Sample records for periscopes

  1. Periscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Boston

    2003-01-01

    In this optics activity, learners build a spy tool to secretly view things over walls or around corners. Learners discover that the mirrors inside the periscope reflect light to help you see what's hidden behind a corner.

  2. Periscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Watsonville Environmental Science Workshop

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, learners construct a device that allows them to look over ledges or around corners. Use this activity to introduce learners to concepts related to optics, mirrors and how submarines use periscopes to see above water. Note: this activity requires the use of a saw, not included in the cost of materials.

  3. Telescoping Periscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-28

    In this activity, learners explore the many uses of periscopes and how this simple device was designed and is used in many applications. Learners work in teams to design and build their own working periscope out of everyday materials. They design their periscope, build and test it, evaluate their designs, and share observations.

  4. Up Periscope!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pat Murphy

    1998-01-01

    This activity provides instructions for building a mirrored tube--a smaller and simpler version of a submarine's periscope--that lets you see around corners and over walls. Get a hands-on lesson about how light reflects and how to use that reflection to extend your vision.

  5. 29. VIEW OF 1959 KOLLMORGEN BUNKER PERISCOPE LOCATED IN NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF 1959 KOLLMORGEN BUNKER PERISCOPE LOCATED IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM. NOTE SCHRADER VALVE ABOVE HANDLE ON RIGHT SIDE OF PERISCOPE. MONITOR LABELED '1-FLAMEBUCKET' IN BACKGROUND TO LEFT OF PERISCOPE. DIGITAL COUNTDOWN AND HOLD CLOCKS IMMEDIATELY ABOVE MONITOR. ANOTHER DIGITAL COUNTDOWN CLOCK AND THE MILITARY TIME CLOCK ON NORTH WALL BENEATH THE MONITOR. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Mobile Interaction with Remote Worlds: The Acoustic Periscope

    E-print Network

    Balan, Radu V.

    -to-speech synthesis for natural language in- teraction, mobile computing, communication in a LAN/Bluetooth network1 Mobile Interaction with Remote Worlds: The Acoustic Periscope Justinian Rosca Sandra Sudarsky peri- scope is a metaphor for mobile interaction that transparently ex- ploits audio/speech to navigate

  7. Resolving Spectral Lines with a Periscope-Type DVD Spectroscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka

    2008-01-01

    A new type of DVD spectroscope, the periscope type, is described and the numerical analysis of the observed emission and absorption spectra is demonstrated. A small and thin mirror is put inside and an eighth part of a DVD is used as a grating. Using this improved DVD spectroscope, one can observe and photograph visible spectra more easily and…

  8. In vivo dendritic calcium imaging with a fiberoptic periscope system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanori Murayama; Matthew E Larkum

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic recordings in freely moving animals present great challenges using the current approaches. Here we present in detail a microendoscopic technique (the 'periscope' method) for measuring intracellular calcium activity directly from the apical dendrites of L5 pyramidal neurons from the pia down to depths of ?700 ?m in anesthetized and freely moving rats. This method gives high signal-to-noise dendritic fluorescence

  9. Symmetric periscope for concentric beam configuration in an ultra-high precision laser interferometric beam launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Lawrence L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An optical component especially suited for common path heterodyne interferometry comprises a symmetric dual-periscope configuration. Each periscope is substantially identical to the other with regard to certain design aspects. The resulting design is an optical component that is highly stable with variations in temperature and angular deviations.

  10. Three-dimensional videography of swimming with panning periscopes.

    PubMed

    Yanai, T; Hay, J G; Gerot, J T

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a three-dimensional videography method with panning periscopes for reconstructing swimming techniques. Two panning periscope systems, developed in our laboratory, were used for the data collection. A control object (1 x 1.2 x 2)m3 with 72 markers was placed in seven consecutive locations along the (1.5 x 8.4 x 2) m3 calibration space. The position of the control object was recorded while panning the periscope systems, and for each of the seven locations the DLT camera parameters were determined for eight fields equally spaced through the panning motion. Each DLT camera parameter was then expressed as a function of the camera orientation by using a least-squares, second-order, polynomial regression equation, so that the DLT camera parameters for any camera orientation could be predicted (Yu et al., J. Biomechanics 26, 741-751, 1993). The three-dimensional coordinates of desired body landmarks at an instant were determined from the digitized two-dimensional coordinates for two cameras and the predicted DLT camera parameters at that instant. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by (a) the resultant errors in computing three-dimensional coordinates of precalibrated static points, and (b) the errors in computing the length of a scale rod pulled through the calibration space. The mean resultant errors ranged from 8.34 to 16.44 mm for the above- and from 9.93 to 16.22 mm for the below-water control volumes. The mean error in computing lengths on the scale rod ranged from 3.32 to 5.83 mm for three 0.5 m lengths, and 9.97 mm for a 1.5 m length. The method produced acceptable results in the reconstruction of three-dimensional motions recorded from a large space above and below the water surface. PMID:8707797

  11. NIF Periscope Wall Modal Study Comparison of Results for 2 FEA Models with 2 Modal Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Eli, M W; Gerhard, M A; Lee, C L; Sommer, S C; Woehrle, T G

    2000-10-26

    This report summarizes experimentally and numerically determined modal properties for one of the reinforced concrete end walls of the NIF Periscope Support Structure in Laser Bay 1. Two methods were used to determine these modal properties: (1) Computational finite-element analyses (modal extraction process); and (2) Experimental modal analysis based on measured test data. This report also includes experimentally determined modal properties for a prototype LM3/Polarizer line-replaceable unit (LRU) and a prototype PEPC LRU. Two important parameters, used during the design phase, are validated through testing [ref 1]. These parameters are the natural frequencies and modal damping (of the system in question) for the first several global modes of vibration. Experimental modal testing provides these modal values, along with the corresponding mode shapes. Another important parameter, the input excitation (expected during normal operation of the NIF laser system) [ref 1], can be verified by performing a series of ambient vibration measurements in the vicinity of the particular system (or subsystem) of interest. The topic of ambient input excitation will be covered in a separate report. Due to the large mass of the Periscope Pedestal, it is difficult to excite the entire series of Periscope Pedestal Walls all at once. It was decided that the experimental modal tests would be performed on just one Periscope End Wall in Laser Bay 1. Experimental modal properties for the Periscope End Wall have been used to validate and update the FE analyses. Results from the analyses and modal tests support the conclusion that the Periscope Pedestal will not exceed the stability budget, which is described in reference 1. The results of the modal tests for the Periscope End Wall in Laser Bay 1 have provided examples of modal properties that can be derived from future modal tests of the entire Periscope Assembly (excluding the LRU's). This next series of larger modal tests can be performed after the support structure for the Periscope Assembly has been completed. There are five optical elements in the Periscope Assembly: PEPC; Polarizer; LM3; LM2; and the Periscope Light Source. All of these optical elements have stability requirements except for the PEPC. During the Title II Design phase, two prototypes of the LM3/Polarizer LRU were used in two different series of modal tests [ref 2,3]. A similar series of modal tests were conducted on a prototype of the PEPC LRU. The results of the modal tests were used to verify the modal properties assumed for use in the corresponding finite-element analyses.

  12. Root growth response to defoliation in two Agropyron bunchgrasses: field observations with an improved root periscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Richards

    1984-01-01

    Root growth responses to defoliation were observed in the field with an improved root periscope technique, which is described. The grazing tolerant, Eurasian bunchgrass, Agropyron desertorum, was compared with the very similar but grazing sensitive, North American bunchgrass, A. spicatum. Root length growth of clipped A. desertorum was about 50% of that of intact plants, while root elongation of clipped

  13. Periscope-like endoscope for transmission of a near field in the infrared range.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atiqur; Belov, Pavel A; Hao, Yang; Parini, Clive

    2010-01-15

    A possibility to transmit near field through a periscope-like endoscope formed by an array of bent metallic rods is investigated. This is a first step on the way to development of flexible near-field endoscopes. An effort to tunnel the near field of a crown-shaped object through the periscope with 45 degrees bending angle is made, and a shift in the operating frequency band with respect to that of the straight endoscope is observed. An analysis of transmission coefficient as a function of transverse wave vector has been provided for a better understanding of the device operation. A distinctive nature of surface waves appearing at both interfaces has also been reported. PMID:20081948

  14. A reflective image-rotating periscope for spatially resolved Thomson-scattering experiments on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J.; Ross, J. S.; Sorce, C.; Froula, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    A reflective image rotating periscope has been deployed on the Thomson-scattering system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, enabling the capability to make spatially resolved measurements of plasma conditions using either the 2? (527-nm) or 4? (263-nm) probe beam. The spectral content of ion-acoustic and electron plasma wave Thomson-scattering features are analyzed along the probe beam's axis of propagation using a pair of imaging Czerny-Turner spectrometers. A method for calculating image rotation was applied to design a translating periscope mirror assembly that provides fine adjustment of the image orientation at the spectrometer input plane. Spectrally dispersed Thomson-scattering signals are recorded using time-gated intensified charge-coupled-device cameras. Spectral resolution of up to 0.03 nm (0.2 nm) is achieved using a 1-m (0.3-m) spectrometer, allowing for simultaneous measurements of the ion-acoustic and electron plasma wave features. The optical system's 20-?m imaging resolution provides excellent noise rejection and spatial definition of the Thomson-scattering volume.

