies, who showed strong positive and negative responses. Perinatal…
Jiang, Ze D.
A study of 44 infants who suffered asphyxia during the perinatal period examined the influence of perinatal asphyxia on the maturation of auditory pathways by serial recordings of the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). The general maturational course of the BAEP following asphyxia was similar to a control group. (Author/CR)
Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Byars, Anna W.; Jacola, Lisa M.; Schapiro, Mark B.; Schmithorst, Vince J.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Holland, Scott K.
Objective: Functional MRI was used to determine differences in patterns of cortical activation between children who suffered perinatal left middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke and healthy children performing a silent verb generation task. Methods: Ten children with prior perinatal left MCA stroke (age 6-16 years) and ten healthy age matched…
Spooner, Shawn; Rastle, Marsha; Elmore, Kelly
Maternal depression in the prenatal and postpartum periods is an important concern for women, infants, and families. Military family life may create some unique stressors, including operational deployment of an active duty husband, which increase perinatal depression challenges for women. This study examined depression screening scores, based on a modified Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, among women receiving obstetric care at a military hospital serving a Navy and Marine Corps community. Among 3,882 surveys collected between 2007 and 2009 from women at various points in their prenatal or postpartum care, the proportion with scores indicative of high risk for clinical depression was relatively low at 4.6%. However, scores were significantly higher at the initial obstetric visit among women who reported their husband as currently deployed, and scores were significantly higher at the postpartum visit among women who reported their husband as currently deployed or planning to deploy. These results underscore the importance of evaluating all aspects of the military family life experience when providing perinatal care to women in military families. PMID:23113449
Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M
We have previously reported that offspring of mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and are hyperleptinaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and obese as adults. Poor maternal care and bonding can also impact offspring development and disease risk. We therefore hypothesized that prenatal nutrition would affect maternal care and that an interaction may exist between a maternal HF diet and maternal care, subsequently impacting on offspring phenotype. Wistar rats were mated and randomized to control dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Maternal care was assessed by observing maternal licking and grooming of pups between postnatal day (P)3 and P8. Postweaning (P22), offspring were fed a control (–con) or HF (–hf) diet. From P27, pubertal onset was assessed. At ?P105 oestrous cyclicity was investigated. Maternal HF diet reduced maternal care; HF-fed mothers licked and groomed pups less than CON dams. Maternal fat:lean ratio was higher in HF dams at weaning and was associated with higher maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, but there was no effect of maternal care on fat:lean ratio or maternal hormone levels. Both female and male offspring of HF dams were lighter from birth to P11 than offspring of CON dams, but by P19, HF offspring were heavier than controls. Prepubertal retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in pups from HF-fed dams compared to CON and was associated with elevated circulating leptin concentrations in females only, but there was neither an effect of maternal care, nor an interaction between maternal diet and care on prepubertal fat mass. Pups from HF-fed dams went into puberty early and this effect was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet. Maternal and postweaning HF diets independently altered oestrous cyclicity in females: female offspring of HF-fed mothers were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus, whilst female offspring fed a HF diet postweaning were more likely to have irregular oestrous cycles and were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus. These data indicate that maternal HF nutrition during pregnancy and lactation results in a maternal obese phenotype and has significant impact on maternal care during lactation. Maternal and postweaning nutritional signals, independent of maternal care, alter offspring body fat pre-puberty and female reproductive function in adulthood, which may be associated with advanced ovarian ageing and altered fertility. PMID:22411006
Bhatta, Dharma Nand; Aryal, Umesh Raj
Background The threat of maternal mortality can be reduced by increasing use of maternal health services. Maternal death and access to maternal health care services are inequitable in low and middle income countries.The aim of this study is to assess associated paternal factors and degree of inequity in access to maternal health care service utilization. Methods Analysis illustrates on a cross-sectional household survey that followed multistage-cluster sampling. Concentration curve and indices were calculated. Binary logistic regression analysis was executed to account paternal factors associated with the utilization of maternal health services. Path model with structural equation modeling (SEM) examined the predictors of antenatal care (ANC) and institutional delivery. Results The finding of this study revealed that 39.9% and 45.5% of the respondents’ wives made ANC visits and utilized institutional delivery services respectively. Men with graduate and higher level of education were more likely (AOR: 5.91, 95% CI; 4.02, 8.70) to have ANC of their wives than men with no education or primary level of education. Men with higher household income (Q5) were more likely (1.99, 95% CI; 1.39, 2.86) to have ANC for their wives. Similarly, higher household income (Q5) also determined (2.74, 95% CI; 1.81, 4.15) for institutional delivery of their wives. Concentration curve and indices also favored rich than the poor. SEM revealed that ANC visit was directly associated to institutional delivery. Conclusions Paternal factors like age, household wealth, number of children, ethnicity, education, knowledge of danger sign during pregnancy, and husband’s decision making for seeking maternal and child health care are crucial factors associated to maternal health service utilization. Higher ANC coverage predicts higher utilization of the institutional delivery. Wealthier population is more concentrated to maternal health services. The inequities between the poor and the rich are necessary to be addressed through effective policy and programs. PMID:26107621
Calhoun, B C; Reitman, J S; Hoeldtke, N J
This article discusses decisions involving whether to terminate late-term pregnancies when fetal anomalies have been detected. Partial-birth abortion performed on fetuses with chromosomal abnormalities, while performed under the guise of reducing suffering, threatens the best interests of the mother and infant. An alternative for parents faced with the decision to terminate their pregnancy is perinatal hospice. Perinatal hospice recognizes the value of bringing these infants to term by treating them as beings conceived with a tangible future. This alternative is preferred because of post-termination psychological distress and because biblical teachings emphasize the dignity and worth of each fetus. Perinatal hospice supports parents through their grief when their infant dies and maximizes the opportunity for authentic mourning. PMID:9361478
Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Kristina; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Jan
Background: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the main risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), but its specific effect in infancy is unknown. We examined whether season of birth, a proxy for solar UVR exposure in the first few months of life, is associated with CMM in childhood through young adulthood. Methods: National cohort study of 3 571 574 persons born in Sweden in 1973–2008, followed up for CMM incidence through 2009 (maximum age 37 years) to examine season of birth and other perinatal factors. Results: There were 1595 CMM cases in 63.9 million person-years of follow-up. We found a sinusoidal pattern in CMM risk by season of birth (P = 0.006), with peak risk corresponding to birthdates in spring (March–May). Adjusted odds ratios for CMM by season of birth were 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–1.39; P = 0.008] for spring, 1.07 (95% CI, 0.92–1.24; P = 0.40) for summer and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.96–1.29; P = 0.14) for winter, relative to fall. Spring birth was associated with superficial spreading subtype of CMM (P = 0.02), whereas there was no seasonal association with nodular subtype (P = 0.26). Other CMM risk factors included family history of CMM in a sibling (>6-fold) or parent (>3-fold), female gender, high fetal growth and high paternal education level. Conclusions: In this large cohort study, persons born in spring had increased risk of CMM in childhood through young adulthood, suggesting that the first few months of life may be a critical period of UVR susceptibility. Sun avoidance in early infancy may play an important role in the prevention of CMM in high-risk populations. PMID:24453238
Pirrone, Alessandro; Panzani, Sara; Govoni, Nadia; Castagnetti, Carolina; Veronesi, Maria Cristina
The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis has specific functions, mostly related to metabolic activities, cell differentiation, and development. To the authors' knowledge, there are no studies about thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in foals affected by perinatal asphyxia syndrome (PAS). Hence, the aims of the study are (1) to evaluate plasma TH concentrations (T3 and T4) in healthy foals during the first 7 days of life; (2) to evaluate plasma TH concentration (T3 and T4) in critically ill foals affected by PAS during the first 7 days of hospitalization; and (3) to compare TH concentrations between surviving and nonsurviving critically ill foals. Forty-five Standardbred foals were enrolled in this prospective observational study: 21 healthy foals (group 1) and 24 foals affected by PAS (group 2). Jugular blood samples were collected within 10 minutes from birth/admission and every 24 hours for 7 days (t0-t7). TH concentrations were analyzed by RIA. In both groups, T3 concentration was significantly lower at t4, t5, t6, and t7 compared with t1 (P < 0.05), and T4 concentration was significantly higher at birth than at all other time points (P < 0.01). No differences were found in TH concentrations at admission between surviving (n = 20) and nonsurviving (n = 4) foals. Statistical comparison between healthy and PAS foals divided into age groups showed significantly lower TH concentrations at t0 in PAS foals <12 hours old at admission (P < 0.01). In conclusion, PAS may cause lower T3 and T4 concentrations in affected foals than in age-matched healthy foals, as reported for other systemic illnesses, such as sepsis and prematurity. TH concentrations showed no prognostic value, which maybe due to the small number of nonsurviving foals in this study. Further studies are needed to find out if thyroid replacement therapy could be useful in the treatment of critically ill foals affected by PAS. PMID:23849257
Lu, Michael C; Highsmith, Keisher; de la Cruz, David; Atrash, Hani K
Maternal mortality and severe morbidity are on the rise in the United States. A significant proportion of these events are preventable. The Maternal Health Initiative (MHI), coordinated by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau at the Health Resources and Services Administration, is intensifying efforts to reduce maternal mortality and severe morbidity in the U.S. Through a public-private partnership, MHI is taking a comprehensive approach to improving maternal health focusing on five priority areas: improving women's health before, during and beyond pregnancy; improving the quality and safety of maternity care; improving systems of maternity care including both clinical and public health systems; improving public awareness and education; and improving surveillance and research. PMID:25626713
Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.
Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior problems); the Strange Situation (child attachment). Direct relations were significant linking: 1) maternal depression with both EE and child functioning; 2) Child-Criticism with child internalizing and externalizing symptoms; 3) Self-Criticism with child attachment. Significant indirect relations were found linking maternal depression with: 1) child externalizing behaviors via Child-Criticism; 2) child internalizing behaviors via Self- and Child-Criticism; and 3) child attachment via Self-Criticism. Findings are consistent with a conceptual model in which maternal EE mediates relations between maternal depression and toddler socio-emotional functioning. PMID:22146899
Liu, Jie; Sakurai, Reiko; Rehan, Virender K
In a rat model, downregulation of homeostatic mesenchymal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) signaling following perinatal nicotine exposure contributes to offspring asthma, which can be effectively prevented by concomitant administration of PPAR-? agonist rosiglitazone (RGZ). However, whether perinatal nicotine exposure-induced asthma can be reversed is not known. We hypothesized that perinatal nicotine exposure-induced asthma would be reversed by PPAR-? agonist RGZ. Pregnant rat dams received either placebo or nicotine from embryonic day 6 until term. Following spontaneous delivery at term, dams were continued on the assigned treatments, up to postnatal day 21 (PND21). However, at delivery, pups were divided into two groups; one group received placebo, and the other group received RGZ from PND1 to PND21. At PND21, pulmonary function and the expression of mesenchymal markers of airway contractility (?-smooth muscle actin, calponin, fibronectin, collagen I, and collagen III) were determined by immunoblotting and immunostaining for the evidence of reversibility of perinatal nicotine exposure-induced lung effects. Compared with controls, perinatal nicotine exposure caused 1) a significant increase in airway resistance and a decrease in airway compliance following methacholine challenge, 2) a significant increase in acetylcholine-induced tracheal constriction, and 3) increased pulmonary and tracheal expression of the mesenchymal markers of contractility. Treatment with RGZ, starting on PND1, reversed all of the nicotine-induced molecular and functional pulmonary effects, virtually normalizing the pulmonary phenotype of the treated animals. We conclude that perinatal nicotine exposure-induced functional and molecular alterations in upper and lower airways can be reversed by PPAR-? agonist RGZ, allowing an effective intervention even when started postnatally. PMID:25659902
The National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS) provides data on maternal and infant health, including prenatal care, birth weight, fetal loss, and infant mortality. The objective of the NMIHS is to collect data needed by Federal, State, and private researchers to study fa...
