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1

Behavioural outcomes of perinatal maternal fluoxetine treatment.  

PubMed

During and following pregnancy, women are at considerable risk of experiencing depression. For treatment, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed, yet the potential effects of perinatal exposure to these drugs on the brain and behaviour have not been examined in humans beyond childhood. This is despite abundant evidence from studies using rodents indicating that altered serotonin levels early in life affect neurodevelopment and behavioural outcomes. These reported effects on behaviour are inconsistent, however, and the testing of females has often been overlooked. In the present study, the behavioural outcomes of female mice perinatally (embryonic day 15 to postnatal day 12) treated with fluoxetine (25mg/kg/day) via a non-stressful method of maternal administration were assessed using a battery of tests. Maternal treatment resulted in subtle alterations in anxiety-like and depression-like behaviour in early adulthood, with a decrease in both types of behaviour as well as body weight. Though altered anxiety and depression have previously been reported in this area of research, decreased anxiety is a novel finding. While there was little effect of perinatal maternal fluoxetine treatment on many of the behaviours assessed, the capacity to alter "emotional" behaviours in mice has implications with regard to research on human infant fluoxetine exposure. PMID:23000627

McAllister, B B; Kiryanova, V; Dyck, R H

2012-12-13

2

Incarceration, maternal hardship, and perinatal health behaviors.  

PubMed

Parental incarceration is associated with mental and physical health problems in children, yet little research directly tests mechanisms through which parental incarceration could imperil child health. We hypothesized that the incarceration of a woman or her romantic partner in the year before birth constituted an additional hardship for already-disadvantaged women, and that these additionally vulnerable women were less likely to engage in positive perinatal health behaviors important to infant and early childhood development. We analyzed 2006-2010 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System to assess the association between incarceration in the year prior to the birth of a child and perinatal maternal hardships and behaviors. Women reporting incarceration of themselves or their partners in the year before birth of a child had .86 the odds (95 % CI .78-.95) of beginning prenatal care in the first trimester compared to women not reporting incarceration. They were nearly twice as likely to report partner abuse and were significantly more likely to rely on WIC and/or Medicaid for assistance during pregnancy. These associations persist after controlling for socioeconomic measures and other stressors, including homelessness and job loss. Incarceration of a woman or her partner in the year before birth is associated with higher odds of maternal hardship and poorer perinatal health behaviors. The unprecedented scale of incarceration in the US simultaneously presents an underutilized public health opportunity and constitutes a social determinant of health that may contribute to disparities in early childhood development. PMID:24615355

Dumont, Dora M; Wildeman, Christopher; Lee, Hedwig; Gjelsvik, Annie; Valera, Pamela; Clarke, Jennifer G

2014-11-01

3

Maternal satisfaction with organized perinatal care in Serbian public hospitals  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the experiences and expectations of women across the continuum of antenatal, perinatal, and postnatal care is important to assess the quality of maternal care and to determine problematic areas which could be improved. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with maternal satisfaction with hospital-based perinatal care in Serbia. Methods Our survey was conducted from January 2009 to January 2010 using a 28-item, self-administered questionnaire. The sample consisted of 50% of women who expected childbirths during the study period from all 76 public institutions with obstetric departments in Serbia. The following three composite outcome variables were constructed: satisfaction with technical and professional aspects of care; communication and interpersonal aspects of care; and environmental factors. Results We analyzed 34,431 completed questionnaires (84.2% of the study sample). The highest and lowest average satisfaction scores (4.43 and 3.25, respectively) referred to the overall participation of midwives during delivery and the quality of food served in the hospital, respectively. Younger mothers and multiparas were less concerned with the environmental conditions (OR?=?0.55, p?=?0.006; OR?=?1.82, p?=?0.004). Final model indicated that mothers informed of patients’ rights, pregnancy and delivery through the Maternal Counseling Service were more likely to be satisfied with all three outcome variables. The highest value of the Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was between the overall satisfaction score and satisfaction with communication and interpersonal aspects of care. Conclusions Our study illuminated the importance of interpersonal aspects of care and education for maternal satisfaction. Improvement of the environmental conditions in hospitals, the WHO program, Baby-friendly Hospital, and above all providing all pregnant women with antenatal education, are recommendations which would more strongly affect the perceptions of quality and satisfaction with perinatal care in Serbian public hospitals by women. PMID:24410839

2014-01-01

4

Obstetric and perinatal events: the accuracy of maternal report.  

PubMed

Physicians commonly rely on maternal recall of events during pregnancy, delivery, and the perinatal period. Investigators who are doing research in the reproductive and perinatal areas also rely on maternal recall. However, there is little information regarding its accuracy. This study evaluates the accuracy of maternal knowledge of events during pregnancy, delivery, and the perinatal period by comparing maternal report with information recorded on the medical records of the mother-infant pair. Results are presented as sensitivity, specificity, and chance-corrected agreement. Mothers demonstrated poor knowledge of pregnancy and delivery-room events. Agreement between maternal reports and hospital records was excellent for infant birth weight and type of delivery, and good for infant jaundice. However, other important areas of the infant's history, such as an evaluation for sepsis, were poorly recalled. The implications of these results are both medical- and research-specific. Physicians must be aware of possible inaccuracies in the mother's history and make every attempt to obtain the nursery discharge summary. In addition, researchers must verify the results of their data when relying on maternal recall, with the exception of infant birth weight and method of delivery. PMID:1563192

Casey, R; Rieckhoff, M; Beebe, S A; Pinto-Martin, J

1992-04-01

5

Effects of maternal obesity on antenatal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Obesity is critically important to maternal and fetal health during the perinatal period. We have detected an increasing prevalence of maternal obesity in recent years and investigated its complications during pregnancy. Methods: A total of 931 pregnant females were investigated between March 2012 and March 2013. The patients were divided into four groups: body mass index (BMI)?maternal outcomes were investigated. Results: Significant increases in pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, cesarean delivery, premature rupture of membranes, shoulder dystocia, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, abnormal heart rate pattern and postpartum infection rates were found in the obese group during the perinatal period. Adverse maternal effects in obese cases were significantly more frequent than those in normal-weight cases. Preterm birth, perinatal mortality, low APGAR scores, newborn intensive care unit requirement, hypoglycemia and macrosomia rates were significantly higher in obese cases than those in non-obese cases. However, low birth weight infant rate was higher in the low BMI cases than that in the other BMI categories (p?maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. PMID:25327177

Avc?, Muhittin Eftal; Sanl?kan, Fatih; Celik, Mehmet; Avc?, An?l; Kocaer, Mustafa; Göçmen, Ahmet

2014-11-11

6

Maternal Stress and Emotional Status during the Perinatal Period and Childhood Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An emerging literature suggests that maternal distress during the prenatal and perinatal period may adversely affect offspring development. The association between maternal stress and emotional status in the perinatal period (defined as 1 month after birth) and adjustment of first-grade children was examined in 948 mother-child dyads from the…

Anhalt, Karla; Telzrow, Cathy F.; Brown, Courtney L.

2007-01-01

7

Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk for perinatal maternal depression  

PubMed Central

Objective A systematic review was conducted to assess the possible association between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation and intake in the perinatal period and the risk of maternal perinatal depression. Methods Two PubMed searches and a BIOSIS Preview, a Web of Science and a PsychInfo search were conducted with the search terms ‘DHA, pregnancy and depression’ and ‘omega-3 fatty acids, pregnancy and depression’. Results Ten articles – three longitudinal cohort studies, five randomized controlled trials and two pilot trials– that met selection criteria were reviewed. Six found no association, two found mixed results, and two found a positive association between omega-3 PUFAs and reduced incidence of maternal perinatal depression. The heterogeneity of results can be explained by dissimilar study designs, including differences in study duration, time period of measurement and number of participants, and in varied dosages and types of supplemental PUFAs. Some of the larger studies and those that found a positive effect were more likely to be using higher doses, close to 2 g of docosahexaeonic acid (DHA) + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and began the supplementation earlier in pregnancy. Conclusions Future RCTs to investigate the role of PUFA supplementation and risk for maternal perinatal depression should begin supplementation early in pregnancy and use a dosage closer to 2 g of DHA + EPA. Depression should also be measured using a diagnostic interview schedule in addition to a screener. PMID:20925595

Wojcicki, Janet M.; Heyman, Melvin B.

2011-01-01

8

Experiences with maternal and perinatal death reviews in the UK--the MBRRACE-UK programme.  

PubMed

Established in 1952, the programme of surveillance and Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the UK is the longest running such programme worldwide. Although more recently instituted, surveillance and confidential enquiries into perinatal deaths are also now well established nationally. Recent changes to funding and commissioning of the Enquiries have enabled both a reinvigoration of the processes and improvements to the methodology with an increased frequency of future reporting. Close engagement with stakeholders and a regulator requirement for doctors to participate have both supported the impetus for involvement of all professionals leading to greater potential for improved quality of care for women and babies. PMID:25236632

Kurinczuk, J J; Draper, E S; Field, D J; Bevan, C; Brocklehurst, P; Gray, R; Kenyon, S; Manktelow, B N; Neilson, J P; Redshaw, M; Scott, J; Shakespeare, J; Smith, L K; Knight, M

2014-09-01

9

Maternal, Perinatal, and Postneonatal Outcomes in Women With Chronic Heart Disease in Washington State  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the association between the presence of maternal heart disease and maternal, perinatal, and infant outcomes. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using Washington State birth certificates linked with hospital discharge records of mothers noted to have maternal congenital heart disease, ischemic heart disease, heart failure or pulmonary hypertension. Women who gave birth between 1987 and 2009 (n=2,171) were compared to a sample of mothers without these conditions (n=21,710). We described characteristics of pregnant women with heart disease over time. Logistic regression estimated the association between reported chronic maternal heart disease and small for gestational age (SGA) birth, as well as perinatal, post-neonatal and maternal death. Results The proportion of births to women with reported heart disease increased 224% between the 1987-1994 and 2002-2009 calendar periods. Chronic maternal heart disease was associated with increased risk of SGA birth (62 additional SGA infants per 1,000 births, 95% CI 46-78, p <0.001), perinatal death (14 additional deaths per 1,000 births, 95% CI 8-20, p <0.001), postneonatal death (five additional deaths per 1,000 births, 95% CI 2-9, p<0.001) and maternal death (five additional deaths per 1,000 births, 95% CI 2-9, p<0.001). Conclusion The presence of chronic maternal heart disease is associated with elevated risk for poor maternal, perinatal, and postneonatal outcomes. PMID:23168751

Leary, Peter J; Leary, Sarah ES; Stout, Karen K; Schwartz, Stephen M; Easterling, Thomas R

2014-01-01

10

Maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an exploratory population-based study of maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia in Sweden. The Swedish National Cancer Registry ascertained 411 cases in successive birth cohorts from 1973 through 1984 recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Using the latter, we matched five controls without cancer to each case by sex and month and year of birth. Mothers of children with leukemia were more likely to have been exposed to nitrous oxide anesthesia during delivery than mothers of controls (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 1.6). Children with leukemia were more likely than controls to have Down's syndrome (OR = 32.5; 95% CI = 7.3, 144.0) or cleft lip or cleft palate (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.0, 24.8); to have had a diagnosis associated with difficult labor but unspecified complications (OR = 4.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 18.2) or with other conditions of the fetus or newborn (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.1), specifically, uncomplicated physiological jaundice (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.9); or to have received supplemental oxygen (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.3, 1.3, 4.9). Because multiple potential risk factors were analyzed in this study, future studies need to check these findings. The authors did not confirm the previously reported higher risks for childhood leukemia associated with being male, having a high birth weight, or being born to a woman of advanced maternal age.

Zack, M.; Adami, H.O.; Ericson, A. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1991-07-15

11

How the Kidney Is Impacted by the Perinatal Maternal Environment to Develop Hypertension1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Environmental conditions during perinatal development such as maternal undernutrition, maternal glucocorticoids, placental insufficiency, and maternal sodium overload can program changes in renal Na+ excretion leading to hypertension. Experimental studies indicate that fetal exposure to an adverse maternal environment may reduce glomerular filtration rate by decreasing the surface area of the glomerular capillaries. Moreover, fetal responses to environmental insults during early life that contribute to the development of hypertension may include increased expression of tubular apical or basolateral membrane Na+ transporters and increased production of renal superoxide leading to enhanced Na+ reabsorption. This review will address the role of these potential renal mechanisms in the fetal programming of hypertension in experimental models induced by maternal undernutrition, fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, placental insufficiency, and maternal sodium overload in the rat. PMID:24227755

Paixão, Ana D.; Alexander, Barbara T.

2013-01-01

12

Care seeking at time of childbirth, and maternal and perinatal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To examine the nature of the relationship between the use of skilled attendance around the time of delivery and maternal and perinatal mortality. Methods We analysed health and demographic surveillance system data collected between 1987 and 2005 by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in Matlab, Bangladesh. Findings The study recorded 59 165 pregnancies, 173 maternal deaths, 1661 stillbirths and 1418 early neonatal deaths in its service area over the study period. During that time, the use of skilled attendance during childbirth increased from 5.2% to 52.6%. More than half (57.8%) of the women who died and one-third (33.7%) of those who experienced a perinatal death (i.e. a stillbirth or early neonatal death) had sought skilled attendance. Maternal mortality was low among women who did not seek skilled care (160 per 100 000 pregnancies) and was nearly 32 times higher (adjusted odds ratio, OR: 31.66; 95% confidence interval, CI: 22.03–45.48) among women who came into contact with comprehensive emergency obstetric care. Over time, the strength of the association between skilled obstetric care and maternal mortality declined as more women sought such care. Perinatal death rates were also higher for those who sought skilled care than for those who did not, although the strength of association was much weaker. Conclusion Given the high maternal mortality ratio and perinatal mortality rate among women who sought obstetric care, more work is needed to ensure that women and their neonates receive timely and effective obstetric care. Reductions in perinatal mortality will require strategies such as early detection and management of health problems during pregnancy. PMID:20431793

Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Koblinsky, Marge; Ahmed, Anisuddin

2010-01-01

13

Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China, with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water arsenic concentrations. The relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints (term birth weight, preterm birth, stillbirth and neonatal death) in this region was evaluated in this study.MethodsAn analysis was conducted of all singleton deliveries

S L Myers; D T Lobdell; Z Liu; Y Xia; H Ren; Y Li; R K Kwok; J L Mumford; P Mendola

2009-01-01

14

Maternal malnutrition, perinatal mortality and foetal pathology--a clinicopathological study.  

PubMed

The close relationship between the maternal malnutrition and consequent birth of low birth weight babies and the perinatal mortality is now an accepted fact and has been studied extensively in developed countries, though the problem is more acute in developing countries. The present study was proposed to find out relationship between the maternal nutritional status and the perinatal mortality. Autopsy was performed on 100 babies dying perinatally and pathological examination of different foetal organs in both well and malnourished mothers was also undertaken. Maternal nutritional status was evaluated by estimating haemoglobin level and total serum protein level. A mother with haemoglobin level below 11 g/dl and/or serum protein level below 5 g/dl was considered as malnourished. Pathological findings in the dead babies included low birth weight (500-1,999g), haemorrhage in multiple organs, atelectasis of the lungs, fatty changes in the liver, cystic changes of the kidneys and ill developed parenchyma of the pituitary. PMID:12206355

Mitra, Kaberi; Chowdhury, M K

2002-02-01

15

Effect of pregestational maternal, obstetric and perinatal factors on neonatal outcome in extreme prematurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate the effect of pregestational maternal, obstetric and perinatal factors on neonatal outcome in extreme preterm\\u000a deliveries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective study of deliveries in a Norwegian tertiary teaching hospital. All women with live births at 24+0– 27+6 weeks of gestation between 2004 and 2007 were included. Major morbidity is defined as intraventricular haemorrhage grade\\u000a 3–4, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia or necrotizing

Yun Wang; Tom Tanbo; Liv Ellingsen; Thomas Åbyholm; Tore Henriksen

16

Outbreak of Hepatitis E in Urban Bangladesh Resulting in Maternal and Perinatal Mortality  

PubMed Central

Background.?Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes outbreaks of jaundice associated with maternal mortality. Four deaths among pregnant women with jaundice occurred in an urban community near Dhaka, Bangladesh, in late 2008 and were reported to authorities in January 2009. We investigated the etiology and risk factors for jaundice and death. Methods.?Field workers identified suspected cases, defined as acute onset of yellow eyes or skin, through house-to-house visits. A subset of persons with suspected HEV was tested for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to HEV to confirm infection. We used logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors for HEV disease and for death. We estimated the increased risk of perinatal mortality associated with jaundice during pregnancy. Results.?We identified 4751 suspected HEV cases during August 2008–January 2009, including 17 deaths. IgM antibodies to HEV were identified in 56 of 73 (77%) case-patients tested who were neighbors of the case-patients who died. HEV disease was significantly associated with drinking municipally supplied water. Death among persons with HEV disease was significantly associated with being female and taking paracetamol (acetaminophen). Among women who were pregnant, miscarriage and perinatal mortality was 2.7 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.2–6.1) in pregnancies complicated by jaundice. Conclusions.?This outbreak of HEV was likely caused by sewage contamination of the municipal water system. Longer-term efforts to improve access to safe water and license HEV vaccines are needed. However, securing resources and support for intervention will rely on convincing data about the endemic burden of HEV disease, particularly its role in maternal and perinatal mortality. PMID:24855146

Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Paul, Repon C.; Sazzad, Hossain M. S.; Islam, M. Saiful; Parveen, Shahana; Faruque, Labib I.; Husain, Mushtuq; Ara, Khorshed; Jahan, Yasmin; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

2014-01-01

17

Maternal Ethnic Ancestry and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in New York City  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between narrowly defined subsets of maternal ethnicity and birth outcomes. Study Design Analysis of 1995-2003 New York City birth certificates linked to hospital discharge data for 949,210 singleton births to examine the multivariable associations between maternal ethnicity and preterm birth, subsets of spontaneous and medically indicated preterm birth, term small for gestational age (SGA), and term birthweight. Results Compared to non-Hispanic whites, Puerto Ricans had an elevated odds ratio (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.9-2.0) for delivering at 32-36 weeks (adjusted for nativity, maternal age, parity, education, tobacco use, pre-pregnancy weight, birth year). We found an excess of adverse outcomes among most Latino groups. Outcomes also varied within regions, with North African infants nearly 100g (adjusted) heavier than sub-Saharan Africans. Conclusions The considerable heterogeneity in risk of adverse perinatal outcomes is obscured in broad categorizations of maternal race/ethnicity, and may help to formulate etiologic hypotheses. PMID:19729145

Stein, Cheryl R.; Savitz, David A.; Janevic, Teresa; Ananth, Cande V.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Herring, Amy H.; Engel, Stephanie M.

2009-01-01

18

Maternal and perinatal factors associated with subsequent meningococcal, Haemophilus or enteroviral meningitis in children: database study.  

PubMed

We used a database of 248 659 births, with follow-up to subsequent disease, in the Oxford record linkage archive (1979-1999) to study the influence of family, maternal, and perinatal factors on subsequent hospital admission for meningococcal, Haemophilus, and enteroviral meningitis in the children. In this summary, we report key findings that were significant in multivariate analysis. Meningococcal meningitis was significantly associated with maternal smoking [odds ratio (OR) 2·1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2-3·7]. Haemophilus meningitis was associated with having older siblings (e.g. second child compared to first-born, OR 3·3, 95% CI 2·0-5·6). Enteroviral meningitis was associated with low birth weight (OR 2·2, 95% CI 1·3-3·6) and male sex (OR 1·7, 95% CI 1·2-2·3). The mothers of six of the 312 children with enteroviral meningitis had previously had enteroviral meningitis themselves. We concluded that several maternal characteristics influence the risk of these types of meningitis. PMID:23659618

Goldacre, M J; Wotton, C J; Maisonneuve, J J

2014-02-01

19

The impact of parity on perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of parity on perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by advanced maternal age. Material and Methods A total of 11 587 pregnancies were reviewed retrospectively from patient medical records. Singleton pregnancies greater than 24 weeks of gestation were included. The study group consisted of women ?40 years old at the time of delivery, and the control group consisted of women aged between 20 and 30 years old. Data regarding age, parity, gestational age, mode of delivery, and obstetric and neonatal complications were collected. Firstly, pregnancies ?40 years and the younger control group were compared altogether with respect to the obstetric and neonatal complications. Secondly, both groups were divided into subgroups according to parity, and a second comparison was made with controls. Results Mean maternal age in the study and control groups was 43±2.2 and 24±2.8 years, respectively. In women ?40 years old, all of the investigated obstetric and neonatal complications except postpartum haemorrhage and foetal malformations were higher when compared to younger controls (p<0.05). In the nulliparous ?40 year old group, the most significant complications were preterm delivery (45.3%), low 5-minute Apgar score (15.2%), and neonatal intensive care unit admission (15.2%). On the other hand, in the multiparous group, preeclampsia (16.6%), abruptio placentae (5.1%), foetal demise (7.2%), and macrosomia (9.6%) were found to be significantly higher when compared to controls. Conclusion The study suggests that pregnancies of maternal age ?40 years carry increased risks for both neonatal and obstetric complications, and these risks seem to be effected by parity. PMID:24592107

Ba?er, Eralp; Seçkin, Kerem Do?a; Erk?l?nç, Selçuk; Karsl?, Mehmet Fatih; Yeral, ?lkin Mahmut; Kaymak, Oktay; Ça?lar, Turhan; Dan??man, Nuri

2013-01-01

20

Perinatal Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Production, Influenced by Maternal Pregnancy Weight Gain, Predicts Childhood Asthma  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Innate immune responses marked by increases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? have been associated with asthma but whether such alterations are evident before symptoms is not yet clear. Objectives: To determine if prevalence of childhood asthma or asthma-related traits is predicted by perinatal innate immune status and if maternal factors related to pregnancy influence asthma prevalence and innate immune status. Methods: In the Tucson Infant Immune Study (a nonselected birth cohort), presence of eczema and wheezing in the child's first year and physician-diagnosed asthma through age 9 and asthma in the parents was obtained from parent-completed questionnaires. TNF-?, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 were measured in supernatants of LPS-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells at birth and 3 months as was TNF-? in plasma. TNF-? single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by Sequenom. Percent predicted FEV1/FVC was measured at age 9. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy and prepregnancy weight were ascertained from medical records. Measurements and Main Results: Infants with persistently elevated LPS-induced TNF-? at birth and 3 months were at increased risk for childhood asthma (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; confidence interval [CI], 1.9–8.8; n = 233; P = 0.0003) and had decreased FEV1/FVC ratios at age 9. Children with mothers in the top tertile for pregnancy weight gain had increased risk for asthma (OR, 3.4; CI, 1.7–6.9; n = 225; P = 0.001) and persistently elevated TNF-? in early life (OR, 2.9; CI, 1.4–8.2; n = 195; P = 0.013). These relations were independent of maternal asthma and rhinitis. Conclusions: Persistently elevated LPS-induced TNF-? production early in life acts as a predictive biomarker for childhood asthma, and excess pregnancy weight gain in the mother seems to contribute to both. PMID:23590270

Lohman, I. Carla; Stern, Debra A.; Ellis, Whitney L.; Rothers, Janet; Wright, Anne L.

2013-01-01

21

Maternal Cypermethrin Exposure during the Perinatal Period Impairs Testicular Development in C57BL Male Offspring  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have demonstrated that endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) are a possible cause of male reproductive organ malfunction and malformation. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid and a potential EDC. This study aimed to examine the effects of perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP on the development and function of the offspring testes. Pregnant mice were intragastrically administered 0.12 to 12 mg/kg/day CYP from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) to weaning (PD21.5, postnatal day 21.5). Maternal exposure to 0.12, 1.2, and 12 mg/kg/day CYP affected the body and organ weight of the offspring. Exposure of CYP led to a dose-dependent decrease in the male-to-female sex ratio. A histopathological analysis revealed a thinner seminiferous epithelium layer at PD21.5, interstitial hyperplasia at PD45.5, and germ cell vacuolization at PD90.5 in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The TUNEL assay results revealed increased germ cell apoptosis in the 12 mg/kg/day CYP group. The serum testosterone (T) level decreased, whereas the estradiol level increased with age in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The RT-PCR analysis demonstrated decreased expression of T production-related, mitosis-related, and meiosis-related genes in the 1.2 and 12 mg/kg/day CYP groups. The in vitro experimental results demonstrated reduced expression of steroidogenesis genes and decreased T levels. It is concluded that perinatal exposure to low-dose CYP affects testes development and function in adults. PMID:24810582

Huang, Chaobin; Li, Xiangdong

2014-01-01

22

Prenatal management and perinatal outcome in giant placental chorioangioma complicated with hydrops fetalis, fetal anemia and maternal mirror syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Giant placental chorioangiomas have been associated with a number of severe fetal complications and high perinatal mortality. Case presentation We report a case of giant chorioangioma with fetal hydrops, additionally complicated by severe anemia, mild cardiomegaly with hyperdinamic heart circulation and maternal mirror syndrome. Intrauterine blood transfusion and amniodrainage was performed at 29?weeks. Worsening of the fetal and maternal condition prompted us to proceed with delivery at 29?+?5?weeks. The newborn died 3 hours later due to pulmonary hypoplasia and hemodynamic failure. Maternal course was favourable, mirror syndrome resolved in the second day and the patient was discharged four days following delivery. Conclusions In the case described here, fetal condition got worse despite of the anemia correction and amniodrainage. Our outcome raises the issue whether additional intrauterine clinical intervention, as intersticial laser, should have been performed to stop further deterioration of the fetal condition when progressive severe hydrops develops. PMID:22840187

2012-01-01

23

A matched pair cluster randomized implementation trail to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to decrease perinatal mortality and increase institution-based obstetric care among indigenous women in Guatemala: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal and perinatal mortality continue to be a high priority problem on the health agendas of less developed countries. Despite the progress made in the last decade to quantify the magnitude of maternal mortality, few interventions have been implemented with the intent to measure impact directly on maternal or perinatal deaths. The success of interventions implemented in less developed countries to reduce mortality has been questioned, in terms of the tendency to maintain a clinical perspective with a focus on purely medical care separate from community-based approaches that take cultural and social aspects of maternal and perinatal deaths into account. Our innovative approach utilizes both the clinical and community perspectives; moreover, our study will report the weight that each of these components may have had on reducing perinatal mortality and increasing institution-based deliveries. Methods/Design A matched pair cluster-randomized trial will be conducted in clinics in four rural indigenous districts with the highest maternal mortality ratios in Guatemala. The individual clinic will serve as the unit of randomization, with 15 matched pairs of control and intervention clinics composing the final sample. Three interventions will be implemented in indigenous, rural and poor populations: a simulation training program for emergency obstetric and perinatal care, increased participation of the professional midwife in strengthening the link between traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the formal health care system, and a social marketing campaign to promote institution-based deliveries. No external intervention is planned for control clinics, although enhanced monitoring, surveillance and data collection will occur throughout the study in all clinics throughout the four districts. All obstetric events occurring in any of the participating health facilities and districts during the 18 months implementation period will be included in the analysis, controlling for the cluster design. Our main outcome measures will be the change in perinatal mortality and in the proportion of institution-based deliveries. Discussion A unique feature of this protocol is that we are not proposing an individual intervention, but rather a package of interventions, which is designed to address the complexities and realities of maternal and perinatal mortality in developing countries. To date, many other countries, has focused its efforts to decrease maternal mortality indirectly by improving infrastructure and data collection systems rather than on implementing specific interventions to directly improve outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov,http://NCT01653626. PMID:23517050

2013-01-01

24

Perinatal outcome after maternal primary cytomegalovirus infection in the first trimester: a practical update and counseling aid.  

PubMed

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection with approximately 0.5% of pregnant women in developed countries seroconverting during pregnancy. In utero transmission occurs in about one third of women who develop primary infection in the first trimester, and these fetuses are at risk for adverse perinatal outcomes and long-term neurological complications. The great promise of a prenatal therapy to reduce fetal infection after maternal primary CMV infection has not been realized to date. The prediction of CMV sequelae is particularly challenging for clinicians because of the heterogeneity of the published literature, the wide spectrum of perinatal outcomes, the adjustment of fetal risk at each stage of assessment, and the variable quality of published data. Given the continued lack of a proven fetal therapy, it is timely to review the natural history of congenital CMV in the modern management era. We have analyzed the recent literature, integrated findings from multiple studies, and calculated stage-specific risks for adverse perinatal outcome to assist in counseling women with first trimester primary CMV infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25224270

Hui, Lisa; Wood, Gillian

2015-01-01

25

A population-based surveillance study on severe acute maternal morbidity (near-miss) and adverse perinatal outcomes in Campinas, Brazil: The Vigimoma Project  

PubMed Central

Background Auditing of sentinel health events based on best-practice protocols has been recommended. This study describes a population-based investigation on adverse perinatal events including severe acute maternal morbidity (near-miss), maternal and perinatal mortality, as a health intervention to help improve the surveillance system. Methods From October to December 2005, all cases of maternal death (MD), near-miss (NM), fetal deaths (FD), and early neonatal deaths (END), occurring in Campinas, Brazil, were audited by maternal mortality committees. Results A total of 4,491 liveborn infants (LB) and 159 adverse perinatal events (35.4/1000 LB) were revised, consisting of 4 MD (89/100.000 LB) and 95 NM (21.1/1000 LB), 23.7 NM for each MD. In addition, 32 FD (7.1/1000 LB) and 28 END (6.2/1000 LB) occurred. The maternal death/near miss rate was 23.7:1. Some delay in care was recognized for 34%, and hypertensive complications comprised 57.8% of the NM events, followed by postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion Auditing near miss cases expanded the understanding of the spectrum from maternal morbidity to mortality and the importance of promoting adhesion to clinical protocols among maternal mortality committee members. Hypertensive disorders and postpartum hemorrhage were identified as priority topics for health providers training, and organization of care. PMID:21255453

2011-01-01

26

Maternal and perinatal outcome of women with sickle cell disease of a tribal population in Central India.  

PubMed

Pregnancy in sickle cell disease is associated with increased risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Sickle cell disease is very common in tribal populations. The objective of this study was to review the maternal and perinatal outcome in patients with sickle cell disease of tribal populations. This is a retrospective study. The data extracted from the patients' case files included age, gravidity, family history, complications during pregnancy or at time of delivery or postpartum period, mode of delivery, and fetal outcome. There were 25 deliveries to women with sickle cell disease and 54 with sickle cell trait. Preeclampsia and disseminated intravascular coagulation were common problems associated with sickle cell disease as compared to the sickle cell trait and normal groups. No maternal mortality occurred during the period under study. However, a total of five intrauterine fetal deaths and one early neonatal death did occur. The present study confirms the previous reports, the increased risk of fetal death in women with sickle cell disease, however, in contrast to previous studies, no maternal mortality was found. PMID:24417305

Natu, Neeta; Khandelwal, Seema; Kumar, Ravindra; Dave, Anupama

2014-01-01

27

Body Mass Index Development from Birth to Early Adolescence; Effect of Perinatal Characteristics and Maternal Migration Background in a Swedish Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Well documented diversity in risk of developing overweight and obesity between children of immigrant and of native mothers, might be explained by different body mass index (BMI) development trajectories in relation to maternal and perinatal characteristics of offspring. Objectives To assess BMI development trajectories among children born to immigrant and to Swedish mothers from birth to adolescence in relation to perinatal characteristics. Methods A cohort of 2517 children born in Stockholm during 1994 to 1996 was followed with repeated measurement of height and weight at eleven time points until age 12 years. We estimated changes over time for BMI in relation to maternal and perinatal characteristics of offspring using mixed linear model analysis for repeated measure data. Results We observed a significant BMI change over time in children and time interaction with maternal migration status (P<0.0001). Estimated BMI over time adjusted for maternal and perinatal characteristics of offspring, showed slower BMI growth before age of 5, followed by an earlier plateau and steeper BMI growth after 5 years among children of immigrant mothers compared with children of Swedish mothers. These differences in BMI growth were more prominent among children with mothers from outside Europe. Conclusion Beside reinforcing early childhood as a crucial period in development of overweight, the observed slower BMI development at early childhood among children of immigrants followed by a steeper increase in BMI compared with children of Swedish mothers is important for further studies and for planning of preventive public health programs. PMID:25303283

Besharat Pour, Mohsen; Bergström, Anna; Bottai, Matteo; Magnusson, Jessica; Kull, Inger; Wickman, Magnus; Moradi, Tahereh

2014-01-01

28

Perinatal psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perinatal psychiatric disorders are common and can result in significant suffering for women and their families, indeed suicide is a leading cause of maternal death. The severest form of postpartum mood disorder, puerperal psychosis, follows approximately 1 in 1000 deliveries. Women with a history of bipolar disorder or who have suffered a previous severe postpartum episode are at a many

Ian Jones

2008-01-01

29

Understanding and meeting the needs of women in the postpartum period: the Perinatal Maternal Health Promotion Model.  

PubMed

A new model for the care of women in the postpartum focuses on the development of life skills that promote complete well-being. The year following childbirth is a time of significant transition for women. In addition to the physiologic changes associated with the postpartum period, a woman undergoes marked psychosocial changes as she transitions into a motherhood role, reestablishes relationships, and works to meet the physical and emotional needs of her infant and other family members. It is a time when women are vulnerable to health problems directly related to childbirth and to compromised self-care, which can manifest in the development or reestablishment of unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and a sedentary lifestyle. In addition to long-term implications for women, compromised maternal health in the postpartum period is associated with suboptimal health and developmental outcomes for infants. Maternal health experts have called for a change in how care is provided for women in the postpartum period. This article presents the rationale for a health promotion approach to meeting the needs of women in the postpartum period and introduces the Perinatal Maternal Health Promotion Model. This conceptual framework is built around a definition of maternal well-being that asserts that health goes beyond merely the absence of medical complications. In the model, the core elements of a healthy postpartum are identified and include not only physical recovery but also the ability to meet individual needs and successfully transition into motherhood. These goals can best be achieved by helping women develop or strengthen 4 key individual health-promoting skills: the ability to mobilize social support, self-efficacy, positive coping strategies, and realistic expectations. While the model focuses on the woman, the health promotion approach takes into account that maternal health in this critical period affects and is affected by her family, social network, and community. Clinical implications of the model are addressed, including specific health promotion strategies that clinicians can readily incorporate into antepartum and postpartum care. PMID:24320095

Fahey, Jenifer O; Shenassa, Edmond

2013-01-01

30

Perinatal Maternal Food Restriction Induces Alterations in Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity and in Plasma Corticosterone-Binding Globulin Capacity of Weaning Rat Pups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of perinatal maternal malnutrition on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in both basal and stressful conditions in newborn rats at weaning. Mothers from the control group were fed ad libitum. Mothers exposed to food restriction received 50% (FR50) of the daily intake of pregnant dams during the last week of gestation (Pre group), lactation (Post group)

Marion Léonhardt; Jean Lesage; Laurence Dufourny; Anne Dickès-Coopman; Valérie Montel; Jean-Paul Dupouy

2002-01-01

31

Effects of Perinatal HIV Infection and Early Institutional Rearing on Physical and Cognitive Development of Children in Ukraine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…

Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie

2010-01-01

32

Effects of Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes during Pregnancy: A Single-Center Cohort Study of a Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Objective Adverse maternal outcomes and perinatal complications are closely associated with overt maternal hypothyroidism, but whether these complications occur in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) during pregnancy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCH on maternal and perinatal outcomes during pregnancy. Methods A prospective study of data from 8012 pregnant women (371 women with SCH, 7641 euthyroid women) was performed. Maternal serum samples were collected in different trimesters to examine thyroid hormone concentrations. SCH was defined as a thyroid stimulating hormone concentration exceeding the trimester-specific reference value with a normal free thyroxine concentration. The occurrence of maternal outcomes, including gestational hypertension (GH), gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta previa, placental abruption, prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM), and premature delivery; and perinatal outcomes, including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), fetal distress, low birth weight (LBW; live birth weight ?2500 g), stillbirth, and malformation, was recorded. Logistic regression with adjustment for confounding demographic and medical factors was used to determine the risks of adverse outcomes in patients with SCH. Results Compared with euthyroid status, SCH was associated with higher rates of GH (1.819% vs. 3.504%, P?=?0.020; ?2?=?7.345; odds ratio (OR), 2.243; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.251–4.024), PROM (4.973% vs. 8.625%, P?=?0.002; ?2?=?72.102; adjusted OR, 6.014; 95% CI, 3.975–9.099), IUGR (1.008% vs. 2.965%, <0.001; ?2?=?13.272; adjusted OR, 3.336; 95% CI, 1.745–6.377), and LBW (1.885% vs. 4.582%, P<0.001; ?2?=?13.558; adjusted OR, 2.919; 95% CI, 1.650–5.163). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that pregnant women with SCH had increased risks of GH and PROM, and their fetuses and infants had increased risks of IUGR and LBW. Thus, routine maternal thyroid function testing is necessary to improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. PMID:25353960

Dai, Jie; Zhang, Qian; Si, Guang-Xin; Yang, Hong; Ye, En-Ling; Chen, Qing-Shou; Yu, Le-Chu; Zhang, Chi; Lu, Xue-Mian

2014-01-01

33

SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIRTHPLACE OF PATERNAL AND MATERNAL GRANDFATHER IN THE JERUSALEM PERINATAL COHORT PROSPECTIVE STUDY  

PubMed Central

Some forms of epigenetic abnormalities transmitted to offspring are manifest in differences in disease incidence that depend on parent-of-origin. To explore whether such phenomena might operate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, we estimated the relative incidence of these conditions in relation to parent-of-origin by considering the two grandfathers' countries of birth. In a prospective cohort of 88,829 offspring, born in Jerusalem in 1964–76 we identified 637 cases through Israel's psychiatric registry. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for paternal and maternal grandfathers' countries of birth using proportional hazards methods, controlling for parents' ages, low social class and duration of marriage. After adjusting for multiple observations, we found no significant differences between descendants of maternal or paternal grandfathers born in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Yemen, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya/Egypt, Poland, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Germany or the USA. Those with paternal grandfathers from Romania (RR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3–2.8) or Hungary (1.6, 1.0–2.6) showed an increased incidence; however, those with maternal grandfathers from these countries experienced reduced incidence (RR=0.5, 0.3–0.8 and 0.4, 0.2–0.8). In post-hoc analyses we found that results were similar whether the comparison groups were restricted to descendants of other Europeans or included those from Western Asia and North Africa; and effects of paternal grandfathers from Romania/Hungary were more pronounced in females, while effects of maternal grandfathers from these countries were similar in males and females. These post-hoc “hypothesis-generating” findings lead one to question whether some families with ancestors in Romania or Hungary might carry a variant or mutation at a parentally imprinted locus that is altering susceptibility to schizophrenia. Such a locus, if it exists, might involve the X chromosome. PMID:19361958

Harlap, S; Perrin, M C; Deutsch, L; Kleinhaus, K; Fennig, S; Nahon, D; Teitelbaum, A; Friedlander, Y; Malaspina, D

2009-01-01

34

Maternal and perinatal outcomes of delivery after a previous Cesarean section in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria: a prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Obstetricians in developing countries appear generally reluctant to conduct vaginal delivery in women with a previous Cesarean because of lack of adequate facilities for optimal fetomaternal monitoring. Objective To describe delivery outcomes among women with one previous Cesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a prospective observational study to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of attempted vaginal birth after Cesarean sections (VBAC) following one previous Cesarean section. Analysis was done with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for Windows using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Results Two thousand six hundred and ten women delivered in the center during the study period, of whom 395 had one previous Cesarean section. A total of 370 women with one previous Cesarean section had nonrecurrent indications, of whom 355 consenting pregnant women with one previous Cesarean section were studied. A majority of the women (320/355, 90.1%) preferred to have vaginal delivery despite the one previous Cesarean section. However, only approximately 54% (190/355) were found suitable for trial of VBAC, out of whom 50% (95/190 had successful VBAC. Ninety-five women (50.0%) had failed attempt at VBAC and were delivered by emergency Cesarean section while 35 women (9.8%) had emergency Cesarean section for other obstetric indications (apart from failed VBAC). There was no case of uterine rupture or neonatal and maternal deaths recorded in any group. Apgar scores of less than 7 in the first minute were significantly more frequent amongst women who had vaginal delivery when compared to those who had elective repeat Cesarean section (P=0.03). Conclusion Most women who had one previous Cesarean delivery chose to undergo trial of VBAC, although only about half were considered suitable for VBAC. The maternal and fetal outcomes of trial of VBAC in selected women with one previous Cesarean delivery for non-recurrent indications were good. Obstetricians in this area should do more to allow VBAC in women with one previous Cesarean section for nonrecurrent indications. PMID:24648774

Ugwu, George O; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onah, Hyacinth E; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ezugwu, Frank O

2014-01-01

35

Prenatal enrichment and recovery from perinatal cortical damage: effects of maternal complex housing  

PubMed Central

Birth is a particularly vulnerable time for acquiring brain injury. Unfortunately, very few treatments are available for those affected. Here we explore the effectiveness of prenatal intervention in an animal model of early brain damage. We used a complex housing paradigm as a form of prenatal enrichment. Six nulliparous dams and one male rat were placed in complex housing (condomom group) for 12 h per day until the dams' delivered their pups. At parturition the dams were left in their home (standard) cages with their pups. Four dams were housed in standard cages (cagemom group) throughout pregnancy and with their pups until weaning. At postnatal day 3 (P3) infants of both groups received frontal cortex removals or sham surgery. Behavioral testing began on P60 and included the Morris water task and a skilled reaching task. Brains were processed for Golgi analyses. Complex housing of the mother had a significant effect on the behavior of their pups. Control animals from the condomom group outperformed those of the cagemom group in the water task. Condomom animals with lesions performed better than their cagemom cohorts in both the water task and in skilled reaching. Condomom animals showed an increase in cortical thickness at anterior planes and thalamic area at both anterior and posterior regions. Golgi analyses revealed an increase in spine density. These results suggest that prenatal enrichment alters brain organization in manner that is prophylactic for perinatal brain injury. This result could have significant implications for the prenatal management of infants expected to be at risk for difficult birth. PMID:25009478

Gibb, Robbin L.; Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.; Kolb, Bryan

2014-01-01

36

Elevated blood glucose recommendation guidelines that produce positive maternal and perinatal outcomes at the University of Kansas Obstetrics Clinic  

E-print Network

and management practices at the University of Kansas Obstetrics (KUMC OB) clinic in regard to perinatal outcomes, and adherence to recommendations from the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG). Design: In this retrospective...

Plumberg, Erin M.

2013-05-31

37

SUPPLEMENTATION WITH VITAMINS C AND E DURING PREGNANCY FOR THE PREVENTION OF PREECLAMPSIA AND OTHER ADVERSE MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND METAANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine whether supplementation with vitamins C and E during pregnancy reduces the risk of preeclampsia and other adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. RESULTS Nine trials involving a total of 19,810 women were included. Overall, there were no significant differences between the vitamin and placebo groups in the risk of preeclampsia (9.6% versus 9.6%; relative risk 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.92–1.09). Similar results were obtained when subgroup analyses were restricted to women at high risk or low/moderate risk for preeclampsia. Women supplemented with vitamins C and E were at increased risk of developing gestational hypertension and premature rupture of membranes, and a decreased risk of abruptio placentae. There were no significant differences between the vitamin and placebo groups in the risk of other adverse maternal or fetal/perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSION Supplementation with vitamins C and E during pregnancy does not prevent preeclampsia. PMID:21529757

CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustín; ROMERO, Roberto; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; HASSAN, Sonia

2011-01-01

38

Time window-dependent effect of perinatal maternal protein restriction on insulin sensitivity and energy substrate oxidation in adult male offspring.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that a suboptimal environment during perinatal life programs offspring susceptibility to the development of metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the lasting impact of perinatal protein deprivation on mitochondrial fuel oxidation and insulin sensitivity would depend on the time window of exposure. To improve our understanding of underlying mechanisms, an integrative approach was used, combining the assessment of insulin sensitivity and untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in the offspring. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed in adult male rats born from dams fed a low-protein diet during gestation and/or lactation, and subsequently exposed to a Western diet (WD) for 10 wk. Metabolomics was combined with targeted acylcarnitine profiling and analysis of liver gene expression to identify markers of adaptation to WD that influence the phenotype outcome evaluated by body composition analysis. At adulthood, offspring of protein-restricted dams had impaired insulin secretion when fed a standard diet. Moreover, rats who demonstrated catch-up growth at weaning displayed higher gluconeogenesis and branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and lower fatty acid ?-oxidation compared with control rats. Postweaning exposure of intrauterine growth restriction-born rats to a WD exacerbated incomplete fatty acid ?-oxidation and excess fat deposition. Control offspring nursed by protein-restricted mothers showed peculiar low-fat accretion through adulthood and preserved insulin sensitivity even after WD-exposure. Altogether, our findings suggest a testable hypothesis about how maternal diet might influence metabolic outcomes (insulin sensitivity) in the next generation such as mitochondrial overload and/or substrate oxidation inflexibility dependent on the time window of perinatal dietary manipulation. PMID:24808498

Agnoux, Aurore Martin; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Simard, Gilles; Poupeau, Guillaume; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile

2014-07-15

39

GCN2 in the Brain Programs PPAR?2 and Triglyceride Storage in the Liver during Perinatal Development in Response to Maternal Dietary Fat  

PubMed Central

The liver plays a central role in regulating lipid metabolism and facilitates efficient lipid utilization and storage. We discovered that a modest increase in maternal dietary fat in mice programs triglyceride storage in the liver of their developing offspring. The activation of this programming is not apparent, however, until several months later at the adult stage. We found that the perinatal programming of adult hepatic triglyceride storage was controlled by the eIF2? kinase GCN2 (EIF2AK4) in the brain of the offspring, which stimulates epigenetic modification of the Ppar?2 gene in the neonatal liver. Genetic ablation of Gcn2 in the offspring exhibited reduced hepatic triglyceride storage and repressed expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (Ppar?2) and two lipid droplet protein genes, Fsp27 and Cidea. Brain-specific, but not liver-specific, Gcn2 KO mice exhibit these same defects demonstrating that GCN2 in the developing brain programs hepatic triglyceride storage. GCN2 and nutrition-dependent programming of Ppar?2 is correlated with trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3) in the Ppar?2 promoter region during neonatal development. In addition to regulating hepatic triglyceride in response to modest changes in dietary fat, Gcn2 deficiency profoundly impacts the severity of the obese-diabetic phenotype of the leptin receptor mutant (db/db) mouse, by reducing hepatic steatosis and obesity but exacerbating the diabetic phenotype. We suggest that GCN2-dependent perinatal programming of hepatic triglyceride storage is an adaptation to couple early nutrition to anticipated needs for hepatic triglyceride storage in adults. However, increasing the hepatic triglyceride set point during perinatal development may predispose individuals to hepatosteatosis, while reducing circulating fatty acid levels that promote insulin resistance. PMID:24130751

Xu, Xu; Hu, Jingjie; McGrath, Barbara C.; Cavener, Douglas R.

2013-01-01

40

Gestational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters retinoid homeostasis in maternal and perinatal tissues of the Holtzman rat  

SciTech Connect

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), one of the most widely studied environmental contaminants, causes a variety of adverse health effects including teratogenesis and altered development which may be related to disruptions in retinoid homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect that gestational administration of TCDD has on retinoid homeostasis in both pregnant Holtzman rats and developing fetuses and neonates. A single oral dose of TCDD (0, 1.5, 3, or 6 {mu}g/kg) was administered to pregnant rats on gestation day 10, with fetuses analyzed on gestation days 17 and 20, and neonates analyzed on post natal day 7. Exposure to TCDD generally produced decreases in the concentrations of retinyl esters, such as retinyl palmitate, and retinol in maternal and perinatal liver and lung, while increasing levels in the maternal kidney. Additionally, perinatal hepatic retinol binding protein 1-dependent retinyl ester hydrolysis was also decrease by TCDD. Sensitivity of the developing perinates to TCDD appeared to have an age-related component demonstrated by an increased rate of mortality and significant alterations to body weight and length on post natal day 7 relative to that observed at gestation day 20. A unique observation made in this study was a significant decrease in lung weight observed in the perinates exposed to TCDD. Taken together, these data demonstrate that TCDD significantly alters retinoid homeostasis in tissues of the developing fetus and neonate, suggesting that their unique sensitivity to TCDD may at least be in part the result of altered retinoid homeostasis.

Kransler, Kevin M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Farber Hall 102, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)], E-mail: kransler@buffalo.edu; Tonucci, David A. [Givaudan Flavors Corp., 1199 Edison Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45216 (United States)], E-mail: david.tonucci@givaudan.com; McGarrigle, Barbara P. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Farber Hall 102, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)], E-mail: bpmg@buffalo.edu; Napoli, Joseph L. [Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, College of Natural Resources, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: jna@berkeley.edu; Olson, James R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Farber Hall 102, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)], E-mail: jolson@buffalo.edu

2007-10-01

41

Perinatal programming prevention measures.  

PubMed

Over the past 10 years, there has been outstanding scientific progress related to perinatal programming and its epigenetic effects in health, and we can anticipate this trend will continue in the near future. We need to make use and apply these achievements to human neurodevelopment via prevention interventions. Based on the concept of the interaction between genome and ambiome, this chapter proposes low-cost easy-implementation preventive strategies for maternal and infant health institutions.Breastfeeding and human milk administration are the first preventive measures, as has been reviewed in the policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Another strategy is the Safe and Family-Centered Maternity Hospitals initiative that promotes and empowers the inclusion of the families and the respect for their rights, especially during pregnancy and birth. (This change of paradigm was approved and is recommended by both United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF, and Pan American Health Organization, PAHO.) Then, there is also an important emphasis given to the sacred hour-which highlights the impact of bonding, attachment, and breastfeeding during the first hour of life-the pain prevention and treatment in newborns, the control of the "new morbidity" represented by late preterm infants, and finally, the importance of avoiding intrauterine and extrauterine growth restriction. (However, there are not yet clear recommendations about nutritional interventions in order to diminish the potential metabolic syndrome consequence in the adult.). PMID:25287552

Larguía, A Miguel; González, María Aurelia; Dinerstein, Néstor Alejandro; Soto Conti, Constanza

2015-01-01

42

Perinatal Transmission of Major, Minor, and Multiple Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Variants In Utero and Intrapartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have provided conflicting data on the presence of selective pressures in the transmission of a homogeneous maternal viral subpopulation to the infant. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to definitively characterize the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) quasispecies transmitted in utero and intrapartum. HIV-1 envelope gene diversity from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma was measured

RUTH E. DICKOVER; EILEEN M. GARRATTY; SUSAN PLAEGER; YVONNE J. BRYSON

2001-01-01

43

Maternal hyperuricemia in normotensive singleton pregnancy, a prenatal finding with continuous perinatal and postnatal effects, a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the association of maternal hyperuricemia with adverse pregnancy outcome and neonatal metabolic, neurologic and respiratory disturbances in normotensive singleton pregnant women. Method This prospective multicentric cohort study was conducted on 404 normotensive singleton pregnant women who were admitted for delivery in Vali-Asr and Akbar-Abadi teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Upon enrollment maternal and umbilical sera were obtained for determining uric acid levels. 1 and 5 minutes Apgar scores, the need for neonatal resuscitation and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission were recorded. In case of NICU admission a neonatal blood sample was drawn for determining uric acid, blood sugar and bilirubin levels. An intracranial ultrasound imaging was also carried out for the admittd neonates for detecting intraventricular hemorrhage. Results Maternal hyperuricemia (uric acid one standard deviation greater than the appropriate gestational age) was independently associated with preterm birth (odds ratio (OR), 3.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1 – 4.79), small for gestational age delivery (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04 – 2.57), NICU admission (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.12 – 2.94) and neonatal IVH (OR, 8.14; 95% CI, 1.11 – 87.1). Conclusions Maternal hyperuricemia in normotensive singleton pregnant women is significantly associated with preterm and SGA delivery and the development of neonatal IVH. PMID:24636149

2014-01-01

44

Perinatal maternal life events and psychotic experiences in children at twelve years in a birth cohort study?  