  15. Representing distributed cognition in complex systems: how a submarine returns to periscope depth.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Neville A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method as a means of modelling distributed cognition in systems. The method comprises three network models (i.e. task, social and information) and their combination. This method was applied to the interactions between the sound room and control room in a submarine, following the activities of returning the submarine to periscope depth. This paper demonstrates three main developments in EAST. First, building the network models directly, without reference to the intervening methods. Second, the application of analysis metrics to all three networks. Third, the combination of the aforementioned networks in different ways to gain a broader understanding of the distributed cognition. Analyses have shown that EAST can be used to gain both qualitative and quantitative insights into distributed cognition. Future research should focus on the analyses of network resilience and modelling alternative versions of a system. PMID:23510256

  16. Modeling and analysis of a high-performance midwave infrared panoramic periscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Jonathan M.; Waterman, James R.; Menon, Raghu; Devitt, John

    2010-11-01

    A high-resolution midwave infrared panoramic periscope sensor system has been developed. The sensor includes an f/2.5 catadioptric optical system that provides a field of view with 360-deg horizontal azimuth and -10- to +30-deg elevation without requiring moving components (e.g., rotating mirrors). The focal plane is a 2048×2048, 15-?m-pitch InSb detector operating at 80 K. An onboard thermoelectric reference source allows for real-time nonuniformity correction using the two-point correction method. The entire system (detector-Dewar assembly, cooler, electronics, and optics) is packaged to fit in an 8-in.-high, 6.5-in.-diameter volume. This work describes both the system optics and the electronics and presents sample imagery. We model both the sensor's radiometric performance, quantified by the noise-equivalent temperature difference, and its resolution performance. Model predictions are then compared with estimates obtained from experimental data. The ability of the system to resolve targets as a function of imaged spatial frequency is also presented.

  17. Endovascular Treatment of a Symptomatic Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Chimney and Periscope Techniques for Total Visceral and Renal Artery Revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Cariati, Maurizio, E-mail: cariati.maurizio@sancarlo.mi.it [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Sciences (Italy); Mingazzini, Pietro; Dallatana, Raffaello [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy); Rossi, Umberto G. [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Sciences (Italy); Settembrini, Alberto [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Universitŕ degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Santuari, Davide [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy)

    2013-05-02

    Conventional endovascular therapy of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with involving visceral and renal arteries is limited by the absence of a landing zone for the aortic endograft. Solutions have been proposed to overcome the problem of no landing zone; however, most of them are not feasible in urgent and high-risk patients. We describe a case that was successfully treated by total endovascular technique with a two-by-two chimney-and-periscope approach in a patient with acute symptomatic type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with supra-anastomotic aneurysm formation involving the renal and visceral arteries and a pseduaneurismatic sac localized in the left ileopsoas muscle.

  18. Improved signal to noise ratio and sensitivity of an infrared imaging video bolometer on large helical device by using an infrared periscope

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Shwetang N., E-mail: pandya.shwetang@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Sano, Ryuichi [High Temperature Plasma Physics Research Division, The Graduate University of Advanced Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Peterson, Byron J.; Mukai, Kiyofumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Enokuchi, Akito; Takeyama, Norihide [GENESIA Corporation, 3-38-4-601 Shimo-Renjaku, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0013 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    An Infrared imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) diagnostic is currently being used in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for studying the localization of radiation structures near the magnetic island and helical divertor X-points during plasma detachment and for 3D tomography. This research demands high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity to improve the temporal resolution for studying the evolution of radiation structures during plasma detachment and a wide IRVB field of view (FoV) for tomography. Introduction of an infrared periscope allows achievement of a higher SNR and higher sensitivity, which in turn, permits a twofold improvement in the temporal resolution of the diagnostic. Higher SNR along with wide FoV is achieved simultaneously by reducing the separation of the IRVB detector (metal foil) from the bolometer's aperture and the LHD plasma. Altering the distances to meet the aforesaid requirements results in an increased separation between the foil and the IR camera. This leads to a degradation of the diagnostic performance in terms of its sensitivity by 1.5-fold. Using an infrared periscope to image the IRVB foil results in a 7.5-fold increase in the number of IR camera pixels imaging the foil. This improves the IRVB sensitivity which depends on the square root of the number of IR camera pixels being averaged per bolometer channel. Despite the slower f-number (f/# = 1.35) and reduced transmission (?{sub 0} = 89%, due to an increased number of lens elements) for the periscope, the diagnostic with an infrared periscope operational on LHD has improved in terms of sensitivity and SNR by a factor of 1.4 and 4.5, respectively, as compared to the original diagnostic without a periscope (i.e., IRVB foil being directly imaged by the IR camera through conventional optics). The bolometer's field of view has also increased by two times. The paper discusses these improvements in apt details.

  19. How a submarine returns to periscope depth: analysing complex socio-technical systems using Cognitive Work Analysis.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Neville A; Bessell, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the application of Cognitive Work Analysis to the description of the functions, situations, activities, decisions, strategies, and competencies of a Trafalgar class submarine when performing the function of returning to periscope depth. All five phases of Cognitive Work Analysis are presented, namely: Work Domain Analysis, Control Task Analysis, Strategies Analysis, Social Organisation and Cooperation Analysis, and Worker Competencies Analysis. Complex socio-technical systems are difficult to analyse but Cognitive Work Analysis offers an integrated way of analysing complex systems with the core of functional means-ends analysis underlying all of the other representations. The joined-up analysis offers a coherent framework for understanding how socio-technical systems work. Data were collected through observation and interviews at different sites across the UK. The resultant representations present a statement of how the work domain and current activities are configured in this complex socio-technical system. This is intended to provide a baseline, from which all future conceptions of the domain may be compared. The strength of the analysis is in the multiple representations from which the constraints acting on the work may be analysed. Future research needs to challenge the assumptions behind these constraints in order to develop new ways of working. PMID:23702259

  20. Endovascular Repair of Acute Symptomatic Pararenal Aortic Aneurysm With Three Chimney and One Periscope Graft for Complete Visceral Artery Revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Brechtel, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.brechtel@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Ketelsen, Dominik [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Endisch, Andrea [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Germany); Heller, Stephan; Heuschmid, Martin [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Stock, Ulrich A.; Kalender, Guenay [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    PurposeTo describe a modified endovascular technique for complete revascularization of visceral and renal arteries in symptomatic pararenal aortic aneurysm (PRAA).TechniqueArterial access was surgically established in both common femoral arteries (CFAs) and the left subclavian artery (LSA). Revascularization of the left renal artery, the celiac trunk, and the superior mesenteric artery was performed through one single sheath via the LSA. Suitable covered stents were put in the aortic branches but not deployed. The right renal artery was accessed over the left CFA. Due to the longitudinal extension of the presented aneurysm two stent-grafts were introduced via the right CFA. After deploying the aortic stent-grafts, all covered stents in the side branches were deployed consecutively with a minimum overlap of 5 mm over the cranial and caudal stent-graft edges. Simultaneous ballooning was performed to fully expand all stent-grafts and warranty patency. Conclusion: This is the first report in the literature of chimney grafting in PRAA for complete revascularization of visceral and renal branches by using more than two covered stents introduced from one side through one single sheath. However this technique is modified, it should be used only in bailout situations when branched stent-grafts are not available and/or surgery is not suitable.

  1. Discover Jacksonville | Ultimate Jaguars | First Coast Fugitives | Internet Directory | Jax2Go Wireless Water's Edge magazine | H for Health magazine | Jax Air News | Mayport Mirror | Kings Bay Periscope | Ultimate Yellow Pages

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Martin C.

    Manatee County Port Authority Central Florida: Furniture Refinishers Sub- Contract Leathersmith / Upholster Company Name Withheld CONTROLLER Twin Disc Southeast, a distribution s... To work in tertiary care

  2. 33. HISTORIC VIEW OF WERNHER VON BRAUN LOOKS THROUGH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC VIEW OF WERNHER VON BRAUN LOOKS THROUGH THE PERISCOPE FROM THE CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND NO. 1, PEENEMUENDE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EARTH MOUND. NOTE THE RECTANGULAR OPENINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EARTH MOUND. NOTE THE RECTANGULAR OPENINGS USED FOR OBSERVATION EQUIPMENT AND PERISCOPE TOPS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...excluding second receiving antennas for operations such as space diversity) meeting the appropriate performance Standard A indicated...e) Periscope antennas used at an electric power facility plant area will be excluded from the requirements of...

  5. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...excluding second receiving antennas for operations such as space diversity) meeting the appropriate performance Standard A indicated...e) Periscope antennas used at an electric power facility plant area will be excluded from the requirements of...

  6. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...excluding second receiving antennas for operations such as space diversity) meeting the appropriate performance Standard A indicated...e) Periscope antennas used at an electric power facility plant area will be excluded from the requirements of...

  7. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...excluding second receiving antennas for operations such as space diversity) meeting the appropriate performance Standard A indicated...e) Periscope antennas used at an electric power facility plant area will be excluded from the requirements of...

