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1

Periscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct a device that allows them to look over ledges or around corners. Use this activity to introduce learners to concepts related to optics, mirrors and how submarines use periscopes to see above water. Note: this activity requires the use of a saw, not included in the cost of materials.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

2

Up Periscope!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides instructions for building a mirrored tube--a smaller and simpler version of a submarine's periscope--that lets you see around corners and over walls. Get a hands-on lesson about how light reflects and how to use that reflection to extend your vision.

2013-01-30

3

Autonomous Mobile Periscope System (AMPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of diesel electric submarines has impacted undersea warfare (USW) world wide. They are acoustically nearly undetectable, but can be detected by their periscope or snorkel. Since the US Navy has no diesel electric submarine, the Autonomous Mobile Periscope System (AMPS) is being developed to meet the requirement for an inexpensive readily available periscope detection target for the training

Stan Rollins; Richard Knutson; Hung Vo; Steve Ebner

1998-01-01

4

How does it work? Binoculars, periscopes, and kaleidoscopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains how binoculars, periscopes and kaleidoscopes work. The learner will discover these instruments share similarities. Instructions are included for making a periscope and a kaleidoscope.

Laboratory, Florida S.

1999-01-01

5

29. VIEW OF 1959 KOLLMORGEN BUNKER PERISCOPE LOCATED IN NORTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW OF 1959 KOLLMORGEN BUNKER PERISCOPE LOCATED IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM. NOTE SCHRADER VALVE ABOVE HANDLE ON RIGHT SIDE OF PERISCOPE. MONITOR LABELED '1-FLAMEBUCKET' IN BACKGROUND TO LEFT OF PERISCOPE. DIGITAL COUNTDOWN AND HOLD CLOCKS IMMEDIATELY ABOVE MONITOR. ANOTHER DIGITAL COUNTDOWN CLOCK AND THE MILITARY TIME CLOCK ON NORTH WALL BENEATH THE MONITOR. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

6

PERISCOPE POP-IN BEAM MONITOR.  

SciTech Connect

We have built monitors for use as beam diagnostics in the narrow gap of an undulator for an FEL experiment. They utilize an intercepting screen of doped YAG scintillating crystal to make light that is imaged through a periscope by conventional video equipment. The absolute position can be ascertained by comparing the electron beam position with the position of a He:Ne laser that is observed by this pop-in monitor. The optical properties of the periscope and the mechanical arrangement of the system mean that beam can be spatially determined to the resolution of the camera, in this case approximately 10 micrometers. Our experience with these monitors suggests improvements for successor designs, which we also describe.

JOHNSON,E.D.

1998-05-07

7

Resolving Spectral Lines with a Periscope-Type DVD Spectroscope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new type of DVD spectroscope, the periscope type, is described and the numerical analysis of the observed emission and absorption spectra is demonstrated. A small and thin mirror is put inside and an eighth part of a DVD is used as a grating. Using this improved DVD spectroscope, one can observe and photograph visible spectra more easily and…

Wakabayashi, Fumitaka

2008-01-01

8

Symmetric periscope for concentric beam configuration in an ultra-high precision laser interferometric beam launcher  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical component especially suited for common path heterodyne interferometry comprises a symmetric dual-periscope configuration. Each periscope is substantially identical to the other with regard to certain design aspects. The resulting design is an optical component that is highly stable with variations in temperature and angular deviations.

Ames, Lawrence L. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

9

NIF Periscope Wall Modal Study Comparison of Results for 2 FEA Models with 2 Modal Tests  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes experimentally and numerically determined modal properties for one of the reinforced concrete end walls of the NIF Periscope Support Structure in Laser Bay 1. Two methods were used to determine these modal properties: (1) Computational finite-element analyses (modal extraction process); and (2) Experimental modal analysis based on measured test data. This report also includes experimentally determined modal properties for a prototype LM3/Polarizer line-replaceable unit (LRU) and a prototype PEPC LRU. Two important parameters, used during the design phase, are validated through testing [ref 1]. These parameters are the natural frequencies and modal damping (of the system in question) for the first several global modes of vibration. Experimental modal testing provides these modal values, along with the corresponding mode shapes. Another important parameter, the input excitation (expected during normal operation of the NIF laser system) [ref 1], can be verified by performing a series of ambient vibration measurements in the vicinity of the particular system (or subsystem) of interest. The topic of ambient input excitation will be covered in a separate report. Due to the large mass of the Periscope Pedestal, it is difficult to excite the entire series of Periscope Pedestal Walls all at once. It was decided that the experimental modal tests would be performed on just one Periscope End Wall in Laser Bay 1. Experimental modal properties for the Periscope End Wall have been used to validate and update the FE analyses. Results from the analyses and modal tests support the conclusion that the Periscope Pedestal will not exceed the stability budget, which is described in reference 1. The results of the modal tests for the Periscope End Wall in Laser Bay 1 have provided examples of modal properties that can be derived from future modal tests of the entire Periscope Assembly (excluding the LRU's). This next series of larger modal tests can be performed after the support structure for the Periscope Assembly has been completed. There are five optical elements in the Periscope Assembly: PEPC; Polarizer; LM3; LM2; and the Periscope Light Source. All of these optical elements have stability requirements except for the PEPC. During the Title II Design phase, two prototypes of the LM3/Polarizer LRU were used in two different series of modal tests [ref 2,3]. A similar series of modal tests were conducted on a prototype of the PEPC LRU. The results of the modal tests were used to verify the modal properties assumed for use in the corresponding finite-element analyses.

Eli, M W; Gerhard, M A; Lee, C L; Sommer, S C; Woehrle, T G

2000-10-26

10

Periscope-camera system for visible and infrared imaging diagnostics on TFTR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical diagnostic consisting of a periscope which relays images of the torus interior to an array of cameras is used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to view plasma discharge phenomena and inspect the vacuum vessel internal structures in both the visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Three periscopes view through 20-cm-diam fused-silica windows which are spaced around the torus midplane to provide a viewing coverage of approximately 75% of the vacuum vessel internal surface area. The periscopes have f/8 optics and motor-driven controls for focusing, magnification selection (5°, 20°, and 60° field of view), elevation and azimuth setting, mast rotation, filter selection, iris aperture, and viewing port selection. The four viewing ports on each periscope are equipped with multiple imaging devices which include: (1) an inspection eyepiece, (2) standard (RCA TC2900) and fast (RETICON) framing rate television cameras, (3) a PtSi CCD infrared imaging camera, (4) a 35-mm Nikon F3 still camera, or (5) a 16-mm Locam II movie camera with variable framing rate up to 500 fps. Operation of the periscope-camera system is controlled either locally or remotely through a computer-CAMAC interface. A description of the equipment and examples of its application are presented.

Medley, S. S.; Dimock, D. L.; Hayes, S.; Long, D.; Lowrance, J. L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Young, K. M.

1985-10-01

11

Chimney and periscope technique for emergent treatment of spontaneous aortic rupture.  

PubMed

Aortic rupture comprises a potentially fatal condition necessitating emergent treatment. Endovascular sealing of the rupture site is often combined with the use of chimney- and periscope stent placement to preserve perfusion of aortic branches. We present a case of successful endovascular management of contained aortic rupture in a 78-year-old patient. The left brachial access facilitated stenting of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries, whereas the left femoral route served stenting of the renal artery. One-month follow-up confirmed complete sealing, stent patency, and absence of endograft migration. The combined periscope and chimney technique is feasible and effective in the emergency setting. PMID:24517987

Trellopoulos, George; Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Pelekas, Dimitrios; Papachristodoulou, Athanasia; Argyriou, Christos; Georgiadis, George S

2014-07-01

12

Design Study of a Visible/Infrared Periscope for Intense Radiation Applications using Reflective Optics  

SciTech Connect

In magnetically confined fusion devices employing deuterium-tritium (D-T) operation, refractive optical components exposed to neutron and gamma radiation can be subject to degradation of the transmission characteristics, induced luminescence, and altered mechanical properties including dimensional changes. Although radiation resistant refractive optics functioned well for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) periscope system during D-T operation, this design approach is unpromising in the much more hostile radiation environment of future D-T devices such as the International Thermonumclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Under contract to the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Ball Aerospace of Colorado carried out a periscope design study based on the use of reflective optics. In this design, beryllium reflective input optics supported by a fused silica optical bench were interfaced to a Cassegrain relay system to transfer plasma images to remotely located cameras. This system is also capable of measuring first-wall surface temperatures in the range of 300 - 2,000 degrees C even under projected heating of the reflective optics themselves to several hundred degrees Celsius. Tests of beryllium mirror samples, however, revealed that operation at temperatures above 700 degrees C leads to a loss of specular reflectivity, thus placing an upper limit on the acceptable thermal environment. The main results of this periscope study are presented in this paper.