PubMed Central

Background International studies indicate that the median prevalence of psychotic experiences in children is 7%. It has been proposed that environmental stress during pregnancy may affect the neurodevelopment of the foetus and lead to a vulnerability in the child to later stressors and psychopathology. Aim In this study we explore the relationship between environmental stress during pregnancy and psychotic experiences in children in the general population at 12 years. Methods We analysed a birth cohort of 5038 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Environmental stress was measured as life event exposure. Data on life events were collected on women during their pregnancy, whilst psychotic experiences in the offspring were assessed at age 12. Results There was a weak association between maternal exposure to life events and psychotic experiences at twelve years (crude OR 1.10 95% CI 1.02–1.18) per quartile of life event score. This association was not reduced after adjustment for socio-economic status, family history of schizophrenia, maternal education or birth weight but after adjustment for maternal anxiety and depression and smoking in early pregnancy there was no longer any evidence for an association (OR 1.01 95% CI 0.93–1.10). Conclusion This study provides some evidence to suggest that stressful life events may affect child psychotic experiences through effects on maternal psychopathology, and possibly physiology, during pregnancy. PMID:24275580

Dorrington, Sarah; Zammit, Stan; Asher, Laura; Evans, Jonathan; Heron, Jonathan; Lewis, Glyn

2014-01-01

45

Maternal glucose level and body mass index measured at gestational diabetes mellitus screening and the risk of macrosomia: results from a perinatal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the impact of maternal blood glucose (BG) level and body mass index (BMI) measured at gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening on the risk of macrosomia. Design A perinatal cohort of women were followed up from receiving perinatal healthcare to giving birth. Setting Beichen District, Tianjin, China between June 2011 and October 2012. Participants 1951 women aged 19–42?years with valid values of BMI and BG level at GDM screening (24–28?weeks gestation), singleton birth and birth weight (BW)>2500?g. Main outcomes and measures Primary outcome was macrosomia (BW>4000?g). BG level and BMI were measured at GDM screening. Results 191 (9.7%) newborns were macrosomia. The ORs (95% CIs) of macrosomia from multiple logistic regression were 1.14 (1.10 to 1.19, p<0.0001) for BMI and 1.11 (1.01 to 1.23, p=0.03) for BG. When BMI and BG levels (continuous) were modelled simultaneously, the OR for BMI was similar, but significantly attenuated for BG. Areas of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were 0.6530 (0.6258 to 0.6803) for BMI and 0.5548 (0.5248 to 0.5848) for BG (?2=26.17, p<0.0001). BG (mmol/L, <6.7, 6.7–7.8 or ?7.8) and BMI in quintiles (Q1–Q5) were evaluated with BG <6.7 and Q2 BMI as the reference group. The ORs of macrosomia were not statistically different for mothers in Q1 or Q2 of BMI regardless of the BG levels; the ORs for ?Q3 of BMI were elevated significantly with the highest OR observed in Q5 of BMI and BG levels ?7.8 (6.93 (2.61 to 18.43), p<0.0001). Conclusions High BMI measured at GDM screening was the most important determinant for risk of macrosomia. These findings suggest that GDM screening may be a critical gestational time point to initiate maternal weight control oriented intervention strategy to lower the risk. PMID:24844269

Liu, Jian; Leng, Junhong; Tang, Chen; Liu, Gongshu; Hay, John; Wang, Jing; Wen, Shiwu; Li, Zhenling; She, Ye

2014-01-01

46

Maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with placenta praevia and accreta in teaching hospitals in Western Turkey.  

PubMed

In this retrospective study, we investigated patient characteristics and fetal and maternal outcomes of placenta praevia and accreta at two tertiary hospitals in Istanbul. A total of 364 pregnancies complicated by placenta praevia with (n = 46) and without (n = 318) placenta accreta managed between January 2005 and December 2010 were reviewed. Among 364 women, 46 (12.6%) had placenta accreta and 318 (87.4%) had placenta praevia without accreta. The rates of curettage history and caesarean delivery were significantly higher in the group with placenta accreta. Furthermore, we found that emergency surgery had negative effects on maternal outcomes in the placenta praevia group. In addition, when accreta was suspected at ultrasound examination in women who had placenta praevia, the mean estimated blood loss during surgery was reduced significantly. If placenta praevia is detected, a careful ultrasound examination should be performed and the patient should undergo elective surgery at a tertiary referral hospital. PMID:24734898

As?c?oglu, O; ?ahbaz, A; Güngördük, K; Yildirim, G; As?c?oglu, B Besimo?lu; Ülker, V

2014-08-01

47

An in vivo animal study assessing long-term changes in hypothalamic cytokines following perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture based on Arctic maternal body burden  

PubMed Central

Background The geographic distribution of environmental toxins is generally not uniform, with certain northern regions showing a particularly high concentration of pesticides, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. For instance, Northern Canadians are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and methylmercury (MeHg), primarily through country foods. Previous studies have reported associations between neuronal pathology and exposure to such toxins. The present investigation assessed whether perinatal exposure (gestation and lactation) of rats to a chemical mixture (27 constituents comprised of PCBs, OCs and MeHg) based on Arctic maternal exposure profiles at concentrations near human exposure levels, would affect brain levels of several inflammatory cytokines Methods Rats were dosed during gestation and lactation and cytokine levels were measured in the brains of offspring at five months of age. Hypothalamic cytokine protein levels were measured with a suspension-based array system and differences were determined using ANOVA and post hoc statistical tests. Results The early life PCB treatment alone significantly elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in rats at five months of age to a degree comparable to that of the entire chemical mixture. Similarly, the full mixture (and to a lesser degree PCBs alone) elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1b, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. The full mixture of chemicals also moderately increased (in an additive fashion) hypothalamic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?). Challenge with bacterial endotoxin at adulthood generally increased hypothalamic levels to such a degree that differences between the perinatally treated chemical groups were no longer detectable. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure at critical neurodevelopmental times to environmental chemicals at concentrations and combinations reflective of those observed in vulnerable population can have enduring consequences upon cytokines that are thought to contribute to a range of pathological states. In particular, such protracted alterations in the cytokine balance within the hypothalamus would be expected to favor marked changes in neuro-immune and hormonal communication that could have profound behavioral consequences. PMID:21745392

2011-01-01

48

Genetic trends in maternal and neonatal behaviors and their association with perinatal survival in French Large White swine.  

PubMed

Genetic trends in maternal abilities were studied in French Large White sows. Two lines representing old-type and modern-type pigs were obtained by inseminating modern sows with semen from boars born in 1977 or 1998. Successive generations were produced by inter-se mating. The maternal performance of sows from the second generation was compared in farrowing crates. Video analysis was performed for the 1st h after the onset of 43 and 36 farrowing events, and for the 6 first hours for 23 and 21 events, in old-type and modern-type sows, respectively. Genetic trends were estimated as twice the difference in estimates between the 2 lines. The contribution of behavior to the probability of stillbirth and piglet death in the first 2 days was estimated as the percentage of deviance reduction (DR) due to the addition of behavior traits as factors in the mortality model. Sow activity decreased strongly from the 1st to the 2nd h in both lines (P < 0.001). In the first 6 h, old-type sows sat (1st parity), stood (2nd parity) and rooted (both parities) for longer than modern-type sows, which were less active, especially in 2nd parity. In modern-type sows, stillbirth was associated positively with lying laterally in the first 6 h (4.6% DR) and negatively in the 1st h (9.1% DR). First-parity old-type sows were more attentive to piglets (P = 0.003) than modern-type sows which responded more to nose contacts at 2nd parity (P = 0.01). Maternal reactivity of modern-type sows was associated with a higher risk of piglet death (4.6% DR). Respiratory distress at birth tended to be higher in modern-type piglets than in old-type piglets (P < 0.10) and was associated with a higher risk of piglet death in both lines (2.7-3.1% DR). Mobility at birth was lower in modern-type than old-type piglets (P < 0.0001). Genetic trends show that sow and piglet behaviors at farrowing have changed. Our results indicate reduced welfare in parturient modern-type sows and their newborn piglets. PMID:25520737

Canario, Laurianne; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Rydhmer, Lotta

2014-01-01

49

Genetic trends in maternal and neonatal behaviors and their association with perinatal survival in French Large White swine  

PubMed Central

Genetic trends in maternal abilities were studied in French Large White sows. Two lines representing old-type and modern-type pigs were obtained by inseminating modern sows with semen from boars born in 1977 or 1998. Successive generations were produced by inter-se mating. The maternal performance of sows from the second generation was compared in farrowing crates. Video analysis was performed for the 1st h after the onset of 43 and 36 farrowing events, and for the 6 first hours for 23 and 21 events, in old-type and modern-type sows, respectively. Genetic trends were estimated as twice the difference in estimates between the 2 lines. The contribution of behavior to the probability of stillbirth and piglet death in the first 2 days was estimated as the percentage of deviance reduction (DR) due to the addition of behavior traits as factors in the mortality model. Sow activity decreased strongly from the 1st to the 2nd h in both lines (P < 0.001). In the first 6 h, old-type sows sat (1st parity), stood (2nd parity) and rooted (both parities) for longer than modern-type sows, which were less active, especially in 2nd parity. In modern-type sows, stillbirth was associated positively with lying laterally in the first 6 h (4.6% DR) and negatively in the 1st h (9.1% DR). First-parity old-type sows were more attentive to piglets (P = 0.003) than modern-type sows which responded more to nose contacts at 2nd parity (P = 0.01). Maternal reactivity of modern-type sows was associated with a higher risk of piglet death (4.6% DR). Respiratory distress at birth tended to be higher in modern-type piglets than in old-type piglets (P < 0.10) and was associated with a higher risk of piglet death in both lines (2.7–3.1% DR). Mobility at birth was lower in modern-type than old-type piglets (P < 0.0001). Genetic trends show that sow and piglet behaviors at farrowing have changed. Our results indicate reduced welfare in parturient modern-type sows and their newborn piglets. PMID:25520737

Canario, Laurianne; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Rydhmer, Lotta

2014-01-01

50

Maternal immunization: opportunities for scientific advancement.  

PubMed

Maternal immunization is an effective strategy to prevent and/or minimize the severity of infectious diseases in pregnant women and their infants. Based on the success of vaccination programs to prevent maternal and neonatal tetanus, maternal immunization has been well received in the United States and globally as a promising strategy for the prevention of other vaccine-preventable diseases that threaten pregnant women and infants, such as influenza and pertussis. Given the promise for reducing the burden of infectious conditions of perinatal significance through the development of vaccines against relevant pathogens, the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored a series of meetings to foster progress toward clinical development of vaccines for use in pregnancy. A multidisciplinary group of stakeholders convened at the NIH in December 2013 to identify potential barriers and opportunities for scientific advancement in maternal immunization. PMID:25425719

Beigi, Richard H; Fortner, Kimberly B; Munoz, Flor M; Roberts, Jeff; Gordon, Jennifer L; Han, Htay Htay; Glenn, Greg; Dormitzer, Philip R; Gu, Xing Xing; Read, Jennifer S; Edwards, Kathryn; Patel, Shital M; Swamy, Geeta K

2014-12-15

51

How an extended perinatal audit may improve perinatal policy.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: A perinatal audit has the intention of quality of care improvement based on analysis of perinatal death, with our without analysis of maternal morbidity and/or mortality. Additional analysis of cases of intrapartum asphyxia could provide more insight into ways to improve quality of perinatal care. Methods: Analysis of cases of perinatal death and asphyxia in Jan Yperman Hospital, Ieper, Belgium, in 2012. Results: Three perinatal deaths occurred, none were preventable. Nineteen cases of proven metabolic acidosis have been identified. Three cases are considered possibly preventable, four cases are considered preventable. In three (possibly) preventable cases, foetal monitoring was absent during the active second stage of labour. In two preventable cases, intervention following a significant ST event in the second stage of labour was delayed. In one case intervention was delayed in the first stage of labour, while in another, indicated operative delivery in the second stage was not conducted. Conclusions: Integrating intrapartum asphyxia in the perinatal audit gives an opportunity to identify and eliminate weak points in the perinatal care chain, thereby optimizing quality of care. Lessons learned from our internal audit are the value of foetal monitoring and adequate action on significant ST events during second stage of labour. PMID:25212976

Dehaene, Isabelle; Roelens, Kristien; Page, Geert

2014-09-29

52

Perinatal neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

Fetal or neonatal brain injury can result in lifelong neurologic disability. The most significant risk factor for perinatal brain injury is prematurity; however, in absolute numbers, full-term infants represent the majority of affected children. Research on strategies to prevent or mitigate the impact of perinatal brain injury (“perinatal neuroprotection”) has established the mitigating roles of magnesium sulfate administration for preterm infants and therapeutic hypothermia for term infants with suspected perinatal brain injury. Banked umbilical cord blood, erythropoietin, and a number of other agents that may improve neuronal repair show promise for improving outcomes following perinatal brain injury in animal models. Other preventative strategies include delayed umbilical cord clamping in preterm infants and progesterone in women with prior preterm birth or short cervix and avoidance of infections. Despite these advances, we have not successfully decreased the rate of preterm birth, nor are we able to predict term infants at risk of hypoxic brain injury in order to intervene prior to the hypoxic event. Further, we lack the ability to modulate the sequelae of neuronal cell insults or the ability to repair brain injury after it has been sustained. As a consequence, despite exciting advances in the field of perinatal neuroprotection, perinatal brain injury still impacts thousands of newborns each year with significant long-term morbidity and mortality. PMID:24592318

Jelin, Angie C.; Thiet, Mari-Paule

2014-01-01

53

Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.  

PubMed

Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor ? expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway. PMID:24767307

Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

2014-07-01

54

Perinatal, Maternal, and Fetal Characteristics of Children Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Population-Based Study Utilizing the Swedish Medical Birth Register  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pre- and perinatal factors on the risk of developing attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: We investigated the medical history of 237 children (206 male; 31 female) from Malmo, Sweden born between 1986 and 1996 and in whom a diagnosis of ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical…

Gustafsson, Peik; Kallen, Karin

2011-01-01

55

The impact of training non-physician clinicians in Malawi on maternal and perinatal mortality: a cluster randomised controlled evaluation of the enhancing training and appropriate technologies for mothers and babies in Africa (ETATMBA) project  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal mortality in much of sub-Saharan Africa is very high whereas there has been a steady decline in over the past 60 years in Europe. Perinatal mortality is 12 times higher than maternal mortality accounting for about 7 million neonatal deaths; many of these in sub-Saharan countries. Many of these deaths are preventable. Countries, like Malawi, do not have the resources nor highly trained medical specialists using complex technologies within their healthcare system. Much of the burden falls on healthcare staff other than doctors including non-physician clinicians (NPCs) such as clinical officers, midwives and community health-workers. The aim of this trial is to evaluate a project which is training NPCs as advanced leaders by providing them with skills and knowledge in advanced neonatal and obstetric care. Training that will hopefully be cascaded to their colleagues (other NPCs, midwives, nurses). Methods/design This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with the unit of randomisation being the 14 districts of central and northern Malawi (one large district was divided into two giving an overall total of 15). Eight districts will be randomly allocated the intervention. Within these eight districts 50 NPCs will be selected and will be enrolled on the training programme (the intervention). Primary outcome will be maternal and perinatal (defined as until discharge from health facility) mortality. Data will be harvested from all facilities in both intervention and control districts for the lifetime of the project (3–4 years) and comparisons made. In addition a process evaluation using both quantitative and qualitative (e.g. interviews) will be undertaken to evaluate the intervention implementation. Discussion Education and training of NPCs is a key to improving healthcare for mothers and babies in countries like Malawi. Some of the challenges faced are discussed as are the potential limitations. It is hoped that the findings from this trial will lead to a sustainable improvement in healthcare and workforce development and training. Trial registration ISRCTN63294155 PMID:23098408

2012-01-01

56

Assembly Bill 1825: Maternity Services  

E-print Network

infection Antepartum hemorrhage Placental abruption Preterm premature rupture of membranes Induction of labor Postpartuminfection*, maternity service*, medi-cal, neural tube defects, nuchal translucency, perinatal (care or service*), placenta previa, postnatal service*, postpartum

California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP)

2010-01-01

57

Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Exercise in Pregnant Women with Chronic Hypertension and/or Previous Preeclampsia: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To evaluate the association between physical exercise supervised in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Method. Randomized controlled trial, which included 116 pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, considered risk of preeclampsia development. They were divided into two groups: study group that performed physical exercise with a stationary bicycle once a week, for 30 minutes; the intensity was controlled (heart rate 20% above resting values), under professional supervision and a control group that was not engaged in any physical exercise. The data was retrieved from medical charts. Significance level assumed was 5%. Results. Women from study group performed 9.24 ± 7.03 of physical exercise sessions. There were no differences between groups comparing type of delivery and maternal outcomes, including maternal morbidity and hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal outcomes, including birth weight, adequacy of weight to gestational age, prematurity, Apgar scale at first and fifth minutes, hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal morbidity. Conclusions. Physical exercise using a stationary bicycle in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, once a week, under professional supervision, did not interfere in the delivery method and did not produce maternal and neonatal risks of the occurrence of morbidity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01395342. PMID:23997960

Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Burgos, Camila Schneider Gannuny; do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Ferreira, Néville Oliveira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto e Silva, João Luiz

2013-01-01

58

Maternal mortality and derivations from the WHO near-miss tool: An institutional experience over a decade in Southern India  

PubMed Central

Objective Preceding the use of World Health Organization (WHO) near-miss approach in our institute for the surveillance of Severe Maternal Outcome (SMO), we pilot-tested the tool on maternal death cases that took place over the last 10 years in order to establish its feasibility and usefulness at the institutional level. Material and Methods This was a retrospective review of maternal deaths in Christian Medical College Vellore, India, over a decade. Cases were recorded and analyzed using the WHO near-miss tool. The International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision was used to define and classify maternal mortality. Results There were 98,139 total births and 212 recorded maternal deaths. Direct causes of mortality constituted 46.96% of total maternal deaths, indirect causes constituted 51.40%, and unknown cases constituted 1.9%. Nonobstetrical cause (48.11%) is the single largest group. Infections (19.8%) other than puerperal sepsis remain an important group, with pulmonary tuberculosis, scrub typhus, and malaria being the leading ones. According to the WHO near-miss criteria, cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunctions are the most frequent organ dysfunctions. Incidence of coagulation dysfunction is seen highest in obstetrical hemorrhage (64%). All women who died had at least one organ dysfunction; 90.54% mothers had two- and 38.52% had four- or more organ involvement. Conclusion The screening questions of the WHO near-miss tool are particularly instrumental in obtaining a comprehensive assessment of the problem beyond the International Classification of Diseases-Maternal Mortality and establish the need for laboratory-based identification of organ dysfunctions and prompt availability of critical care facilities. The process indicators, on the other hand, inquire about the basic interventions that are more or less widely practiced and therefore give no added information at the institutional level. PMID:25584030

Halder, Ajay; Jose, Ruby; Vijayselvi, Reeta

2014-01-01

59

India’s Conditional Cash Transfer Programme (the JSY) to Promote Institutional Birth: Is There an Association between Institutional Birth Proportion and Maternal Mortality?  

PubMed Central

Background India accounts for 19% of global maternal deaths, three-quarters of which come from nine states. In 2005, India launched a conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), to reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR) through promotion of institutional births. JSY is the largest CCT in the world. In the nine states with relatively lower socioeconomic levels, JSY provides a cash incentive to all women on birthing in health institution. The cash incentive is intended to reduce financial barriers to accessing institutional care for delivery. Increased institutional births are expected to reduce MMR. Thus, JSY is expected to (a) increase institutional births and (b) reduce MMR in states with high proportions of institutional births. We examine the association between (a) service uptake, i.e., institutional birth proportions and (b) health outcome, i.e., MMR. Method Data from Sample Registration Survey of India were analysed to describe trends in proportion of institutional births before (2005) and during (2006–2010) the implementation of the JSY. Data from Annual Health Survey (2010–2011) for all 284 districts in above- mentioned nine states were analysed to assess relationship between MMR and institutional births. Results Proportion of institutional births increased from a pre-programme average of 20% to 49% in 5 years (p<0.05). In bivariate analysis, proportion of institutional births had a small negative correlation with district MMR (r?=??0.11).The multivariate regression model did not establish significant association between institutional birth proportions and MMR [CI: ?0.10, 0.68]. Conclusions Our analysis confirmed that JSY succeeded in raising institutional births significantly. However, we were unable to detect a significant association between institutional birth proportion and MMR. This indicates that high institutional birth proportions that JSY has achieved are of themselves inadequate to reduce MMR. Other factors including improved quality of care at institutions are required for intended effect. PMID:23826302

Randive, Bharat; Diwan, Vishal; De Costa, Ayesha

2013-01-01

60

Transitioning to Family Centered Maternity Care from Traditional Maternity Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States perinatal statistics indicate that maternity care needs improvement. In this evidence-based project, guided by the promoting action on research implementation in health services (PARIHS) framework, it is posited that no practice change will occur unless nurses understand and appreciate the relevance of evidence-based maternity care. A within-group design was used to address the clinical question, \\

Kathleen Kleefisch

2011-01-01

61

Impact of Increasing Capacity for Generating and Using Research on Maternal and Perinatal Health Practices in South East Asia (SEA-ORCHID Project)  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity remain unacceptably high in many low and middle income countries. SEA-ORCHID was a five year international collaborative project in South East Asia which aimed to determine whether health care and health outcomes for mothers and babies could be improved by developing capacity for research generation, synthesis and use. Methods Nine hospitals in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand participated in SEA-ORCHID. These hospitals were supported by researchers from three Australian centres. Health care practices and outcomes were assessed for 1000 women at each hospital both before and after the intervention. The capacity development intervention was tailored to the needs and context of each hospital and delivered over an 18 month period. Main outcomes included adherence to forms of care likely to be beneficial and avoidance of forms of care likely to be ineffective or harmful. Results We observed substantial variation in clinical practice change between sites. The capacity development intervention had a positive impact on some care practices across all countries, including increased family support during labour and decreased perineal shaving before birth, but in some areas there was no significant change in practice and a few beneficial practices were followed less often. Conclusion The results of SEA-ORCHID demonstrate that investing in developing capacity for research use, synthesis and generation can lead to improvements in maternal and neonatal health practice and highlight the difficulty of implementing evidence-based practice change. PMID:21915274

2011-01-01

62

Comparison of Insulin Lispro Protamine Suspension with NPH Insulin in Pregnant Women with Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Insulin therapy is still the gold standard in diabetic pregnancy. Insulin lispro protamine suspension is an available basal insulin analogue. Aim. To study pregnancy outcomes of women with type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus when insulin lispro protamine suspension or human NPH insulin was added to medical nutrition therapy and/or short-acting insulin. Methods. In this retrospective study, for maternal outcome we recorded time and mode of delivery, hypertension, glycaemic control (fasting blood glucose and HbA1c), hypoglycemias, weight increase, and insulin need. For neonatal outcome birth weight and weight class, congenital malformations was recorded and main neonatal complications. Two-tail Student's t-test and chi-square test were performed when applicable; significant P < 0.05. Results. Eighty-nine pregnant women (25 with type 2 diabetes and 64 with gestational diabetes mellitus; 53 under insulin lispro protamine suspension and 36 under human NPH insulin) were recruited. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were quite similar between the two therapeutic approaches; however, insulin need was higher in NPH. At the end of pregnancy, eight women with gestational diabetes continued to use only basal insulin analogue. Conclusions. Pregnancy outcome in type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus with insulin lispro protamine suspension was similar to that with NPH insulin, except for a lower insulin requirement. PMID:23840206

Visalli, Natalia; Abbruzzese, Santina; Bongiovanni, Marzia; Napoli, Angela

2013-01-01

63

Perinatal outcome of quadruplet pregnancies in relation to chorionicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To compare the perinatal outcome of quadruplets in relation to chorionicity.Patients and methods:In this retrospective study, the maternal, neonatal and chorionicity data were collected from 24 sets of quadruplet pregnancies delivered between January 1985 and December 2001. Perinatal and neonatal data were evaluated in relation to chorionicity.Results:Sixteen pregnancies were quadra-chorionic quadramniotic (QC) and eight had at least one monochorionic pair

A L Adegbite; B S Ward; R Bajoria

2007-01-01

64

Short term outcome in babies refused perinatal intensive care  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To compare the mortality in babies refused admission to a regional perinatal centre with that in babies accepted for intensive care in the centre. DESIGN--Retrospective study with group comparison. SETTING--Based at the Royal Maternity Hospital, Belfast, with follow up of patients in all obstetric units in Northern Ireland. PATIENTS--Requests for transfer of 675 babies to the regional perinatal centre (prenatally

H. Sidhu; R. N. Heasley; C. C. Patterson; H. L. Halliday; W. Thompson

1989-01-01

65

Perinatal Problems and Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Children with ADHD  

PubMed Central

Objective Among two large, independent samples of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we examined associations between specific (maternal gestational smoking and drug use, early labor, low birth weight, and infant breathing problems at birth) and cumulative prenatal and perinatal risk factors and psychiatric comorbidity during childhood. Method Data from the (a) Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD, a randomized clinical trial with 579 children aged 7 to 9.9 years with combined-type ADHD, and the (b) Berkeley Girls ADHD Longitudinal Sample, a naturalistic study of 140 girls with ADHD (93 combined-type and 47 inattentive-type) who were first seen when they were 6 to 12 years old, were analyzed separately. In each sample, perinatal risk factors were assessed retrospectively by maternal report, and current childhood psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using maternal report on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Results Consistent findings across these two studies show that infant breathing problems, early labor, and total perinatal problems predicted childhood comorbid depression but not comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorders. These associations remained significant, in both samples, with control of family SES and maternal symptoms of ADHD and depression. Results attenuated slightly with control of the number of child comorbidities plus SES and maternal symptoms. Conclusion Accumulating evidence suggests that perinatal risk factors are important precursors of childhood psychiatric comorbidity and that the association between these risk factors and detrimental psychiatric outcomes cannot be explained by maternal psychiatric symptoms or SES during childhood. PMID:23581554

Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

2013-01-01

66

Perinatal mortality in a rural district of south India.  

PubMed

Perinatal mortality is one of the most sensitive indices of maternal and child health. The perinatal mortality rate is an indicator of the extent of pregnancy wastage as well as of the quality and quantity of health care available to the mother and the newborn. A community based prospective study carried out on 13,214 births in South Kanara district between Oct. 1991-Sept. 1992 revealed a perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) of 44.65/1000 births. Among the various factors influencing perinatal mortality, breech deliveries and babies of multiple pregnancies had a very high perinatal mortality rate of 180.81/1000 births (adjusted odd's ratio: 4.90) and 128/1000 births (adjusted odd's ratio: 2.64). The previous bad obstetric history of the mother, parity and sex of the newborn were among the other important factors influencing the PNMR. PMID:10773926

Chandrashekar, S; Rao, R S; Chakladar, B K; Krishnan, L; Nair, N S

1998-01-01

67

Labour complications remain the most important risk factors for perinatal mortality in rural Kenya.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To identify and quantify risk factors for perinatal mortality in a Kenyan district hospital and to assess the proportion of perinatal deaths attributable to labour complications, maternal undernutrition, malaria, anaemia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 910 births was conducted between January 1996 and July 1997 and risk factors for perinatal mortality were analysed. FINDINGS: The perinatal mortality rate was 118 per 1000 births. Complications of labour such as haemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes/premature labour, and obstructed labour/ malpresentation increased the risk of death between 8- and 62-fold, and 53% of all perinatal deaths were attributable to labour complications. Placental malaria and maternal HIV, on the other hand, were not associated with perinatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention needs to be given to the quality of obstetric care provided in the rural district-hospital setting. PMID:14576887

Weiner, Renay; Ronsmans, Carine; Dorman, Ed; Jilo, Hilton; Muhoro, Anne; Shulman, Caroline

2003-01-01

68

Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality in Offsprings of Diabetic Mothers in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of diabetic mothers and their offspring in Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Suggests diabetes mellitus in pregnancy may be a common problem in Saudi Arabia, as poor maternal diabetic control results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results suggest that health education and improved coverage of…

Al-Dabbous, Ibrahim A. Al-; And Others

1995-01-01

69

Fourth goal of perinatal medicine.  

PubMed Central

Reduction in maternal mortality, infant mortality, and infant morbidity have been successively the goals of perinatal medicine. The fourth is to reduce bonding failure. In July 1978 a preventive service was started in the John Radcliffe Maternity Hospital. A twice-weekly round is made. Midwives refer families who cause them concern. In the first year the referral rate ws 20.5 per 1000 liveborn babies. The referred sample differed from the hospital population in terms of maternal psychiatric history, marital state and babies' admission to special care. The main reasons for referral were: doubt about parenting ability (27%), psychiatric history (15%), disturbed behaviour in hospital (14%), and diffuse social and medical problems (17%). Long-term care was needed for only 14% of families. At their first birthdays, six babies were placed away from their natural parents; the sample had had a slightly higher than expected admission rate to hospital; the distribution of weights did not differ from the expected; doctors and health visitors were still concerned about one-quarter of the families. Seven cases of screening failure were found among those not referred to our service, but only one was seriously abused. No child referred in the first year has been seriously neglected or abused. PMID:6802338

Ounsted, C; Roberts, J C; Gordon, M; Milligan, B

1982-01-01

70

Management of perinatal lung malformations.  

PubMed

This review uses the most up-to-date literature to help guide obstetrical providers through the diagnosis and management of perinatal lung malformations. These lesions, which include congenital pulmonary airway malformation [CPAM, formerly congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM)] and bronchopulmonary sequestration (BPS), are relatively rare but are becoming increasingly common because of the improved resolution and enhanced sensitivity of fetal ultrasound. Serial assessment throughout pregnancy remains the norm rather than the exception. Perinatal management strategies can differ based on the sonographic characteristics and dynamic growth patterns of lung masses. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and other diagnostic testing can sometimes be helpful in providing additional prognostic information. Over the last decade, the importance of echocardiography and utility of maternal steroids have been recognized in cases of non-immune hydrops. Fetal surgery is now rarely performed. Decisions regarding whether delivery of these fetuses should occur in a tertiary care center with pediatric surgery coverage versus delivery at a local community hospital are now highly relevant in most prenatal counseling discussions with families. Large lung malformations may require urgent surgical removal in the early postnatal period because of respiratory distress. Other complications, such as recurrent pneumonia, pneumothorax, and cancer, are indications for lung resection on an elective basis. In the vast majority of cases, the overall prognosis remains excellent. PMID:25310108

Macardle, C A; Kunisaki, S M

2015-02-01

71

PERINATAL LOSS: POSSIBLE CAREGIVER  

E-print Network

is Perinatal Loss? Miscarriage ­ before twenty weeks Stillbirth ­ after twenty weeks Neonatal death ­ live birth followed by death #12;Frequency of Perinatal Loss 9% in women in their early twenties 75% in women in their mid forties 0.7% occur between the third trimester of pregnancy & the first week of life #12;Parental

New Hampshire, University of

72

PREGNANCY AND PERINATAL HEALTH, BAMEN, INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA  

EPA Science Inventory

For developing countries, especially in remote rural areas, measures of maternal and perinatal health may be difficult to obtain because it is not systematically collected and/or electronic data is not available. We assisted the public health officials of Bayingnormen (BaMen), In...

73

Prevalence and Factors Influencing Perinatal Mortality in Rural Mysore, India  

PubMed Central

Background: With decreasing Infant Mortality Rate, Perinatal Mortality is gaining importance as it takes into consideration most of the factors influencing child birth and its survival, mortality during this period is a better indicator of quality of Maternal and Child Health services. Objectives: To estimate the Prevalence of perinatal mortality and its associated risk factors. Methodology: Cross sectional community based study was carried out in rural field practice area catering 26,700 population. All births during 2010 among permanent residents of this area were included. House to house survey was conducted to collect details regarding Antenatal, intra-natal and post-natal history by interviewing mother using a pre-tested questionnaire. Hospital records were also referred when available. Results: Nine perinatal deaths had occurred out of 314 births in a span of one year with a perinatal, early neonatal mortality rates of 28.93, 19.29 per 1000 live births respectively and still birth rate of 9.55 per 100 total births. Higher Perinatal Mortality Rate(PNMR) was observed in mothers who got married before 18 years, conceived during teenage, having anaemia, delivered at home, normal vaginal deliveries and having suffered by intra-partal and placental complications. Male babies, babies fed with prelacteal feeds, born out of intra-uterine complications, having low birth weight, had delayed first cry, premature births and twin births showed higher risk for mortality. Conclusion: The prevalence of perinatal mortality in the present study was 28.93 per 1000 live births. Even though this was well below the national and state values indicating improved quality of Maternal and Child Health care, it also gives way for relooking into strategies for further bringing down the perinatal deaths. PMID:24551640

Siddalingappa, Hugara; Murthy M.R, Nrayana; Kulkarni, Praveen; N.C, Ashok

2013-01-01

74

The impact of antenatal testing for advanced maternal age on cesarean delivery rate at an urban institution.  

PubMed

Objective?Antenatal testing has been implemented for advanced maternal age (AMA) women given their increased stillbirth risk. Our objective was to evaluate cesarean delivery and induction rates after the start of antenatal testing at our institution. Study Design?A retrospective cohort study of AMA women (? 40 years) who delivered at our institution was performed. Testing for AMA began in 2005. AMA women who delivered before (unexposed) and after (exposed) the implementation were compared. Our primary outcome was cesarean delivery and secondary outcome was induction. Chi-square compared categorical variables and multivariable logistic regression calculated odds ratio (OR) and controlled for confounders. Results?A total of 276 women were included (147 unexposed and 129 exposed). The cesarean rate was higher in the exposed group (53 vs. 39%, OR 1.76 [1.09-2.84]). The increased risk of cesarean remained after adjusting for race, previous cesarean, multiple gestations, and parity (adjusted OR 1.85 [1.05-3.28]). When excluding those with previous cesareans, the risk of primary cesarean was not significant (OR 1.57 [0.89-2.76]). The induction rate was not different (38 vs. 33%, p?=?0.4). Conclusions?While overall cesareans increased, there was no difference in primary cesarean and induction rates for AMA women after implementation of antenatal testing for AMA. PMID:24858316

Levine, Lisa D; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Paré, Emmanuel; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S

2015-01-01

75

Perinatal Mortality in a Northwestern Nigerian City: A Wake up Call  

PubMed Central

Background: In Nigeria, of the over 900,000 children under the age of 5?years that die every year, perinatal mortality is responsible for a little over 20%. Previous reports are largely from the southern part of the country. This is the first report of perinatal data from the northwest of Nigeria. Methods: A case control study of perinatal deaths in the three major public hospitals in Katsina metropolis was carried out to determine the pattern of perinatal deaths in the metropolis. Data were collected over a 6?week period on maternal socio-demographic, antenatal, and delivery variables. Data were similarly obtained on neonatal profile and morbidities. Results: There were 143 perinatal deaths (94 stillbirths and 49 early neonatal deaths) out of 1104 live and stillbirths during the study period. The perinatal mortality rate was thus 130 per 1000 births with a stillbirth rate of 85 per 1000 births and an early neonatal mortality rate of 49 per 1000 live births. Stillbirths during the intrapartum period were twice as frequent as macerated stillbirths (2:1). Maternal factors significantly associated with perinatal deaths included chorioamnionitis, ruptured uterus, multiple gestation, medically induced delivery, prolonged labor, unbooked pregnancies, antepartum hemorrhage, and prolonged rupture of membranes. Antepartum hemorrhage was the strongest determinant of perinatal death. Significant neonatal determinants were multiple gestation, severe birth asphyxia, apnea, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Apnea was the strongest neonatal determinant. The majority (83.2%) of perinatal deaths were due to severe perinatal asphyxia (SPA) (54.5%), normally formed macerated stillbirths (20.3%), and immaturity (8.4%). Conclusion: In conclusion, Perinatal Mortality in Katsina metropolis in northwest Nigeria is unacceptably high as we approach the timeline for the millennium development goals. Antepartum hemorrhage and SPA are major determinants. PMID:25340044

Suleiman, Mohammed Bello; Mokuolu, Olugbenga Ayodeji

2014-01-01

76

Perinatal outcomes in type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Over the past decade the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in pregnancy has continued to increase. It is vital that health care professionals recognize that preconception care is just as important for mothers with type 2 diabetes as it is in type 1 diabetes. All women with type 2 diabetes should be advised regarding safe effective contraception and the benefits of optimal glycemic control, folic acid supplementation, and avoidance of potentially harmful mediations before attempting pregnancy. Glycemic control is the most important modifiable risk factor for congenital anomaly in women with type 2 diabetes, whereas maternal obesity and social disadvantage are associated with large for gestational age neonates. This review aims to bring the reader up to date with the burden of perinatal outcomes and clinical interventions to improve maternal and infant health. It warns that the consequences of type 2 diabetes pregnancy do not end at birth. PMID:24395435

Hewapathirana, Niranjala M; Murphy, Helen R

2014-02-01

77

Perinatal nicotine-induced transgenerational asthma.  

PubMed

Asthma is a major public health hazard worldwide. Its transgenerational inheritance has been inferred from epidemiological studies. More recently, using nicotine as a proxy for maternal smoking, we have demonstrated that an asthma-like phenotype can be inherited by rat offspring for up to two generations, i.e., multigenerationally, after the initial intrauterine exposure. We hypothesized that asthma transmission to offspring following perinatal nicotine exposure is not restricted up to F2 generation, but it also extends to subsequent generations. To test this hypothesis, using a well-established rat model of nicotine exposure-induced childhood asthma, we determined if perinatal nicotine exposure of F0 gestating dams would transmit asthma transgenerationally to F3 offspring. We now extend our findings to third-generation offspring, including abnormal pulmonary function, particularly as it relates to the occurrence in the upper airway exclusively in males, and to its effects on molecular functional markers (fibronectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?), previously shown to be consistent with the asthma phenotype, herein expressed in fibroblasts isolated from the lung. These data, for the first time, demonstrate the transgenerational transmission of the asthma phenotype to F3 offspring following perinatal nicotine exposure of F0 dams. PMID:23911437

Rehan, Virender K; Liu, Jie; Sakurai, Reiko; Torday, John S

2013-10-01

78

The Black Box of Perinatal Ischemic Stroke Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

An improved understanding of perinatal stroke epidemiology, classification, neuroimaging, and outcomes has emerged in recent years. Despite this, little is known regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for most cases. A multitude of possible associations and putative risk factors have been reported, but most lack definitive empirical evidence supporting primary causation. These include obstetrical and maternal factors, perinatal conditions, infectious diseases, prothrombotic abnormalities, cardiac disorders, medications, and many others. The bulk of evidence is weak, dominated by case reports and retrospective case series. Findings from the small number of case-control and cohort studies that exist are limited by heterogeneous populations and methodologies. The single largest barrier to ultimately understanding and potentially improving outcomes from this common and disabling condition is the lack of comprehensive, fully-powered risk factor studies required to definitively describe perinatal stroke pathogenesis. This review summarizes current evidence and suggests future directions for research. PMID:21670391

Mineyko, Aleksandra; Kirton, Adam

2013-01-01

79

Fostering Maternal and Newborn Care in India the Yashoda Way: Does This Improve Maternal and Newborn Care Practices during Institutional Delivery?  

PubMed Central

Background The Yashoda program, named after a legendary foster-mother in Indian mythology, under the Norway-India Partnership Initiative was launched as a pilot program in 2008 to improve the quality of maternal and neonatal care at facilities in select districts of India. Yashodas were placed mainly at district hospitals, which are high delivery load facilities, to provide support and care to mothers and newborns during their stay at these facilities. This study presents the results from the evaluation of this intervention in two states in India. Methods Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with healthcare providers and mothers and a survey of mothers who had recently delivered within a quasi-experimental design. Fifty IDIs were done and 1,652 mothers who had delivered in the past three months were surveyed during 2010 and 2011. Results A significantly higher proportion of mothers at facilities with Yashodas (55 percent to 97 percent) received counseling on immunization, breastfeeding, family planning, danger signs, and nutrition compared to those in control districts (34 percent to 66 percent). Mothers in intervention facilities were four to five times more likely to receive postnatal checks than mothers in control facilities. Among mothers who underwent cesarean sections, initiation of breastfeeding within five hours was 50 percent higher in intervention facilities. Mothers and families also reported increased support, care and respect at intervention facilities. Conclusion Yashoda as mothers' aide thus seems to be an effective intervention to improve quality of maternal and newborn care in India. Scaling up of this intervention is recommended in district hospitals and other facilities with high volume of deliveries. PMID:24454718

Varghese, Beena; Roy, Reetabrata; Saha, Somen; Roalkvam, Sidsel

2014-01-01

80

Perinatal factors and the risk of bipolar disorder in Finland  

PubMed Central

Background Complications during the perinatal period have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders like schizophrenia and autism. However, similar studies on bipolar disorder (BPD) have been limited and the findings are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the association between perinatal risk factors and BPD. Methods This nested case-control study, based on the Finnish Prenatal Study of Bipolar Disorders (FIPS-B), identified 724 cases and 1419 matched controls from population based registers. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the associations between perinatal factors and BPD adjusting for potential confounding due to maternal age, psychiatric history and educational level, place of birth, number of previous births and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results Children delivered by planned cesarean section had a 2.5-fold increased risk of BPD (95% CI: 1.32–4.78, P <0.01). No association was seen between other examined perinatal risk factors and BPD. Limitations The limitations of this study include: the restriction in the sample to treated cases of BPD in the population, and usage of hospital based clinical diagnosis for case ascertainment. In addition, in spite of the large sample size, there was low power to detect associations for certain exposures including the lowest birth weight category and pre-term birth. Conclusions Birth by planned caesarean section was associated with risk of BPD, but most other perinatal risk factors examined in this study were not associated with BPD. Larger studies with greater statistical power to detect less common exposures and studies utilizing prospective biomarker-based exposures are necessary in the future. PMID:24215899

Chudal, Roshan; Sourander, Andre; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Sucksdorff, Dan; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.

2013-01-01

81

Congenital Malformations in Perinatal Autopsies – A Study of 100 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital malformations remain a common cause of perinatal deaths and even though ultrasonogram can give fairly accurate diagnosis, perinatal autopsy is essential to confirm the diagnosis and look for associated malformations. Objectives To emphasize the importance of perinatal autopsy in diagnosing congenital malformations and to compare the same with the prenatal ultrasound findings. Methods The present study comprises 100 consecutive perinatal autopsies conducted after obtaining the approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. In cases where prenatal ultrasound findings were available they were compared with the autopsy findings. Results Out of 100 perinatal autopsies, 44 cases were congenital anomalies with M:F = 1:1.5. Majority of the fetuses with congenital malformations (36.36%) were therapeutically terminated, Cental nervous system malformations being the commonest indication. The most common timing of therapeutic termination being 20 -24weeks. Congenital malformations were common between 35-39 weeks gestational age and birth weight range 350- 1000g. The malformations involving the central nervous system were commonest, seen in 15 cases (34.09%) followed by renal anomalies in 9 cases (20.45%) and multiple malformations in 7cases ( 15.91%). Autopsy confirmed the prenatal ultrasound findings in 50% of the cases, added to diagnosis in 29.54%, while it completely changed the primary diagnosis in 9.09% of the cases. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of perinatal autopsy in confirming the diagnosis of congenital anomalies by prenatal ultrasound findings. PMID:23373038

Andola, Uma S; AM, Anita; Ahuja, Mukta; Andola, Sainath K

2012-01-01

82

Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal  

E-print Network

Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission--A Working: Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission

Levin, Judith G.

83

Disasters and Perinatal Health: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The empirical literature on the effects of disaster on pregnancy and the postpartum period is limited. The objective of this review was to examine the existing evidence on the effect of disasters on perinatal health. Methods A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, PsycInfo), including literature on disasters and pregnancy outcomes (e.g., preterm birth, low birthweight, congenital anomalies), mental health, and child development. 110 articles were identified, but many published reports were anecdotes or recommendations rather than systematic studies. The final review included 49 peer-reviewed studies that met inclusion criteria. Results Studies addressing the World Trade Center disaster of September 11th and other terrorist attacks, environmental/chemical disasters, and natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes were identified. Disasters of various types may reduce fetal growth in some women, though there does not appear to be an effect on gestational age at birth. Severity of exposure is the major predictor of mental health issues among pregnant and postpartum women. The mother's mental health after a disaster may more strongly influence on child development than any direct effect of disaster-related prenatal stress. Conclusions There is evidence that disaster impacts maternal mental health and some perinatal health outcomes, particular among highly-exposed women. Future research should focus on under-studied outcomes such as spontaneous abortion. Relief workers and clinicians should concentrate on the most exposed women, particularly with respect to mental health. PMID:21375788

Harville, EW; Xiong, X; Buekens, P

2012-01-01

84

Perinatal health care in a conflict-affected setting: evaluation of health-care services and newborn outcomes at a regional medical centre in Iraq.  

PubMed

A field-based assessment was conducted to assess maternal and newborn health-care services, perinatal and newborn outcomes and associated risk factors at Bint Al-Huda Maternal and Newborn Teaching Hospital, a large referral hospital in southern Iraq. The multi-method approach used interviews, discussions, observation and review of perinatal and newborn outcome data. There is limited assessment of maternal vital signs, labour pattern, fetal response, and complications during pregnancy and labour. Perinatal and neonatal mortality rates are 27.4/1000 births and 30.9/1000 live births respectively. Associated neonatal mortality factors were gestational age < 37 weeks, male sex, birth weight < 2.5 kg, maternal age > 35 years, rural maternal residence and vaginal delivery. Improving birth outcomes in southern Iraq requires evidence-based clinical guidelines, additional supplies and equipment, quality improvement initiatives and in-service training. PMID:25664517

Ahamadani, F A B; Louis, H; Ugwi, P; Hines, R; Pomerleau, M; Ahn, R; Burke, T F; Nelson, B D

2015-01-01

85

Perinatal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Implications for Occupational Therapy in Early Intervention Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to present literature regarding perinatal posttraumatic stress disorder and to describe the implications of research findings for occupational therapy screening and treatment in early intervention practice. Changes in legislation regarding early intervention practice and family centered care are presented as a rationale for including maternal mental health screening as a standard practice in the

Kris Pizur-Barnekow; Stephanie Erickson

2011-01-01

86

Early Intervention and Perinatal Depression: Is There a Need for Provider Training?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An estimated 5-25% of women suffer from perinatal depression (PD). If left untreated, PD can have negative consequences for maternal and child mental health. During pregnancy and the postpartum period, women are in contact with a variety of professionals and paraprofessionals such as public health nurses, early childhood providers and home…

Thomason, Elizabeth; Stacks, Ann M.; McComish, Judith Fry

2010-01-01

87

Birth, Interaction and Attachment: Exploring the Foundations for Modern Perinatal Care. Pediatric Round Table: 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are summaries of conference presentations discussing aspects of birth, parent/child interaction, and attachment behavior. Material in part I explores perspectives on pregnancy and the perinatal period. Included are discussions of birth in nonindustrial societies, progress in the study of maternal behavior in animals, the physiological…

Klaus, Marshall H., Ed.; Robertson, Martha Oschrin, Ed.

88

Perinatal Exposure to High-Fat Diet Programs Energy Balance, Metabolism and Behavior in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perinatal environment plays an important role in programming many aspects of physiology and behavior including metabolism, body weight set point, energy balance regulation and predisposition to mental health-related disorders such as anxiety, depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Maternal health and nutritional status heavily influence the early environment and have a long-term impact on critical central pathways, including the

Elinor L. Sullivan; M. Susan Smith; Kevin L. Grove

2011-01-01

89

A multilayered approach for the analysis of perinatal mortality using different classification systems.  