Jeannine Coreil; Frances Wilson; Deril Wood; Karen Liller
Background. The impact of maternal employment on preventive child health practices has not been studied empirically. Using a household production model, we investigated the relationship between level of maternal employment and child immunization status, use of automobile seat belts, and use of bicycle helmets.Methods. Data from a longitudinal study of public school children in Pinellas County, Florida, were used to
Francine D Blau; Adam J Grossberg
This paper analyzes the relationship between maternal labor supply and children's cognitive development using a sample of three- and four-year-old children of female respondents from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort. Maternal employment is found to have a negative impact when it occurs during the first year of the child's life and a potentially offsetting positive effect when it
Maternal Responsiveness to Infant Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Ultrasonic Vocalizations During environment, Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) pups emit ultrasonic vocalizations that can elicit maternal search
Background Perinatal stroke is a leading cause of early brain injury, cerebral palsy, and lifelong neurological morbidity. No study to date has examined the impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke on parents and families. However, a large breadth of research suggests that parents, especially mothers, may be at increased risk for psychological concerns. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke on mothers’ wellbeing. A secondary aim was to examine how caring for a child with perinatal stroke differentially affects mothers and fathers. Methods In Study I, a matched case-control design was used to compare the wellbeing of mothers of children with perinatal stroke and mothers of children with typical development. In Study II, a matched case-control design was used to compare mother-father dyads. Participants completed validated measures of anxiety and depression, stress, quality of life and family functioning, marital satisfaction, and marital distress. Parents of children with perinatal stroke also completed a recently validated measure of the psychosocial impact of perinatal stroke including guilt and blame outcomes. Disease severity was categorized by parents, validated by the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM), and compared across the above outcomes in Study I. Results A total of 112 mothers participated in Study I (n?=?56 per group; mean child age?=?7.42 years), and 56 parents participated in Study II (n?=?28 per group; mean child age?=?8.25 years). In Study I, parent assessment of disease severity was correlated with PSOM scores (??=?0.75, p?.001) and associated with parent outcomes. Mothers of children with mild conditions were indistinguishable from controls on the outcome measures. However, mothers of children with moderate/severe conditions had poorer outcomes on measures of depression, marital satisfaction, quality of life, and family functioning. In Study II, mothers and fathers had similar outcomes except mothers demonstrated a greater burden of guilt and higher levels of anxiety. Conclusions Although most mothers of children with perinatal stroke adapt well, mothers of children with moderate/severe conditions appear to be at higher risk for psychological concerns. PMID:25018138
Bialas, Kristy M; Swamy, Geeta K; Permar, Sallie R
Mother-to-child transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) can lead to severe birth defects and neurologic impairment of infants. Congenital CMV complicates up to 1% of all pregnancies globally. Although antiviral treatment of infants congenitally infected with CMV can ameliorate the CMV-associated hearing loss and developmental delay, interventions to prevent congenital CMV infection and the associated neurologic impairments are still being evaluated. Congenital VZV infection is rare. Active and passive immunization strategies to prevent perinatal CMV infection with similar efficacy to those established to prevent perinatal VZV infections are critically needed in pediatric health. PMID:25677997
The maternal mortality rate in Sweden in the early 20th century was one third that in the United States. This rate was recognized by American visitors as an achievement of Swedish maternity care, in which highly competent midwives attend home deliveries. The 19th century decline in maternal mortality was largely caused by improvements in obstetric care, but was also helped along by the national health strategy of giving midwives and doctors complementary roles in maternity care, as well as equal involvement in setting public health policy. The 20th century decline in maternal mortality, seen in all Western countries, was made possible by the emergence of modern medicine. However, the contribution of the mobilization of human resources should not be underestimated, nor should key developments in public health policy. PMID:15284032
Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Barros, Fernando C.