Medley, S.S.

1998-05-01

13

High-speed multispectral videography with a periscope array in a spectral shaper.  

PubMed

We present a simple method for continuous snapshot multispectral imaging or multispectral videography that achieves high-speed spectral video recording without the need for mechanical scanning and much computation for datacube construction. The enabling component of this method is an array of periscopes placed in a prism-based spectral shaper that spectrally separates the image without image deformation. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we show five-color multispectral video recording in the visible range (200×200 pixels per spectral image frame) at a record high frame rate of at least 2800 frames per second. Our experimental results indicate that this method holds promise for various industrial and biomedical applications such as remote sensing, food inspection, and endoscopy. PMID:25503036

Hashimoto, Kazuki; Mizuno, Hikaru; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Kannari, Fumihiko; Sakuma, Ichiro; Goda, Keisuke

2014-12-15

14

Representing distributed cognition in complex systems: how a submarine returns to periscope depth.  

PubMed

This paper presents the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method as a means of modelling distributed cognition in systems. The method comprises three network models (i.e. task, social and information) and their combination. This method was applied to the interactions between the sound room and control room in a submarine, following the activities of returning the submarine to periscope depth. This paper demonstrates three main developments in EAST. First, building the network models directly, without reference to the intervening methods. Second, the application of analysis metrics to all three networks. Third, the combination of the aforementioned networks in different ways to gain a broader understanding of the distributed cognition. Analyses have shown that EAST can be used to gain both qualitative and quantitative insights into distributed cognition. Future research should focus on the analyses of network resilience and modelling alternative versions of a system. PMID:23510256

Stanton, Neville A

2014-01-01

15

How a submarine returns to periscope depth: analysing complex socio-technical systems using Cognitive Work Analysis.  

PubMed

This paper presents the application of Cognitive Work Analysis to the description of the functions, situations, activities, decisions, strategies, and competencies of a Trafalgar class submarine when performing the function of returning to periscope depth. All five phases of Cognitive Work Analysis are presented, namely: Work Domain Analysis, Control Task Analysis, Strategies Analysis, Social Organisation and Cooperation Analysis, and Worker Competencies Analysis. Complex socio-technical systems are difficult to analyse but Cognitive Work Analysis offers an integrated way of analysing complex systems with the core of functional means-ends analysis underlying all of the other representations. The joined-up analysis offers a coherent framework for understanding how socio-technical systems work. Data were collected through observation and interviews at different sites across the UK. The resultant representations present a statement of how the work domain and current activities are configured in this complex socio-technical system. This is intended to provide a baseline, from which all future conceptions of the domain may be compared. The strength of the analysis is in the multiple representations from which the constraints acting on the work may be analysed. Future research needs to challenge the assumptions behind these constraints in order to develop new ways of working. PMID:23702259

Stanton, Neville A; Bessell, Kevin

2014-01-01

16

The Periscope: An Experience Design Case Study Sebastian Loehmann1  

E-print Network

the development. With this case study, we continue the quest of introducing the car as a design space to create and to share discoveries with others in the car Knobel et al. [10][11] showed that the design of passengers infotainment equipment. Instead they built on Experience Design [4] and showed how cars can also be "meeting

17

Endovascular Repair of Acute Symptomatic Pararenal Aortic Aneurysm With Three Chimney and One Periscope Graft for Complete Visceral Artery Revascularization  

SciTech Connect

PurposeTo describe a modified endovascular technique for complete revascularization of visceral and renal arteries in symptomatic pararenal aortic aneurysm (PRAA).TechniqueArterial access was surgically established in both common femoral arteries (CFAs) and the left subclavian artery (LSA). Revascularization of the left renal artery, the celiac trunk, and the superior mesenteric artery was performed through one single sheath via the LSA. Suitable covered stents were put in the aortic branches but not deployed. The right renal artery was accessed over the left CFA. Due to the longitudinal extension of the presented aneurysm two stent-grafts were introduced via the right CFA. After deploying the aortic stent-grafts, all covered stents in the side branches were deployed consecutively with a minimum overlap of 5 mm over the cranial and caudal stent-graft edges. Simultaneous ballooning was performed to fully expand all stent-grafts and warranty patency. Conclusion: This is the first report in the literature of chimney grafting in PRAA for complete revascularization of visceral and renal branches by using more than two covered stents introduced from one side through one single sheath. However this technique is modified, it should be used only in bailout situations when branched stent-grafts are not available and/or surgery is not suitable.

Brechtel, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.brechtel@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Ketelsen, Dominik [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Endisch, Andrea [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Germany); Heller, Stephan; Heuschmid, Martin [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Stock, Ulrich A.; Kalender, Guenay [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Germany)

2012-04-15

18

Effect of periscope reflecting mirror on uncertainty of measured temperature of an electron beam heated metal vapor source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature of the hot zone created by impact of a high power density electron beam (e-beam) needs to be monitored for reasons concerning process evaluation and safety. In high throughput e-beam evaporators, direct line of sight viewing of the hot zone using an optical pyrometer on a continuous basis is ruled out due to opacity introduced by rapid coating

B Dikshit; G R Zende; M S Bhatia; B M Suri

2008-01-01

19

33. HISTORIC VIEW OF WERNHER VON BRAUN LOOKS THROUGH THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. HISTORIC VIEW OF WERNHER VON BRAUN LOOKS THROUGH THE PERISCOPE FROM THE CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND NO. 1, PEENEMUENDE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

20

Novel Techniques for Single-Pulse Spectrum and Pulsewidth Measurements for an IR-FEL  

E-print Network

to the image dissector with a polarization sensitive beamthe image dissector with another polarization sensitive beampolarization rotating periscope, an input mode matching telescope, two alignment HeNe lasers,quadrant detectorkinematic mounts, l-meter spectiometcr, image

Leemans, W.P.

2011-01-01

21

VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EARTH MOUND. NOTE THE RECTANGULAR OPENINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EARTH MOUND. NOTE THE RECTANGULAR OPENINGS USED FOR OBSERVATION EQUIPMENT AND PERISCOPE TOPS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

22

Optical system design for infrared imaging system of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first infrared imaging system, for monitoring the temperature of the inner wall and localized hot spot such as the ICRH antenna was installed on the midplane of the D-port in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The cassette system of KSTAR makes a periscope inevitable for infrared imaging system. The periscope is composed of a 3 functional optical lens set (input beam shaper, beam deliverer, output beam shaper). CaF2 was chosen for the material of the lens elements. As an infrared image camera, FLIR/ThermoVision SC6000HS is used. The infrared camera has 640 × 512 pixel resolution and a camera lens set with 25.4 mm of focus length and 50 mm of input pupil. The periscope was designed to have 2.7 m of overall length, 19.07 mm of focal length and 3.81 of f-number.

Oh, S.; Seo, D.; KSTAR Team

2012-02-01

23

Optics design of the divertor infrared television of KSTAR.  