PubMed

Many classification systems for perinatal mortality are available, all with their own strengths and weaknesses: none of them has been universally accepted. We present a systematic multilayered approach for the analysis of perinatal mortality based on information related to the moment of death, the conditions associated with death and the underlying cause of death, using a combination of representatives of existing classification systems. We compared the existing classification systems regarding their definition of the perinatal period, level of complexity, inclusion of maternal, foetal and/or placental factors and whether they focus at a clinical or pathological viewpoint. Furthermore, we allocated the classification systems to one of three categories: 'when', 'what' or 'why', dependent on whether the allocation of the individual cases of perinatal mortality is based on the moment of death ('when'), the clinical conditions associated with death ('what'), or the underlying cause of death ('why'). A multilayered approach for the analysis and classification of perinatal mortality is possible by using combinations of existing systems; for example the Wigglesworth or Nordic Baltic ('when'), ReCoDe ('what') and Tulip ('why') classification systems. This approach is useful not only for in depth analysis of perinatal mortality in the developed world but also for analysis of perinatal mortality in the developing countries, where resources to investigate death are often limited. PMID:19272694

Gordijn, Sanne J; Korteweg, Fleurisca J; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Holm, Jozien P; van Diem, Mariet Th; Bergman, Klasien A; Timmer, Albertus

2009-06-01

90

Perinatal transmission of human papilomavirus DNA  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to study the perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus DNA (HPV-DNA) in 63 mother-newborn pairs, besides looking at the epidemiological factors involved in the viral DNA transmission. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnant woman, when was recruited, in cervix and clinical lesions of the vagina, vulva and perineal region; (2) in the newborn, (a) buccal, axillary and inguinal regions; (b) nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c) cord blood; (3) in the children, buccal was repeated in the 4th week and 6th and 12th month of life. HPV-DNA was identified using two methodologies: multiplex PCR (PGMY09 and MY11 primers) and nested-PCR (genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58). Perinatal transmission was considered when concordance was found in type-specific HPV between mother/newborn or mother/child. HPV-DNA genital was detected in 49 pregnant women submitted to delivery. Eleven newborns (22.4%, n = 11/49) were HPV-DNA positive. In 8 cases (16.3%, n = 8/49) there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. At the end of the first month of life three children (6.1%, n = 3/49) became HPV-DNA positive, while two remained positive from birth. In 3 cases (100%, n = 3/3) there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. In the 6th month, a child (2%, n = 1/49) had become HPV-DNA positive between the 1st and 6th month of life, and there was type specific HPV concordance of mother/newborn samples. All the HPV-DNA positive children (22.4%, n = 11/49) at birth and at the end first month of life (6.1%, n = 3/49) became HPV-DNA negative at the age of 6 months. The HPV-DNA positive child (2%, n = 1/49) from 1st to the 6th month of life became HPV-DNA negative between the 6th and 12th month of life and one child had anogenital warts. In the twelfth month all (100%, n = 49/49) the children studied were HPV-DNA negative. A positive and significant correlation was observed between perinatal transmission of HPV-DNA and the immunodepression of maternal variables (HIV, p = 0.007). Finally, the study suggests that perinatal transmission of HPV-DNA occurred in 24.5% (n = 12/49) of the cases studied. PMID:19545396

Rombaldi, Renato L; Serafini, Eduardo P; Mandelli, Jovana; Zimmermann, Edineia; Losquiavo, Kamille P

2009-01-01

91

The safe motherhood referral system to reduce cesarean sections and perinatal mortality - a cross-sectional study [1995-2006  

PubMed Central

Background In 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set targets for reducing child mortality and improving maternal health by 2015. Objective To evaluate the results of a new education and referral system for antenatal/intrapartum care as a strategy to reduce the rates of Cesarean sections (C-sections) and maternal/perinatal mortality. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Sao Paulo State University/UNESP, Brazil. Population: 27,387 delivering women and 27,827 offspring. Data collection: maternal and perinatal data between 1995 and 2006 at the major level III and level II hospitals in Botucatu, Brazil following initiation of a safe motherhood education and referral system. Main outcome measures: Yearly rates of C-sections, maternal (/100,000 LB) and perinatal (/1000 births) mortality rates at both hospitals. Data analysis: Simple linear regression models were adjusted to estimate the referral system's annual effects on the total number of deliveries, C-section and perinatal mortality ratios in the two hospitals. The linear regression were assessed by residual analysis (Shapiro-Wilk test) and the influence of possible conflicting observations was evaluated by a diagnostic test (Leverage), with p < 0.05. Results Over the time period evaluated, the overall C-section rate was 37.3%, there were 30 maternal deaths (maternal mortality ratio = 109.5/100,000 LB) and 660 perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality rate = 23.7/1000 births). The C-section rate decreased from 46.5% to 23.4% at the level II hospital while remaining unchanged at the level III hospital. The perinatal mortality rate decreased from 9.71 to 1.66/1000 births and from 60.8 to 39.6/1000 births at the level II and level III hospital, respectively. Maternal mortality ratios were 16.3/100,000 LB and 185.1/100,000 LB at the level II and level III hospitals. There was a shift from direct to indirect causes of maternal mortality. Conclusions This safe motherhood referral system was a good strategy in reducing perinatal mortality and direct causes of maternal mortality and decreasing the overall rate of C-sections. PMID:22108042

2011-01-01

92

Effect of Chiranjeevi Yojana on institutional deliveries and neonatal and maternal outcomes in Gujarat, India: a difference-in-differences analysis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme, a public–private partnership to improve maternal and neonatal health in Gujarat, India. Methods A household survey (n?=?5597 households) was conducted in Gujarat to collect retrospective data on births within the preceding 5 years. In an observational study using a difference-in-differences design, the relationship between the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme and the probability of delivery in health-care institutions, the probability of obstetric complications and mean household expenditure for deliveries was subsequently examined. In multivariate regressions, individual and household characteristics as well as district and year fixed effects were controlled for. Data from the most recent District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) wave conducted in Gujarat (n?=?6484 households) were used in parallel analyses. Findings Between 2005 and 2010, the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme was not associated with a statistically significant change in the probability of institutional delivery (2.42 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, CI: ?5.90 to 10.74) or of birth-related complications (6.16 percentage points; 95% CI: ?2.63 to 14.95). Estimates using DLHS-3 data were similar. Analyses of household expenditures indicated that mean household expenditure for private-sector deliveries had either not fallen or had fallen very little under the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme. Conclusion The Chiranjeevi Yojana programme appears to have had no significant impact on institutional delivery rates or maternal health outcomes. The absence of estimated reductions in household spending for private-sector deliveries deserves further study. PMID:24700978

Bauhoff, Sebastian; La Forgia, Gerard; Babiarz, Kimberly Singer; Singh, Kultar; Miller, Grant

2014-01-01

93

Are there gaps in the provision of perinatal care in Greece?  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test the hypothesis that easy access to sophisticated hospitals is associated with a reduction in perinatal mortality. DESIGN: The study was a nationwide questionnaire survey of a birth cohort. SUBJECTS: All deliveries greater than 500g weight of singleton live births and stillbirths occurring throughout Greece during April 1983 were included. Completed questionnaires were returned for 10,953 deliveries (8% of total annual registered births in Greece), and data on 10,790 singleton births were analysed, including 127 stillbirths and 137 early neonatal deaths. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The questionnaires contained information on demographic characteristics of each parent, mother's reproductive history, and clinical course of pregnancy, labour and perinatal period. Mothers living in big urban centres were compared with the rest of the country. Overall mortality rates were similar but births in the big urban centres were of significantly lower weight due to fetal growth retardation. Logistic regression analysis, taking account of birthweight, parity, maternal age, and maternal education showed that there was an advantage to mothers living in big urban centres, perinatal mortality being 63% higher in the rest of the country (chi 2 = 7.4, p less than 0.01). CONCLUSION: The evidence obtained supports the original hypothesis and suggest that a reduction in the high perinatal mortality rate in Greece may be achieved by restructuring the perinatal services. PMID:2614321

Tzoumaka-Bakoula, C; Lekea-Karanika, V; Matsaniotis, N S; Shenton, T; Golding, J

1989-01-01

94

Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

2011-01-01

95

Mode of Delivery and Other Maternal Factors Influence the Acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. mutans plays a key role in dental caries. The extent to which perinatal events influence the acquisition of S. mutans is unclear. We hypothesized that several maternal factors, including the mode of delivery, influence the initial acquisition of S. mutans in infants. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 156 mother-infant pairs. The study found that maternal gestational age

Y. Li; P. W. Caufield; A. P. Dasanayake; H. W. Wiener; S. H. Vermund

2005-01-01

96

Fetal arrhythmia: prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management.  

PubMed

The importance of managing fetal arrhythmia has increased over the past three decades. Although most fetal arrhythmias are benign, some types cause fetal hydrops and can lead to fetal death. With the aim of improving the outcome in such cases, various studies for prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management have been published. Detailed analysis of the type of arrhythmia in utero is possible using M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. In particular, a simultaneous record of Doppler waveform at the superior venous cava and the ascending aorta has become an important and useful method of assessing the interval between atrial and ventricular contractions. Common causes of fetal tachycardia (ventricular heart rate faster than 180 bpm), are paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) with 1:1 atrioventricular (AV) relation and atrial flutter with 2:1 AV relation. Of fetal SVT, short ventriculo-atrial (VA) interval tachycardia due to atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia is more common than long VA interval. Most fetuses with tachycardia are successfully treated in utero by transplacental administration of antiarrhythmic drugs. Digoxin is widely accepted as a first-line antiarrhythmic drug. Sotalol, flecainide and amiodarone are used as second-line drugs when digoxin fails to achieve conversion to sinus rhythm. Fetal bradycardia is diagnosed when the fetal ventricular heart rate is slower than 100 bpm, mainly due to AV block. Approximately half of all cases are caused by associated congenital heart disease, and the remaining cases that have normal cardiac structure are often caused by maternal SS-A antibody. The efficacy of prenatal treatment for fetal AV block is limited compared with treatment for fetal tachycardia. Beta stimulants and steroids have been reported as effective transplacental treatments for fetal AV block. Perinatal management based on prospective clinical study protocol rather than individual experience is crucial for further improvement of outcome in fetuses with tachycardia and bradycardia. PMID:19751319

Maeno, Yasuki; Hirose, Akiko; Kanbe, Taro; Hori, Daizo

2009-08-01

97

Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters  

PubMed Central

Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety. PMID:24064710

Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

2013-01-01

98

Regional perinatal mortality differences in the Netherlands; care is the question  

PubMed Central

Background Perinatal mortality is an important indicator of health. European comparisons of perinatal mortality show an unfavourable position for the Netherlands. Our objective was to study regional variation in perinatal mortality within the Netherlands and to identify possible explanatory factors for the found differences. Methods Our study population comprised of all singleton births (904,003) derived from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry for the period 2000–2004. Perinatal mortality including stillbirth from 22+0 weeks gestation and early neonatal death (0–6 days) was our main outcome measure. Differences in perinatal mortality were calculated between 4 distinct geographical regions North-East-South-West. We tried to explain regional differences by adjustment for the demographic factors maternal age, parity and ethnicity and by socio-economic status and urbanisation degree using logistic modelling. In addition, regional differences in mode of delivery and risk selection were analysed as health care factors. Finally, perinatal mortality was analysed among five distinct clinical risk groups based on the mediating risk factors gestational age and congenital anomalies. Results Overall perinatal mortality was 10.1 per 1,000 total births over the period 2000–2004. Perinatal mortality was elevated in the northern region (11.2 per 1,000 total births). Perinatal mortality in the eastern, western and southern region was 10.2, 10.1 and 9.6 per 1,000 total births respectively. Adjustment for demographic factors increased the perinatal mortality risk in the northern region (odds ratio 1.20, 95% CI 1.12–1.28, compared to reference western region), subsequent adjustment for socio-economic status and urbanisation explained a small part of the elevated risk (odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 1.03–1.20). Risk group analysis showed that regional differences were absent among very preterm births (22+0 – 25+6 weeks gestation) and most prominent among births from 32+0 gestation weeks onwards and among children with severe congenital anomalies. Among term births (? 37+0 weeks) regional mortality differences were largest for births in women transferred from low to high risk during delivery. Conclusion Regional differences in perinatal mortality exist in the Netherlands. These differences could not be explained by demographic or socio-economic factors, however clinical risk group analysis showed indications for a role of health care factors. PMID:19366460

Tromp, Miranda; Eskes, Martine; Reitsma, Johannes B; Erwich, Jan Jaap HM; Brouwers, Hens AA; Rijninks-van Driel, Greta C; Bonsel, Gouke J; Ravelli, Anita CJ

2009-01-01

99

The role of oxytocin in mothers' theory of mind and interactive behavior during the perinatal period.  

PubMed

The present longitudinal study examined the relations between plasma oxytocin, theory of mind, and maternal interactive behavior during the perinatal period. A community sample of women was assessed at 12-14 weeks gestation, 32-34 weeks gestation, and 7-9 weeks postpartum. Oxytocin during late pregnancy was significantly positively correlated with a measure of theory of mind, and predicted theory of mind ability after controlling for parity, maternal education, prenatal psychosocial risk, and general anxiety, measured during the first trimester. Theory of mind was associated with less remote and less depressive maternal interactive behavior. Oxytocin, across all time points, was not directly related to maternal interactive behavior. However, there was a significant indirect effect of oxytocin during late pregnancy on depressive maternal behavior via theory of mind ability. These preliminary findings suggest that changes in the oxytocinergic system during the perinatal period may contribute to the awareness of social cues, which in turn plays a role in maternal interactive behavior. PMID:24995584

MacKinnon, Anna L; Gold, Ian; Feeley, Nancy; Hayton, Barbara; Carter, C Sue; Zelkowitz, Phyllis

2014-10-01

100

Perinatal mortality--an intervention study.  

PubMed

Perinatal mortality is high in rural hospitals in South Africa. In part this is due to less than optimal care. This study determined the perinatal mortality experienced by a rural hospital and its clinics. Avoidable causes of death are described and various intervention strategies that effectively and rapidly prevented such deaths, reducing perinatal mortality by one-third, are outlined. PMID:2024213

Wilkinson, D

1991-05-01

101

Perinatal Death: Helping Parents Find Their Way  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perinatal death is a profound and common experience, and one that is often underestimated in terms of itsfrequency and its impact. As primary caregivers of parents suffering perinatal loss, nursing and medical staffhave tremendous power to shape parental experiences. In this qualitative, exploratory study, unstructured interviews were conducted with 26 individuals (21 women and 5 men) who had experienced perinatal

Claudia A. Malacrida

1997-01-01

102

Risk factors for perinatal mortality in patients admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of placental abruption.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Placental abruption is a clinical term used when premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall occurs prior to delivery of the fetus. Hypertension, substance abuse, smoking, intrauterine infection and recent trauma are risk factors for placental abruption. In this study, we sought for clinical factors that increase the risk for perinatal mortality in patients admitted to the hospital with the clinical diagnosis of placental abruption. Materials and methods: We identified all placental abruption cases managed over the past 6 years at our Center. Those with singleton pregnancies and a diagnosis of abruption based on strict clinical criteria were selected. Eleven clinical variables that had potential for increasing the risk for perinatal mortality were selected, logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with perinatal death. Results: Sixty-one patients were included in the study with 16 ending in perinatal death (26.2%). Ethnicity, maternal age, gravidity, parity, use of tobacco, use of cocaine, hypertension, asthma, diabetes, hepatitis C, sickle cell disease and abnormalities of amniotic fluid volume were not the main factors for perinatal mortality. Gestational age at delivery, birthweight and history of recent trauma were significantly associated with perinatal mortality. The perinatal mortality rate was 42% in patients who delivered prior to 30 weeks of gestation compared to 15% in patients who delivered after 30 weeks of gestation (p?perinatal mortality than in the group with perinatal survivors (25% versus 7%, respectively, p?perinatal death. PMID:24888498

Atkinson, Andrew L; Santolaya-Forgas, Joaquin; Blitzer, David N; Santolaya, Jacobo L; Matta, Paul; Canterino, Joseph; Oyelese, Yinka

2014-07-31

103

A Collaborative Care Telemedicine Intervention to Overcome Treatment Barriers for Latina Women with Depression during the Perinatal Period  

PubMed Central

Maternal depression is highly prevalent (10 to 20%) during the perinatal period with rates as high as 35 to 40% for Latinas. However, few Latinas are either identified or treated during the perinatal period. To address these disparities, the Perinatal Mental Health Model (PMH) was designed to ameliorate the barriers that prevent adequate diagnoses and intervention. The PMH is a culturally sensitive, short-term telemedicine, and collaborative care intervention for addressing depression among Mexican American mothers. It attends to sociocultural and socioeconomic dimensions and is delivered by trained mental health advisors within obstetric care settings. This article describes the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing the PMH. Participants (n=79) were selected from a first year ongoing randomized trial in community obstetric clinics. The intervention seems feasible and acceptable; low-income Latinas, identified as depressed during the perinatal period, reported having access to a range of appropriate community services and high satisfaction. PMID:22709321

Baker-Ericzén, Mary J.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Dueñas, Cecilia; Landsverk, John A.; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

2013-01-01

104

From public health to population health: epidemiological yardsticks for perinatal care.  

PubMed

Perinatal epidemiology and health services research have focused on specific health outcomes or disease states ("key" indicators and/or sentinel events), clients of public programs, and clinical service populations. In this paper, the concept of "population health" is defined and operationalized for the broad perinatal healthcare context within the framework of population health informatics. Traditional indicators and outcome measures for perinatal health are compared with some newer measures and assessed for their relevance to population health. A hypothetical model for the implementation of population health informatics for maternal and child health is described; in addition, and some obstacles to the practice of population health are identified, with strategies to overcome these obstacles. PMID:10685290

Kirby, R S

1999-09-01

105

Building a community-based maternity program.  

PubMed

The MotherCare Project has as its goal the reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality and related morbidities, and the promotion of the health of women and newborns. To achieve these goals, maternal and family planning programs were strengthened in both rural and urban settings through three intervention strategies--policy reform, affecting behaviors and improving services. The fundamental premise in each project was to strengthen the weakest part of the maternity care pyramid, ensuring linkages among all levels of service--from community through to the referral hospital level. In rural Andean populations of Bolivia, knowledge of danger signs and women's response to them improved, increasing in use of prenatal and family planning services through a participatory problem-solving and community-based strategy. In West Java, Indonesia, bringing professional midwifery services and facilities closer to women together has resulted in a positive response to their use. Augmenting this intervention with a transport and intercommunication system together with improved hospital practice through perinatal mortality meetings and in-service training for doctors and midwives has reduced the maternal and perinatal mortality over a four year period. Hospital practice has improved in Uganda and in two states of Nigeria, maternal mortality and morbidity have been reduced in the training facility where seminars for physicians, training of midwives in life saving midwifery and interpersonal communication skills have taken place, and equipment and supplies have been improved. Furthermore, in rural Guatemala, implementation of norms and protocols, expert supervision and sensitization of hospital staff to the needs of the community has increased referral by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to the hospital and reduced perinatal mortality. PMID:7672176

Kwast, B E

1995-06-01

106

Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2012, on 302 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Gondar University Hospital. Interview-based questionnaire, clinical history, and laboratory tests were used to obtain data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.6%. Majority were mild type (64%) and morphologically normocytic normochromic (76%) anemia. Anemia was high at third trimester (18.9%). Low family income (AOR [95% CI] = 3.1 [1.19, 8.33]), large family size (AOR [95% CI] = 4.14 [4.13, 10.52]), hookworm infection (AOR [95% CI] = 2.72 [1.04, 7.25]), and HIV infection (AOR [95% CI] = 5.75 [2.40, 13.69]) were independent predictors of anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type and normocytic normochromic anemia was dominant. Low income, large family size, hookworm infection, and HIV infection were associated with anemia. Hence, efforts should be made for early diagnosis and management of HIV and hookworm infection with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size. PMID:24669317

Alem, Meseret; Enawgaw, Bamlaku

2014-01-01

107

Behavioral effects of perinatal opioid exposure.  

PubMed

Opioids are among the world's oldest known drugs used mostly for pain relief, but recreational use is also widespread. A particularly important problem is opioid exposure in females, as their offspring can also be affected. Adverse intrauterine and postnatal environments can affect offspring development and may lead to various disabilities later in life. It is clear that repetitive painful experiences, such as randomly occurring invasive procedures during neonatal intensive care, can permanently alter neuronal and synaptic organization and therefore later behavior. At the same time, analgesic drugs can also be harmful, inducing neuronal apoptosis or withdrawal symptoms in the neonate and behavioral alterations in adulthood. Hence, risk-benefit ratios should be taken into consideration when pain relief is required during pregnancy or in neonates. Recreational use of opioids can also alter many aspects of life. Intrauterine opioid exposure has many toxic effects, inducing poor pregnancy outcomes due to underdevelopment, but it is believed that later negative consequences are more related to environmental factors such as a chaotic lifestyle and inadequate prenatal care. One of the crucial components is maternal care, which changes profoundly in addicted mothers. In substance-dependent mothers, pre- and postnatal care has special importance, and controlled treatment with a synthetic opioid (e.g., methadone) could be beneficial. We aimed to summarize and compare human and rodent data, as it is important to close the gap between scientific knowledge and societal policies. Special emphasis is given to gender differences in the sensitivity of offspring to perinatal opioid exposure. PMID:24746901

Fodor, Anna; Tímár, Júlia; Zelena, Dóra

2014-05-28

108

Pediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS Branch  

E-print Network

Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development #12;The informationPediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS Branch NICHD Adult Prevalence Rates HIV Infection ........................................................................................................................1 BACKGROUND: THE CONTINUED IMPACT OF HIV ON CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, AND WOMEN

Rau, Don C.

109

Standards for perinatal education. Part 1.  

PubMed

Quality control in perinatal education is imperative, with the purpose to deliver a high quality and appropriate healthcare service to the family in the perinatal period. The purpose of this study was to develop valid standards for perinatal education in South Africa. To reach this goal, the study proceeded as follows: Development phase concepts were developed for perinatal education, the concepts were logically systematized and formulated in concept standards, the standards were presented for peer group review with the purpose of refinement and further development. Quantification phase the statistical validity of the standards was determined/calculated. After completion of the study the researcher reached the conclusion that quality perinatal education must adhere to the following standards: A philosophy for perinatal education must exist. The perinatal facilitator must be a well trained professional person, and must possess certain personal traits. The perinatal education style/method must adapt according to the client's socio-economic status, age, marital status and needs. The perinatal facilitator must make use of acknowledged teaching methods and techniques in order to facilitate learning. The perinatal education must comply with certain minimum requirements in order to make it accessible and acceptable to the client. The perinatal facilitator must complete a preparatory phase before she is allowed to give education. A perinatal education programme must have a curriculum that can be adapted to the client's circumstances. Perinatal education must be presented purposefully. The end result of perinatal education must focus on a healthy baby and a healthy, empowered mother, family and community. PMID:12096571

Richter, M S

2002-02-01

110

Epigenetic mechanisms of perinatal programming: translational approaches from rodent to human and back.  

PubMed

Perinatal life is a period of enhanced plasticity and susceptibility to environmental effects via the maternal environment or parental care. A variety of studies have indicated that epigenetic mechanisms, which can alter gene function without a change in gene sequence, play a role in setting developmental trajectories that impact health, including mental health. This chapter reviews examples of translational approaches to the study of biological embedding of mental health via differences in parental care. PMID:25287549

McGowan, Patrick O

2015-01-01

111

Impact of Placental Plasmodium falciparum Malaria on Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcome in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Placental malaria is recognized as a common complication of malaria in pregnancy in areas of stable transmission, and, as a consequence, serious health problems arise for the mother and especially her baby [1]. Although malaria in pregnancy is a major factor associated with adverse perinatal outcome, the link between malaria and perinatal morbidity/mortality is less clear in areas with stable endemic malaria where pregnant women have acquired immunity [2]. Histological examination of the placenta is a predictor of fetal morbidity, as well as being the most sensitive detector of maternal infection [3]. Adverse perinatal outcome has been described as an important indicator of poor quality of obstetric care and social development [4]. A variety of adverse perinatal outcomes associated with placental malaria have been described, including low birth weight, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, fetal anemia, congenital malaria, and fetal mortality. The most common clinical features in 80 percent of perinatal cases are fever, anemia, and splenomegaly [5]. Other signs and symptoms include hepatomegaly, jaundice, regurgitation, loose stools, poor feeding, and, occasionally, drowsiness, restlessness, and cyanosis also can be seen [5,6]. A review of studies that investigated these poor fetal outcomes associated with placental malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is presented here. PMID:18299721

Uneke, Chigozie J.

2008-01-01

112

Informed Decision Making in Maternity Care  

PubMed Central

In the United States, federal acts and regulations, as well as professional guidelines, clearly dictate that every pregnant woman has the right to base her maternity care decisions on accurate, up-to-date, comprehensible information. Despite these efforts, evidence suggests that informed consent within current health-care practice is restricted and inconsistently implemented. Patient access to evidence-based research is imperative under the scope of informed consent and is particularly important during a time when perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, interventions, and disparities are on the rise in the United States. This article describes the Coalition for Improving Maternity Services’ investigation of the breakdown of informed consent in maternity care. PMID:19436598

Goldberg, Holly

2009-01-01

113

[Perinatal neonatal lesions: retrovaginal tears].  

PubMed

Neonatal injuries produced during the childbirth or in the maneuvers of resuscitation they have a high morbidity and suppose the 8th reason of mortality in newborns. The aim of this article is to check our casuistry in the last 10 years and to present a case report of rectovaginal tear with the possible therapeutic options published in the literature. There were gathered a total of 8 perinatal neonatal injuries, being the majority of them clause-contused (5) in hairy leather, pinna and thorax. Other cases were affecting the perine: an anal tear and two rectovaginal tears; one of these patients needed colostomy and surgical repair of the perine. Only a small percentage of the perinatal neonatal injuries are valued by the paediatric surgeon. Some of them are serious and can have important consequences. The colostomy and primary or secondary closing is a therapeutic sure option in rectovaginal tears. PMID:22295663

Tirado Pascual, M; Primelles Díaz, A; Sánchez Díaz, F; Pérez Rodríguez, J; Rodríguez, Argos

2011-08-01

114

Maternal immunization.  

PubMed

Maternal immunization holds tremendous promise to improve maternal and neonatal health for a number of infectious conditions. The unique susceptibilities of pregnant women to infectious conditions, as well as the ability of maternally-derived antibody to offer vital neonatal protection (via placental transfer), together have produced the recent increased attention on maternal immunization. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) currently recommends 2 immunizations for all pregnant women lacking contraindication, inactivated Influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap). Given ongoing research the number of vaccines recommended during pregnancy is likely to increase. Thus, achieving high vaccination coverage of pregnant women for all recommended immunizations is a key public health enterprise. This review will focus on the present state of vaccine acceptance in pregnancy, with attention to currently identified barriers and determinants of vaccine acceptance. Additionally, opportunities for improvement will be considered. PMID:25483490

Moniz, Michelle H; Beigi, Richard H

2014-09-01

115

Maternal Antenatal Depression and Infant Disorganized Attachment at 12 months  

PubMed Central

Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at 3 months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at 3 months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing. PMID:23216358

Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

116

Paternal age and twinning in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether incidence of twin deliveries is related to father's age, independently of mother's age, and whether it differs for same-sex or opposite-sex twin sets. Study Design In a program of research on effects of paternal age, this study used data from a prospective cohort of 92,408 offspring born in Jerusalem from 1964-1976. Of the 91,253 deliveries in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study, 1,115 were twin deliveries. The data were analyzed with General Estimate Equations to inform unconditional logistic regression. Results After controlling for maternal age, Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) associated with father's ages 25-34 and 35+ were 1.3 (1.1, 1.7) and 1.5 (1.2, 2.1) respectively, compared with fathers <25 years old. The effect of maternal age was partly explained by paternal age. The ORs for opposite-sex twin sets and male-male twin sets increased slightly with paternal age, while the OR for same-sex and female-female twin decreased. Conclusion Studies of twins are used to estimate effects of genes and environment in a variety of diseases. Our findings highlight the need to consider paternal as well as maternal age when analyzing data on twins to explore etiology of diseases. PMID:18771839

Kleinhaus, Karine; Perrin, Mary C.; Manor, O; Friedlander, Yehiel; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Harlap, Susan; Malaspina, Dolores

2008-01-01

117

Racial and ethnic disparities in perinatal mortality: applying the perinatal periods of risk model to identify areas for intervention.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To determine the feto-infant mortality rate for New York City, assess racial/ethnic variations and identify areas for intervention using the Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) approach. METHODS: The PPOR model examines fetal and infant deaths by age at death (fetal, neonatal, postneonatal) and birthweight (500-1499, > or =1500 g). It groups age at death and birthweight into four categories to identify problems hypothesized to lead to the death: factors related to Maternal Health and Prematurity, Maternal Care, Newborn Care and Infant Health. The model was applied to fetal and infant deaths occurring in New York City using Vital Records data from 1996-2000. Analysis was completed for the entire city and by race/ethnicity (white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, Hispanic, Asians/Pacific Islander). RESULTS: The overall feto-infant mortality rate was 11.5/1,000 live births plus fetal deaths. This rate varied by race/ethnicity; black non-Hispanics had a higher rate than other racial/ethnic groups. Conditions related to maternal health and prematurity were the largest contributing factors to feto-infant mortality (5.9/1000) in New York City. Among blacks and Hispanics, problems related to maternal health and prematurity contributed a larger share than among whites and Asians/Pacific Islanders. CONCLUSION: The use of the PPOR approach shows that the racial/ethnic disparities in feto-infant mortality that exist in New York City are largely related to maternal health and prematurity. Interventions to reduce the feto-infant mortality rate should include preconception care and improvements in women's health. PMID:16173328

Besculides, Melanie; Laraque, Fabienne

2005-01-01

118

A case series study of perinatal deaths at one referral center in rural post-conflict Liberia.  

PubMed

The overall objective of this study was to further our understanding of the factors contributing to the high perinatal mortality rates at a busy rural, referral hospital in Liberia. The specific aims were to: (1) analyze the records of women who experienced a perinatal loss for both medical and nonmedical contributing factors; (2) describe the timing and causes of all documented stillbirths and early neonatal deaths; and (3) understand the factors surrounding stillbirth and early neonatal death in this context. This case series study was conducted through a retrospective hospital-based record review of all perinatal deaths occurring at the largest rural referral hospital in north-central Liberia during the 2010 calendar year. A record review of 1,656 deliveries identified 196 perinatal deaths; 143 classified as stillbirth and 53 were classified as early neonatal death. The majority of stillbirths (56.6 %) presented as antenatal stillbirths with no fetal heart tones documented upon admission. Thirty-one percent of cases had no maternal or obstetrical diagnosis recorded in the chart when a stillbirth occurred. Of the 53 early neonatal deaths, 47.2 % occurred on day one of the infant's life with birth asphyxia/poor Apgar scores being the diagnosis listed most frequently. Clear and concise documentation is key to understanding the high perinatal death rates in low resource countries. Standardized, detailed documentation is needed to inform changes to clinical practice and develop feasible solutions to reduce the number of perinatal deaths worldwide. PMID:23417211

Lori, Jody R; Rominski, Sarah; Osher, Barbara F; Boyd, Carol J

2014-01-01

119

Experimental models for studying perinatal lipid metabolism. Long-term effects of perinatal undernutrition.  

PubMed

By using different experimental designs in the rat we have been able to answer several unanswered questions on the short- and long-term effects of alterations of lipid metabolism during the perinatal stage. The first was to demonstrate the importance of maternal body fat accumulation during the first half of pregnancy, since undernutrition in this critical period when fetal growth is slow, impedes fat depot accumulation and not only restrains intrauterine development but has long-term consequences, as shown by an impaired glucose tolerance when adults. Secondly, undernutrition during suckling has major long-term effect of decreasing body weight, even though food intake is kept normal from the weaning period. Our findings also show that a diet rich in n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation has adverse effects on offspring development, but cross fostered experiments showed that this effect was a consequence of the intake of these fatty acids during the lactation period rather than during pregnancy. Pups from dams that were fed a fish oil-rich diet during pregnancy and lactation were found to have altered glucose/insulin relationship at the age of 10 weeks. Since a n-3 fatty acid-rich diet decreases milk yield during lactation, additional experiments were carried out to determine whether decreased food intake or altered dietary fatty acid composition, or both, were responsible for the long-term effects on the glucose/insulin axis. Results show that the decreased food intake caused by a n-3 fatty acid-rich diet rather than the change in milk composition during suckling was responsible for the reduced pancreatic glucose responsiveness to insulin release at 16 weeks of age. In conclusion, present findings indicate that impaired maternal fat accumulation during early pregnancy and food intake during lactation, rather than a difference in dietary fatty acid composition, have major effects on postnatal development and affect glucose/insulin relationships in adult rats. PMID:16137112

Herrera, E; López-Soldado, I; Limones, M; Amusquivar, E; Ramos, M P

2005-01-01

120

The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring  

PubMed Central

It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well-documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) which are used by 2–3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs), animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate) effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy. PMID:23734100

Olivier, J. D. A.; Åkerud, H.; Kaihola, H.; Pawluski, J. L.; Skalkidou, A.; Högberg, U.; Sundström-Poromaa, I.

2013-01-01

121

Early postpartum maternal morbidity among rural women of Rajasthan, India: a community-based study.  

PubMed

The first postpartum week is a high-risk period for mothers and newborns. Very few community-based studies have been conducted on patterns of maternal morbidity in resource-poor countries in that first week. An intervention on postpartum care for women within the first week after delivery was initiated in a rural area of Rajasthan, India. The intervention included a rigorous system of receiving reports of all deliveries in a defined population and providing home-level postpartum care to all women, irrespective of the place of delivery. Trained nurse-midwives used a structured checklist for detecting and managing maternal and neonatal conditions during postpartum-care visits. A total of 4,975 women, representing 87.1% of all expected deliveries in a population of 58,000, were examined in their first postpartum week during January 2007-December 2010. Haemoglobin was tested for 77.1% of women (n=3,836) who had a postnatal visit. The most common morbidity was postpartum anaemia--7.4% of women suffered from severe anaemia and 46% from moderate anaemia. Other common morbidities were fever (4%), breast conditions (4.9%), and perineal conditions (4.5%). Life-threatening postpartum morbidities were detected in 7.6% of women--9.7% among those who had deliveries at home and 6.6% among those who had institutional deliveries. None had a fistula. Severe anaemia had a strong correlation with perinatal death [p<0.000, adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.99], delivery at home [p<0.000, AOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.27-2.15)], socioeconomically-underprivileged scheduled caste or tribe [p<0.000, AOR=2.47 (95% CI 1.83-3.33)], and parity of three or more [p<0.000, AOR=1.52 (95% CI 1.18-1.97)]. The correlation with antenatal care was not significant. Perineal conditions were more frequent among women who had institutional deliveries while breast conditions were more common among those who had a perinatal death. This study adds valuable knowledge on postpartum morbidity affecting women in the first few days after delivery in a low-resource setting. Health programmes should invest to ensure that all women receive early postpartum visits after delivery at home and after discharge from institution to detect and manage maternal morbidity. Further, health programmes should also ensure that women are properly screened for complications before their discharge from hospitals after delivery. PMID:22838163

Iyengar, Kirti

2012-06-01

122

Fetal growth restriction and the risk of perinatal mortality–case studies from the multicentre PORTO study  

PubMed Central

Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is the single largest contributing factor to perinatal mortality in non-anomalous fetuses. Advances in antenatal and neonatal critical care have resulted in a reduction in neonatal deaths over the past decades, while stillbirth rates have remained unchanged. Antenatal detection rates of fetal growth failure are low, and these pregnancies carry a high risk of perinatal death. Methods The Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Paediatric Health in IUGR (PORTO) Study recruited 1,200 ultrasound-dated singleton IUGR pregnancies, defined as EFW <10th centile, between 24+0 and 36+6 weeks gestation. All recruited fetuses underwent serial sonographic assessment of fetal weight and multi-vessel Doppler studies until birth. Perinatal outcomes were recorded for all pregnancies. Case records of the perinatal deaths from this prospectively recruited IUGR cohort were reviewed, their pregnancy details and outcome were analysed descriptively and compared to the entire cohort. Results Of 1,116 non-anomalous singleton infants with EFW <10th centile, 6 resulted in perinatal deaths including 3 stillbirths and 3 early neonatal deaths. Perinatal deaths occurred between 24+6 and 35+0 weeks gestation corresponding to birthweights ranging from 460 to 2260 grams. Perinatal deaths occurred more commonly in pregnancies with severe growth restriction (EFW <3rd centile) and associated abnormal Doppler findings resulting in earlier gestational ages at delivery and lower birthweights. All of the described pregnancies were complicated by either significant maternal comorbidities, e.g. hypertension, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or diabetes, or poor obstetric histories, e.g. prior perinatal death, mid-trimester or recurrent pregnancy loss. Five of the 6 mortalities occurred in women of non-Irish ethnic backgrounds. All perinatal deaths showed abnormalities on placental histopathological evaluation. Conclusions The PNMR in this cohort of prenatally identified IUGR cases was 5.4/1,000 and compares favourably to the overall national rate of 4.1/1,000 births, which can be attributed to increased surveillance and timely delivery. Despite antenatal recognition of IUGR and associated maternal risk factors, not all perinatal deaths can be prevented. PMID:24517273

2014-01-01

123

Context Modulates Outcome of Perinatal Glucocorticoid Action in the Brain  

PubMed Central

Prematurely born infants may be at risk, because of inadequate maturation of tissues. If there are signs of preterm birth, it has become common practice therefore to treat either antenatally the mother or postnatally the infant with glucocorticoids to accelerate tissue development, particularly of the lung. However, this life-saving early glucocorticoid treatment was found to increase the risk of adverse outcome in later life. In one animal study, the authors reported a 25% shorter lifespan of rats treated as newborns with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, but so far this finding has not been replicated. After a brief clinical introduction, we discuss studies in rodents designed to examine how perinatal glucocorticoid action affects the developing brain. It appears that the perinatal action of the glucocorticoid depends on the context and the timing as well as the type of administered steroid. The type of steroid is important because the endogenous glucocorticoids cortisol and corticosterone bind to two distinct receptor populations, i.e., mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors (GR), while synthetic glucocorticoids predominantly bind to the GR. In addition, if given antenatally hydrocortisone is inactivated in the placenta by 11?-HSD type 2, and dexamethasone is not. With respect to timing, the outcome of glucocorticoid effects is different in early vs. late phases of brain development. The context refers to the environmental input that can affect the susceptibility to glucocorticoid action in the newborn rodent brain; early handling of pups and maternal care obliterate effects of post-natal dexamethasone treatment. Context also refers to coping with environmental conditions in later life, for which the individual may have been programed epigenetically by early-life experience. This knowledge of determinants affecting the outcome of perinatal glucocorticoid exposure may have clinical implications for the treatment of prematurely born infants. PMID:25071717

de Kloet, E. Ronald; Claessens, Sanne E. F.; Kentrop, Jiska

2014-01-01

124

Partner Support and Maternal Depression in the Context of the Iowa Floods  

PubMed Central

A systematic investigation of the role of prenatal partner support in perinatal maternal depression was conducted. Separate facets of partner support were examined (i.e., received support and support adequacy) and a multidimensional model of support was applied to investigate the effects of distinct types of support (i.e., informational, physical comfort, emotional/esteem, and tangible support). Both main and stress-buffering models of partner support were tested in the context of prenatal maternal stress resulting from exposure to a natural disaster. Questionnaire data were analyzed from N=145 partnered women using growth curve analytic techniques. Results indicate that received support interacts with maternal flood stress during pregnancy to weaken the association between stress and trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Support adequacy did not interact with stress, but was associated with levels of depressive symptoms controlling for maternal stress and received support. Results demonstrate the distinct roles of various facets and types of support for a more refined explanatory model of prenatal partner support and perinatal maternal depression. Results inform both main effect and stress buffering models of partner support as they apply to the etiology of perinatal maternal depression, and highlight the importance of promoting partner support during pregnancy that matches support preferences. PMID:25243576

Brock, Rebecca L.; O’Hara, Michael W.; Hart, Kimberly J.; McCabe, Jennifer E.; Williamson, J Austin; Laplante, David P.; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne

2014-01-01

125

Partner support and maternal depression in the context of the Iowa floods.  

PubMed

A systematic investigation of the role of prenatal partner support in perinatal maternal depression was conducted. Separate facets of partner support were examined (i.e., received support and support adequacy) and a multidimensional model of support was applied to investigate the effects of distinct types of support (i.e., informational, physical comfort, emotional/esteem, and tangible support). Both main and stress-buffering models of partner support were tested in the context of prenatal maternal stress resulting from exposure to a natural disaster. Questionnaire data were analyzed from 145 partnered women using growth curve analytic techniques. Results indicate that received support interacts with maternal flood stress during pregnancy to weaken the association between stress and trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Support adequacy did not interact with stress, but was associated with levels of depressive symptoms controlling for maternal stress and received support. Results demonstrate the distinct roles of various facets and types of support for a more refined explanatory model of prenatal partner support and perinatal maternal depression. Results inform both main effect and stress buffering models of partner support as they apply to the etiology of perinatal maternal depression, and highlight the importance of promoting partner support during pregnancy that matches support preferences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25243576

Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W; Hart, Kimberly J; McCabe, Jennifer E; Williamson, J Austin; Laplante, David P; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne

2014-12-01

126

Prenatal and perinatal factors associated with intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Prenatal and perinatal risk factors associated with intellectual disability (ID) were studied in 8-year-old Utah children from a 1994 birth cohort (N ?=? 26,108) using broad ascertainment methods and birth records following the most current recording guidelines. Risk factor analyses were performed inclusive and exclusive of children with a known or suspected underlying genetic disorder. Risk factors identified were poly/oligohydramnios, advanced paternal/maternal age, prematurity, fetal distress, premature rupture of membranes, primary/repeat cesarean sections, low birth weight, assisted ventilation greater than 30 min, small-for-gestational age, low Apgar scores, and congenital infection. Although several risk factors lost significance once children with underlying genetic disorders were excluded, socioeconomic variables were among those that maintained a prominent association with increased ID risk. PMID:23464612

Bilder, Deborah A; Pinborough-Zimmerman, Judith; Bakian, Amanda V; Miller, Judith S; Dorius, Josette T; Nangle, Barry; McMahon, William M

2013-03-01

127

Engaging and Retaining Abused Women in Perinatal Home Visitation Programs  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy affects 0.9% to 17% of women and affects maternal health significantly. The impact of IPV extends to the health of children, including an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and the neonatal period, mental health problems, and cognitive delays. Despite substantial sequelae, there is limited research substantiating best practices for engaging and retaining high-risk families in perinatal home visiting (HV) programs, which have been shown to improve infant development and reduce maltreatment. METHODS: The Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program (DOVE) is a multistate longitudinal study testing the effectiveness of a structured IPV intervention integrated into health department perinatal HV programs. The DOVE intervention, based on an empowerment model, combined 2 evidence-based interventions: a 10-minute brochure-based IPV intervention and nurse home visitation. RESULTS: Across all sites, 689 referrals were received from participating health departments. A total of 339 abused pregnant women were eligible for randomization; 42 women refused, and 239 women were randomly assigned (124 DOVE; 115 usual care), resulting in a 71% recruitment rate. Retention rates from baseline included 93% at delivery, 80% at 3 months, 76% at 6 months, and 72% at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Challenges for HV programs include identifying and retaining abused pregnant women in their programs. DOVE strategies for engaging and retaining abused pregnant women should be integrated into HV programs’ federal government mandates for the appropriate identification and intervention of women and children exposed to IPV. PMID:24187115

Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Bullock, Linda; Bhandari, Shreya; Ghazarian, Sharon; Udo, Ifeyinwa E.; Campbell, Jacquelyn

2013-01-01

128

Perinatal risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To identify perinatal risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and define the risk for each factor.?METHODS—In this case control study, using logistic regression analysis, all 1127 cases of isolated DDH live born in South Australia in 1986-93 and notified to the South Australian Birth Defects Register were included; controls comprised 150 130 live births in South Australia during the same period without any notified congenital abnormalities.?RESULTS—Breech presentation, oligohydramnios, female sex and primiparity were confirmed as risk factors for DDH. Significant findings were an increased risk for vaginal delivery over caesarean section for breech presentation (as well as an increased risk for emergency section over elective section), high birthweight (?4000 g), postmaturity and older maternal age; multiple births and preterm births had a reduced risk. There was no increased risk for caesarean section in the absence of breech presentation. For breech presentation, the risk of DDH was estimated to be at least 2.7% for girls and 0.8% for boys; a combination of factors increased the risk.?CONCLUSIONS—It is suggested that the risk factors identified be used as indications for repeat screening at 6 weeks of age and whenever possible in infancy. Other indications are family history and associated abnormalities.?? Keywords: congenital hip dislocation; perinatal risk factors; screening; breech presentation. PMID:9135287

Chan, A.; McCaul, K.; Cundy, P.; Haan, E.; Byron-Scott, R.

1997-01-01

129

Neurobehavioral and somatic effects of perinatal PCB exposure in rats  

SciTech Connect

Developing rats were exposed to TCBs via provision of diets containing 0.02 (no PCB added), 2.4, 26, or 269 ppm Aroclor 1254 to sperm-positive female rats from mating to weaning of their pups. Provision of the 269 ppm diet decreased the number of impregnated rats that delivered a litter and lowered pup birth weight, and most pups died within 7 days of birth. Preweaning pup growth was reduced in the 26 ppm condition and slightly reduced in the 2.5 ppm condition. The ontogeny of negative geotaxis, auditory startle, and air righting was delayed in pups from the 26 ppm condition. Pups in the 2.5 ppm condition had slightly delayed development of auditory startle. Maximal electroshock seizure tests on postweaning rats showed that perinatal PCB exposure decreased seizure severity of both the 2.5 and 26 ppm groups. PCB exposure increased pup liver weights at birth and dam and pup liver weights at weaning. Spleen and thymus weights were lower in PCB-exposed pups, while brain weights were unaffected. Analytical determination of PCB levels in brain showed greater maternal transfer of PCBs during lactation than during gestation. Elevated PCB levels were detectable in brains of perinatally exposed adult rats.

Overmann, S.R.; Kostas, J.; Wilson, L.R.; Shain, W.; Bush, B.

1987-10-01

130

Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac) – a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths  

PubMed Central

A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose a classification system that could serve all these needs, and be applicable in both developing and developed countries. It is developed to adhere to basic concepts of underlying cause in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), although gaps in ICD prevent classification of perinatal deaths solely on existing ICD codes. We tested the Causes of Death and Associated Conditions (Codac) classification for perinatal deaths in seven populations, including two developing country settings. We identified areas of potential improvements in the ability to retain existing information, ease of use and inter-rater agreement. After revisions to address these issues we propose Version II of Codac with detailed coding instructions. The ten main categories of Codac consist of three key contributors to global perinatal mortality (intrapartum events, infections and congenital anomalies), two crucial aspects of perinatal mortality (unknown causes of death and termination of pregnancy), a clear distinction of conditions relevant only to the neonatal period and the remaining conditions are arranged in the four anatomical compartments (fetal, cord, placental and maternal). For more detail there are 94 subcategories, further specified in 577 categories in the full version. Codac is designed to accommodate both the main cause of death as well as two associated conditions. We suggest reporting not only the main cause of death, but also the associated relevant conditions so that scenarios of combined conditions and events are captured. The appropriately applied Codac system promises to better manage information on causes of perinatal deaths, the conditions associated with them, and the most common clinical scenarios for future study and comparisons. PMID:19515228

Frøen, J Frederik; Pinar, Halit; Flenady, Vicki; Bahrin, Safiah; Charles, Adrian; Chauke, Lawrence; Day, Katie; Duke, Charles W; Facchinetti, Fabio; Fretts, Ruth C; Gardener, Glenn; Gilshenan, Kristen; Gordijn, Sanne J; Gordon, Adrienne; Guyon, Grace; Harrison, Catherine; Koshy, Rachel; Pattinson, Robert C; Petersson, Karin; Russell, Laurie; Saastad, Eli; Smith, Gordon CS; Torabi, Rozbeh

2009-01-01

131

Minimal Brain Dysfunction: Associations with Perinatal Complications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined with over 28,000 7-year-old children whose mothers registered for prenatal care was the relationship between perinatal complications and such characteristics as poor school achievement, hyperactivity, and neurological soft signs associated with the diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). Ten perinatal antecedents were studied:…

Nichols, Paul L.

132

Guidelines for Perinatal Care. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basic concept emphasized in this book is that a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach within a regionalized system of perinatal care is a constant factor improving the quality of pregancy outcomes. This coordinated multidisciplinary approach has had an impact on perinatal care in three important areas: (1) improved and expanded understanding…

American Coll. of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Washington, DC.

133

Women's health groups to improve perinatal care in rural Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal mortality rates are high in rural Nepal where more than 90% of deliveries are in the home. Evidence suggests that death rates can be reduced by interventions at community level. We describe an intervention which aimed to harness the power of community planning and decision making to improve maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Methods The development of 111 women's groups in a population of 86 704 in Makwanpur district, Nepal is described. The groups, facilitated by local women, were the intervention component of a randomized controlled trial to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. Through participant observation and analysis of reports, we describe the implementation of this intervention: the community entry process, the facilitation of monthly meetings through a participatory action cycle of problem identification, community planning, and implementation and evaluation of strategies to tackle the identified problems. Results In response to the needs of the group, participatory health education was added to the intervention and the women's groups developed varied strategies to tackle problems of maternal and newborn care: establishing mother and child health funds, producing clean home delivery kits and operating stretcher schemes. Close linkages with community leaders and community health workers improved strategy implementation. There were also indications of positive effects on group members and health services, and most groups remained active after 30 months. Conclusion A large scale and potentially sustainable participatory intervention with women's groups, which focused on pregnancy, childbirth and the newborn period, resulted in innovative strategies identified by local communities to tackle perinatal care problems. PMID:15771772

Morrison, Joanna; Tamang, Suresh; Mesko, Natasha; Osrin, David; Shrestha, Bhim; Manandhar, Madan; Manandhar, Dharma; Standing, Hilary; Costello, Anthony

2005-01-01

134

Maternity data.  

PubMed

Statistics were provided for 23 districts and 29 hospitals in Uganda, 1992, for the following maternal measures: parity, prenatal care, normal and abnormal deliveries, abortions, maternal mortality, live births, stillbirths, premature births, incidence of low birth weight, immunization status, and contraceptive use. About 60% of districts reported data on the average for 7 months of the year, and 75% of all hospitals reported data to districts. The data were considered incomplete, inconsistent, and inaccurate. In 1992, 63,691 mothers sought maternity services, of whom 75% attended prenatal care. Districts with high prenatal care use included Pallisa, Jinja, Kiboga, Kalangala, and Kibale. Low prenatal care was reported in Kabarole, Kasese, and Iganga. 32,873 deliveries were reported, of which 8.8% were abnormal. High rates of abnormal deliveries were from hospitals in Villa, Maria, Kitovu, and Matany, all nongovernmental organization hospitals. Low rates were reported from Mbale (2.9%), Jinja (0.8%), Masindi (2.8%), Mpigi (0.4%), and Kalangala (0%). Six hospitals reported abnormal deliveries ranging between 3 and 5%. All other hospitals had percentages greater than 14%. The maternal mortality rate was high at 600/100,000 and highest in Kapchorwa (5600/100,000), which could have been due to effective referral. 13.7% of births were low birth weight (2500 g). Low birth weight was highest in Mubende (26.7%), Moroto (25.8%), Kitgum (21.5%), Kapchorwa (20.3%), and Kasese (20.0%). Districts with low percentages of low birth weight babies included Bushenyi (4.7%), Iganga (5.9%), Kiboga (6.2%), Hoima (7.0%), and Kalangala (7.8%). Hospital maternal mortality was 800/1000. A 1993 community survey of 12 districts reported maternal mortality of 525/100,000 for the community, 600/100,000 for health units, and 800/100,000 for hospitals. BCG and polio immunization were highest in Kalangala and Hoima districts. PMID:12288707

1994-01-01

135

Perinatal staff perceptions of safety and quality in their service.  

PubMed

BackgroundEnsuring safe and appropriate service delivery is central to a high quality maternity service. With this in mind, over recent years much attention has been given to the development of evidence-based clinical guidelines, staff education and risk reporting systems. Less attention has been given to assessing staff perceptions of a service¿s safety and quality and what factors may influence that. In this study we set out to assess staff perceptions of safety and quality of a maternity service and to explore potential influences on service safety.MethodsThe study was undertaken within a new low risk metropolitan maternity service in Victoria, Australia with a staffing profile comprising midwives (including students), neonatal nurses, specialist obstetricians, junior medical staff and clerical staff. In depth open-ended interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire were conducted with 23 staff involved in the delivery of perinatal care, including doctors, midwives, nurses, nursing and midwifery students, and clerical staff. Data were analyzed using naturalistic interpretive inquiry to identify emergent themes.ResultsStaff unanimously reported that there were robust systems and processes in place to maintain safety and quality. Three major themes were apparent: (1) clinical governance, (2) dominance of midwives, (3) inter-professional relationships. Overall, there was a strong sense that, at least in this midwifery-led service, midwives had the greatest opportunity to be an influence, both positively and negatively, on the safe delivery of perinatal care. The importance of understanding team dynamics, particularly mutual respect, trust and staff cohesion, were identified as key issues for potential future service improvement.ConclusionsSenior staff, particularly midwives and neonatal nurses, play central roles in shaping team behaviors and attitudes that may affect the safety and quality of service delivery. We suggest that strategies targeting senior staff to enhance their performance in their roles, particularly in the training and teamwork role-modeling of the transitory junior workforce, are important for the development and maintenance of a high quality and safe maternity service. PMID:25430702

Sinni, Suzanne V; Wallace, Euan M; Cross, Wendy M

2014-11-28

136

A model for maternal depression.  