  8. Optical system design for infrared imaging system of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, S.; Seo, D.; KSTAR Team

    2012-02-01

    The first infrared imaging system, for monitoring the temperature of the inner wall and localized hot spot such as the ICRH antenna was installed on the midplane of the D-port in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The cassette system of KSTAR makes a periscope inevitable for infrared imaging system. The periscope is composed of a 3 functional optical lens set (input beam shaper, beam deliverer, output beam shaper). CaF2 was chosen for the material of the lens elements. As an infrared image camera, FLIR/ThermoVision SC6000HS is used. The infrared camera has 640 × 512 pixel resolution and a camera lens set with 25.4 mm of focus length and 50 mm of input pupil. The periscope was designed to have 2.7 m of overall length, 19.07 mm of focal length and 3.81 of f-number.

  9. Optics design of the divertor infrared television of KSTAR.

    PubMed

    Oh, S; Lee, K; Lee, H H; Wi, H M; Kim, Y S; Kang, C S

    2014-11-01

    The divertor Infrared television (IR TV) system for monitoring the temperature of a divertor and localized hot spots will be installed on the upper port of the N-port in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The cassette of KSTAR makes a periscope inevitable for the divertor IR TV. In this article, 4 design concepts for the periscope were examined, and the design based on Keplerian was shown to have better stabilities in alignment and the vibration. The final optics design based on an f-theta lens, Keplerian, and telecentric lens was derived. PMID:25430316

  10. MEASURING FEL RADIATION PROPERTIES AT VISA-FEL A. Murokh*, R. Agustsson, P. Frigola, C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, J. Rosenzweig, A. Tremaine,

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    gap and transport the light out through the periscope principle. A light aluminum frame locks MeV electron beam. To achieve the maximum performance, a 4-m Hallbach array undulator was designed-off [3], such a design places stringent limitations on the error budget of the undulator correction

  11. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 680-A-2). Part of ground floor, optical shop and roof periscope testing tower; 1936. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Machine Shop, California Avenue, southwest corner of California Avenue & Thirteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. IET control building (TAN620). control room. facing north. control consoles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). control room. facing north. control consoles have been removed. Openings in floor were communication and control conduits. Periscope controls at center left (see also HAER No. ID-33-E-20). INEEL negative no. HD-21-3-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. DETAIL VIEW OF THE WEST INTERIOR WALL OF THE EXTREME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE WEST INTERIOR WALL OF THE EXTREME NORTH (CONTROL) TANK. NOTE THE TWO PERISCOPES IN THE UPPER PART OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. ALSO NOTE THE CONTROL PANEL IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PHOTO, THIS WAS USED TO CONTROL THE REMOTE 'FIRE-EX' WATER NOZZLES. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. 25. VIEW OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM. CONSOLE INCLUDES TELEVISION CONTROL, FACILITIES, AND VEHICLE (MISSILE) POWER PANELS. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: MILITARY-TIME CLOCK, BASE OF BUNKER PERISCOPE, AND STAIRS TO ESCAPE TUNNEL. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 2. VIEW OF WEST FACE OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING. BUNKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WEST FACE OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING. BUNKER PERISCOPE VISIBLE ON NORTH END OF ROOF. ESCAPE TUNNEL AND CABLE SHED VISIBLE ON NORTH FACE. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Development of optical components for in-vessel viewing systems used for fusion experimental reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenjiro Obara; Satoshi Kakudate; Kiyoshi Oka; Eisuke Tada; Yosuke Morita; Masahiro Seki

    1994-01-01

    Optical components including imagefiber, periscope, glass, reflecting mirror and adhesive for lens are essential elements of in-vessel viewing system use for fusion experimental reactor and extensive of gamma irradiation tests have been conducted. These components were irradiated in the range of 1 MGy - 100 MGy under the average exposure dose rate of 1 X 106 R\\/h. As a result,

  17. Innovative optronics for the new PUMA tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritze, J.; Münzberg, M.; Schlemmer, H.

    2010-04-01

    The new PUMA tank is equipped with a fully stabilized 360° periscope. The thermal imager in the periscope is identical to the imager in the gunner sight. All optronic images of the cameras can be fed on every electronic display within the tank. The thermal imagers operate with a long wave 384x288 MCT starring focal plane array. The high quantum efficiency of MCT provides low NETD values at short integration times. The thermal imager has an image resolution of 768x576 pixels by means of a micro scanner. The MCT detector operates at high temperatures above 75K with high stability in noise and correctibility and offers high reliability (MTTF) values for the complete camera in a very compact design. The paper discusses the principle and functionality of the optronic combination of direct view optical channel, thermal imager and visible camera and discusses in detail the performances of the subcomponents with respect to demands for new tank applications.

  18. The MROI fringe tracker: laboratory tracking with ICONN

    E-print Network

    McCracken, T. M.; Jurgenson, C. A.; Young, J. S.; Seneta, E. B.; Buscher, D. F.; Haniff, C. A.; Creech-Eakman, M. J.; Santoro, F. G.; Shtromberg, A. V.; Schmidt, L. M.; Rochelle, S.

    2014-07-24

    Yale University, Astronomy Department, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511, USA; bNew Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Magdalena Ridge Observatory, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801, USA; cUniversity of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Dept... as a diamond shape. MOB Atm. Slide DL Slide Switchyard Beam Combiner Periscope Optics SPX FTModulator FTRealTime Tracking Offsets Waveform Strain Gauge Mod./FPA Timing Tilt/Shear Sensors Beam Shutters Phase Screen Simulator AAS FTDewar/FTAlignment FPA...

  19. Eye Spy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH

    2009-01-01

    This fun activity uses simple materials such as milk cartons and mirrors to introduce the ideas of optics and visual perception. The project is easy to do, however adult assistance may be needed to help learners cut out the cartons. Once they build their periscopes, participants can have fun looking over, under and around things. This activity can also be linked to other spy themed projects or a discussion on submarines and underwater exploration.

  20. IET. Coupling station (TAN620), plans and sections. Concrete shielding walls ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Coupling station (TAN-620), plans and sections. Concrete shielding walls and boron surface treatment. Elevation shows two floor levels, position of periscopes, and stairways. Ralph M. Parsons 902-4-ANP-602-A 325. Date: February 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0620-00-693-106910 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. A model for the submarine depthkeeping team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, J. R.; Best, J. F.; Bozzi, P. J.; Kleinman, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    The most difficult task the depthkeeping team must face occurs during periscope-depth operations during which they may be required to maintain a submarine several hundred feet long within a foot of ordered depth and within one-half degree of ordered pitch. The difficulty is compounded by the facts that wave generated forces are extremely high, depth and pitch signals are very noisy and submarine speed is such that overall dynamics are slow. A mathematical simulation of the depthkeeping team based on the optimal control models is described. A solution of the optimal team control problem with an output control restriction (limited display to each controller) is presented.

  2. A survey of ATL-compatible radiometer antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    A survey was made of antennas suitable for remote sensing of the earth's surface, in particular the world ocean, by means of microwave radiometers operating in the 1 to 26 GHz frequency region and carried on board the shuttle-launched advanced technology laboratory. Array antennas are found to be unattractive and unsuited to the task. Reflectors, including Cassegrain and offset types, as well as horn-reflectors are possible candidates but all have shortcomings which impair the accuracy of measurement. Horns of the corrugated type have excellent electrical characteristics. Although they are physically very large and will require development of suitable deployment mechanisms, they appear to be valid candidates for the task. The evolution of the periscope antenna is outlined, and it is shown to possess nearly ideal electrical characteristics for the intended application. Its only shortcoming is that the feed horn creates aperture blocking; there is no blocking due to struts or any other source. The periscope antenna is recommended for ATL radiometry.

  3. Transverse Pupil Shifts for Adaptive Optics Non-Common Path Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    A simple new way of obtaining absolute wavefront measurements with a laboratory Fizeau interferometer was recently devised. In that case, the observed wavefront map is the difference of two cavity surfaces, those of the mirror under test and of an unknown reference surface on the Fizeau s transmission flat. The absolute surface of each can be determined by applying standard wavefront reconstruction techniques to two grids of absolute surface height differences of the mirror under test, obtained from pairs of measurements made with slight transverse shifts in X and Y. Adaptive optics systems typically provide an actuated periscope between wavefront sensor (WFS) and commonmode optics, used for lateral registration of deformable mirror (DM) to WFS. This periscope permits independent adjustment of either pupil or focal spot incident on the WFS. It would be used to give the required lateral pupil motion between common and non-common segments, analogous to the lateral shifts of the two phase contributions in the lab Fizeau. The technique is based on a completely new approach to calibration of phase. It offers unusual flexibility with regard to the transverse spatial frequency scales probed, and will give results quite quickly, making use of no auxiliary equipment other than that built into the adaptive optics system. The new technique may be applied to provide novel calibration information about other optical systems in which the beam may be shifted transversely in a controlled way.

  4. High-resolution, continuous field-of-view (FOV), non-rotating imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L. (Inventor); Stirbl, Robert C. (Inventor); Aghazarian, Hrand (Inventor); Padgett, Curtis W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution CMOS imaging system especially suitable for use in a periscope head. The imaging system includes a sensor head for scene acquisition, and a control apparatus inclusive of distributed processors and software for device-control, data handling, and display. The sensor head encloses a combination of wide field-of-view CMOS imagers and narrow field-of-view CMOS imagers. Each bank of imagers is controlled by a dedicated processing module in order to handle information flow and image analysis of the outputs of the camera system. The imaging system also includes automated or manually controlled display system and software for providing an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) that displays a full 360-degree field of view and allows the user or automated ATR system to select regions for higher resolution inspection.