Background Maternal mood symptoms have been associated with psychiatric disorders in children. This study aimed to assess critical periods when maternal symptoms would be more deleterious. Methods Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Mood symptoms during pregnancy were self-reported by mothers at perinatal interview; and at 3-months postpartum, mothers answered the Self-Reporting Questionnaire. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the Development and Well-Being Assessment instrument. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by logistic regression. Results Prevalence of mood symptoms in pregnancy was 24.6% (23.2–26.0%) and at three months postpartum 22.5% (21.1–23.9%). Prevalence of mental disorders in children was 13.3% (12.2–14.4%). After adjustment for confounders children of mothers with mood symptoms during pregnancy were 82% more likely of presenting psychiatric disorders than children of mothers that did not (1.82; 1.48–2.25); and the chance of having mental disorders among children whose mothers had positive SRQ-20 at three months postpartum was 87% greater than the observed among children whose mothers had it negative (1.87; 1.50–2.33). Limitations Because maternal anxiety/depression may interfere with interpretation of the child behavior, child?s mental health being obtained by interviewing the mother is a limitation of this study. Lack of information on other risk factors may have lead to residual confounding on the effect of maternal mood symptoms at three months postpartum. Conclusions Children of mothers presenting mood symptoms during pregnancy and in the first months postpartum are more likely to present psychiatric disorders at 6 years of age. PMID:24856563
Background The benefits of maternal health care to maternal and neonatal health outcomes have been well documented. Antenatal care attendance, institutional delivery and skilled attendance at delivery all help to improve maternal and neonatal health. However, use of maternal health services is still very low in developing countries with high maternal mortality including Ethiopia. This study examines the association of unintended Pregnancy with the use of maternal health services in Southwestern Ethiopia. Methods Data for this study come from a survey conducted among 1370 women with a recent birth in a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in southwestern Ethiopia. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to gather data on maternal health care, pregnancy intention and other explanatory variables. Data were analyzed using STATA 11, and both bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of pregnancy intention with the use of antenatal and delivery care services. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio and their 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results More than one third (35%) of women reported that their most recent pregnancy was unintended. With regards to maternal health care, only 42% of women made at least one antenatal care visit during pregnancy, while 17% had four or more visits. Institutional delivery was only 12%. Unintended pregnancy was significantly (OR: 0.75, 95% CI, 0.58-0.97) associated with use of antenatal care services and receiving adequate antenatal care (OR: 0.67, 95% CI, 0.46-0.96), even after adjusting for other socio-demographic factors. However, for delivery care, the association with pregnancy intention was attenuated after adjustment. Other factors associated with antenatal care and delivery care include women’s education, urban residence, wealth and distance from health facility. Conclusions Women with unintended pregnancies were less likely to access or receive adequate antenatal care. Interventions are needed to reduce unintended pregnancy such as improving access to family planning information and services. Moreover, improving access to maternal health services and understanding women’s pregnancy intention at the time of first antenatal care visit is important to encourage women with unintended pregnancies to complete antenatal care. PMID:24011335
Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B
While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622
Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B
While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622
Smith, Cynthia L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget M.; Popp, Tierney K.; Maxon, Elizabeth
SYNOPSIS Objective Longitudinal associations among maternal personality, emotional expressions, and parenting were examined. Design Maternal parenting (sensitivity and intrusiveness) and positive emotional expressions were observed during a free-play session with toddlers at 18 (T1, n = 246) and 30 (T3, n = 216) months. Mothers completed a personality measure at T1 and a questionnaire measuring their emotional expressiveness (positive and negative) when toddlers were 24 months old (T2, n = 213). Results Dimensions of maternal personality and maternal emotional expressiveness were related to individual differences in maternal parenting behaviors, in particular to maternal sensitivity. Conscientiousness and Agreeableness at T1 were positively associated with observed positive emotional expressions at T1. Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Extraversion at T1 also were positively related to positive emotional expressions reported by mothers at T2. Maternal positive emotional expressions (T1 and T2), in turn, were associated with more sensitive behavior observed with toddlers at T3. Conclusion In addition to direct effects of maternal personality on maternal parenting, mothers’ emotional expressiveness was found to be a possible pathway for explaining relations of maternal personality and parenting. PMID:18174914
Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel
Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24?h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology. PMID:25071719
Robertson, Nicola J; Faulkner, Stuart; Fleiss, Bobbi; Bainbridge, Alan; Andorka, Csilla; Price, David; Powell, Elizabeth; Lecky-Thompson, Lucy; Thei, Laura; Chandrasekaran, Manigandan; Hristova, Mariya; Cady, Ernest B; Gressens, Pierre; Golay, Xavier; Raivich, Gennadij