PubMed

With the awareness of maternal depression as a prevalent public health issue and its important link to child physical and mental health, attention has turned to how healthcare providers can respond effectively. Intimate partner violence (IPV) and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs are strongly related to depression, particularly for low-income women. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends psychosocial screening of pregnant women at least once per trimester, yet screening is uncommonly done. Research suggests that a collaborative care approach improves identification, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of care. This article presents The Perinatal Mental Health Model, a community-based model that developed screening and referral partnerships for use in community obstetric settings in order to specifically address the psychosocial needs of culturally diverse, low-income mothers. PMID:20718624

Connelly, Cynthia D; Baker-Ericzen, Mary J; Hazen, Andrea L; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

2010-09-01

137

Perinatal Safety: From Concept to Nursing Practice  

PubMed Central

Communication and teamwork problems are leading causes of documented preventable adverse outcomes in perinatal care. An essential component of perinatal safety is the organizational culture in which clinicians work. Clinicians’ individual and collective authority to question the plan of care and take action to change the direction of a clinical situation in the patient’s best interest can be viewed as their “agency for safety.” However, collective agency for safety and commitment to support nurses in their advocacy role is missing in many perinatal care settings. This paper draws from Organizational Accident Theory, High Reliability Theory, and Symbolic Interactionism to describe the nurse’s role in maintaining safety during labor and birth in acute care settings, and suggests actions for supporting the perinatal nurse at individual, group, and systems levels to achieve maximum safety in perinatal care. PMID:20147827

Kennedy, Holly Powell

2010-01-01

138

A literature review on integrated perinatal care  

PubMed Central

Context The perinatal period is one during which health care services are in high demand. Like other health care sub-sectors, perinatal health care delivery has undergone significant changes in recent years, such as the integrative wave that has swept through the health care industry since the early 1990s. Purpose The present study aims at reviewing scholarly work on integrated perinatal care to provide support for policy decision-making. Results Researchers interested in integrated perinatal care have, by assessing the effectiveness of individual clinical practices and intervention programs, mainly addressed issues of continuity of care and clinical and professional integration. Conclusions Improvements in perinatal health care delivery appear related not to structurally integrated health care delivery systems, but to organizing modalities that aim to support woman-centred care and cooperative clinical practice. PMID:17786177

Rodríguez, Charo; des Rivières-Pigeon, Catherine

2007-01-01

139

Effectiveness of an integrated approach to reduce perinatal mortality: recent experiences from Matlab, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Improving perinatal health is the key to achieving the Millennium Development Goal for child survival. Recently, several reviews suggest that scaling up available effective perinatal interventions in an integrated approach can substantially reduce the stillbirth and neonatal death rates worldwide. We evaluated the effect of packaged interventions given in pregnancy, delivery and post-partum periods through integration of community- and facility-based services on perinatal mortality. Methods This study took advantage of an ongoing health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) and a new Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH) Project initiated in 2007 in Matlab, Bangladesh in half (intervention area) of the HDSS area. In the other half, women received usual care through the government health system (comparison area). The MNCH Project strengthened ongoing maternal and child health services as well as added new services. The intervention followed a continuum of care model for pregnancy, intrapartum, and post-natal periods by improving established links between community- and facility-based services. With a separate pre-post samples design, we compared the perinatal mortality rates between two periods--before (2005-2006) and after (2008-2009) implementation of MNCH interventions. We also evaluated the difference-of-differences in perinatal mortality between intervention and comparison areas. Results Antenatal coverage, facility delivery and cesarean section rates were significantly higher in the post- intervention period in comparison with the period before intervention. In the intervention area, the odds of perinatal mortality decreased by 36% between the pre-intervention and post-intervention periods (odds ratio: 0.64; 95% confidence intervals: 0.52-0.78). The reduction in the intervention area was also significant relative to the reduction in the comparison area (OR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.95; P = 0.018). Conclusion The continuum of care approach provided through the integration of service delivery modes decreased the perinatal mortality rate within a short period of time. Further testing of this model is warranted within the government health system in Bangladesh and other low-income countries. PMID:22151276

2011-01-01

140

A retrospective chart review to identify perinatal factors associated with food allergies  

PubMed Central

Background Gut flora are important immunomodulators that may be disrupted in individuals with atopic conditions. Probiotic bacteria have been suggested as therapeutic modalities to mitigate or prevent food allergic manifestations. We wished to investigate whether perinatal factors known to disrupt gut flora increase the risk of IgE-mediated food allergies. Methods Birth records obtained from 192 healthy children and 99 children diagnosed with food allergies were reviewed retrospectively. Data pertaining to delivery method, perinatal antibiotic exposure, neonatal nursery environment, and maternal variables were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between variables of interest and subsequent food allergy diagnosis. Results Retrospective investigation did not find perinatal antibiotics, NICU admission, or cesarean section to be associated with increased risk of food allergy diagnosis. However, associations between food allergy diagnosis and male gender (66 vs. 33; p=0.02) were apparent in this cohort. Additionally, increasing maternal age at delivery was significantly associated with food allergy diagnosis during childhood (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.017 to 1.105; p=0.005). Conclusions Gut flora are potent immunomodulators, but their overall contribution to immune maturation remains to be elucidated. Additional understanding of the interplay between immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors underlying food allergy development need to be clarified before probiotic therapeutic interventions can routinely be recommended for prevention or mitigation of food allergies. Such interventions may be well-suited in male infants and in infants born to older mothers. PMID:23078601

2012-01-01

141

Risk factors for perinatal arterial stroke: a study of 60 mother-child pairs.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to examine demographic, historical, and prothrombotic risk factors in infants with perinatal arterial stroke and their mothers. Risk factors were evaluated in 60 mother-child pairs with perinatal arterial stroke. Prothrombotic factors analyzed included the DNA mutations factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210, MTHFR C677T and A1298C; serum activity levels for protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III; serum levels of lipoprotein(a); and, in the mothers, antiphospholipid antibodies. Boys predominated, 36:24. There were four twin sets. Sixty percent were term and 22% were post-date. Ten were large for gestational age. Five mothers had abdominal trauma. Nine mothers (15%) had preeclampsia. Emergency caesarean section was performed in 17 cases (28%). Eight placental exams revealed seven with abnormalities. Seizures were the presenting sign in 70%, and 30% presented with early handedness or cerebral palsy. Prothrombotic risk factors were found in 28 of 51 mothers (55%) and 30 of 60 children (50%). Forty-one pairs (68%) had at least one abnormality in mother, child, or both. Long-term sequelae included cerebral palsy (40 of 51; 78%), cognitive impairment (35 of 51; 68%), seizures (23 of 51; 45%), and microcephaly (26 of 51; 51%). Perinatal arterial stroke is the result of multifactorial, synergistic fetal and maternal factors among which the prothrombotic factors, both fetal and maternal, appear significant. PMID:17675024

Curry, Cynthia J; Bhullar, Sundeep; Holmes, Jon; Delozier, C Dawn; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Hutchison, H Terry

2007-08-01

142

Role of the Placenta in Adverse Perinatal Outcomes Among HIV-1 Seropositive Women  

PubMed Central

Women seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are at an increased risk for a number of adverse perinatal outcomes. Although efforts to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) remain a priority in resource-limited countries, HIV testing and treatment have led to steep declines in MTCT in well-resourced countries. Even so, HIV seropositive pregnant women in the United States continue to deliver a disproportionately high number of preterm and low birth weight infants. In this mini-review, we address the role of the placenta in such HIV-related perinatal sequelae. We posit that adverse perinatal outcomes may result from two mutually non-exclusive routes: (1) HIV infection of the placenta proper, potentially leading to impaired maternal-fetal exchange; and (2) infection of the maternal decidual microenvironment, possibly disrupting normal placental implantation and development. Further research into the relationship between HIV-1 infection and placental pathology may lead to the development of novel strategies to improve birth outcomes among HIV-1 seropositive parturients. PMID:23657060

Ackerman, William; Kwiek, Jesse J.

2014-01-01

143

Impact of the Perinatal Environment on the Child's Development: Implications for Prevention Policies.  

PubMed

Basic emotional security is central to the construction of the child and has an impact on the brain's organisation, the personal autonomy and the capacity to explore the world. The key concept of the attachment theory is supported by recent neuroimaging findings of brain development and the structuring of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axonal regulatory systems.In addition to the child's potential, the essential variable lies in the quality of the environment's responses, and consequently in the quality of the maternal security, from the very early intrauterine life. The understanding of the effects of parental stress during the early developmental stages is advancing. In France, the emotional security of pregnant women and future parents has become a major stake of perinatal policies for the prevention of developmental disorders.Specific strategies are being developed to improve both the maternal and the infant well-being. These are not restricted only to mental health specialists but rather involve every health-care professional of the perinatal period. The mechanisms of change for vulnerable parents emerge from the prospective analysis of support methods. Continuity and coherence of such care serve as a holding function, which enables the restructuring of previous emotional traumas.A new interdisciplinary perinatal medicine is emerging, structured rigorously around a well-coordinated obstetrical and paediatric follow-up. Considering the future of children, teenagers and adults, the stakes are enormous. PMID:25287551

Molenat, Françoise

2015-01-01

144

Placenta accreta is an independent risk factor for late pre-term birth and perinatal mortality.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study is aimed to identify the risk factors for the development of placenta accreta (PA) and characterize its effect on maternal and perinatal outcomes. Study design: This population-based retrospective cohort study included all deliveries at our medical center during the study period. Those with placenta accreta (n?=?551) comprised the study group, while the rest of the deliveries (n?=?239?089) served as a comparison group. Results: The prevalence of placenta accerta is 0.2%. Women with this complication had higher rates of ?2 previous CS (p?perinatal mortality (p?perinatal mortality (adj. OR 8.2; 95% CI 6.4-10.4, p?perinatal mortality. PMID:25142109

Vinograd, Adi; Wainstock, Tamar; Mazor, Moshe; Beer-Weisel, Ruthy; Klaitman, Vered; Dukler, Doron; Hamou, Batel; Novack, Lena; Ben-Shalom Tirosh, Neta; Vinograd, Ofir; Erez, Offer

2014-09-18

145

Adjustment of birth weight standards for maternal and infant characteristics improves the prediction of outcome in the small-for-gestational-age infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Birth weight is a function of gestational age. Various maternal and infant characteristics also affect birth weight. This study sought to adjust for these factors to better define abnormal growth. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal and infant characteristics from normal pregnancies were correlated with birth weight. A formula was developed and applied to a second group in which we compared perinatal

Sciscione; Callan

1996-01-01

146

Maternal Filicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having identified that most violent crime is carried out by men, feminists have recently called attention to the need to also bring a feminist analysis to violent crimes committed by women. This research examines data drawn from coroners court files in Victoria, Australia for the period 1978 to 1991 to explore scenarios of maternal filicide. The data are reviewed in

Christine M. Alder; June Baker

1997-01-01

147

Perinatal Mortality in the United States, 1950-81.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes long-term trends in perinatal mortality in the United States in three basic parts: development of perinatal mortality measures, components of fetal and infant mortality, and trends and differentials in perinatal mortality. Perinatal deaths refer to the sum of spontaneous fetal deaths occurring after 20 weeks gestation plus…

Powell-Griner, Eve

1986-01-01

148

Maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with in vitro fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this case-control study was to examine the maternal and neonatal morbidities associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) in a single large teaching hospital. It was hypothesized that IVF mothers would have more perinatal complications and IVF infants would have higher mortality and morbidity rates than non-IVF control subjects. Methods: One hundred forty-three gestations resulting from 101

Christopher P. Tallo; Betty Vohr; William Oh; Lewis P. Rubin; David B. Seifer; Ray V. Haning

1995-01-01

149

The safety and quality of childbirth in the context of health systems: mapping maternal health provision in Lebanon  

PubMed Central

Objective to provide basic information on the distribution (public/private and geographically) and the nature of maternity health provision in Lebanon, including relevant health outcome data at the hospital level in order to compare key features of provision with maternal/neonatal health outcomes. Design a self-completion questionnaire was sent to private hospitals by the Syndicate of Private Hospitals in collaboration with the study team and to all public hospitals in Lebanon with a functioning maternity ward by the study team in cooperation with the Ministry of Public Health. Setting childbirth in an institutional setting by a trained attendant is almost universal in Lebanon and the predominant model of care is obstetrician-led rather than midwife-led. Yet due to a 15-year-old civil war and a highly privatised health sector, Lebanon lacks systematic or publically available data on the organisation, distribution and quality of maternal health services. An accreditation system for private hospitals was recently initiated to regulate the quality of hospital care in Lebanon. Participants in total, 58 (out of 125 eligible) hospitals responded to the survey (46% total response rate). Only hospital-level aggregate data were collected. Measurements the survey addressed the volume of services, mode of payment for deliveries, number of health providers, number of labour and childbirth units, availability of neonatal intensive care units, fetal monitors and infusion rate regulation pumps for oxytocin, as well as health outcome data related to childbirth care and stillbirths for the year 2008. Findings the study provides the first data on maternal health provision from a survey of all eligible hospitals in Lebanon. More than three-quarters of deliveries occur in private hospitals, but the Ministry of Public Health is the single most important source of payment for childbirth. The reported hospital caesarean section rate is high at 40.8%. Essential equipment for safe maternal and newborn health care is widely available in Lebanon, but over half of the hospitals that responded lack a neonatal intensive care unit. The ratio of reported numbers of midwives to deliveries is three times that of obstetricians to deliveries. Key conclusions and implications for practice there is a need for greater interaction between maternal/neonatal health, health system specialists and policy makers on how the health system can support both the adoption of evidence-based interventions and, ultimately, better maternal and perinatal health outcomes. PMID:20691519

DeJong, Jocelyn; Akik, Chaza; El Kak, Faysal; Osman, Hibah; El-Jardali, Fadi

2010-01-01

150

Pre- and perinatal risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in a New Jersey cohort.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the prevalence of pre- and perinatal risk factors in a cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders compared with the New Jersey population. Our cohort included 268 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. Birth histories were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The autism spectrum disorders cohort rates of 7 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher than New Jersey state rates: mother's age 35 years or older, low birth weight, multiple gestation, prematurity, vaginal bleeding, prolonged labor, and hypoxia. Analysis of clustering of risk factors in the cohort showed no significant differences across maternal and paternal age groups. Older mothers in the cohort had a higher risk of infant hypoxia. Multiple risk factors during pregnancy appear to be associated with a higher risk of autism spectrum disorders in offspring, supporting the hypothesis that environmental influences in conjunction with genetics contribute to the causes of autism spectrum disorders. PMID:24413357

Maramara, Lauren A; He, Wenzhuan; Ming, Xue

2014-12-01

151

Developmental programming of brain and behavior by perinatal diet: focus on inflammatory mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Obesity is now epidemic worldwide. Beyond associated diseases such as diabetes, obesity is linked to neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Alarmingly maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption during gestation/lactation may “program” offspring longterm for increased obesity themselves, along with increased vulnerability to mood disorders. We review the evidence that programming of brain and behavior by perinatal diet is propagated by inflammatory mechanisms, as obesity and high-fat diets are independently associated with exaggerated systemic levels of inflammatory mediators. Due to the recognized dual role of these immune molecules (eg, interleukin [IL]-6, 11-1?) in placental function and brain development, any disruption of their delicate balance with growth factors or neurotransmitters (eg, serotonin) by inflammation early in life can permanently alter the trajectory of fetal brain development. Finally, epigenetic regulation of inflammatory pathways is a likely candidate for persistent changes in metabolic and brain function as a consequence of the perinatal environment. PMID:25364282

Bolton, Jessica L.; Bilbo, Staci D.

2014-01-01

152

Ethical considerations of the perinatal necropsy.  

PubMed Central

The perinatal necropsy is an important investigation following fetal or neonatal loss. Legal requirements on registration decree that consent is needed before necropsy can proceed in some of these babies. However, there are ill-defined grey areas which are open to legal and ethical difficulties. This paper discusses the problems that can arise with consent for a necropsy in the perinatal period. Some of these problems are clearly legal or ethical but all can cause distress to parents at a time of grief and bereavement. The issues may not be readily resolved but public debate and ad hominem decisions on each perinatal loss may help to alleviate the problems. PMID:8731538

Khong, T Y

1996-01-01

153

Current problems of perinatal Chlamydia trachomatis infections  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis has been recognized as a pathogen of trachoma, nongonococcal urethritis, salpingitis, endocervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, inclusion conjunctivitis of neonates, follicular conjunctivitis of adults, infantile pneumonia and associated conditions. Chlamydial infections during pregnancy may also cause a variety of perinatal complications. Different antigenic strains of C. trachomatis from endocervical, nasopharyngeal and conjunctival origins have been associated with different clinical conditions. Control programs emphasizing early diagnosis, targeted screening, and effective treatment will lead to an eventual decline in the incidence of perinatal chlamydial infection. This review focuses on current problems of perinatal C. trachomatis infections in the aspects of microbiological and immunological pathogenesis. PMID:14962349

Numazaki, Kei

2004-01-01

154

[Perinatal audit: the most important legal aspects].  

PubMed

In The Netherlands a perinatal audit system is being prepared. Perinatal audit is seen as a powerful means of identifying substandard factors in perinatal care and of increasing the quality of care with better grounding. The proposed system does not raise insurmountable legal problems. However, certain legal aspects should be given specific attention. These aspects include the rights of patients with respect to privacy and information and the protection of health professionals against use of information from the audit system for reasons other than quality purposes. Legislation from other countries may inspire legislative developments in The Netherlands in this area. PMID:19192588

de Roode, R P; Legemaate, J

2008-12-13

155

An Urban Perinatal Health Programme of Strategies to Improve Perinatal Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Promotion of a healthy pregnancy is a top priority of the health care policy in many European countries. Perinatal mortality\\u000a is an important indicator of the success of this policy. Recently, it was shown that the Netherlands has relatively high perinatal\\u000a death rates when compared to other European countries. This is in particular true for large cities where perinatal mortality

S. Denkta?; G. J. Bonsel; E. J. Van der Weg; A. J. J. Voorham; H. W. Torij; J. P. De Graaf; H. I. J. Wildschut; I. A. Peters; E. Birnie; E. A. P. Steegers

2011-01-01

156

Project Pró-Natal: Population-based Study of Perinatal and Infant Mortality in Natal, Northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pró-Natal project is a collaborative initiative that aims to improve maternal and infant health in a deprived community\\u000a in Natal, Northeast Brazil. To assess the perinatal and infant mortality in this population of 40,000, we have collected over\\u000a a 2-year period a consecutive series of 39 autopsy examinations on deaths under 1 year of age. During this period there

Ana Maria O. Ramos; Técia D. O. Maranhão; Albanita S. Macedo; Jon I. Pollock; Alan M. Emond

2000-01-01

157

DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

158

Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances  

SciTech Connect

This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.

1987-01-01

159

Maternal-fetal medicine - How can we practically connect the "M" to the "F"?  

PubMed

Maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) is a multidisciplinary subspecialty dedicated to optimization of pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. MFM utilizes novel technologies for diagnostics and treatments in order to optimize obstetrical care and pregnancy outcome. Although defined as maternal and fetal medicine, originally aiming to equally address fetal and/or maternal issues, in reality the main focus of MFM has been shifted from improving maternal outcome and preventing maternal short- and long-term complications to improving fetal and neonatal outcome. In this article, we address the lack of communication between the two subspecialties and propose a resolution that will bridge the discrepancies by proposing to connect the leading hypotheses in MFM and in fetal medicine to those in maternal medicine. PMID:25225060

Hod, Moshe; Lieberman, Nicky

2014-08-21

160

Trajectories of Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Maternal Sensitivity, and Children's Functioning at School Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the authors modeled trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from infant age 1 month to 7 years. The authors identified 6 trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: high-chronic, moderate-increasing, high-decreasing,…

Campbell, Susan B.; Matestic, Patricia; von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Mohan, Roli; Kirchner, Thomas

2007-01-01

161

Recurrent perinatal loss: a case study.  

PubMed

To date, investigators have not demonstrated a clear relationship between a parent's history of prior perinatal losses and intensity of grief response following a subsequent perinatal loss. Examining this relationship for low-income, African-American parents is important because they are a vulnerable population due to the high incidence of perinatal mortality in Blacks and their other life stressors that can impact on grief response and caring needs. The purpose of this case study was to examine the impact of recurrent perinatal loss on a low-income African-American parent. The research design for this study was case report, using interview data collected from a mother who had recently experienced her fourth perinatal loss, which occurred at twenty-five weeks of gestation. Transcripts from two open-ended interviews were analyzed. The theoretical framework used to guide analysis of this case study was Lazarus and Folkman's stress and coping theory. Results demonstrated that the prior perinatal losses did not appear as critical components of the way the mother responded to her most recent loss. Instead, perception of the care she received from healthcare providers and how that care related to her experiences with her one living child who was born at the same gestational age was an important determinant in how she responded to her loss. The results of this case study demonstrate the importance assessing a person's perception of their experience and those factors which contribute to the way they respond. PMID:16871322

Kavanaugh, K; Robertson, P A

1999-01-01

162

Naturalization of immigrants and perinatal mortality  

PubMed Central

Background: Differences in neonatal mortality among immigrants have been documented in Belgium and elsewhere, and these disparities are poorly understood. Our objective was to compare perinatal mortality rates in immigrant mothers according to citizenship status. Methods: This was a population-based study using 2008 data from the Belgian birth register data pertaining to regions of Brussels and Wallonia. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for perinatal mortality according to naturalization status were calculated by logistic regression analyses adjusting for parents’ medical and social characteristics. Results: Four hundred and thirty-seven perinatal deaths were registered among 60?881 births (7.2‰). Perinatal mortality rate varied according to the origin of the mother and her naturalization status: among immigrants, non-naturalized immigrants had a higher incidence of perinatal mortality (10.3‰) than their naturalized counterparts (6.1‰) with an adjusted OR of 2.2, 95% CI (1.1–4.5). Conclusion: In a country with a high frequency of naturalization, and universal access to health care, naturalized immigrant mothers experience less perinatal mortality than their not naturalized counterparts. PMID:22490473

Englert, Yvon; Buekens, Pierre

2013-01-01

163

[Recommendations of Polish Gynecological Society concerning perinatal care in obese pregnant women].  

PubMed

Maternal obesity (defined as prepregnancy maternal BMI> or = 30 kg/m2) is a risk factor strongly associated with serious perinatal complications and its prevalence has increased rapidly in a general population during the last decades. Therefore, following international approach to regulate perinatal care in this population, Group of Experts of Polish Gynecological Society developed these new guidelines concerning perinatal care in obese pregnant women, including women after bariatric surgery. The recommendations cover detailed information on specific needs and risks associated with obesity in women of reproductive age, pregnancy planning, antenatal care, screening, prophylaxis and treatment for other pregnancy complications characteristic for maternal obesity fetal surveillance, intrapartum care and post-partum follow-up. Pregnancy planning in these patients should involve dietary recommendations aiming at well balanced diet and daily caloric uptake below 2000 kcal and modest but regular physical activity with sessions every two days starting from 15 min and increased gradually to 40 min. Laboratory work-up should include tests recommended in general population plus fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance if necessary thyroid function, lipidprofile, blood pressure and ECG. Patients after bariatric surgery should allow at least one year before they conceive and have their diet fortified with iron, folic acid, calcium and vit. B12. Antenatal care should include monitoring body weight gain with a target increase in body weight less than 7 kg, thromboprophylaxis, strict monitoring of blood pressure and diagnostic for gestational diabetes in early pregnancy. Fetal ultrasonic scans should be arranged following protocols recommended by US section of Polish Gynaecological Society with additional scan assessing fetal growth performed within 7 days before delivery and aiming at assessing a risk for shoulder dystocia in a patient. Intrapartum care should be delivered in referral centers where fetal and maternal intrapartum complications can be addressed, preferably equipped with a proper medical equipment necessary to deal safely with extremely heavy individuals. Medical staff taking intrapartum care for obese parturient should be also aware of reduced reliability of methods used for intrapartum fetal surveillance, increased risk for intrapartum fetal death, maternal injuries, postpartum haemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, thrombophlebitis and infection. Pediatrician should be also available due to increased neonatal morbidity mainly due to meconium aspiration syndrome, hypoglycemia, and respiratory distress syndrome. In puerperium, medical staff should be prepared to deal with breastfeeding disturbances and increased maternal mortality. PMID:23383569

Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Bomba-Opo?, Dorota; Brazert, Jacek; Celewicz, Zbigniew; Czajkowski, Krzysztof; Karowicz-Bili?ska, Agata; Malinowska-Polubiec, Aneta; Meczekalski, B?azej; Zawiejska, Agnieszka

2012-10-01

164

Maternal and Child Health, FY 1983. Special Report to Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing several examples of current research efforts, this report describes the research on maternal and child health supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The Institute conducts a coordinated program of research and research training to advance knowledge related to pregnancy and maternal health,…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

165

Recurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To evaluate the risk of recurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes in second pregnancies in developing countries. Methods Data from the 2004–2008 Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health were used to determine the outcomes of singleton second pregnancies for 61?780 women in 23 developing countries. The mother–infant pairs had been followed up until discharge or for 7 days postpartum. Findings At the end of their second pregnancies, women whose first pregnancy had ended in stillbirth (n?=?1261) or been followed by neonatal death (n?=?1052) were more likely than women who had not experienced either outcome to have given birth to a child with a birth weight of

Ouyang, Fengxiu; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Yang, Zujing; Souza, João Paulo; Merialdi, Mario

2013-01-01

166

Perinatal Air Pollutant Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Children of Nurses’ Health Study II Participants  

PubMed Central

Objective: Air pollution contains many toxicants known to affect neurological function and to have effects on the fetus in utero. Recent studies have reported associations between perinatal exposure to air pollutants and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal exposure to air pollutants is associated with ASD, focusing on pollutants associated with ASD in prior studies. Methods: We estimated associations between U.S. Environmental Protection Agency–modeled levels of hazardous air pollutants at the time and place of birth and ASD in the children of participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (325 cases, 22,101 controls). Our analyses focused on pollutants associated with ASD in prior research. We accounted for possible confounding and ascertainment bias by adjusting for family-level socioeconomic status (maternal grandparents’ education) and census tract–level socioeconomic measures (e.g., tract median income and percent college educated), as well as maternal age at birth and year of birth. We also examined possible differences in the relationship between ASD and pollutant exposures by child’s sex. Results: Perinatal exposures to the highest versus lowest quintile of diesel, lead, manganese, mercury, methylene chloride, and an overall measure of metals were significantly associated with ASD, with odds ratios ranging from 1.5 (for overall metals measure) to 2.0 (for diesel and mercury). In addition, linear trends were positive and statistically significant for these exposures (p < .05 for each). For most pollutants, associations were stronger for boys (279 cases) than for girls (46 cases) and significantly different according to sex. Conclusions: Perinatal exposure to air pollutants may increase risk for ASD. Additionally, future studies should consider sex-specific biological pathways connecting perinatal exposure to pollutants with ASD. PMID:23816781

Lyall, Kristen; Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Just, Allan C.; Bobb, Jennifer F.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.

2013-01-01

167

Preventing the First Cesarean Delivery: Summary of a Joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Workshop  

PubMed Central

With over one-third of pregnancies in the United States being delivered by cesarean and the growing knowledge of morbidities associated with repeat cesarean deliveries, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists convened a workshop to address the concept of preventing the first cesarean. The available information on maternal and fetal factors, labor management and induction, and non-medical factors leading to the first cesarean were reviewed as well as the implications of the first cesarean on future reproductive health. Key points were identified to assist with reduction in cesarean rates including that labor induction should be performed primarily for medical indication; if done for non-medical indications, the gestational age should be at least 39 weeks or more and the cervix should be favorable, especially in the nulliparous patient. Review of the current literature demonstrates the importance of adhering to appropriate definitions for failed induction and arrest of labor progress. The diagnosis of “failed induction” should only be made after an adequate attempt. Adequate time for normal latent and active phases of the first stage, and for the second stage, should be allowed, as long as the maternal and fetal conditions permit. The adequate time for each of these stages appears to be longer than traditionally estimated. Operative vaginal delivery is an acceptable birth method when indicated, and can safely prevent cesarean delivery. Given the progressively declining use, it is critical that training and experience in operative vaginal delivery is facilitated and encouraged. When discussing the first cesarean with a patient, counseling should include its effect on future reproductive health. PMID:23090537

Spong, Catherine Y.; Berghella, Vincenzo; Wenstrom, Katharine D.; Mercer, Brian M.; Saade, George R.

2012-01-01

168

Maternal Cardiac Arrest: A Practical and Comprehensive Review  

PubMed Central

Cardiac arrest during pregnancy is a dedicated chapter in the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care; however, a robust maternal cardiac arrest knowledge translation strategy and emergency response plan is not usually the focus of institutional emergency preparedness programs. Although maternal cardiac arrest is rare, the emergency department is a high-risk area for receiving pregnant women in either prearrest or full cardiac arrest. It is imperative that institutions review and update emergency response plans for a maternal arrest. This review highlights the most recent science, guidelines, and recommended implementation strategies related to a maternal arrest. The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of the important physiological differences of, and management strategies for, a maternal cardiac arrest, as well as provide institutions with the most up-to-date literature on which they can build emergency preparedness programs for a maternal arrest. PMID:23956861

Jeejeebhoy, Farida M.; Morrison, Laurie J.

2013-01-01

169

Concentrations of Methadone in Breast Milk and Plasma in the Immediate Perinatal Period  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates concentrations of methadone in breast milk and plasma among a sample of methadone-maintained women in the immediate perinatal period. Twelve methadone-maintained, lactating women provided blood and breast milk specimens 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after delivery. Specimens were collected at the time of trough (just before methadone dose) and peak (3 hours after dosing) maternal methadone levels. Paired specimens of foremilk (prefeed) and hindmilk (postfeed) were obtained at each sampling time. Although there was a significant increase in methadone concentration in breast milk over time for the peak postfeed sampling time, t(22) = 2.40, P = .0255, methadone concentrations in breast milk were small, ranging from 21 to 314 ng/mL, and were unrelated to maternal methadone dose. Results obtained from this study contribute to the recommendation of breastfeeding for methadone-maintained women regardless of methadone dose. PMID:17478871

Jansson, Lauren M.; Choo, Robin E.; Harrow, Cheryl; Velez, Martha; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Lowe, Ross; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2009-01-01

170

The Tohoku Study of Child Development: A cohort study of effects of perinatal exposures to methylmercury and environmentally persistent organic pollutants on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children.  

PubMed

Several birth cohort studies have shown adverse effects of perinatal exposures to methylmercury (MeHg) and environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These chemicals are ingested mainly through fish consumption, but little is known about the hazardous effects in Japanese, whose fish consumption is high. The present study, the Tohoku Study of Child Development, was designed to examine the effects of perinatal exposures to MeHg, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dioxins, pesticides, and other chemicals in Japanese children. Six hundred eighty-seven pregnant women were participated in this study with their written informed consent. Maternal peripheral blood, cord blood, cord tissue, placenta, and breast milk samples were collected for chemical analysis. Maternal hair was also taken for MeHg analysis. Infants born at full term were assessed by neurobehavioral tests: the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale at three days old, the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 7 and 18 months old, and the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence at 7 months old. The children will be continuously followed up to ages 6-7 years. Maternal food intake frequency, maternal IQ, socioeconomic status, and home environment were assessed as covariates. The results of this cohort study will allow us to evaluate associations between the neurobehavioral development of children and perinatal exposures to MeHg and environmentally POPs in Japan. PMID:15065649

Nakai, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Keita; Oka, Tomoko; Murata, Katsuyuki; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Okamura, Kunihiro; Hosokawa, Toru; Sakai, Takeo; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Saito, Yoshinori; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Kameo, Satomi; Satoh, Hiroshi

2004-03-01

171

What does it mean when we screen? A closer examination of perinatal depression and psychosocial risk screening within one MCH home visiting program.  

PubMed

Perinatal depression screening has become an imperative for maternal and child health (MCH) home visitation programs. However, contextual life experiences and situational life stress may be equally important in determining program response. As one component of a larger research study with an urban MCH home visitation program, we examined the results from multiple measures of depression and anxiety symptoms, social support and stressful life events in a sample of 30 newly enrolled program participants. We compared commonly used tools in identifying women who were "at risk" for perinatal depression. The analysis used published and agency practice cut-off scores, examined correlations between measures, and reflected on the role of stressful life events in this assessment. In this low-income, predominantly African-American sample, the assessed tools were inconsistent in identifying "at risk" women for perinatal depression, ranging from 22 % (Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale) to 75 % (Center for Epidemiological Studies, Depression Scale) depending on the instrument. Depression and anxiety were correlated across most measures, although provider-collected data did not correlate as anticipated with other measures. The combination of screening for perinatal depression and stressful life events offered an additional perspective on possible symptom alleviation and psychosocial intervention that could occur within the home visiting program. Our experience suggests that introducing a brief inventory of stressful life events accompanying perinatal depression screening allowed for a more comprehensive understanding of women's experiences than perinatal depression screening alone. We encourage psychosocial risk screening which integrates assessment of social support, stressful life events and perinatal depression symptoms. PMID:23793488

Price, Sarah Kye; Masho, Saba W

2014-05-01

172

Delivery of maternal health care in Indigenous primary care services: baseline data for an ongoing quality improvement initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) populations have disproportionately high rates of adverse perinatal\\u000a outcomes relative to other Australians. Poorer access to good quality maternal health care is a key driver of this disparity.\\u000a The aim of this study was to describe patterns of delivery of maternity care and service gaps in primary care services in\\u000a Australian Indigenous communities.

Alice R Rumbold; Ross S Bailie; Damin Si; Michelle C Dowden; Catherine M Kennedy; Rhonda J Cox; Lynette O’Donoghue; Helen E Liddle; Ru K Kwedza; Sandra C Thompson; Hugh P Burke; Alex DH Brown; Tarun Weeramanthri; Christine M Connors

2011-01-01

173

Previous cesarean section and the risk of postpartum maternal complications and adverse neonatal outcomes in future pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To assess maternal postpartum and neonatal outcomes associated with previous method of delivery.Study Design:We analyzed prospectively collected maternal and neonatal data from July 2002 to December 2003. Data were collected from dedicated perinatal database and neonatal database from discharge and procedure codes. Groups were: (i) multiparous, prior vaginal delivery (VD), and (ii) multiparous, prior cesarean (CS). This group was subdivided

A M Galyean; D C Lagrew; M C Bush; J T Kurtzman

2009-01-01

174

Impact of antenatal depression on perinatal outcomes and postpartum depression in Korean women  

PubMed Central

Background: Maternal prenatal mental health has been shown to be associated with adverse consequences for the mother and the child. However, studies considering the effect of prenatal depressive symptoms are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of antenatal depressive symptoms on obstetric outcomes and to determine associations between antenatal and postpartum depressions. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) questionnaire was completed by pregnant women receiving obstetrical care at Seoul St. Mary's hospital in the third trimester of gestation. The electronic medical records were reviewed after delivery and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. The association between antenatal and postpartum depression was analyzed using the EPDS questionnaire, which was completed by the same women within 2 months of delivery. Results: Of the 467 participants, 26.34% (n = 123) had antenatal depressive symptoms, with EPDS scores of ?10. There were no significant perinatal outcomes associated with antenatal depressive symptoms. During the postpartum period, 192 of the women in the initial study cohort were given the EPDS again as a follow-up. Of the 192 participants, 56 (29.17%) scored >10. Spearman correlation coefficient between the antenatal and postpartum EPDS scores was 0.604, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Antenatal depression does not lead to unfavorable perinatal outcomes. However, screening for antenatal depression may be helpful to identify women at risk of postpartum depression.

Choi, Sae Kyung; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, In Yang; Ko, Hyun Sun; Shin, Jong Chul

2014-01-01

175

Perinatal Outcome in the Liveborn Infant with Prenatally Diagnosed Omphalocele  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare perinatal outcomes between liveborn non-isolated and isolated omphaloceles diagnosed during a prenatal ultrasound. Study Design Fetuses (n=86) with omphalocele were identified between 1995–2007 at a single institution. Inclusion criteria were an omphalocele >14 weeks gestation, available fetal and/or neonatal karyotype, and a liveborn infant (n=46). Perinatal outcomes were compared in non-isolated (n=23) and isolated omphaloceles (n=23). Results For all omphaloceles, the majority delivered after 34 weeks by cesarean. Mean birth weight (2782 vs. 2704g), median length of stay (27 vs. 25 days), and mortality (2 in each group) was not different between the non-isolated and isolated groups, P>0.05. In the non-isolated group, 7 major anomalies were not confirmed postnatally. Of the prenatally diagnosed isolated omphaloceles, 8(35%) were diagnosed with a syndrome or other anomalies after birth. Conclusion The outcomes were similar in non-isolated and isolated prenatally diagnosed omphaloceles, but ultrasound did not always accurately determine the presence or absence of associated anomalies. PMID:21544770

KOMINIAREK, Michelle A.; ZORK, Noelia; PIERCE, Sara Michelle; ZOLLINGER, Terrell

2013-01-01

176

The Evolution of Childbirth Educator to Perinatal Educator  

PubMed Central

The field of childbirth education has been slowly expanding its base to that of perinatal education over the last decades. This is a call to define the scope of a comprehensive perinatal education program and the skills of a perinatal educator. PMID:17273186

Humenick, Sharron S.

2000-01-01

177

Association between pre- and perinatal exposures and Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder in the ALSPAC cohort†  

PubMed Central

Background Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder are heritable but aetiologically complex. Although environment plays a role in their development, existing studies of non-genetic risk factors are inconsistent. Aims To examine the association between pre- and perinatal exposures and Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) prospective longitudinal pre-birth cohort. Method Relationships between exposures and Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder were examined in 6090 children using logistic regression. Results Maternal alcohol and cannabis use, inadequate maternal weight gain and parity were associated with Tourette syndrome or Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder. Other previously reported exposures, including birth weight and prenatal maternal smoking, were not associated with Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder. Conclusions This study supports previously reported relationships between Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder and prenatal alcohol exposure, and identifies additional previously unexplored potential prenatal risk factors. PMID:24262815

Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Miller, Laura L.; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

2014-01-01

178

Relapsed perinatal neuroblastoma after expectant observation.  

PubMed

The Children's Oncology Group (COG) study ANBL00P2 showed that expectant observation of patients younger than six months of age with perinatal neuroblastoma presenting as a small adrenal mass yields excellent overall survival and spares surgical resection to the majority of patients. We report a 5-year-old female who was initially diagnosed with a perinatal neuroblastoma. The patient was observed on COG study ANBL00P2. By nine months of age she had no ultrasonographic or biochemical evidence of disease. She presented four years later with abdominal pain and was found to have high-risk stage 4 MYCN amplified neuroblastoma. PMID:25174838

Salloum, Ralph; Garrison, Aaron; von Allmen, Daniel; Sheridan, Rachel; Towbin, Alexander J; Adams, Denise; Weiss, Brian

2015-01-01

179

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Perinatal Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Inconsistent information exists in the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and perinatal outcomes. This study was intended to investigate whether OSA in pregnant women has a potential to elevate the incidence of the maternal and neonatal outcomes by performing a meta-analysis of all available cohort studies. Five cohort studies including 977 participants were eligible for inclusion. The association between OSA and the risk of perinatal outcomes was expressed as relative risks (RR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). Our results revealed that OSA group was associated with more frequent preeclampsia (RR 1.96; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.86), preterm birth (RR 1.90; 95%CI 1.24 to 2.91), cesarean delivery (RR 1.87; 95% CI 1.52 to 2.29) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (RR 2.65; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.76). On analyzing data for the prevalence of gestational diabetes and small gestational age (SGA) < 10th percentile (RR 1.40; 95% CI 0.62 to 3.19, and RR 0.64; 95%CI 0.33 to1.24, respectively), there were no significant differences in both group. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that OSA in pregnant women significantly increases the incidence of maternal and neonatal outcomes, which is associated with more frequent preeclampsia, preterm birth, cesarean delivery and NICU admission. PMID:25382105

Xu, Ting; Feng, Yuan; Peng, Hui; Guo, Dongying; Li, Taoping

2014-01-01

180

Safety of Perinatal Exposure to Antiretroviral Medications: Developmental Outcomes in Infants  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated effects of perinatal exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) medications on neurodevelopment of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Methods HIV-exposed, uninfected infants (age 9-15 months) enrolled in SMARTT, a multisite prospective surveillance study, completed the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development—Third Edition (Bayley-III), assessing cognition, language, motor skills, social-emotional development, and adaptive behavior. Linear regression models were used to evaluate associations between Bayley-III outcomes in infants with and without perinatal and neonatal ARV exposure, by regimen (combination ARV [cARV] versus non-cARV), type of regimen (defined by drug class), and individual ARVs (for infants with cARV exposure), adjusting for maternal and infant health and demographic covariates. Results As of May 2010, 374 infants had valid Bayley-III evaluations. Median age at testing was 12.7 months; 49% male, 79% black, 16% Hispanic. Seventy-nine percent were exposed to regimens containing protease inhibitors (PIs; 9% of PI-containing regimens also included non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTIs]), 5% to regimens containing NNRTIs (without PI), and 14% to regimens containing only nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Overall, 83% were exposed to cARV. No Bayley-III outcome was significantly associated with overall exposure to cARV, ARV regimen, or neonatal prophylaxis. For individual ARVs, following sensitivity analyses, the adjusted group mean on the Language domain was within age expectations but significantly lower for infants with perinatal exposure to atazanavir (p=0.01). Conclusions These results support the safety of perinatal ARV use. Continued monitoring for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in older children is warranted, and the safety of atazanavir merits further study. PMID:23340561

Sirois, Patricia A.; Huo, Yanling; Williams, Paige L.; Malee, Kathleen; Garvie, Patricia A.; Kammerer, Betsy; Rich, Kenneth; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Nozyce, Molly L.

2013-01-01

181

Is Screening for Depression in the Perinatal Period Enough? The Co-Occurrence of Depression, Substance Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence in Culturally Diverse Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background The perinatal period provides unique opportunities to identify and intervene with the co-occurrence of perinatal depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and substance use problems. Psychosocial screening recommended for women seen in maternal child health settings tends to target single rather than multiple risk factors; there is limited research examining the co-occurrence of these issues especially in racially and ethnically diverse women across the perinatal period. These analyses explore the relationships of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics in a large, diverse sample of women. Method Women receiving perinatal services at routinely scheduled visits, including the 6-week postpartum visit, were recruited from 10 community obstetric/gynecologic clinics. Data were collected on perinatal depression, IPV, maternal substance use, and sociodemographic characteristics by bilingual, bicultural research assistants. Results A total of 1868 women were screened, 1526 (82%) Latina, 1099 (58.8%) interviewed in Spanish; 20.4% (n=382) screened positive for depressive symptoms based on an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or above, 20.9% reported harmful drinking, 4.3% reported drug use, 23% reported substance use problems, and 3.5% reported current or recent IPV. Women who were Black, Asian, Pacific Islander, or other race/ethnicity had greater odds for depressive symptoms relative to women who were Hispanic or Latino (odds ratio [OR]=1.81, p=0.005). Women reporting substance use problems (OR=2.37, p<0.0001) and IPV (OR=3.98, p<0.0001) had higher odds for depressive symptoms. Conclusion In a predominately Latina sample, 1 in 5 mothers (20.4%) screened positive for depressive symptoms and over one third (36.7%) reported one or more psychosocial issues during the perinatal period. Screening for multiple risk factors rather than just one can help clinicians tailor interventions for the successful management of psychosocial issues. PMID:23931153

Hazen, Andrea L.; Baker-Ericzén, Mary J.; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

2013-01-01

182

Human Cytomegalovirus: detection of congenital and perinatal infection in Argentina  

PubMed Central

Background Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most commonly found agents of congenital infections. Primary maternal infection is associated with risk of symptomatic congenital diseases, and high morbidity is frequently associated with very low birth weight. Neonates with asymptomatic infection develop various sequelae during infancy. This is the first Argentine study performed in neonates with congenital and postnatal HCMV infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique with different pairs of primers, to detect cytomegalovirus isolated in tissue cultures and directly in urine and dried blood spot (DBS) specimens. Results were compared with IgM detection. Methods The study was performed between 1999 and 2001 on routine samples in the Laboratory. A total of 61 urine and 56 serum samples were selected from 61 newborns/infants, 33 patients whose samples were analyzed during the first two to three weeks of life were considered congenital infections; the remaining 28 patients whose samples were taken later than the third week were grouped as perinatal infections, although only in 4 the perinatal transmission of infection was determined unequivocally Cytomegalovirus diagnosis was made by isolating the virus from urine samples in human foreskin fibroblast cells. Three different primer pairs directed to IE, LA and gB genes were used for the HCMV PCR assay in viral isolates. Subsequently, PCR and nested PCR (nPCR) assays with gB primers were performed directly in urine and in 11 samples of dried blood spot (DBS) on Guthrie Card, these results were then compared with serology. Results The main clinical manifestations of the 33 patients with congenital infection were purpura, jaundice, hepatomegaly and anaemia. Three patients presented low birth weight as single symptom, 10, intracranial calcifications, and 2, kidney failure. In the 28 patients grouped as with perinatal infection, anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly and enzymatic alteration were predominant, and 4 patients were HIV positive. The primers used to amplify the gB region had a PCR positivity rate of 100%, whereas those that amplified IE and LA regions had a PCR positivity rate of 54% and 61% respectively, in CMV isolates. Amplification by PCR of urine samples (with no previous DNA extraction), using primers for the gB region, detected 34/61 positive samples. Out of the 33 samples from patients with congenital infection, 24 (73%) were positive. When nPCR was used in these samples, all were positive, whereas in the remaining 28 patients, two negative cases were found. Cytomegalovirus DNA detection in 11 samples was also carried out in DBS: 7 DBS samples were positive and 4 were negative. Conclusions Primers directed to the gB fragment region were the best choice for the detection of CMV DNA in positive isolates. In congenital infections, direct PCR in urine was positive in a high percentage (73%) of samples; however, in patients grouped as with perinatal infection only 36% of the cases were positive. With n-PCR, total sample positivity reached 97%. PCR technique performed in DBS allowed identifying congenital infection in four patients and to be confirmed in 3. These results show the value of nPCR for the detection of all cases of CMV infection. The assay offers the advantage that it may be performed within the normal working day and provides reliable results in a much shorter time frame than that required for either traditional tissue culture or the shell-viral assay. PMID:15214967

Distéfano, Angélica Lidia; Alonso, Alicia; Martin, Fabián; Pardon, Fabián

2004-01-01

183

Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child.  

PubMed

Perinatal mental disorders are associated with increased risk of psychological and developmental disturbances in children. However, these disturbances are not inevitable. In this Series paper, we summarise evidence for associations between parental disorders and offspring outcomes from fetal development to adolescence in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries. We assess evidence for mechanisms underlying transmission of disturbance, the role of mediating variables (underlying links between parent psychopathology and offspring outcomes) and possible moderators (which change the strength of any association), and focus on factors that are potentially modifiable, including parenting quality, social (including partner) and material support, and duration of the parental disorder. We review research of interventions, which are mostly about maternal depression, and emphasise the need to both treat the parent's disorder and help with associated caregiving difficulties. We conclude with policy implications and underline the need for early identification of those parents at high risk and for more early interventions and prevention research, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations and low-income countries. PMID:25455250

Stein, Alan; Pearson, Rebecca M; Goodman, Sherryl H; Rapa, Elizabeth; Rahman, Atif; McCallum, Meaghan; Howard, Louise M; Pariante, Carmine M

2014-11-15

184

Change in paternity and select perinatal outcomes: causal or confounded?  

PubMed

Select social, behavioural and maternal characteristics were evaluated to determine if they were confounding factors in the association between paternity change and pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA) and pre-term delivery, in a sample of 1,409 women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine if any of these risk factors modified the association between changing paternity and the selected perinatal outcomes. Results of the analysis showed that women who changed partners were more likely to possess potentially confounding risk factors compared with those who had not. Paternity change was 2.75 times more likely to be associated with the development of pre-eclampsia (95% CI 1.33; 5.68) and 2.25 times more likely to be associated with an SGA infant on weight (95% CI 1.13; 4.47), after adjusting for selected risk factors. Paternity change remains a significant risk factor for pre-eclampsia and SGA in the presence of select risk factors. PMID:22943712

Bandoli, G; Lindsay, S; Johnson, D L; Kao, K; Luo, Y; Chambers, C D

2012-10-01

185

Perinatal Polychlorinated Biphenyl 126 Exposure Alters Offspring Body Composition  

PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants whose exposure levels are associated with various health hazards. We hypothesized that in utero and lactational exposure to PCBs can cause changes in body composition and obesity in a mouse model. Pregnant mice were exposed biweekly to two concentrations of PCB 126 via oral gavage. Maternal PCB exposure did not result in heavier offspring, however, dose-dependent and sex specific changes in body composition were observed. Female offspring displayed the most susceptibility to PCB-induced alterations in body composition, having less percent lean body mass and increased adiposity compared to females born to control dams, and these effects were largely dose-dependent. In contrast to females, and independent of the exposure level of PCB 126, male offspring had reduced lean body mass but no change in fat mass compared to males born to control dams. In conclusion, perinatal PCB 126 exposure did not affect body weight, but rather modulated body composition in a dose-dependent and gender-specific manner. PMID:23741283

Rashid, Cetewayo S.; Carter, Lindsay G.; Hennig, Bernhard; Pearson, Kevin J.

2013-01-01

186

Activation of paternally expressed genes and perinatal death caused by deletion of the Gtl2 gene  

PubMed Central

The Dlk1-Gtl2 imprinting locus is located on mouse distal chromosome 12 and consists of multiple maternally expressed non-coding RNAs and several paternally expressed protein-coding genes. The imprinting of this locus plays a crucial role in embryonic development and postnatal growth. At least one cis-element, the intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) is required for expression of maternally expressed genes and repression of silenced paternally expressed genes. The mechanism by which the IG-DMR functions is largely unknown. However, it has been suggested that the unmethylated IG-DMR acts as a positive regulator activating expression of non-coding RNAs. Gtl2 is the first non-coding RNA gene downstream of the IG-DMR. Although its in vivo function in the mouse is largely unknown, its human ortholog MEG3 has been linked to tumor suppression in human tumor-derived cell lines. We generated a knockout mouse model, in which the first five exons and adjacent promoter region of the Gtl2 gene were deleted. Maternal deletion of Gtl2 resulted in perinatal death and skeletal muscle defects, indicating that Gtl2 plays an important role in embryonic development. The maternal deletion also completely abolished expression of downstream maternally expressed genes, activated expression of silenced paternally expressed genes and resulted in methylation of the IG-DMR. By contrast, the paternal inherited deletion did not have this effect. These data strongly indicate that activation of Gtl2 and its downstream maternal genes play an essential role in regulating Dlk1-Gtl2 imprinting, possibly by maintaining active status of the IG-DMR. PMID:20610486

Zhou, Yunli; Cheunsuchon, Pornsuk; Nakayama, Yuki; Lawlor, Michael W.; Zhong, Ying; Rice, Kimberley A.; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xun; Gordon, Francesca E.; Lidov, Hart G. W.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Klibanski, Anne

2010-01-01

187

Perinatal Nitric Oxide Therapy Prevents Adverse Effects of Perinatal Hypoxia on the Adult Pulmonary Circulation  

PubMed Central

Adverse events in utero are associated with the occurrence of chronic diseases in adulthood. We previously demonstrated in mice that perinatal hypoxia resulted in altered pulmonary circulation in adulthood, with a decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation of pulmonary arteries, associated with long-term alterations in the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP pathway. The present study investigated whether inhaled NO (iNO) administered simultaneously to perinatal hypoxia could have potential beneficial effects on the adult pulmonary circulation. Indeed, iNO is the therapy of choice in humans presenting neonatal pulmonary hypertension. Long-term effects of neonatal iNO therapy on adult pulmonary circulation have not yet been investigated. Pregnant mice were placed in hypoxia (13% O2) with simultaneous administration of iNO 5 days before delivery until 5 days after birth. Pups were then raised in normoxia until adulthood. Perinatal iNO administration completely restored acetylcholine-induced relaxation, as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein content, in isolated pulmonary arteries of adult mice born in hypoxia. Right ventricular hypertrophy observed in old mice born in hypoxia compared to controls was also prevented by perinatal iNO treatment. Therefore, simultaneous administration of iNO during perinatal hypoxic exposure seems able to prevent adverse effects of perinatal hypoxia on the adult pulmonary circulation. PMID:25110713

Peyter, Anne-Christine; Delhaes, Flavien; Diaceri, Giacomo; Menétrey, Steeve; Tolsa, Jean-François

2014-01-01

188

Perinatal care in six eastern Caribbean countries.  