  5. High Resolution IR Imaging for Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurden, G. A.; Terry, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    We are upgrading the infrared imaging system for divertor heat load studies on Alcator C-Mod by adding a new FLIR SC8303HD camera. The new camera is capable of 1344x784 pixel full frame resolution with 14-bit images at 130 Hz. Faster rates are possible by sub-windowing on the image. The new camera uses full camera link interface over fiber optics from the test cell to the control room, and the resulting data acquisition handles an image stream of 260 Mbytes/second straight to disk. At first we will employ a silicon wafer beam splitter, to enable measurements with both the new and old cameras simultaneously with the existing IR periscope. Initial data from the new camera and the parallel development of real-time imaging software for later use of this hardware on the W7-X stellarator will be discussed.

  6. Submarine imaging systems: developing improved capabilities and technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duryea, David M.; Lindstrom, Carl E.; Sayegh, Riad

    2008-04-01

    The US Navy sumbmarine Imaging and Electronic Warfare Program Office, NAVSEA PMS435, is constantly pursuing new technologies and enhanced capabilities in order to allow the submarine fleet to meet quick reaction mission requirements, anticipated future threats and to provide for improvements in overall situational awareness. NAVSEA PMS 435 is actively pursuing the development of applicable technologies and capabilities in the following areas: Periscope Headwindow Watershedding, Mid-Wave Infrared, Low Cost Expendable Imaging Sensors (LCES), Auto Detection and Tracking (ADAT), Auto Target Recognition (ATR), 360 Degree Imaging Systems, and Image Stitching Algorithms. This presentation provides a status of where NAVSEA PMS 435 is in regard to the development of these technologies and provides an opportunity to share ideas as to how they might be more effectively developed by leveraging information and other resources available in other government agencies, commercial partners and academia.

  7. Magnify It!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students will learn that there are limits to what the eye can see and that a magnifying glass can help extend those limits. Students may have been exposed to optical technology such as glasses, magnifying lenses, or even periscopes, microscopes, and telescopes. This lesson aims to channel the inventive energy of students to increase their awareness and purposeful use of tools. They will view objects of various sizes from several viewing distances to discover that their visual field is limited. Students will record what they see and will compare their observations with classmates in an open, nonjudgmental forum. They will have the opportunity to speculate about and experiment freely with magnifying glasses and will also conduct more structured experiments.

  8. Near-field observation platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, Harry; Baeurle, Constantin; Vogel, Holger

    2008-04-01

    A miniaturized near-field observation platform is presented comprising a sensitive daylight camera and an uncooled micro-bolometer thermal imager each equipped with a wide angle lens. Both cameras are optimised for a range between a few meters and 200 m. The platform features a stabilised line of sight and can therefore be used also on a vehicle when it is in motion. The line of sight either can be directed manually or the platform can be used in a panoramic mode. The video output is connected to a control panel where algorithms for moving target indication or tracking can be applied in order to support the observer. The near-field platform also can be netted with the vehicle system and the signals can be utilised, e.g. to designate a new target to the main periscope or the weapon sight.

  9. Investigation of light source and scattering medium related to vapor-screen flow visualization in a supersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, W. L.; Morris, O. A.

    1984-01-01

    Methods for increasing the radiant in light sheets used for vapor screen set-ups were investigated. Both high-pressure mercury arc lamps and lasers were considered. Pulsed operation of the air-cooled 1-kW lamps increased the light output but decreased reliability. An ellipsoidal mirror improved the output of the air-cooled lamps by concentrating the light but increased the complexity of the housing. Water-cooled-4-kW lamps coupled with high-aperture Fresnel lenses provided reasonable improvements over the air-cooled lamps. Fanned laser beams measurements of scattered light versus dew point made in conjunction with successful attempts to control the fluid injection. A number of smoke generators are described and test results comparing smoke and vapor screens are shown. Finally, one test included a periscope system to relay the image to a camera outside the flow.

  10. Opto-mechanical designs for two special-purpose objective lens assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Paul R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Key features of the optomechanical designs for two high-performance objective-lens assemblies of similar focal lengths and relative apertures, but significantly different configurations and applications are discussed. The first lens is a 25.4-cm EFL, f/1.5 catadioptric lens designed for a + or - 2.8-degree field and intended for use with a detector array in a spaceborne star mapper. The second example is a 22.8-cm EFL, f/1.5 refractor covering a + or - 10-degree field, intended for distant target observation in an airborne low-light-level visual periscope and featuring an integral laser channel for target designation and ranging. The logic behind critical materials choices and the techniques applied in mounting the optics in their mechanical surrounds are described.

  11. Performance characteristics of a submarine panoramic infrared imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. M.; Waterman, J. R.; Menon, Raghu; Devitt, John

    2010-04-01

    A high-resolution mid-wave infrared panoramic periscope sensor system has been developed. The sensor includes a catadioptric optical system that provides a 360° horizontal azimuth by -10° to +30° elevation field of view without requiring moving components (e.g. rotating mirrors). The focal plane is a 2048 x 2048, 15?m pitch InSb detector operating at 80K. An on-board thermo-electric reference source allows for real-time nonuniformity correction using the two-point correction method. The entire system (detector-dewar assembly, cooler, electronics and optics) is packaged to fit in an 8" high, 6.5" diameter volume. This work describes both the system optics and electronics and presents sample imagery. We also discuss the sensor's radiometric performance, quantified by the NEDT, as a function of key system parameters. The ability of the system to resolve targets as a function of imaged spatial frequency is also presented.

  12. Optical system design, analysis, and production for advanced technology systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Innsbruck, Austria, Apr. 15-17, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Robert E. (editor); Rogers, Philip J. (editor)

    1986-01-01

    The present conference considers topics in the fields of optical systems design software, the design and analysis of optical systems, illustrative cases of advanced optical system design, the integration of optical designs into greater systems, and optical fabrication and testing techniques. Attention is given to an extended range diffraction-based merit function for lens design optimization, an assessment of technologies for stray light control and evaluation, the automated characterization of IR systems' spatial resolution, a spectrum of design techniques based on aberration theory, a three-field IR telescope, a large aperture zoom lens for 16-mm motion picture cameras, and the use of concave holographic gratings as monochomators. Also discussed are the use of aspherics in optical systems, glass choice procedures for periscope design, the fabrication and testing of unconventional optics, low mass mirrors for large optics, and the diamond grinding of optical surfaces on aspheric lens molds.

  13. Telecentric relay lens systems having distortion and their application in endoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzsch, Eberhard

    1996-08-01

    Telecentric image transmitting systems used in endoscopes and periscopes are mostly of symmetrical construction, and therefore, they are free of distortion. However, in order to improve the general barrel distortion of endoscopes and devices similar to endoscopes, it is desirable to have telecentric relay lens systems for unique magnification, which produce distortion, especially pincushion distortion. This paper describes the construction of a telecentric relay lens system for unique magnification which produces distortion and the imaging peculiarities of such systems. A practical embodiment of a 70-degree endoscope uses a chain of 5 image transmitting systems each producing only 1.5% distortion. As the result, the overall distortion of this endoscope is improved from -15% to -7%.

  14. Hemispherical Field-of-View Above-Water Surface Imager for Submarines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Farr, William H.; Dannecker, John D.

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses solutions to the problem of submarines having to rise above water to detect airplanes in the general vicinity. Two solutions are provided, in which a sensor is located just under the water surface, and at a few to tens of meter depth under the water surface. The first option is a Fish Eye Lens (FEL) digital-camera combination, situated just under the water surface that will have near-full- hemisphere (360 azimuth and 90 elevation) field of view for detecting objects on the water surface. This sensor can provide a three-dimensional picture of the airspace both in the marine and in the land environment. The FEL is coupled to a camera and can continuously look at the entire sky above it. The camera can have an Active Pixel Sensor (APS) focal plane array that allows logic circuitry to be built directly in the sensor. The logic circuitry allows data processing to occur on the sensor head without the need for any other external electronics. In the second option, a single-photon sensitive (photon counting) detector-array is used at depth, without the need for any optics in front of it, since at this location, optical signals are scattered and arrive at a wide (tens of degrees) range of angles. Beam scattering through clouds and seawater effectively negates optical imaging at depths below a few meters under cloudy or turbulent conditions. Under those conditions, maximum collection efficiency can be achieved by using a non-imaging photon-counting detector behind narrowband filters. In either case, signals from these sensors may be fused and correlated or decorrelated with other sensor data to get an accurate picture of the object(s) above the submarine. These devices can complement traditional submarine periscopes that have a limited field of view in the elevation direction. Also, these techniques circumvent the need for exposing the entire submarine or its periscopes to the outside environment.