PubMed

The divertor Infrared television (IR TV) system for monitoring the temperature of a divertor and localized hot spots will be installed on the upper port of the N-port in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The cassette of KSTAR makes a periscope inevitable for the divertor IR TV. In this article, 4 design concepts for the periscope were examined, and the design based on Keplerian was shown to have better stabilities in alignment and the vibration. The final optics design based on an f-theta lens, Keplerian, and telecentric lens was derived. PMID:25430316

Oh, S; Lee, K; Lee, H H; Wi, H M; Kim, Y S; Kang, C S

2014-11-01

24

New Insights into Light in the Oceans Tommy Dickey, UCSB  

E-print Network

be `observed' from above and below the sea surface? Virtual periscope. Above- and below-surface images using RadCam Images provided by Marlon Lewis (Dalhousie University, Canada) #12;Other Related Interdisciplinary Problems 1. How can we make prediction of underwater light field given wave structure plus other

Fabrikant, Sara Irina

25

Development of optical components for in-vessel viewing systems used for fusion experimental reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical components including imagefiber, periscope, glass, reflecting mirror and adhesive for lens are essential elements of in-vessel viewing system use for fusion experimental reactor and extensive of gamma irradiation tests have been conducted. These components were irradiated in the range of 1 MGy - 100 MGy under the average exposure dose rate of 1 X 106 R\\/h. As a result,

Kenjiro Obara; Satoshi Kakudate; Kiyoshi Oka; Eisuke Tada; Yosuke Morita; Masahiro Seki

1994-01-01

26

Development of optical components for in-vessel viewing systems used for fusion experimental reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical components including imagefiber, periscope, glass, reflecting mirror and adhesive for lens are essential elements of in-vessel viewing system use for fusion experimental reactor and extensive of gamma irradiation tests have been conducted. These components were irradiated in the range of 1 MGy - 100 MGy under the average exposure dose rate of 1 X 106 R/h. As a result, the observation limit of the imagefiber specially fabricated for radiation hard is obtained to be 12 MGy at a illuminance of 8500 lx. Deterioration of transmissivity of three kinds of glass (alkaline barium glass, lead glass and synthetic quartz glass) is small compared with standard glass for commercial periscope. A periscope which was made of these glasses is visible even after 20 MGy at 8500 lx and in case of the standard periscope, the observation limit is 1 kGy at 8500 lx. Decrease in the reflectance on chromium nitride coated reflecting mirror is extremely small than aluminum coated and platinum coated mirrors at accumulated dose of 100 MGy. Two types of adhesive made of polyester resin and epoxy resin became discolored and exfoliated after 50 MGy.

Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Tada, Eisuke; Morita, Yosuke; Seki, Masahiro

1994-12-01

27

25. VIEW OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. VIEW OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM. CONSOLE INCLUDES TELEVISION CONTROL, FACILITIES, AND VEHICLE (MISSILE) POWER PANELS. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: MILITARY-TIME CLOCK, BASE OF BUNKER PERISCOPE, AND STAIRS TO ESCAPE TUNNEL. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

28

FOOD, MEALS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN DANISH KINDERGARTENS  

E-print Network

with children, parents and pedagogues in Danish kindergartens Danish PERISCOPE research team November 2008 to capture kindergarten aged children's and other stakeholders (i.e. parents and kindergartens teachers;4 The parents saw themselves as the most important role models in the life of their children. But parents also

Hansen, René Rydhof

29

3. EAST SIDE FROM ATOP TUNNEL, SHOWING BLAST SHIELDED WINDOWS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EAST SIDE FROM ATOP TUNNEL, SHOWING BLAST SHIELDED WINDOWS AND PERISCOPE FACING TO TEST STAND 1-3. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

30

Innovative optronics for the new PUMA tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new PUMA tank is equipped with a fully stabilized 360° periscope. The thermal imager in the periscope is identical to the imager in the gunner sight. All optronic images of the cameras can be fed on every electronic display within the tank. The thermal imagers operate with a long wave 384x288 MCT starring focal plane array. The high quantum efficiency of MCT provides low NETD values at short integration times. The thermal imager has an image resolution of 768x576 pixels by means of a micro scanner. The MCT detector operates at high temperatures above 75K with high stability in noise and correctibility and offers high reliability (MTTF) values for the complete camera in a very compact design. The paper discusses the principle and functionality of the optronic combination of direct view optical channel, thermal imager and visible camera and discusses in detail the performances of the subcomponents with respect to demands for new tank applications.

Fritze, J.; Münzberg, M.; Schlemmer, H.

2010-04-01

31

Eye Spy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun activity uses simple materials such as milk cartons and mirrors to introduce the ideas of optics and visual perception. The project is easy to do, however adult assistance may be needed to help learners cut out the cartons. Once they build their periscopes, participants can have fun looking over, under and around things. This activity can also be linked to other spy themed projects or a discussion on submarines and underwater exploration.

Wgbh

2009-01-01

32

Understanding theUnderstanding the Market of MetroMarket of Metro  

E-print Network

Understanding theUnderstanding the Market of MetroMarket of Metro Transit'sTransit's Ridership-Geneidy University of Minnesota #12;#12;#12;Understanding theUnderstanding the Market of MetroMarket of Metro Transit in 2001 by Periscope (Metro Transit) #12;0.700.01-0.12-0.020.11-0.03How long have you used our bus service

Minnesota, University of

33

Ruptured thoracoabdominal aneurysm treatment with modified chimney stent graft.  

PubMed

A 76-year-old woman presented with symptomatic contained-ruptured thoracoabdominal aneurysm at the level of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and the hepatic artery origin from the SMA. The chimney technique for celiac trunk, SMA, and right renal artery (periscope configuration) was performed. An endovascular leak from the distal landing zone of the SMA stent graft was treated using a second modified stent graft with the SMA branches preservation. The 18-month follow-up computed tomography angiography demonstrated the aneurysm exclusion, no endovascular leak, and visceral and renal arteries patency. PMID:25087829

Marino, Mario; Kasemi, Holta; Di Angelo, Costantino Luca; Fadda, Gian Franco

2014-08-01

34

A model for the submarine depthkeeping team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most difficult task the depthkeeping team must face occurs during periscope-depth operations during which they may be required to maintain a submarine several hundred feet long within a foot of ordered depth and within one-half degree of ordered pitch. The difficulty is compounded by the facts that wave generated forces are extremely high, depth and pitch signals are very noisy and submarine speed is such that overall dynamics are slow. A mathematical simulation of the depthkeeping team based on the optimal control models is described. A solution of the optimal team control problem with an output control restriction (limited display to each controller) is presented.

Ware, J. R.; Best, J. F.; Bozzi, P. J.; Kleinman, D. W.

1981-01-01

35

Various Rocket Installations at Rocket Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineer operating a rig used for studying film-cooling of combustors. In this method of cooling, a film of relatively cool air is maintained between the hot gases and the combustor wall to serve as an insulator for the wall. The operator is separated from the combustion equipment by 2 feet of reinforced concrete with a steel inner lining. He sees the equipment indirectly, through a periscopic arrangement of mirrors and a window of bullet-proof glass. Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, now known as John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, Cleveland, Ohio.

1952-01-01

36

Design considerations, tooling, and equipment for remote in-service inspection of radioactive piping and pressure-vessel systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes results obtained in use of remotely-operated nondestructive testing (NDT) equipment for inspection of reactor-system components. Experience obtained in operating the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has provided a basis for field verification of remote NDT equipment designs and has suggested development improvements. Remote Viewing and data gathering systems used include periscopes, borescopes, fiberscopes, hybrid borescopes/fiberscopes, and closed circuit television. A summary of design consideration for inspection equipment and power plant design is presented to achieve improved equipment operation and reduction of plant maintenance downtime.

Swannack, D.L.; Schmoker, D.S.

1983-01-01

37

Progress Report on the Student Astronomy Lab telescope at the University of Denver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integration and test activities associated with a new telescope for the Student Astronomy Laboratory (SAL) at the University of Denver are currently nearing completion on the main Denver campus. The 76.2-cm aperture SAL telescope incorporates novel design features, enabling it to operate as the first professional astronomical teaching and research telescope expressly designed to include use by wheelchair accommodated observers. The telescope is located 23-m above ground level on the fifth floor roof of the Space Sciences Laboratory building and is supported by a steel tower structure from the fourth floor support beams in the NW corner of the building. An afocal Mersenne optical configuration is used to send a collimated beam through the RA and DEC axes of the mounting, through a figure-4 mirror set, and thence vertically downward into a periscope, where condensing optics form an image plane accessible to visible band and IR detectors. A technical description of the telescope installation is provided, along with photographs illustrating key design features. Wheelchair-bound observers can enter the fourth floor lab and make use of an eye-level eyepiece when suitable periscope optics are installed. The SAL installation will be accessible to visitors by pre-arrangement with DU Observatories during the Denver AAS meeting [#204]. We are grateful to Glenn Montgpomery, Sarah Nelson and the estate of William Herschel Womble for their support of this University of Denver astronomy project.

Mellon, R. R.; Scheld, D. L.; Stencel, R. E.