PubMed

In December, 1981, the Government of the Netherlands conducted evaluation studies of perinatal health care in the 6 Caribbean countries of Antigua, the Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincnet. In recent years, the governments of the 6 countries expressed their concerns about the need to improve perinatal health care and about the limited funds, health facilities, and health manpower available for meeting this need. Data for the studies were collected during visits to the 6 countries and consisted of availble vital statistics and hospital records collected by local physicians and chief nurses. Since 70%-95% of the deliveries in these countries occurred in hospitals, hospital data were used to assess the level of perinatal mortality. Perinatal death rates for the 6 countries ranged from 29/1000 live births to 38/1000 live births. When stillbirths and neonatal death rates were examined separately, there was considerable variation between countries. Stillbirth rates ranged from 23.4-13.6/1000 live births and neonatal death rates ranged from 9.9-22.5/1000 live births. These differences probably reflected classification problems rather than actual differences. Although there was considerable variation in per capita income levels in the 6 countries (US$380-US$2620) these differences did not appear to be associated with differences in perinatal death rates. Average birth weights for the 6 countries ranged from 3000 gm to 3150 gm, and the average for all 6 countries combined was 3100 gm. The incidence of low birth weights (2500 gm or less) ranged from 5.9% in Dominica to 11% in Barbados. The major causes of perinatal death were complications resulting from anoxia or hypoxia, prematurity complications, and neonatal infections. Infants who survive these conditions frequently develop handicaps. Average breastfeeding duration ranged from 1 month in the Bahamas to 7 months in St. Vincent. Bottle feeding is common and generally begins early. Mistaken beliefs about the nutritional inadequacies of breast milk as well as the promotion of formulas contribute toward the relatively low rate and short duration of breastfeeding in these countries. Specific recommendations for improving perinatal health care in each of the 6 countries were provided. Recommendations relevant to most of the countries were 1) to improve the level of health knowledge among the general public, 2) to provide additional training for all health personnel working in the perinatal health care field, 3) to upgrade and improve the maintenance of basic equipment for resuscitating newborns, 4) to promote the early detection and improve the management of jaundice, 5) to distribute free supplies of anti-D-globulin for treating Rh-negative mothers, 6) to develop linkages between perinatal health care facilities and postpartum health care facilities to ensure continuity of care for each infant, 7) to develop a system for detecting and managing high risk pregnancies and infants at high risk, 8) to promote funding for tropical perinatology, and 9) to develop a perinatal technology appropriate to conditions in these countries. PMID:4027454

Boersma, E R

1985-01-01

189

From planning to practice: building the national network for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity  

PubMed Central

Background Improving maternal health is one of the Millennium Development Goals for 2015. Recently some progress has been achieved in reducing mortality. On the other hand, in developed regions, maternal death is a relatively rare event compared to the number of cases of morbidity; hence studying maternal morbidity has become more relevant. Electronic surveillance systems may improve research by facilitating complete data reporting and reducing the time required for data collection and analysis. Therefore the purpose of this study was to describe the methods used in elaborating and implementing the National Network for the Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Brazil. Methods The project consisted of a multicenter, cross-sectional study for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity including near-miss, in Brazil. Results Following the development of a conceptual framework, centers were selected for inclusion in the network, consensus meetings were held among the centers, an electronic data collection system was identified, specific software and hardware tools were developed, research material was prepared, and the implementation process was initiated and analyzed. Conclusion The conceptual framework developed for this network was based on the experience acquired in various studies carried out in the area over recent years and encompasses maternal and perinatal health. It is innovative especially in the context of a developing country. The implementation of the project represents the first step towards this planned management. The system online elaborated for this surveillance network may be used in further studies in reproductive and perinatal health. PMID:21549009

2011-01-01

190

Prevalence of pain and association with psychiatric symptom severity in perinatally HIV-infected children as compared to controls living in HIV-affected households  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of pain and psychiatric symptoms in perinatally HIV-infected children at entry into P1055, a multicenter investigation of the prevalence and severity of psychiatric symptoms in HIV-infected children. Subjects 6–17 years of age and their primary caregivers were recruited from 29 International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials sites in the USA and Puerto Rico.

Leslie K. Serchuck; Paige L. Williams; Sharon Nachman; Kenneth D. Gadow; Miriam Chernoff; Lynnae Schwartz

2010-01-01

191

Perinatal Bereavement: A Principle-based Concept Analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of perinatal bereavement. Background The concept of perinatal bereavement emerged in the scientific literature during the 1970s. Perinatal bereavement is a practice based concept, although it is not well defined in the scientific literature and is often intermingled with the concepts of mourning and grief. Design Concept Analysis. Data Sources Using the term ‘perinatal bereavement’ and limits of only English and human, Pub Med and CINAHL were searched to yield 278 available references dating from 1974 – 2011. Articles specific to the experience of perinatal bereavement were reviewed. The final data set was 143 articles. Review Methods The methods of principle-based concept analysis were used. Results reveal conceptual components (antecedents, attributes and outcomes) which are delineated to create a theoretical definition of perinatal bereavement. Results The concept is epistemologically immature, with few explicit definitions to describe the phenomenon. Inconsistency in conceptual meaning threatens the construct validity of measurement tools for perinatal bereavement and contributes to incongruent theoretical definitions. This has implications for both nursing science (how the concept is studied and theoretically integrated) and clinical practice (timing and delivery of support interventions). Conclusions Perinatal bereavement is a multifaceted global phenomenon that follows perinatal loss. Lack of conceptual clarity and lack of a clearly articulated conceptual definition impede the synthesis and translation of research findings into practice. A theoretical definition of perinatal bereavement is offered as a platform for researchers to advance the concept through research and theory development. PMID:23458030

FENSTERMACHER, Kimberly; HUPCEY, Judith E.

2013-01-01

192

Maternal and Child nutrition  

E-print Network

Maternal and Child nutrition Earn an advanced degree in a highly specialized field Taught #12;Courses: Nutrition During Pregnancy Lactation and Infant Nutrition Child and Adolescent Nutrition Applied Research Methods in Maternal and Child Nutrition Topics in Epidemiology of Maternal and Child

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

193

Maternal and neonatal individual risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery: multicentre prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. Design Prospective cohort study within the 2005 WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health. Setting 410 health facilities in 24 areas in eight randomly selected Latin American countries; 123 were randomly selected and 120 participated and provided data Participants 106?546 deliveries reported during the three month study period, with data available for 97?095 (91% coverage). Main outcome measures Maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with intrapartum or elective caesarean delivery, adjusted for clinical, demographic, pregnancy, and institutional characteristics. Results Women undergoing caesarean delivery had an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity compared with women undergoing vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 2.5) for intrapartum caesarean and 2.3 (1.7 to 3.1) for elective caesarean). The risk of antibiotic treatment after delivery for women having either type of caesarean was five times that of women having vaginal deliveries. With cephalic presentation, there was a trend towards a reduced odds ratio for fetal death with elective caesarean, after adjustment for possible confounding variables and gestational age (0.7, 0.4 to 1.0). With breech presentation, caesarean delivery had a large protective effect for fetal death. With cephalic presentation, however, independent of possible confounding variables and gestational age, intrapartum and elective caesarean increased the risk for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care (2.1 (1.8 to 2.6) and 1.9 (1.6 to 2.3), respectively) and the risk of neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge (1.7 (1.3 to 2.2) and 1.9 (1.5 to 2.6), respectively), which remained higher even after exclusion of all caesarean deliveries for fetal distress. Such increased risk was not seen for breech presentation. Lack of labour was a risk factor for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care and neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge for babies delivered by elective caesarean delivery, but rupturing of membranes may be protective. Conclusions Caesarean delivery independently reduces overall risk in breech presentations and risk of intrapartum fetal death in cephalic presentations but increases the risk of severe maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in cephalic presentations. PMID:17977819

Carroli, Guillermo; Zavaleta, Nelly; Donner, Allan; Wojdyla, Daniel; Faundes, Anibal; Velazco, Alejandro; Bataglia, Vicente; Langer, Ana; Narváez, Alberto; Valladares, Eliette; Shah, Archana; Campodónico, Liana; Romero, Mariana; Reynoso, Sofia; de Pádua, Karla Simônia; Giordano, Daniel; Kublickas, Marius; Acosta, Arnaldo

2007-01-01

194

“Nothing Special, Everything Is Maamuli”: Socio-Cultural and Family Practices Influencing the Perinatal Period in Urban India  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting. Methods and Findings Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women’s experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events. Conclusions A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will help plan culturally appropriate integrated perinatal health care. PMID:25369447

Raman, Shanti; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura; Razee, Husna; Ritchie, Jan

2014-01-01

195

Prenatal and perinatal analgesic exposure and autism: an ecological link  

PubMed Central

Background Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Susceptibility is believed to be the interaction of genetic heritability and environmental factors. The synchronous rises in autism/ASD prevalence and paracetamol (acetaminophen) use, as well as biologic plausibility have led to the hypothesis that paracetamol exposure may increase autism/ASD risk. Methods To explore the relationship of antenatal paracetamol exposure to ASD, population weighted average autism prevalence rates and paracetamol usage rates were compared. To explore the relationship of early neonatal paracetamol exposure to autism/ASD, population weighted average male autism prevalence rates for all available countries and U.S. states were compared to male circumcision rates – a procedure for which paracetamol has been widely prescribed since the mid-1990s. Prevalence studies were extracted from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Summary of Autism/ASD Prevalence Studies database. Maternal paracetamol usage and circumcision rates were identified by searches on Pub Med. Results Using all available country-level data (n?=?8) for the period 1984 to 2005, prenatal use of paracetamol was correlated with autism/ASD prevalence (r?=?0.80). For studies including boys born after 1995, there was a strong correlation between country-level (n?=?9) autism/ASD prevalence in males and a country’s circumcision rate (r?=?0.98). A very similar pattern was seen among U.S. states and when comparing the 3 main racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. The country-level correlation between autism/ASD prevalence in males and paracetamol was considerably weaker before 1995 when the drug became widely used during circumcision. Conclusions This ecological analysis identified country-level correlations between indicators of prenatal and perinatal paracetamol exposure and autism/ASD. State level correlation was also identified for the indicator of perinatal paracetamol exposure and autism/ASD. Like all ecological analyses, these data cannot provide strong evidence of causality. However, biologic plausibility is provided by a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence linking paracetamol metabolism to pathways shown to be important in autism and related developmental abnormalities. Taken together, these ecological findings and mechanistic evidence suggest the need for formal study of the role of paracetamol in autism. PMID:23656698

2013-01-01

196

Perinatal toxicology: its recognition and fundamentals.  

PubMed

Perinatal toxicology is the study of aberrant or toxic responses to environmental agents when exposure occurs from conception through the neonatal period. The current increased interest in perinatal toxicology reflects the concern of both society and the individual in the resultant deficits induced by exposure to agents in the workplace, home, environment and by therapeutic intervention during early development. Not only is differentiation during organogenesis (the first eight weeks in human gestation) a highly susceptible period to the induction of malformations, but the fetal/neonatal developmental phases are just as sensitive for certain developmental deficits. Long-term postnatal evaluations are in most instances critical for the documentation of fetal/neonatal functional defects, which include carcinogenesis, behavioral impairment, endocrine and immune dysfunction. Ethylnitrosourea, estrogens (diethylstilbestrol), and cadmium are discussed in relationship to specificity of their fetal effects, long-term follow-up, and possible mechanisms of toxic action. PMID:6340478

Miller, R K

1983-01-01

197

Perinatal mortality attributable to complications of childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh.  

PubMed Central

Very few population-based studies of perinatal mortality in developing countries have examined the role of intrapartum risk factors. In the present study, the proportion of perinatal deaths that are attributable to complications during childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh, was assessed using community-based data from a home-based programme led by professional midwives between 1987 and 1993. Complications during labour and delivery--such as prolonged or obstructed labour, abnormal fetal position, and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy--increased the risk of perinatal mortality fivefold and accounted for 30% of perinatal deaths. Premature labour, which occurred in 20% of pregnancies, accounted for 27% of perinatal mortality. Better care by qualified staff during delivery and improved care of newborns should substantially reduce perinatal mortality in this study population. PMID:10859856

Kusiako, T.; Ronsmans, C.; Van der Paal, L.

2000-01-01

198

[Perinatal care in Livno immediately after the war from 1995 to 1999].  

PubMed

The paragraphs of statistics for maternity hospital of county hospital in Livno for period 1995-1999, year are presented and describe perinatal, fetal and early neonatal mortality, newborns to birth-weight, the frequency of caesarean section, eclampsia, vacuum extraction, antenatal care and equipment maternity hospital and morbidity of the infants. Perinatal mortality in 1995 was 5.6@1000, but for 4 years 6.9@1000. Early neonatal mortality was appearing till 1996 year only with one death of newborn (1.1@1000). Fetal mortality was increased to 12.3@1000 in 1997; but the years before was 6.2@1000. According to the weight of newborns, 3.5% were no more than 2.500 g, but 93.5% were between 2.500-3.000 g, while newborns over 4.000 g where 3.0 percent. Watching and closely looking statistics for years in the classified groups does not fortify the major differences, except 1995 when was 1.7% newborns less than 2.500 g, but over 4.000 g 7.9%, that is under average and explaining to the minimum numbers of birth that year, and orienting refugees and exilied pregnant women to the centres with stronger obstetric and neonatal care Eclampsy were 9 and it was 2.2@1000. The number of antenatal visits of pregnant women increase during all these years, so that total number of visits was 20.905, that means 5.2 was the middle number of visits. There are much more without 2.0% or less than 3 visits 5.0%; with 9 or more 29.0%; the average number ultrasound examination is 3.4, and total 13.748, 37.0 percent of pregnant women is with 3 examples and 10.0% with 4 or over it, but 7.0% without ultrasonographc. It is obviously, that the number of the pregnant women without ultrasound examination is falling, so in 1995 there was 14.0% but 2.0% in 1999. Very important is increase those with 3 examination according to 1995 when there was 27.0%, but 47.0% in 1999. The usage of caesarean section is 7.7% but the major increase was in 1998 and it was 9.4% and 1999 is 10.1%. Vacuum extraction was used in 67 (1.7%) of newborns but in 1995 was 3.2%, the obstetric activity does three gynecologists. For perinatal mortality is important to say, that, during the war time, about 6.9@1000 in maternity hospital Livno was ranged into the group with low perinatal mortality. According to, the number of vacuum extraction belongs to the number of maternity hospital with vacuum extractions below 2.0%. Maternity hospital has two incubator after 1997 year and cardiotocographic intrapartal monitoring was used in about 55-65% of all deliveries. PMID:12693345

Misi?, Zarko; Krezo, Stipe; Mami?, Ivica; Baranik, Julijan; Karelovi?, Deni; Skoro, Ivica; Bosnjak, Tamara; Miljko, Miro

2003-01-01

199

Perinatal Flavour Learning and Adaptation to Being Weaned: All the Pig Needs Is Smell  

PubMed Central

Perinatal flavour learning through the maternal diet is known to enhance flavour preference and acceptance of flavoured food in many species, yet still little is known about the mechanism underlying perinatal flavour learning. Previously we found positive effects of perinatal flavour learning on food intake, growth and behaviour of piglets postweaning, but no increased preference for the flavour. This suggests that flavour learning in pigs works through a reduction of weaning stress by the presence of the familiar flavour instead. The aim of this study was to investigate whether perinatal flavour learning reduces stress at weaning, and whether the effect is stronger when the familiar flavour is present in the food. Sows were offered an anethol-flavoured diet (Flavour treatment) or control diet (Control treatment) during late gestation and lactation. Flavour and Control piglets were provided with anethol either in their food (Food treatment) or in the air (Air treatment) after weaning. Preweaning and postweaning treatments did not affect food intake, preference or growth in the first two weeks postweaning but flavour treatment reduced the latency to eat (24 versus 35 hours, P?=?0.02) and within-pen variation in growth (SD within-pen: 0.7 versus 1.2 kg, P<0.001). Salivary cortisol levels tended to be lower four and seven hours postweaning for Flavour piglets compared to Control piglets (4 hours: 2.5 versus 3.0 ng/ml, P?=?0.05, 7 hours: 3.1 versus 3.4 ng/ml, P?=?0.08). Flavour piglets played more and showed less damaging behaviours than Control piglets, indicating that the familiar flavour reduced stress around weaning. Few interaction effects were found between preweaning and postweaning treatment, and no effects of postweaning treatment. We conclude that in the newly weaned pig, perinatal flavour learning results in a reduction of stress when the familiar flavour is present, regardless of providing the flavour in the food or in the air. PMID:22039409

Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Simon, Kristina; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

2011-01-01

200

Perinatal flavour learning and adaptation to being weaned: all the pig needs is smell.  

PubMed

Perinatal flavour learning through the maternal diet is known to enhance flavour preference and acceptance of flavoured food in many species, yet still little is known about the mechanism underlying perinatal flavour learning. Previously we found positive effects of perinatal flavour learning on food intake, growth and behaviour of piglets postweaning, but no increased preference for the flavour. This suggests that flavour learning in pigs works through a reduction of weaning stress by the presence of the familiar flavour instead. The aim of this study was to investigate whether perinatal flavour learning reduces stress at weaning, and whether the effect is stronger when the familiar flavour is present in the food. Sows were offered an anethol-flavoured diet (Flavour treatment) or control diet (Control treatment) during late gestation and lactation. Flavour and Control piglets were provided with anethol either in their food (Food treatment) or in the air (Air treatment) after weaning. Preweaning and postweaning treatments did not affect food intake, preference or growth in the first two weeks postweaning but flavour treatment reduced the latency to eat (24 versus 35 hours, P?=?0.02) and within-pen variation in growth (SD within-pen: 0.7 versus 1.2 kg, P<0.001). Salivary cortisol levels tended to be lower four and seven hours postweaning for Flavour piglets compared to Control piglets (4 hours: 2.5 versus 3.0 ng/ml, P?=?0.05, 7 hours: 3.1 versus 3.4 ng/ml, P?=?0.08). Flavour piglets played more and showed less damaging behaviours than Control piglets, indicating that the familiar flavour reduced stress around weaning. Few interaction effects were found between preweaning and postweaning treatment, and no effects of postweaning treatment. We conclude that in the newly weaned pig, perinatal flavour learning results in a reduction of stress when the familiar flavour is present, regardless of providing the flavour in the food or in the air. PMID:22039409

Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Simon, Kristina; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

2011-01-01

201

Perinatal Asphyxia in a Nonhuman Primate Model  

PubMed Central

Perinatal asphyxia is a leading cause of brain injury in neonates, occurring in 2–4 per 1,000 live births, and there are limited treatment options. Because of their similarity to humans, nonhuman primates are ideal for performing preclinical tests of safety and efficacy for neurotherapeutic interventions. We previously developed a primate model of acute perinatal asphyxia using 12–15 min of umbilical cord occlusion. Continuing this research, we have increased cord occlusion time from 15 to 18 min and extended neurodevelopmental follow-up to 9 months. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the increase in morbidity associated with 18 min of asphyxia by comparing indices obtained from colony controls, nonasphyxiated controls and asphyxiated animals. Pigtail macaques were delivered by hysterotomy after 0, 15 or 18 min of cord occlusion, then resuscitated. Over the ensuing 9 months, for each biochemical and physiologic parameters, behavioral and developmental evaluations, and structural and spectroscopic MRI were recorded. At birth, all asphyxiated animals required resuscitation with positive pressure ventilation and exhibited biochemical and clinical characteristics diagnostic of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, including metabolic acidosis and attenuated brain activity. Compared with controls, asphyxiated animals developed long-term physical and cognitive deficits. This preliminary report characterizes the acute and chronic consequences of perinatal asphyxia in a nonhuman primate model, and describes diagnostic imaging tools for quantifying correlates of neonatal brain injury as well as neurodevelopmental tests for evaluating early motor and cognitive outcomes. PMID:21659720

Misbe, Elizabeth N. Jacobson; Richards, Todd L.; McPherson, Ronald J.; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Juul, Sandra E.

2011-01-01

202

Maternal Serum Caffeine Metabolites and Small-for-Gestational Age Birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether the third-trimester maternal serum concentration of paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, is associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational age infant (birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age, gender, and ethnicity) and whether this association differs by smoking, the authors studied 2,515 women who participated in the Collaborative Perinatal Project from 1959 to 1966. The women

Mark A. Klebanoff; Richard J. Levine; John D. Clemens; Diana G. Wilkins

203

Maternal Serologic Screening to Prevent Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Decision-Analytic Economic Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine a cost-minimizing option for congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA decision-analytic and cost-minimization model was constructed to compare monthly maternal serological screening, prenatal treatment, and post-natal follow-up and treatment according to the current French (Paris) protocol, versus no systematic screening or perinatal treatment. Costs are based on published estimates of lifetime societal costs of developmental disabilities and

Eileen Stillwaggon; Christopher S. Carrier; Mari Sautter; Rima McLeod

2011-01-01

204

Dual role of astrocytes in perinatal asphyxia injury and neuroprotection.  

PubMed

Perinatal asphyxia represents an important cause of severe neurological deficits including delayed mental and motor development, epilepsy, major cognitive deficits and blindness. However, at the moment, most of the therapeutic strategies were not well targeted toward the processes that induced the brain injury during perinatal asphyxia. Traditionally, experimental research focused on neurons, whereas astrocytes have been more related with the damage mechanisms of perinatal asphyxia. In this work, we propose to review possible protective as well as deleterious roles of astrocytes in the asphyctic brain with the aim to stimulate further research in this area of perinatal asphyxia still not well studied. PMID:24172702

Romero, J; Muñiz, J; Logica Tornatore, T; Holubiec, M; González, J; Barreto, G E; Guelman, L; Lillig, C H; Blanco, E; Capani, F

2014-04-17

205

Evidence for perinatal and child health care guidelines in crisis settings: can Cochrane help?  

PubMed Central

Background It is important that healthcare provided in crisis settings is based on the best available research evidence. We reviewed guidelines for child and perinatal health care in crisis situations to determine whether they were based on research evidence, whether Cochrane systematic reviews were available in the clinical areas addressed by these guidelines and whether summaries of these reviews were provided in Evidence Aid. Methods Broad internet searches were undertaken to identify relevant guidelines. Guidelines were appraised using AGREE and the clinical areas that were relevant to perinatal or child health were extracted. We searched The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify potentially relevant reviews. For each review we determined how many trials were included, and how many were conducted in resource-limited settings. Results Six guidelines met selection criteria. None of the included guidelines were clearly based on research evidence. 198 Cochrane reviews were potentially relevant to the guidelines. These reviews predominantly addressed nutrient supplementation, breastfeeding, malaria, maternal hypertension, premature labour and prevention of HIV transmission. Most reviews included studies from developing settings. However for large portions of the guidelines, particularly health services delivery, there were no relevant reviews. Only 18 (9.1%) reviews have summaries in Evidence Aid. Conclusions We did not identify any evidence-based guidelines for perinatal and child health care in disaster settings. We found many Cochrane reviews that could contribute to the evidence-base supporting future guidelines. However there are important issues to be addressed in terms of the relevance of the available reviews and increasing the number of reviews addressing health care delivery. PMID:20350326

2010-01-01

206

Zidovudine genotypic resistance in HIV-1-infected newborns in the French perinatal cohort.  

PubMed

A retrospective study was set up to investigate the frequency of zidovudine (ZDV)-resistant HIV-1 in infected newborns after ZDV prophylaxis in the French Perinatal Cohort study. Nucleotide sequence analysis was carried out from 34 infants' isolates and 18 maternal plasma samples. Mutations related to ZDV resistance were found in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in 7 of 34 children (20%). Evidence of mother-child transmission of ZDV-resistant HIV-1 was found in 4 cases. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 14 of 34 HIV-1 isolates from the infants belonged to non-B subtypes. The presence of ZDV resistance-encoding mutations in the newborn isolates was associated with a longer total duration of exposure to ZDV. In a context of a wide HIV-1 variability, ZDV resistance can be one of the factors contributing to mother-child transmission. PMID:11404530

Masquelier, B; Chaix, M L; Burgard, M; Lechenadec, J; Doussin, A; Simon, F; Cottalorda, J; Izopet, J; Tamalet, C; Douard, D; Fleury, H; Mayaux, M J; Blanche, S; Rouzioux, C

2001-06-01

207

Prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors of Autism Spectrum Disorder: a comprehensive epidemiological assessment from India.  

PubMed

Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is increasing across the globe and no data is available from India regarding the risk factors of ASD. In this regard a questionnaire based epidemiological assessment was carried out on prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors of ASD across 8 cities in India. A retrospective cohort of 942 children was enrolled for the study. 471 children with ASD, under age of 10, were analyzed for pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors and were compared with the observations from equal number of controls. The quality control of the questionnaire and data collection was done thoroughly and the observations were computed statistically. A total of 25 factors were evaluated by unadjusted and adjusted analysis in this study. Among the prenatal factors considered, advanced maternal age, fetal distress and gestational respiratory infections were found to be associated with ASD and had an odds ratio of 1.8. Evaluation of perinatal and neonatal risk factors showed labor complications, pre-term birth, neonatal jaundice, delayed birth cry and birth asphyxia to be associated with ASD with an odds ratio greater than 1.5. This important study, first of its kind in Indian population gives a firsthand account of the relation of pre-, peri- and neonatal risk factors on ASD from an ethnically and socially diverse country like India, the impact of which was unknown earlier. This advocates additional focused investigations on physiological and genetic changes contributed by these risk factor inducing environments. PMID:23816633

Mamidala, Madhu Poornima; Polinedi, Anupama; P T V, Praveen Kumar; Rajesh, N; Vallamkonda, Omsai Ramesh; Udani, Vrajesh; Singhal, Nidhi; Rajesh, Vidya

2013-09-01

208

Perinatal outcomes among foreign-born and US-born Chinese Americans, 1995-2000.  

PubMed

This paper examines nativity differences in adverse perinatal outcomes of Chinese-American mothers. Singleton live births to US-resident Chinese women (150,620 foreign-born, 15,040 US-born) and a random sample of 150,620 non-Hispanic White mothers were selected from 1995 to 2000 national linked birth/infant death certificate files. Associations between maternal nativity status and adverse perinatal outcomes were assessed using multivariable logistic regressions. Compared to US-born Chinese mothers, foreign-born Chinese mothers were less likely to be unmarried, teen mothers, have a non-Hispanic White or other race partner, be rural residents, and more likely to be less educated, or utilize prenatal care inadequately. Controlling for these factors, foreign-born Chinese-American mothers had significantly lower risks for low birth weight, preterm birth, and small-for-gestational age, whereas risks for infant mortality, neonatal mortality, and post-neonatal mortality did not differ significantly from those of infants of US-born Chinese mothers. Chinese Americans exhibited clear nativity differentials for adverse birth outcomes. PMID:18825499

Li, Qing; Keith, Louis G; Kirby, Russell S

2010-06-01

209

Incorporating recognition and management of perinatal and postpartum depression into pediatric practice.  

PubMed

Every year, more than 400,000 infants are born to mothers who are depressed, which makes perinatal depression the most underdiagnosed obstetric complication in America. Postpartum depression leads to increased costs of medical care, inappropriate medical care, child abuse and neglect, discontinuation of breastfeeding, and family dysfunction and adversely affects early brain development. Pediatric practices, as medical homes, can establish a system to implement postpartum depression screening and to identify and use community resources for the treatment and referral of the depressed mother and support for the mother-child (dyad) relationship. This system would have a positive effect on the health and well-being of the infant and family. State chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics, working with state Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) and maternal and child health programs, can increase awareness of the need for perinatal depression screening in the obstetric and pediatric periodicity of care schedules and ensure payment. Pediatricians must advocate for workforce development for professionals who care for very young children and for promotion of evidence-based interventions focused on healthy attachment and parent-child relationships. PMID:20974776

Earls, Marian F

2010-11-01

210

Perinatal HIV Prevention Outcomes in U.S.-Born Versus Foreign-Born Blacks, PSD Cohort, 1995-2004.  

PubMed

We examined differences in HIV-infected U.S.-born and foreign-born black mothers who delivered perinatally HIV-exposed and -infected children during 1995-2004 in the Pediatric Spectrum of HIV Disease Project, a longitudinal cohort study. Prevalence ratios were calculated to explain differences in perinatal HIV prevention opportunities comparing U.S.-born to foreign-born and African-born to Caribbean-born black mothers. U.S.-born compared with foreign-born HIV-infected black mothers were significantly more likely to have used cocaine or other non-intravenous illicit drugs, exchanged money or drugs for sex, known their HIV status before giving birth, received intrapartum antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis, and delivered a premature infant; and were significantly less likely to have received prenatal care or delivered an HIV-infected infant. African-born compared with Caribbean-born black mothers were more likely to receive intrapartum ARV prophylaxis. These differences by maternal geographical origin have important implications for perinatal HIV transmission prevention, and highlight the validity of disaggregating data by racial/ethnic subgroups. PMID:24841594

Myles, Ranell L; Artstein-McNassar, Melissa; Dean, Hazel D; Bohannon, Beverly; Melville, Sharon K; Yeager, Richard; Wheeling, John; Rose, Charles E; Zhu, Julia; Dominguez, Kenneth L

2014-05-20

211

Modifying CBT for Perinatal Depression: What Do Women Want?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for depression during the perinatal period is mixed. This was a qualitative study that aimed to understand the perinatal-specific needs of depressed women in an effort to inform treatment modifications that may increase the relevance and acceptability of CBT during this period. Stratified purposeful sampling…

O'Mahen, Heather; Fedock, Gina; Henshaw, Erin; Himle, Joseph A.; Forman, Jane; Flynn, Heather A.

2012-01-01

212

Cortical Reorganization of Language Functioning Following Perinatal Left MCA Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Functional MRI was used to determine differences in patterns of cortical activation between children who suffered perinatal left middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke and healthy children performing a silent verb generation task. Methods: Ten children with prior perinatal left MCA stroke (age 6-16 years) and ten healthy age matched…

Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Byars, Anna W.; Jacola, Lisa M.; Schapiro, Mark B.; Schmithorst, Vince J.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Holland, Scott K.

2008-01-01

213

Prenatal Exposure to Persistent Organochlorines and Childhood Obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project  

PubMed Central

Background: In some previous studies, prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines such as 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p´-DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has been associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in children. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), p,p´-DDE, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p´-DDT), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs with offspring obesity during childhood. Methods: The analysis was based on a subsample of 1,915 children followed until 7 years of age as part of the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). The CPP enrolled pregnant women in 1959–1965; exposure levels were measured in third-trimester maternal serum that was collected before these organochlorines were banned in the United States. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using age- and sex-specific cut points for BMI as recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Results: Adjusted results did not show clear evidence for an association between organochlorine exposure and obesity; however, a suggestive finding emerged for dieldrin. Compared with those in the lowest quintile (dieldrin, < 0.57 ?g/L), odds of obesity were 3.6 (95% CI: 1.3, 10.5) for the fourth and 2.3 (95% CI: 0.8, 7.1) for the highest quintile. Overweight and BMI were unrelated to organochlorine exposure. Conclusions: In this population with relatively high levels of exposure to organochlorines, no clear associations with obesity or BMI emerged. Citation: Cupul-Uicab LA, Klebanoff MA, Brock JW, Longnecker MP. 2013. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines and childhood obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1103–1109;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205901 PMID:23799652

Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2013-01-01

214

Development of a linked perinatal data resource from state administrative and community-based program data.  

PubMed

To demonstrate a generalizable approach for developing maternal-child health data resources using state administrative records and community-based program data. We used a probabilistic and deterministic linking strategy to join vital records, hospital discharge records, and home visiting data for a population-based cohort of at-risk, first time mothers enrolled in a regional home visiting program in Southwestern Ohio and Northern Kentucky from 2007 to 2010. Because data sources shared no universal identifier, common identifying elements were selected and evaluated for discriminating power. Vital records then served as a hub to which other records were linked. Variables were recoded into clinically significant categories and a cross-set of composite analytic variables was constructed. Finally, individual-level data were linked to corresponding area-level measures by census tract using the American Communities Survey. The final data set represented 2,330 maternal-infant pairs with both home visiting and vital records data. Of these, 56 pairs (2.4 %) did not link to either maternal or infant hospital discharge records. In a 10 % validation subset (n = 233), 100 % of the reviewed matches between home visiting data and vital records were true matches. Combining multiple data sources provided more comprehensive details of perinatal health service utilization and demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics than available from a single data source. Our approach offers a template for leveraging disparate sources of data to support a platform of research that evaluates the timeliness and reach of home visiting as well as its association with key maternal-child health outcomes. PMID:23420307

Hall, Eric S; Goyal, Neera K; Ammerman, Robert T; Miller, Megan M; Jones, David E; Short, Jodie A; Van Ginkel, Judith B

2014-01-01

215

Development of a Linked Perinatal Data Resource From State Administrative and Community-Based Program Data  

PubMed Central

To demonstrate a generalizable approach for developing maternal-child health data resources using state administrative records and community-based program data. We used a probabilistic and deterministic linking strategy to join vital records, hospital discharge records, and home visiting data for a population-based cohort of at-risk, first time mothers enrolled in a regional home visiting program in Southwestern Ohio and Northern Kentucky from 2007 to 2010. Because data sources shared no universal identifier, common identifying elements were selected and evaluated for discriminating power. Vital records then served as a hub to which other records were linked. Variables were recoded into clinically significant categories and a cross-set of composite analytic variables was constructed. Finally, individual-level data were linked to corresponding area-level measures by census tract using the American Communities Survey. The final data set represented 2,330 maternal-infant pairs with both home visiting and vital records data. Of these, 56 pairs (2.4 %) did not link to either maternal or infant hospital discharge records. In a 10 % validation subset (n = 233), 100 % of the reviewed matches between home visiting data and vital records were true matches. Combining multiple data sources provided more comprehensive details of perinatal health service utilization and demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics than available from a single data source. Our approach offers a template for leveraging disparate sources of data to support a platform of research that evaluates the timeliness and reach of home visiting as well as its association with key maternal-child health outcomes. PMID:23420307

Goyal, Neera K.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Miller, Megan M.; Jones, David E.; Short, Jodie A.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.

2014-01-01

216

Pakistan's maternal and child health policy: analysis, lessons and the way forward.  

PubMed

An estimated 400,000 infant and 16,500 maternal deaths occur annually in Pakistan. These translate into an infant mortality rate and maternal mortality ratio that should be unacceptable to any state. Disease states including communicable diseases and reproductive health (RH) problems, which are largely preventable account for over 50% of the disease burden. The analysis of Pakistan's maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning (FP) policy covers the period 1990-2002, and focuses on macroeconomic influences, priority programs and gaps, adequacy of resources, equity and organizational aspects, and the process of policy formulation. The overall MCH/FP policy is well directed. MCH/FP has been a priority in all policies; resource allocation, although unacceptably low, has substantially increased during the last decade; and there is a progressive shift from MCH to the reproductive health (RH) agenda. Areas in need of improvement include greater use of evidence as a basis for policy; increased priority to nutrition programs, measures to reduce neonatal and perinatal mortality, provision of emergency obstetric care, availability of skilled birth attendants, and a clear policy on integrated management of childhood illnesses. Enhanced planning capacity, development of a balanced human resource, improved governance to reduce staff absenteeism and frequent transfers, and a greater role of the private sector in the provision of services are some organizational aspects that need the governments' consideration. There are several lessons to be learnt: (i) Ministries of Health need sustained stewardship and well-documented evidence to protect cuts in resource allocation; (ii) frequent policy announcement sends inappropriate signals to managers and weakens on-going implementation; (iii) MCH/FP policies unless informed by evidence and participation of interest groups are unlikely to address gaps in programs; (iv) distributional and equity objectives of MCH/FP be addressed while setting overall national goals; (v) institutional capacity is a vital ingredient in translating MCH/FP policies into effective services. The suggested strategic directions emphasize, among others, the need for a comprehensive MCH/FP framework; strengthened stewardship in ministry of health, cost-effective strategies to address the gaps identified and doubling of the public sector resource allocation to MCH/FP over the next 5 years. The ability to ensure delivery of quality health services remains the biggest challenge in the Pakistani health sector. Unless sound policies are backed by well-functioning programs they are likely to become a victim of poor implementation. PMID:15484612

Siddiqi, S; Haq, I U; Ghaffar, A; Akhtar, T; Mahaini, R

2004-07-01

217

Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology (in press) Collecting population-based perinatal data efficiently  

E-print Network

. All live births and stillbirths occurring during these periods in medical settings were recorded survey; the aim of the survey was to obtain a minimum data set on all births occurring during a short the women in hospital after delivery. All maternity units and birth centers agreed to participate. Maternal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Short-term outcomes after perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: a report from the Children's Hospitals Neonatal Consortium HIE focus group.  

PubMed

Objective:To characterize infants affected with perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) who were referred to regional neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and their related short-term outcomes.Study Design:This is a descriptive study evaluating the data collected prospectively in the Children's Hospital Neonatal Database, comprised of 27 regional NICUs within their associated children's hospitals. A consecutive sample of 945 referred infants born ?36 weeks' gestation with perinatal HIE in the first 3 days of life over approximately 3 years (2010-July 2013) were included. Maternal and infant characteristics are described. Short-term outcomes were evaluated including medical comorbidities, mortality and status of survivors at discharge.Result:High relative frequencies of maternal predisposing conditions, cesarean and operative vaginal deliveries were observed. Low Apgar scores, profound metabolic acidosis, extensive resuscitation in the delivery room, clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures, abnormal EEG background and brain imaging directly correlated with the severity of HIE. Therapeutic hypothermia was provided to 85% of infants, 15% of whom were classified as having mild HIE. Electrographic seizures were observed in 26% of the infants. Rates of complications and morbidities were similar to those reported in prior clinical trials and overall mortality was 15%.Conclusion:Within this large contemporary cohort of newborns with perinatal HIE, the application of therapeutic hypothermia and associated neurodiagnostic studies appear to have expanded relative to reported clinical trials. Although seizure incidence and mortality were lower compared with those reported in the trials, it is unclear whether this represented improved outcomes or therapeutic drift with the treatment of milder disease.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 13 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jp.2014.190. PMID:25393081

Massaro, A N; Murthy, K; Zaniletti, I; Cook, N; DiGeronimo, R; Dizon, M; Hamrick, S E G; McKay, V J; Natarajan, G; Rao, R; Smith, D; Telesco, R; Wadhawan, R; Asselin, J M; Durand, D J; Evans, J R; Dykes, F; Reber, K M; Padula, M A; Pallotto, E K; Short, B L; Mathur, A M

2014-11-13

219

Adverse Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes following Treatment of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate obstetric and perinatal outcomes among female survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers and their offspring. Methods Using multivariate analysis of statewide linked data, outcomes of all first completed pregnancies (n?=?1894) in female survivors of AYA cancer diagnosed in Western Australia during the period 1982–2007 were compared with those among females with no cancer history. Comparison pregnancies were matched by maternal age-group, parity and year of delivery. Results Compared with the non-cancer group, female survivors of AYA cancer had an increased risk of threatened abortion (adjusted relative risk 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.51–2.74), gestational diabetes (2.65, 2.08–3.57), pre-eclampsia (1.32, 1.04–1.87), post-partum hemorrhage (2.83, 1.92–4.67), cesarean delivery (2.62, 2.22–3.04), and maternal postpartum hospitalization>5 days (3.01, 1.72–5.58), but no excess risk of threatened preterm delivery, antepartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes, failure of labor to progress or retained placenta. Their offspring had an increased risk of premature birth (<37 weeks: 1.68, 1.21–2.08), low birth weight (<2500 g: 1.51, 1.23–2.12), fetal growth restriction (3.27, 2.45–4.56), and neonatal distress indicated by low Apgar score (<7) at 1 minute (2.83, 2.28–3.56), need for resuscitation (1.66, 1.27–2.19) or special care nursery admission (1.44, 1.13–1.78). Congenital abnormalities and perinatal deaths (intrauterine or ?7 days of birth) were not increased among offspring of survivors. Conclusion Female survivors of AYA cancer have moderate excess risks of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes arising from subsequent pregnancies that may require additional surveillance or intervention. PMID:25485774

Haggar, Fatima A.; Pereira, Gavin; Preen, David; Holman, C. D'Arcy; Einarsdottir, Kristjana

2014-01-01

220

Prenatal and Perinatal Morbidity in Children with Tic Disorders: A Mainstream School-based Population Study in Central Spain  

PubMed Central

Background While current research suggests that genetic factors confer the greatest risk for the development of tic disorders, studies of environmental factors are relatively few, with a lack of consistent risk factors across studies. Our aim is to analyze the association of tic disorders with exposure to prenatal and perinatal morbidity. Methods This was a nested case–control study design. Cases and controls were selected and identified from a mainstream, school-based sample. The diagnosis of tic disorders was assigned by a movement disorder neurologist using ‘Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision’ criteria, and neuropsychiatric comorbidities were screened using the Spanish computerized version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scale. Information regarding the exposure to pre-perinatal risk factors was collected by a retrospective review of the birth certificates. Logistic regression analyses were then performed to test the association of tic disorders with pre-perinatal risk factors. Results Out of 407 participants, complete pre-perinatal data were available in 153 children (64 with tics and 89 without tics). After adjusting for family history of tics, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, body mass index, prenatal infection, and coexisting comorbid neuropsychiatric disturbances, tic disorders were associated with prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio [OR]?=?3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–7.60, p?=?0.007), and cesarean section (OR?=?5.78, 95% CI 1.60–20.91, p?=?0.01). Discussion This nested case–control study of children with tic disorders demonstrates higher adjusted odds for tics in children with exposure to cesarean delivery and maternal smoking. Longitudinal, population-based samples are required to confirm these results.

Cubo, Esther; Hortigüela, Montesclaros; Jorge-Roldan, Sandra; Ciciliani, Selva Esther; Lopez, Patricia; Velasco, Leticia; Sastre, Emilio; Ausin, Vanesa; Delgado, Vanesa; Saez, Sara; Gabriel-Galán, José Trejo; Macarrón, Jesús

2014-01-01

221

Perinatal mortality in pregnancies with omphalocele: data from the Chinese national birth defects monitoring network, 1996–2006  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies on the mortality rate of omphalocele are limited. The risk of death of non-isolated omphalocele and that of cases of omphalocele that are diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound are unclear. This study aimed to estimate the perinatal mortality of pregnancies with omphalocele. This study also examined the potential risk of death of non-isolated omphalocele and that of cases that are prenatally diagnosed by ultrasound. Methods Data were retrieved from the national birth defects registry in China, for 1996–2006. Multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between perinatal mortality and selected maternal and fetal characteristics. Results Among 827 cases of omphalocele, 309 (37.4%) cases resulted in termination of pregnancy and stillbirth, and 124 (15.0%) cases resulted in death in the first 7 days after delivery, yielding a perinatal mortality rate of 52.4% (95% CI: 49.0–55.8%). The late fetal death rate (LFDR) of omphalocele that was diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound was 15.91-fold (AOR: 15.91, 95% CI: 10.18–24.87) higher than that of postnatally diagnosed cases. The LFDR of non-isolated omphalocele was 2.64-fold (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.62–4.29) higher than that of isolated cases. For the early neonatal death rate, neonates with non-isolated omphalocele had a 2.96-fold (AOR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.82–4.81) higher risk than isolated cases, but the difference between prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and postnatal diagnosis was not significant. Conclusions Selected fetal characteristics are significantly associated with the perinatal risk of death from omphalocele. Our findings suggest that improving pregnancy and delivery care, as well as management for omphalocele are important. PMID:24953381

2014-01-01

222

Perinatal Oxygen in the Developing Lung  

PubMed Central

Lung diseases, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), wheezing, and asthma, remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population, particularly in the setting of premature birth. Pulmonary outcomes in these infants are highly influenced by perinatal exposures including prenatal inflammation, postnatal intensive care unit interventions, and environmental agents. Here, there is strong evidence that perinatal supplemental oxygen administration has significant effects on pulmonary development and health. This is of particular importance in the preterm lung, where premature exposure to room air represents a hyperoxic insult that may cause harm to a lung primed to develop in a hypoxic environment. Preterm infants are also subject to increased episodes of hypoxia, which may also result in pulmonary damage and disease. Here, we summarize current understanding of the effects of oxygen on the developing lung and how low vs. high oxygen may predispose to pulmonary disease that may extend even into adulthood. Better understanding of the underlying mechanisms will help lead to improved care and outcomes in this vulnerable population. PMID:25594569

Vogel, Elizabeth R.; Britt, Rodney D.; Trinidad, Mari Charisse; Faksh, Arij; Martin, Richard J.; MacFarlane, Peter M.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y.S.

2015-01-01

223

Perinatal oxygen in the developing lung.  

PubMed

Lung diseases, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), wheezing, and asthma, remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population, particularly in the setting of premature birth. Pulmonary outcomes in these infants are highly influenced by perinatal exposures including prenatal inflammation, postnatal intensive care unit interventions, and environmental agents. Here, there is strong evidence that perinatal supplemental oxygen administration has significant effects on pulmonary development and health. This is of particular importance in the preterm lung, where premature exposure to room air represents a hyperoxic insult that may cause harm to a lung primed to develop in a hypoxic environment. Preterm infants are also subject to increased episodes of hypoxia, which may also result in pulmonary damage and disease. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the effects of oxygen on the developing lung and how low vs. high oxygen may predispose to pulmonary disease that may extend even into adulthood. Better understanding of the underlying mechanisms will help lead to improved care and outcomes in this vulnerable population. PMID:25594569

Vogel, Elizabeth R; Britt, Rodney D; Trinidad, Mari Charisse; Faksh, Arij; Martin, Richard J; MacFarlane, Peter M; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S

2015-02-01

224

Perinatal bisphenol A exposure promotes dose-dependent alterations of the mouse methylome  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental factors during perinatal development may influence developmental plasticity and disease susceptibility via alterations to the epigenome. Developmental exposure to the endocrine active compound, bisphenol A (BPA), has previously been associated with altered methylation at candidate gene loci. Here, we undertake the first genome-wide characterization of DNA methylation profiles in the liver of murine offspring exposed perinatally to multiple doses of BPA through the maternal diet. Results Using a tiered focusing approach, our strategy proceeds from unbiased broad DNA methylation analysis using methylation-based next generation sequencing technology to in-depth quantitative site-specific CpG methylation determination using the Sequenom EpiTYPER MassARRAY platform to profile liver DNA methylation patterns in offspring maternally exposed to BPA during gestation and lactation to doses ranging from 0 BPA/kg (Ctr), 50 ?g BPA/kg (UG), or 50 mg BPA/kg (MG) diet (N?=?4 per group). Genome-wide analyses indicate non-monotonic effects of DNA methylation patterns following perinatal exposure to BPA, corroborating previous studies using multiple doses of BPA with non-monotonic outcomes. We observed enrichment of regions of altered methylation (RAMs) within CpG island (CGI) shores, but little evidence of RAM enrichment in CGIs. An analysis of promoter regions identified several hundred novel BPA-associated methylation events, and methylation alterations in the Myh7b and Slc22a12 gene promoters were validated. Using the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, a number of candidate genes that have previously been associated with BPA-related gene expression changes were identified, and gene set enrichment testing identified epigenetically dysregulated pathways involved in metabolism and stimulus response. Conclusions In this study, non-monotonic dose dependent alterations in DNA methylation among BPA-exposed mouse liver samples and their relevant pathways were identified and validated. The comprehensive methylome map presented here provides candidate loci underlying the role of early BPA exposure and later in life health and disease status. PMID:24433282

2014-01-01

225

Growth Patterns in the First Year of Life Differ in Infants Born to Perinatally vs. Non-Perinatally HIV-infected Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare growth patterns in the first year of life between children born to perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) vs. non-perinatally HIV-infected (NPHIV) women in the U.S. Design Retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected pregnant women who received care and delivered a liveborn at two urban tertiary centers from January 2004 - March 2012. Methods We collected data via chart review on demographics, behavioral risk factors, HIV clinical markers, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), mode of HIV acquisition, pregnancy outcomes, and infant anthropometrics on study subjects. Mixed effects models were used to assess the association between maternal mode of HIV acquisition and weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length (WLZ) z-scores. Results Of 152 pregnancies evaluated, 32 and 120 infants were born to 25 PHIV and 99 NPHIV women respectively. Infants of PHIV women exhibited lower mean WAZ and LAZ throughout the first year of life in unadjusted analyses. After adjusting for potential confounders, the relationship between PHIV & LAZ persisted (?=?0.54, p=0.026). Small for gestational age for each birth anthropometric parameter [birth length, birth weight, and both birth length and weight] was associated with decreased LAZ (?=?0.48, p=0.007), WAZ (?=?0.99, p<0.001) and WLZ (?=?0.36, p=0.027) respectively. A delivery HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL was associated with increased WAZ & WLZ (?=0.43, p=0.015; ?=0.38, p=0.021). Conclusions Infants of PHIV women may remain at persistently decreased lengths throughout the first year of life. Further studies aimed at understanding intrauterine and environmental factors in PHIV women are warranted. PMID:25562495

Jao, Jennifer; Agwu, Allison; Mhango, Grace; Kim, Annie; Park, Kaye; Posada, Roberto; Abrams, Elaine J.; Hutton, Nancy; Sperling, Rhoda S.

2015-01-01

226

Care for perinatal illness in rural Nepal: a descriptive study with cross-sectional and qualitative components  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal, perinatal and neonatal mortality rates remain high in rural areas of developing countries. Most deliveries take place at home and care-seeking behaviour is often delayed. We report on a combined quantitative and qualitative study of care seeking obstacles and practices relating to perinatal illness in rural Makwanpur district, Nepal, with particular emphasis on consultation strategies. Methods The analysis included a survey of 8798 women who reported a birth in the previous two years [of whom 3557 reported illness in their pregnancy], on 30 case studies of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and on 43 focus group discussions with mothers, other family members and health workers. Results Early pregnancy was often concealed, preparation for birth was minimal and trained attendance at birth was uncommon. Family members were favoured attendants, particularly mothers-in-law. The most common recalled maternal complications were prolonged labour, postpartum haemorrhage and retained placenta. Neonatal death, though less definable, was often associated with cessation of suckling and shortness of breath. Many home-based care practices for maternal and neonatal illness were described. Self-medication was common. There were delays in recognising and acting on danger signs, and in seeking care beyond the household, in which the cultural requirement for maternal seclusion, and the perceived expense of care, played a part. Of the 760 women who sought care at a government facility, 70% took more than 12 hours from the decision to seek help to actual consultation. Consultation was primarily with traditional healers, who were key actors in the ascription of causation. Use of the government primary health care system was limited: the most common source of allopathic care was the district hospital. Conclusions Major obstacles to seeking care were: a limited capacity to recognise danger signs; the need to watch and wait; and an overwhelming preference to treat illness within the community. Safer motherhood and newborn care programmes in rural communities, must address both community and health facility care to have an impact on morbidity and mortality. The roles of community actors such as mothers-in-law, husbands, local healers and pharmacies, and increased access to properly trained birth attendants need to be addressed if delays in reaching health facilities are to be shortened. PMID:12932300

Mesko, Natasha; Osrin, David; Tamang, Suresh; Shrestha, Bhim P; Manandhar, Dharma S; Manandhar, Madan; Standing, Hilary; Costello, Anthony M de L

2003-01-01

227

Genetic risk factors for perinatal arterial ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

The cause of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke is unknown in most cases. We explored whether genetic polymorphisms modify the risk of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. In a population-based case-control study of 1997-2002 births at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we identified 13 white infants with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. Control subjects included 86 randomly selected white infants. We genotyped polymorphisms in nine genes involved in inflammation, thrombosis, or lipid metabolism previously linked with stroke, and compared genotype frequencies in case and control individuals. We tested several polymorphisms: tumor necrosis factor-? -308, interleukin-6, lymphotoxin A, factor V Leiden, methyltetrahydrofolate reductase 1298 and 667, prothrombin 20210, and apolipoprotein E ?2 and ?4 alleles. Patients with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke were more likely than control subjects to demonstrate at least one apolipoprotein E ?4 allele (54% vs 25%, P = 0.03). More patients with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke carried two ?4 alleles than did control subjects (15% vs 2%, P = 0.09), although this finding lacked statistical significance. Proinflammatory and prothrombotic polymorphisms were not associated with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. The apolipoprotein E polymorphism may confer genetic susceptibility for perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. Larger population-based studies are required to confirm this finding. PMID:23290018

Gelfand, Amy A; Croen, Lisa A; Torres, Anthony R; Wu, Yvonne W

2013-01-01

228

Parental and Perinatal Correlates of Neonatal Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the analyses of antecedent correlates of the behavior of 60 infants as measured by the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale on the third day after birth. The data include two sets of antecedent variables: maternal adaptation to pregnancy as reported in prenatal interviews and measured describing the conditions of labor and…

Standley, Kay

229

Neonatal–perinatal medicine in a transitional period in China  

PubMed Central

With an annual birth rate of 12‰, or 16 millions, of all population (1.34 billions), and an implementation of universal healthcare policy for all rural residents in recent years, China is undergoing a dramatic and profound transition in perinatal and neonatal healthcare as a part of the global campaign for reduction in mortality of children under 5?years old. This review describes recent development in neonatal–perinatal medicine, with special emphasis on general neonatal–perinatal care, respiratory and intensive care, neurological and infectious diseases, for a comprehensive view of the trend and challenge in relation with problems and solutions of the field. PMID:23759518

Sun, Bo; Shao, Xiaomei; Cao, Yun; Xia, Shiwen; Yue, Hongni

2013-01-01

230

Perinatal Exposure to Low-Dose Methoxychlor Impairs Testicular Development in C57BL/6 Mice  

PubMed Central

Methoxychlor (MXC), an organochlorine pesticide, has adverse effects on male reproduction at toxicological doses. Humans and wild animals are exposed to MXC mostly through contaminated dietary intake. Higher concentrations of MXC have been found in human milk, raising the demand for the risk assessment of offspring after maternal exposure to low doses of MXC. In this study, pregnant mice (F0) were given intraperitoneal daily evening injections of 1 mg/kg/d MXC during their gestational (embryonic day 0.5, E0.5) and lactational periods (postnatal day 21.5, P21.5), and the F1 males were assessed. F1 testes were collected at P0.5, P21.5 and P45.5. Maternal exposure to MXC disturbed the testicular development. Serum testosterone levels decreased, whereas estradiol levels increased. To understand the molecular mechanisms of exposure to MXC in male reproduction, the F1 testes were examined for changes in the expression of steroidogenesis- and spermatogenesis- related genes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that MXC significantly decreased Cyp11a1 and increased Cyp19a1; furthermore, it downregulated certain spermatogenic genes (Dazl, Boll, Rarg, Stra8 and Cyclin-a1). In summary, perinatal exposure to low-dose MXC disturbs the testicular development in mice. This animal study of exposure to low-dose MXC in F1 males suggests similar dysfunctional effects on male reproduction in humans. PMID:25048109

Du, Xiaohong; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Yuanwu; Yu, Wanpeng; Huang, Chaobin; Li, Xiangdong

2014-01-01

231

The effect of perinatal exposures on the infant: antidepressants and depression.  