  15. Polarization Insights for Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-print Network

    R. R. J. Antonucci

    2001-03-02

    Optical spectropolarimetry and broadband polarimetry in other wavebands has been a key to understanding many diverse aspects of AGN. In some cases polarization is due to synchrotron radiation, and in other cases it's due to scattering. Recognition of relativistically beamed optical synchrotron emission by polarization was vital for understanding blazars (BL Lacs and Optically Violently Variable quasars), both physically and geometrically. Radio polarimetry of quiescent AGN is equally important, again for both purposes. Scattering polarization was central to the Unified Model for Seyferts, Radio Galaxies and (high ionization) Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies. It provides a periscope for viewing AGN from other directions. Finally, if we could understand its message, polarization would also provide major insights regarding the nature of the AGN "Featureless Continuum" and Broad (emission) Line Region. I point out that high ionization ULIRGs have all the exact right properties to be called Quasar 2s. Mid-IR observations generally don't penetrate to the nucleus, greatly reducing their ability to diagnose the energy source. In particular, LINER ULIRGs aren't necessarily starburst-dominated, as has been claimed.

  16. Statis omnidirectional stereoscopic display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, George G.; Feldman, Sidney; Beckstead, Jeffrey A.

    1999-11-01

    A unique three camera stereoscopic omnidirectional viewing system based on the periscopic panoramic camera described in the 11/98 SPIE proceedings (AM13). The 3 panoramic cameras are equilaterally combined so each leg of the triangle approximates the human inter-ocular spacing allowing each panoramic camera to view 240 degree(s) of the panoramic scene, the most counter clockwise 120 degree(s) being the left eye field and the other 120 degree(s) segment being the right eye field. Field definition may be by green/red filtration or time discrimination of the video signal. In the first instance a 2 color spectacle is used in viewing the display or in the 2nd instance LCD goggles are used to differentiate the R/L fields. Radially scanned vidicons or re-mapped CCDs may be used. The display consists of three vertically stacked 120 degree(s) segments of the panoramic field of view with 2 fields/frame. Field A being the left eye display and Field B the right eye display.

  17. Development of imaging bolometers for magnetic fusion reactors (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Byron J.; Parchamy, Homaira; Ashikawa, Naoko [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kawashima, Hisato; Konoshima, Shigeru [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Kostryukov, Artem Yu.; Miroshnikov, Igor V. [St. Petersburg State Technical University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Seo, Dongcheol [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Omori, T. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    Imaging bolometers utilize an infrared (IR) video camera to measure the change in temperature of a thin foil exposed to the plasma radiation, thereby avoiding the risks of conventional resistive bolometers related to electric cabling and vacuum feedthroughs in a reactor environment. A prototype of the IR imaging video bolometer (IRVB) has been installed and operated on the JT-60U tokamak demonstrating its applicability to a reactor environment and its ability to provide two-dimensional measurements of the radiation emissivity in a poloidal cross section. In this paper we review this development and present the first results of an upgraded version of this IRVB on JT-60U. This upgrade utilizes a state-of-the-art IR camera (FLIR/Indigo Phoenix-InSb) (3-5 {mu}m, 256x360 pixels, 345 Hz, 11 mK) mounted in a neutron/gamma/magnetic shield behind a 3.6 m IR periscope consisting of CaF{sub 2} optics and an aluminum mirror. The IRVB foil is 7 cmx9 cmx5 {mu}m tantalum. A noise equivalent power density of 300 {mu}W/cm{sup 2} is achieved with 40x24 channels and a time response of 10 ms or 23 {mu}W/cm{sup 2} for 16x12 channels and a time response of 33 ms, which is 30 times better than the previous version of the IRVB on JT-60U.

  18. Development of imaging bolometers for magnetic fusion reactors (invited).

    PubMed

    Peterson, Byron J; Parchamy, Homaira; Ashikawa, Naoko; Kawashima, Hisato; Konoshima, Shigeru; Kostryukov, Artem Yu; Miroshnikov, Igor V; Seo, Dongcheol; Omori, T

    2008-10-01

    Imaging bolometers utilize an infrared (IR) video camera to measure the change in temperature of a thin foil exposed to the plasma radiation, thereby avoiding the risks of conventional resistive bolometers related to electric cabling and vacuum feedthroughs in a reactor environment. A prototype of the IR imaging video bolometer (IRVB) has been installed and operated on the JT-60U tokamak demonstrating its applicability to a reactor environment and its ability to provide two-dimensional measurements of the radiation emissivity in a poloidal cross section. In this paper we review this development and present the first results of an upgraded version of this IRVB on JT-60U. This upgrade utilizes a state-of-the-art IR camera (FLIR/Indigo Phoenix-InSb) (3-5 microm, 256 x 360 pixels, 345 Hz, 11 mK) mounted in a neutron/gamma/magnetic shield behind a 3.6 m IR periscope consisting of CaF(2) optics and an aluminum mirror. The IRVB foil is 7 cm x 9 cm x 5 microm tantalum. A noise equivalent power density of 300 microW/cm(2) is achieved with 40 x 24 channels and a time response of 10 ms or 23 microW/cm(2) for 16 x 12 channels and a time response of 33 ms, which is 30 times better than the previous version of the IRVB on JT-60U. PMID:19044463

  19. Can SOHO SWAN detect CMEs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Cyr, O. C.; Malayeri, M. L.; Yashiro, S.; Quernerais, E.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Howard, Russ

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility that the Solar Wind Anisotropies (SWAN) remote sensing instrument on SOHO may be able to detect coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in neutral Hydrogen Lyman-? emission. We have identified CMEs near the Sun in observations by the SOHO LASCO white-light coronagraphs and in extreme ultraviolet emissions using SOHO E n . There are very few methods of tracking CMEs after they leave the coronagraph's field-of-view, so this is an important topic to study. The primary science goal of the SWAN investigation is the measurement of large-scale structures in the solar wind, and these are obtained by detecting intensity fluctuations in Lyman-?. SWAN consists of a pair of Sensors on opposite panels of SOHO. The instantaneous field-of-view of each sensor unit is a So x So square, divided into lo pixels. A gimbaled periscope system allows each sensor to map the intensity distribution of Lyman-?, and the entire sky can be scanned in less than one day. This is the typical mode of operation for this instrument.

  20. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.

    1999-03-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the US processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive US processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Johns Manville Corporation targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. With Combustion Technology Inc., they are developing silicide-based periscope sight tubes for the direct observation of glass melts. With Accutru International Corporation, they are developing silicide-based protective sheaths for self-verifying temperature sensors which may be used in glass furnaces and other industrial applications. The progress made on the program in this period is summarized.

  1. The influence of the hand's acceleration and the relative contribution of drag and lift forces in front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Boli, Alexia; Aggeloussis, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Toubekis, Argyris; Mavromatis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the hand's acceleration on the propulsive forces and the relative contribution of the drag and lift on their resultant force in the separate phases of the front crawl underwater arm stroke. Ten female swimmers swam one trial of all-out 25-m front crawl. The underwater motion of each swimmer's right hand was recorded using four camcorders and four periscope systems. Anatomical landmarks were digitised, and the propulsive forces generated by the swimmer's hand were estimated from the kinematic data in conjunction with hydrodynamic coefficients. When the hand's acceleration was taken into account, the magnitude of the propulsive forces was greater, with the exception of the mean drag force during the final part of the underwater arm stroke. The mean drag force was greater than the mean lift force in the middle part, while the mean lift force was greater than the mean drag force in the final part of the underwater arm stroke. Thus, swimmers should accelerate their hands from the beginning of their backward motion, press the water with large pitch angles during the middle part and sweep with small pitch angles during the final part of their underwater arm stroke. PMID:25429796

  2. Conceptual design study for an advanced cab and visual system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rue, R. J.; Cyrus, M. L.; Garnett, T. A.; Nachbor, J. W.; Seery, J. A.; Starr, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to define requirements for an advanced cab and visual system. The rotorcraft system integration simulator is for engineering studies in the area of mission associated vehicle handling qualities. Principally a technology survey and assessment of existing and proposed simulator visual display systems, image generation systems, modular cab designs, and simulator control station designs were performed and are discussed. State of the art survey data were used to synthesize a set of preliminary visual display system concepts of which five candidate display configurations were selected for further evaluation. Basic display concepts incorporated in these configurations included: real image projection, using either periscopes, fiber optic bundles, or scanned laser optics; and virtual imaging with helmet mounted displays. These display concepts were integrated in the study with a simulator cab concept employing a modular base for aircraft controls, crew seating, and instrumentation (or other) displays. A simple concept to induce vibration in the various modules was developed and is described. Results of evaluations and trade offs related to the candidate system concepts are given, along with a suggested weighting scheme for numerically comparing visual system performance characteristics.

  3. Target plane imager for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1985-01-30

    The Nova laser, completed in December 1984 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is being used to conduct inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is capable of focusing more than 100 kJ of energy on small fusion targets. This paper discusses an optical system called the target plane imager that is used during the beam alignment phase of these experiments. The TPI includes a three meter long periscope with a wide field of view, F/3 objective. The telescope relays images of the target focal plane to viewing optics and a video sensor located outside the target chamber. Operation of the system is possible at three wavelengths: 1.05..mu.., 0.527..mu.., and 0.351..mu... These are the three wavelengths at which the ten Nova laser beams can irradiate targets. Both nearfield and farfield images of the ten beams can be viewed with the TPI. This instrument is used to properly align the laser to the target before each target irradiation.

  4. History of remote operations and robotics in nuclear facilities. Robotics and Intelligent Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.