2004-05-01

38

A survey of ATL-compatible radiometer antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey was made of antennas suitable for remote sensing of the earth's surface, in particular the world ocean, by means of microwave radiometers operating in the 1 to 26 GHz frequency region and carried on board the shuttle-launched advanced technology laboratory. Array antennas are found to be unattractive and unsuited to the task. Reflectors, including Cassegrain and offset types, as well as horn-reflectors are possible candidates but all have shortcomings which impair the accuracy of measurement. Horns of the corrugated type have excellent electrical characteristics. Although they are physically very large and will require development of suitable deployment mechanisms, they appear to be valid candidates for the task. The evolution of the periscope antenna is outlined, and it is shown to possess nearly ideal electrical characteristics for the intended application. Its only shortcoming is that the feed horn creates aperture blocking; there is no blocking due to struts or any other source. The periscope antenna is recommended for ATL radiometry.

Love, A. W.

1975-01-01

39

Magnify It!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn that there are limits to what the eye can see and that a magnifying glass can help extend those limits. Students may have been exposed to optical technology such as glasses, magnifying lenses, or even periscopes, microscopes, and telescopes. This lesson aims to channel the inventive energy of students to increase their awareness and purposeful use of tools. They will view objects of various sizes from several viewing distances to discover that their visual field is limited. Students will record what they see and will compare their observations with classmates in an open, nonjudgmental forum. They will have the opportunity to speculate about and experiment freely with magnifying glasses and will also conduct more structured experiments.

40

High-resolution, continuous field-of-view (FOV), non-rotating imaging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high resolution CMOS imaging system especially suitable for use in a periscope head. The imaging system includes a sensor head for scene acquisition, and a control apparatus inclusive of distributed processors and software for device-control, data handling, and display. The sensor head encloses a combination of wide field-of-view CMOS imagers and narrow field-of-view CMOS imagers. Each bank of imagers is controlled by a dedicated processing module in order to handle information flow and image analysis of the outputs of the camera system. The imaging system also includes automated or manually controlled display system and software for providing an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) that displays a full 360-degree field of view and allows the user or automated ATR system to select regions for higher resolution inspection.

Huntsberger, Terrance L. (Inventor); Stirbl, Robert C. (Inventor); Aghazarian, Hrand (Inventor); Padgett, Curtis W. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

41

High Resolution IR Imaging for Alcator C-Mod  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are upgrading the infrared imaging system for divertor heat load studies on Alcator C-Mod by adding a new FLIR SC8303HD camera. The new camera is capable of 1344x784 pixel full frame resolution with 14-bit images at 130 Hz. Faster rates are possible by sub-windowing on the image. The new camera uses full camera link interface over fiber optics from the test cell to the control room, and the resulting data acquisition handles an image stream of 260 Mbytes/second straight to disk. At first we will employ a silicon wafer beam splitter, to enable measurements with both the new and old cameras simultaneously with the existing IR periscope. Initial data from the new camera and the parallel development of real-time imaging software for later use of this hardware on the W7-X stellarator will be discussed.

Wurden, G. A.; Terry, J. L.

2012-10-01

42

Submarine imaging systems: developing improved capabilities and technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Navy sumbmarine Imaging and Electronic Warfare Program Office, NAVSEA PMS435, is constantly pursuing new technologies and enhanced capabilities in order to allow the submarine fleet to meet quick reaction mission requirements, anticipated future threats and to provide for improvements in overall situational awareness. NAVSEA PMS 435 is actively pursuing the development of applicable technologies and capabilities in the following areas: Periscope Headwindow Watershedding, Mid-Wave Infrared, Low Cost Expendable Imaging Sensors (LCES), Auto Detection and Tracking (ADAT), Auto Target Recognition (ATR), 360 Degree Imaging Systems, and Image Stitching Algorithms. This presentation provides a status of where NAVSEA PMS 435 is in regard to the development of these technologies and provides an opportunity to share ideas as to how they might be more effectively developed by leveraging information and other resources available in other government agencies, commercial partners and academia.

Duryea, David M.; Lindstrom, Carl E.; Sayegh, Riad

2008-04-01

43

Postoperative pulmonary complications updating.  

PubMed

Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are a major contributor to the overall risk of surgery. PPCs affect the length of hospital stay and are associated with a higher in-hospital mortality. PPCs are even the leading cause of death either in cardiothoracic surgery but also in non-cardiothoracic surgery. Thus, reliable PPCs risk stratification tools are the key issue of clinical decision making in the perioperative period. When the risk is clearly identified related to the patient according the ARISCAT score and/or the type of surgery (mainly thoracic and abdominal), low-cost preemptive interventions improve outcomes and new strategies can be developed to prevent this risk. The EuSOS, PERISCOPE and IMPROVE studies demonstrated this care optimization by risk identification first, then risk stratification and new care (multifaceted) strategies implementation allowing a decrease in PPCs mortality by optimizing the clinical path of the patient and the care resources. PMID:25168300

Langeron, O; Carreira, S; le Saché, F; Raux, M

2014-01-01

44

Investigation of light source and scattering medium related to vapor-screen flow visualization in a supersonic wind tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for increasing the radiant in light sheets used for vapor screen set-ups were investigated. Both high-pressure mercury arc lamps and lasers were considered. Pulsed operation of the air-cooled 1-kW lamps increased the light output but decreased reliability. An ellipsoidal mirror improved the output of the air-cooled lamps by concentrating the light but increased the complexity of the housing. Water-cooled-4-kW lamps coupled with high-aperture Fresnel lenses provided reasonable improvements over the air-cooled lamps. Fanned laser beams measurements of scattered light versus dew point made in conjunction with successful attempts to control the fluid injection. A number of smoke generators are described and test results comparing smoke and vapor screens are shown. Finally, one test included a periscope system to relay the image to a camera outside the flow.

Snow, W. L.; Morris, O. A.

1984-01-01

45

Hemispherical Field-of-View Above-Water Surface Imager for Submarines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document discusses solutions to the problem of submarines having to rise above water to detect airplanes in the general vicinity. Two solutions are provided, in which a sensor is located just under the water surface, and at a few to tens of meter depth under the water surface. The first option is a Fish Eye Lens (FEL) digital-camera combination, situated just under the water surface that will have near-full- hemisphere (360 azimuth and 90 elevation) field of view for detecting objects on the water surface. This sensor can provide a three-dimensional picture of the airspace both in the marine and in the land environment. The FEL is coupled to a camera and can continuously look at the entire sky above it. The camera can have an Active Pixel Sensor (APS) focal plane array that allows logic circuitry to be built directly in the sensor. The logic circuitry allows data processing to occur on the sensor head without the need for any other external electronics. In the second option, a single-photon sensitive (photon counting) detector-array is used at depth, without the need for any optics in front of it, since at this location, optical signals are scattered and arrive at a wide (tens of degrees) range of angles. Beam scattering through clouds and seawater effectively negates optical imaging at depths below a few meters under cloudy or turbulent conditions. Under those conditions, maximum collection efficiency can be achieved by using a non-imaging photon-counting detector behind narrowband filters. In either case, signals from these sensors may be fused and correlated or decorrelated with other sensor data to get an accurate picture of the object(s) above the submarine. These devices can complement traditional submarine periscopes that have a limited field of view in the elevation direction. Also, these techniques circumvent the need for exposing the entire submarine or its periscopes to the outside environment.

Hemmati, Hamid; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Farr, William H.; Dannecker, John D.

2012-01-01

46

Experiments with optical instruments. [attitude control and docking of Soyuz T-4 with Salyut 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photography was used to document known defects of the periscopic instrument used to check spacecrews in the descent module of the Soyuz T-4. The screen of the altitude control unit was also photographed and revealed glare in the central field of vision. A light filter was installed in the peripheral window to observe the Sun and horizon of the Earth. Checking attitude control by means of polaroids enabled a 5 further advance (500 km) into the zone of shadow. The attitude control unit was used to check the orbital orientation with respect to the vertical during the night segment of flight. A lens screen was used for the emission glow of the atmosphere at an altitude of about 100 km. Docking of the Soyuz T-4 was observed by means of an onboard display, a television camera, and a sighting device. From a distance of about 5 km, the space station could be seen as a bright dot in the sighting device. Docking occurred in shadow.

Savinykh, V.

1983-01-01

47

Detecting motion through dynamic refraction.  