PubMed

Depression, anxiety, or both, during pregnancy are common complications during the perinatal period, with 15-20% of women experiencing depression at some point during their pregnancy. Considerable evidence suggests that untreated or undertreated maternal Axis I mood disorders can increase the risk for preterm birth, low birth weight, and alter neurobehavioral development in utero. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants are often considered for antenatal therapy, with the goal of improving maternal mental health during pregnancy. Treatment with a serotonin-reuptake inhibitor, however, does not guarantee remission of depression, and in-utero serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure has also been linked to increased risks for adverse infant outcomes. In this chapter, evidence linking serotonin reuptake inhibitor use with an increased risk for postnatal adaptation syndrome, congenital heart defects, and neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension is reviewed. Management decisions should include attention to the continuum of depression symptoms, from subclinical to severe major depressive disorder and the long-term developmental risks that might also be associated with pre- and postnatal exposure. PMID:24100223

Hanley, Gillian E; Oberlander, Tim F

2014-01-01

232

Perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women.  

PubMed

We examined the perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women who had impaired 50 g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) results, but normal 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results. Our study group included 70 pregnant women who had increased 50 g OGCT results, but normal 100 g OGTT results, and a control group of 122 pregnant women with normal 50 g OGCT results. Polyhydramnios, macrosomia and neonatal birth weight were significantly higher in the study group. After adjusting the results for possibly affecting variables, the risk of polyhydramnios remained significant, while the risk of macrosomia and neonatal birth weight was not significant between the groups. The results from the study group were similar to the control group, when adjusted for other risk factors. Increased 50 g OGCT results in pregnant women can be accepted as a benign state if the 100 g OGTT results are normal. PMID:24911521

Yesildager, E; Koken, G; Gungor, A N C; Demirel, R; Arioz, D; Celik, F; Yilmazer, M

2014-11-01

233

Effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the perinatal period on later body composition.  

PubMed

A systematic review to identify studies reporting the effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) intake, during pregnancy and postnatally, on infants and young children's body composition was performed. A structured search strategy was performed in the MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and LILACS databases. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined according to the research question. Only those studies addressing the relationship between n-3 LCPUFA exposure during the perinatal period and later adiposity measured in terms of weight, height, body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness and/or circumferences were included regardless of the study design. Studies quality was scored and were thereafter categorised into those reporting on maternal intake of n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy or lactation (6 publications) or on infant's n-3 LCPUFA intake (7 publications). Two studies showed inverse associations between maternal n-3 LCPUFA intake and children's later body composition (lower adiposity, BMI or body weight), two showed direct associations and no effects were observed in the remaining two studies. Among those studies focusing on n-3 LCPUFA intake through enriched infant formulas; three observed no effect on later body composition and two showed higher weight and adiposity with increased amounts of n-3 LCPUFA. Reversely, in two studies weight and fat mass decreased. In conclusion, reported body composition differences in infants and young children were not clearly explained by perinatal n-3 LCPUFA intake via supplemented formulas, breastfeeding or maternal intakes of n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy and lactation. Associated operational mechanisms including n-3 LCPUFA doses and sources applied are not sufficiently explained and therefore no conclusions could be made. PMID:22591886

Rodríguez, G; Iglesia, I; Bel-Serrat, S; Moreno, L A

2012-06-01

234

The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers  

PubMed Central

Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others’ judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period. PMID:24643422

Epperson, C. Neill; Barber, Jacques P.

2014-01-01

235

Drug safety during pregnancy and in infants. Lack of mortality related to mitochondrial dysfunction among perinatally HIV-exposed children in pediatric HIV surveillance.  

PubMed

The objectives were to assess whether any deaths reported among perinatally exposed, uninfected, or indeterminate children were consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction, and to characterize perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals among children born in the last five years and reported to perinatal HIV surveillance. Population-based HIV/AIDS surveillance data on perinatally exposed children born in 1993 through 1998 from 32 states with HIV reporting and from a special HIV surveillance project in Los Angeles County and in 22 hospitals in New York City were used. The classifications of exposure and deaths were consistent with the investigation of deaths across all US cohorts. Deaths were ascertained from recent matches with death registries in each state. Causes of death were ascertained from death certificates, autopsy records when available, and medical records. None of the 98 deaths (1.1%) among 9067 perinatally exposed uninfected or indeterminate children born from 1993 through 1998 and reported through pediatric HIV surveillance died of conditions that were consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. This included 679 children exposed to zidovudine (ZDV) and 3TC, 277 exposed to other antiretroviral combinations, 4512 exposed to ZDV alone, 927 with no antiretroviral exposure, and 2672 with unknown exposure--1128 of whom were born before March 1994 and were unlikely to have been exposed to ZDV. No deaths attributable to mitochondrial dysfunction were found through this evaluation of population-based HIV surveillance data. Long-term follow-up of antiretroviral-exposed children has been recommended by the Public Health Service. This evaluation highlights the contribution of population-based surveillance to the evaluation of potential toxicities associated with maternal antiretroviral use. PMID:11131709

Lindegren, M L; Rhodes, P; Gordon, L; Fleming, P

2000-11-01

236

Endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and perinatal brain damage  

PubMed Central

Inflammation appears to play a role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain damage in fetuses/infants born much before term. We raise the possibility that non-inflammatory phenomena induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which, in turn, leads to the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is followed by apoptosis-promoting processes and inflammation. Perhaps by these events, non-inflammatory stimuli lead to perinatal brain damage. PMID:19668101

Bueter, Wolfgang; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan

2009-01-01

237

Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal

Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

2012-01-01

238

The prevalence of severe maternal morbidity and near miss and associated factors in Sergipe, Northeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The investigation of severe maternal morbidity (SAMM) and maternal near miss (NM) and associated risk factors is important for the global reduction of maternal mortality. This study investigated the prevalence of SAMM and NM cases and the associated risk factors in two reference maternity hospitals in a capital city in Northeast-Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study with a nested case–control component was conducted from June-2011 to May-2012. Case identification was prospective and data collection was performed according to WHO criteria and definitions. Odds ratio with confidence intervals and multivariate analysis were used whenever possible. Results There were 16,243 deliveries, 1,102 SAMM cases, 77 NM cases and 17 maternal deaths. The maternal NM outcome ratio was 5.8 cases/1,000 live births (LB); the total prevalence of SAMM?+?NM was 72.6 cases/1,000 LB, the maternal near miss: mortality ratio was 4.5cases/1 maternal death (18% of mortality index). Management-based criteria were the most common events for NM (87.1%) and hypertensive disorders for SAMM (67.5%). Higher age, previous abortion and caesarean delivery, the non-adhesion to antenatal care, current caesarean delivery and bad perinatal results were associated with SAMM/NM. In the multivariate analysis, patient’s status, previous caesarian and abortion and level of consciousness were significant when analyzed together. Conclusions SAMM and NM situations were prevalent in the studied population and some risk factors seem to be associated with the event, particularly previous gestational antecedents. Protocols based on SAMM/NM situations can save lives and decrease maternal mortality. PMID:24433516

2014-01-01

239

Maternal cytokine levels during pregnancy and adult psychosis.  

PubMed

We investigated levels of maternal cytokines in late pregnancy in relation to the subsequent development of adult schizophrenia and other psychoses in their offspring. The sample included the mothers of 27 adults with schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses and 50 matched unaffected controls from the Providence cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Serum samples were analyzed for interleukin 1 beta (IL-1-beta), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by enzyme immunoassay. Maternal levels of TNF-alpha were significantly elevated among the case series (t = 2.22, p =.04), with evidence of increasing odds of psychosis in relation to higher cytokine levels. We did not find significant differences between case and control mothers in the serum levels of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, or IL-8. These data support previous clinical investigations reporting maternal infections during pregnancy as a potential risk factor for psychotic illness among offspring. PMID:11782107

Buka, S L; Tsuang, M T; Torrey, E F; Klebanoff, M A; Wagner, R L; Yolken, R H

2001-12-01

240

A thematic analysis of factors influencing recruitment to maternal and perinatal trials. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This literature review examines factors that affect recruitment success, including characteristics of participants, clinicians, and organizations. Strategies often cited in the literature for improving recruitment include avoiding blinding and placebos, providing telephone reminders and financial incentives, and tailoring interventions to meet the needs of underserved populations and minority groups. The authors also identified a number of strategies that were not shown to be effective.

241

Vitamin D, vitamin A, maternal-perinatal considerations: old concepts, new insights, new questions.  

PubMed

Vitamins A and D are essential nutrients that play important roles in growth and development. Preterm and low birth weight infants have low levels of these nutrients and are at risk for developing detrimental health consequences associated with vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies. Preliminary data suggest that vitamin A and D supplementation is needed to prevent deficiency. More work is needed to define optimal doses, timing, and modes of administration to ensure that an adequate supply of these vitamins is available to meet the critical needs during pregnancy and in high-risk neonates. PMID:23445845

Murguía-Peniche, Teresa

2013-03-01

242

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol . Author manuscript Association between maternal seafood consumption before pregnancy  

E-print Network

for the child s' health and development. MESH Keywords Adipose Tissue ; metabolism ; Adolescent ; Adult seafood consumption, suggested its benefit on fetal growth and child development. The objective of our ; Anthropometry ; Child Development ; physiology ; Diet ; Fatty Acids, Omega-3 ; metabolism ; Female ; Fetal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

243

76 FR 6146 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of Child Health & Human Development...National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...Emphasis Panel, Maternal Fetal Medicine Units...National Institutes of Health, 6100 Executive...National Institute of Child Health and...

2011-02-03

244

Institute of Psychology Institute of Psychology  

E-print Network

and Empowerment (NCSE) is a reasearch group meant to promote recov- ery from mental illness by understanding laboratories for human behavioral as- sessment studies, psychophysiological research, infant and maternal the Institute of Psychology. Many journals and databases are available through IITs libraries. Research Areas

Saniie, Jafar

245

Perinatal choline effects on neonatal pathophysiology related to later schizophrenia risk  

PubMed Central

Background Deficient cerebral inhibition is a pathophysiological brain deficit related to poor sensory gating and attention in schizophrenia and other disorders. Cerebral inhibition develops perinatally, influenced by genetic and in utero factors. Amniotic choline activates fetal ?7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and facilitates development of cerebral inhibition. Increasing this activation may protect infants from future illness by promoting normal brain development. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of dietary phosphatidylcholine supplementation was conducted with 100 healthy pregnant women, who consented to the study at second trimester. Supplementation to twice normal dietary levels for mother or newborn continued through the third postnatal month. All women received dietary advice regardless of treatment. Infants’ electroencephalographic recordings of inhibition of the P50 component of the cerebral evoked response to paired sounds were analyzed. Criterion for inhibition was suppression of the amplitude of the second P50 response by at least half, compared to the first response. Results No adverse effects of choline were observed in maternal health and delivery, birth, or infant development. More choline-treated infants (76%) suppressed the P50 response, compared to placebo-treated infants (43%) at the fifth postnatal week (effect size 0.7). There was no difference at the 13th week. A CHRNA7 genotype associated with schizophrenia diminished P50 inhibition in the placebo-treated infants, but not in the choline-treated infants. Conclusion Neonatal developmental delay in inhibition is associated with attentional problems as the child matures. Perinatal choline activates timely development of cerebral inhibition, even in the presence of gene mutations that otherwise delay it. PMID:23318559

Ross, Randal G.; Hunter, Sharon K.; McCarthy, Lizbeth; Beuler, Julie; Hutchison, Amanda K.; Wagner, Brandie D.; Leonard, Sherry; Stevens, Karen E.; Freedman, Robert

2013-01-01

246

Cardiotocography in the Prognosis of Perinatal Outcome  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Aim: The objective of the study was to examine whether cardiotocography can (CTG) predict asphyxia of the embryo, manifested as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), and to what extent one can rely on CTG record. Material and methods: Retrospective research was carried out at the Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics UKC Tuzla and medical documentation from the history of mothers and newborns was used. The study group consisted of 68 pregnancies and newborns who developed HIE. The control group consisted of 40 pregnancies, which resulted in birth of healthy newborns – without signs of asphyxia. CTG records were analyzed, Apgar score, the ways of finishing delivery. Results: Pathological CTG records (bradycardia 100, tachycardia 180, silent type of curve, late decelerations) were found in 45 (66,17%) cases of the study group in comparison to 11 (27,5%) in the control group. In the study group Apgar score in 5th minute lower than 7 had 17,46% newborns and the highest incidence of the normally finished deliveries. We conclude that cardiotocography is one of the reliable methods of fetal monitoring in pregnancy and delivery, and that pathological CTG record very likely indicates the possible presence of perinatal asphyxia. Conclusion: Achieving a low degree of correlation between pathological intrapartum cardiotocography findings and long-term outcome of children can be achieved by rapid and adequate obstetric intervention and the relatively short duration of fetal acidosis, and optimal procedures during intensive care of newborns. PMID:24937932

Bogdanovic, Gordana; Babovic, Adnan; Rizvanovic, Mirzeta; Ljuca, Dzenita; Grgic, Gordana; Djuranovic–Milicic, Jadranaka

2014-01-01

247

The perinatal presentation of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome.  

PubMed

There is limited information available related to the perinatal course of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) compared to other syndromes within the Ras-MAP kinase pathway (rasopathies) such as Noonan and Costello syndrome. Retrospective chart review revealed four cases of CFC with molecular confirmation between 2005 and 2012 at Hawaii's largest obstetric and pediatric referral center. We report on details of the prenatal, neonatal, and infancy course and long-term follow-up beyond infancy in two patients. This report includes novel features including systemic hypertension, hyponatremia, and chronic respiratory insufficiency, not previously reported in CFC. We provide pathologic diagnosis of loose anagen hair in one patient. Some of these findings have been reported in the other rasopathies, documenting further clinical overlap among these conditions. Molecular testing can be useful to differentiate CFC from other rasopathies and in counseling families about potential complications and prognosis. We recommend a full phenotypic evaluation including echocardiogram, renal ultrasound, brain imaging, and ophthalmology examination. We additionally recommend close follow-up of blood pressure, pulmonary function, and monitoring for electrolyte disturbance and extra-vascular fluid shifts. PMID:24719372

Wong Ramsey, Kara N; Loichinger, Matthew H; Slavin, Thomas P; Kuo, Sheree; Seaver, Laurie H

2014-08-01

248

Developing a framework to review near-miss maternal morbidity in India: a structured review and key stakeholder analysis.  

PubMed

BackgroundIn India there is a thrust towards promoting institutional delivery, resulting in problems of overcrowding and compromise to quality of care. Review of near-miss obstetric events has been suggested to be useful to investigate health system functioning, complementing maternal death reviews. The aim of this project was to identify the key elements required for a near-miss review programme for India.MethodsA structured review was conducted to identify methods used in assessing near-miss cases. The findings of the structured review were used to develop a suggested framework for conducting near-miss reviews in India. A pool of experts in near-miss review methods in low and middle income countries (LMICs) was identified for vetting the framework developed. Opinions were sought about the feasibility of implementing near-miss reviews in India, the processes to be followed, factors that made implementation successful and the associated challenges. A draft of the framework was revised based on the experts¿ opinions.ResultsFive broad methods of near-miss case review/audit were identified: Facility-based near-miss case review, confidential enquiries, criterion-based clinical audit, structured case review (South African Model) and home-based interviews. The opinion of the 11 stakeholders highlighted that the methods that a facility adopts should depend on the type and number of cases the facility handles, availability and maintenance of a good documentation system, and local leadership and commitment of staff. A proposed framework for conducting near-miss reviews was developed that included a combination of criterion-based clinical audit and near-miss review methods.ConclusionThe approach allowed for development of a framework for researchers and planners seeking to improve quality of maternal care not only at the facility level but also beyond, encompassing community health workers and referral. Further work is needed to evaluate the implementation of this framework to determine its efficacy in improving the quality of care and hence maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:25391999

Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Srivastava, Aradhana; Knight, Marian

2014-11-13

249

Pediatric and Perinatal Pathology: SY21-2 PERINATAL LIVER PATHOLOGY.  

PubMed

The pathologist may encounter perinatal liver disease at autopsy, when examining a stillbirth or neonatal death, or on liver biopsy to investigate the cause of neonatal jaundice or liver failure. This presentation aims to discuss the pathology of liver disease of intrauterine or neonatal onset. A pattern based approach is used. Even when a specific diagnosis is not reached, identification of the pattern of liver injury, in conjunction with clinical and laboratory findings often narrows the differential diagnosis and thereby assists in further decision making. Neonatal liver disease most commonly manifests with cholestatic jaundice/conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Other presentations include neonatal liver failure, fetal hydrops, IUGR and stillbirth. Neonatal jaundice may be idiopathic, due to infection (viral, bacterial), metabolic or endocrine disorders, or toxic/drug related. The main causes of perinatal liver failure are neonatal hemochromatosis, inherited metabolic disorders and viral infections. In neonatal hemochromatosis the liver typically shows signs of subacute or chronic liver injury. Hepatic necrosis is characteristically seen in neonatal viral infections, or drug induced liver injury and metabolic disorders. Steatosis, cholestatic rosetting and storage cells strongly suggest an underlying metabolic disorder. Use of special stains or electronmicroscopy in many cases will allow identification of storage material. PMID:25188143

Brundler, Marie-Anne

2014-10-01

250

Canine perinatal mortality: a cohort study of 224 breeds.  

PubMed

Canine perinatal mortality is known to be relatively high. However, the literature on perinatal mortality in dogs is still sparse and often refers to a single or only a few breeds. The aim of this large-scale observational study was to describe the perinatal mortality in purebred dogs of various breeds at both puppy and litter level. In addition, the influence of breed, breed size, litter size, age of the bitch, litter number and season for whelping on the risk of perinatal mortality at litter level was studied and the mean litter size at eight days and eight wks after birth was calculated. A retrospective cohort study was performed by studying 10,810 litters of 224 breeds registered in the Norwegian Kennel Club in 2006 and 2007. Perinatal mortality was defined as the sum of stillborn puppies and puppies that died during the first wk after birth (early neonatal mortality) and was present in 24.6% of the litters. Eight percent of the puppies died before eight days after birth, with 4.3% as stillbirth and 3.7% as early neonatal mortality. For most breeds the perinatal mortality was low, but for some breeds a higher perinatal mortality was found. The mean litter size at eight days and eight wks after birth was 4.97 (±0.02) and 4.92 (±0.02) puppies, respectively. Of all puppies born, only 1% died during the period from eight days to eight wks after birth. Random effects logistic regression analysis indicated that increasing litter size and age of the bitch were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth, early neonatal mortality and total perinatal mortality at the litter level (P < 0.001). The random breed effect was significant for all outcomes. Litter number also had a significant effect on stillbirth, early neonatal mortality and total perinatal mortality at the litter level, with the highest risk of perinatal mortality found in the first litter (P < 0.001). Further, the risk of early neonatal mortality was doubled in litters with stillborn puppies. No significant effect of whelping season on perinatal mortality at litter level was found. An interaction existed between the age of the bitch and litter number and the risk of stillbirth was three times as high (odds ratio = 3.00) in litters from bitches having their first litter after the age of six y. Breed was a more important determinant of perinatal mortality in litters than breed size. However, more than 90% of the variation in perinatal mortality was found at the individual litter level and efforts to minimize puppy mortality should be targeted at the management of the individual litter rather than at the breed level. PMID:22365700

Tønnessen, R; Borge, K Sverdrup; Nødtvedt, A; Indrebø, A

2012-06-01

251

Hematological Safety of Perinatal Exposure to Zidovudine in Uninfected Infants Born to HIV Type 1-Infected Women in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Abstract The evolution of hematological parameters in HIV-1-exposed uninfected infants according to various durations of perinatal zidovudine exposure was studied. We used data prospectively collected among 1122 HIV-uninfected formula-fed infants born to HIV-infected mothers who participated in a clinical trial to prevent perinatal transmission in Thailand (PHPT-1). Infants were exposed to different durations of zidovudine both in utero and after birth. Hemoglobin level and leukocyte, absolute neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were measured at birth and at 6 weeks of age. The association between hematological parameters at birth and the duration of zidovudine exposure in utero was studied using a linear regression model, and changes between birth and 6 weeks of age and the duration of postnatal zidovudine exposure using mixed effects models. At birth, the hemoglobin level was lower in newborns exposed to zidovudine for more than 7.5 weeks in utero (adjusted regression coefficient: ?0.6?g/dl; 95% confidence interval: ?1.1 to ?0.1). Six weeks after birth, the hemoglobin level had decreased faster in infants administered zidovudine for more than 4 weeks (adjusted regression coefficient: ?0.1?g/dl; 95% confidence interval: ?0.2 to ?0.1). The duration of perinatal zidovudine exposure was not associated with the evolution of leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. Despite the differences in hemoglobin levels, grade 3 or 4 anemia did not significantly differ by maternal or infant zidovudine duration. The clinical impact appeared modest, but longer exposure may warrant close monitoring. PMID:20854205

Le Coeur, Sophie; Jourdain, Gonzague; Hotrawarikarn, Somboon; Sirinontakan, Surat; Hinjiranandana, Temsiri; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Traisathit, Patrinee; McIntosh, Kenneth; Lallemant, Marc

2010-01-01

252

Maternal Methyl Donors Supplementation during Lactation Prevents the Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by a High-Fat-Sucrose Intake by Dams  

PubMed Central

Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle. PMID:24351826

Cordero, Paul; Milagro, Fermin I.; Campion, Javier; Martinez, J. Alfredo

2013-01-01

253

Feminism, ecofeminism, and the maternal archetype: Motherhood as a feminine universal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay analyzes the use of the maternal archetype in ecofeminist rhetoric. The maternal archetype is a rhetorically powerful image that is invoked to motivate the protection and sustenance of the environment. However, the use of motherhood as a unifying principle confounds womanhood with motherhood, and fails to honor the complexity of motherhood as an ideologically and socially constructed institution.

Lynn M. Stearney

1994-01-01

254

Maternal serum analyte levels in pregnancies with fetal Down syndrome resulting from translocations  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether pregnancies affected by fetal Down syndrome resulting from Robertsonian translocations are associated with second-trimester maternal serum analyte levels different from those resulting from fetal trisomy 21.STUDY DESIGN: Pregnancies with Down syndrome caused by Robertsonian translocations were identified through the cytogenetics laboratories at the participating institutions. Those with maternal serum screening values between 15

Devereux N. Saller; Jacob A. Canick; Leonard H. Kellner; Nancy C. Rose; Judy Garza; Carol A. French; Robert A. Mooney

1997-01-01

255

Adaptive responses by mouse early embryos to maternal diet protect fetal growth but predispose to adult onset disease.  

PubMed

Poor maternal nutrition during pregnancy can alter postnatal phenotype and increase susceptibility to adult cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that maternal low protein diet (LPD), fed exclusively during mouse preimplantation development, leads to offspring with increased weight from birth, sustained hypertension, and abnormal anxiety-related behavior, especially in females. These adverse outcomes were interrelated with increased perinatal weight being predictive of later adult overweight and hypertension. Embryo transfer experiments revealed that the increase in perinatal weight was induced within blastocysts responding to preimplantation LPD, independent of subsequent maternal environment during later pregnancy. We further identified the embryo-derived visceral yolk sac endoderm (VYSE) as one mediator of this response. VYSE contributes to fetal growth through endocytosis of maternal proteins, mainly via the multiligand megalin (LRP2) receptor and supply of liberated amino acids. Thus, LPD maintained throughout gestation stimulated VYSE nutrient transport capacity and megalin expression in late pregnancy, with enhanced megalin expression evident even when LPD was limited to the preimplantation period. Our results demonstrate that in a nutrient-restricted environment, the preimplantation embryo activates physiological mechanisms of developmental plasticity to stablize conceptus growth and enhance postnatal fitness. However, activation of such responses may also lead to adult excess growth and cardiovascular and behavioral diseases. PMID:17989357

Watkins, Adam J; Ursell, Elizabeth; Panton, Rose; Papenbrock, Thomas; Hollis, Lisa; Cunningham, Colm; Wilkins, Adrian; Perry, V Hugh; Sheth, Bhavwanti; Kwong, Wing Yee; Eckert, Judith J; Wild, Arthur E; Hanson, Mark A; Osmond, Clive; Fleming, Tom P

2008-02-01

256

Impact of perinatal different intrauterine environments on child growth and development in the first six months of life - IVAPSA birth cohort: rationale, design, and methods  

PubMed Central

Background In the last twenty years, retrospective studies have shown that perinatal events may impact the individual health in the medium and long term. However, only a few prospective studies were designed to address this phenomenon. This study aims to describe the design and methods of the Impact of Perinatal Environmental Variations in the First Six Months of Life - the IVAPSA Birth Cohort. Method/Design This is a clinical study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mothers from different clinical backgrounds (hypertensive, diabetics, smokers, having an intrauterine growth restricted child for idiopathic reasons, and controls) will be invited to join the study twenty-four hours after the birth of their child. Data on economic, social, and maternal health care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, physical activity, and neuropsychological evaluation will be obtained in interviews at postpartum, 7 and 15 days, 1, 3 and 6 months of life. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first thematic cohort focused on the effects of intrauterine growth restriction to prospectively enroll mothers from different clinical backgrounds. The IVAPSA Birth Cohort is a promising research platform that can contribute to the knowledge on the relationship between perinatal events and their consequences on the children's early life. PMID:22471837

2012-01-01

257

A new plan for the 800-pound Gorilla (Guerrilla): perinatal mortality in Afghanistan: a 21st century counterinsurgency model for Afghanistan.  

PubMed

Afghanistan has the highest perinatal mortality rate in the entire world. One Afghani woman dies every 30 minutes from perinatal- related event. One of eight Afghani women will die from perinatal events. Maternal mortality is (use percentage, not fractions) 1600/100,000 vs 13 /100,000 in the United States. Afghanistan is one of the only countries in the world in which the average woman?s life expectancy is shorter than a males- despite the active, nationwide combat fought primarily by Afghani males. Meaning, women in Afghanistan are not routinely involved in combat, yet are more likely to die than a man of the same age. This article presents an alternative model Medical Seminar (MEDSEM) for a successful Special Forces (SF) medical counterinsurgency (COIN) plan that can obtain real results by addressing the mission of the Afghan Ministry of Health versus clinging to old notions. This model forms around the medical capabilities of the SF Operational Detachment (ODA)- Alpha (A) and preventinmaternal-infant complications. PMID:22173597

Johnson, Thomas C

2011-01-01

258

Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

Bartlett, Alison

2005-01-01

259

The politics of maternity.  

PubMed

Changes in the culture of health care require that, to be effective, midwifery practice should become more woman-centred. This may be facilitated by adopting a stronger community orientation. In this way the hegemony of maternity care may be addressed. This paper seeks to draw readers' attention to political developments and to inspire midwives to greater awareness and, possibly, activity. PMID:24600828

Mander, Rosemary; Edwards, Nadine; McHugh, Nessa; Murphy-Lawless, Jo; Patterson, Jenny

2014-02-01

260

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2010-01-01

261

Interleukin-22: Biomarker of maternal and fetal inflammation?  

PubMed

Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) is an intrauterine status of inflammation which may lead to the fetal inflammatory response syndrome. Inflammation is a pathogenetic mechanism also of preeclampsia, although not of microbial origin. The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate the pattern of inflammatory cytokines in mothers and high-risk preterm infants during the perinatal period. Concentrations of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein were evaluated in maternal, cord, and neonatal blood of very preterm infants <1,500 g birth weight. Histologic examinations of placentae and umbilical cords were performed. The 65 mother-neonate pairs enrolled were subdivided into three groups: (1) HCA group (n = 15), (2) preeclampsia group (n = 17), and (3) control group, in the absence of HCA/preeclampsia (n = 33). Maternal Interleukin (IL)-6 levels were significantly higher in women of the HCA group compared with the preeclampsia and control groups (p < 0.05). IL-22 was detected in nearly all maternal samples [median value 693.115 pg/ml (599.91-809.91 pg/ml)], with no statistical difference between the groups, but with a tendency to increased levels among preeclamptic women. Increased concentrations of IL-22 were detected in cord blood of neonates exposed to preeclampsia, compared with controls and infants exposed to HCA (p < 0.05). We speculate that the tendentially higher concentrations of IL-22 in preeclamptic mothers and the significantly higher concentrations in cord blood may reflect placental dysfunction and the underlying reparative processes at the maternal-fetal interface. Therefore, IL-22 could be an important biomarker of inflammation in preeclampsia. PMID:25407645

Bersani, Iliana; De Carolis, Maria Pia; Foell, Dirk; Weinhage, Toni; Rossi, Esther Diana; De Carolis, Sara; Rubortone, Serena Antonia; Romagnoli, Costantino; Speer, Christian Paul

2015-02-01

262

Maternal early pregnancy body mass index and risk of preterm birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth (PTB)\\u000a in Chinese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were obtained from a population-based perinatal care program in China during 1993–2005. Women whose height and weight\\u000a information was recorded at the first prenatal visit in the first trimester of pregnancy and delivered a singleton live

Ting WangJun; Jun Zhang; Xinrong Lu; Wei Xi; Zhu Li

263

Perinatal outcome in the live-born infant with prenatally diagnosed omphalocele.  

PubMed

We compared perinatal outcomes between live-born nonisolated and isolated omphaloceles diagnosed during a prenatal ultrasound. Fetuses (n = 86) with omphalocele were identified between 1995 and 2007 at a single institution. Inclusion criteria were an omphalocele >14 weeks' gestation, available fetal and/or neonatal karyotype, and a live-born infant (n = 46). Perinatal outcomes were compared in nonisolated (n = 23) and isolated omphaloceles (n = 23). For all omphaloceles, the majority delivered after 34 weeks by cesarean. Mean birth weight (2782 versus 2704 g), median length of stay (27 versus 25 days), and mortality (two deaths in each group) were not different between the nonisolated and isolated groups (p > 0.05). In the nonisolated group, seven major anomalies were not confirmed postnatally. Of the prenatally diagnosed isolated omphaloceles, 8 (35%) were diagnosed with a syndrome or other anomalies after birth. The outcomes were similar in nonisolated and isolated prenatally diagnosed omphaloceles, but ultrasound did not always accurately determine the presence or absence of associated anomalies. PMID:21544770

Kominiarek, Michelle A; Zork, Noelia; Pierce, Sara Michelle; Zollinger, Terrell

2011-09-01

264

Non-psychotic mental disorders in the perinatal period.  

PubMed

Mental disorders are among the most common morbidities of pregnancy and the postnatal period, and can have adverse effects on the mother, her child, and family. This Series paper summarises the evidence about epidemiology, risk factors, identification, and interventions for non-psychotic mental disorders. Although the phenomenology and risk factors for perinatal mental disorders are largely similar to those for the disorders at other times, treatment considerations differ during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Most randomised controlled trials have examined psychosocial and psychological interventions for postnatal depression, with evidence for effectiveness in treating and preventing the disorder. Few high-quality studies exist on the effectiveness or safety of pharmacological treatments in the perinatal period, despite quite high prescription rates. General principles of prescribing of drugs in the perinatal period are provided, but individual risk-benefit analyses are needed for decisions about treatment. PMID:25455248

Howard, Louise M; Molyneaux, Emma; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Rochat, Tamsen; Stein, Alan; Milgrom, Jeannette

2014-11-15

265

Maternal Genetic Variation Accounts in Part for the Associations of Maternal Size during Pregnancy with Offspring Cardiometabolic Risk in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal pre-pregnancy body-mass index (ppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) traits in the offspring. The extent to which maternal genetic variation accounts for these associations is unknown. Methods/Results In 1249 mother-offspring pairs recruited from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study, we used archival data to characterize ppBMI and GWG and follow-up data from offspring to assess CMR, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, glucose, insulin, blood pressure, and lipid levels, at an average age of 32. Maternal genetic risk scores (GRS) were created using a subset of SNPs most predictive of ppBMI, GWG, and each CMR trait, selected among 1384 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) characterizing variation in 170 candidate genes potentially related to fetal development and/or metabolic risk. We fit linear regression models to examine the associations of ppBMI and GWG with CMR traits with and without adjustment for GRS. Compared to unadjusted models, the coefficient for the association of a one-standard-deviation (SD) difference in GWG and offspring BMI decreased by 41% (95%CI ?81%, ?11%) from 0.847 to 0.503 and the coefficient for a 1SD difference in GWG and WC decreased by 63% (95%CI ?318%, ?11%) from 1.196 to 0.443. For other traits, there were no statistically significant changes in the coefficients for GWG with adjustment for GRS. None of the associations of ppBMI with CMR traits were significantly altered by adjustment for GRS. Conclusions Maternal genetic variation may account in part for associations of GWG with offspring BMI and WC in young adults. PMID:24670385

Wander, Pandora L.; Hochner, Hagit; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Lumley, Thomas; Lawrence, Gabriela M.; Burger, Ayala; Savitsky, Bella; Manor, Orly; Meiner, Vardiella; Hesselson, Stephanie; Kwok, Pui Y.; Siscovick, David S.; Friedlander, Yechiel

2014-01-01

266

The Effect of Changing Patterns of Obstetric Care in Scotland (1980–2004) on Rates of Preterm Birth and Its Neonatal Consequences: Perinatal Database Study  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of preterm birth are rising worldwide. Studies from the United States and Latin America suggest that much of this rise relates to increased rates of medically indicated preterm birth. In contrast, European and Australian data suggest that increases in spontaneous preterm labour also play a role. We aimed, in a population-based database of 5 million people, to determine the temporal trends and obstetric antecedents of singleton preterm birth and its associated neonatal mortality and morbidity for the period 1980–2004. Methods and Findings There were 1.49 million births in Scotland over the study period, of which 5.8% were preterm. We found a percentage increase in crude rates of both spontaneous preterm birth per 1,000 singleton births (10.7%, p<0.01) and medically indicated preterm births (41.2%, p<0.01), which persisted when adjusted for maternal age at delivery. The greater proportion of spontaneous preterm births meant that the absolute increase in rates of preterm birth in each category were similar. Of specific maternal complications, essential and pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and placenta praevia played a decreasing role in preterm birth over the study period, with gestational and pre-existing diabetes playing an increasing role. There was a decline in stillbirth, neonatal, and extended perinatal mortality associated with preterm birth at all gestation over the study period but an increase in the rate of prolonged hospital stay for the neonate. Neonatal mortality improved in all subgroups, regardless of obstetric antecedent of preterm birth or gestational age. In the 28 wk and greater gestational groups we found a reduction in stillbirths and extended perinatal mortality for medically induced but not spontaneous preterm births (in the absence of maternal complications) although at the expense of a longer stay in neonatal intensive care. This improvement in stillbirth and neonatal mortality supports the decision making behind the 34% increase in elective/induced preterm birth in these women. Although improvements in neonatal outcomes overall are welcome, preterm birth still accounts for over 66% of singleton stillbirths, 65% of singleton neonatal deaths, and 67% of infants whose stay in the neonatal unit is “prolonged,” suggesting this condition remains a significant contributor to perinatal mortality and morbidity. Conclusions In our population, increases in spontaneous and medically induced preterm births have made equal contributions to the rising rate of preterm birth. Despite improvements in related perinatal mortality, preterm birth remains a major obstetric and neonatal problem, and its frequency is increasing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19771156

Norman, Jane E.; Morris, Carole; Chalmers, James

2009-01-01

267

Prevention of Perinatal Hepatitis B Virus Transmission.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the most common form of chronic hepatitis worldwide, is a major public health problem affecting an estimated 360 million people globally. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. An estimated 15%-40% of persons chronically infected develop HBV-related complications, such as cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma, and 25% die from these complications. MTCT can occur during pregnancy or during delivery. Screening pregnant women for HBV infection, providing infant postexposure prophylaxis, and maternal treatment with antiviral medications are strategies for reducing MTCT transmission rates and the global burden of new chronic HBV infections. Administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine within 24 hours of birth, followed by completion of the vaccine series, is 85%-95% efficacious for prevention of MTCT. Despite timely post-exposure prophylaxis, MTCT occurs in 5%-15% of infants. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg) positive mothers with HBV DNA level ?10(6) copies/mL (>200 000 IU/mL) are at greatest risk of transmitting HBV to their infants. Consensus recommendations and evidence-based guidelines for management of chronic HBV infection and screening of pregnant women have been developed. The safety and efficacy of antiviral drug use during pregnancy are areas of ongoing research. Substantial advances have been achieved globally in reducing MTCT, but MTCT remains an ongoing health problem. Attaining a better understanding of the mechanisms of MTCT, implementing existing policies on maternal screening and infant follow-up, and addressing research gaps are critical for further reductions in MTCT transmission. PMID:25232477

Nelson, Noele P; Jamieson, Denise J; Murphy, Trudy V

2014-09-01

268

Mental health screenings for couples at churches in Nigeria: a strategy for enhancing community-based maternal mental health services in low-resource settings.  

PubMed

The burden of perinatal mental disorders among women in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. The current integration of mental health into maternal, neonatal and child health service platforms is limited, despite global calls to prioritize such service integration. The study by Iheanacho and colleagues (2014) entitled "Integrating mental health screening into routine community maternal and child health activity: experience from a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) trial in Nigeria" provides promising evidence about the feasibility of a church-based strategy for screening pregnant women and their partners for mental health problems through a PMTCT program. PMID:25409869

Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Siril, Hellen

2015-03-01

269

Maternal near miss: an indicator for maternal health and maternal care.  

PubMed

Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and criteria have been used to identify maternal near-miss cases and there is lack of uniform criteria for identification of near miss. The World Health Organization recently published criteria based on markers of management and organ dysfunction, which would enable systematic data collection on near miss and development of summary estimates. The prevalence of near miss is higher in developing countries and causes are similar to those of maternal mortality namely hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis and obstructed labor. Reviewing near miss cases provide significant information about the three delays in health seeking so that appropriate action is taken. It is useful in identifying health system failures and assessment of quality of maternal health-care. Certain maternal near miss indicators have been suggested to evaluate the quality of care. The near miss approach will be an important tool in evaluation and assessment of the newer strategies for improving maternal health. PMID:25136152

Chhabra, Pragti

2014-07-01

270

Maternal Near Miss: An Indicator for Maternal Health and Maternal Care  

PubMed Central

Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and criteria have been used to identify maternal near-miss cases and there is lack of uniform criteria for identification of near miss. The World Health Organization recently published criteria based on markers of management and organ dysfunction, which would enable systematic data collection on near miss and development of summary estimates. The prevalence of near miss is higher in developing countries and causes are similar to those of maternal mortality namely hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis and obstructed labor. Reviewing near miss cases provide significant information about the three delays in health seeking so that appropriate action is taken. It is useful in identifying health system failures and assessment of quality of maternal health-care. Certain maternal near miss indicators have been suggested to evaluate the quality of care. The near miss approach will be an important tool in evaluation and assessment of the newer strategies for improving maternal health. PMID:25136152

Chhabra, Pragti

2014-01-01

271

Identification of peripartum near-miss for perinatal audit  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Today, perinatal audit focuses basically on cases of perinatal mortality. In most centres in Western Europe, perinatal mortality is low. Identification of metabolic acidosis at birth may increase index cases eligible for evaluation of perinatal care, and this might improve quality of perinatal audit. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of metabolic acidosis at birth in order to estimate its impact on perinatal audit. Patients and Methods: Cord blood was analysed for every neonate born between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 in Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Genk. Acidosis was defined as an umbilical arterial pH ??7.05 with or without a venous pH ??7.17. Respiratory acidosis (RA) was defined as acidosis with normal base excess, and metabolic acidosis (MA) was defined as acidosis with an arterial or venous base excess ??-10 mmol/L. In case of failed cord blood sampling, 5 minute Apgar score ??6 was considered as the clinical equivalent of MA. Retrospective chart review of obstetric and paediatric files was performed for all cases of MA, together with review of paediatric follow-up charts from at least 6 months after birth. Perinatal asphyxia was defined as biochemical evidence for MA at birth, associated with early onset neonatal encephalopathy and long-term symptoms of cerebral palsy. Results: In a total of 6614 babies, perinatal death up to 7 days of life occurred in 40 babies (6.0‰). Acidosis was present in 183 neonates (2.8%), of which 130 (2.0%) had RA and 53 (0.8%) had MA. Of the 173 neonates with unknown pH values, 6 had Apgar scores ??6. Of 59 babies born with MA or its clinical equivalent, 52 (88.1%) showed no neurologic symptoms at birth. Two (3.4%) died in the early neonatal period, one after abruptio placentae and one due to chorioamnionitis and severe prematurity. Five (8.5%) MA babies had symptoms of early onset neonatal encephalopathy, which recovered in three (5.1%), and persisted long-term in two others (3.4%). The two babies with cerebral palsy (prevalence 1/3300) were both born after instrumental vaginal delivery for foetal distress. Conclusion: In our study cohort, the incidence of perinatal mortality is 6‰. The incidence of metabolic acidosis is 9‰. Addition of cases of metabolic acidosis to those of mortality doubles index cases eligible for perinatal audit. The incidence of babies surviving with cerebral palsy after metabolic acidosis at birth is very low (0.3‰). Our results suggest that instrumental delivery for foetal distress might be a risk factor for metabolic acidosis with persisting neurologic dysfunction. Our study illustrates that identification of peripartum near-miss is useful for perinatal audit. PMID:25593692

Kerkhofs, C.; De Bruyn, C.; Mesens, T.; Theyskens, C.; Vanhoestenberghe, M.; Bruneel, E.; Van Holsbeke, C.; Bonnaerens, A.; Gyselaers, W.

2014-01-01

272

Prevalence and perinatal mortality associated with preterm births in a tertiary medical center in South East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Preterm birth is a high risk condition associated with significant mortality and morbidity in the perinatal, neonatal, and childhood periods, and even in adulthood. Knowledge of the epidemiology of preterm births is necessary for planning appropriate maternal and fetal care. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, pattern, and perinatal mortality associated with preterm births at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South East Nigeria. Methods This was a review of prospectively collected routine delivery data involving preterm deliveries that occurred between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence using SPSS version 17.0 for Windows. Results There were 3,760 live births over the 5-year study period out of which 636 were preterm births, giving a prevalence rate of 16.9%. Spontaneous preterm births occurred in approximately 57% of preterm births while provider-initiated births occurred in 43%. The mean gestational age at preterm deliveries was 32.6±3.2 weeks while the mean birth weight was 2.0±0.8 kilograms. Approximately 89% of preterm births involved singleton pregnancies. Sixty-eight percent of preterm births were moderate to late preterm. The male:female ratio of preterm babies born during the period was 1.2:1. The adjusted perinatal mortality rate for preterm babies in the study center was 46.1% (236/512). The stillbirth rate for preterm babies was 22.0% (149/678) and the adjusted early neonatal death rate was 24.0% (87/363). Conclusion The prevalence of preterm births and associated perinatal mortality were high which may be a reflection of suboptimal prenatal and newborn care. An urgent improvement in prenatal and newborn care is therefore needed in the study center in order to improve the capacity to prevent or abate preterm labor, and preterm premature rupture of membranes; and to reduce avoidable stillbirths. Further upgrading of personnel and facilities in the newborn special care unit is also required to minimize early neonatal deaths. PMID:25378955

Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Lawani, Osaheni Lucky; Ezugwu, Euzebus Chinonye; Ilechukwu, Gideon; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Mba, Sunday Gabriel; Asinobi, Isaac Nwabueze

2014-01-01

273

Maternal Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Cognitive Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined associations between mothers' work schedules and children's cognitive outcomes in the first 3 years of life for approximately 900 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Both the timing and duration of maternal nonstandard work schedules were examined. Although…

Han, Wen-Jui

2005-01-01

274

Daphnia magna Maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate in  

E-print Network

Daphnia magna Maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate in Jennie S. Garbutt and Tom J rate in Daphnia magna. Biol. Lett. 10: 20140356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2014.0356 Received: 1 affects offspring feeding rate in Daphnia magna Jennie S. Garbutt and Tom J. Little Institute

Obbard, Darren

275

Meconium-stained amniotic fluid - risk factors and immediate perinatal outcomes among SGA infants.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To detect factors that are associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) among deliveries of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and to identify perinatal outcomes of deliveries of SGA infants complicated with MSAF. Methods: A population-based study comparing deliveries of SGA neonates with and without MSAF was conducted. Deliveries occurred during the years 1988-2007 at the Soroka University Medical Center. Risk factors for MSAF among SGA infants were evaluated. Incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes were compared between deliveries of SGA neonates with and without MSAF. Results: During the study period 9583 deliveries were of SGA neonates. Of these, 16.6% (n?=?1597) were complicated with MSAF. Among SGA neonates, older maternal age, multiparty, lack of prenatal care and weight were significantly associated with MSAF. Having delivered an SGA infant with MSAF was associated with decreased rates of induction of labor and increased rates of labor dystocia, delivery by cesarean section and fetal distress. Using multivariable regression models, having delivered an SGA infant with MSAF was independently associated with fetal distress. Conclusion: Among SGA neonates, deliveries complicated with MSAF are associated with additional adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25005860

Pariente, Gali; Peles, C; Perri, Zvi H; Baumfeld, Yael; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Koifman, Arie; Weintraub, Adi Y; Hershkovitz, Reli

2014-07-30

276

The Jerusalem Perinatal Study cohort, 1964–2005: methods and a review of the main results  

PubMed Central

Summary The Jerusalem Perinatal Study recorded information on population-based cohorts of 92 408 live- and stillbirths in 1964–76, and their parents, with active surveillance of infant deaths and birth defects. Data on maternal conditions, obstetric complications and interventions during labour and delivery were recorded for 92% of the births. Subsets were surveyed with antenatal interviews in 1965–68 (n = 11 467), paediatric admissions to hospital (n = 17 782) and postpartum interviews in 1975–76 (n = 16 912). Data from some offspring were linked to records of a health examination at age 17. The offspring, mothers and fathers have been traced recently, their vital status assessed, and the data linked to Israel’s Cancer Registry and Psychiatric Registry. This paper describes the different types of data available, their sources, and some potential biases. Characteristics of this unique population are shown. Findings from the study are reviewed and a list of references is provided. The cohorts provide a unique source of data for a wide variety of studies. PMID:17439536

Harlap, Susan; Davies, A. Michael; Deutsch, Lisa; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Manor, Orly; Paltiel, Ora; Tiram, Efrat; Yanetz, Rivka; Perrin, Mary C.; Terry, Mary B.; Malaspina, Dolores; Friedlander, Yechiel

2010-01-01

277

Maternal ingestion of locoweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether exposure of ewes to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea; Leguminosae) during gestation would affect ewe behaviour during parturition, ewe–lamb bonding and related behaviours postpartum, and maternal responsiveness of ewes to alien and own lambs. Twenty-nine nulliparous Columbia-Targhee ewes bearing a single fetus were divided into two feeding treatments: (1) locoweed (L, n=15), fed as a 10% locoweed pellet

J. A. Pfister; J. B. Astorga; K. E. Panter; B. L. Stegelmeier; R. J. Molyneux

2006-01-01

278

Standardized severe maternal morbidity review: rationale and process.  

PubMed

Severe maternal morbidity and mortality have been rising in the United States. To begin a national effort to reduce morbidity, a specific call to identify all pregnant and postpartum women experiencing admission to an intensive care unit or receipt of 4 or more units of blood for routine review has been made. While advocating for review of these cases, no specific guidance for the review process was provided. Therefore, the aim of this expert opinion is to present guidelines for a standardized severe maternal morbidity interdisciplinary review process to identify systems, professional, and facility factors that can be ameliorated, with the overall goal of improving institutional obstetric safety and reducing severe morbidity and mortality among pregnant and recently pregnant women. This opinion was developed by a multidisciplinary working group that included general obstetrician-gynecologists, maternal-fetal medicine subspecialists, certified nurse-midwives, and registered nurses all with experience in maternal mortality reviews. A process for standardized review of severe maternal morbidity addressing committee organization, review process, medical record abstraction and assessment, review culture, data management, review timing, and review confidentiality is presented. Reference is made to a sample severe maternal morbidity abstraction and assessment form. PMID:25004341

Kilpatrick, Sarah J; Berg, Cynthia; Bernstein, Peter; Bingham, Debra; Delgado, Ana; Callaghan, William M; Harris, Karen; Lanni, Susan; Mahoney, Jeanne; Main, Elliot; Nacht, Amy; Schellpfeffer, Michael; Westover, Thomas; Harper, Margaret

2014-08-01

279

Regionalization of Perinatal Health Care: A Lesson Learned but Lost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regionalization of perinatal health care has offered appropriate services to mothers and babies as close to their homes as possible. The need for regionalized service has not changed, but the concept has been challenged by the managed care dictate that patients receive referral services at the least expensive option available that qualifies to give that service by virtue of an

Herman A Hein

1999-01-01

280

Behavioral Differences in School Age Children after Perinatal Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the influence of the right hemisphere (RH) on social and emotional development in children. In order to examine the effect of RH damage on behavioral function, the Personality Inventory for Children was administered to parents of 17 children who had suffered perinatal strokes and 23 control children. Children with focal brain lesions, regardless of hemisphere, had

Doris A. Trauner; Jan L. Panyard-Davis; Angela O. Ballantyne

1996-01-01

281

Perinatal Staff Nurse Medical Device Use and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey responses from 48 perinatal nurses found that most learned about medical devices by reading manuals; 75% had received inservice training; and 95% learned from other staff. Inadequate knowledge was related to fear of causing patient harm. Initial learning method influenced what was learned, and hands-on experience was considered efficacious.…

McConnell, Edwina A.