    1992-05-01

    The field of remote technology is continuing to evolve to support man`s efforts to perform tasks in hostile environments. Remote technology has roots which reach into the early history of man. Fireplace pokers, blacksmith`s tongs, and periscopes are examples of the beginnings of remote technology. The technology which we recognize today has evolved over the last 45-plus years to support human operations in hostile environments such as nuclear fission and fusion, space, underwater, hazardous chemical, and hazardous manufacturing. The four major categories of approach to remote technology have been (1) protective clothing and equipment for direct human entry, (2) extended reach tools using distance for safety, (3) telemanipulators with barriers for safety, and (4) teleoperators incorporating mobility with distance and/or barriers for safety. The government and commercial nuclear industry has driven the development of the majority of the actual teleoperator hardware available today. This hardware has been developed due to the unsatisfactory performance of the protective-clothing approach in many hostile applications. Systems which have been developed include crane/impact wrench systems, unilateral power manipulators, mechanical master/slaves, and servomanipulators. Work for space applications has been primarily research oriented with few successful space applications, although the shuttle`s remote manipulator system has been successful. In the last decade, underwater applications have moved forward significantly, with the offshore oil industry and military applications providing the primary impetus. This document consists of viewgraphs and subtitled figures.

  5. History of remote operations and robotics in nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    The field of remote technology is continuing to evolve to support man's efforts to perform tasks in hostile environments. Remote technology has roots which reach into the early history of man. Fireplace pokers, blacksmith's tongs, and periscopes are examples of the beginnings of remote technology. The technology which we recognize today has evolved over the last 45-plus years to support human operations in hostile environments such as nuclear fission and fusion, space, underwater, hazardous chemical, and hazardous manufacturing. The four major categories of approach to remote technology have been (1) protective clothing and equipment for direct human entry, (2) extended reach tools using distance for safety, (3) telemanipulators with barriers for safety, and (4) teleoperators incorporating mobility with distance and/or barriers for safety. The government and commercial nuclear industry has driven the development of the majority of the actual teleoperator hardware available today. This hardware has been developed due to the unsatisfactory performance of the protective-clothing approach in many hostile applications. Systems which have been developed include crane/impact wrench systems, unilateral power manipulators, mechanical master/slaves, and servomanipulators. Work for space applications has been primarily research oriented with few successful space applications, although the shuttle's remote manipulator system has been successful. In the last decade, underwater applications have moved forward significantly, with the offshore oil industry and military applications providing the primary impetus. This document consists of viewgraphs and subtitled figures.

  6. Beryllium Use in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-12-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) began operation in 1967. It makes use of a unique serpentine fuel core design and a beryllium reflector. Reactor control is achieved with rotating beryllium cylinders to which have been fastened plates of hafnium. Over time, the beryllium develops rather high helium content because of nuclear transmutations and begins to swell. The beryllium must be replaced at nominally 10-year intervals. Determination of when the replacement is made is by visual observation using a periscope to examine the beryllium surface for cracking and swelling. Disposition of the irradiated beryllium was once accomplished in the INL’s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, but that is no longer possible. Among contributing reasons are high levels of specific radioactive contaminants including transuranics. The INL is presently considering disposition pathways for this irradiated beryllium, but presently is storing it in the canal adjacent to the reactor. Numerous issues are associated with this situation including (1) Is there a need for ultra-low uranium material? (2) Is there a need to recover tritium from irradiated beryllium either because this is a strategic material resource or in preparation for disposal? (3) Is there a need to remove activation and fission products from irradiated beryllium? (4) Will there be enough material available to meet requirements for research reactors (fission and fusion)? In this paper will be discussed the present status of considerations on these issues.

  7. SIRE (sight-integrated ranging equipment): an eyesafe laser rangefinder for armored vehicle fire control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeter, Howard S.; Gudmundson, Glen A.; Woodall, Milton A., II

    1991-04-01

    The Sight Integrated Ranging Equipment (SIRE) incorporates an eyesafe laser rangefinder into the M-36 periscope used in tactical armored vehicles, such as the Commando Stingray light tank. The SIRE unit provides crucial range data simultaneously to the gunner and fire control computer. This capability greatly reduces 'time-to-fire', improves first-round hit probability, and increases the overall effectiveness of the vehicle under actual and simulated battlefield conditions. The SIRE can provide target range up to 10-km, with an accuracy of 10-meters. The key advantage of the SIRE over similar laser rangefinder systems is that it uses erbium:glass as the active lasing medium. With a nominal output wavelength of 1.54-microns, the SIRE can produce sufficient peak power to penetrate long atmospheric paths (even in the presence of obscurants), while remaining completely eyesafe under all operating conditions. The SIRE is the first eyesafe vehicle-based system to combine this level of accuracy, maximum range capability, and fire control interface. It simultaneously improves the accuracy and confidence of the operator, and eliminates the ocular hazard issues typically encountered with laser rangefinder devices.

  8. Laser Safety: A Laser Alignment Practical Training Course

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Michael; Edstrom, Steve; /SLAC; ,

    2011-01-26

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has developed a Laser Alignment Practical Training Course as one of its core laser safety classes. The course is taught to small groups of up to three students and takes 1-3 hours to complete. This practical course is not a substitute for site-specific On-the-Job Training; it does, however, provide a good introduction in core laser safety practices that can be broadly applied. Alignment and diagnostic tasks are performed with low power lasers. Students learn safe alignment and diagnostic techniques and how to avoid common mistakes that might lead to an accident. The class is taught by laser supervisors, enabling them to assess the skill level of new laser personnel and determine the subsequent level of supervision needed. The course has six alignment tasks. For each task, discussion points are given for the instructor to review with the students. The optics setup includes different wavelength lasers, a beam expander, mirrors, irises, a periscope, a beam-splitting polarizer and a diffraction grating. Diagnostic tools include viewing cards, an IR viewer and a ccd camera. Laser eyewear is available to block some laser wavelengths in the setup.

  9. Influence of Spinel head window thickness on the performance characteristics of a submarine panoramic infrared imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Jonathan M.; Waterman, Jim R.; Bayya, Shyam; Sanghera, Jas S.; Aggarwal, Ish D.

    2011-06-01

    This work explores the influence of head window thickness on the performance of a mid-wave infrared, panoramic periscope imager. Our focus is on transparent spinel ceramic as the head window material. Spinel is an attractive material for IR applications due to its good strength and transmission properties (visible through mid-wave). However, there is some degradation in spinel transmission near the high end of the mid-wave band ( 5?m) as the head window thickness increases. In this work we predict the relationship between head window thickness and imager performance, as quantified by the Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference, and compare these predictions to values estimated from experimental data. We then discuss the implications for imager design and demonstrate a possible approach to correcting for the headwindow-induced losses. The imager used in this study is a compact, catadioptric, camera that provides a 360o horizontal azimuth by -10o to +30o elevation field of view and uses a 2048 x 2048, 15?m pitch InSb detector.

  10. A geodetic laser radar rangefinder with 10(exp -7) resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizushima, Y.; Takeichi, M.; Warashima, Y.; Takeshima, A.; Ogawa, I.; Ichie, K.; Schiller, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel geodetic laser radar rangefinder (GLRR) unit utilizing a pair of synchronized 10-psec streak camera systems was developed for displacement measurements of the earth's plates. In order to achieve minimum computing error and assure extremely high spatial resolution, an optical pulse registration clock was developed and used to register a fiducial mark on the time scale of the system. Conventional optical rangefinders have been limited to a relative resolution of 10(exp -6) even for short distances. The system to be reported on today has the capability of measuring a 50km range with an accuracy of 4mm corresponding to a relative resolution of 10(exp -7). With a gain of greater than 3 x 10(exp 3), the system has the capability of detecting extremely weak signals on the order of photon counting. This combined with temporal gating makes daytime measurements comparable in signal-to-noise ratio to nighttime viewing. This is useful for measuring faint signals returning over a range of several tens of kilometers. The present ranging system was designed to observe the mutual displacement of geodetic plates and was employed to measure the boundary between the Philippine and Asian geodetic plates that pass beneath the Suruga Bay near Hamamatsu City, Japan. The system has been in operation for over 3 years. In addition, the system has the ability of producing and detecting optical ranging pulses of several wavelengths simultaneously, making this a complete multicolor system. The basic GLRR system consists of a frequency stabilizing crystal, optical clock, YAG laser, KDP doubling crystal, DK*P tripling crystal, two matched streak cameras (A and B), a control computer, and an output/input periscope system.

  11. A historical perspective of remote operations and robotics in nuclear facilities. Robotics and Intelligent Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.

    1992-12-31

    The field of remote technology is continuing to evolve to support man`s efforts to perform tasks in hostile environments. The technology which we recognize today as remote technology has evolved over the last 45 years to support human operations in hostile environments such as nuclear fission and fusion, space, underwater, hazardous chemical, and hazardous manufacturing. The four major categories of approach to remote technology have been (1) protective clothing and equipment for direct human entry, (2) extended reach tools using distance for safety, (3) telemanipulators with barriers for safety, and (4) teleoperators incorporating mobility with distance and/or barriers for safety. The government and commercial nuclear industry has driven the development of the majority of the actual teleoperator hardware available today. This hardware has been developed largely due to the unsatisfactory performance of the protective-clothing approach in many hostile applications. Manipulation systems which have been developed include crane/impact wrench systems, unilateral power manipulators, mechanical master/slaves, and servomanipulators. Viewing systems have included periscopes, shield windows, and television systems. Experience over the past 45 years indicates that maintenance system flexibility is essential to typical repair tasks because they are usually not repetitive, structured, or planned. Fully remote design (manipulation, task provisions, remote tooling, and facility synergy) is essential to work task efficiency. Work for space applications has been primarily research oriented with relatively few successful space applications, although the shuttle`s remote manipulator system has been quite successful. In the last decade, underwater applications have moved forward significantly, with the offshore oil industry and military applications providing the primary impetus.