Despite treatment with therapeutic hypothermia, almost 50% of infants with neonatal encephalopathy still have adverse outcomes. Additional treatments are required to maximize neuroprotection. Melatonin is a naturally occurring hormone involved in physiological processes that also has neuroprotective actions against hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury in animal models. The objective of this study was to assess neuroprotective effects of combining melatonin with therapeutic hypothermia after transient hypoxia-ischaemia in a piglet model of perinatal asphyxia using clinically relevant magnetic resonance spectroscopy biomarkers supported by immunohistochemistry. After a quantified global hypoxic-ischaemic insult, 17 newborn piglets were randomized to the following: (i) therapeutic hypothermia (33.5°C from 2 to 26?h after resuscitation, n?=?8) and (ii) therapeutic hypothermia plus intravenous melatonin (5?mg/kg/h over 6?h started at 10?min after resuscitation and repeated at 24?h, n?=?9). Cortical white matter and deep grey matter voxel proton and whole brain (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy were acquired before and during hypoxia-ischaemia, at 24 and 48?h after resuscitation. There was no difference in baseline variables, insult severity or any physiological or biochemical measure, including mean arterial blood pressure and inotrope use during the 48?h after hypoxia-ischaemia. Plasma levels of melatonin were 10?000 times higher in the hypothermia plus melatonin than hypothermia alone group. Melatonin-augmented hypothermia significantly reduced the hypoxic-ischaemic-induced increase in the area under the curve for proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy lactate/N-acetyl aspartate and lactate/total creatine ratios in the deep grey matter. Melatonin-augmented hypothermia increased levels of whole brain (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy nucleotide triphosphate/exchangeable phosphate pool. Correlating with improved cerebral energy metabolism, TUNEL-positive nuclei were reduced in the hypothermia plus melatonin group compared with hypothermia alone in the thalamus, internal capsule, putamen and caudate, and there was reduced cleaved caspase 3 in the thalamus. Although total numbers of microglia were not decreased in grey or white matter, expression of the prototypical cytotoxic microglial activation marker CD86 was decreased in the cortex at 48?h after hypoxia-ischaemia. The safety and improved neuroprotection with a combination of melatonin with cooling support phase II clinical trials in infants with moderate and severe neonatal encephalopathy. PMID:23183236
Souza, Joao Paulo; Cecatti, Jose Guilherme; Haddad, Samira M.; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Costa, Maria Laura; Katz, Leila; Say, Lale; Almeida, Elson J; Amaral, Eliana M; Amorim, Melania M; Andreucci, Carla B; Aquino, Márcia M; Bahamondes, Maria V; Lima, Antonio C Barbosa; Barroso, Frederico; Bione, Adriana; Brum, Ione R; Calderon, Iracema M; Camargo, Rodrigo S; Campanharo, Felipe F; Carvalho, Luiz E; Carvalho, Simone A; Cecatti, José G; Chaves, George N; Cordioli, Eduardo; Costa, Maria L; Costa, Roberto A; Costa, Sergio M; Feitosa, Francisco E; Freire, Djacyr M; Gonçalves, Simone P; Guanabara, Everardo M; Guimarães, Daniela; Gurgel, Lúcio T; Haddad, Samira M; Katz, Leila; Leite, Debora; Lima, Moises D; Lobato, Gustavo; Lotufo, Fátima A; Luz, Adriana G; Filho, Nelson L Maia; Martins, Marilia G; Matias, Jacinta P; Mattar, Rosiane; Menezes, Carlos A; Moises, Elaine C; Filho, Olímpio B Moraes; Moreira, Joaquim L; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Nascimento, Denis J; Ohnuma, Maria H; Oliveira, Fernando C; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Paiva, Cláudio S; Parpinelli, Mary A; Pattinson, Robert C; Paula, Liv B; Peraçoli, Jose C; Peret, Frederico A; Perez, Cynthia D; Pessoni, Cleire; Peterossi, Alessandra; Pfitscher, Lucia C; Silva, João L Pinto e; Quintana, Silvana M; Radaci, Ivelyne; Filho, Edilberto A Rocha; Rodrigues, Simone M; Rohloff, Roger D; Rudge, Marilza V; Saint'ynes, Gloria C; Santana, Danielly S; Santos, Patricia N; Say, Lale; Schmaltz, Luiza E; Sousa, Maria H; Sousa, Maria R; Souza, Joäo P; Surita, Fernanda G; Zanette, Elvira A; Zotareli, Vilma
Objectives To validate the WHO maternal near-miss criteria and develop a benchmark tool for severe maternal morbidity assessments. Methods In a multicenter cross-sectional study implemented in 27 referral maternity hospitals in Brazil, a one-year prospective surveillance on severe maternal morbidity and data collection was carried out. Diagnostic accuracy tests were used to assess the validity of the WHO maternal near-miss criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to model the death probability among women with severe maternal complications and benchmark the management of severe maternal morbidity. Results Of the 82,388 women having deliveries in the participating health facilities, 9,555 women presented pregnancy-related complications, including 140 maternal deaths and 770 maternal near misses. The WHO maternal near-miss criteria were found to be accurate and highly associated with maternal deaths (Positive likelihood ratio 106.8 (95% CI 99.56–114.6)). The maternal severity index (MSI) model was developed and found to able to describe the relationship between life-threatening conditions and mortality (Area under the ROC curve: 0.951 (95% CI 0.909–0.993)). Conclusion The identification of maternal near-miss cases using the WHO list of pregnancy-related life-threatening conditions was validated. The MSI model can be used as a tool for benchmarking the performance of health services managing women with severe maternal complications and provide case-mix adjustment. PMID:22952897
Ravichandran, J; Ravindran, J
Malaysia has successfully reduced maternal mortality through several efforts which, in the broad sense, include (i) the overall socio-economic development of the country; (ii) strengthened health services; and (iii) specific efforts and initiatives for the reduction of maternal mortality, one of which is the audit of maternal deaths by the confidential enquiry into maternal deaths. PMID:25236633
Terrones, M C; Llamas, J; Jaramillo, F; Espino, M G; León, J S
Ten healthy patients with term pregnancy resolved by abdominal via. During the surgical procedure samples of umbilical chord serum and maternal adipose tissue, were taken. In all the samples, together with the maternal milk collected the day 10 of puerperium, the concentrations of the following organochlorine pesticides, were measured up: (PCC); beta-BHC; gamma-BHC; heptachloride; aldrin; dieldrin, DDE, DDD, DDT and methoxychloride. The identification and quantification of pesticides was done by the comparison with standards certified by NIST (National Institute of Standard Technology). The general characteristics of the participants were: primigestas of 24.1 years aged, married and of a low socioeconomical level. As to the neonates, of 39 weeks of gestational age, female sex; 3,311 g of corporal weight and size of 51.1 cm. In all the analyzed samples at least one of the organochlorine pesticides was present. The results of correlation analysis between DDT concentration, present in the maternal serum with those identified in the adipose tissue and serum from the umbilical chord were highly significant: a = 0.97 and 0.87, respectively. In the maternal milk the highest concentrations of total DDT, were found, average of 2053 ng/g lipidic base, which is 2.8 times more of daily accepted intake. Likewise, DDT concentration in maternal serum kept exponential relation, growing with age (a = 0.99). PMID:10808614
Le, Huynh-Nhu; Perry, Deborah F.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.