1998-01-01

282

Prenatal and Perinatal Factors Associated with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prenatal and perinatal risk factors associated with intellectual disability (ID) were studied in 8-year-old Utah children from a 1994 birth cohort (N = 26,108) using broad ascertainment methods and birth records following the most current recording guidelines. Risk factor analyses were performed inclusive and exclusive of children with a known or…

Bilder, Deborah A.; Pinborough-Zimmerman, Judith; Bakian, Amanda V.; Miller, Judith S.; Dorius, Josette T.; Nangle, Barry; McMahon, William M.

2013-01-01

283

Prenatal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Autism in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted a case-control study using 190 Han children with and without autism to investigate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism in China. Cases were recruited through public special education schools and controls from regular public schools in the same region (Tianjin), with frequency matching on sex and birth year. Unadjusted…

Zhang, Xin; Lv, Cong-Chao; Tian, Jiang; Miao, Ru-Juan; Xi, Wei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Qi, Lihong

2010-01-01

284

Perinatal Mental Health: Supporting New Families through Vulnerability and Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Zero to Three is a single focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that because the perinatal periodfrom the later stages of pregnancy through the first 6 months of the infants lifeis a period of…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

2002-01-01

285

Impact of education on women with perinatal depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the impact that education through participation in a depression screening program has on mental health literacy and help seeking behavior in perinatal women. Methods. Responses to a hypothetical case of depression, help seeking behavior, and screening levels for risk of depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were compared between two groups of postnatal women; one group

Anne Buist; Craig Speelman; Barbara Hayes; R. Reay; Jeannette Milgrom; D. Meyer; J. Condon

2007-01-01

286

Assessing the knowledge of perinatal mental illness among student midwives.  

PubMed

The experience of perinatal mental illness (mental illness occurring around the time of pregnancy) currently affect 1 in 10 women and can have adverse effects on the mother and her child (Massie and Szajnberg, 2002; O'Connor et al., 2002). The care and effective management of women experiencing perinatal mental illness is therefore an important issue for health care staff, managers, psychiatrists, commissioners and campaigners. Midwives play a significant part in caring for women throughout their pregnancies, during labour and up to the first month after birth. Midwives are in a unique position to assess a woman's well-being and to offer appropriate support. However, previous research has revealed that midwives often have poor understanding and knowledge of perinatal mental health issues and require improved training (Ross-Davie et al, 2006; McCann and Clark, 2010). This research project aims to systematically assess student midwives awareness of perinatal mental illness. The findings of this study will inform curriculum development for graduate and post-graduate midwifery students therefore improving the care and support women with mental illness receive from antenatal services. The findings from this study will also be used for the formation of an educational web-based programme for student and qualified midwives. PMID:25300675

Phillips, Louise

2014-09-28

287

Behavioral Differences in School Age Children after Perinatal Stroke.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personality Inventory for Children was administered to parents of 17 school-age children who had had perinatal strokes and 23 comparisons. Data suggest that focal brain lesions may predispose a child to social and cognitive defects, and that brain localization for cognitive and social skills may be determined early in development. (SLD)

Trauner, Doris A.; Panyard-Davis, Jan L.; Ballantyne, Angela O.

1996-01-01

288

Maternal or neonatal infection: association with neonatal encephalopathy outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Perinatal infection may potentiate brain injury among children born preterm. The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal and/or neonatal infection are associated with adverse outcomes among term neonates with encephalopathy. Methods Cohort study of 258 term newborns with encephalopathy whose clinical records were examined for signs of maternal infection (chorioamnionitis) and infant infection (sepsis). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between infection, pattern and severity of injury on neonatal MRI, as well as neurodevelopment at 30 months (neuromotor exam, or Bayley Scales of Infant Development II MDI <70 or Bayley III cognitive score <85). Results Chorioamnionitis was associated with lower risk of moderate-severe brain injury (adjusted OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1–0.7, P=0.004), and adverse cognitive outcome in children when compared to no chorioamnionitis. Children with signs of neonatal sepsis were more likely to exhibit watershed predominant injury than those without (P=0.007). Conclusions Among neonates with encephalopathy, chorioamnionitis was associated with a lower risk of brain injury and adverse outcomes, whereas signs of neonatal sepsis carried an elevated risk. The etiology of encephalopathy and timing of infection and its associated inflammatory response may influence whether infection potentiates or mitigates injury in term newborns. PMID:24713817

Jenster, Meike; Bonifacio, Sonia L.; Ruel, Theodore; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Tam, Emily W.; Partridge, John Colin; Barkovich, A. James; Ferriero, Donna M.; Glass, Hannah C.

2014-01-01

289

Effects of Maternal Smoking and Exposure to Methylmercury on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Concentrations in Umbilical Cord Serum  

PubMed Central

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal survival and differentiation. We examined the concentration of BDNF in cord serum from newborns exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in utero by maternal consumption of whale meat. The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant factors were obtained by interviewing the mothers. The exposure to MeHg was estimated from Hg concentrations in cord blood, whereas exposure to PCB was estimated based on maternal serum concentrations. Only MeHg exposure affected the serum BDNF, which decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in girls born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking significantly increased BNDF in girls but not in boys. For further statistical analyses, we used the serum BDNF concentration as a continuous outcome variable in supervised regression models. Serum BDNF concentration increased with gestational age, increased by maternal smoking, decreased slightly with MeHg exposure, and maternal smoking enhanced the decrease in serum BDNF induced by MeHg exposure. Cord blood BDNF has been reported to increase in association with perinatal brain injuries and has been proposed as a possible predictive marker of neurodevelopmental outcomes. The negative effect that MeHg seems to exert on cord blood BDNF concentration could endanger compensatory responses to an adverse impact and therefore deserves attention. PMID:20631062

Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi; Nikkilä, Outi; Castrén, Eero; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe; Ceccatelli, Sandra

2010-01-01

290

Prenatal glucocorticoids and maternal smoking during pregnancy independently program adult nicotine dependence in daughters: A 40-year prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is an independent risk factor for offspring nicotine dependence (ND), but mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated prenatal glucocorticoid (cortisol) and androgen (testosterone) associations with offspring ND over 40 years, and the possibility that prenatal glucocorticoids and androgens would mediate links between MSDP and offspring ND. Methods Participants were 1,086 mother-adult offspring pairs (59% female) from the New England Family Study, a 40-year longitudinal follow up of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. MSDP was assessed prospectively at each prenatal visit. Maternal cortisol, testosterone, and cotinine (nicotine metabolite), were assayed from third trimester maternal sera. Offspring lifetime ND was assessed via structured interview. Results Significant bivariate associations emerged for: a) MSDP/cotinine and lifetime ND, and b) maternal cortisol and lifetime ND, for daughters only. In multivariate models, maternal cortisol and MSDP/cotinine remained significantly and independently associated with increased odds of daughters’ lifetime ND. However, cortisol did not mediate the MSDP-lifetime ND relation. No associations emerged between maternal testosterone and offspring ND. Conclusions Results provide the first evidence in support of prenatal glucocorticoid programming of adult ND over 40 years in daughters only. Our study highlights two independent prenatal pathways leading to increased risk for ND in daughters: elevated prenatal glucocorticoids and MSDP/nicotine exposure. Daughter-specific effects of glucocorticoid and MSDP programming over 40 years highlight the breadth and persistence of sexually dimorphic programming effects in humans. Results do not support androgen programming of offspring ND. PMID:24034414

Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George; Shenassa, Edmond; Rodriguez, Daniel; Niaura, Raymond; LeWinn, Kaja; Lipsitt, Lewis P.; Buka, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

291

Intrauterine Growth Restriction Is a Direct Consequence of Localized Maternal Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Cystitis  

PubMed Central

Despite the continually increasing rates of adverse perinatal outcomes across the globe, the molecular mechanisms that underlie adverse perinatal outcomes are not completely understood. Clinical studies report that 10% of pregnant women will experience a urinary tract infection (UTI) and there is an association of UTIs with adverse perinatal outcomes. We introduced bacterial cystitis into successfully outbred female mice at gestational day 14 to follow pregnancy outcomes and immunological responses to determine the mechanisms that underlie UTI-mediated adverse outcomes. Outbred fetuses from mothers experiencing localized cystitis displayed intrauterine growth restriction (20–80%) as early as 48 hours post-infection and throughout the remainder of normal gestation. Robust infiltration of cellular innate immune effectors was observed in the uteroplacental tissue following introduction of UTI despite absence of viable bacteria. The magnitude of serum proinflammatory cytokines is elevated in the maternal serum during UTI. This study demonstrates that a localized infection can dramatically impact the immunological status as well as the function of non-infected distal organs and tissues. This model can be used as a platform to determine the mechanism(s) by which proinflammatory changes occur between non-contiguous genitourinary organs PMID:22470490

Bolton, Michael; Horvath, Dennis J.; Li, Birong; Cortado, Hanna; Newsom, David; White, Peter; Partida-Sanchez, Santiago; Justice, Sheryl S.

2012-01-01

292

Risk factors for antepartum stillbirth and the influence of maternal age in New South Wales Australia: A population based study  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal age is a known risk factor for stillbirth and delayed childbearing is a societal norm in developed country settings. The timing and reasons for age being a risk factor are less clear. This study aimed to document the gestational specific risk of maternal age throughout pregnancy and whether the underlying causes of stillbirth differ for older women. Methods Using linkage of state maternity and perinatal death data collections the authors assessed risk factors for antepartum stillbirth in New South Wales Australia for births between 2002 – 2006 (n = 327,690) using a Cox proportional hazards model. Gestational age specific risk was calculated for different maternal age groups. Deaths were classified according to the Perinatal Mortality Classifications of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand. Results Maternal age was a significant independent risk factor for antepartum stillbirth (35 – 39 years HR 1.4 95% CI 1.12 – 1.75; ? 40 years HR 2.41 95% CI 1.8 – 3.23). Other significant risk factors were smoking HR 1.82 (95% CI 1.56 –2.12) nulliparity HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.08 – 1.40), pre-existing hypertension HR 2.77 (95% CI 1.94 – 3.97) and pre-existing diabetes HR 2.65 (95% CI 1.63 – 4.32). For women aged 40 or over the risk of antepartum stillbirth beyond 40 weeks was 1 in 455 ongoing pregnancies compared with 1 in 1177 ongoing pregnancies for those under 40. This risk was increased in nulliparous women to 1 in 247 ongoing pregnancies. Unexplained stillbirths were the most common classification for all women, stillbirths classified as perinatal infection were more common in the women aged 40 or above. Conclusions Women aged 35 or older in a first pregnancy should be counselled regarding stillbirth risk at the end of pregnancy to assist with informed decision making regarding delivery. For women aged 40 or older in their first pregnancy it would be reasonable to offer induction of labour by 40 weeks gestation. PMID:23324309

2013-01-01

293

Improving Perinatal Care in the Rural Regions Worldwide by Wireless Enabled Antepartum Fetal Monitoring: A Demonstration Project  

PubMed Central

Background. Fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality are significant problems in developing countries; remote maternal-fetal monitoring offers promise in addressing this challenge. The Gary and Mary West Health Institute and the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud conducted a demonstration project of wirelessly enabled antepartum maternal-fetal monitoring in the state of Yucatán, Mexico, to assess whether there were any fundamental barriers preventing deployment and use. Methods. Following informed consent, high-risk pregnant women at 27–29 weeks of gestation at the Chemax primary clinic participated in remote maternal-fetal monitoring. Study participants were randomized to receive either prototype wireless monitoring or standard-of-care. Feasibility was evaluated by assessing technical aspects of performance, adherence to monitoring appointments, and response to recommendations. Results. Data were collected from 153 high-risk pregnant indigenous Mayan women receiving either remote monitoring (n = 74) or usual standard-of-care (n = 79). Remote monitoring resulted in markedly increased adherence (94.3% versus 45.1%). Health outcomes were not statistically different in the two groups. Conclusions. Remote maternal-fetal monitoring is feasible in resource-constrained environments and can improve maternal compliance for monitoring sessions. Improvement in maternal-fetal health outcomes requires integration of such technology into sociocultural context and addressing logistical challenges of access to appropriate emergency services. PMID:25691900

Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Lyford, Shelley; Saucedo, Rodrigo; Casale, Michael; Gallardo, Hector; Becerra, Karen; Mack, Jonathan; Mujica, Ricardo; Estrada, Daniel; Sanchez, Antonio; Sabido, Ramon; Meier, Carlos; Smith, Joseph

2015-01-01

294

Birth attendants as perinatal verbal autopsy respondents in low- and middle-income countries: a viable alternative?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess the feasibility of using birth attendants instead of bereaved mothers as perinatal verbal autopsy respondents. Methods Verbal autopsy interviews for early neonatal deaths and stillbirths were conducted separately among mothers (reference standard) and birth attendants in 38 communities in four developing countries. Concordance between maternal and attendant responses was calculated for all questions, for categories of questions and for individual questions. The sensitivity and specificity of individual questions with the birth attendant as respondent were assessed. Findings For early neonatal deaths, concordance across all questions was 94%. Concordance was at least 95% for more than half the questions on maternal medical history, birth attendance and neonate characteristics. Concordance on any given question was never less than 80%. Sensitivity and specificity varied across individual questions, more than 80% of which had a sensitivity of at least 80% and a specificity of at least 90%. For stillbirths, concordance across all questions was 93%. Concordance was 95% or greater more than half the time for questions on birth attendance, site of delivery and stillborn characteristics. Sensitivity and specificity varied across individual questions. Over 60% of the questions had a sensitivity of at least 80% and over 80% of them had a specificity of at least 90%. Overall, the causes of death established through verbal autopsy were similar, regardless of respondent. Conclusion Birth attendants can substitute for bereaved mothers as verbal autopsy respondents. The questions in existing harmonized verbal autopsy questionnaires need further refinement, as their sensitivity and specificity differ widely. PMID:22461715

Garces, A; Jehan, I; Ditekemena, J; Phiri, M; Thorsten, V; Mazariegos, M; Chomba, E; Pasha, O; Tshefu, A; Wallace, D; McClure, EM; Goldenberg, RL; Carlo, WA; Wright, LL; Bose, C

2012-01-01

295

Low Birth Weight in Perinatally HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants: Observations in Urban Settings in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background The consequences of maternal HIV infection for fetal growth are controversial. Here, we estimated the frequency of small for gestational age and gender (SGAG) among neonates born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers and assessed the contribution, if any, of maternal HIV to the risk of SGAG. Methods The data used were obtained from the ANRS-Pediacam cohort in Cameroon. Pairs of newborns, one to a HIV-infected mother and the other to an uninfected mother, were identified during the first week of life, and matched on gender and recruitment site from 2007–2010. SGAG was defined in line with international recommendations as a birth weight Z-score adjusted for gestational age at delivery and gender more than two standard deviations below the mean (?2SD). Considering the matched design, logistic regression modeling was adjusted on site and gender to explore the effect of perinatal HIV exposure on SGAG. Results Among the 4104 mother-infant pairs originally enrolled, no data on birth weight and/or gestational age were available for 108; also, 259 were twins and were excluded. Of the remaining 3737 mother-infant pairs, the frequency of SGAG was 5.3% (95%CI: 4.6–6.0), and was significantly higher among HIV-infected infants (22.4% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) and lower among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (3.5% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Similarly, SGAG was significantly more frequent among HIV-infected infants (aOR: 4.1; 2.0–8.1) and less frequent among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (aOR: 0.5; 0.4–0.8) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Primiparity (aOR: 1.9; 1.3–2.7) and the presence of any disease during pregnancy (aOR: 1.4; 1.0–2.0) were identified as other contributors to SGAG. Conclusion Maternal HIV infection was independently associated with SGAG for HIV-exposed uninfected infants. This provides further evidence of the need for adapted monitoring of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, especially if they are symptomatic, to minimize additional risk factors for SGAG. PMID:24705410

Sofeu, Casimir Ledoux; Warszawski, Josiane; Ateba Ndongo, Francis; Penda, Ida Calixte; Tetang Ndiang, Suzie; Guemkam, Georgette; Makwet, Nicaise; Owona, Félicité; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Tchendjou, Patrice; Texier, Gaëtan; Tchuente, Maurice; Faye, Albert; Tejiokem, Mathurin Cyrille

2014-01-01

296

75 FR 64734 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Child Health & Human Development...National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Maternal Fetal Medicine Units Network...National Institute of Child Health and Human...

2010-10-20

297

77 FR 62245 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Child Health & Human Development...National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...Group, Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Biology Subcommittee...National Institute of Child Health and Human...

2012-10-12

298

77 FR 64818 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Child Health & Human Development...National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...Pregnancy Adaptation and Maternal Cardiovascular Health. Date: November 13...National Institute of Child Health and Human...

2012-10-23

299

Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... the un-routine The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine We partner with referring providers, medical societies, payers ... moms and babies. View Find a Maternal-Fetal Medicine Specialist More than 2,000 Maternal-Fetal Medicine ...

300

Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

2010-01-01

301

Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…

Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

2013-01-01

302

Inflammatory response in maternal serum during preterm labour  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth?(PTB), defined as a delivery before 37?weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diagnosis of preterm labour as well as accurate prediction of PTB is notoriously difficult. Preterm birth is initiated by multiple mechanisms including infection or inflammation which is the only pathological process for which a firm causal link with PTB has been established. Intrauterine infection evokes an immune response that involves the release of cytokines and chemokines, prostaglandins and matrix-degrading enzymes. These substances trigger uterine contractions, membrane rupture and cervical ripening. Most intra-uterine infections are chronic and subclinical in nature and consequently hard to diagnose before labour or rupture of the membranes. The best studied site of infection is amniotic fluid, but this requires an invasive procedure. A non-invasive approach seems to be more relevant to clinical practice. However, few studies have investigated the maternal inflammatory response during preterm labour. Therefore, the overall objective of this study was to determine several inflammatory markers in maternal serum from pregnant women in labour?(either term or preterm) vs. non-labouring controls. We completed a nested case control study in which singleton pregnancies were recruited at Ghent University Hospital and divided into groups according to gestational age and labour status. Multiple proteins were evaluated in maternal serum using enzyme-linked or multiplex bead immunoassays including soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1?(sTREM-1), matrix metalloproteinases?(MMP)-9 and MMP-3, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases?(TIMP)-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3 and TIMP-4 and a panel of 30?cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. PMID:25009722

Tency, I.

2014-01-01

303

Marfan syndrome and pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To report outcomes in a recent series of pregnancies in women with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Design Retrospective case note review. Setting Tertiary referral unit (Chelsea and Westminster and Royal Brompton Hospitals). Sample Twenty-nine pregnancies in 21 women with MFS between 1995 and 2010. Methods Multidisciplinary review of case records. Main outcome measures Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity of patients with MFS and healthy controls. Results There were no maternal deaths. Significant cardiac complications occurred in five pregnancies (17%): one woman experienced a type–A aortic dissection; two women required cardiac surgery within 6 months of delivery; and a further two women developed impaired left ventricular function during the pregnancy. Women with MFS were also more likely to have obstetric complications (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.30–8.34), the most frequent of which was postpartum haemorrhage (OR 8.46, 95% CI 2.52–28.38). There were no perinatal deaths, although babies born to mothers with MFS were delivered significantly earlier than those born to the control group (median 39 versus 40 weeks of gestation, Mann–Whitney U–test, P = 0.04). These babies were also significantly more likely to be small for gestational age (24% in the MFS group versus 6% in the controls; OR 4.95, 95% CI 1.58–15.55). Conclusions Pregnancy in women with MFS continues to be associated with significant rates of maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. Effective pre-pregnancy counselling and meticulous surveillance during pregnancy, delivery, and the puerperium by an experienced multidisciplinary team are warranted for women with MFS. PMID:24418012

Curry, RA; Gelson, E; Swan, L; Dob, D; Babu-Narayan, SV; Gatzoulis, MA; Steer, PJ; Johnson, MR

2014-01-01

304

Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR). Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133) with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care). The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient. Results The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors. Conclusion There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality. PMID:19765312

Kidanto, Hussein L; Mogren, Ingrid; van Roosmalen, Jos; Thomas, Angela N; Massawe, Siriel N; Nystrom, Lennarth; Lindmark, Gunilla

2009-01-01

305

Relationship between Maternal Immunological Response during Pregnancy and Onset of Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Maternofetal immune tolerance is essential to maintain pregnancy. The maternal immunological tolerance to the semiallogeneic fetus becomes greater in egg donation pregnancies with unrelated donors as the complete fetal genome is allogeneic to the mother. Instead of being rejected, the allogeneic fetus is tolerated by the pregnant woman in egg donation pregnancies. It has been reported that maternal morbidity during egg donation pregnancies is higher as compared with spontaneous or in vitro fertilization pregnancies. Particularly, egg donation pregnancies are associated with a higher incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension and placental pathology. Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by the development of both hypertension and proteinuria, remains the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this review is to characterize and relate the maternofetal immunological tolerance phenomenon during pregnancies with a semiallogenic fetus, which are the spontaneously conceived pregnancies and in vitro fertilization pregnancies, and those with an allogeneic fetus or egg donation pregnancies. Maternofetal immune tolerance in uncomplicated pregnancies and pathological pregnancies, such as those with preeclampsia, has also been assessed. Moreover, whether an inadequate maternal immunological response to the allogenic fetus could lead to a higher prevalence of preeclampsia in egg donation pregnancies has been addressed. PMID:24987708

Martínez-Varea, Alicia; Pellicer, Begoña; Perales-Marín, Alfredo; Pellicer, Antonio

2014-01-01

306

Amniotic Fluid Embolism (AFE) in China: Are maternal mortality and morbidity preventable?  

PubMed

A case of hospital-patient conflict has occurred in China that has lifted billows in the public and highlighted the lethality of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE). AFE is a rare but severe obstetric complication with high maternal mortality and morbidity. Globally, the incidence of AFE is estimated to be approximately 2 to 6 per 100,000 deliveries. The maternal mortality rate (MMR) attributable to AFE ranges between 0.5 to 1.7 deaths per 100,000 deliveries in the developed world and 1.9 to 5.9 deaths per 100,000 deliveries in the developing world. In developed countries, AFE often accounts for a leading cause of maternal mortality; whereas the proportion of maternal death caused by AFE tends to be not as dominant compared to common perinatal complications in developing countries. With the mechanism remaining to be elucidated, AFE can neither be predicted nor prevented even in developed countries. Treatment requires a set of highly intensive advanced emergency obstetric care, challenging obstetric care in developing countries. Although this complication is currently far from preventable, China has potential to improve the prognosis of AFE by strengthening the emergency obstetric care system. PMID:25364652

Mo, Xiuting; Feng, Aihua; Liu, Xiaoyan; Tobe, Ruoyan Gai

2014-08-01

307

No global consensus: a cross-sectional survey of maternal weight policies  

PubMed Central

Background Growing evidence suggests that maternal prepregnancy weight and gestational weight gain are risk factors for perinatal complications and subsequent maternal and child health. Postpartum weight retention is also associated with adverse birth outcomes and maternal obesity. Clinical guidelines addressing healthy weight before, during, and after pregnancy have been introduced in some countries, but at present a systematic accounting for these policies has not been conducted. The objective of the present study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of maternal weight guidelines. Methods This cross sectional survey administered a questionnaire online to key informants with expertise on the subject of maternal weight to assess the presence and content of preconceptional, pregnancy and postpartum maternal weight guidelines, their rationale and availability. We searched 195 countries, identified potential informants in 80 and received surveys representing 66 countries. We estimated the proportion of countries with guidelines by region, income, and formal or informal policy, and described and compared guideline content, including a rubric to assess presence or absence of 4 guidelines: encourage healthy preconceptional weight, antenatal weighing, encourage appropriate gestational gain, and encourage attainment of healthy postpartum weight. Results Fifty-three countries reported either a formal or informal policy regarding maternal weight. The majority of these policies included guidelines to assess maternal weight at the first prenatal visit (90%), to monitor gestational weight gain during pregnancy (81%), and to provide recommendations to women about healthy gestational weight gain (62%). Guidelines related to preconceptional (42%) and postpartum (13%) weight were less common. Only 8% of countries reported policies that included all 4 fundamental guidelines. Guideline content and rationale varied considerably between countries, and respondents perceived that within their country, policies were not widely known. Conclusions These results suggest that maternal weight is a concern throughout the world. However, we found a lack of international consensus on the content of guidelines. Further research is needed to understand which recommendations or interventions work best with respect to maternal weight in different country settings, and how pregnancy weight policies impact clinical practices and health outcomes for the mother and child. PMID:24884985

2014-01-01

308

Perinatal and early life factors associated with symptoms of depression in Brazilian children  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have been conducted on the association between perinatal and early life factors with childhood depression and results are conflicting. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and perinatal and early life factors associated with symptoms of depression in children aged 7 to 11?years from two Brazilian birth cohorts. Methods The study was conducted on 1444 children whose data were collected at birth and at school age, in 1994 and 2004/2005 in Ribeirao Preto, where they were aged 10–11?years and in 1997/98 and 2005/06 in São Luís, where children were aged 7–9?years. Depressive symptoms were investigated with the Child Depression Inventory(CDI), categorized as yes (score ? 20) and no (score < 20). Adjusted and non-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated by Poisson regression with robust estimation of the standard errors. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 3.9% (95%CI = 2.5-5.4) in Ribeirão Preto and 13.7% (95%CI = 11.0-16.4) in São Luís. In the adjusted analysis, in Ribeirão Preto, low birth weight (PR = 3.98; 95%CI = 1.72-9.23), skilled and semi-skilled manual occupation (PR = 5.30; 95%CI = 1.14-24.76) and unskilled manual occupation and unemployment (PR = 6.65; 95%CI = 1.16-38.03) of the household head were risk factors for depressive symptoms. In São Luís, maternal schooling of 0–4?years (PR = 2.39; 95%CI = 1.31-4.34) and of 5 to 8?years (PR = 1.80; 95%CI = 1.08-3.01), and paternal age <20?years (PR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.02-3.61), were independent risk factors for depressive symptoms. Conclusions The prevalence of depressive symptoms was much higher in the less developed city, São Luís, than in the more developed city, Ribeirão Preto, and than those reported in several international studies. Low socioeconomic level was associated with depressive symptoms in both cohorts. Low paternal age was a risk factor for depressive symptoms in the less developed city, São Luís, whereas low birth weight was a risk factor for depressive symptoms in the more developed city, Ribeirão Preto. PMID:22863172

2012-01-01

309

Maternal Filicide in Turkey.  

PubMed

Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

2014-07-28

310

Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with reduced childhood IQ  

PubMed Central

Background In animal models, there is evidence to suggest a causal link between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and offspring outcomes; however, evidence for this relationship in humans is inconclusive. We address important confounders of this association by estimating the relationship between maternal cortisol levels in late pregnancy and childhood IQ in a birth cohort and in a subsample of siblings. Methods This study included 832 children who were members of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Maternal serum collected between 1959 and 1966 during the third trimester of pregnancy was analysed for free cortisol. We investigated the relationship between maternal cortisol in quintiles and full, verbal and performance scale scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7 years, adjusting for prenatal and family characteristics. We repeated this analysis among 74 discordant sibling pairs using a fixed effects approach, which adjusts for shared family characteristics. Results Maternal cortisol levels were negatively related to full-scale IQ, an effect driven by verbal IQ scores. Compared with those in the lowest quintile of cortisol exposure, the verbal IQ of children in the highest quintile of exposure was 3.83 points lower [95% confidence interval (CI): ?6.44 to ?1.22]. Within sibling pairs, being in the highest quintile of exposure was associated with verbal IQ scores 5.5 points lower (95% CI: ?11.24 to 0.31) compared with the other quintiles. Conclusion These findings are consistent with prior human and animal studies, and suggest that exposure to high levels of maternal cortisol during pregnancy may be negatively related to offspring cognitive skills independently of family attributes that characterize the postnatal environment. PMID:19423658

LeWinn, Kaja Z; Stroud, Laura R; Molnar, Beth E; Ware, James H; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L

2009-01-01

311

Progress on the Maternal Mortality Ratio Reduction in Wuhan, China in 2001–2012  

PubMed Central

Background Most maternal deaths occur in developing countries and most maternal deaths are avoidable. China has made a great effort to reduce MMR by three quarters to meet the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG5). Methods This retrospective study reviewed and analyzed maternal death data in Wuhan from 2001 to 2012. Joinpoint regression and multivariate Poisson regression was conducted using the log-linear model to measure the association of the number of maternal deaths with time, cause of death, where the death occurred, and cognitive factors including knowledge, attitude, resource, and management stratified. Results The MMR declined from 33.41 per 100,000 live births in 2001 to 10.63 per 100,000 live births in 2012, with a total decline of 68.18% and an average annual decline of 9.89%. From 2001–2012, the four major causes of maternal death were obstetric hemorrhage (35.16%), pregnancy complications (28.57%), amniotic fluid embolism (16.48%) and gestational hypertension (8.79%). Multivariate Poisson regression showed on average the MMR decreased by.17% each year from 2001–2006 and stayed stagnant since 2007–2012. Conclusions With the reduction in MMR in obstetric death (e.g. obstetric hemorrhage), there had been a remarkable reduction in MMR in Wuhan in 2001–2012, which may be due to (1) the improvement in the obstetric quality of perinatal care service on prevention and treatment of obstetric hemorrhage and emergency care skills, and (2) the improvement in the maternal health management and quality of prenatal care. Interventions to further reduce the MMR include several efforts such as the following: (1) designing community-based interventions, (2) providing subsidies to rural women and/hospitals for hospital delivery, (3) screening for pregnancy complications, and (4) establishing an emergency rescue system for critically ill pregnant women. PMID:24586836

Yang, Shaoping; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Jinzhu; Wang, Jing; Flick, Louise; Qian, Zhengmin; Zhang, Dan; Mei, Hui

2014-01-01

312

Gastrointestinal presentation and outcome of perinatal cytomegalovirus infection.  

PubMed

A term infant presented at birth with bilious vomiting and abdominal distension. Multiple investigations were undertaken, including two laparotomies and a rectal biopsy, as no obvious cause for his symptoms could be found. This included testing for human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection as part of a TORCH screen, which was negative at 10 days of age. However, a repeat screen at 3 weeks of age demonstrated positive findings of CMV in both urine and blood PCR. This subsequently led to the diagnosis of gastrointestinal pseudoobstruction associated with perinatal CMV infection. This case is of interest though there is limited information regarding the recognition of gastrointestinal symptoms in relation to CMV infection. This report aims to highlight our experience with an infant with perinatal CMV infection and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:23291921

Hendriks, Gillian; McPartland, Jo; El-Matary, Wael

2013-01-01

313

Gastrointestinal presentation and outcome of perinatal cytomegalovirus infection  

PubMed Central

A term infant presented at birth with bilious vomiting and abdominal distension. Multiple investigations were undertaken, including two laparotomies and a rectal biopsy, as no obvious cause for his symptoms could be found. This included testing for human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection as part of a TORCH screen, which was negative at 10?days of age. However, a repeat screen at 3?weeks of age demonstrated positive findings of CMV in both urine and blood PCR. This subsequently led to the diagnosis of gastrointestinal pseudoobstruction associated with perinatal CMV infection. This case is of interest though there is limited information regarding the recognition of gastrointestinal symptoms in relation to CMV infection. This report aims to highlight our experience with an infant with perinatal CMV infection and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:23291921

Hendriks, Gillian; McPartland, Jo; El-Matary, Wael

2013-01-01

314

Perinatal and Early Childhood Environmental Factors Influencing Allergic Asthma Immunopathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205

Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

2014-01-01

315

Validity of a questionnaire measuring the world health organization concept of health system responsiveness with respect to perinatal services in the dutch obstetric care system.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe concept of responsiveness, introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO), addresses non-clinical aspects of health service quality that are relevant regardless of provider, country, health system or health condition. Responsiveness refers to ¿aspects related to the way individuals are treated and the environment in which they are treated¿ during health system interactions. This paper assesses the psychometric properties of a newly developed responsiveness questionnaire dedicated to evaluating maternal experiences of perinatal care services, called the Responsiveness in Perinatal and Obstetric Health Care Questionnaire (ReproQ), using the eight-domain WHO concept.MethodsThe ReproQ was developed between October 2009 and February 2010 by adapting the WHO Responsiveness Questionnaire items to the perinatal care context. The psychometric properties of feasibility, construct validity, and discriminative validity were empirically assessed in a sample of Dutch women two weeks post partum.ResultsA total of 171 women consented to participation. Feasibility: the interviews lasted between 20 and 40 minutes and the overall missing rate was 8%. Construct validity: mean Cronbach¿s alphas for the antenatal, birth and postpartum phase were: 0.73 (range 0.57-0.82), 0.84 (range 0.66-0.92), and 0.87 (range 0.62-0.95) respectively. The item-own scale correlations within all phases were considerably higher than most of the item-other scale correlations. Within the antenatal care, birth care and post partum phases, the eight factors explained 69%, 69%, and 76% of variance respectively. Discriminative validity: overall responsiveness mean sum scores were higher for women whose children were not admitted. This confirmed the hypothesis that dissatisfaction with health outcomes is transferred to their judgement on responsiveness of the perinatal services.ConclusionsThe ReproQ interview-based questionnaire demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties to describe the quality of perinatal care in the Netherlands, with the potential to discriminate between different levels of quality of care. In view of the relatively small sample, further testing and research is recommended. PMID:25465053

van der Kooy, Jacoba; Valentine, Nicole B; Birnie, Erwin; Vujkovic, Marijana; de Graaf, Johanna P; Denkta, Semiha; Steegers, Eric A P; Bonsel, Gouke J

2014-12-01

316

Perinatal asphyxia: CNS development and deficits with delayed onset  

PubMed Central

Perinatal asphyxia constitutes a prototype of obstetric complications occurring when pulmonary oxygenation is delayed or interrupted. The primary insult relates to the duration of the period lacking oxygenation, leading to death if not re-established. Re-oxygenation leads to a secondary insult, related to a cascade of biochemical events required for restoring proper function. Perinatal asphyxia interferes with neonatal development, resulting in long-term deficits associated to mental and neurological diseases with delayed clinical onset, by mechanisms not yet clarified. In the experimental scenario, the effects observed long after perinatal asphyxia have been explained by overexpression of sentinel proteins, such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), competing for NAD+ during re-oxygenation, leading to the idea that sentinel protein inhibition constitutes a suitable therapeutic strategy. Asphyxia induces transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory factors, in tandem with PARP-1 overactivation, and pharmacologically induced PARP-1 inhibition also down-regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide has been proposed as a suitable PARP-1 inhibitor. Its effect has been studied in an experimental model of global hypoxia in rats. In that model, the insult is induced by immersing rat fetus into a water bath for various periods of time. Following asphyxia, the pups are delivered, treated, and nursed by surrogate dams, pending further experiments. Nicotinamide rapidly distributes into the brain following systemic administration, reaching steady state concentrations sufficient to inhibit PARP-1 activity for several hours, preventing several of the long-term consequences of perinatal asphyxia, supporting the idea that nicotinamide constitutes a lead for exploring compounds with similar or better pharmacological profiles. PMID:24723845

Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Neira-Pena, Tanya; Rojas-Mancilla, Edgardo; Espina-Marchant, Pablo; Esmar, Daniela; Perez, Ronald; Muñoz, Valentina; Gutierrez-Hernandez, Manuel; Rivera, Benjamin; Simola, Nicola; Bustamante, Diego; Morales, Paola; Gebicke-Haerter, Peter J.

2013-01-01

317

Nitrotyrosine in brain tissue of neonates after perinatal asphyxia  

PubMed Central

Hypothesis Nitrotyrosine, a reaction product of peroxynitrite and proteins, could be demonstrated in the postmortem examination of brain tissue of full?term neonates who had severe perinatal asphyxia. Methods The brain tissue of 22 full?term neonates who died after severe perinatal asphyxia was examined, including cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, brain stem, olives and cerebellum. Median age at death was 52?h. Routine histopathological examination and additional immunohistological staining were carried out with anti?cysteine protease protein 32 antibodies to detect activated caspase 3, anti?nitrotyrosine antibodies to detect nitrotyrosine and anti?CD68 antibodies to detect activated microglia and macrophages, which might be associated with the production of nitric oxide. Staining was scored as none, weak (1–25% positive cells), moderate (26–75% positive cells) or severe (>75% positive cells). Results 14 patients showed global injury, 4 showed injury of the basal ganglia and thalamus, and 4 showed predominantly parasagittal brain injury. One neonate without perinatal asphyxia served as a control. Nitrotyrosine staining of neurones was shown in all neonates with asphyxia, mostly in the thalamus (70%) and inferior olives (68%). Total nitrotyrosine staining tended to be less in the base of the pons and inferior olives of neonates with parasagittal brain injury. Activated caspase 3 was found mostly in the thalamus (60%) and hippocampus (53%). Positive CD68 staining was mainly present in the thalamus (70% positive). Conclusion Nitrotyrosine was found in brain tissue of full?term neonates, suggesting that nitric oxide toxicity might have a role in hypoxic–ischaemic brain injury at term. This may be relevant for neuroprotective strategies in full?term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. PMID:16835259

Groenendaal, F; Lammers, H; Smit, D; Nikkels, P G J

2006-01-01

318

The Journal of Perinatal Education, No Longer a Baby  

PubMed Central

In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education (JPE) acknowledges how, over the past 20 years, the JPE has matured into a highly respected journal for normal-birth advocates and other health professionals and announces a new partnership with Springer Publishing Company. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth.

Budin, Wendy C.

2011-01-01

319

The Evidence for Perinatal Depression Screening and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Depression is among the most prevalent and high-risk perinatal health problems. From studies using objective measures of depression,\\u000a it is estimated that in the United States, the period prevalence of major depression during pregnancy ranges from 9.4 to 12.7%,\\u000a and that 21.9% of women have a major depressive episode during the first year postpartum (Gaynes et al., 2005). Peripartum\\u000a depression

Laura J. Miller; Renu Gupta; Andrea M. Scremin

320

Perinatal depressive symptomatology among lesbian and bisexual women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Lesbian and bisexual women who were pregnant (N = 16), biological (N = 18) or non-biological (N = 15) parents completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and scores were compared to a previously published\\u000a heterosexual sample. Lesbian and bisexual biological mothers had significantly higher EPDS scores than the previously published\\u000a sample of heterosexual women. Results suggest that perinatal depression

L. E. Ross; L. Steele; C. Goldfinger; C. Strike

2007-01-01

321

Mode of delivery and perinatal cerebral blood flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To ascertain whether the perinatal cerebral blood flow velocity differed between vaginally delivered appropriate for gestational age (vag. AGA) term babies, AGA babies delivered by Caesarean section (C.s. AGA), and small for gestational age (C.s. SGA) babies also delivered by Caesarean section. Study design: Forty-five babies were examined by Doppler ultrasound of the middle cerebral artery prior to and

Alf Maesel; Povilas Sladkevicius; Saemundur Gudmundsson; Karel Maršál

1996-01-01

322

Investigating Financial Incentives for Maternal Health: An Introduction  

PubMed Central

Projection of current trends in maternal and neonatal mortality reduction shows that many countries will fall short of the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Underutilization of maternal health services contributes to this poor progress toward reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the quality of services continues to lag in many countries, with a negative effect on the health of women and their babies, including deterring women from seeking care. To enhance the use and provision of quality maternal care, countries and donors are increasingly using financial incentives. This paper introduces the JHPN Supplement, in which each paper reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of a specific financial incentive instrument with the aim of improving the use and quality of maternal healthcare and impact. The US Agency for International Development and the US National Institutes of Health convened a US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives on 24-25 April 2012 in Washington, DC. The Summit brought together leading global experts in finance, maternal health, and health systems from governments, academia, development organizations, and foundations to assess the evidence on whether financial incentives significantly and substantially increase provision, use and quality of maternal health services, and the contextual factors that impact the effectiveness of these incentives. Evidence review teams evaluated the multidisciplinary evidence of various financial mechanisms, including supply-side incentives (e.g. performance-based financing, user fees, and various insurance mechanisms) and demand-side incentives (e.g. conditional cash transfers, vouchers, user fee exemptions, and subsidies for care-seeking). At the Summit, the teams presented a synthesis of evidence and initial recommendations on practice, policy, and research for discussion. The Summit enabled structured feedback on recommendations which the teams included in their final papers appearing in this Supplement. Papers in this Supplement review the evidence for a specific financial incentive mechanism (e.g. pay for performance, conditional cash transfer) to improve the use and quality of maternal healthcare and makes recommendations for programmes and future research. While data on programmes using financial incentives for improved use and indications of the quality of maternal health services support specific conclusions and recommendations, including those for future research, data linking the use of financial incentives with improved health outcomes are minimal.

Higgs, Elizabeth S.; Koblinsky, Marge

2013-01-01

323

The Role of Cytokines and Inflammatory Cells in Perinatal Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Perinatal brain injury frequently complicates preterm birth and leads to significant long-term morbidity. Cytokines and inflammatory cells are mediators in the common pathways associated with perinatal brain injury induced by a variety of insults, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, reperfusion injury, toxin-mediated injury, and infection. This paper examines our current knowledge regarding cytokine-related perinatal brain injury and specifically discusses strategies for attenuating cytokine-mediated brain damage. PMID:22530124

McAdams, Ryan M.; Juul, Sandra E.

2012-01-01

324

Maternal ?-linolenic acid availability during gestation and lactation alters the postnatal hippocampal development in the mouse offspring  

PubMed Central

The availability of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is essential for perinatal brain development. While the roles of docosahexaenoic acid (the most abundant ?-3 species) were extensively described, less is known about the role of ?-linolenic acid (ALA), which is the initial molecular species undergoing elongation and desaturation within the ?-3 pathways. This study describes the association between maternal ALA availability during gestation and lactation, and alterations in hippocampal development (dentate gyrus) in the mouse male offspring, at the end of lactation (postnatal day 19, P19). Postnatal ALA supplementation increased cell proliferation (36% more proliferating cells compared to a control group) and early neuronal differentiation, while postnatal ALA deficiency increased cellular apoptosis within the dentate gyrus of suckling pups (61% more apoptotic cells compared to a control group). However, maternal ALA deficiency during gestation prevented the increased neurogenesis induced by postnatal supplementation. Fatty acid analysis revealed that ALA supplementation increased the concentration of the ?-3 species in the maternal liver and serum, but not in the brain of the offspring, excepting for ALA itself. Interestingly, ALA supplementation also increased the concentration of dihomo ?-linolenic acid (a ?-6 species) in the P19 brains, but not in maternal livers or serum. In conclusion, postnatal ALA supplementation enhances neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the offspring at postnatal day 19, but its beneficial effects are offset by maternal ALA deficiency during gestation. These results suggest that ALA is required in both fetal and postnatal stages of brain development. PMID:21964326

Niculescu, Mihai D.; Lupu, Daniel S.; Craciunescu, Corneliu N.

2015-01-01

325

A medical link between local maternity hospitals and a tertiary center using telediagnosis with fetal cardiac ultrasound image transmission.  

PubMed

Information and communication technology has been widely applied to various fields, including clinical medicine. We report here a telediagnosis system using ultrasound image transmission. The effect of telediagnosis, using a medical link between local maternity hospitals and our children's medical center, was verified. The number of fetal telediagnosis for cardiac disease, and cases referred to a perinatal care center and emergent transportation of neonates with congenital heart disease from maternity hospitals, were calculated based on the hospital records. The percentage of patients found to have heart disease was compared between out-patient clinic and telediagnosis cases. Telediagnosis increased, allowing maternity hospital staff to obtain support easily from a specialist when making a diagnosis. Many severe cases were transferred to tertiary centers with the correct diagnosis; consequently, the number of emergent transportations of neonates with severe cardiac anomalies continued to below. Telediagnosis was also useful as an educational tool for maternity hospital staff, who improved their skills during conversations with a specialist. Unlike in the outpatient clinic, consultation by telediagnosis was requested even for cases of mild abnormalities, and the number of false-positives increased, while many cardiac anomalies were found in the early stage. Furthermore, telediagnosis was helpful for pregnant women requiring bed rest, and also had the advantage of allowing a doctor to be able to talk with parents. Establishing a fetal telediagnosis system is a useful strategy to improve neonatal care through a medical link between local maternity hospitals and a tertiary center. PMID:24259010

Hishitani, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yoshitaka; Saito, Yukinori; Sugamoto, Kenji; Hoshino, Kenji; Ogawa, Kiyoshi

2014-04-01

326

Perinatal Bisphenol A Exposure Beginning Before Gestation Enhances Allergen Sensitization, but Not Pulmonary Inflammation, in Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer of polycarbonate plastics and epoxide resin, is a high-production-volume chemical implicated in asthma pathogenesis when exposure occurs to the developing fetus. However, few studies have directly examined the effect of in utero and early-life BPA exposure on the pathogenesis of asthma in adulthood. This study examines the influence of perinatal BPA exposure through maternal diet on allergen sensitization and pulmonary inflammation in adult offspring. Two weeks before mating, BALB/c dams were randomly assigned to a control diet or diets containing 50 ng, 50 ?g, or 50 mg BPA/kg of rodent chow. Dams remained on the assigned diet throughout gestation and lactation until postnatal day 21 when offspring were weaned onto the control diet. Twelve-week-old offspring were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and subsequently challenged with aerosolized OVA. Sera, splenocytes, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and whole lungs were harvested to assess allergen sensitization and pulmonary inflammation after OVA challenge. Serum anti-OVA IgE levels were increased 2-fold in offspring exposed to 50 ?g and 50 mg BPA/kg diet, compared with control animals. In addition, production of IL-13 and IFN-? were increased in OVA-stimulated splenocytes recovered from BPA-exposed mice. Pulmonary inflammation, as indicated by total and differential leukocyte counts, cytokines, chemokines, and pulmonary histopathology inflammatory scores, however, was either not different or was reduced in offspring exposed to BPA. While these data suggest that perinatal BPA exposure beginning before gestation enhances allergen sensitization by increasing serum IgE and splenocyte cytokine production, a substantial impact of BPA on OVA-induced pulmonary inflammation in adulthood was not observed. PMID:24847698

O’Brien, Edmund; Bergin, Ingrid L.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Zaslona, Zbigniew; Little, Roderick J. A.; Tao, Yebin; Peters-Golden, Marc; Mancuso, Peter

2014-01-01

327

A case control study of the prevalence of perinatal complications associated with fetal macrosomia in Antigua and Barbuda.  

PubMed

The prevalence of obstetric, perinatal and neonatal complications associated with fetal macrosomia at Holberton Hospital in Antigua and Barbuda was assessed by a retrospective, case-control study. All babies of birthweight (BW) greater than 4.5 kg born between July 1991 and January 1997 and all babies with BW greater than 4.0 kg born between July 1991 and January 1995, were included. Control babies, were selected from those born on the same day as the index case. Babies of BW > 4.0 kg and babies of BW > 4.5 kg were 5.7% and 1% of births respectively Records were complete for 157 large babies (40 with BW > 4.5 kg) and 157 control babies < 4.0 kg. Mothers of large babies were significantly older, more parous, more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and deliver after 40 weeks gestation. At delivery, mothers of large babies were more likely to bleed. Large babies had lower one minute and five minute Apgar score, were more likely to be meconium stained, have respiratory distress, have birth trauma or dystocia and to be admitted to Special Care Nursery. There was no difference in Caesarean section rate, hospital days, neonatal jaundice or mortality. Babies with BW > 4.5 kg had mortality of 7.5% versus 1.8% for those < 4.5 kg. Fetal macrosomia remains a difficult obstetrical problem associated with significant maternal, perinatal and neonatal consequences. Morbidity and mortality are still significant in developed and developing countries alike. PMID:14649106

Martin, T C; Clarke, A

2003-09-01

328

Perinatal outcomes among children born by assisted reproductive techniques—a hospital-based case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Widespread use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) has raised major concern about the outcome of resulting pregnancies, as well as about the health of the newborn children. The ART conceived pregnancies have an increased risk for prematurity and low birth weight (LBW). The risk of congenital malformations among children conceived via ART is contemplated to be high. The present case control study was conducted with an aim of analysing perinatal outcomes of children born by ART in the Indian context. Methods The case control study was conducted in the Army Hospital (Research and Referral), New Delhi. It included 82 cases and 164 controls. The data was collected on maternal and newborn characteristics among cases and controls. Perinatal outcomes were compared between ART conceived and spontaneously pregnant women in terms of birth weight, preterm, multiple pregnancies, and neonatal complications. Results Significant difference was observed in terms of the preterm delivery, birth weight, neonatal complications between the cases and the controls. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 21.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.3, 112.9) for preterm delivery; 6.0 (95% CI 1.1, 43.8) for multiple pregnancy and 3.2 (95% CI 1.5, 7.0) for caesarean section. The risk of LBW and neonatal complications was heavily confounded by preterm delivery and multiple pregnancies, the adjusted OR being 0.9 and 1.0, respectively. Conclusion Increased risk of preterm delivery, multiple pregnancies and caesarean section was associated with ART. The LBW was confounded by preterm delivery and multiple pregnancies. PMID:24669052

Gupta, Preeti; Nayan, Neelabh; Sharma, Mukti

2012-01-01

329

Multidisciplinary approach to management of maternal asthma (MAMMA [copyright]): the PROTOCOL for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy is associated with the maternal hazards of disease exacerbation, and perinatal hazards including intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. Interventions directed at achieving better asthma control during pregnancy should be considered a high priority in order to optimise both maternal and perinatal outcomes. Poor compliance with prescribed asthma medications during pregnancy and suboptimal prescribing patterns to pregnant women have both been shown to be contributing factors that jeopardise asthma control. The aim is to design and evaluate an intervention involving multidisciplinary care for women experiencing asthma in pregnancy. Methods/design A pilot single-blinded parallel-group randomized controlled trial testing a Multidisciplinary Approach to Management of Maternal Asthma (MAMMA©) which involves education and regular monitoring. Pregnant women with asthma will be recruited from antenatal clinics in Victoria, Australia. Recruited participants, stratified by disease severity, will be allocated to the intervention or the usual care group in a 1:1 ratio. Both groups will be followed prospectively throughout pregnancy and outcomes will be compared between groups at three and six months after recruitment to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention. Outcome measures include Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores, oral corticosteroid use, asthma exacerbations and asthma related hospital admissions, and days off work, preventer to reliever ratio, along with pregnancy and neonatal adverse events at delivery. The use of FEV1/FEV6 will be also investigated during this trial as a marker for asthma control. Discussion If successful, this model of care could be widely implemented in clinical practice and justify more funding for support services and resources for these women. This intervention will also promote awareness of the risks of poorly controlled asthma and the need for a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach to asthma management during pregnancy. This is also the first study to investigate the use of FEV1/FEV6 as a marker for asthma control during pregnancy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12612000681853) PMID:23253481

2012-01-01

330

21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...device used to show graphically the relationship between maternal labor and the fetal heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors with appropriate displays of the well-being of the fetus...

2010-04-01

331

21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...device used to show graphically the relationship between maternal labor and the fetal heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors with appropriate displays of the well-being of the fetus...

2011-04-01

332

21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...device used to show graphically the relationship between maternal labor and the fetal heart rate by means of combining and coordinating uterine contraction and fetal heart monitors with appropriate displays of the well-being of the fetus...