PubMed

Refraction causes random dynamic distortions in atmospheric turbulence and in views across a water interface. The latter scenario is experienced by submerged animals seeking to detect prey or avoid predators, which may be airborne or on land. Man encounters this when surveying a scene by a submarine or divers while wishing to avoid the use of an attention-drawing periscope. The problem of inverting random refracted dynamic distortions is difficult, particularly when some of the objects in the field of view (FOV) are moving. On the other hand, in many cases, just those moving objects are of interest, as they reveal animal, human, or machine activity. Furthermore, detecting and tracking these objects does not necessitate handling the difficult task of complete recovery of the scene. We show that moving objects can be detected very simply, with low false-positive rates, even when the distortions are very strong and dominate the object motion. Moreover, the moving object can be detected even if it has zero mean motion. While the object and distortion motions are random and unknown, they are mutually independent. This is expressed by a simple motion feature which enables discrimination of moving object points versus the background. PMID:23154325

Alterman, Marina; Schechner, Yoav Y; Perona, Pietro; Shamir, Joseph

2013-01-01

48

Development of imaging bolometers for magnetic fusion reactors (invited).  

PubMed

Imaging bolometers utilize an infrared (IR) video camera to measure the change in temperature of a thin foil exposed to the plasma radiation, thereby avoiding the risks of conventional resistive bolometers related to electric cabling and vacuum feedthroughs in a reactor environment. A prototype of the IR imaging video bolometer (IRVB) has been installed and operated on the JT-60U tokamak demonstrating its applicability to a reactor environment and its ability to provide two-dimensional measurements of the radiation emissivity in a poloidal cross section. In this paper we review this development and present the first results of an upgraded version of this IRVB on JT-60U. This upgrade utilizes a state-of-the-art IR camera (FLIR/Indigo Phoenix-InSb) (3-5 microm, 256 x 360 pixels, 345 Hz, 11 mK) mounted in a neutron/gamma/magnetic shield behind a 3.6 m IR periscope consisting of CaF(2) optics and an aluminum mirror. The IRVB foil is 7 cm x 9 cm x 5 microm tantalum. A noise equivalent power density of 300 microW/cm(2) is achieved with 40 x 24 channels and a time response of 10 ms or 23 microW/cm(2) for 16 x 12 channels and a time response of 33 ms, which is 30 times better than the previous version of the IRVB on JT-60U. PMID:19044463

Peterson, Byron J; Parchamy, Homaira; Ashikawa, Naoko; Kawashima, Hisato; Konoshima, Shigeru; Kostryukov, Artem Yu; Miroshnikov, Igor V; Seo, Dongcheol; Omori, T

2008-10-01

49

Opto-mechanical devices for the Antares automatic beam alignment system  

SciTech Connect

Antares is a 24-beam CO/sub 2/ laser system for controlled fusion research, under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Rapid automatic alignment of this system is required prior to each experimental shot. Unique opto-mechanical alignment devices, which have been developed specifically for this automatic alignment system, are discussed. A variable focus alignment telescope views point light sources. A beam expander/spatial filter processes both a visible Krypton Ion and a 10.6 ..mu..m CO/sub 2/ alignment laser. The periscope/carousel device provides the means by which the alignment telescope can sequentially view each of twelve optical trains in each power amplifier. The polyhedron alignment device projects a point-light source for both centering and pointing alignment at the polyhedron mirror. The rotating wedge alignment device provides a sequencing point-light source and also compensates for dispersion between visible and 10.6 ..mu..m radiation. The back reflector flip in remotely positions point-light sources at the back reflector mirrors. A light source box illuminates optic fibers with high intensity white light which is distributed to the various point-light sources in the system.

Swann, T.; Combs, C.; Witt, J.

1981-01-01

50

Determination of the efficiency of a proportional counter for detecting X-rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parallel beam of X-rays (approximately monoenergetic) passing through a rectangular slit and scattering from two flat mirrors comprise the X-ray test. The two mirrors are arranged in a periscope geometry so that the final reflected beam is parallel to the incident beam but displaced laterally by given amount. One of the detectors used to intercept the reflected X-rays is a one dimensional gas-filled proportional counter which is sensitive to the position (in 1 dimension) at which the X-rays are incident within its detecting "window". The total length of the anode wire of the proportional counter is 120 mm and this length can be divided electronically into a maximum of 1,024 parts. Hence, the output of an experimental run would be the number of incident X-rays that registered on each of the 1,024 channels. Each channel would represent an X-ray at a different spatial location and, hence, at a different scattering angle. In order to look at a wider range of scattering angles, the detector is placed on an optical table which can be rotated.

Williams, A. C.

1982-01-01

51

Development of imaging bolometers for magnetic fusion reactors (invited)a)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging bolometers utilize an infrared (IR) video camera to measure the change in temperature of a thin foil exposed to the plasma radiation, thereby avoiding the risks of conventional resistive bolometers related to electric cabling and vacuum feedthroughs in a reactor environment. A prototype of the IR imaging video bolometer (IRVB) has been installed and operated on the JT-60U tokamak demonstrating its applicability to a reactor environment and its ability to provide two-dimensional measurements of the radiation emissivity in a poloidal cross section. In this paper we review this development and present the first results of an upgraded version of this IRVB on JT-60U. This upgrade utilizes a state-of-the-art IR camera (FLIR/Indigo Phoenix-InSb) (3-5 ?m, 256×360 pixels, 345 Hz, 11 mK) mounted in a neutron/gamma/magnetic shield behind a 3.6 m IR periscope consisting of CaF2 optics and an aluminum mirror. The IRVB foil is 7 cm×9 cm×5 ?m tantalum. A noise equivalent power density of 300 ?W/cm2 is achieved with 40×24 channels and a time response of 10 ms or 23 ?W/cm2 for 16×12 channels and a time response of 33 ms, which is 30 times better than the previous version of the IRVB on JT-60U.

Peterson, Byron J.; Parchamy, Homaira; Ashikawa, Naoko; Kawashima, Hisato; Konoshima, Shigeru; Kostryukov, Artem Yu.; Miroshnikov, Igor V.; Seo, Dongcheol; Omori, T.

2008-10-01

52

Target plane imager for inertial confinement fusion  

SciTech Connect

The Nova laser, completed in December 1984 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is being used to conduct inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is capable of focusing more than 100 kJ of energy on small fusion targets. This paper discusses an optical system called the target plane imager that is used during the beam alignment phase of these experiments. The TPI includes a three meter long periscope with a wide field of view, F/3 objective. The telescope relays images of the target focal plane to viewing optics and a video sensor located outside the target chamber. Operation of the system is possible at three wavelengths: 1.05..mu.., 0.527..mu.., and 0.351..mu... These are the three wavelengths at which the ten Nova laser beams can irradiate targets. Both nearfield and farfield images of the ten beams can be viewed with the TPI. This instrument is used to properly align the laser to the target before each target irradiation.

Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Seppala, L.G.

1985-01-30

53

Enhanced dendritic activity in awake rats  

PubMed Central

Almost nothing is known about dendritic activity in awake animals and even less about its relationship to behavior. The tuft dendrites of layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons lie in layer 1, where long-range axons from secondary thalamic nuclei and higher cortical areas arrive. This class of input is very dependent on active thalamo-cortical loops and activity in higher brain areas and so is likely to be heavily influenced by the conscious state of the animal. If, as has been suggested, the dendrites of pyramidal neurons actively participate in this process, dendritic activity should greatly increase in the awake state. Here, we measured calcium activity in L5 pyramidal neuron dendrites using the “periscope” fiberoptic system. Recordings were made in the sensorimotor cortex of awake and anesthetized rats following sensory stimulation of the hindlimb. Bi-phasic dendritic responses evoked by hindlimb stimulation were extremely dependent on brain state. In the awake state, there was a prominent slow, delayed response whose integral was on average 14-fold larger than in the anesthetized state. Moreover, the dramatic increases in dendritic activity closely correlated to the strength of subsequent hindlimb movement. These changes were confined to L5 pyramidal dendrites and were not reflected in the response of layer 2/3 (L2/3) neurons to air-puff stimuli in general (which actually decreased in the awake state). The results demonstrate that the activity of L5 pyramidal dendrites is a neural correlate of awake behavior. PMID:19918085

Murayama, Masanori; Larkum, Matthew E.