Objective: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral (CBT) intervention to prevent perinatal depression in high-risk Latinas. Method: A sample of 217 participants, predominantly low-income Central American immigrants who met demographic and depression risk criteria, were randomized into usual…
Price, Sarah Kye
Low-income and ethnic minority women have been described as at risk for experiencing depression during and around the time of pregnancy, a finding complicated by low levels of mental health service use within this population. This study retrospectively examined data from a community-based perinatal depression project targeting low-income women in…
Monica Barkat-Masih; Chandan Saha; Meredith R. Golomb
A total of 19 children with a history of perinatal stroke were asked how they saw their own motor abilities and disabilities using the Activities Scale for Kids (ASK) performance and capability questionnaires. The median ASK performance score was significantly lower (86.7) than the median ASK capability score (93.4; P = .03), suggesting children felt they were not doing everything
Talbot, Nancy L.; Tang, Wan; Chaudron, Linda H.
Abstract Objectives To describe the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health burden among perinatal mothers attending well-baby visits with their infants in the first year of life. We compare rates of depression, anxiety disorder, and substance abuse diagnoses between mothers who reported IPV within the past year to those who did not. Methods This cross-sectional study of 188 mothers of infants (under 14 months) was conducted in an urban hospital pediatric clinic. Participants reported demographics and IPV and completed a semistructured psychiatric diagnostic interview. Results Mothers reporting IPV were more likely to be diagnosed with mood and/or anxiety diagnoses (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test), specifically current depressive diagnoses (p<0.01, Fisher's exact test) and panic disorder (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test). There was a trend for more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (p<0.06) among abused mothers. Substance abuse and dependence, age, race, insurance status, employment, education, and family arrangements did not differ between groups. Prior major or minor depression increases the odds for perinatal depression threefold (OD 3.18). Conclusion These findings have implications for practitioners who encounter perinatal women. Findings suggest providers should explore signs and symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders among women reporting IPV. Similarly, when perinatal mothers report symptoms of depression, PTSD, or panic disorder, practitioners should be alert to the possible contributory role of IPV. PMID:21923282
Back, Stephen A.
Perinatal brain injury in survivors of premature birth has a unique and unexplained predilection for periventricular cerebral white matter. Periventricular white-matter injury (PWMI) is now the most common cause of brain injury in preterm infants and the leading cause of chronic neurological morbidity. The spectrum of chronic PWMI includes focal…
D. M. Ameratunga; J. M. Said; K. Reidy; R. Palma-Dias
Introduction: The aim of this study was to describe the association between fetal echogenic bowel (FEB) diagnosed during the second trimester and adverse perinatal outcomes in an Australian antenatal population. Methods: A retrospective analysis of ultrasound scans was performed between March 1, 2004 and March 1, 2009 at The Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, Vic., Australia. Cases reported as having FEB
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Plasma levels of vitamin D metabolites in the bovine species during the perinatal period J Malades, 149, rue de Sèvres, 75015 Paris. Summary. Plasma vitamin D metabolites (25-OH D ; 24,25-(OH of parturition. No significant hypocalcaemia occurred in the dams at calving. Plasma vitamin D metabolites showed
Sauer, Eve; Levine, Susan C.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan
Does early gesture use predict later productive and receptive vocabulary in children with pre- or perinatal unilateral brain lesions (PL)? Eleven children with PL were categorized into 2 groups based on whether their gesture at 18 months was within or below the range of typically developing (TD) children. Children with PL whose gesture was within…
Berceanu, C; Albu, Simona Elena; Bo?, Mihaela; Ghelase, M ?t
One of the most controversial discussion topics in modern bioethics, science or philosophy is represented by the beginning of the individual human life. It is ethically, medically and scientifically correct that the human conception product to be born, so to gain personality and individuality, to be treated as a patient since the intrauterine life. Intrauterine foetal interventions, performed in various therapeutic purposes are still in the experimental stage even in centres with rich experience in perinatal medicine. Progresses truly outstanding are present especially in the prenatal diagnostic methods. Non invasive prenatal testing represents without a doubt a great progress in prenatal diagnosis, but from this point of view, the role of practitioners in the field of perinatal medicine, on counselling and addressing the indication of this test becomes essential. Beyond cultural, national, social or related differences, in perinatal medicine practice is particularly important to respect and permanently reassess the ethical codes. Our paper is targeting to spotlight the essential principles and practice of ethics and law in perinatal medicine nowadays on one hand, and to bring an update review on a controversial topic on the other hand. PMID:25729600
R. Frentzel-Beyme; H. Scherb
Spatial and temporal trends of birth defects and perinatal mortality in Germany and Europe as well as in least and most contaminated regions have been compared and investigated by trends. In numerous data sets, especially from northern and eastern Europe, positive and significant trend variations with upward 'disturbances' in temporal relation associated with the Chernobyl accident 1986 have been identified
Sanchez, Nancy Anne
This qualitative research investigated the perception of mothers regarding hospital support after perinatal loss. Twelve in-depth interviews demonstrated that the mothers recalled the circumstances of the loss. Most identified the hospital's support services and made comments on aspects of hospital support as influential in grief recovery. Most interviewees considered themselves somewhat recovered from the loss. PMID:17273250
Siri Vangen; R. Elise B. Johansen; Johanne Sundby; Bente Træen; Babill Stray-Pedersen
Objective: To explore how perinatal care practice may influence labor outcomes among circumcised women. Study design: In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 Somali immigrants and 36 Norwegian health care professionals about their experiences from antenatal care, delivery and the management of circumcision. Results: Circumcision was not recognized as an important delivery issue among Norwegian health care professionals and generally the
C Tzoumaka-Bakoula; V Lekea-Karanika; N S Matsaniotis; T Shenton; J Golding
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test the hypothesis that easy access to sophisticated hospitals is associated with a reduction in perinatal mortality. DESIGN: The study was a nationwide questionnaire survey of a birth cohort. SUBJECTS: All deliveries greater than 500g weight of singleton live births and stillbirths occurring throughout Greece during April 1983 were included. Completed questionnaires were returned
Bromberg, Stacey R.