  12. Occurrence of increased arterial stiffness in a cohort of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus when compared to normoglycemic controls.

    PubMed

    George, Belinda; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Ayyar, Vageesh; Mathew, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 1 diabetes is underestimated. This study was conducted to assess the cardiovascular risk by comparing arterial stiffness in type 1 diabetes with that of controls. Thirty-one type 1 diabetes patients and 31 age- and gender-matched controls were included. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) was measured using Periscope, a noninvasive device. The ba-PWV was found to be significantly elevated among the patients with diabetes (1177.09 ± 180.1 cm/s) when compared with the controls (1057.99 ± 95.8 cm/s) (P = .003). The ba-PWV showed positive correlation with age (r = .43, P = .014), heart rate (r = .49, P = .005), blood pressure (r = .65, P < .001), and LDL (r = .46, P = .008) among patients with diabetes. Linear regression analysis revealed that diabetes, age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and BMI were independently associated with ba-PWV (R (2) = .589). On subdividing the diabetes cohort into quintiles for LDL and SBP, a substantial increase in ba-PWV was seen at LDL > 102 mg/dl (1187.8 cm/s to 1364.9 cm/s, P = .09) and SBP > 130 mmHg (1176.1 cm/s to 1369.4 cm/s, P = .03). Arterial stiffness as assessed by ba-PWV is significantly increased among patients with type 1 diabetes compared to healthy controls, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Early screening for arterial stiffness using a cheap and effective method among patients with SBP > 130 mmHg and LDL > 102 mg/dl may help identify those with heightened cardiovascular risk. PMID:25231115

  13. Thiazolidinediones: effects on the development and progression of type 2 diabetes and associated vascular complications.

    PubMed

    Krentz, Andrew

    2009-02-01

    In addition to reducing hyperglycaemia, the metabolic actions of TZDs (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) in theory might improve the prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes. However, it appears from recent data that pioglitazone and rosiglitazone have different cardiovascular risk profiles. The scope of this paper is to examine the benefits and risks of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. Three large clinical studies (DREAM, and ADOPT with rosiglitazone; PROactive with pioglitazone) have recently been reported. A lower annual rate of decline of ss-cell function observed with rosiglitazone in the ADOPT study, compared with metformin and glyburide (glibenclamide), along with a reduced progression to insulin use seen with pioglitazone in the PROactive study, provides evidence that TZDs are effective in treating progressive hyperglycaemia. In PROactive, although the primary endpoint was not met, pioglitazone was associated with a reduction in a secondary composite endpoint of clinical cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with existing macrovascular disease who were already receiving other glycaemic and cardiovascular medications. Further evidence supporting an anti-atherogenic effect of pioglitazone was gained from the PERISCOPE study of carotid intima-media thickness. Recent controversy concerning a possible increased risk of myocardial infarction associated with rosiglitazone has fuelled uncertainty about the risk-benefit profile of this agent. In 2008, an update of an American Diabetes Association-European Association for the Study of Diabetes consensus statement on initiation and adjustment of therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes advised clinicians against using rosiglitazone. Skeletal fractures have recently emerged as a side effect of both TZDs. Available data suggest that cardiovascular benefits observed with pioglitazone might not be a class effect of TZDs. PMID:19219860

  14. Manufacturer evaluations of endograft modifications.

    PubMed

    Waninger, Matthew S; Whirley, Robert G; Smith, Louis J; Wolf, Ben S

    2013-03-01

    The motivation to modify the design of a vascular device can arise from a number of sources. Clinical experience with the unmodified device could suggest new design modifications to improve device performance or clinical outcomes. Similarly, clinical success with a device often suggests modifications that could broaden the applicability of the device to enable treatment of different or more advanced disease states. As a specific example, both of these scenarios have arisen during the last decade in the evolution of endovascular grafts for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms, with modifications enabling the treatment of patients with shorter infrarenal necks, more angulated anatomy, and smaller access vessels. These modifications have been made by manufacturers and additionally by physicians who create branched and fenestrated devices. The experience to date with the use of fenestrated devices and the development of chimney, snorkel, and periscope techniques suggests that modifications to off-the-shelf devices may provide some clinical benefit. This experience provides additional motivation for manufacturers to develop devices to address the clinical needs not met with their current product lines. For manufacturers, the device development process includes an assessment of the new device design to determine the appropriate evaluation strategy to support the safety and effectiveness of the modified device. This report provides a high-level overview of the process generally followed by device manufacturers to evaluate a proposed device modification before market release, in accordance with local country regulations and recognized international standards such as the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) standards for endovascular grafts (ISO 25539 Part 1). PMID:23446123

  15. Nest site selection by Kentish plover suggests a trade-off between nest-crypsis and predator detection strategies.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Serrano, Miguel Ángel; López-López, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Predation is one of the main causes of adult mortality and breeding failure for ground-nesting birds. Micro-habitat structure around nests plays a critical role in minimizing predation risk. Plovers nest in sites with little vegetation cover to maximize the incubating adult visibility, but many studies suggest a trade-off between nest-crypsis and predator detection strategies. However, this trade-off has not been explored in detail because methods used so far do not allow estimating the visibility with regards to critical factors such as slope or plant permeability to vision. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Kentish plovers select exposed sites according to a predator detection strategy, and the hypothesis that more concealed nests survive longer according to a crypsis strategy. To this end, we obtained an accurate estimation of the incubating adult's field of vision through a custom built inverted periscope. Our results showed that plovers selected nest sites with higher visibility than control points randomly selected with regards to humans and dogs, although nests located in sites with higher vegetation cover survived longer. In addition, the flushing distance (i.e., the distance at which incubating adults leave the nest when they detect a potential predator) decreased with vegetation cover. Consequently, the advantages of concealing the nest were limited by the ability to detect predators, thus indirectly supporting the existence of the trade-off between crypsis and predator detection. Finally, human disturbance also constrained nest choice, forcing plovers to move to inland sites that were less suitable because of higher vegetation cover, and modulated flushing behavior, since plovers that were habituated to humans left their nests closer to potential predators. This constraint on the width of suitable breeding habitat is particularly relevant for the conservation of Kentish Plover in sand beaches, especially under the current context of coastal regression and increase of recreational activities. PMID:25208045

  16. Nest Site Selection by Kentish Plover Suggests a Trade-Off between Nest-Crypsis and Predator Detection Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Serrano, Miguel Ángel; López-López, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Predation is one of the main causes of adult mortality and breeding failure for ground-nesting birds. Micro-habitat structure around nests plays a critical role in minimizing predation risk. Plovers nest in sites with little vegetation cover to maximize the incubating adult visibility, but many studies suggest a trade-off between nest-crypsis and predator detection strategies. However, this trade-off has not been explored in detail because methods used so far do not allow estimating the visibility with regards to critical factors such as slope or plant permeability to vision. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Kentish plovers select exposed sites according to a predator detection strategy, and the hypothesis that more concealed nests survive longer according to a crypsis strategy. To this end, we obtained an accurate estimation of the incubating adult's field of vision through a custom built inverted periscope. Our results showed that plovers selected nest sites with higher visibility than control points randomly selected with regards to humans and dogs, although nests located in sites with higher vegetation cover survived longer. In addition, the flushing distance (i.e., the distance at which incubating adults leave the nest when they detect a potential predator) decreased with vegetation cover. Consequently, the advantages of concealing the nest were limited by the ability to detect predators, thus indirectly supporting the existence of the trade-off between crypsis and predator detection. Finally, human disturbance also constrained nest choice, forcing plovers to move to inland sites that were less suitable because of higher vegetation cover, and modulated flushing behavior, since plovers that were habituated to humans left their nests closer to potential predators. This constraint on the width of suitable breeding habitat is particularly relevant for the conservation of Kentish Plover in sand beaches, especially under the current context of coastal regression and increase of recreational activities. PMID:25208045

  17. RoboLab and virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarratano, Joseph C.

    1994-01-01

    A useful adjunct to the manned space station would be a self-contained free-flying laboratory (RoboLab). This laboratory would have a robot operated under telepresence from the space station or ground. Long duration experiments aboard RoboLab could be performed by astronauts or scientists using telepresence to operate equipment and perform experiments. Operating the lab by telepresence would eliminate the need for life support such as food, water and air. The robot would be capable of motion in three dimensions, have binocular vision TV cameras, and two arms with manipulators to simulate hands. The robot would move along a two-dimensional grid and have a rotating, telescoping periscope section for extension in the third dimension. The remote operator would wear a virtual reality type headset to allow the superposition of computer displays over the real-time video of the lab. The operators would wear exoskeleton type arms to facilitate the movement of objects and equipment operation. The combination of video displays, motion, and the exoskeleton arms would provide a high degree of telepresence, especially for novice users such as scientists doing short-term experiments. The RoboLab could be resupplied and samples removed on other space shuttle flights. A self-contained RoboLab module would be designed to fit within the cargo bay of the space shuttle. Different modules could be designed for specific applications, i.e., crystal-growing, medicine, life sciences, chemistry, etc. This paper describes a RoboLab simulation using virtual reality (VR). VR provides an ideal simulation of telepresence before the actual robot and laboratory modules are constructed. The easy simulation of different telepresence designs will produce a highly optimum design before construction rather than the more expensive and time consuming hardware changes afterwards.