2009-01-01

54

The influence of the hand's acceleration and the relative contribution of drag and lift forces in front crawl swimming.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the hand's acceleration on the propulsive forces and the relative contribution of the drag and lift on their resultant force in the separate phases of the front crawl underwater arm stroke. Ten female swimmers swam one trial of all-out 25-m front crawl. The underwater motion of each swimmer's right hand was recorded using four camcorders and four periscope systems. Anatomical landmarks were digitised, and the propulsive forces generated by the swimmer's hand were estimated from the kinematic data in conjunction with hydrodynamic coefficients. When the hand's acceleration was taken into account, the magnitude of the propulsive forces was greater, with the exception of the mean drag force during the final part of the underwater arm stroke. The mean drag force was greater than the mean lift force in the middle part, while the mean lift force was greater than the mean drag force in the final part of the underwater arm stroke. Thus, swimmers should accelerate their hands from the beginning of their backward motion, press the water with large pitch angles during the middle part and sweep with small pitch angles during the final part of their underwater arm stroke. PMID:25429796

Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Boli, Alexia; Aggeloussis, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Toubekis, Argyris; Mavromatis, Georgios

2014-11-28

55

Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the US processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive US processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Johns Manville Corporation targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. With Combustion Technology Inc., they are developing silicide-based periscope sight tubes for the direct observation of glass melts. With Accutru International Corporation, they are developing silicide-based protective sheaths for self-verifying temperature sensors which may be used in glass furnaces and other industrial applications. The progress made on the program in this period is summarized.

Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.

1999-03-01

56

History of remote operations and robotics in nuclear facilities. Robotics and Intelligent Systems Program  

SciTech Connect

The field of remote technology is continuing to evolve to support man`s efforts to perform tasks in hostile environments. Remote technology has roots which reach into the early history of man. Fireplace pokers, blacksmith`s tongs, and periscopes are examples of the beginnings of remote technology. The technology which we recognize today has evolved over the last 45-plus years to support human operations in hostile environments such as nuclear fission and fusion, space, underwater, hazardous chemical, and hazardous manufacturing. The four major categories of approach to remote technology have been (1) protective clothing and equipment for direct human entry, (2) extended reach tools using distance for safety, (3) telemanipulators with barriers for safety, and (4) teleoperators incorporating mobility with distance and/or barriers for safety. The government and commercial nuclear industry has driven the development of the majority of the actual teleoperator hardware available today. This hardware has been developed due to the unsatisfactory performance of the protective-clothing approach in many hostile applications. Systems which have been developed include crane/impact wrench systems, unilateral power manipulators, mechanical master/slaves, and servomanipulators. Work for space applications has been primarily research oriented with few successful space applications, although the shuttle`s remote manipulator system has been successful. In the last decade, underwater applications have moved forward significantly, with the offshore oil industry and military applications providing the primary impetus. This document consists of viewgraphs and subtitled figures.

Herndon, J.N.

1992-05-01

57

History of remote operations and robotics in nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect

The field of remote technology is continuing to evolve to support man's efforts to perform tasks in hostile environments. Remote technology has roots which reach into the early history of man. Fireplace pokers, blacksmith's tongs, and periscopes are examples of the beginnings of remote technology. The technology which we recognize today has evolved over the last 45-plus years to support human operations in hostile environments such as nuclear fission and fusion, space, underwater, hazardous chemical, and hazardous manufacturing. The four major categories of approach to remote technology have been (1) protective clothing and equipment for direct human entry, (2) extended reach tools using distance for safety, (3) telemanipulators with barriers for safety, and (4) teleoperators incorporating mobility with distance and/or barriers for safety. The government and commercial nuclear industry has driven the development of the majority of the actual teleoperator hardware available today. This hardware has been developed due to the unsatisfactory performance of the protective-clothing approach in many hostile applications. Systems which have been developed include crane/impact wrench systems, unilateral power manipulators, mechanical master/slaves, and servomanipulators. Work for space applications has been primarily research oriented with few successful space applications, although the shuttle's remote manipulator system has been successful. In the last decade, underwater applications have moved forward significantly, with the offshore oil industry and military applications providing the primary impetus. This document consists of viewgraphs and subtitled figures.

Herndon, J.N.

1992-01-01

58

LG wargaming tool for effect-based operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LG-WGT approach to EBO may be summarized as follows. 1) Causes and Effects will be defined as game state properties. 2) LG algorithms will automatically generate strategies to attain desired effects. The strategies will be generated through LG Zones. LG will model effects as properties of the game pieces and relations among the pieces and the board. 3) The overall Engagement Theater will be modeled as LG hypergame, that is several concurrent abstract board games (ABG) linked together via inter-linking mappings (ILM). LG will represent indirect effects in a related game linked with the game of interest via several ILMs. With LG-WGT, a commander will observe the entire operation as an omnipresent ghost with a virtual camera. He/she would be able to view the operation from the cockcpit of a fighter flying on a SEAD mission, from the cabin of an amphibious vehicle, through the periscope of an attack submarine, or from a virtual AWACS flying over the entire battlefield. Even a normally invisible element, like damages to adversarial infrastructure or political changes, will be made visible in virtual reality together with the chain of events causing this effect. The LG-WGT will provide explanation for all the decisions made employing probabilities of kill, integrated probabilities of survival, threshold for retreat, etc.

Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; McCrabb, Maris

2002-07-01

59

Optical multiple access intersatellite links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of an optical implementation of a multiple access medium data rate data relay service on the timescale of Euro-DRS was assessed. The service requirements for the feasibility study are based on the service which, in existing or planned systems, is implemented at S band. The system should communicate simultaneously with up to 8 LEO users in orbits of radii up to 7400 km providing 8 independently agile links. On each link, it should communicate at up to 2Mb/sec, at bit error rates of 10 to the minus 6th power in the return direction (LEO to GEO). A design concept for the GEO central node was produced. Mass and power estimates were evaluated and a preliminary spacecraft accommodation study performed. The system weighs 130 kg and has a power consumption of 300 W. The optical subsystem occupies a 75 x 75 x 30 cm volume on the top floor of the spacecraft. A number of trade-offs were identified and performed in reaching the final system configuration. The system should have 1 telescope system per user, a periscope mirror configuration for coarse pointing, a single telescope for both transmit and receive, and the use of both 0.8 micron for the LEO-GEO link and 1.3 micron for GEO-LEO.

Grant, M. A.; Matthews, N. F.; Robson, D.

1988-03-01

60

Laser Safety: A Laser Alignment Practical Training Course  

SciTech Connect

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has developed a Laser Alignment Practical Training Course as one of its core laser safety classes. The course is taught to small groups of up to three students and takes 1-3 hours to complete. This practical course is not a substitute for site-specific On-the-Job Training; it does, however, provide a good introduction in core laser safety practices that can be broadly applied. Alignment and diagnostic tasks are performed with low power lasers. Students learn safe alignment and diagnostic techniques and how to avoid common mistakes that might lead to an accident. The class is taught by laser supervisors, enabling them to assess the skill level of new laser personnel and determine the subsequent level of supervision needed. The course has six alignment tasks. For each task, discussion points are given for the instructor to review with the students. The optics setup includes different wavelength lasers, a beam expander, mirrors, irises, a periscope, a beam-splitting polarizer and a diffraction grating. Diagnostic tools include viewing cards, an IR viewer and a ccd camera. Laser eyewear is available to block some laser wavelengths in the setup.

Woods, Michael; Edstrom, Steve; /SLAC; ,

2011-01-26

61

Development of imaging bolometers for magnetic fusion reactors (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Imaging bolometers utilize an infrared (IR) video camera to measure the change in temperature of a thin foil exposed to the plasma radiation, thereby avoiding the risks of conventional resistive bolometers related to electric cabling and vacuum feedthroughs in a reactor environment. A prototype of the IR imaging video bolometer (IRVB) has been installed and operated on the JT-60U tokamak demonstrating its applicability to a reactor environment and its ability to provide two-dimensional measurements of the radiation emissivity in a poloidal cross section. In this paper we review this development and present the first results of an upgraded version of this IRVB on JT-60U. This upgrade utilizes a state-of-the-art IR camera (FLIR/Indigo Phoenix-InSb) (3-5 {mu}m, 256x360 pixels, 345 Hz, 11 mK) mounted in a neutron/gamma/magnetic shield behind a 3.6 m IR periscope consisting of CaF{sub 2} optics and an aluminum mirror. The IRVB foil is 7 cmx9 cmx5 {mu}m tantalum. A noise equivalent power density of 300 {mu}W/cm{sup 2} is achieved with 40x24 channels and a time response of 10 ms or 23 {mu}W/cm{sup 2} for 16x12 channels and a time response of 33 ms, which is 30 times better than the previous version of the IRVB on JT-60U.