Substance abuse creates enormous risks for the developing relationship between mother and infant. Thus, the perinatal period is a critical aspect of addiction treatment. This article highlights the importance of relationships and the reflective supervision that is crucial in the delivery of integrated infant mental health service for pregnant…
Stephen T. Vermillion; Austin M. Kooba; David E. Soper
Objective: Our purpose was to determine whether an amniotic fluid index (AFI) <5 cm after preterm premature rupture of the membranes is associated with an increased risk of perinatal infection. Study Design: We performed a nonconcurrent prospective analysis of 225 singleton pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of the membranes, with delivery between 24 and 32 weeks’ gestation. All included
Bennett, Shannon M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Litz, Brett T.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Barlow, David H.
Perinatal loss, typically defined as fetal death beyond 20 weeks gestation through infant death 1-month postpartum, is a potentially traumatizing experience for parents occurring in approximately 1% of births in the United States. Although many women recover, 15% to 25% have enduring grief-related symptomatology and functional impairment.…
Carla Arpino; Sergio Domizio; Maria Patrizia Carrieri; Sonia Brescianini; Giuseppe Sabatino; Paolo Curatolo
To evaluate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for early neonatal seizures, we conducted a case-control study including 100 newborns with neonatal seizures in the first week of life and 204 controls randomly selected from a list of healthy newborns born in the same hospital during the study period. Generalized tonic seizures were the most common seizures observed (29%), although the
Myors, Karen A; Johnson, Maree; Cleary, Michelle; Schmied, Virginia
Risk factors for poor perinatal mental health are well known. Psychosocial assessment and depression screening during the perinatal period aim to identify women at risk for poor perinatal outcomes. Early intervention programmes are known to improve the mental health outcomes of women and infants. Key to any intervention is initial and ongoing engagement in the therapeutic process. This mixed-methods study reports the proportion of women who engage/do not engage with services and their characteristics, as well as the strategies clinicians use to engage women. Data were collected by reviewing medical records, interviewing perinatal and infant mental health (PIMH) clinicians, their managers, key stakeholders, and women service users. Analyses identified that most (71.3%) women referred engaged with the PIMH service. Themes related to non-engagement are 'time to rethink' and 'stigma'. Themes reflecting the engagement strategies used by PIMH clinicians are initial engagement: 'back to basics' and 'building trust', therapeutic engagement: 'making myself useful', engagement at discharge: 'woman or clinician led', and models that facilitate engagement. PMID:25521937
Thompson, Deanne K.; Warfield, Simon K.; Carlin, John B.; Pavlovic, Masa; Wang, Hong X.; Bear, Merilyn; Kean, Michael J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.
Neuroanatomical structure appears to be altered in preterm infants, but there has been little insight into the major perinatal risk factors associated with regional cerebral structural alterations. MR images were taken to quantitatively compare regional brain tissue volumes between term and preterm infants and to investigate associations between…
Ellis, Walter L.
It is well documented that perinatally HIV-infected children experience difficulty in learning as well as behavioral and social problems in the school setting. While the research is mixed on the effect of the HIV virus on behavioral and social problems, it is much clearer on the effect of this virus on learning. This exploratory study identifies…
BERCEANU, C.; ALBU, SIMONA ELENA; BO?, MIHAELA; GHELASE, M.?T.
One of the most controversial discussion topics in modern bioethics, science or philosophy is represented by the beginning of the individual human life. It is ethically, medically and scientifically correct that the human conception product to be born, so to gain personality and individuality, to be treated as a patient since the intrauterine life. Intrauterine foetal interventions, performed in various therapeutic purposes are still in the experimental stage even in centres with rich experience in perinatal medicine. Progresses truly outstanding are present especially in the prenatal diagnostic methods. Non invasive prenatal testing represents without a doubt a great progress in prenatal diagnosis, but from this point of view, the role of practitioners in the field of perinatal medicine, on counselling and addressing the indication of this test becomes essential. Beyond cultural, national, social or related differences, in perinatal medicine practice is particularly important to respect and permanently reassess the ethical codes. Our paper is targeting to spotlight the essential principles and practice of ethics and law in perinatal medicine nowadays on one hand, and to bring an update review on a controversial topic on the other hand. PMID:25729600
This is the first of two articles on the development, implementation, and evaluation of a grandparenting perinatal education program. In part one, a review of the literature is presented, along with the planned content and objectives for the program. PMID:22988414
Recent neuropathology studies identify hypoxia as the main cause of perinatal cerebral damage. Cerebral lesions present at birth, with transition to chronic scar lesions, are correlated to mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and minimal brain dysfunction. Gestation age and severity of hypoxic exposure essentially determine the cerebral…
letter nature genetics · volume 26 · november 2000 379 Hypoglycaemia, liver necrosis and perinatal of Veterinary Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Correspondence should be addressed to L.C.C. (e necrosis and calcifi- cation of cardiac tissue. In liver and muscle, loss of the major regulatory isoform
Mary Anne Armstrong; Veronica Gonzales Osejo; Leslie Lieberman; Diane M. Carpenter; Philip M. Pantoja; Gabriel J. Escobar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Early Start, a managed care organization's obstetric clinic-based perinatal substance abuse treatment program, on neonatal outcomes.STUDY DESIGN: Study subjects were 6774 female Kaiser Permanente members who delivered babies between July 1, 1995 and June 30, 1998 and were screened by completing prenatal substance abuse screening questionnaires and urine toxicology screening tests. Four groups were
Ray O. Bahado-Singh; Ertug Kovanci; Andrea Jeffres; Utku Oz; Ozgur Deren; Joshua Copel; Giancarlo Mari
Objective: Our purpose was to determine whether the Doppler cerebroplacental ratio predicts perinatal outcome in fetuses at risk for intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: The middle cerebral and umbilical artery pulsatility index values were measured in 203 fetuses at risk for intrauterine growth restriction, of which 123 were delivered 24 hours, hypoglycemia, or polycythemia), (4) birth weight <10th percentile plus
Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.
Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…
MacMullen, Nancy J; Meagher, Barbara
Labor and delivery units are often used to provide care for nonlaboring patients requiring intensive medical and nursing care. The utilization of labor beds in this manner, however, can result in a shortage of beds for those patients who are truly in labor. Unfortunately, patient dissatisfaction, use of supplemental staffing, and ill-prepared, overworked nurses can then become the result of this practice. Clearly, an improved, innovative model of providing care for high-risk perinatal patients is needed. The purpose of this article is to describe how one hospital and its interdisciplinary team met the challenge of providing expert care for complex perinatal patients by creating a unique model of patient care delivery, the perinatal special care unit (PSCU). An advanced practice nursing role, the perinatal nurse practitioner (PNNP) was implemented to provide collaborative care for these patients. This article includes a discussion of positive and negative outcomes that occurred after the PSCU became a reality. Overall, housing patients on the PSCU has eliminated inappropriate use of labor and delivery beds and has led to a more satisfying childbearing experience for all involved. PMID:15867684
Martini, Mariangela; Calandreau, Ludovic; Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina; Keller, Matthieu
During perinatal life, sex steroids, such as estradiol, have marked effects on the development and function of the nervous system. Environmental estrogens or xenoestrogens are man-made chemicals, which animal and human population encounter in the environment and which are able to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. Scientific interest in the effects of exposure to xenoestrogens has focused more on fertility and reproductive behaviors, while the effects on cognitive behaviors have received less attention. Therefore, the present study explored whether the organochlorine insecticide Methoxychlor (MXC), with known xenoestrogens properties, administered during the perinatal period (from gestational day 11 to postnatal day 8) to pregnant-lactating females, at an environmentally relevant dose (20 µg/kg (body weight)/day), would also affect learning and memory functions depending on the hippocampus of male and female offspring mice in adulthood. When tested in adulthood, MXC perinatal exposure led to an increase in anxiety-like behavior and in short-term spatial working memory in both sexes. Emotional learning was also assessed using a contextual fear paradigm and MXC treated male and female mice showed an enhanced freezing behavior compared to controls. These results were correlated with an increased survival of adult generated cells in the adult hippocampus. In conclusion, our results show that perinatal exposure to an environmentally relevant dose of MXC has an organizational effect on hippocampus-dependent memory and emotional behaviors. PMID:24982620
Mellins, Claude Ann; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Elkington, Katherine S.; Dolezal, Curtis; Wiznia, Andrew; McKay, Mary; Bamji, Mahrukh; Abrams, Elaine J.
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine 1) the prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders in perinatally HIV-infected (HIV+) adolescents and 2) the association between HIV infection and these mental health outcomes by comparing HIV+ youths to HIV exposed but uninfected youths (HIV-) from similar communities. Methods: Data…
Gladen, Beth C.; Rogan, Walter J.
D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) examine various technical issues related to six studies of perinatal PCB exposure and neurodevelopment and one study of adult PCB exposure and motor function. They raise questions about possible imperfections of the studies, but many of their assertions are unsupported or frankly…
Perinaaz R. Wadia; Laura N. Vandenberg; Cheryl M. Schaeberle; Beverly S. Rubin; Carlos Sonnenschein; Ana M. Soto
BACKGROUND: Studies of low-dose effects of xenoestrogens have yielded conflicting results that may be attributed to differences in estrogen sensitivity between the rodent strains examined. Perinatal exposure of CD-1 mice to low doses of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) alters peripubertal mammary gland development. Future studies to assess the role of estrogen receptors as mediators of BPA action require estrogen
MacDonell, Karen; Naar-King, Sylvie; Huszti, Heather; Belzer, Marvin
The study explored barriers to antiretroviral medication adherence in perinatally and behaviorally HIV infected adolescents and young adults in a cross-sectional, multisite sample. The study included a subset of a convenience sample from a cross-sectional analysis. Participants were youth with HIV ages 12-24 who were prescribed HIV medication and reported missing medication in the past 7 days (n = 484, 28.4 % of protocol sample). The top barriers were similar for perinatally and behaviorally infected youth, but perinatally infected youth reported significantly more barriers. Forgetting, not feeling like taking medication and not wanting to be reminded of HIV infection were the most common barriers reported. Number of barriers was significantly correlated with percent of doses missed, viral load, and psychological distress for perinatally infected youth and with doses missed, psychological distress, and substance use for behaviorally infected youth. Interventions to improve adherence to HIV medications should not only address forgetfulness and choosing not to take medications, but also consider route of infection. PMID:23142855
Summary Recent developments in the study of mental health issues surrounding childbirth, have brought about a shift from the narrow concept of “postnatal depression” (PND) to a consideration of the spectrum of depressive and anxiety disorders arising in the “perinatal” period – which in the mental health context is defined as encompassing pregnancy and the first year postpartum. This shift
Ebru Tarim; Nebil Bal; Esra Kilicdag; Fazilet Kayaselcuk; Tayfun Ba???; Esra Kuscu
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare a low-dose aspirin treatment on placental and perinatal effects in the patients with poor obstetric history such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in previous pregnancy. Study design: This retrospective study of 86 pregnant women was conducted between April 2002 and June 2005. In this study period 364 placentas were examined