  18. Formation, Simulation and Restoration of Hypertelescopes Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mary, D.; Aime, C.; Carlotti, A.

    2013-03-01

    This article first provides a historical and detailed introduction to the image formation models for diluted pupils array and their densified versions called hypertelescopes. We propose in particular an original derivation showing that densification using a periscopic setting like in Michelson's 20 - foot interferometer, or using inverted Galilean telescopes are fully equivalent. After a review based on previous reference studies (Tallon & Tallon-Bosc 1992; Labeyrie 1996; Aime 2008 and Aime et al. 2012), the introductory part ends with a tutorial section for simulating optical interferometric images produced by cophased arrays. We illustrate in details how the optical image formation model can be used to simulate hypertelescopes images, including sampling issues and their effects on the observed images. In a second part of the article, we address the issue of restoring hypertelescope images and present numerical illustrations obtained for classical (constrained Maximum Likelihood) methods. We also provide a detailed survey of more recent deconvolution methods based on sparse representations and of their spread in interferometric image reconstruction. The last part of the article is dedicated to two original and numerical studies. The first study shows by Monte Carlo simulations that the restoration quality achieved by constrained ML methods applied to photon limited images obtained from a diluted array on a square grid, or from a densified array (without spectral aliasing) on a grid, are essentially equivalent. The second study shows that it is possible to recover in hypertelescopes images quasi point sources that are not only far outside the clean field, but also superimposed on the replicas of other objects. This is true at least for the considered pupil array and in the limit of vanishing noise.

  19. Investigating the possibility of a monitoring fast ion diagnostic for ITER.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, R; von Hellermann, M G; Orsitto, F P; Tugarinov, S

    2008-10-01

    In burning plasma fusion devices, fast ion transport plays a central role in the performances of the machines. Moreover the losses of energetic particles might cause severe damages on plasma facing components. Therefore real time measurements of fast ion transport would provide valuable information for safe and reliable plasma operations. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of a monitoring system based on active charge exchange recombination spectroscopy making use of the 0.5 MeV/amu ITER heating neutral beams for detecting fast (4)He(+2) (alphas) particles in ITER plasmas. There are two time scales relevant to fast ion dynamics: the first is the slowing down time of the distribution function which is of the order of 1 s, and the second is the time scale of burstlike transport events such as collective Alfven mode excitations, which--for typical ITER plasma parameters--can be as low as 0.2-1 ms. To detect such fast events a broadband high-throughput spectrometer is needed, while for the reconstruction of the alpha velocity distribution function a higher resolution spectrometer and longer integration time are necessary. To monitor a spatial redistribution of fast particles due to the propagation of the instability, it is proposed to use a limited number of spatial channels, looking at the charge exchange He II spectra induced by the heating beams, whose energy matches the slowing down energies of fast particles. The proposal is to share the motional stark effect periscope on equatorial port 3 [A. Malaquias et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3393 (2004)] adding additional fibers and suitable instruments. A signal to noise ratio of 5 could be achieved with a spatial resolution of a/15 and a time resolution of 5 ms, in a broad spectral band of 100 A, corresponding to the spectral broadening of the line emitted by alpha particles with energies DeltaE < or = 1.5 MeV. Fast H and D ion populations created by heating neutral beam or ion cyclotron resonance heating are expected to produce significantly lower charge exchange signal levels and can only be monitored on substantially longer time scales as it is expected because of the strong energy difference with respect to the heating neutral beam and the consequently low charge exchange cross sections. PMID:19044499

  20. POLVSM (Polarized Volume Scattering Meter) instrument: an innovative device to measure the directional and polarized scattering properties of hydrosols.

    PubMed

    Chami, Malik; Thirouard, Alexandre; Harmel, Tristan

    2014-10-20

    An innovative instrument dedicated to the multispectral measurements of the directional and polarized scattering properties of the hydrosols, so-called POLVSM, is described. The instrument could be used onboard a ship, as a benchtop instrument, or at laboratory. The originality of the POLVSM concept relies on the use of a double periscopic optical system whose role is (i) to separate the plane containing the light source from the scattering plane containing the sample and the receiver and (ii) to prevent from any specularly reflected light within the sample chamber. As a result, a wide range of scattering angle, namely from 1° to 179°, is covered by the detector. Another originality of the instrument is to measure the Mueller scattering matrix elements, including the degree of polarization. A relevant calibration procedure, which could be of great interest as well for other instruments, is proposed to convert the raw data into physical units. The relative uncertainty in POLVSM data was determined at ± 4.3%. The analysis of measurements of the volume scattering function and degree of polarization performed under controlled conditions for samples dominated either by inorganic hydrosols or phytoplankton monospecific species showed a good consistency with literature, thus confirming the good performance of the POLVSM device. Comparisons of POLVSM data with theoretical calculations showed that Mie theory could reproduce efficiently the measurements of the VSF and degree of polarization for the case of inorganic hydrosols sample, despite the likely non sphericity of these particles as revealed by one of the element of the Mueller matrix. Our results suggested as well that a sophisticated modeling of the heterogeneous internal structure of living cells, or at least, the use of layered sphere models, is needed to correctly predict the directional and polarized effects of phytoplankton on the oceanic radiation. The relevance of performing angularly resolved measurements of the Mueller scattering elements to gain understanding on the mechanisms processes involved in the scattering of light by marine particles, which has important implications for ocean color remote sensing studies, is demonstrated. PMID:25401673

  1. Obituary: Cornell H. Mayer, 1921-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Venkataraman

    2006-12-01

    Cornell (Connie) H. Mayer, a pioneer of radio astronomy, died on 19 November 2005 of congestive heart failure at his home in Mt. Vernon, Virginia. He was eighty-three. Cornell Mayer was born in Ossian, Iowa on 10 December 1921. After graduating from the University of Iowa in 1943, he joined the Navy during World War II and was stationed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington, DC. There he assisted Fred T. Haddock in the development of the first radar antenna inside a submarine periscope. This device has been credited with shortening the war in the Pacific because of the number of Japanese ships that were sunk with its aid. With Haddock, Connie also discovered centimeter-wave radio bursts from the sun coincident with solar flares. They made the first detection of thermal radio emission from the Orion nebula and other galactic HII regions. They also detected extragalactic objects and thus initiated the important field of centimeter-wave astronomy. Their observations were made with a 50-foot parabolic reflector on a gun mount located on the roof of one of the NRL buildings. This telescope had the world's highest radio resolving power for many years. With Haddock's departure to the University of Michigan in 1956 to create a new radio observatory there, Connie became head of a group in the Radio Astronomy Branch at NRL, where he remained until his retirement in 1980. Much of his work involved the measurement of planetary temperatures by analysis of radio emissions. By making technical innovations in instrumentation--such as replacing disc choppers with a ferrite switch to compare the sky and reference load, or using argon gas tubes for calibration--Connie greatly improved the performance of his equipment. This resulted in the discovery of an astonishing, 600oC surface temperature of Venus, which contradicted the widespread notion that Venus was similar to the Earth and potentially habitable. In spite of the extraordinarily careful and systematic way that the observations were carried out and analyzed, many remained skeptical about the result and its interpretation in terms of a massive greenhouse effect, until the Mariner-II spacecraft fly-by in 1962, which put all such doubts to rest. Connie and his group continued to make radio observations of other planets and discovered a non-thermal centimeter wavelength emission from Jupiter. This led directly to work done at Caltech that demonstrated the existence of Van Allen-like belts around the planet. Being a superb engineer, Connie firmly believed that technology led to scientific discovery. Like others, he was preoccupied with the improvement of the sensitivity of radio astronomy receivers, and applied physics to new designs. In 1959, Connie collaborated with Charles Townes and his students at Columbia in the first application of the maser to astronomy. When Townes received the 1964 Nobel Prize for the invention of the maser, he asserted that Connie's desire to improve receiver sensitivity was influential in his work and shared a portion of his prize money with him. Connie's greatest contribution was in the study of non-thermal radio sources at very short wavelengths. Non-thermal sources were recognized by the fact that their flux density decreases with increasing frequency. If the emission mechanism were synchrotron radiation (as theorized in 1950), then the radiation should be linearly polarized up to a theoretical maximum of 70 percent. In 1949, John Bolton had identified a discrete radio source with the Crab Nebula optical counterpart. The optical radiation was known to contain a diffuse component with a featureless spectrum. The Russian astrophysicist Joseph Shklovsky boldly hypothesized that both the optical and radio emissions were due to the synchrotron mechanism. This implied that the optical radiation would be polarized, and Soviet scientists found it so in 1954. Soon after, the radio source Virgo A was matched with the peculiar galaxy M87, whose spectrally featureless optical jet was found to be polarized in 1956. Thus the crucial evidence in support of