Peterson, Byron J.; Parchamy, Homaira; Ashikawa, Naoko [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kawashima, Hisato; Konoshima, Shigeru [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Kostryukov, Artem Yu.; Miroshnikov, Igor V. [St. Petersburg State Technical University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Seo, Dongcheol [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Omori, T. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2008-10-15

62

Polarization Insights for Active Galactic Nuclei  

E-print Network

Optical spectropolarimetry and broadband polarimetry in other wavebands has been a key to understanding many diverse aspects of AGN. In some cases polarization is due to synchrotron radiation, and in other cases it's due to scattering. Recognition of relativistically beamed optical synchrotron emission by polarization was vital for understanding blazars (BL Lacs and Optically Violently Variable quasars), both physically and geometrically. Radio polarimetry of quiescent AGN is equally important, again for both purposes. Scattering polarization was central to the Unified Model for Seyferts, Radio Galaxies and (high ionization) Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies. It provides a periscope for viewing AGN from other directions. Finally, if we could understand its message, polarization would also provide major insights regarding the nature of the AGN "Featureless Continuum" and Broad (emission) Line Region. I point out that high ionization ULIRGs have all the exact right properties to be called Quasar 2s. Mid-IR observations generally don't penetrate to the nucleus, greatly reducing their ability to diagnose the energy source. In particular, LINER ULIRGs aren't necessarily starburst-dominated, as has been claimed.

R. R. J. Antonucci

2001-03-02

63

Final summary report for 1989 inservice inspection (ISI) of SRS (Savannah River Site) 100-P Reactor tank  

SciTech Connect

The integrity of the SRS reactor tanks is a key factor affecting their suitability for continued service since, unlike the external piping system and components, the tanks are virtually irreplaceable. Cracking in various areas of the process water piping systems has occurred beginning in 1960 as a result of several degradation mechanisms, chiefly intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) and chloride-induced transgranular cracking. IGSCC, currently the primary degradation mechanism, also occurred in the knuckle'' region (tank wall-to-bottom tube sheet transition piece) unique to C Reactor and was eventually responsible for that reactor being deactivated in 1985. A program of visual examinations of the SRS reactor tanks was initiated in 1968, which used a specially designed immersible periscope. Under that program the condition of the accessible tank welds and associated heat affected zones (HAZ) was evaluated on a five-year frequency. Prior to 1986, the scope of these inspections comprised approximately 20 percent of the accessible weld area. In late 1986 and early 1987 the scope of the inspections was expanded and a 100 percent visual inspection of accessible welds was performed of the P-, L-, and K-Reactor tanks. Supplemental dye penetrant examinations were performed in L Reactor on selected areas which showed visual indications. No evidence of cracking was detected in any of these inspections of the P-, L-, and K-Reactor tanks. 17 refs., 7 figs.

Morrison, J.M.; Loibl, M.W.

1989-12-15

64

Extinction measurements for optical band gap determination of soot in a series of nitrogen-diluted ethylene/air non-premixed flames.  

PubMed

Visible light extinction was measured in a series of nitrogen-diluted, ethylene/air, non-premixed flames and this data was used to determine the optical band gap, OBG, as a function of flame position. Collimated light from a supercontinuum source is telescopically expanded and refocused to match the f- number of a dispersing monochromator. The dispersed light is split into a power metering channel and a channel that is periscoped and focused into the flame. The transmitted light is then recollimated and focussed onto a silicon photodiode detector. After tomographic reconstruction of the radial extinction field, the OBG was derived from the near-edge absorption feature using Tauc/Davis-Mott analysis. A slight evolution in OBG was observed throughout all flame systems with a consistent range of OBG observed between approximately 1.85 eV and 2.35 eV. Averaging over all positions the mean OBG was approximately 2.09 eV for all flame systems. Comparing these results to previously published computational results relating calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps for a variety of D2h PAH molecules to the number of aromatic rings in the structure, showed that the observed optical band gap is consistent with a PAH of about 14 rings or a conjugation length of 0.97 nm. This work provides experimental support to the model of soot formation where the transition from chemical to physical growth starts at a modest molecular size; about the size of circumpyrene. PMID:25502966

Adkins, Erin M; Miller, J Houston

2015-01-28

65

RoboLab and virtual environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A useful adjunct to the manned space station would be a self-contained free-flying laboratory (RoboLab). This laboratory would have a robot operated under telepresence from the space station or ground. Long duration experiments aboard RoboLab could be performed by astronauts or scientists using telepresence to operate equipment and perform experiments. Operating the lab by telepresence would eliminate the need for life support such as food, water and air. The robot would be capable of motion in three dimensions, have binocular vision TV cameras, and two arms with manipulators to simulate hands. The robot would move along a two-dimensional grid and have a rotating, telescoping periscope section for extension in the third dimension. The remote operator would wear a virtual reality type headset to allow the superposition of computer displays over the real-time video of the lab. The operators would wear exoskeleton type arms to facilitate the movement of objects and equipment operation. The combination of video displays, motion, and the exoskeleton arms would provide a high degree of telepresence, especially for novice users such as scientists doing short-term experiments. The RoboLab could be resupplied and samples removed on other space shuttle flights. A self-contained RoboLab module would be designed to fit within the cargo bay of the space shuttle. Different modules could be designed for specific applications, i.e., crystal-growing, medicine, life sciences, chemistry, etc. This paper describes a RoboLab simulation using virtual reality (VR). VR provides an ideal simulation of telepresence before the actual robot and laboratory modules are constructed. The easy simulation of different telepresence designs will produce a highly optimum design before construction rather than the more expensive and time consuming hardware changes afterwards.

Giarratano, Joseph C.

1994-01-01

66

Commercial nuclear waste research and development program. Quarterly report, January-March 1983  

SciTech Connect

A second more detailed examination was performed on fuel assembly B02 which was utilized in the four-year Surface Storage Cask test. The examination included photo mosiacs of all four sides of the fuel assembly, closeup photographs using the newly installed periscope photography lighting system, and swipe sampling with improved equipment and techniques. Two fuel rods were removed from fuel assembly B02. The rods were placed in a storage container and stored in a Hot Bay lag storage pit pending a detailed examination, which will be performed later to document fuel rod cladding condition and crud adherence prior to the Fuel Temperature Test. Fuel assembly B02 was emplaced in the Fuel Temperature Test apparatus on February 25 and transferred from the Hot Bay to the West Process Cell. Power was turned on March 3 to initiate the test. The temperature profile stabilized March 10. Eight of the eleven canisterized fuel assemblies which were utilized in the Climax Spent Fuel Test have been transferred from the test facility to E-MAD. Gas samples were taken from seven of the canisters. All eight were placed in Hot Bay lag storage. All heater assemblies used in the Climax Spent Fuel Test were returned to E-MAD and receiving inspection was completed. The calorimeter was modified by installation of a filter system on the water fill line. Installation of isokinetic air sampling nozzles in the two E-MAD exchust stacks was completed. Modifications were completed to the Master Control Room communications system. A report, Histories of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assemblies While at the E-MAD Facility, was completed.

NONE

1983-04-01

67

A historical perspective of remote operations and robotics in nuclear facilities. Robotics and Intelligent Systems Program  

SciTech Connect

The field of remote technology is continuing to evolve to support man`s efforts to perform tasks in hostile environments. The technology which we recognize today as remote technology has evolved over the last 45 years to support human operations in hostile environments such as nuclear fission and fusion, space, underwater, hazardous chemical, and hazardous manufacturing. The four major categories of approach to remote technology have been (1) protective clothing and equipment for direct human entry, (2) extended reach tools using distance for safety, (3) telemanipulators with barriers for safety, and (4) teleoperators incorporating mobility with distance and/or barriers for safety. The government and commercial nuclear industry has driven the development of the majority of the actual teleoperator hardware available today. This hardware has been developed largely due to the unsatisfactory performance of the protective-clothing approach in many hostile applications. Manipulation systems which have been developed include crane/impact wrench systems, unilateral power manipulators, mechanical master/slaves, and servomanipulators. Viewing systems have included periscopes, shield windows, and television systems. Experience over the past 45 years indicates that maintenance system flexibility is essential to typical repair tasks because they are usually not repetitive, structured, or planned. Fully remote design (manipulation, task provisions, remote tooling, and facility synergy) is essential to work task efficiency. Work for space applications has been primarily research oriented with relatively few successful space applications, although the shuttle`s remote manipulator system has been quite successful. In the last decade, underwater applications have moved forward significantly, with the offshore oil industry and military applications providing the primary impetus.