2013-04-01

333

National data system on near miss and maternal death: shifting from maternal risk to public health impact in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The lack of reliable and up-to-date statistics on maternal deaths and disabilities remains a major challenge to the implementation of Nigeria's Road Map to Accelerate the Millennium Development Goal related to Maternal Health (MDG-5). There are currently no functioning national data sources on maternal deaths and disabilities that could serve as reference points for programme managers, health advocates and policy makers. While awaiting the success of efforts targeted at overcoming the barriers facing establishment of population-based data systems, referral institutions in Nigeria can contribute their quota in the quest towards MDG-5 by providing good quality and reliable information on maternal deaths and disabilities on a continuous basis. This project represents the first opportunity to initiate a scientifically sound and reliable quantitative system of data gathering on maternal health profile in Nigeria. Objective The primary objective is to create a national data system on maternal near miss (MNM) and maternal mortality in Nigerian public tertiary institutions. This system will conduct periodically, both regionally and at country level, a review of the magnitude of MNM and maternal deaths, nature of events responsible for MNM and maternal deaths, indices for the quality of care for direct obstetric complications and the health service events surrounding these complications, in an attempt to collectively define and monitor the standard of comprehensive emergency obstetric care in the country. Methods This will be a nationwide cohort study of all women who experience MNM and those who die from pregnancy, childbirth and puerperal complications using uniform criteria among women admitted in tertiary healthcare facilities in the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. This will be accomplished by establishing a network of all public tertiary obstetric referral institutions that will prospectively collect specific information on potentially fatal maternal complications. For every woman enrolled, the health service events (care pathways) within the facility will be evaluated to identify areas of substandard care/avoidable factors through clinical audit by the local research team. A summary estimate of the frequencies of MNM and maternal deaths will be determined at intervals and indicators of quality of care (case fatality rate, both total and cause-specific and mortality index) will be evaluated at facility, regional and country levels. Management Overall project management will be from the Centre for Research in Reproductive Health (CRRH), Sagamu, Nigeria. There will be at least two meetings and site visits for efficient coordination of the project by regional coordinators and central coordinating staff. Data will be transferred electronically by hospital and regional coordinators and managed at the Data Management Unit of CRRH, Sagamu, Nigeria. Expected outcomes The outcome of the study would provide useful information to the health practitioners, policy-makers and international partners on the strengths and weaknesses of the infrastructures provided for comprehensive emergency obstetric care in Nigeria. The successful implementation of this project will pave way for the long-awaited Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths that would guide the formulation and or revision of obstetric policies and practices in Nigeria. Lessons learnt from the establishment of this data system can also be used to set up similar structures at lower levels of healthcare delivery in Nigeria. PMID:19508717

Oladapo, Olufemi T; Adetoro, Olalekan O; Fakeye, Oluwarotimi; Ekele, Bissallah A; Fawole, Adeniran O; Abasiattai, Aniekan; Kuti, Oluwafemi; Tukur, Jamilu; Ande, Adedapo BA; Dada, Olukayode A

2009-01-01

334

Perinatal Exposure to Low Doses of Dioxin Can Permanently Impair Human Semen Quality  

PubMed Central

Background In recent decades, young men in some industrialized areas have reportedly experienced a decrease in semen quality. Objective We examined effects of perinatal dioxin exposure on sperm quality and reproductive hormones. Methods We investigated sperm quality and hormone concentrations in 39 sons (mean age, 22.5 years) born between 1977 and 1984 to mothers exposed to dioxin after the accident in Seveso, Italy (1976), and 58 comparisons (mean age, 24.6 years) born to mothers exposed only to background dioxin. Maternal dioxin levels at conception were extrapolated from the concentrations measured in 1976 serum samples. Results The 21 breast-fed sons whose exposed mothers had a median serum dioxin concentration as low as 19 ppt at conception had lower sperm concentration (36.3 vs. 86.3 million/mL; p = 0.002), total count (116.9 vs. 231.1; p = 0.02), progressive motility (35.8 vs. 44.2%; p = 0.03), and total motile count (38.7 vs. 98 million; p = 0.01) than did the 36 breast-fed comparisons. The 18 formula-fed exposed and the 22 formula-fed and 36 breast-fed comparisons (maternal dioxin background 10 ppt at conception) had no sperm-related differences. Follicle-stimulating hormone was higher in the breast-fed exposed group than in the breast-fed comparisons (4.1 vs. 2.63 IU/L; p = 0.03) or the formula-fed exposed (4.1 vs. 2.6 IU/L; p = 0.04), and inhibin B was lower (breast-fed exposed group, 70.2; breast-fed comparisons, 101.8 pg/mL, p = 0.01; formula-fed exposed, 99.9 pg/mL, p = 0.02). Conclusions In utero and lactational exposure of children to relatively low dioxin doses can permanently reduce sperm quality. PMID:21262597

Mocarelli, Paolo; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Needham, Larry L.; Patterson, Donald G.; Limonta, Giuseppe; Falbo, Rosanna; Signorini, Stefano; Bertona, Maria; Crespi, Carla; Sarto, Cecilia; Scott, Paul K.; Turner, Wayman E.; Brambilla, Paolo

2011-01-01

335

Lipid metabolism during the perinatal phase, and its implications on postnatal development.  

PubMed

During pregnancy, lipid metabolism plays a major role to warrant the availability of substrates to the foetus. By using different experimental designs in the rat we have been able to answer several questions that were open about the short- and long-term effects of alterations of lipid metabolism during the perinatal stage. The first one was to demonstrate the importance of maternal body fat depot accumulation during the first half of pregnancy. We found that conditions like undernutrition circumscribed to this specific period when foetal growth is still small, that impede such fat accumulation not only restrain intrauterine development but also have long-term consequences, as shown by an impaired glucose tolerance when adults. Secondly, undernutrition during suckling has major long-term effect decreasing body weight, even though food intake was kept normal from the weaning period. Present findings also show that a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation has negative effects on offspring development, but cross fostered experiments showed that the effect was a consequence of the intake of these fatty acids during the lactation period rather than during pregnancy. Pups from dams that were fed a fish oil-rich diet during pregnancy and lactation were found to have altered glucose/insulin relationship at the age of 10 weeks. Since a omega-3 fatty acid-rich diet decreases milk yield during lactation, additional experiments were carried out to determine whether decreased food intake, altered dietary fatty acid composition, or both were responsible for the long-term effects on the glucose/insulin axis. Results show that the decreased food intake caused by a omega-3 fatty acid-rich diet rather than the change in milk composition during suckling was responsible for the reduced pancreatic glucose responsiveness to insulin release at 16 weeks of age. In conclusion, present findings indicate that impaired maternal fat accumulation during early pregnancy and food intake during lactation, rather than a difference in dietary fatty acid composition have a greater influence on postnatal development and affect glucose/insulin relationships in adult rats. PMID:17243085

Herrera, E; López-Soldado, I; Limones, M; Amusquivar, E; Ramos, M P

2006-07-01

336

Comparison of Abuse Experiences of Rural and Urban African American Women During Perinatal Period.  

PubMed

A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F C; Richardson, Jeanita W; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Sharps, Phyllis W

2014-10-13

337

Term perinatal mortality audit in the Netherlands 2010–2012: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the implementation and first results of a term perinatal internal audit by a standardised method. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting All 90 Dutch hospitals with obstetric/paediatric departments linked to community practices of midwives, general practitioners in their attachment areas, organised in perinatal cooperation groups (PCG). Population The population consisted of 943 registered term perinatal deaths occurring in 2010–2012 with detailed information, including 707 cases with completed audit results. Main outcome measures Participation in the audit, perinatal death classification, identification of substandard factors (SSF), SSF in relation to death, conclusive recommendations for quality improvement in perinatal care and antepartum risk selection at the start of labour. Results After the introduction of the perinatal audit in 2010, all PCGs participated. They organised 645 audit sessions, with an average of 31 healthcare professionals per session. Of all 1102 term perinatal deaths (2.3/1000) data were registered for 86% (943) and standardised anonymised audit results for 64% (707). In 53% of the cases at least one SSF was identified. Non-compliance to guidelines (35%) and deviation from usual professional care (41%) were the most frequent SSF. There was a (very) probable relation between the SSF and perinatal death for 8% of all cases. This declined over the years: from 10% (n=23) in 2010 to 5% (n=10) in 2012 (p=0.060). Simultaneously term perinatal mortality decreased from 2.3 to 2.0/1000 births (p<0.00001). Possibilities for improvement were identified in the organisation of care (35%), guidelines or usual care (19%) and in documentation (15%). More pregnancies were antepartum selected as high risk, 70% in 2010 and 84% in 2012 (p=0.0001). Conclusions The perinatal audit is implemented nationwide in all obstetrical units in the Netherlands in a short time period. It is possible that the audit contributed to the decrease in term perinatal mortality.

Eskes, Martine; Waelput, Adja J M; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Brouwers, Hens A A; Ravelli, Anita C J; Achterberg, Peter W; Merkus, Hans (J) M W M; Bruinse, Hein W

2014-01-01

338

Interactive Fly: Maternally transcribed genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The maternally transcribed genes section of the award-winning and comprehensive site: Interactive fly. It thoroughly discusses genes, tissues, biochemical paths, and developmental processes in the fruit fly, Drosophila.

PhD Thomas B Brody (NIH Laboratory of Neurochemistry)

2006-11-13

339

Maternal and Child Health Bureau  

MedlinePLUS

... 02 HRSA-15-133 Maternal and Child Health Public Health Catalyst Program Apply at Grants.gov by March ... website provides information about how EPSDT works with public health, families, managed care organizations, pediatricians, and other health ...

340

Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior  

MedlinePLUS

... hand corner of the player. Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior HealthDay December 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... depression, how does it impact her child in adolescence? A new study published in the journal Pediatrics ...

341

STIMULATION OF NICOTINE REWARD AND CENTRAL CHOLINERGIC ACTIVITY IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO A FAT-RICH DIET  

PubMed Central

Rationale While clinical studies show maternal consumption of palatable fat-rich diets during pregnancy to negatively impact the children’s behaviors and increase their vulnerability to drug abuse, the precise behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms mediating these phenomena have yet to be examined. Objective The study examined in rats whether gestational exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) can increase the offspring’s propensity to use nicotine and whether disturbances in central nicotinic cholinergic signaling accompany this behavioral effect. Methods Rat offspring exposed perinatally to a HFD or Chow diet were characterized in terms of their nicotine self-administration behavior in a series of operant response experiments and the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and density of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) in different brain areas. Result Perinatal HFD compared to Chow exposure increased nicotine-self administration behavior during fixed-ratio and dose-response testing and caused an increase in breakpoint using progressive ratio testing, while nicotine-seeking in response to nicotine prime-induced reinstatement was reduced. This behavioral change induced by the HFD was associated with a significant reduction in activity of AChE in the midbrain, hypothalamus and striatum and increased density of ?2-nAChRs in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra and of ?7-nAChRs in the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus. Conclusions Perinatal exposure to a HFD increases the vulnerability of the offspring to excessive nicotine use by enhancing its reward potential, and these behavioral changes are accompanied by a stimulation of nicotinic cholinergic signaling in mesostriatal and hypothalamic brain areas important for reinforcement and consummatory behavior. PMID:23836027

Morganstern, Irene; Lukatskaya, Olga; Moon, Sang-Ho; Guo, Wei-Ran; Shaji, Jane; Karatayev, Olga; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

2014-01-01

342

Neurotensin inversely modulates maternal aggression  

PubMed Central

Neurotensin (NT) is a versatile neuropeptide involved in analgesia, hypothermia, and schizophrenia. Although NT is released from and acts upon brain regions involved in social behaviors, it has not been linked to a social behavior. We previously selected mice for high maternal aggression (maternal defense), an important social behavior that protects offspring, and found significantly lower NT expression in the CNS of highly protective females. Our current study directly tested NT’s role in maternal defense. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of NT significantly impaired defense in terms of time aggressive and number of attacks at all doses tested (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 ?g). Other maternal behaviors, including pup retrieval, were unaltered following NT injections (0.05 ?g) relative to vehicle, suggesting specificity of NT action on defense. Further, icv injections of the NT receptor 1 (NT1) antagonist, SR 48692 (30 ?g), significantly elevated maternal aggression in terms of time aggressive and attack number. To understand where NT may regulate aggression, we examined Fos following injection of either 0.1 ?g NT or vehicle. 13 of 26 brain regions examined exhibited significant Fos increases with NT, including regions expressing NT1 and previously implicated in maternal aggression, such as lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and central amygdala. Together, our results indicate that NT inversely regulates maternal aggression and provide the first direct evidence that lowering of NT signaling can be a mechanism for maternal aggression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly link NT to a social behavior. PMID:19118604

Gammie, Stephen C.; D’Anna, Kimberly L.; Gerstein, Hilary; Stevenson, Sharon A.

2008-01-01

343

The content and delivery of psychological interventions for perinatal depression by non-specialist health workers in low and middle income countries: A systematic review?  

PubMed Central

Psychological interventions delivered by non-specialist health workers are effective for the treatment of perinatal depression in low- and middle-income countries. In this systematic review, we describe the content and delivery of such interventions. Nine studies were identified. The interventions shared a number of key features, such as delivery provided within the context of routine maternal and child health care beginning in the antenatal period and extending postnatally; focus of the intervention beyond the mother to include the child and involving other family members; and attention to social problems and a focus on empowerment of women. All the interventions were adapted for contextual and cultural relevance; for example, in domains of language, metaphors and content. Although the competence and quality of non-specialist health workers delivered interventions was expected to be achieved through structured training and ongoing supervision, empirical evaluations of these were scarce. Scalability of these interventions also remains a challenge and needs further attention. PMID:24054170

Chowdhary, Neerja; Sikander, Siham; Atif, Najia; Singh, Neha; Ahmad, Ikhlaq; Fuhr, Daniela C.; Rahman, Atif; Patel, Vikram

2014-01-01

344

Factors Influencing the Intention of Perinatal Nurses to Adopt the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in Southeastern Quebec, Canada: Implications for Practice  

PubMed Central

Nurses play a major role in promoting the baby-friendly hospital initiative (BFHI), yet the adoption of this initiative by nurses remains a challenge in many countries, despite evidences of its positive impacts on breastfeeding outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing perinatal nurses to adopt the BFHI in their practice. Methods. A sample of 159 perinatal nurses from six hospital-based maternity centers completed a survey based on the theory of planned behavior. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between key independent variables and nurses' intention to adopt the BFHI in their practice. A discriminant analysis of nurses' beliefs helped identify the targets of actions to foster the adoption the BFHI among nurses. Results. The participants are mainly influenced by factors pertaining to their perceived capacity to overcome the strict criteria of the BFHI, the mothers' approval of a nursing practice based on the BFHI, and the antenatal preparation of the mothers. Conclusions. This study provides theory-based evidence for the development of effective interventions aimed at promoting the adoption of the BFHI in nurses' practice. PMID:25101173

2014-01-01

345

Magnesium is not consistently neuroprotective for perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in term-equivalent models in preclinical studies: a systematic review.  

PubMed

There is an important unmet need to further improve the outcome of neonatal encephalopathy in term infants. Meta-analyses of large controlled trials now suggest that maternal magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) therapy is associated with a reduced risk of cerebral palsy and gross motor dysfunction after premature birth, but that it has no effect on death or disability. Because of this inconsistency, it remains controversial whether MgSO4 is clinically neuroprotective and, thus, it is unclear whether it would be appropriate to test MgSO4 for treatment of encephalopathy in term infants. We therefore systematically reviewed the preclinical evidence for neuroprotection with MgSO4 before or after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term-equivalent perinatal and adult animals. The outcomes were highly inconsistent between studies. Although there were differences in dose and timing of administration, there was evidence that beneficial effects of MgSO4 were associated with confounding mild hypothermia and, strikingly, the studies that included rigorous maintenance of environmental temperature or body temperature consistently suggested a lack of effect. On balance, these preclinical studies suggest that peripherally administered MgSO4 is unlikely to be neuroprotective. Rigorous testing in translational animal models of perinatal HIE is needed before MgSO4 should be considered in clinical trials for encephalopathy in term infants. PMID:24854050

Galinsky, Robert; Bennet, Laura; Groenendaal, Floris; Lear, Christopher A; Tan, Sidhartha; van Bel, Frank; Juul, Sandra E; Robertson, Nicola J; Mallard, Carina; Gunn, Alistair J

2014-01-01

346

Maternal complement C1q and increased odds for psychosis in adult offspring.  

PubMed

The presence of maternal antibodies to food and infectious antigens may confer an increased risk of developing schizophrenia and psychosis in adult offspring. Complement factor C1q is an immune molecule with multiple functions including clearance of antigen-antibody complexes from circulation and mediation of synaptic pruning during fetal brain development. To determine if maternal C1q was associated with offspring schizophrenia and psychosis, we evaluated 55 matched case-control maternal serum pairs from the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Sample pairs were composed of mothers whose offspring developed psychoses as adults and those whose offspring were free from psychiatric disease. Matching criteria for offspring included birth date, delivery hospital, race, and gender, with further matching based on mother's age. IgG markers of C1q, bovine milk casein, egg ovalbumin, and wheat gluten were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. C1q levels were compared to food antigen IgG and to previously generated data for C-reactive protein, adenovirus, herpes simplex viruses, influenza viruses, measles virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. C1q was significantly elevated in case mothers with odds ratios of 2.66-6.31 (conditional logistic regressions, p ? 0.008-0.05). In case mothers only, C1q was significantly correlated with antibodies to both food and infectious antigens: gluten (R(2)=0.26, p ? 0.004), herpes simplex virus type 2 (R(2)=0.21, p ? 0.02), and adenovirus (R(2)=0.25, p ? 0.006). In conclusion, exposure to maternal C1q activity during pregnancy may be a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and psychosis in offspring. Prenatal measurement of maternal C1q may be an important and convergent screening tool to identify potentially deleterious immune activation from multiple sources. PMID:25195065

Severance, Emily G; Gressitt, Kristin L; Buka, Stephen L; Cannon, Tyrone D; Yolken, Robert H

2014-10-01

347

Maternal obesity and the developmental programming of hypertension: a role for leptin.  

PubMed

Mother-child cohort studies have established that both pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain are independently associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adult offspring, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Animal models in sheep and non-human primates provide further evidence for the influence of maternal obesity on offspring cardiovascular function, whilst recent studies in rodents suggest that perinatal exposure to the metabolic milieu of maternal obesity may permanently change the central regulatory pathways involved in blood pressure regulation. Leptin plays an important role in the central control of appetite, is also involved in activation of efferent sympathetic pathways to both thermogenic and non-thermogenic tissues, such as the kidney, and is therefore implicated in obesity-related hypertension. Leptin is also thought to have a neurotrophic role in the development of the hypothalamus, and altered neonatal leptin profiles secondary to maternal obesity are associated with permanently altered hypothalamic structure and function. In rodent studies, maternal obesity confers persistent sympathoexcitatory hyper-responsiveness and hypertension acquired in the early stages of development. Experimental neonatal hyperleptinaemia in naive rat pups provides further evidence of heightened sympathetic tone and proof of principle that hyperleptinaemia during a critical window of hypothalamic development may directly lead to adulthood hypertension. Insight from these animal models raises the possibility that early-life exposure to leptin in humans may lead to early onset essential hypertension. Ongoing mother-child cohort and intervention studies in obese pregnant women provide a unique opportunity to address associations between maternal obesity and offspring cardiovascular function. The goal of the review is to highlight the potential importance of leptin in the developmental programming of hypertension in obese pregnancy. PMID:24433239

Taylor, P D; Samuelsson, A-M; Poston, L

2014-03-01

348

Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on maternal odor conditioning in rat pups.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pervasive environmental contaminants that can have damaging effects on physiologic, motoric and cognitive function. Results from studies on PCBs and behavior have shown that exposure can alter learning and memory processes and that these shifts in cognitive abilities can be related to changes in hormonal and neural function. Little experimentation has been done on the impact of exposure to PCBs on social and emotional development. Previous work has shown that exposure to PCBs in children can alter play behavior. Importantly, exposure to PCBs has been found to change aspects of maternal-offspring interactions in rodents. The present study examined the impact of PCBs on maternal odor conditioning in rat pups 12-14 days of age. A modified version of the conditioned place preference paradigm was used that incorporated a maternal-associated odor cue (lemon scent) as the conditioned stimulus. PCBs significantly depressed the preference for the maternal-associated cue but did not impair discrimination for a novel odor. These effects could arise due to changes in the social dynamics between the dam and offspring after co-exposure to PCBs. For example, dams exposed to PCBs during gestation have been found to show elevated grooming directed towards pups exposed to PCBs. This change in maternal care can have dramatic effects on behavioral and hormonal systems in the developing rat pup. In conclusion, perinatal PCBs alter important social behaviors of both the mother and pup, and these alterations could have long-lasting effects on behavioral, cognitive and emotional development. PMID:17498760

Cromwell, Howard C; Johnson, Asia; McKnight, Logan; Horinek, Maegan; Asbrock, Christina; Burt, Shannon; Jolous-Jamshidi, Banafsheh; Meserve, Lee A

2007-08-15

349

Preventing Perinatal Depression in Low-Income Home Visiting Clients: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the efficacy of a 6-week cognitive-behavioral intervention in preventing the onset of perinatal depression and reducing depressive symptoms among low-income women in home visitation programs. Method: Sixty-one women who were pregnant or who had a child less than 6 months of age and who were assessed as at risk for perinatal

Tandon, S. Darius; Perry, Deborah F.; Mendelson, Tamar; Kemp, Karen; Leis, Julie A.

2011-01-01

350

Perinatal intervention trial in Africa: effect of a birth canal cleansing intervention to prevent HIV transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 contributes significantly to infant mortality. Exposure in the birth canal may account for some transmission. We examined the efficacy of a birth canal washing procedure in reducing perinatal transmission in Malawi.Methods The infection status of infants of 3327 control women (conventional delivery procedures) was compared with that of 3637 infants

R. J Biggar; J. J Goedert; P. G Miotti; T. E Taha; L Mtimavalye; A Justesen; J. D Chiphangwi; R Broadhead; F Yellin; G Liomba; W Miley; D Waters

1996-01-01

351

Marketing and Quality of Life: A Model for Improving Perinatal Health Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: A marketing/business model using non-traditional Quality of Life measures was developed to assess perinatal health status on a micro-geographic level. This perinatal health status needs assessment study for Georgia South Central Region was conducted for the years 1994-1999. The model may be applied to any geographic unit in the…

Dever, G. E. Alan; Smith, Leah T.; Stamps, Bunnie V.

2005-01-01

352

Mother-to-child HIV transmission despite antiretroviral therapy in the ANRS French Perinatal Cohort  

E-print Network

therapy. Design: The French Perinatal Cohort (EPF), a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV infectedTITLE Mother-to-child HIV transmission despite antiretroviral therapy in the ANRS French Perinatal status as dependant variable, were conducted among 5271 mothers who received antiretroviral therapy

Boyer, Edmond

353

Trends in perinatal mortality and cerebral palsy in Western Australia, 1967 to 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To analyse the trends in stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and cerebral palsy in all infants born in Western Australia from 1967 to 1985. To relate these trends to changes in perinatal care, particularly in relation to avoidance of intrapartum asphyxia in term infants and the increased survival of low birthweight infants. DESIGN--Descriptive epidemiological study calculating population rates for perinatal deaths and

F. J. Stanley; L. Watson

1992-01-01

354

Perinatal Insult as a Risk Factor in Paranoid and Nonparanoid Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical histories of 30 paranoid schizophrenics were compared to those of 60 patients with nonparanoid schizophrenia. History of perinatal distress was more common in patients with chronic nonparanoid schizophrenia (p < 0.005). A significant trend was noted for perinatal distress to be more common among cases with no family history of psychiatric illness (p < 0.05). It is suggested

James A. Wilcox; Henry A. Nasrallah

1987-01-01

355

Perinatal Outcome Following Amniotic Septostomy in Chronic TTTS is Independent of Placental Angioarchitecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the vascular anatomy of monochorial placenta influences the success of amniotic septostomy for the treatment of chronic mid-trimester twin–twin transfusion syndrome, we report placental anastomoses and perinatal data of 13 pregnancies treated by amniotic septostomy in combination with amnioreduction (AR). The placental anastomoses were delineated postnatally by perfusion studies. Perinatal outcome was also evaluated in relation

Adedayo L Adegbite; Stuart B Ward; Rekha Bajoria

2003-01-01

356

Perinatal Factors, Parenting Behavior, and Reactive Aggression: Does Cortisol Reactivity Mediate This Developmental Risk Process?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the mechanisms of action that link perinatal risk and the development of aggressive behavior. The aim of this study was to examine whether perinatal risk and parenting interacted to specifically predict reactive aggression, as opposed to general aggressive behavior, and to examine cortisol reactivity as a mediator of this…

Ryan, Stacy R.; Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

357

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2011-01-01

358

Paradoxes of maternal mourning.  

PubMed

It has been customary to conceptualize mourning as a phasic or stage phenomenon (Lindemann 1944; Parkes 1972; Bowlby 1980; Knapp 1986). Such a conceptualization has proved to be of tremendous didactic value, especially in terms of succinctly organizing and communicating the major affects, behaviors, and reactions of mourning. It is, however, my belief, based upon clinical experience with many forms of bereavement, that the phenomenon of mourning is not comprised of clearly delineated stages and phases. I have come to conceptualize the phenomenon of mourning the death of a loved person as involving the bereaved's struggle with a series of more or less unresolvable paradoxes rather than as a progression through stages that possess relatively distinct and predictable beginning and ending points. The specific paradoxes encountered by a bereaved person differ, of course, in accordance with the relationship that was lost (mother, father, spouse, child, or sibling), the developmental stage of the bereaved (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, or maturity), the type of death (sudden or prolonged), and the cause of death (illness, murder, suicide, or accident). In this paper, I will address those paradoxes that seem specific to maternal mourning - that is, to mothers who are mourning the death of a child. PMID:2023970

Brice, C W

1991-02-01

359

Perinatal and infant postmortem examinations: how well are we doing?  

PubMed Central

AIM--To investigate the quality of perinatal and infant necropsies and assess the relation between the quality and value of this investigation in different outcome groups. METHODS--Cohort analysis of 540 deaths during 1993 of babies between 20 weeks' gestation and one year of age born to women usually resident in Wales. Cases were identified from the All Wales Perinatal Survey. Each case was assessed to establish whether the necropsy yielded clinically relevant information. The quality of necropsy was assessed by scoring aspects identified as being part of the necropsy. RESULTS--Necropsy was performed in 335 (62%) cases, and the report was available for assessment in 314 cases. The quality of necropsy was below the minimum standard in 46% (143/314) of cases. The highest quality necropsies were carried out on fetal deaths at 20 to 23 weeks' gestation (12% (10/85) below standard), compared with 65% (87/133) below standard on stillbirths and 68% (21/31) on sudden unexpected infant death. Overall, 42% (131/314) of necropsies were performed in a regional paediatric pathology centre including 88% (76/88) of fetal deaths, 23% (31/133) of stillbirths and 30% (29/96) of infant deaths. The quality score for the necropsy performed in a regional centre failed to achieve the minimum acceptable score in 8% (11/131) of cases compared with 72% (132/182) for those done elsewhere. The cause of death was detected by necropsy in 17% (52/314) of cases. The quality of necropsy was significantly higher when the cause of death was revealed than when nothing new was found. CONCLUSIONS--The overall quality of the perinatal and infant necropsy is poor. This is regrettable as valuable information can be revealed frequently by a good quality necropsy. Adherence to Guidelines for Postmortem Reports recently published by the Royal College of Pathologists should improve the situation. PMID:8543645

Vujani?, G M; Cartlidge, P H; Stewart, J H; Dawson, A J

1995-01-01

360

Development of potassium conductances in perinatal rat phrenic motoneurons.  

PubMed

Prior to the inception of inspiratory synaptic drive transmission from medullary respiratory centers, rat phrenic motoneurons (PMNs) have action potential and repetitive firing characteristics typical of immature embryonic motoneurons. During the period spanning from when respiratory bulbospinal and segmental afferent synaptic connections are formed at embryonic day 17 (E17) through to birth (gestational period is approximately 21 days), a pronounced transformation of PMN electrophysiological properties occurs. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the elaboration of action potential afterpotentials and the resulting changes in repetitive firing properties are due in large part to developmental changes in PMN potassium conductances. Ionic conductances were measured via whole cell patch recordings using a cervical slice-phrenic nerve preparation isolated from perinatal rats. Voltage- and current-clamp recordings revealed that PMNs expressed outward rectifier (I(KV)) and A-type potassium currents that regulated PMN action potential and repetitive firing properties throughout the perinatal period. There was an age-dependent leftward shift in the activation voltage and a decrease in the time-to-peak of I(KV) during the period from E16 through to birth. The most dramatic change during the perinatal period was the increase in calcium-activated potassium currents after the inception of inspiratory drive transmission at E17. Block of the maxi-type calcium-dependent potassium conductance caused a significant increase in action potential duration and a suppression of the fast afterhyperpolarizing potential. Block of the small conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels resulted in a marked suppression of the medium afterhyperpolarizing potential and an increase in the repetitive firing frequency. In conclusion, the increase in calcium-mediated potassium conductances are in large part responsible for the marked transformation in action potential shape and firing properties of PMNs from the time between the inception of fetal respiratory drive transmission and birth. PMID:10848565

Martin-Caraballo, M; Greer, J J

2000-06-01

361

My approach to performing a perinatal or neonatal autopsy  

PubMed Central

An opportunity to determine the cause of death, factors that may have a role in it, and the extent and cause of malformations is provided by perinatal autopsy. The family may be assisted in finding closure after the death of their infant by the information obtained. Insight into classifying infants appearing normal into one of three groups, small, appropriate and large for gestational age, has been provided, as each group tends to have specific causes of death. In infants with congenital anomalies, patterns of malformation may lead us to the diagnosis. An accurate diagnosis is required to provide counselling for a subsequent pregnancy. PMID:16803946

Wainwright, H C

2006-01-01

362

Thrombocytopenia and pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal aspiration syndromes.  

PubMed

Thirty-three of 616 consecutively admitted newborn infants had trombocytopenia (platelet count less than 150,00/mm). Only 16 of these were among the 356 infants with lung disease. However, 12 of the 16 were among the 90 infants with a diagnosis of a perinatal aspiration syndrome. The 12 thrombocytopenic infants were the only infants with PAS considered to have pulmonary hypertension. The duration of significant right-to-left shunting of blood paralleled the duration of thrombocytopenia in these infants; PHN was not associated with thrombocytopenia in other neonatal lung diseases. Thus, platelets appear to be important in the pathogenesis of PHN complicating PAS. PMID:7359282

Segall, M L; Goetzman, B W; Schick, J B

1980-04-01

363

Perinatal depressive symptomatology among lesbian and bisexual women.  

PubMed

Lesbian and bisexual women who were pregnant (N=16), biological (N=18) or non-biological (N=15) parents completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and scores were compared to a previously published heterosexual sample. Lesbian and bisexual biological mothers had significantly higher EPDS scores than the previously published sample of heterosexual women. Results suggest that perinatal depression is not less common and may be more common among lesbian and bisexual women relative to heterosexual women. Additional, longitudinal studies are needed. PMID:17262172

Ross, L E; Steele, L; Goldfinger, C; Strike, C

2007-01-01

364

The long-term psychiatric and medical prognosis of perinatal mental illness.  

PubMed

The perinatal period provides an important window into a woman's long-term health. Perinatal mental illness is a common condition conferring potential serious long-term psychiatric and medical consequences for the mother and family. It is known that childbirth acts as a powerful trigger for depressive episodes in some women, and that women with histories of a mood disorder are particularly vulnerable. Some evidence links perinatal mental illness with obstetrical complications and reduced lactation initiation and duration. Therefore, perinatal mental illness may be a marker for long-term risk, and may contribute directly to subsequent cardiometabolic disease through both neuroendocrine mechanisms and the effects of mental illness on health behaviours. In clinical practice, these associations underscore the importance of screening and treating women with perinatal mental illness to ensure best possible long-term outcomes. Early screening and treatment may both mitigate the primary disease process and reduce the risk of comorbid medical conditions. PMID:24063973

Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Stuebe, Alison

2014-01-01

365

Two children with both arm ischemia and arterial ischemic stroke during the perinatal period.  

PubMed

It is rare for both limb ischemia and arterial ischemic stroke to occur in the same child during the perinatal period. Two children who appear to have had perinatal emboli to both an arm and a middle cerebral artery territory are presented here. One child required amputation of the ischemic limb below the shoulder, and the other required skin grafts to the distal ischemic fingers. Each of these children later received cerebral magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of developmental delay and was found to have what appeared to be old perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. Both children were homozygous for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene variant. Eight other children with perinatal limb ischemia and stroke were found on literature review; several also had delayed diagnosis of perinatal stroke. This report examines the approach to diagnosis and treatment in each of these and makes suggestions for the similar cases in the future. PMID:21862833

McKasson, Marilyn J; Golomb, Meredith R

2011-12-01

366

The Effect of Maternal Stress Activation on the Offspring during Lactation in Light of Vasopressin  

PubMed Central

Although it is obvious that preconceptional effects as well as stressors during pregnancy profoundly influence the progeny, the lactation period seems to be at least as important. Here we summarize how maternal stressors during the lactation period affect the offspring. As vasopressin is one of the crucial components both for stress adaptation and social behavior, special emphasis was given to this neuropeptide. We can conclude that stressing the mother does not have the same acute effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (as the main target of stress adaptation) of the pups as stressing the pups, but later endocrine and behavioral consequences can be similar. Vasopressin plays a role in acute and later consequences of perinatal stressor applied either to the mother or to the offspring, thereby contributing to transmitting the mothers' stress to the progeny. This mother-infant interaction does not necessarily mean a direct transmission of molecules, but rather is the result of programming the brain development through changes in maternal behavior. Thus, there is a time lag between maternal stress and stress-related changes in the offspring. The interactions are bidirectional as not only stress in the dam but also stress in the progeny has an effect on nursing. PMID:24550698

2014-01-01

367

Prenatal Maternal Stress Predicts Childhood Asthma in Girls: Project Ice Storm  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) influences risks of asthma in humans. In this small study, we sought to determine whether disaster-related PNMS would predict asthma risk in children. In June 1998, we assessed severity of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec Ice Storm. Lifetime asthma symptoms, diagnoses, and corticosteroid utilization were assessed when the children were 12 years old (N = 68). No effects of objective hardship or timing of the exposure were found. However, we found that, in girls only, higher levels of prenatal maternal subjective distress predicted greater lifetime risk of wheezing (OR = 1.11; 90% CI = 1.01–1.23), doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR = 1.09; 90% CI = 1.00–1.19), and lifetime utilization of corticosteroids (OR = 1.12; 90% CI = 1.01–1.25). Other perinatal and current maternal life events were also associated with asthma outcomes. Findings suggest that stress during pregnancy opens a window for fetal programming of immune functioning. A sex-based approach may be useful to examine how prenatal and postnatal environments combine to program the immune system. This small study needs to be replicated with a larger, more representative sample. PMID:24895550

Laplante, David P.; Brunet, Alain

2014-01-01

368

Severe maternal morbidity and mortality from amniotic fluid embolism in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

We have assessed the incidence, symptoms and risk factors of amniotic fluid embolism in the Netherlands. Data were retrieved from two nationwide registration systems. From 1983 to 2005 the maternal mortality ratio of amniotic fluid embolism increased from 0.11 to 0.63 (odds ratio (OR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-25.3). The most common signs and symptoms of amniotic fluid embolism were dyspnea and massive obstetric hemorrhage. In the majority of women, onset of symptoms was intrapartum or immediately postpartum. Potential risk factors of developing amniotic fluid embolism were maternal age >30, multiparity (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.02-10.5), cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.3-5.2) and induction of labor (OR 2.1, 95% CI 2.1-6.1). Perinatal mortality was increased to 38.1% compared with 0.98% in the general pregnant population (p < 0.001) High maternal age and multiparity are the most important risk factors for developing amniotic fluid embolism. PMID:22568783

Stolk, Koen H; Zwart, Joost J; Schutte, Joke; VAN Roosmalen, Jos

2012-08-01

369

Our stolen figures: the interface of sexual differentiation, endocrine disruptors, maternal programming, and energy balance.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". The prevalence of adult obesity has risen markedly in the last quarter of the 20th century and has not been reversed in this century. Less well known is the fact that obesity prevalence has risen in domestic, laboratory, and feral animals, suggesting that all of these species have been exposed to obesogenic factors present in the environment. This review emphasizes interactions among three biological processes known to influence energy balance: Sexual differentiation, endocrine disruption, and maternal programming. Sexual dimorphisms include differences between males and females in body weight, adiposity, adipose tissue distribution, ingestive behavior, and the underlying neural circuits. These sexual dimorphisms are controlled by sex chromosomes, hormones that masculinize or feminize adult body weight during perinatal development, and hormones that act during later periods of development, such as puberty. Endocrine disruptors are natural and synthetic molecules that attenuate or block normal hormonal action during these same developmental periods. A growing body of research documents effects of endocrine disruptors on the differentiation of adipocytes and the central nervous system circuits that control food intake, energy expenditure, and adipose tissue storage. In parallel, interest has grown in epigenetic influences, including maternal programming, the process by which the mother's experience has permanent effects on energy-balancing traits in the offspring. This review highlights the points at which maternal programming, sexual differentiation, and endocrine disruption might dovetail to influence global changes in energy balancing traits. PMID:24681201

Schneider, Jill E; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin

2014-06-01

370

Women's Education Level, Maternal Health Facilities, Abortion Legislation and Maternal Deaths: A Natural Experiment in Chile from 1957 to 2007  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess the main factors related to maternal mortality reduction in large time series available in Chile in context of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Methods Time series of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) from official data (National Institute of Statistics, 1957–2007) along with parallel time series of education years, income per capita, fertility rate (TFR), birth order, clean water, sanitary sewer, and delivery by skilled attendants were analysed using autoregressive models (ARIMA). Historical changes on the mortality trend including the effect of different educational and maternal health policies implemented in 1965, and legislation that prohibited abortion in 1989 were assessed utilizing segmented regression techniques. Results During the 50-year study period, the MMR decreased from 293.7 to 18.2/100,000 live births, a decrease of 93.8%. Women's education level modulated the effects of TFR, birth order, delivery by skilled attendants, clean water, and sanitary sewer access. In the fully adjusted model, for every additional year of maternal education there was a corresponding decrease in the MMR of 29.3/100,000 live births. A rapid phase of decline between 1965 and 1981 (?13.29/100,000 live births each year) and a slow phase between 1981 and 2007 (?1.59/100,000 live births each year) were identified. After abortion was prohibited, the MMR decreased from 41.3 to 12.7 per 100,000 live births (?69.2%). The slope of the MMR did not appear to be altered by the change in abortion law. Conclusion Increasing education level appears to favourably impact the downward trend in the MMR, modulating other key factors such as access and utilization of maternal health facilities, changes in women's reproductive behaviour and improvements of the sanitary system. Consequently, different MDGs can act synergistically to improve maternal health. The reduction in the MMR is not related to the legal status of abortion. PMID:22574194

Koch, Elard; Thorp, John; Bravo, Miguel; Gatica, Sebastián; Romero, Camila X.; Aguilera, Hernán; Ahlers, Ivonne

2012-01-01

371

The cultural environment behind successful maternal death and morbidity reviews.  

PubMed

This paper discusses some of the background principles which, through wide experience of instituting reviews of maternal deaths or near-misses around the world, appear common to their successful introduction. A supportive culture at personal, institutional and national level underpinned by the fostering of professionalism and the development of an ethos of safety against a wider supportive environment is needed. Reviews undertaken at a local level are as beneficial as those at a regional or population level and should be encouraged as a routine part of the quality improvement agenda for each and every healthcare facility. PMID:25236630

Lewis, G

2014-09-01

372

Pharmacological Neuroprotection after Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is an important cause of neonatal brain injury. Recent progress in the search for neuroprotective compounds has provided us with several promising drugs to reduce perinatal HI-induced brain injury. In the early stage (first 6 hours after birth) therapies are concentrated on prevention of the production of reactive oxygen species or free radicals (xanthine-oxidase-, nitric oxide synthase-, and prostaglandin inhibition), anti-inflammatory effects (erythropoietin, melatonin, Xenon) and anti-apoptotic interventions (nuclear factor kappa B- and c-jun N-terminal kinase inhibition); in a later stage stimulation of neurotrophic properties in the neonatal brain (erythropoietin, growth factors) can be targeted to promote neuronal and oligodendrocyte regeneration. Combination of pharmacological means of treatment with moderate hypothermia, which is accepted now as a meaningful therapy, is probably the next step in clinical treatment to fight post-asphyxial brain damage. Further studies should be directed at a more rational use of therapies by determining the optimal time and dose to inhibit the different potentially destructive molecular pathways or to enhance endogenous repair while at the same time avoiding adverse effects of the drugs used. PMID:21629441

Fan, Xiyong; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J; Groenendaal, Floris; van Bel, Frank

2010-01-01

373

Bone health in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection  

PubMed Central

The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD) appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpretation complicated by the need for better pediatric norms. The potential negative effects of tenofovir on BMD and bone mass accrual are of particular concern as this drug may be used more widely in younger children. Emphasizing good nutrition, calcium and vitamin D sufficiency, weight-bearing exercise and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are effective and available approaches to maintain and improve bone health in all settings. More data are needed to inform therapies and monitoring for HIV-infected youth with proven bone fragility. While very limited data suggest lack of marked increase in fracture risk for youth with perinatal HIV infection, the looming concern for these children is that they may fail to attain their expected peak bone mass in early adulthood which could increase their risk for fractures and osteoporosis later in adulthood. PMID:23782476

Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Siberry, George K

2013-01-01

374

Pregnant African American women's attitudes toward perinatal depression prevention.  

PubMed

Depression during the perinatal period is common, debilitating, and consequential for women and their children, particularly among low income African American women. Viable approaches to prevention of depression have emerged. Yet little is known about women's preferences for approaches to preventing depression. A sample of 60 pregnant, low-income African American women seeking routine prenatal care was presented with standardized descriptions of three approaches to depression prevention (pharmacotherapy and two psychosocial approaches) and measures of preferences, perceived credibility, and personal reactions to each approach. Women also completed measures of perceived barriers and facilitators and current depression. Consistent with expectations, both of the psychosocial approaches were rated as more strongly preferred, more credible, and associated with more positive personal reactions relative to the pharmacotherapy approach. Depression did not alter women's preferences among the approaches. Contrary to prediction, women with clinically significant levels of depression did not find the pharmacotherapy approach to be more credible or to have more favorable personal reactions to it than women with low depression symptom levels. Exploration of women's perceptions of barriers revealed the importance of logistics, beliefs, and stigma barriers whereas women reported that concern about depression being impairing and ease of pragmatics would both facilitate engagement with preventive interventions. The findings suggest the need to examine the role of preferences in tests of the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention of perinatal depression in order to enhance service delivery among low income African American women. PMID:23356356

Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona; Williams, Kristen G

2013-01-01

375

Bone health in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection.  

PubMed

The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD) appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpretation complicated by the need for better pediatric norms. The potential negative effects of tenofovir on BMD and bone mass accrual are of particular concern as this drug may be used more widely in younger children. Emphasizing good nutrition, calcium and vitamin D sufficiency, weight-bearing exercise and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are effective and available approaches to maintain and improve bone health in all settings. More data are needed to inform therapies and monitoring for HIV-infected youth with proven bone fragility. While very limited data suggest lack of marked increase in fracture risk for youth with perinatal HIV infection, the looming concern for these children is that they may fail to attain their expected peak bone mass in early adulthood which could increase their risk for fractures and osteoporosis later in adulthood. PMID:23782476

Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Siberry, George K

2013-01-01

376

Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of dietary perinatal Trifolium pratense  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate the potential estrogenic effects of perinatal dietary phytoestrogens on the rat uterus. Pregnant rats were divided to three groups provided the following diets: (1) rat chow, (2) rat chow with 7.5% Trifolium (T.) pratense, or (3) rat chow supplemented with 17?-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg). The dams in each group were kept on the same diet during pregnancy and lactation. Female offspring were euthanized on day 21 at which time body and organ weights were recorded and tissue samples were taken for histology. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels. Our results revealed estrogen-like biological effects of perinatal T. pratense exposure. Relative uterus and ovary weights in the experimental groups were increased compared to control. The number of uterine glands and luminal epithelium heights were also increased. However, there were no statistically significant changes detected in the immunostaining intensity of ER? and PR between the groups. PMID:21586870

Daglioglu, Suzan

2011-01-01

377

Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of dietary perinatal Trifolium pratense.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the potential estrogenic effects of perinatal dietary phytoestrogens on the rat uterus. Pregnant rats were divided to three groups provided the following diets: (1) rat chow, (2) rat chow with 7.5% Trifolium (T.) pratense, or (3) rat chow supplemented with 17?-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg). The dams in each group were kept on the same diet during pregnancy and lactation. Female offspring were euthanized on day 21 at which time body and organ weights were recorded and tissue samples were taken for histology. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels. Our results revealed estrogen-like biological effects of perinatal T. pratense exposure. Relative uterus and ovary weights in the experimental groups were increased compared to control. The number of uterine glands and luminal epithelium heights were also increased. However, there were no statistically significant changes detected in the immunostaining intensity of ER? and PR between the groups. PMID:21586870

Yatkin, Emrah; Daglioglu, Suzan

2011-06-01

378

The circadian rhythm of the perinatal mortality rate in Switzerland.  

PubMed

The authors examine the relation between the perinatal mortality rate (PMR), birth weight in four categories, and hour of birth throughout the week in Switzerland, using data on 672,013 births and 5,764 perinatal deaths recorded between 1979 and 1987. From Monday to Friday, the PMR follows a circadian rhythm with a regular increase from early morning to evening, with a peak for babies born between 7 and 8 p.m. This pattern of variation has two main components: The circadian rhythms for the proportion of births in the four weight categories and the PMR circadian rhythm for babies weighing more than 2.5 kg. According to a cosinor model, which describes about 40% of the total variation in the PMR, the most important determinants are changes in the proportions of births: Low birth weight increases toward the afternoon and night. Mechanisms underlying the weight-specific timing of birth are discussed, including time selection of birth according to obstetric risks, the direct effect of neonatal and obstetric care, and chronobiologic behavior. PMID:1585906

Ruffieux, C; Marazzi, A; Paccaud, F

1992-04-15

379

Prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection: current status and future prospects  

PubMed Central

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common cause of perinatal viral infection in the developed world, resulting in approximately 40,000 congenitally infected infants in the United States each year. Congenital CMV infection can produce varying degrees of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The significant impact of congenital CMV has led the Institute of Medicine to rank development of a CMV vaccine as a top priority. Vaccine development has been ongoing; however no licensed CMV vaccine is currently available. Treatment of pregnant women with CMV hyperimmune globulin has shown promising results, but has not been studied in randomized controlled trials. Education on methods to prevent CMV transmission, particularly among young women of child-bearing age, should continue until a CMV vaccine becomes available. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, prevention strategies, and treatment of CMV infections are reviewed. PMID:21072294

Nyholm, Jessica L; Schleiss, Mark R

2010-01-01

380

Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Care Services by Primigravida Females in Urban and Rural Areas of India  

PubMed Central

Maternal complications and poor perinatal outcome are highly associated with nonutilisation of antenatal and delivery care services and poor socioeconomic conditions of the patient. It is essential that all pregnant women have access to high quality obstetric care throughout their pregnancies. Present longitudinal study was carried out to compare utilization of maternal and child health care services by urban and rural primigravida females. A total of 240 study participants were enrolled in this study. More illiteracy and less mean age at the time of marriage were observed in rural population. Poor knowledge about prelacteal feed, colostrums, tetanus injection and iron-follic acid tablet consumption was noted in both urban and rural areas. Very few study participants from both areas were counselled for HIV testing before pregnancy. More numbers of abortions (19.2%) were noted in urban study participants compared to rural area. Thus utilization of maternal and child health care (MCH) services was poor in both urban and rural areas. A sustained and focussed IEC campaign to improve the awareness amongst community on MCH will help in improving community participation. This may improve the quality, accessibility, and utilization of maternal health care services provided by the government agencies in both rural and urban areas. PMID:24977099

2014-01-01

381

Improving Perinatal Regionalization for Preterm Deliveries in a Medicaid Covered Population: Initial Impact of the Arkansas ANGELS Intervention  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the factors associated with delivery of preterm infants at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitals in Arkansas during the period 2001–2006, with a focus on the impact of a Medicaid supported intervention, Antenatal and Neonatal Guidelines, Education, and Learning System (ANGELS), that expanded the consulting capacity of the academic medical center's maternal fetal medicine practice. Data Sources A dataset of linked Medicaid claims and birth certificates for the time period by clustering Medicaid claims by pregnancy episode. Pregnancy episodes were linked to residential county-level demographic and medical resource characteristics. Deliveries occurring before 35 weeks gestation (n = 5,150) were used for analysis. Study Design Logistic regression analysis was used to examine time trends and individual, county, and intervention characteristics associated with delivery at hospitals with NICU, and delivery at the academic medical center. Principal Findings Perceived risk, age, education, and prenatal care characteristics of women affected the likelihood of use of the NICU. The perceived availability of local expertise was associated with a lower likelihood that preterm infants would deliver at the NICU. ANGELS did not increase the overall use of NICU, but it did shift some deliveries to the academic setting. Conclusion Perinatal regionalization is the consequence of a complex set of provider and patient decisions, and it is difficult to alter with a voluntary program. PMID:21413980

Bronstein, Janet M; Ounpraseuth, Songthip; Jonkman, Jeffrey; Lowery, Curtis L; Fletcher, David; Nugent, Richard R; Hall, Richard W

2011-01-01

382

Neonatal Transfer Rate and Mode of Delivery from 37th Week of Gestation in a German Perinatal Center Level 1  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Rates for caesarean section are on the rise and the reasons for this are being discussed worldwide. As the data is unclear, the identification of additional predictive factors for caesarean section is important as caesarean sections are closely linked to maternal and neonatal morbidity. The aim of the study was to identify predictive factors for the transfer of the neonate to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) depending on the mode of delivery. The study investigated the neonatal transfer rates for singleton and twin pregnancies delivered at ??36?+?0 weeks of gestation. Material and Methods: The data of all singleton (n?=?4181) and twin pregnancies (n?=?305 neonates), delivered between 1 January 2009 and 31 March 2012 in the OB/Gyn Department of the University Hospital Frankfurt/M, Germany, (perinatal center level 1) were evaluated. The indications for transfer to the NICU and possible predictive factors were evaluated. Results: Our study found a two times lower neonatal transfer rate for vaginal deliveries of pregnant women without risk factors compared to women with risk factors. The following neonatal transfer rates to the NICU were noted for singleton pregnancies: 4.7?% without risk factors, 8.3?% high-risk pregnancy, 6.2?% vaginal breech delivery, 9.3?% forceps delivery, 10?% elective primary caesarean section and 14?% secondary caesarean section. There was a statistically signific PMID:24771918

Reinhard, J.; Hanker, L.; Sänger, N.; Yuan, J.; Louwen, F.

2013-01-01

383

Maternal complications in diabetic pregnancy.  

PubMed

Pregnant women with diabetes have to manage both the effect of pregnancy on glucose control and its effect on pre-existing diabetic complications. Most women experience hypoglycaemia as a consequence of tightened glycaemic control and this impacts on daily living. Less commonly, diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious metabolic decompensation of diabetic control and a medical emergency, can cause foetal and maternal mortality. Microvascular complications of diabetes include retinopathy and nephropathy. Retinopathy can deteriorate during pregnancy; hence, regular routine examination is required and, if indicated, ophthalmological input. Diabetic nephropathy significantly increases the risk of obstetric complications and impacts on foetal outcomes. Pregnancy outcome is closely related to pre-pregnancy renal function. Diabetic pregnancy is contraindicated if the maternal complications of ischaemic heart disease or diabetic gastropathy are known to be present before pregnancy as there is a significant maternal mortality associated with both of these conditions. PMID:21130689

Hawthorne, Gillian

2011-02-01

384

Postzygotic Maternal Influences and the Maternal-Embryonic Relationship of Viviparous Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. Viviparous reproduction in fishes provides opportunities for maternal phenotypic modifications to influence offspring phenotype fol- lowing fertilization. Various physiological adaptations associated with the maintenance and control of prenatal embryonic development may provide the means by which postnatal phenotype is impacted by maternal phe- notype. It is widely recognized that postzygotic maternal influences may be mediated through the maternal-embryonic trophic

JULIAN LOMBARDI

1996-01-01