Herndon, J.N.

1992-12-31

68

Occurrence of Increased Arterial Stiffness in a Cohort of Adult Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus When Compared to Normoglycemic Controls.  

PubMed

The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 1 diabetes is underestimated. This study was conducted to assess the cardiovascular risk by comparing arterial stiffness in type 1 diabetes with that of controls. Thirty-one type 1 diabetes patients and 31 age- and gender-matched controls were included. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) was measured using Periscope, a noninvasive device. The ba-PWV was found to be significantly elevated among the patients with diabetes (1177.09 ± 180.1 cm/s) when compared with the controls (1057.99 ± 95.8 cm/s) (P = .003). The ba-PWV showed positive correlation with age (r = .43, P = .014), heart rate (r = .49, P = .005), blood pressure (r = .65, P < .001), and LDL (r = .46, P = .008) among patients with diabetes. Linear regression analysis revealed that diabetes, age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and BMI were independently associated with ba-PWV (R(2) = .589). On subdividing the diabetes cohort into quintiles for LDL and SBP, a substantial increase in ba-PWV was seen at LDL > 102 mg/dl (1187.8 cm/s to 1364.9 cm/s, P = .09) and SBP > 130 mmHg (1176.1 cm/s to 1369.4 cm/s, P = .03). Arterial stiffness as assessed by ba-PWV is significantly increased among patients with type 1 diabetes compared to healthy controls, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Early screening for arterial stiffness using a cheap and effective method among patients with SBP > 130 mmHg and LDL > 102 mg/dl may help identify those with heightened cardiovascular risk. PMID:25231115

George, Belinda; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Ayyar, Vageesh; Mathew, Vivek

2014-09-17

69

Synthesis and Design of Silicide Intermetallic Materials  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the US processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive US processing industries. The program presently has a number of industrial connections, including a CRADA with Johns Manville Corporation targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. With the Exotherm Corporation, they are developing advanced silicide powders for the fabrication of silicide materials with tailored and improved properties for industrial applications. In October 1998, the authors initiated a new activity funded by DOE/OIT on ``Molybdenum Disilicide Composites for Glass Processing Sensors''. With Accutru International Corporation, they are developing silicide-based protective sheaths for self-verifying temperature sensors which may be used in glass furnaces and other industrial applications. With Combustion Technology Inc., they are developing silicide-based periscope sight tubes for the direct observation of glass melts.

Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Vaidya, R.U.; Park, Y.

1999-05-14

70

The off-axis viewing device: a rifle-mounted sighting system for search and engagement from covered positions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soldiers involved in urban operations are at a higher risk of receiving a bullet or fragment wound to the head or face compared to other parts of their body. One reason for this vulnerability is the need for the soldier to expose their head when looking and shooting from behind cover. Research conducted by DSTO Australia, using weapon-mounted cameras, has validated the concept of off-axis shooting but has emphasized the requirement for a system that closely integrates with both the soldier and his weapon. A system was required that would not adversely effect the usability, utility or accuracy of the weapon. Several Concept Demonstrators were developed over a two-year period and the result of this development is the Off-Axis Viewing Device (OAVD). The OAVD is an un-powered sighting attachment that integrates with a red dot reflex sight and enables the soldier to scan for and engage targets from a position of cover. The image from the weapon's scope is transmitted through the OAVD's periscopic mirror system to the soldier. Mounted directly behind the sight, the OAVD can also be swiveled to a redundant position on the side of the weapon to allow normal on-axis use of the sight. The OAVD can be rotated back into place behind the sight with one hand, or removed and stored in the soldier's webbing. In May 2004, a rapid acquisition program was initiated to develop the concept to an in-service capability and the OAVD is currently being deployed with the Australian Defence Force.

Chapman, Thomas; Brady, Christopher

2007-04-01

71

POLVSM (Polarized Volume Scattering Meter) instrument: an innovative device to measure the directional and polarized scattering properties of hydrosols.  

PubMed

An innovative instrument dedicated to the multispectral measurements of the directional and polarized scattering properties of the hydrosols, so-called POLVSM, is described. The instrument could be used onboard a ship, as a benchtop instrument, or at laboratory. The originality of the POLVSM concept relies on the use of a double periscopic optical system whose role is (i) to separate the plane containing the light source from the scattering plane containing the sample and the receiver and (ii) to prevent from any specularly reflected light within the sample chamber. As a result, a wide range of scattering angle, namely from 1° to 179°, is covered by the detector. Another originality of the instrument is to measure the Mueller scattering matrix elements, including the degree of polarization. A relevant calibration procedure, which could be of great interest as well for other instruments, is proposed to convert the raw data into physical units. The relative uncertainty in POLVSM data was determined at ± 4.3%. The analysis of measurements of the volume scattering function and degree of polarization performed under controlled conditions for samples dominated either by inorganic hydrosols or phytoplankton monospecific species showed a good consistency with literature, thus confirming the good performance of the POLVSM device. Comparisons of POLVSM data with theoretical calculations showed that Mie theory could reproduce efficiently the measurements of the VSF and degree of polarization for the case of inorganic hydrosols sample, despite the likely non sphericity of these particles as revealed by one of the element of the Mueller matrix. Our results suggested as well that a sophisticated modeling of the heterogeneous internal structure of living cells, or at least, the use of layered sphere models, is needed to correctly predict the directional and polarized effects of phytoplankton on the oceanic radiation. The relevance of performing angularly resolved measurements of the Mueller scattering elements to gain understanding on the mechanisms processes involved in the scattering of light by marine particles, which has important implications for ocean color remote sensing studies, is demonstrated. PMID:25401673

Chami, Malik; Thirouard, Alexandre; Harmel, Tristan

2014-10-20

72

Detection of ethene and other hydrocarbons in gas turbine engine exhaust using non-intrusive FTIR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the EU funded project AEROJET2, a number of gas turbine engine tests were performed in different facilities around Europe. At Farnborough, UK a Spey engine was used to test a suite of prototype optically based instrumentation designed to measure exhaust gas emissions without using extractive probe systems. In addition to the AEROJET 2 prototype instrumentation, a Bruker Equinox 55 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to obtain infrared spectra of the exhaust plume both in emission and absorption mode. The Bruker FTIR spectrometer was fitted with a periscope system so that different lines of sight could be monitored in the plume in a vertical plane 25 cm downstream from the nozzle exit and 20 cm upstream of the center line of sight of the AEROJET 2 prototype instrumentation. DERA (now QinetiQ) provided exhaust gas analysis data for different engine running conditions using samples extracted from the plume with an intrusive probe. The probe sampled along a horizontal plane across the centerline of the engine 45 cm downstream of the nozzle exit. The Bruker spectrometer used both InSb (indium antimonide) and MCT (mercury-cadmium-telluride) detectors to maximize the sensitivity across the IR range 600-4000 cm-1. Typically, CO2 and H2O IR signatures dominate the observed spectra of the plume. However, the engine tests showed that at low power engine conditions spectral features associated with CO around 2147 cm-1 and with hydrocarbons could be observed at around 3000 cm-1. In particular the presence of ethene (C2H2) was detected from observation of its characteristic in and out of plane vibration mode at 949 cm-1. At high engine powers the presence of NO was detected at 1900.3 cm-1. Species concentrations were calculated using a slab model for each line of sight compared against reference spectra. The engine plume was assumed to be symmetric about the centerline. On this basis, data from the extractive sampling gas analysis that had been obtained by traversing the probe across a horizontal plane through the centerline could be compared with non-intrusive measurements made by scanning vertically. Adjustments have been made to account for the 20 cm downstream offset in measurement planes of the probe and the spectrometer behind the nozzle exit.

Arrigone, Giovanni M.; Welch, Michael A.; Hilton, Moira; Miller, Michael N.; Wilson, Christopher W.

2003-04-01